DEVELOPMENTAL READING ______________________________

A Compilation of Term Paper Presented to Dr. Lourdes Evangelista Abiog Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Course Requirements for Education 5 Bachelor of Secondary Education

________________________________________________
By: BSE 2 – 1AE 2009

LIST OF BSE 2 – 1 AE
-ÖAroy, Christopher Balgua, Cherry Lou Bendicio, Maverly Ann Biron, Charmaine Brinquis, Lilian -ÖCaballero, Josephine May Camposano, Joy Castor, Rose Fay Cera, Jonnalyn Climaco, Geneva -ÖCornico, Ma. Catherine Cruz, Jerome Dalanon, Katherine Rose Del Rosario, Noree Dela Rosa, Rhea -ÖDoinog, Jhoan Doringo, Carlito Esmer, Janice Esteban, Guillermo Evaristo, Daisy -ÖTuyo, Marianne Villota, Ercheney Yanza, Catherine Anne -ÖPaz, Roman Ricablanca, Trina Rose Sarmiento, Roselle Tapel, Edness Tomesa, Maylen -ÖLuaña, Lenie Maaño, Ma. Cherielyn Mandalones, Jason Marty, Carina Mendoza, Ronniek -ÖFelizardo, Ruby Fernandez, Maureen Claire Guevara, Jonathan Longga, April Vanessa Longga, Jerico

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page List of BSE 2 – 1AE 1 2

Lists Quadrant One
1. What is Reading? 2. Academic Reading: Skimming, Scanning, Browsing 3. More on Academic Reading: Note – taking, Organizing, Outlining 4. Aid to Comprehension: Graphic Organizer, Direct Reading, SQ4R 5. Use of Reference Material: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Atlas,
Thesaurus, etc.

Page
5 11 14 16 23 26 30

6. Expository Structure: Element, Linguistic Signal, Course Pattern,
Lexicon

7. Narrative Structure: Element, Story Grammar

Quadrant Two
1. Efferent Reading: Reading to Learn 2. Types of Informational Material and their Sources 3. Aesthetic Reading: Reading for Appreciation and Enjoyment 4. Reading Traditional Tale and knowing their Patterns and Variants 5. Reading to Modern Story: Element (Plot, Conflict, Turing Point,
Climax, Setting, Characters, Theme) 33 37 41 43 46 50 54 72 77 81

6. Reading a Book/Movie tie – in: Themes, Subplots, Characters 7. Poetry as Shape: Imagery, Voice, and Experience 8. Reading a Play (Simple Interpretation, Creative Classroom
Dramatics)

9. Reading a Persuasive Materials (Essay, Editorial, Column,
Advertisements)

10. Reading to Writing (Pattern Writing, Book Report, Journalist)

3

Dominance. etc) Page 83 88 90 93 97 102 2. The Pygmalion Effect 4 . 115 Learning Styles. Reading as a Language Process (Halliday. Intelligence. Reading as a Skill/s (Gray/Gates) 5.Lists Quadrant Three 1. Interest) 2. Vygotsky) 6. Reading as a Psycho – social Process (Erikson. Extrinsic Factors for Reading Achievement (The Material and the Teacher as X – Factor) 119 123 125 3. Self – fulfilling Prophecy 4. Fries) 3. brain. Reading as a Neuro – physiological Process (eye. Reading as a Developmental Process (Chall) Quadrant Four 1. Reading as a Cognitive Process (Piaget) 4. Self – Concepts. ear. Intrinsic Factors for Reading Achievement (Motivation.

5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 5 . Christopher Submitted to: Dr. Carina Aroy.WHAT IS READING? Reported by: Marty. Lourdes Abiog Educ.

Reading is a BOTTOM-UP process. a process by which the author talk silently to the reader. He reconstructs what the author intends to convey. wherein the reader tries to match his purpose with that of the author. It is purposive. words and sentences. Reading is TOP-DOWN process. • • • • Is what the mind does with what the eyes see imprint. Is a kind of mental listening. It is finding out what someone is saying to the reader. mind translate print into meaning. Is an information-processing activity. The focus of attention is the reader. It is a thinking activity which is predominantly getting and making meaning.(prior knowledge and experience) 6 . The process of achieving the meaning is discourse.WHAT IS READING? Reading is being defined as: • An attempt to make meaning from what an author has written. The reader’s chief difficulty is reading for meaning. wherein the reader and the writer take turns to contribute to interaction because meaning is a function of interaction between the reader and the writer trough language. It is getting and making meaning. The staring points are letters. He primarily reads for the meaning. FLOW OF INFORMATION IN THE REDAING PROCESS IN TERMS OF TEXT AND READERS INTERACTION Three Major Theories of What Reading is: 1. Some strategies: phonetic and structural analysis. Is a thinking activity. not for the process. 2. The starting point is the reader’s schema. • Is a multi-dimensional process. The essential element is the written text.

anticipates Reader’s reaction and provides possible misunderstanding of knowledge attained. He shifts continuously from initiating to receiving message. the writer tries to enact the roles of A and B. Reading is both bottoms-up and top-down process.3. “Reading and Writing are view holistic process enables by underlying skills. They serve certain function our lives. Reading is interactive process. TEXT and READER’S INTERACTION READER Reader’s Schema Knowledge and Beliefs • About the word • About the language • About the structure C O M P R H E N T I O N TEXT Author’s Schema • • • Content information Language Text structure READING-WRITING CONNECTION In writing.” 7 . the reader is absent and is unknown. So.

he carries with him his language skills of listening and speaking. language.-Carina Marty- LITERATURE – BASED READING PROGRAM In LBRP. inspired readers. simultaneous (cooperative. 1. workbooks.it is Talk Written down. worksheets. skills are taught in the context of authentic materials. first stories. uninspired readers (no involvement) concept books in Science. humanities authentic materials. biographies. skill follows) Parallel. (folklore. language follows) Sequential. CODE WRITER READER As one reads. SKILLS BASED • • • Start from skill (skill first. psychological / analytical and values non-fiction. collaborative. Good Literature development. supports beauty of cognitive. 8 . • textbooks. synergetic) Trader books. Basal readers. step by step • • LITERATURE BASED Start from materials (language first. Reading is a language process .

the unsaid and varied points of view.comprehension is affected by the schema or background information of the reader. the text are just being read without further comprehension. the reader is active. values. compares and controls ideas. there is an intellectual conversation happening between the reader and the text. The writer expresses ideas creatively and inputs own perceptions. And the arrows show that there is no intellectual conversation happens between the reader and the text. there is only a single way of learning. 9 . Reading is a thinking process . OLD (One – way process) NEW (Two – way process) • In an OLD WAY PROCESS. so the reader perceives the non – print.2. • In a NEW WAY PROCESS. philosophy and theories. Failure in reading is the result of the reader’s inability to link the material to his schema. • In CRICTICAL READING the focus is from the story to the writer himself. principles. The knowledge from the texts is absorbed and it brings out his / her own schema and language skills.

Keith Johnson “A functional approach to writing is through reading comprehension. Good writers produce reader – based materials (dialogues) rather than writer – based ones (monologues). READER RESPONSE THEORY – focus on the reader’s personal response to the text or the transaction between reader and text The Schema Theory and Reader Response Theory resulted in the broad conceptualization of literacy and paved the way to literature – based reading program. Illiterate – one who cannot read nor write. Alliterate – one who can read and write but does not read nor write. learning to read Receptivity (passivity) WHAT Linear. Reciprocal LITERACY – Integration of language activities with literature. Sequential learning Skills – based Practice and text – based • • • • • PROCESS APPROACH Target is thinking. 2. Simultaneous learning Literature – based and Reader – based Interaction. -Christopher Aroy- 10 . Reading is enormously important in writing. knowledge and experiences – the non – print) .READING APPROACHES • • • • • PRODUCT APPROACH Target is learning.the background needed before reading. SCHEMA THEORY – making sense of new information based on what one knows (reader’s background information. reading to learn Productivity (activity) HOW and WHY Parallel. Failure of many reading programs brought about recent theories: 1. Literate – one who reads and writes. a strong component of which is the reading – writing connection.

Guillermo Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 11 . and Browsing) Reported by: Esteban. Scanning. Lourdes Abiog Educ.ACADEMIC READING (Skimming.

Scanning is also useful in looking significant factual data – names. Examine each subheading within the text. dates. 4. Steps in Scanning: 1.ACADEMIC READING SKIMMING Skimming is the reading technique used to prepare for reading the entire selection thoroughly. If your eyes catch any unfamiliar words while you are Skimming. 7. think about the data you want to find. 3. Read the last paragraph completely. Read the first paragraph completely. 3. charts. o Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. write them down on a piece of paper. SCANNING Scanning is the reading technique you use when you look for specific information from materials you do not intend to read from start to finish. Sometimes called previewing. 12 . figures. 6. Think about the data you are seeking are likely to look. o While Skimming. diagrams and other illustrations. Examine all illustrations – photos. o Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. Look for highlighted words and phrases. Before you start. you try to detect in advance important keys to the authors meaning like sub-headings. quotes. definitions. o People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Allow your eyes to drift over the text without actually reading it. skimming is not a substitute for thorough reading. tables. o You search for key words or ideas. Seek the answer to each subheading question by reading just the first sentence of each paragraph below it. Read the title and subtitle of the material. topic sentences. 2. 8. Change each one into a question. The techniques of Skimming: 1. just as watching a movie preview is no substitute for experiencing the entire film. o Scanning is technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. o Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. maps. 5. Do not advance to the next subheading question until you find your answer. formulas. 2. words in bold or italics and summaries.

4. Scanning involves looking rapidly for key words. If you fail to find what you want after an initial scan. and subheadings. Do not forget to check graphic materials – pictures. 13 . driven by a lack of concentration. 5. headings. at its worst. Skimming and Scanning are different from Browsing: o o o Skimming involves looking rapidly over a text for the gist or essence of it. maps or graphs – and their captions for the data. chapter. indices. can be hopping between pages and sites aimlessly. go back and examine the table of contents. BROWSING Browsing is the sort of reading where readers do not have any particular goals for reading and parts of a text maybe skipped fairly randomly and there is little need to integrate the information. Browsing. searching for a specific answer. topic sentences and highlighted words to narrow the search for your next scan. illustrations.

Organizing.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 14 . Lilian Submitted to: Dr. Outlining) Reported by: Brinquis.-Guillermo Esteban- MORE ON ACADEMIC READING (Note – Taking. Lourdes Abiog Educ.

2. don’t use the texts exact words 15 . The key to outlining is being able to distinguish between the main ideas and the supporting ideas and examples. When you make an outline. Don’t erase a mistake 6. Split the page in half 3. Abbreviate as much as possible Outlining • • • • • It is a compilation of definitions. Take note in your own words 4. and other important information that functions as your private roadmap for the class. rules. A good outline is unique to you and reflective of how you study It is a helpful strategy for understanding the content and structure of a reading selection. Set up each page in an orderly format.MORE ON ACADEMIC READING Note taking It is the ability to write down important facts quickly and accurately. Never use full sentences 5. Here are some suggestions about the mechanics of note taking: 1. Emphasize important words 7.

5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 16 . SQ4R) Reported by: Tomesa.-Lilian Brinquis- AIDS TO COMPREHENSION (Graphic Organizer. Direct Reading. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Maylen Submitted to: Dr.

GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS An instructional tool used to illustrate a student or class prior knowledge about a topic or section of text. Material >books >videos >class discussions 3. Strategy >generate interest >activate background knowledge 17 . Tools >motivation >assessment >assimilation >reflection 2. 1. Tools >powerful teaching and learning >facilitate group work >accommodate individual learning style. Visual pictures of knowledge 2.AIDS TO COMPREHENSION These are strategies that are very useful in incorporating comprehension to students these are only tools and not source of learning. Uses of Graphic Organizers 1.

Example: Concept Map Concept Chester/Bubble Map 2. …. 18 . Concept Development Organizer Allows us to see how things in class are connected to each other.Kinds of Graphic Organizers 1. Categorizing/ Classifying Organizer Example Tree diagram Pyramid …. ….

Example: Flow Chart 5. Relational Organizer Example: Semantic Web 19 .3. See how things or event happened. Comparing Contrasting Organizers Example: Venn diagram 4. Sequence Organizer Allow us to see the step by step process of a thing.

charts. Evaluation Chart Organizer 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1s Qtr t 2ndQtr 3rdQtr 4thQtr Es at Wes t North Direct Reading Grellet (1981:12-13) Three main types of Strategies in Reading Skills Sensitizing Improving Reading skills From Skimmimg to Scanning predicting Previewing Anticipating skimming Scannimg Making inferences Understanding relation within the sentence Lingking Sentences and ides SQ3R METHOD Survey! Question! Read! Recite! Review! Before you read. Survey the chapter: • • • • The title. and subheadings Captions under pictures.6. graphs or maps Review questions or teacher-made study guides Introductory and concluding paragraphs 20 . headings.

etc.• Summary Turn the title. Answer questions at the beginning or end of chapters or study guides Reread captions under pictures. Ask yourself. "What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject when it was assigned?" Ask yourself. "What do I already know about this subject?" If it is helpful to you. in your own words. what you read Take notes from the text but write the information in your own words Underline or highlight important points you've just read Use the method of recitation which best suits your particular learning style but remember.i. graphs. and/or subheadings into questions. bold printed words or phrases Study graphic aids Reduce your speed for difficult passages Stop and reread parts which are not clear Read only a section at a time and recite after each section Orally ask yourself questions about what you have just read or summarize. the more senses you use the more likely you are to remember what you read .e. write out these questions for Question while you are surveying: • • • • Note: consideration. This variation is called SQW3R When you begin to Read: • • • • • • • • Look for answers to the questions you first raised. hearing- Recite after you've read a section: • • • • 21 . Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading. italicized. saying. Note all the underlined.. TRIPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing. headings.

