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CCNA Project

CCNA Project

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Chapter 1 Introduction to The Company

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The AUL'Cisco Networking Academies', part of Cisco Systems, offer networking courses, like the CCNA and CCNP courses, which prepare students for the certification exams of the same name, and other computer-related courses. Also see History of virtual learning environments for how the Cisco Networking Academy Program has developed since 1997 relative to others within the VLE community. Courses are available in approximately 10,000 local academies, in over 150 different countries. As of 2004, there were approximately 500,000 active students (defined as students currently enrolled, students enrolled in a future course, and students who were enrolled in a course during the last five months).

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cost-effective networks for schools. hands-on lab exercises. Networking courses The Cisco Academies offer a variety of courses in networking. the program has grown to more than 10. teaches students networking and other information technology-related skills. states and more than 150 countries with a curriculum taught in nine different languages. schools also needed some way to maintain the networks after they were up and running.000 students participate in Academies operating in high schools.000 Academies in 50 U.Background In 1993. and Internet-based assessment. The CCNA is offered in two models. Cisco Senior Consulting Engineer George Ward developed training for teachers and staff for maintenance of school networks. technical schools. The students in particular were eager to learn and the demand was such that it led to the creation of the Cisco Networking Academy Program. colleges and universities. Cisco embarked on an initiative to design practical. each is divided into four courses. Since its launch. established in 1997. Wireless Networking and Network security.S. and other educational programs around the world. computer science and related fields.[1] The Cisco Networking Academy Program. The Networking Academy program blends face-to-face teaching with webbased curriculum. More than 400. CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional). preparing them for jobs as well as for higher education in engineering. among others. It quickly became apparent that designing and installing the networks was not enough. community-based organizations. discovery for new and younger learners and exploration for more advanced and experienced learners. CCNP courses follow from the CCNA and is offered as four separate certificated courses 3 81103107098 . such as CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate).

CHAPTER 2 Project Review 4 81103107098 .

no matter where they are physically located. Icons are used to represent the actual physical devices within the topology map. a physical topology map is created to record where each host is located and how it is connected to the network. Host names. The physical topology map also shows where the wiring is installed and the locations of the networking devices that connect the hosts. it is sometimes necessary to also have a logical view of the network topology. addresses. In addition to the physical topology map. When networks are installed. Wired networks require lots of cabling and network devices to provide connectivity for all network hosts. and how each is connected to the network. It is very important to maintain and update physical topology maps to aid future installation and troubleshooting efforts.NETWORK TOPOLOGY In a simple network consisting of a few computers. group information and applications can be recorded on the logical topology map. A logical topology map groups hosts by how they use the network. it is easy to visualize how all of the various components connect. it is more difficult to keep track of the location of each component. 5 81103107098 . As networks grow.

Integrated WiFi 1 Fast-Ethernet port/ Wireless 6 81103107098 . 3 Serial ports 1 Fast-Ethernet port For camera monitoring 1 Fast-Ethernet port 1 Fast-Ethernet port.PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY EQUIPMENTS List of all equipments required for setting up the internal network of the building for PurpleLeap. 2 Serial ports / 6 Gigabit Ethernet. EQUIPMENT CISCO 2960 Layer 2 Switch CISCO 2960 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Linksys Wireless Integrated Router CISCO 2800 Integrated Service Router HP Blade Servers HP Storage Servers IBM Desktop Computers IBM Laptop Computers HP IP Printers Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (CAT-5) Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable (CAT-5) QTY 9 5 3 3 3 2 142 32 5 2500’ 4700’ DESCRIPTION 24 Fast-Ethernet ports. 1 Internet port 7 Gigabit Ethernet. 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports 4 Ethernet ports.