Orally recite or write the answers from memory. write questions in the margins for those points you have highlighted or underlined. Make additional flash cards if necessary. and writing!!! Review: an ongoing process. Day Two • Page through the text and/or your notebook to re-acquaint yourself with the important points. • • • • Days Three.QUADRUPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing. Make "flash cards" for those questions that give you difficulty. saying. Develop mnemonic devices for material that need to be memorized. hearing. • If you took notes while reciting. Four and Five • Alternate between your flash cards and notes and test yourself (orally or in writing) on the questions you formulated. Cover the right hand column of your text/note-book and orally ask yourself the questions in the left hand margins. • Day One After you have read and recited the entire chapter. • 22 . write questions for the notes you have taken in the left hand margins of your notebook.

5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 23 . Encyclopedia. Thesaurus.-Maylen Tomesa- USE OF REFERENCE MATERIALS (Dictionary. etc) Reported by: Bendicio. Maverly Ann Submitted to: Dr. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Atlas.

also known as a lexicon. pronunciations. and other information. which contains definitions and pronunciations. with definitions. in contrast to a dictionary. An encyclopedia is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. depending on the amount of material included. Encyclopedias are divided into articles with one article on each subject covered. 24 . An object that is referred to as a reference (where the reference leads) is called a referent. time. A thesaurus is a book that contains synonyms and sometimes antonyms. During this time of applying it is an important topic of discussion. including logic. art and scholarship. or a book of alphabetically listed words in one language with their PIE equivalents in another. The nature of reference as a role in language and thought has been around since the 19th Century. The articles on subjects in an encyclopedia are usually accessed alphabetically by article name and can be contained in one volume or many volumes.USE OF DIFFERENT REFERENCE MATERIALS A reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object. computer science. A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed words in a specific language. etymologies. Such relations as these may occur in a variety of domains. Although the objects which the term reference applies may be of a varying character ranging from concrete examples such as reference work which includes pointers or symbols.

and more. a journal refers to a serious. by a purchase price. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the personal opinions of writers. or the record of the transactions of a society. hours of full tide. comics. usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. periodicals or serials are publications. by pre-paid magazine subscriptions. and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. stated festivals of churches. most often peer-reviewed. newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism. information and advertising. art/entertainment. scholarly publication. lists of all types. • • 25 . Many publications issued at stated intervals. daily) has several related meanings: • A daily record of events or business. terms of courts. A non-scholarly magazine written for an educated audience about an industry or an area of professional activity is usually called a professional magazine. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events. business. Although journal is sometimes used as a synonym for "magazine. eclipses. generally published on a regular schedule. such as magazines. or scholarly academic journals. and other printed media. Magazines. a private journal is usually referred to as a diary. a newspaper or other periodical. A newspaper is a written publication containing news. society and sports. or all three. are often called journals." in academic use. Supplementary sections may contain advertising. in the literal sense of one published each day. timelines. A journal (through French from late Latin diurnalis. generally financed by advertising. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits. Astronomical data and various statistics are also found in almanacs. coupons. such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon. Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis. containing a variety of articles.An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. crime.

5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 26 . Charmaine Submitted to: Dr.-Maverly Ann Bendicio- EXPOSITORY STRUCTURE (Element. Linguistic Signal. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Course Pattern. Lexicon) Reported by: Biron.

although. unlike. the organizational structure-. their traits for comparison. then elaborates on it. to Comparison/Contrast Texts that follow this structure tell about the However. specifically. the student needs to be familiar with the various structures that authors employ and to have practice in utilizing those same structures in comprehension. EXAMPLE: A book about ancient Greece may explain how the Spartan women were whereas. objects.of the text provides the structure for its comprehension. for Each section opens with its main idea. If this is to be true. 27 . thereby. in particular. is told the result of an event or occurrence as a result. the reader Consequently. similar in to. leads and the reasons it happened.EXPOSITORY STRUCTURE Expository paragraph frames provide a structure for retelling information presented in expository text. like. however. places.the composition-. different from yet. events or ideas by grouping comparison. In effect. by Structure differences and similarities of two or more contrast. and For the elaboration into subsections. EXAMPLE: Weather patterns could be described that explain why a big snowstorm occurred. sometimes dividing instance. therefore. There are five basic ways in which authors may choose to organize information in expository text: Text Structure Description/List Structure Description Signal Words example. They are based on the principle that information in exposition is structured in a way that is logical and serves to makes the information clear to the reader. in addition Cause Structure and Effect In texts that follow this structure. EXAMPLE: A book may tell all about whales or describe what the geography is like in a particular region.

second. containing coded instructions for the behavior and reproduction of the cell and also the chemical machinery for the translation of these instructions into the manufacture of proteins. The frame is made of a series of incomplete sentences (or sentence starters) that the students can complete by using information from the text. liver. such as the unicellular bacteria and protozoa. then. which are 0.different from the Athenian women. steps involved in harvesting blue crabs might be told.1 micron in diameter. Order/Sequence Structure Texts that follow this structure tell the order Next. are specialized components of multicellular organisms. the composition of which differs significantly from the external environment of the cell. Meanwhile. additionally events occur. consider the following introductory paragraph from Microsoft as Encarta. first. EXAMPLE: A book about the American revolution might list the events leading to the war. Using a procedure such as paired reading. Cells range in size from the smallest bacteria like mycoplasmas. all cells have a surrounding membrane and an internal. a multimedia encyclopedia: The cell is the fundamental structural unit of all living organisms. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). in which steps in a process or series of another. such as nerve. 28 . Although they may differ widely in appearance and function. For example. water-rich substance called the cytoplasm. to the egg yolks of ostriches. last. which are about 8 cm (about 3 in) in diameter. In another book. the teacher will have created a paragraph frame for the text that students can work together to complete. The resulting paragraph should summarize (and simplify. and muscle cells. others. students are first asked to read and retell the selection they are studying. where possible) the original passage. Within the cell is genetic material. Some cells are complete organisms.

For this expository paragraph. And _____________________________________________________. __________________________. Every cell's DNA has 2 functions: _______________________________. ______________________________. _______________. ___________________. The cell is the fundamental structural unit of all living organisms. Cells vary in size from ________________________________ to _______________________________________. For example. _________________________ . 29 . and __________________________are all made of cells. All cells have 3 parts: ____________________. and ___________________. the teacher would construct a descriptive frame like the following: All living things are made of cells.

Maureen Claire Submitted to: Dr. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Story Grammar) Reported by: Fernandez.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 30 .-Charmaine Biron- NARRATIVE STRUCTURE (Element.

Setting--cultural. Historical and cultural conditions: perceptions and values of society. poetry. ELEMENTS OF A NARRATIVE One of the starting points for interpreting and writing about imaginative works is to analyze the elements of narration. spoken. race. Characters-- How are ideas in the work expressed by character? What actions bring out important traits of the character? Is this character realistically depicted? If not. nationality. prose. possessions. 1. class. Here are some questions that may lead you to consider how the various elements are working in a particular text. How does setting 31 . and dominant culture)? Are these ideas applicable to general conditions of life? What values are embodied in the idea? 2. belief.NARRATIVE STRUCTURE Narrative (Story) is a construct created in a suitable format (written. written or imagined. assumptions. physical context of story's action. Types of settings: natural world: weather and climate. and it will have one or more points of view representing some or all of the participants or observers. Objects of human construction and manufacture: personal effects. social. seasons and conditions. Plot and Structure -. prevalent ideas or trends. images and song that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. Themes--the central meaning of a text Are the ideas limited to members of the group represented by the characters (age. buildings. animal life. It may be spoken.selection and arrangement of incidents that give a story focus. or value system? How is the character described? 3. is the character supposed to represent an idea. How and why do certain events happen. geography. Are there characters that come into conflict with each other? Or is the plot driven by internal motivation and/or outward circumstances? What dilemma does the protagonist deal with? What obstacles do the characters overcome? Is there resolution in the end? 4. interiors and exteriors.

influence character? What cultural. religious. 7. -Maureen Claire Fernandez- 32 . Conflict – What are the problems that arrived in the story? What are the actions that caused the characters to have a disagreement? What are the main causes of the conflict? 6. Resolution – Climax -- Story Grammar .An activity used by the teachers to help the students improve their comprehension in reading by giving them a framework. and political conditions are assumed? 5.

EFFERENT READING Reading to Learn Reported by: Dela Rosa.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 33 . Rhea Submitted to: Dr. Lourdes Abiog Educ.

Subheadings. good readers gather evidence about their predictions. revising. 34 . Have your eyes checked. Steps in Reading 1. but it will also keep you motivated. Many people who read particularly slowly do so because they have an undiagnosed vision problem. what do you think you will learn?" Ask students for their rationale. reading long-winded emails from co-workers. Time your current reading speed. o You can break out a book and a stopwatch and either time how long it takes you to read a certain number of words on a page or find out how many words you read in a given amount of time. and graphics and charts in informational text. or just reading the morning newspaper. Not only will timing help you to tell if you're improving. should the prediction be revised or abandoned? How to Learn Reading Whether you're hitting the textbooks in philosophy class. good readers make predictions about what they are going to read. there's no time like the present. abandoning. Students should make logical predictions based on what they have seen. Even if you think you have perfect vision. "Does the text support this prediction?" If evidence to support their prediction is not in the text. illustrations and captions. During reading. chances are at one time or another you've wished you could read a little faster. or creating new predictions based on what they are reading. Students should be encouraged to look at the front cover of trade books and picture books. if you haven't had an eye exam recently. "Based on the information you have seen. 2. Asking students.EFFERENT READING: READING TO LEARN Before reading. Students should be asking themselves. It is important to find out how fast you read now so that you can track your improvement through subsequent timings.

3. No matter what you are reading. With practice. there is frequently a lot of "filler" that you can read quickly through or even skim over. bold print and other indicators of important concepts. you will need to focus on the material at hand as closely as possible. Try to find a solitary place to read. Before you begin a chapter or book. Most people frequently stop and skip back to words or sentences they just read to try to make sure they understood the meaning. Learn to separate the wheat from the chaff with pre-reading. when you actually do your reading you may be able to skim over large portions of the text. 5. Adjust reading speed depending on the material. start slowly. and increase your speed as you feel more comfortable. covering each line once you've read it. Get rid of distractions. chances are you just want to get the main ideas.and you need to fully understand the material . so an important part of increasing reading speed is deciding how thoroughly you need to comprehend a particular piece of writing. and many times you will not even notice you're doing it. radio and cell phone. When you get to such a passage.you do not want to rush. you're reading a mathematics textbook or a demanding philosophical treatise . look over the entire piece very quickly. If no solitary place is available. One exercise to help you avoid rereading is to take a sheet of paper or index card and drag it down the page as you read. however. So before you even start reading. Train yourself not to reread. Often. but it can easily become a habit. and turn off the TV. Even if you think you read better when you have music playing or when you're in a crowded coffee house. Then. slow down. If you're reading a newspaper article. 6. we must trade off comprehension for speed. decide how fast you intend to go. Try to find patterns of repeated words. you will be able to identify the most important parts of a book as you skim through it. you can probably increase your speed if you reduce distractions to a bare minimum. key ideas. Even being in a room of people talking is distracting. In order to maximize comprehension while reading quickly. slowing only when you come to something you know is important. This is usually unnecessary. Try to drag the card in a steady motion. If. and you can skim through the passages quite rapidly. 4. try using earplugs to block out any distractions around you. 35 .

speed reading is a skill that requires a lot of practice. Practice reading blocks of words. Once you make an effort to be aware of your reading style. try to stop doing it. One exercise to stop your lips from moving is to put a finger on your mouth and keep it there while you read. As you read you probably subvocalise. Time yourself regularly. it's not a big deal. although to different degrees: some people actually move their lips or say the words under their breath. Don't forget to pat yourself on the back every time your reading speed increases. and keep track of your improvement. 9. but once you know the language. Almost everybody does it. as may holding the book a little further from your eyes than you usually do. not reading to practice communicating the material verbally. 8. Stop reading to yourself. that's not the most efficient method of reading. time yourself as in step two. Do this regularly thereafter. which can be done later if you find it necessary. The good news is you probably already do this to some extent: most people read three or four words at a time. and in order to read quickly. you'll discover how many words you read at a time. When you notice yourself pronouncing words to yourself. Practice and push yourself. you'll need to read groups of words .) To break the habit. or you may want to try humming to yourself in order to prevent subvocalising. After a week or so of practice. Now you just need to increase that number.7. Nearly everyone learned to read word-by-word or even letter-by-letter. 10. it slows you down. (You are concerned with speed reading here. while others simply say each word in their heads. Using your hand as a guide may help.or even whole sentences or short paragraphs instantaneously.if you end up having to reread a section. Regardless of how you subvocalise. Always push yourself to your comfort level and beyond . or pronounce the words to yourself. Keep practicing regularly. Not every word is important. -Rhea Dela Rosa- 36 . It may help to focus on key words and skip over others. While you may see some gains in speed the moment you start using these tips. try to be conscious of it.

TYPES OF INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS Materials and Their Sources Reported by: Tapel. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Edness Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 37 .

Types of books according to their contents Fiction Many of the book publish today are fictitious stories. and each side is called a page. a general type of non-fiction book that provides information as opposed to telling a story. meaning “comprehensive education” and originally 38 . Encyclopedias are divided into articles with one article to each subject covered. essay. Encyclopedia It is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on either all branch of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. printed. commentary.TYPES OF INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS AND THEIR SOURCES Book A set of written. illustrated or blank sheets made of paper. themes. Dictionary It is a book of alphabetically listed words in a specific language. with definitions Etymologies. They are in-part or completely untrue or fantasy. The term encyclopedia comes from the Greek words enkyklios paideia. Non-fiction In a library. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf. Most fiction is additionally categorized by genre. The novel is the most common form of fictional book. parchment or other material. Novels are stories are that typically feature a plot. usually fastened together to hinge at one side. 2 Types of Dictionary • Abridged – a type of dictionary that gives only one meaning of a word. pronunciation. and characters. • Unabridged – a type of dictionary that gives one or more meaning of a word. is often referred to as a reference book. and other information. settings. or otherwise supporting a point of view.

which went through 28 editions in his lifetime. Atlas – a collection of maps. and educated at the University of Edinburgh. together with features and advertisements. stories. Newspaper – a publication containing news and comment on current events. etc. that usually appears daily or weekly and is printed on large sheets of paper that are folded together. containing articles. it contains synonyms and sometimes antonyms. Peter Mark Roget – English scholar and physician. social religious and economic statistics. photographs. and other 39 . many often feature geopolitical. As well as the geographic features and political boundaries. who compiled the famous Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. but instead of definitions and pronunciation. He was born in London. is still a standard reference work. usually weekly or monthly. but also found in multimedia formats. traditionally bound into book. His Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (1852). Thesaurus – similar to dictionary. Almanac – an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. restaurant. • Editorial opinions • A gossip column • Comic strips and other entertainment. Feature of a newspaper • Weather news and forecasts • An advice column • Critic reviews of movies. such as crosswords • A sport column or section • A humor column or section • A food column • Classified ads are commonly seen in local or small newspaper Magazine – a publication issued at regular intervals. or a comprehensive education in a specific subject. advertisements. plays.signifying instruction in all branches of knowledge.

wireless connections and other technologies. Two sources of information Primary sources – information and data are directly given by the respondents. and thesis. interviews. business and government networks of local to local scope that are link by copper wires. Secondary sources – in the information and data where already published e. research work.g. academic. -Edness Tapel- 40 .features. books. with a page size that is usually smaller than that of a newspaper but larger than that of a book.g. It is a network of networks that consist of millions of private and public. and survey. fiber-optic cables. Internet – a global system of interconnected computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using the standard protocol suite (TIP/IP). e.

Lourdes Abiog Educ.AESTHETIC READING Reading for Appreciation and Enjoyment Reported by: Cera. Jonnalyn Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 41 .

the reader’s attention is centered directly on what he likes through during his relationship with that particular text. been described as “the most hidden literary practice  Aesthetic reading been viewed as “symbolic withdrawal” Reading for appreciation  One that is designed to head the learner to understand and enjoy something. 42 .  In Aesthetic reading. Aesthetic Stance  Recreational reading  Fulfills an important function in lives  Reading for pleasure or aesthetic reading.AESTHETIC READING: READING FOR APPRECIATION AND ENJOYMENT Aesthetic reading  Reading to explore one.”  Non-academicals purposes of reading.

Marianne Camposano.-Jonnalyn Cera- READING TRADITIONAL TALE And Knowing their Patterns and Variants Reported by: Tuyo. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Joy Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 43 .

discouraging task. on the page. word group associations. or even more encounters to remember a written word well enough to recall it reliably when encountering it again. • Memorizing individual spelled words under tutelage of spelling authority until the learner has a reading lexicon large enough to be able to use a dictionary must develop this reading.4. children build up lexicons of word-pictures (spellings) associated with word-sounds…Children with goo 1 visual image recall often recognize a word after 1 or 2 positive reinforcements. In this manner.TRADITIONAL READING Traditional Reading It is the way of preparing to learn and recognize the 26 letters of the Roman alphabet and say their names in sequence. Teaching Feeding in Accordance with Spelling • A teacher conducts a traditional reading class with a group of students. Until a child develops a reliable list of many hundreds of word. Rule 2 . For many children the initial stages of acquiring and learning “sight words” are a laborious. it faces the unpleasant prospect of encountering one or more indecipherable words in every sentence. the less fortunate may require 3. The students are engaged with 2 rules: Rule 1.guess a word that fits the story or picture. or dictionary use) to change rule 2 into more than a chancy guessing games. Only after a child acquires hundreds of common sight words can teacher suggest other techniques (such as phonics. try to memorize the word that Teacher says it right.Recall from memory the word presented by the next printed sequence of letters and pronounce it. If the teacher says the student is wrong. -Marianne Tuyo- • 44 . Teacher is an essential part of the learning process only Teacher known the correct response to each written word in the lesson.

Skills practice follows reading. Introductions focus on meaning with some attention to new and interesting vocabulary. Guided Reading Group Groups are dynamic. and change on a regular basis. Focus is on the lesson. -Joy Camposano- 45 . Teacher follows prepared “script” from the teacher’s guide. Students read independently and confidently. Introductions focus on new vocabulary. Questions are generally limited to factual recall. Teacher is interpreter and checker of meaning. Assessment is ongoing and embedded instruction. not the student. Students are tested on skills and literal recall at the end of each story/unit. Focus is on the student. Readers are dependent on teacher direction and support. Skills practice is embedded in shared reading. Students progress through a specific sequence of stories and skills. Students respond to story in workbooks or Students respond to story through personal on prepared worksheets. Focus is on understanding meaning. flexible.COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND GUIDED READING GROUPS Traditional Reading Group Groups remain stable in composition. Students read entire text silently or with the partner. Questions develop higher order thinking skills and strategic reading. not the lesson. there is no prescribed sequence. Students take turn reading orally. and authentic activities. Students take turn reading orally. Teacher and students actively interact with text. Stories are chosen at appropriate level for each group. Teacher and students interact with text to construct meaning.

Theme) Reported by: Mendoza. Climax. Turning Point.READING TO MODERN STORY (Element: Plots. Conflict. 46 . Catherine Anne Submitted to: Dr. Escape Stories – these stories designed for pure entertainment allowing the reader to escape from a matter-of-fact existence into a different world. Characters. Setting. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Ronniek Yanza.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina READING MODERN SHORT STORY General Kinds of Short Stories 1.

feels and dreams. Setting – the time and location in which a story takes place. Introduction – the beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed. The persons in a work of fiction • • • • • • Protagonist – it is the main character with having important role. many sided and complex personalities. What others say about him or her and how others react to him or her. 47 . Parable Stories – these are stories designed to offer a serious comment interpretation or sometimes criticism of human situations. Place – where is the action of the story taking place? b. Plot – pertains to the series of events of the story. 3. Weather Conditions – is it rainy or sunny? d. many-sided personalities that change for better or for worse by the end of the story. a.2. Developing – dynamic. a. Individual – round. Static or Flat – stereotype. c. Elements of a Short Story 1. Antagonist – the oppose of the main character. b. have or two characteristics that are emphasized and never change. b. What he or she says. thinks. Three Types of Characters a. What he or she does or does not do. a. Character – persons involved in the short story. Time – when is the story taking place? c. The characteristics of a person His or her physical appearance. Social Conditions – what is the daily life of the character’s like? Does the story contain local color? e. Mood or Atmosphere – what feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening? 2.

Conflict – it is the opposition of forces that ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. Denouement – this is the final outcome of events in the story. b. physical limitations. Three Kinds of Point of View a. 4. Falling Action – the events and complications begin to resolve themselves. choices and etc. d. External Conflict – is a struggle between characters or between a character and an outside force. e. practices or costumes of other people. d. Internal Conflict – is a struggle within a character. Man (physical) – the leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men.b. First Person (personal) – the author becomes the character who tells the story. Himself or Herself (psychological) – the leading character struggles with himself or herself. It is not merely limited to open arguments rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character. Man vs. Circumstances (classical) – the leading character struggles against fate or the circumstances of life facing him or her. the points of greatest interest in the story. 48 . Theme – refers to the general truth or particular view of the life which the story intended. f. Climax – the crisis or turning point of the story. with his or her own soul. 5. 6. forces of nature or animals. e. Man vs. Rising Action – this is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed. ideas of right or wrong. Society (social) – the leading character struggles against ideas. Narration or Point of View – a writer tells his story from a different point of view. Man vs. Four Kinds of Conflict c. Two Types of Conflict a. Man vs. c.

c.b. Omniscient (impersonal) – when a story is from the viewpoint of someone who can be in several places at the same time and can see into the hearts and minds of the characters. -Ronniek Mendoza-Catherine Anne Yanza- 49 . Limited Omniscient (third person) – here the author limits what he tells the reader to what a single character could observe or know.

Subplots. Themes.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina READING A BOOK (Movie Tie-in. and Characters Reported by: Del Rosario. Characters) There are two different ways on how to read. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Noree Submitted to: Dr. The first one is to read like a reader and the second is to read like a writer.READING A BOOK And Movie Tie – In: Themes. Subplots. 50 .

etc. 2. we do the normal reading in which we try to figure out what a passage means by comprehending the words used. 3. 6. the plot is the most important part. Convections or the agreement upon the use of punctuation. Organization or the order of the ideas. The second way of reading is to read like a writer in which you can read from a writer’s viewpoint. 4. for easy reading and understanding. Word choice which tells whether the passage is memorable and worth reading. Feel the emotion to fully derive the meaning of the text. There are six things to follow when reading like a reader: 1. You pay much more attention to how the reader delivers the passage rather than what he delivers. Ideas that is the heart of the piece. 2. 2. Voice or expression of the personality of the writer by use of words. Question to clarify understanding. Connect to real life situations for better absorption. spelling. 3. Predict in order to organize thinking. Hit the highlight and include only the most important aspects in the summary. 3. 4. Evaluate to decide whether the material is of any value to your life. 5. Don’t read the book for others.When we read as a reader. 5. Reading this way focuses on six things: 1. Don’t spoil it. 6. 51 . grammar. Support your important points. Sentence fluency or the flow on how the passage is delivered when read aloud. There are three important things to consider in order knowing how long the plot Summary should be: 1. In writing a book review. Infer to discover important information.

Emotional – the feelings of the character/s most of the time and when faced to different situations. 4. What is important in analyzing the characters is that we learn from them and what we have learned. Events represent ideas in which the writer chooses specific events to give specific meaning. Experience evolves in patterns the experiences of the characters are often patterned from real life experiences of real people. the five human attributes are five things must be considered: 1. 2. Stories apply to many readers. Fiction seems to entertain but it is really used to teach us valuable lessons of life. 5. Social – the social standing of the character/s. Intellectual – the things the character/s knows and the things he/she will learn in the story. Still. Themes are abstract nouns. The themes are usually defined. 6. 2. Examples of it can be seen but not the theme itself. Fiction is instructional. Philosophical – the beliefs and outlook of the character/s towards life. as a topic of discourse but the meaning is still vague. Physical – the physical appearance of the character/s. Everyone can give opinions and the right to stand up to it. Fictions explore important issues. 3. let us take a look and consider these seven things: 1. Fictions are created not only for fun but to tackle issues in a different and unique manner. 3. You cannot force anyone to believe you. 52 . Best stories are those that speak to the readers and appeals to the readers in a powerful way. we should be reminded that the characters are used to portray real people. 4. 5. To help us understand it more. 7. Everyone takes a position.In analyzing the characters. we can apply to real life situations.

-Noree Del Rosario- 53 .

Lourdes Abiog Educ.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina POETRY AS SHAPE. and Experience Reported by: Longga. Jerico Submitted to: Dr.POETRY AS SHAPE Imagery. Voice. Voice and Experience It is mean to how to understand the role of poetry in aspect of mind (Voice. VOICE AND EXPERIENCE Poetry as Shape. Imagery). body (Shape) and Soul (Experience) in particular reading. In this topic we will 54 .

persuasive and aesthetic from literature in spite of the fact that there is no definite definition of poetry. Poetry is a language that is organized by rhythm. sincerely. doubt. What is Poetry? It is a literary work written in verse in particular of high quality. beauty. Why people write a poem? • • • To express emotion or feeling (love. social etc. intensity or profound insight. etc. To tell a story (Tragedy. hate. philosophical. It is an art of writing creative. what are the parts. anger. To influence belief and principles about life (political. fright.). how poem from one on other and considering a lot topic under poetry. Poetry as Shape (Studying the form) In studying the form we need to consider the whole structure of the poem. etc. emotional. What are the things that make the poem a poetry. revenge.).).discuss how poetry is defined and analyzed. What is the Genre? 55 . comedy. drama.

the Rhyme Scheme and the pattern in/of the poem. like a story having simple events up to the climax. by rhyme. How do these parts relates to each other. will identify if there is alliteration. or by shifting the subjects or in shift in perspectives. How the ideas are ordered? How the ideas are ordered. how are they appropriate for the poem. Ideas are marked by stanzas. Also in determining the category of a poem the reader will be aware of the pattern used. Poetry as Experience (Understanding the Content) 56 . from one place to another. How the content is divided? See if there is any progression. It determines the style of work.• • • It is the type or the category of the poem. Analyzed the Sound and Rhythm Sounds and Rhythm will determine the meter. Sounds and Rhythm affect the Poem. or it tells a past event up to the present.

understanding the poem comes next. We have different references such as mythology. Allusions to figures These are the allusions to other literary or historical events. Subject Subject are the central focus of the poem. where. why. classics and the bible. what the title say’s. and symbols that may represent different ideas in one word. each line may consist different ideas. there are words. The Author In understanding the content. what year. Sometimes situations are tangible or intangible. terminologies. what it is saying. How do these add to the poem. about what. a word can mean a lot of things. We should considered the following Title Titles serves first impression. how they are appropriate? These are important factoring analyzing a poem.After studying the structure of the poem. who is talking. or an object or an event. or what ideas that the poem foretells. It 57 . a poem includes questions like what is going on/ in it. you will want to comeback to the title in order to consider further its relationship with the poem. What the ideas is talking about. Situation Inside. the reader should be aware of the author. Symbolisms Poem is a highly compressed idea. what circumstances under. to whom. did the poet write the poem. After reading the poem. to identify what you know about this poet. character that is difficult to understand specially if you are not aware of these. it is the main idea which the character can be. It will give you ideas that the poem will do.

Poem execution or reciting of it the reader should considered the following Mood/Tone What mood is evoked in the poem? How is this accomplished? Consider the ways in which not only the meaning of the words but also their sound and the rhythms will help to create its mood. existentialist. ironic. The Author’s Attitudes What attitude of the author implies by the subject? It includes if he is serious. Punctuation Marks It is very important to recognize punctuation marks because the meaning can possibly change if there is a wrong pause and stop. satiric towards to his work. What the ideas is talking about. in the choice of words the reader can identify how prolific the Author in using the language. In particular readers do not execute the poem that he/she read. or what ideas that the poem foretells. Figures of Speech It identifies the figurative language included. Try to see why the poets choose a particular metaphor as opposed to other possible one. which also affect the style of his/her work. Word Choice Poet choose words very carefully. understanding the poem comes next. Poetry as Voice (Poem Execution) After studying the structure of the poem. and these suggest finding these words to the dictionary or any reference book to make the content easily to understand. is he a classicist. In choice of words the reader will also encounter difficult words.identifies what time he lived. Are there metaphors or similes in the poem or a sort of personification? Consider the appropriateness of comparisons. living or to the society. whether he is native or not. etc. 58 . It is also includes the personality of the author towards to his/her philosophy principles. reverent.

In verse (traditional. Mental pictures and the language that presents them are called Imagery. it is one way to adopt the author’s feeling in the poem.Punctuation marks also have an important impression in the poem.you count the numbers of feet in a line.Monica Mojica 59 . . affecting the minds. Avoid monotone. formal poetry) there will be a regular pattern to the rhythm. Often all the lines in a poem will certain the same number of feet. Rhyme Scheme Scan a line of poetry (that means to hear a rhythm) . it may carry n emotion or it can also shift the idea of the speaker into gestures. Proper Stresses There are words that should give long stress and some are not and there is significant word that should be given much stress than other. It also implies the effect of the poem to the listeners. Additional Tools for Poetry Poem Appreciation Reading and Understanding Poetry Imagery in Poetry Imagery refers/ applies to the literary words and phrases. but it will work often enough to give you feeling of the poem. the easiest thing to do is to count the number of stresses. Do not eat your voice. Clearly and Loud It is important to be heard clear because it implies to the listeners in understanding the content and the message of it. Justify the poem do not read to fast or too slow which can also catch the attention of the listeners. senses and also the words and phrases used figuratively.

Mental pictures and the language that presents them are called Imagery. Words actually affect our physical senses. we say that the word creates image to our mind-“a mental representation of anything not actually present to do the senses”.e. to tell a story. Heat. so that the reader is implicated in the criterion of the poetic image. Or. of snow. that is. yet. mental impressions.ah. “…it is the day that makes a summer… ” 60 . Derived from the word Image as Imagination which means the faculty of the mind to create meanings of the words also it means that we must be able to recall a sense experience of an object named and describe. or to discuss ideas. with the sense of smell. Thermal i. We say we see something in the mind’s eye though of course our actual may be closed. bitter chill it was…” (“Chill creates a picture of winter. The following passages are illustration of Senses of mind. or imaginatively construct an experience or a related one. making no actual sound at all. Agnes’’ Eve. though perhaps to a lesser extent. as the dictionary defines “Image”.e. Some readers are physically affected by words. Imagery usually recalls. Cold (the thermal sense). Hearing (the aural sense). hearing. It is vivid the poet is seeking to evoke the sense of physical experience. nor even activating the muscles of the throat. which are analogous to our physical senses. in the mind. Smell (the olfactory sense). rather than originates. Motion (the kinesthetic sense) and touch (the tactile sense). touch and alike.Senses of Minds The language of poetry is suggestive. The major senses are Sight (the visual sense). to use the customary term. “St. however have the “Senses of Mind”. we say “we can hear the tune” – hear it. and feelings. the several means by which we perceive the world about us – sight. touch and so on. The same is true. he will usually use too many words that appeal to the senses. attitudes. The individual pictures (or the words embodying them) are called Images. All or us. that as cold) i. ice”. It is not possible to run over the tune in the mind. Sensitivity to imagery varies from person to person but it is a quality that can be developed. taste (the gustatory sense). The poet uses words that appeal to the Senses of Mind.

” (The world “body” suggests visual.e. “Thy black cylindrical body. an idea. golden brass and silver steel…. “Hear the ringing.e. or attitude. “the train of cars behind. Olfactory i. feeling. “…of sampaguita scent and fragrance.to stand for a thing. merrily following or a mute of evanesense with a revolving wheel” (“Revolving” indicate motion) Tactile i.e. Figures of Speech speak of one thing (often and abstraction) in terms of something usually something concrete and hence sensory.e. the jingling of the bells …” (“Ringing” suggest sound) Kinesthetic i..(Summer appeals as Heat) Visual i. obedient. Between the thing talked 61 .e.” “…the sweetness of sterile fruit as…. ” () Figures of Speech The poet uses figure words or phrase which is concrete and sensuous and which refers to something familiar in our experiences .e. “I shall go shod in silk” (‘Silk” is smooth and soft that can touch) Gustatory i. or can be seen) Aural i. Poetry merely suggests – words are associated with feelings and ideas.

“Like a lion ruling over all beasts in forest Fresh as a daisy all whole day through” The Tenor may be interwoven with the statement of the vehicle “The magnet course is gone only in pointing vain” “Course” in this line is figuratively and literal. if we take the equal sign (=) to mean “resemble”. an attractive person is a “doll”. We can represent the matter as follows.e. The comparison stated or implied in figure can be represented as a kind of equation. A treacherous person -----------------“a snake in the grass” A bad member of the group----------. an unattractive one is a “creep”.“a black sheep” The Tenor may be stated separately. for instance. The most common used terms to the members of the equation are Tenor and Vehicle. The Tenor of the metaphor is the subject where the poet basically concerned that Tenor denotes “gist” or general support as in the phrase “tenor is his remark”. however. the terms in which the poet is explaining or picturing his basic subject. We sense this likeness instantaneously as we read. The Vehicle is the figurative subject. meaning a ship’s course and the course of one’s life A poet may imply the Tenor. even without such preparation. “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may Old time is still a… flying” State = Vehicle usually concrete Familiar to the reader 62 . as we do in using or learning a certain form of slang.about and the term used to discuss it there it is always a relationship and observable association. This occurs in all simple similes “like” or “as” making comparison explicit. Tenor Often abstract Unfamiliar to the reader Stated or Implied i.

e.e. while Vehicle is the word or term through which the poet conveys the idea. “Rumor spreads like wild fire As beautiful as the red rose Brightened like in green field As grasses that never weed” Metaphor -Is an indirect comparison of two unlike things but having the similarities. the resemblance of two things compared is explicitly pointed by the introductory word “like” or “as” i. the limited sense is calling one thing by the name of another.“Rosebuds” is the vehicle of an implied Tenor which could state as youth as “the pleasures of youth.” Tenor is intended or purposed meaning. Kinds of Figures: Simile -Is direct comparison of unlike things that having similarities. i. “garden” is an extravagance collective term signifying “beautiful collaboration. “The society is unweeded garden” “Love is a lily that blooms Over the deep sea of understanding” Personification 63 .” “There is a garden in her face Where roses and white lilies grow” The Tenor of “roses” is “pink checks” and lilies is fair complexion (implied).

i. the exaggeration usually employed for emphasis.e. i. “Moon walks in tiptoe Thoughts speak over time with crisis” Metonymy -A figure of speech that names an attribute or quality or other associated deed of a thing instead of a thing itself. Sin and Death guarding the gates of heel are also clearly personified as to be allegorical figures. “There is no holier spot of ground That where defeated valor lies By mourning beauty crowned” Hyperbole -A figure of speech that exaggerates.e. step” i.e. “I like to see it lap the miles And I lick the valleys up And to stop to feed itself at tanks And then. “… Because of the hard time. prodigious.-It endows thing including abstraction with life and personality. i. legal bar member” i. It is figurative substitution of one term for another closely associated with it and suggested by it. It attributes human qualities to inanimate objects or thing and animals.e. Poets use personification with varying degrees of definitions. “I Chabot Crane dangled his arm a mile The beauty dimmed the brilliance of the sun” Allegory 64 .e. He is on the red Rolando.

This figure of speech should not be confused with the metaphor and simile. “Sampaguitas is as fragrant as rose” Irony -A figure of speech by which we make our words convey the opposite meaning from what we say.” Oxymoron . i. “O Liberty. literal and connotations. i.-A figure of speech that tells a story with more than one meaning.e.e. “ Mark Anthony says Bruthus and his conspirators as a honorable man After killing Julius Ceasar yet he wished the crowd to fell that they are traitors. i. For instance.e. “… Bitter-sweet love affair Bold as little on victorious-failure…” Litotes 65 . i.A figure of speech. or an inanimate object or obstruction. Apostrophe -A figure of speech that addresses a person. hat crime have I committed in thy name! Lady Moon what a beautiful thing you are” Comparison -A figure of speech that states the similarity between two objects those are generally alike or belonged to the same class. dead or alive.e. which combines words or expressions that have opposite. sampaguita and rose are flowers. contradictory or incongruous meaning.

The unaccented syllable / / The names of common type of feet are as follows: 66 . the normal pronunciation of a word requires it.e.A figure of speech. or the sense or the sense are stressed according to the accepted pronunciation. sidewalk According to the rhetoric principle. which is an understatement something useful in characterization to imply modesty or to soften effect. “A young on a young old Is not very young as told’ (an old man ) Poetry as Voice Prevailing Meters Foot -a foot is metrical unit in a line or a verse. underrate. for one or two reasons. x / x / x x / x x / / Above. the every syllable should pronounce. today. i. overrun.. / / When I consider how my light is spent / x/ x / X. it is a unit or measure composed of two or more accented or unaccented syllables (we usually speak it as load or in more distinct sound) than on others. It is composed of two or more stressed (accented) or unstressed (unaccented) syllables arranged in one of several orders. so with the use of symbols we can indicate the stressed of common words.

thus a line may be called iambic pentameter if there are five feet in a line. Kinds of meter as follows: Monometer .8 feet Spondee Pyrrhic spondaic / / Sidewalk pyrrhic (cannot be illustrate ) 67 .1 foot Demeter – 2 feet Trimeter – 3 feet Tertrameter – 4 feet Pentameter – 5 feet Hexameter – 6 feet Heptameter .Arrange ment of stress x / Name Iamb iambic Adjective form x / Example Alone xx/ Anapest anapestic x x Overrun /x Trochee trochaic / x Harbor /xx Dactyl dactylic / x x Terrible // xx Meter -is the pattern in which rhythm is systematized in verse by which we refer to the arrangement of unaccented and accented syllables in a line.7 feet Octameters .

a pleasant accompaniment to the meaning of the words. “Now fades the glimmering landscape from the sight And all the air a solemn stillness holds Save when the beetles wheel his droning flight And drowsy tinkling lull the distinct folds” 68 . The language of poetry is rhythmical. particularly words appering at the end of the line.e. In poetry. sound not only accompanies sense but also helps to convey it. it is also composed of remarkably numerous and varied sounds best heard is read aloud. but it does so through a medium that is musical.e.Sound -Poetry makes its communication with the mind.e. Sometimes these sounds create a music that is beautiful in and of itself. i. i. lighting bright the biding sight Oh in mind like signing light overnight Rhyme is the repetition of final sounds of the words. “When I count the clock that tells the time I see Connie crossing along crossroad” Assonance is the repetition of the same vowel sound within the line of adjoining lines of poetry. i. it is the repetition of the internal vowels. however. particularly at the ends of lines) poetry matching sounds of several kinds: Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the bigining of words or stress syllables. Repeated Sounds The repeated sounds normally suggest rhyme (the matching of sounds of the ends of words. “Tiger. but heard even by the “minds ear”. Sound is what we hear musically when poem is read aloud.

e “Buzz. Lyric is a type of poetry which expresses a personal emotion in a “tuneful” form. the steak sizzles The coffee perked rained pattered” General Type of Poetry A. i. properly expressing two successive phrases of a single thought. Ode is a lyric poem expressive of exalted and enthusiastic emotion.e. a meditative poem with sorrow theme. i. 2. i. Sonnet is a poem which has fourteen lines and a conventional scheme of movement. Elegy is a poem dedicated to a dead. a funeral song.e. There are forms of lyric poem as follows: 1. 1. formal verse the achievement of heroes. It is a calm and dignified narrative in uniform and majestic verse of a 69 . and gods.Onomatopoeia is use of words whose sound resembles the thing or action denoted by the word. Narrative poetry is a type that tells the story of series of elements. B.e. Song a short poem. “Ode to the West Wing”. of dignified or lofty tune. free metered lines. treating progressively on dignified theme often in the form of an address i.. Epic is a story poem celebrating the in stately. Shakespeare’s and Patriarch’s sonnets. “The Elegy written in a Country Churchyard” 4. toll (of bells) The snake hissed. its sentiments is personal or communal. It is dedicated to an individual subject or person and deals with the emotion of communal and spiritual kind. It is to be sung. It is rimed or unrimed.. or describes characters and scenes in details and in order as one would tell a story. or the imitation of the sound of words either directly or suggestively. “Ode to the Nightingale” 3. divided in stanzas.

momentous action in which heroes’ characters and supernatural beings take part under control of the Supreme Destiny.e. utterly unconscious of the fact.e.. Tale a short story poem is connected narrative or account where oral or written of an actual.A stanza of four line . A poem may have one or more stanzas.A stanza of nine line Rhyme Royal . it is a division of a poem.A stanza of seven line Rhyme Scheme 70 .A stanza of two line . C.e.A stanza of five line .a form of poetry in which the speaker rehearses situations and emotions in such a way as suggest that those who are listening to him are taking part in the conversation. “Odyssey”. i.A stanza of three line . “Enoch Arden” etc. “Beowulf” and “Iliad” etc. i. The kind of stanza’s are at follows: Verse Couplet Triplet Quatrain Quintet Sestet Octave Spencerian . One kind of this poetry is the Dramatic Monologue. sometimes of heroism i. “My Last Duchess” Stanza Pattern Most poems are written in verse and in stanza. for instance is the Shakespeare’s Comedies and Tragedies. i. Metrical Romance is a narrative. Dramatic poetry is a type poetry that presents the story of a conflict in human life..e. The theme is generally political or spiritual involving the welfare of a people. “Canterbury”.A stanza of six line . A stanza may be one line or more of verse group so as to compose a pattern that is usually repeated in a poem.A stanza of eight line .A stanza of one line . “The Eve of St. generally of a popular kind dealing with the career or a individual. Agnes” 3. 2. legendary or fictitious event or series of events. Principal characters may be genuinely heroic. The subjects is of chivalrous adventures of love or other personal devotion.

. b. Death’s second self.rhyme stanza or the grouping of lines in the stanza the grouping is made according to the conventional pattering of end. or none. c.The pattern of end.rhyme known as the Rhyme Scheme. Each new sound at the end of a line in a stanza is designated by a new letter a. where late sweet birds sang In the thou see’st the twilight of such day As after sunst fadeth in the west Which by and by black night doth take away. which makes thy love more strong To love that well. d etc. a fourteen line stanza That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves.. or few do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the gold Bare ruin’d choirs. Below is the Shakespearean sonnet. Second quatrain Line 5-6 has a rhyme scheme of c-d-c-d Third quatrain Line 9-12 has a rhyme scheme of e-f-e-f The last is a couplet Line 13and 14 has a rhyme scheme g-g -Jerico Longga- 71 . that seals up all in rest In me thou see’st the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his youth doth lie As the death-bed where on it must expire Consumed with that which it was nourish’d by This thou perceivest . which thou must day are long First quatrain Line 1-4 has a rhyme scheme of a-b-ab.

Catherine Submitted to: Dr. Lourdes Abiog Educ.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 72 . Trina Rose Cornico.READING A PLAY (Simple Interpretation. Creative Classroom Dramatics) Reported by: Ricablanca. Ma.

3.READING A PLAY (Simple Interpretations and Creative Classroom Dramatics) Play – dramatic performance usually played on stage. Conventional Play 2. 2. Source: Skill Builders for Effective Reading by Salazar. Minimal use of props. Makes use of Narrative prose and poetry.266 73 . Chamber Theater 1. 5. 2 Kinds of Play: 1. Each actor/actress plays a dual role of actor-narrator role. sound. 4. Villamin and Pecana. Both have characters that speak lines of dialogue and express story told through action. lights. Props and sets are evident on stage. 4. 2. 2. Appropriate props. costumes and effects. Actors interact directly with other actors. 3. passages that are necessary to the unfolding of the story. Selection is a play expressly written for staging. Chamber Theater Conventional Play 1. 3. Actors direct certain lines to audience. Separate formal narrator who reads descriptions. 1. p. Characters move freely on stage. Actors say lines for dialogue and act out their roles.

Imagery – this is a mental picture pertaining to one’s ideas about the play. 3. it is also a character description and motivation. 4. Themes – these are issues in the play. (Acts: parts of the play like introduction. Find out the genre of the play so you’ll know how the play will most likely to end.Steps in Reading a Play: 1. how to project facial expressions etc. Read any criticism or introduction included in the publication you are studying because it will give ideas and approaches in interpreting the play that you may find helpful later. ending) 4. Read the most difficult passage aloud for more comprehension. (ex. Names – these are really significant. 6. About kingdoms. 5. 6. historical events) 74 . Things to watch for as you read a play: 1. 5. Determine how many acts the play has. Write a chart of characters and how are they related to each other to avoid confusion. 2. Setting – it is used to create moods and usually symbolic. Figurative Languages – This reveals much more of the characters. resolution. 3. 2. Stage Direction – Provided information on hoe a character must move. problem. Consult sources for information on characters and events in historical plays.

moral. Heinig and Kelner Creative Classroom Dramatics is a form of imaginative play that helps students to learn. a play production for an audience. the teacher becomes a facilitator rather than an authority or the source of knowledge. Theatre Art form aesthetics Entertainment or stimulation of the observer An art form which focuses on a product. social. stimulates imagination and creative thinking and fosters critical thinking and high level cognitive processes. not an audience. The students create and use their own words to convey meaning. What is Dramatic Activity? According to Norman 198. attitudes and ideas. In using drama in the classroom. abstract." Educational Benefits • • • Drama can encourage students to explore. but learning through drama” What is Creative Classroom Dramatics? According to Block. Edward. making it different from performing a play. Difference between Creative Classroom Dramatics and Theatre Creative Classroom Dramatics Principally valued as Learning medium Governed and validated through criteria Goals are based in pedagogical and the objectives are manifold Informal and focuses on the process of dramatic enactment for the sake of the learner. 75 .-Trina Rose RicablancaCREATIVE CLASSROOM DRAMATICS “In creative dramatics there are no wrongs the experience of the participants is the goal” “Classroom drama is not learning about drama. Dramatic activity is a way of exploring subject matter and its relationships to self and society. uses no written dialogue. Allows students to become kinesthetically and emotionally involved in lessons. a way of "making personal meaning and sense of universal. clarify and elaborate feelings. although a teacher provides a beginning structure or topic. Promotes language and vocabulary growth. and ethical concepts through the concrete experience of the drama. It enables students to step inside a story.

attitudes. Verrior. • Social Learning According to P. Verrior. students bring their own knowledge to drama. This knowledge along with personal feelings. Catherine Cornico- 76 . these aims in drama acknowledge that students should always be encouraged to view themselves and their contributions to work in terms of the needs. interests. values and beliefs constitutes a crucial element in any drama. express himself. Creative dramatics (dramatic play) can help the teacher encourage the students to think. The truth and authenticity with which each individual in role responds to the dramatic situation is crucial to the success of the dramatic learning experience for all participants. develop confidence and get to know himself. • Language Learning The language of drama encompasses modes of expression that human beings use to communication with one another and encourages students to become more aware of and sensitive to language. release emotions. • Emotional Learning According to P. understand feelings. Fostering positive social attitudes in the classroom so that learning can take place is a major concern in all teaching.• According to Betty Lou Nixon. • • Respect and self-esteem Children with special needs -Ma. and concerns of the other participants.

Advertisements.READING PERSUASIVE MATERIALS (Essay. Column. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Carlito Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 77 . Editorial) Reported by: Doringo.

READING PERSUASIVE MATERIALS
Persuasive • •
• Having the power to convince an incitement Influencing the will or passion

Persuasive Materials Persuasive Materials are written materials that attempt to convince the reader
that the point of view of the writer is valid.

Kinds of Persuasive Materials
1. Editorial of Persuasion - a kind of editorial points out the good or bad features of a problematic situation mentioned in the news that concerns the pupils. 2. Essay - is a short piece of nonfiction writing in which a writer gives his/her opinion on one subject. It uses a reasoned argument to persuade the reader to adopt or agree with the position being proposed in the opening statement. 3. Advertisement - a public notice intended to advertise something. It uses advertising, a form of communication, probably has a persuasive message to advertise the goods and services of one company. 4. Poems - are literary work written in verse aimed to create, persuade, aesthete, and express the beauty, emotion, and intensity so that one may be entertained. 5. Newspapers - a paper published periodically usually use advertisements. 6. Magazines - a publication usually containing stories, articles, or poems and issued periodically. It is usually use advertisements.

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7. Speeches - are very nature persuasive. Our world is full of political speeches. 8. Others -brochures, leaflets, quotes Examples:
PERSUASIVE ESSAY THE BEST PET IN THE HOUSE “A dog is man’s best friend.” That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets. In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they’re not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. Using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats will even fetch. In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don’t even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don’t often have “accidents.” Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws, and owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be clawed. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cleaning a litter box is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return.

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space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal house pet. PERSUASIVE SPEECH QUEEN ELIZABETH 1: AGAINST THE SPANISH ARMADA My loving people, we have been persuaded by some, that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear; I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects. And therefore I am come amongst you at this time, not as for my recreation or sport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down, for my God, and for my kingdom, and for my people, my honor and my blood, even the dust. I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart of a king, and of a kin of England, too; and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms: to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms; I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know that already, have by your

rewards and crowns: and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble and worthy subject; not doubting by valor in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over the enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people. PERSUASIVE POEM MOTHER TO SON Well, son, I’ll tell you: Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. It’s had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor – Bare. But all the time I’se been a – climbin’ on And reachin’ landin’s, And turnin’ corners, And sometimes goin’ in the dark Where there ain’t been no light. So boy, don’t you turn back. Don’t you set down on the steps ‘Cause you find it’s kinder hard. Don’t you fall now – For I’se still goin’, honey, I’se still climbin’, And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. Langston Hughes

forwardness,

you

deserved

-Carlito Doringo-

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Book Report.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 81 . Katherine Rose Submitted to: Dr.READING TO WRITING (Pattern Writing. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Journalist) Reported by: Dalanon.

The teachers must prepare a variety of Activities for the student’s reflection on a text. Extending text. Note . students need a reflection on a text that they had read and that is by writing their responses on that text to extend their thinking. Story boards – this is the time for the students to create a script based o the events from the selection Mapping – students draw or use graphic organizers to usually portray the relationships and connections of characters. or ideas on a text. By writing in response to reading.students make different endings.READING TO WRITING After reading. -Katherine Rose Dalanon- 82 . alter style. events. opinions and ideas in their journals.taking – students can record and sort out their ideas about the selection using their own words. thoughts. reduce events. • Writing – It is the process in shaping the students responses or understanding in their reading. and place characters in different context. Writing. • • • • • • Journals – students jot down their responses.students can examine the ideas and issues written on a text through assigned writing. students became more aware in reading and develop a deeper understanding of various texts. add episodes.

Jason Submitted to: Dr. Lenie Mandalones. Brain.READING AS A NEURO PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS (Eye. etc) Reported by: Luana. Ear. Lourdes Abiog Educ.Dominance.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 83 .

the movement is the adjustment of the sense-organ. you use your thought probably.” Example. but using our common sense and my background in reading. James wrote: “In attending to either an idea or a sensation belonging to a particular sensesphere. divergences. remembered imagery. words and paragraphs. while walking. observing that some forms of micro movement always accompany thought. As far as I can detect. The Neuro-physiological process 1 Eye process .Why is it reading is a Neuro – physiological process? You have never been asked this question.An American psychologist William James in his book Principles of psychology (1890. It is also your eye movement that the eye movement might be related to internal representations. So the neuro is the nerve that would be the brainwork that is connected to the physiological act of hearing. words and syllables. Feel like a sort of withdrawal from the outer world. Let’s sight some example. convergences. ask one of your classmates to participate in class and answer this question. pp. understanding or comprehending what one reads (which involves a number of thinking skills).i. felt as it occurs. hearing sounds of letters.193-195). or example. observe his eye movement. “Who were the five people you saw this morning? His eyes up and left: Non-dominant hemisphere visualization. doing small things. seeing and speaking the words. and accommodations in my eyeballs…when I try to remember or reflect. 84 . I would say that reading involves seeing letters.e. these feelings are due to an actual rolling afterwards and upwards of the eyeballs. the movement in question. without feeling a fluctuating play of pressures. I cannot think in visual terms.

-Lenie Luana- 85 . When this take place. 2. The vibrations of sound are magnified by about twenty times as they pass over the ossicles and enter into the small opening in the inner ear without this amplication. scanning.the hearing process begins when sound waves enter the auditory canal and strike the eardrum. When is capable of handling over 73. and stirrup. Fast reading (fast eye movement) -Involuntary (jump) eye movement). Ear process . It would be like trying to talk someone who is under water. since about 99.Smooth eye movement. a rapid irregular movement of the eye as it changes focus moving from one point to another. They have been designed to take sound energy from the ear. a small electrical signal is made and sent to a corresponding circuit in the auditory nerve that carries it instantly to the brain. amplify it and transfer that energy into fluidfilled inner ear structures. anvil. When sound hits the eardrum.000 vibrations per second. skimming. It is essential for becoming a successful reader. we would be deaf. Slow reading (slow eye movement) .9% of sound would be reflected back out the ear.In reading it has only two movements. and browsing b. it causes movement of the hammer. This is the ingenious job of these amazing bones in the middle ear. a. a membrane about one half inch across.

there are at least five distinct processes active every time we read a text: • • • Neuro-physiological (eye movements. The third task.. comprehension. as several early studies of readers working in hypertext environments demonstrated (e. interpretation. Rouet & Levonen. then a networked reading environment would presumably help bring about interpretation. comprehension. to read a text is to be able to progress through it. illustrate. E-books and hypermedia help produce new forms of texts. is not present? Can manipulation be transposed without any problems from one context (book culture) to another (screen culture or ebook culture)? The second task. In other words. which implies linguistic. which implies both manual and neurophysiological aspects. To read is to establish a relation between the text being read and other texts that explain. In a post-typographic era. the brain’s functions. If interpretation is the minimal relation established between two texts by a reader. To read a text is to understand what is written. we must consider how each of these tasks changes and how the interrelations between them change as well. And yet. Argumentative/narrative (the act of following a complex sign such as a discourse. etc. this is not the case. and Symbolic (interpretation of the text within the context of our own body of knowledge and establishment of relations between the text being read and other texts). Foss.g. cognitive and affective aspects. Cognitive (the basic cognitive functions as studied by cognitive science).). a narrative. The possible problem here is one of over-interpretation: 86 . Affective (emotional response). 1989. refers to the symbolic dimension of the reading process. requiring new strategies of comprehension. implies the semiotic dimension of the reading process. • • These five processes can be said to define three tasks: manipulation (the material dimension of the reading process). Kim & Hirtle. the page. etc). 1996). 1995. the second text facilitating understanding of the first. or expand what is being read. and interpretation.According to Thérien (1985). What does it mean to manipulate an e-book? What new strategies must be developed now that the basic element of reading. complete.

which logically implies manipulation. This is to say that that we cannot have complex forms of interpretation if we do not have adequate forms of comprehension. 1 can stand by itself. the word level (which takes the outputs of the letter level to detect words). you need a 2. superficial. and finally. this is just a hierarchical model -Jason Mandalones- 87 . and to have a 2. and manipulation are logically implied: interpretation logically implies comprehension. and so on. 1992). Peirce's notion of prescission: to have a 3. Theirs is an interactive activation model based on three levels of processing following from visual input. comprehension. which themselves require satisfactory forms of manipulation A model of reading One of the first and most significant. As it stands. computational models is that created by Rumelhart and McClelland (1981). that connection may confound rather than facilitate interpretation. If the text is not "read"–if it has not been the object of an act of appropriation–then its interpretation may quite easily be uote non fondé” – that is. the feature level (which detects the individual features of letters).when a reader makes connections that are not based on a complete or complex knowledge of the text being read. but 2 needs. This recalls C. you need a 1. • The three tasks involved in reading–interpretation. just to exist. the letter level (which collates input from the feature level to detect letters). divergent instead of convergent (Eco. a 1. S.

Fries) Reported by: Balgua. Lourdes Abiog Educ.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 88 .READING AS A LANGUAGE PROCESS (Halliday. Cherry Lou Submitted to: Dr.

and to create an imaginary environment. emotional and social needs. Michael Halliday and Charles Fries both viewed reading as a language process wherein as one reads he carries with him his language skills of listening and speaking. his teacher first pronounces those letters and the child listen first and repeat what she said.g.g. Halliday calls them instrumental. • • • • • • Representational: The use of language to convey facts and information. Before a child learns how to read.g. (3) reading. When we're reading whether it's a text or a passage. 'Love you. It is considered as the 3rd of the four language skills: (1) listening. (2) speaking. 'Me good girl') Heuristic: This is when language is used to gain knowledge about the environment (e. and (4) writing. 'what the tractor doing?') Imaginative: Here language is used to tell stories and jokes. Children are motivated to acquire language because it serves certain purposes or functions for them. and personal functions. ‘Want juice') Regulatory: This is where language is used to tell others what to do (e.g. mummy') Personal: This is the use of language to express feelings. interactional.READING AS A LANGUAGE PROCESS It is the process of decoding symbols for the purpose of deriving meaning and/or constructing meaning. regulatory. Michael Halliday identifies seven functions that language has for children in their early years. he first learns to listen to the people around him and after that follows what they say. -Cherry Lou Balgua- 89 . The first four functions help the child to satisfy physical. 'Go away') Interactional: Here language is used to make contact with others and form relationships (e. • Instrumental: This is when the child uses language to express their needs (e.g. Let's take an example: Before a child learns the alphabet. opinions and individual identity (e. it is made up of language.

Ercheney Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 90 .READING AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS (Piaget) Reported by: Villota. Lourdes Abiog Educ.

intuition. They cannot be as reading is only a very recent innovation in the course of human history. or perception Reading is a multi.dimensional cognitive process of decoding symbols fro the purpose of deriving meaning and constructing meaning. 91 .ability to acquire knowledge: the mental faculty or process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning. These processes are not inbuilt for reading. Some describe it as a thinking (cognitive) process. we considered reading comprehension and reading to be synonymous because when understanding breaks down reading actually is not occurred. Others say it is the reconstruction and interpretation of meanings behind printed symbols. intuition. reading. Despite continuing disagreement about the precise nature of the reading process. and thus we could not have evolved such a specific process in such a short space of time. knowledge acquired: knowledge acquired through reasoning. All these explanations of reading are accurate. silent. It is a process. a thinking process. Still others say it is the process of understanding written language. Reading involves a series of interlinked cognitive processes. Cognition.READING AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS Have you ever wonder why Reading is so difficult to remediate? The answer is that reading is not a subject. In fact. However it is not a distinct process. Perhaps more than any other word “meaning” appears in definitions of reading. Reading out loud is more complex process the just normal. Reading is described as many ways by different people. or perception. Instead it involves all the same processes as reading silently. One such point is that comprehension of written material is the purpose of reading. Readers are involved in constructing meaning from text. there are some points of general agreement among reading authorities. and then this processing leads onto further stages of processing which more speech-related.

Have you understand all the statements above? Some text can be uttered easily but cannot be understood by the reader because ther are some cognitive elements that need to be met for you to understand or comprehend what you are reading.(∑x) ^2] [n∑y^2 – (∑y) ^2] Résumé – a summary of somebody's educational and work experience.Stimulus Text being read Receptors Eyes and ears Brain Decoding and interpretation Response Reaction done Cognitive Elements of Reading Anya ti nagan mo? The sum of the square of the two legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse Earth revolves around the Sun once every year. Decoding – is the ability to transform symbols forming a phoneme to sounds Cipher – the pronunciation and spelling correspondence. -Ercheney Villota- 92 . Syntax – know the rules of that language. Language Comprehension – is the ability to understand the spoken language. These include: Reading Comprehension – is the ability to understand the text being read. or 365. Linguistic – know the structure of the language. for the information of possible future employers. Background (Schemata theory) – schemata on the new ideas is an important support to the reader. Semantics – know the meaning of the word parts and the meaning of each word in the particular language. Phonology – know the pronunciation of each phoneme in each word.25 days. n∑xy-(∑x)(∑y) r = _______________________________ _____________________________ √ [n∑x^2 .

Lourdes Abiog Educ. Ruby Submitted to: Dr.READING AS A SKILL/S (Gray/Gates) Reported by: Felizardo.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina READING SKILLS ACQUISITION 93 .

and how to apply this knowledge when they read. the ability to acquire meaning from print. and vocal expression. This accuracy and automaticity of reading serves as a bridge between decoding and comprehension. Fluency This is the ability to read orally with speed. that is. vocabulary. phonological awareness. The broader term. syllables onsets and rimes. Skills required for proficient reading According to the National Reading Panel.Reading skills acquisition is the process of acquiring the basic skills necessary for learning to read. the ability to read requires proficiency in a number of language domains: phonemic awareness phonics (sound-symbol correspondence). also includes rhymes. This helps beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes). it may be difficult to remember what has been read and to relate the ideas expressed in the text to his or her background knowledge. The ability to read fluently is one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension. Phonics It is method that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. patterns of letter-sound correspondences and spelling in English. Vocabulary 94 . If a reader is not fluent. Phonemic Awareness This is the ability to distinguish and manipulate the individual sounds of language. fluency. accuracy. and text comprehension.

Run your eyes over the text.used to find a particular piece of information Extensive reading . Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information. Examples of Skimming: · · · The Newspaper (quickly to get the general news of the day) Magazines (quickly to discover which articles you would like to read in more detail) Business and Travel Brochures (quickly to get informed) Scanning It is used to find a particular piece of information.accurate reading for detailed understanding. the reader must derive the meaning of the word using another strategy. Use skimming to quickly get up to speed on a current business situation. in order to find the specific details you require. noting important information. When a reader encounters an unfamiliar word in print and decodes it to derive its spoken pronunciation. don't worry when scanning. Run your eyes over the text looking for the specific piece of information you need. such as context. the reader understands the word if it is in the reader's spoken vocabulary.used for pleasure and general understanding Intensive reading . Use scanning on schedules. or 'gist'. Otherwise. Four types of reading skills used in every language: Skimming It is used to understand the "gist" or main idea Scanning .A critical aspect of reading comprehension is vocabulary development. etc. meeting plans. A train / airplane schedule A conference guide Extensive reading 95 . If you see words or phrases that you don't understand. Examples of Scanning · · · The "What's on TV" section of your newspaper. It's not essential to understand each word when skimming.

it is important that you understand each word. Use extensive reading skills to improve your general knowledge of business procedures. as well as business books. It includes very close accurate reading for detail. Examples of Extensive Reading · · · The latest marketing strategy book A novel you read before going to bed Magazine articles that interest you Intensive reading It is used on shorter texts in order to extract specific information. Examples of Intensive Reading · · · A bookkeeping report An insurance claim A contract -Ruby Felizardo- 96 . In this case.It is used to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure. Use intensive reading skills to grasp the details of a specific situation. number or fact. Do not worry if you understand each word.

5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina READING AS A PSYCHO – SOCIAL PROCESS 97 .READING AS A PSYCHO – SOCIAL PROCESS (Erikson. Rose Fay Doinog.Jhoan Esmer. Lourdes Abiog Educ. Vygotsky) Reported by: Castor. Janice Submitted to: Dr.

" which arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. 3. These stages are conceived in an almost architectural sense: satisfactory learning and resolution of each crisis is necessary if the child is to manage the next and subsequent ones satisfactorily. elated with his new found control. why not introduce him to the letters of the alphabet? 2. Letter recognition is usually the beginning of learning to read in kindergarten. learning to recognize letters does not usually start until at least four or five years of age. and so on. It starts from 18 months or 2 years and 3½ to 4 years of age. Learning Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust (Hope) Chronologically.ranging experience in psychotherapy.At beginning of one until age two.According to Erikson. I realized that if he has no problem learning all of those characters.the "eight stages of man. what is stopping him from learning all of the letters of the alphabet? The only thing stopping him is the fact that he is not exposed to it. but through wide . There are many two-year old boys and girls running around singing all 26 letters of the alphabet to the tune of "Twinkle Little Star. The "well parented" child emerges from this stage sure of himself.and middle . and proud rather than ashamed. Some of them were so similar I did not even notice the difference at first glance. the socialization process consists of eight phases . Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a "psychosocial crisis." His eight stages of man were formulated. just as the foundation of a house is essential to the first floor. this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life.as well as upper . Erikson's Eight Stages of Development 1.social classes. not through experimental work. Instead of allowing him to spend all of his time learning cartoon characters. Learning Initiative versus Guilt (Purpose) 98 . including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low ." However. which in turn must be structurally sound to support and the second story. How many toddlers can name all the characters on their favorite TV show? My niece knew the names of all the character on the show. Learning Autonomy versus Shame (Will).

to math activities that get her counting and sorting. for better or worse. in the United States culture. from about 13 or 14 to about 20) the child. Looking for games and activities to keep the little guy busy? Preschool is all about developing the skills to get the kid ready for kindergarten. 8. Learning Identity versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity) During the fifth psychosocial crisis (adolescence. The probability that a child who is a poor reader at the end of first grade will remain a poor reader at the end of fourth grade is 88% (Juel 1988) 5. for the first time. 4. and in the sense of working productively and creatively. Clay (1993) explains that inappropriate reading habits can be a real stumbling block to higher levels of understanding." or the later preschool years (from about 3½ to. Industry versus Inferiority (Competence) This psychosocial crisis is handled. can experience true intimacy . and so on. learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of "Who am I?" But even the best . 7. 6.doubts flood the youngster. we've got fresh ideas to keep a kid learning on the fly.the sort of intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship. during what he calls the "school age.adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity diffusion: most boys and probably most girls experiment with minor delinquency. now an adolescent. Research indicates that if children do not become successful readers by the end of third grade. Learning Generativity versus Self-Absorption (Care) In adulthood. it is very difficult for them to catch up with their peers in later years.This psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the "play age. both in the sense of marriage and parenthood. self . Integrity versus Despair (Wisdom) 99 . the psychosocial crisis demands generativity. From reading activities that get a child comfortable with the alphabet. rebellion flourishes. Learning Intimacy versus Isolation (Love) The successful young adult. entry into formal school)." presumably up to and possibly including some of junior high school.

-Rose Fay Castor- 100 . results in the human organism's moving from its infant state of helpless but total egocentricity to its ideal adult state of sensible conformity coupled with independent creativity. for example. Search for the best ways of accomplishing this task accounts for much of the research in the field of child development. when successful. These eight stages of man. the mature adult develops the peak of adjustment.If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved. integrity. are plausible and insightful descriptions of how personality develops but at present they are descriptions only. in traits of trust versus distrust. as any worried parent or teacher knows. He trusts. he is independent and dares the new. or the psychosocial crises.teaching process that. We possess at best rudimentary and tentative knowledge of just what sort of environment will result. Helping the child through the various stages and the positive learning that should accompany them is a complex and difficult task. Socialization. then is a learning . or clear personal identity versus diffusion.

Vygotsky said that if the child can talk to themselves it is called private speech. action and then when the child know how to do the task vygotsky said that scaffolding can help the child to learned by giving support or assistance of others. And when the learners become more proficient. For him the best way to learn the child is social interaction and language.cultural theory of development according to Vygotsky.VYGOTSKY SOCIO. -Jhoan Doinog-Janice Esmer- 101 . able to complete the task on their own that they could no initially do without assistance is called scaffold and fade away technique. Private speech is a form of self talk that guides the child thinking. In language according to him through language the child can adopt new information and of course they learned how to understand everything.CULTURAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT There are two central factors in socio. it is the social interaction and language. Through this social interaction the child communicate others and learned more things from them.

READING AS A DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS (Chall) Reported by: Longga.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 102 . Lourdes Abiog Educ. Roman Submitted to: Dr. April Vanessa Paz IV.

the reader understands the word if it is in the reader’s spoken vocabulary. The ability to read fluently is one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension. and onsets and rimes. Otherwise. Phonics – The method that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. and text comprehension. syllables. oral reading fluency. a well-developed vocabulary and active engagement with the text. patterns of letter-sound correspondences and spelling in English. This helps beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes). phonics (sound-symbol correspondence). When a reader encounters an unfamiliar word in print and decodes it to derive its spoken pronunciation. Phonemic awareness – The ability to distinguish and manipulate the individual sounds of language. also includes rhymes. Vocabulary – A critical aspect of reading comprehension is vocabulary development. The broader term. and vocal expression. phonemic awareness. accuracy. 103 . Reading Comprehension – The NRP describes comprehension as complex cognitive process in which a reader intentionally and interactively engages with the text. If a reader is not fluent. the reader must derive the meaning of the word using another strategy. fluency. it may be difficult to remember what has been read and to relate the ideas expressed in the text to his or her background knowledge. Reading comprehension is heavily dependent on skilled word recognition and decoding. Fluency – The ability to ready orally with speed. and how to apply this knowledge when they read. This accuracy and automaticity of reading serves as a bridge between decoding and comprehension. phonological awareness. such as context. vocabulary. the ability to read requires proficiency n a number of language domains.READING AS A DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS According to the National Reading Panel.

Chall’s Stage 0 is considered comparable to what is often called “reading readiness. The learner during this stage uses logographic information to make guesses about words. The child is increasing their conceptual knowledge and beginning to develop an understanding of the world around them. The learner also begins to develop insights into the nature 104 .” Typically developing readers achieve this stage about the age of 6. Reading is a skill which is built upon through stage and is an ongoing process. The learner relies on their non-visual information and contextual knowledge to begin reading. students will flounder/straggle in their reading ability. organized instruction.STAGES OF READING DEVELOPMENT Learning to read doesn’t just happen. and past professor emeritus at Harvard University cites her five stages of reading development below. world renowned reading expert psychologist for fifty years. • The learner gains familiarity with the language and its sounds. A person in this stage becomes aware of sound similarities between words. both semantics and syntax. Stage 0: Pre-reading Stage – birth to age 6. Each stage builds on skills mastered in earlier stages. If a stage of reading development has not been learned. The pre-reading stage is when the learner grows in their control of language. It is the unsystematic accumulation of understandings about reading between pre-school and kindergarten. learns to predict the next part in a familiar story. It is imperative/very important that teachers make certain students fully understand each stage of the reading/writing process before they move on the next level. lack mastery at any level can halt the progress beyond that level. and may start to recognize a few familiar written words. which also affects their writing skills. Jeanne Chall. It has to be taught through systematic. During this emergent stage the child relies heavily on the contextual information provided by the pictures in the text and by the way the story mimics the spoken language and highly predictable language.

This phonetic-cue phase of reading development helps the child begin to recognize rhyme and alliteration. which follows a whole language model of reading. This is the one stage where whole language may nit be the approach for the instruction of reading. Teacher directed modeling and instruction on the aspects of decoding is crucial during this stage. the learner has now progresses into the cipher phase of reading and is Stage 1 reader. Phonics • The learner become aware of the relationship between sounds and letters and begins applying the knowledge to text. and that some of these words have the same beginning and ending sounds. Student’s central task is learning arbitrary letters and associating them with corresponding parts of spoken wards. Learner acquires knowledge about reading.of words and begins to realize that words are made up of sounds. A top down approach to teaching reading. Even words that were easily recognized in stage 0 may now be sounded out by the stage 1 reader. has shown positive gains in reading performance for the stage 0 readers. 105 . the reader often relies heavily on the text and focuses attention on the visual information. To this child decoding is extremely important. the alphabetical code. Once the learner is successful in stage 0 and has progresses from the phoneticcue phase of reading and is becoming more aware of letter/sound relationships. The child begins gluing to print and sounding out words. A bottom up approach to teaching reading may be more appropriate for this stage of development. During this stage. Stage 1: Initial Reading or Decoding Stage – Grades 1-2 or Ages 6-7. For the reader to be successful at this stage of learning they need to have many learner centered activities that encourage the connection between their non-visual information and the visual information of the text. This demonstrates the reader has achieved understanding of the critical concept of the alphabetic principle and is learning sound-symbol correspondences. The stage 1 reader is attempting to break the code of print. They realize that letters and letter combinations represent sounds.

Stage 2: Confirmation, Fluency, Ungluing from Print, Automaticity Stage – Grades 2-3, Ages 7-8. Consolidation of what was learned in Stage 1. This requires reading many easy and familiar books for the developmental reading. There is a gradual increase in functional and recreational reading. Commonly use of the basal readers. Functional reading is important – content area texts- this is where we fail in our attempts to prepare our students. The range of possible recreational reading increases. • This stage involves confirming the knowledge acquires in the previous two stages and gaining fluency on those skills. Decoding skills continue to improve, and they begin to develop speed in addition to accuracy in word recognition. At this point, the reader should be able to give attention both to the meaning and to the print, using them interactively to build their skills and fluency. This stage is critical for the beginning reading. If the developing reader stops making progress during this stage, the individual remains, in Chall’s words, “glued to the print.” Typical developing readers usually reach this stage around the age of 8. The job of the teacher is to keep the learner in perpetual forward movement. Once the child has become successful at the aspect of decoding it is time to progress forward. No teacher desires a child to be a word caller, or a reader who glues to text. A good reader is a fluid reader, who automatically decodes words, thus freeing up the attention for higher levels of comprehension and meaning. As the child progresses through stage 1 they acquire orthographic knowledge of words. They recognize patterns of words and reach a level of automaticity in word recognition. This found ability enables the reader to become more fluent. Chall often refers to this stage as ”more of the same.” In other words the learner needs opportunity to hone/sharpen the skills of reading in comfortable text and comfortable reading situation. Recreational reading encourages safe fluent reading. Carver calls this area of reading, rauding. This stage is not for gaining new information or using reading to learn, but is used to gain control of reading so that when they become stage 3 readers they will be able to use the tool of reading to successfully gain knowledge. Once again the reading emphasis switches to a more whole language approach. The learner should be given the opportunity to read many familiars texts. The greater the amount of practice and the greater the

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immersion/fascination, the greater the chance of developing the fluency with print that is necessary for the more complex nature of reading to learn. Stage 3: Reading for Learning the New Stage: A First Stage – Grades 4-8, Ages 913. Readers need to bring prior knowledge to their reading. The children acquire facts.

Reading to learn: At this stage, motivation for reading changes. The reader has enough reading skill to begin to read text in order to gain information. Reader’s vocabulary development accelerates at this point resulting from increased exposure to the written word. Typically developing children usually achieved this stage in 4th grade, around the age of 9. Stages 0-2 are considered the developmental stages of reading, “Learning to

Read.” Stage 3 however is associated with the content area reading, or “Reading to Learn.” Now the reader must use reading as a tool for acquiring new knowledge. Before the child entered stage 3 of reading, the child relied on the environment or the spoken word to acquire new knowledge, but as the child enters stage 3, he/she must use reading to gain novel/fresh information. Stage 3 is also characterized by the growing importance of word meaning, prior knowledge and strategic knowledge. In order to acquire new information, the learner must bring previous knowledge and experiences to their reading. The reading in this stage is essentially for facts and the reader typically comprehends from singular view point, reading during this stage is seen to be both topdown and bottom-up process. Students need direct instruction, not necessarily in the aspect of decoding, but in strategy activation and selection as well as comprehension monitoring. Many teachers make the false assumption that just because the learner has learned how to read narrative text, this ability will transfer over to successful reading to expository text and reading to learn.

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Stage 4: Multiple Viewpoints Stage – High school, Ages 14-18 It should include instruction in reading/study skills, and reading strategies for success. • The reader at this stage begins to be able to analyze what they read, understand different points of view, and react critically to what they read. Typical readers are developing this skill as set during the high school years, around ages 14 to 19. The essential difference between the Stage 3 reader and the Stage 4 reader is that the Stage 4 reader begins dealing with learning from the multiple viewpoints. The successful stage 3 reader grows in their ability to analyze what they read and react critically to the different viewpoints they encounter. When the learner becomes successful with this type of critical comprehension they have progresses from stage 3 to stage 4.The stage readers are able to deal with layers of facts and concepts and have the ability to add and delete schema previously learned. This is essential as the learner now interacts with more complex text and share multiple views and concepts. Stage 5: Construction and Reconstruction Stage – College, age 18 and above. Adult literacy should stress acquisition of skills useful to the participants and the ability to apply those skills. • At this stage, readers have learned to read selectively and form their own opinions about what they read; they construct their knowledge from that of others. This highest level of reading development is not usually reached until college age, or later, and may in fact be achieved only by those who have intellectual inclination. Upon the arrival into stage 5 of reading, the students has learned to read certain books and articles in the degree of detail and completeness that one needs for one’s purpose. A stage 5 reader knows what not to be read, as well as what to read. During stage 5, the reader has acquired the ability to construct knowledge on a high level of abstraction and generality and to create one’s “truth” from the “truth of others. The more the learner is immersed into one’s domain, the more conceptual knowledge the reader has obtained. With this sophisticated level of domain specific knowledge, the more

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• Stage 2 – Fluency It is only when the decoding process becomes automatic that is. It is during this stage that students expand their knowledge base. as commonly believed in the past. empowering them to become enthusiastic readers and writers. These are the stair steps of reading development. • Stage 3 – Reading for Meaning Once reading becomes both accurate and fluent. 109 . here are some things to consider: • Stage 1 – Initial Decoding The majority of students who experience difficulty acquiring decoding skills do so not because of visual perceptual problems. as students grow in their literacy development. It is our job as their teacher to “unstuck” them so they can move on to the next phase and beyond. An understanding of the phonetic structure of the English language is a must if a poor reader is to become a good reader. Some tine students get stuck in one of the stages. They are built upon and climbed. one cannot go on to stage 3. but because of problems with phonological aspects of language. both accurate and rapid that attention is freed for higher-level reading comprehension skills. Without rapid word recognition.critical the reader can become. They now have the ability to synthesize critically the works of others and are able to form their own educated stance/position on the subject. To understand more the differences of the stages reading development. task of reading becomes one of understanding the content.

Students who are reading below their grade level lack significantly in their knowledge base. grades 1012 (ages 1517) STAGE 5 Construction and Reconstructio n College and beyond (age 18+) AGE 110 . STAGES of READING DEVELOPMENT` The Major Qualitative Characteristics and How They Are Acquired STAGE 0 “Pseudo Reading” Preschool (ages 6 months to 6 years) STAGE 1 Initial reading and decoding Grade 1 and beginning Grade 2 (ages 6 and 7) STAGE 2 Confirmatio n and Fluency Grades 2 and 3 (ages 7 and 8) STAGE 3 Reading for Learning the New Grades 4-8 (ages 9-13) Phase A & B A. • Stage 5 – Synthesis Ideally. If student are to succeed in school and in today’s world. Intermediate . Stage 5 reading emerges as a result of intensive study in a content area. A child that has difficulty in reading falls further behind in school. Effective reading is critical to success. Junior high school. grades 4-6 B. grades 7-9 STAGE 4 Multiple Viewpoints High school. students learn to read more complex materials from various sources. The reader synthesizes information from variety of sources to form hypotheses. the more disadvantaged the student is. this is type of intellectual pursuit that occurs at the college level. The longer it takes a poor reader to become a good reader. it is imperative they all become good readers by the third or fourth-grade. • Stage 4 – Relationships and Viewpoints In stage 4.

reference works. trade books. -gain new knowledge. & meaning context to read stories and selections Major Qualitative Characterist ics and Masteries by End of Stage For the first time. newspapers . paper. essays that call for integration of varied knowledge and points of view 111 . paper How Acquired Being read to by someone who responds to child’s interest Being provided with books. letters. -experience new feelings and attitudes Generally from one viewpoint Reading/stu dying textbooks. tests. pencils.Major Qualitativ e Character istics and Masteries by End of Stage Pretend reading Retells story from pictures Names alphabet letters Prints own name Plays with books. time Learns relation between letters and sounds and between printed and spoken words Able to read simple text containing highfrequency words and phonically regular words Sounds out new onesyllable words Direct instruction and practice in lettersound relationshi ps Reading of simple stories using simple phonic patterns and high frequency words Being read to at a higher level to Reads simple stories with increasing fluency Learns to consolidate decoding. magazines Being exposed to unfamiliar vocabulary and syntax Systematic study of words Reacting to text through discussions and writing Reading of more complex fiction. vocabulary and concepts Wide reading and study of science and humanities as well as newspapers and magazines Systematic study of words and word parts Formal and creative writing Wide reading of ever more difficult materials Writing papers. sight vocabulary. pencils. may be responsible for reading independent ly to -learn new ideas. non- Reading widely from a broad range of complex materials-expository and narrative Able to deal with multiple viewpoints Reading is used for one’s own needs and purposes Serves to integrate one’s knowledge with that of others to synthesize and create new knowledge It is rapid and efficient Direct instruction in advanced decoding skills Wide reading w/ instructional and independent materials Being read to at levels above their own to develop language.

listening comprehens 9.000 words can be read At beginning.Relations hip of Reading to Listening Most can understan d children’s picture books and stories read to them Can understan d thousands of the words they hear by age 6. reading is more efficient Reading comprehens ion is better than listening comprehens ion of difficult material For poorer readers. listening comprehens ion may be equal to reading Reading is more efficient than listening Implications: Stage 3 is necessary for the industrial workplace Stage 4 is an absolute for the informational age Many readers never get beyond Stage 3 and most reading instruction ends before students are adept at Stage 3 skills Most remediation is done in Stage 1 and Stage 2 as well as Stage 3A However. etc. Listening is reading and still more listening are effective about equal than reading For good readers. but can read few if any of them develop advanced language patterns.000 or ion is still more words more in listening effective vocabulary than reading By the end. and ideas Child’s reading level is much below the language that is understoo d when heard At end of stage. Stage 3A depends so heavily on adequate Stage 1 & 2 skills that decoding and fluency may be more important for older students whose comprehension seems low 112 .000 or more words but can read only about 600. new words. fiction. most children understan d 6. About 3.

progress in reading happens gradually and progressively. She teaches how to pronounce that word. the relationship of poverty and disability to reading difficulties and school achievement. Let’s begin in a basic concept. In this manner the preschool child read by mimic the sound even they don’t know the meaning. applied the understanding of wide-ranging developmental reading strategies and motivated mastery of teaching capacity in developmental reading. The central issues is an old matters. The teacher demonstrates how to read it. There are others ideas to give emphasis these are the stages of individual development in reading .the stages are interrelated. Particularly. Remember the time when we in the pre-school. influential in helping us understand how people actually learn to read and in ensuring that the research evidence was used in the classroom to help children. This stages guide us to understand why and how this things occur. an agreement that reading as a process of development involves a program for acquiring and developing reading concepts and skills. For example a problem reader was defined as one whose reading 113 . This is based on the insight. the periods or stages in developing reading skills coincide with the developmental stages of individual growth.-April Vanessa Longga- READING AS A DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS When we say reading as developmental process it means that reading has a stage to realize. and of the interdisciplinary nature of learning to read. there are levels of reading skills acquisition and lastly development is influenced by ones personal maturation social demands values and aspiration. development proceeds chronological in an upward movement starting with the simplest to increasing the level of complexity. A magnificent stage develops by Chall. The begging of reading should begin in this period. This segment was connected to the study of Jeanne Chall. the first thing that we should give emphasis is the first stage in reading. each stages being preparation next. The main target here is the learning result the reimbursement grasp of the concept of development in reading. before we should give emphasis in examine the schooling instruction. Indeed. In our discussion.

The developmental reading program is paying attention on the learner in which instruction is both continuous (instruction in every grade) and has continuity (skills are taught in a sequence). It differs sense in our earlier stage reading programs in that it does more than give lip service to the naturalness of individual differences and recognized that it is unrealistic to expect all children to achieve equal mastery of all skill and to proceed through the skill sequence at the same rate. not as a subject so that we cannot meet a big problem regarding in comprehension. we can see the child development in reading by providing evidence which is changing the reading program from one based on grades to one which recognizes the developmental nature of the child.achievement level was one or more years below grade level. 114 . Reading must be taught as a process. In the fields or in the actual setting.

-Roman Paz IV-

INTRINSIC FACTORS
For Reading Achievement (Motivation, Intelligence, Learning Styles, Self – Concepts, Interest)

Reported by: Evaristo, Daisy

Submitted to: Dr. Lourdes Abiog
Educ.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina

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INTRINSIC FACTOR IN READING ACHIEVEMENTS
MOTIVATION • The inside eagerness/willingness or motivation of a person to learn something through reading. READING MOTIVATION


• • • • • •

The prime component in reading motivation is being engaged. An engaged reader is one who reads for different purposes. Builds knowledge to construct new learning. Participate in meaningful social interaction in reading. See to understand. enjoy earning and They believe in their reading abilities.

Children who become engaged in reading can overcome the disadvantages of risk. Chief component in reading motivation is thought to be self-efficacy. • The ability of a person to judge his own capabilities in regard to a task. Seems to play a major role in whether or not a child takes on reading challenge. If a child has a high self-efficacy • • He sees a reading challenge ass just that something he can master if he works diligently. Base on research a child who belief in their ability to accomplish a task in reading, achieve good performance in both math and literacy.

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READING CHALLENGE • Another motivation in reading, wherein thee are goals need to accomplish.

Ex. *List of questions need to answer. *There are rewards. A competent reader is intrinsically motivated. *Behaviors of a competent intrinsically motivated reader. • • • • • • • • They read for their own sake. They read for personal interest. Have a sense of deep immersion during the reading process. Find challenges material. Enjoying the experience. Read for longer amount of time. Greater cognitive proficiency in reading. Reading for more positive effects. Major aspects in motivated intrinsic reader • consisting of curiosity involvement Preference for challenge INTEREST *Some important teaching tips in getting children interest to read. 1. Focus on the content. 2. Avoid language exercise and tests.


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Teach helpful strategies such as predictions and inference. 118 .3. Talk about what the students read at home. 4. Read parts of the story dramatically. 5.

Lourdes Abiog Educ.-Daisy Evaristo- EXTRINSIC FACTORS For Reading Achievement (The Material and the Teacher as X – Factor) Reported by: Sarmiento. Roselle Submitted to: Dr.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 119 .

Therefore. the amount of breadth reading also increasing which increasing the reading achievement. A reciprocal relationship will happened if the children do not read. we can conclude that the main determination of reading achievement is MOTIVATION.EXTRINSIC FACTOR FOR READING ACHIEVEMENT (The material and the teacher as x-factor) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Rewards Punishments Formula 1: EXTRINSIC + REWARDS MOTIVATION (task relates to current and future goal) (external rewards) *Motivation is a force that makes people to do (or not to do) something Formula 2: CHILD READING + NUMBER BREADTH ACHIEVEMENT *If the amount of child reading is increasing. 120 .

A) Materials 1. we will only discuss two parts of motivation which have connection with  develop specific skills that needed by special subject matters 121 . Ability to comprehend informational material  application of general comprehension LEARNERS On this topic. Ability to locate needed reading material  use index  use of table of contents  use of dictionary  use of encyclopedia  use of library card files  use of others bibliographic aids  use of skimming in search for information 2.PAST EXPERIENCE DISLIKE READING AVOID TO READ MINIMUM ACHIEVEMENT LACK OF EXPERIENCE FLOW OF LACK MOTIVATION AMONG STUDENTS MOTIVATION INTRINSIC REWARDS EXTRINSIC PUNISHMENTS COMPETITION IN READING READING RECOGNITION READING FOR GRADES TYPE OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION THAT EXIST AMONG extrinsic.

learners should: a. To develop the interest. Without interests all the effort will be useless. teacher should arouse the learners to have their interest. Therefore. Ability to select material needed These three points have related to win student interest.3. read material which is either recreational or functional reading b. enjoyable story/lessons B) Teacher as x-factor 122 .

Ma. Lourdes Abiog Educ.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 123 .-Roselle Sarmiento- SELF – FULFILLING PROPHECY Reported by: Maano. Cherielyn Submitted to: Dr.

A prophecy declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people. MERTON who is credited with coining the expression “SELF – FULFILLING PROPHECY” and formalizing its structure and consequences. If we are treated as if we are clever. A self – fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes it to become true.SELF – FULFILLING PROPHECY Description If a person thinks we are clever or stupid or whatever. This person has thus had their prophecy about us fulfilled. it is 20th – century SOCIOLOGIST ROBERT K. by the very terms of the prophecy itself. Richard Wiseman discusses the role of self – fulfilling prophecies in human psychology. This is also known as Pygmalion Effect. they will treat us that way. a person who expects people to be friendly may smile more and thus receive more smiles while a person expecting to be lucky -Ma. either through fear or logical confusion. stupid. so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once – false prophecy. or whatever. we will act and even become this way. Cherielyn Maaño- 124 . For example. Although examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ANCIENT GREECE and ANCIENT INDIA.

Lourdes Abiog Educ.THE PYGMALION EFFECT Reported by: Climaco.5 Instructor Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina 125 . Geneva Submitted to: Dr.

cuts deeply into their self-esteem and distorts their image of themselves as human beings. their capabilities will develop and their productivity will be high. he leaves scars on the lives of the young children. Sterling Livingston ROSENTHAL-JACOBSON STUDY German-born US psychologist Robert Rosenthal (1933) and the US schoolteacher Lenore Jacobson (1926) published a book entitled “Pygmalion in the Classroom”. It is a form of self fulfilling prophecy. The Pygmalion Effect enables student to excel in response to the teachers message that they are capable of learning and expected to learn. they showed that if teachers were led to expect enhanced performance from some children. then the children indeed show that enhancement. and in this respect. The purpose of it was to support the hypothesis that the reality can be influenced by the expectations of others. their self-confidence will grow. but if he is skillful and has high expectations of his students. and is successful.”-J. In their study. then that person will indeed achieve greatness. The effect is named after George Bernard Shaw’s play Pygmalion. The main idea concerning The Pygmalion Effect is that if you believe that someone is capable of achieving greatness. -Geneva Climaco- 126 . “If he is unskilled. students with poor expectations internalize their negative label and those with positive labels succeed accordingly.THE PYGMALION EFFECT The Pygmalion Effect (Rosenthal Effect) refers to situation in which students perform better than the other students simply because they are expected to do so. in which a professor makes a bet that he can teach a poor flower girl to speak and act like an upper class lady. The Pygmalion Effect is one big demonstration of the effect of teachers.

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