voice. 7 81103107098 . It supports twentyfour 10/100 Mbps Fast-Ethernet ports and two 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet ports. LAN and WAN connectivity into a single device. voice. security. LAN and WAN connectivity into a single device. security. It supports seven to eight 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet ports and two to three Serial ports. It provides services at broadband speeds. It is generally used for trunk lines which carry a huge amount of traffic. It is designed for small offices and home-based users. It supports ten Gigabit Ethernet ports. Due to this reason. It is designed for enterprise branch offices. • CISCO 2960 Layer 2 Switch This type of switches does not use modules or flash card slots. LAYER-2 DEVICES • CISCO 2960 Gigabit Ethernet Switch A switch is a device that is able to direct a stream of messages coming in one port. their physical configuration cannot be changed. out of another port based on the destination MAC address within the frame. It provides services at broadband speeds using T1/E1 connectioins.DESCRIPTION OF DEVICES LAYER-3 DEVICES • Linksys Wireless Integrated Router An ISR combines features such as routing and switching functions. It consists of one WAN connection (Router Port) and four 10/100 Mbps switch ports. • CISCO 2800 Integrated Service Router An ISR combines features such as routing and switching functions.

and is easy to install. They provide the maximum concentration of computing power and stability. offers a high bandwidth. • IBM Laptop Computers These are mobile computers which supports both LAN and WAN connectivity. but the most common number of pairs is four. It supports data transmission speeds of 100 Mbps. It also contains hot-swappable hard-drives. Each pair is identified by a specific color code.LAYER-1 (PHYSICAL) DEVICES • Shielded Twisted Pair Cable They are used for high-speed data transmission. • HP IP Printers 8 81103107098 . It is generally used for trunk lines. END-USER DEVICES • HP Blade Servers These servers are high performance computers used in businesses and other organizations. This type of cable is used to connect workstations. • HP Storage Servers These servers are used to store redundant parts of files in order to prevent them from failing. hosts and network devices. Servers are usually kept in secure areas where access is controlled. • IBM Desktop Computers These are general purpose computers which provide the basic desktop services to users. • Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable UTP cable is inexpensive. It contains of a Fast-Ethernet port. The individual pair of wires are wrapped in a shield and the entire four pairs are wrapped in another shield. It supports data transmission at rates as high as 1000 Mbps. It can come with many different numbers of pairs inside the jacket.

9 81103107098 . LOGICAL TOPOLOGY PROTOTYPE OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY The network topology of the PurpleLeap building can be broadly categorized into three network layers: Access. Distribution and Core Layer.These are IP based printers which acts as a host on the network. It contains either a Fast-Ethernet port or a Wireless card.

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Chapter 3 Project Work 11 81103107098 .

2.168.16 Gb E 0/0.255.0 Gb E 0/ Gb E 0/ Gb E 0/ 192.0 255.2 192.1 192.6 192.225 192.5 192.255.2 255.15 Gb E 0/0.9 Gb E 0/0.252 255.209 255.25 Gb E 0/ 192.255.240 255.224 255.161 192.240 255.2 192.ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-3 DEVICES ROUTERS DEVICE Core Router INTERFACE Serial 7/0 Serial 8/0 Serial 9/0 Gb E 0/ 192.212.12 Gb E 0/0.255.224 255.255.252 Gb E 0/0.224 255.212.224 255.3.224 255.13 Internet LAN IP ADDRESS 212.240 255.168.1 SUBNET MASK 255.97 192.255.33 192.27 Gb E 0/0.224 Gb E 0/0.177 192.8.11 Gb E 0/0.224 255.168.2 192.1 192.224 192.224 255.255.4 192.0 Lab A Router Lab B Router Law Deptt. Wireless Router Seminar Hall-1 Wireless Router Seminar Hall-2 Wireless Router Internet LAN Internet LAN 12 81103107098 .28 Serial 8/0 Gb E 0/0.255.0 192.255.224 200.255.26 Serial 8/0 Gb E 0/0.240 255.255.4 192.168.2.

ADDRESSING INFORMATION OF LAYER-2 DEVICES SWITCHES DEVICE Server Switch INTERFAC E 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 0/1 2/1 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1 MODE Access Access Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Access Trunk VLAN ID 28 28 1-1005 27 1-14.20-1005 1-14.25.26-1005 1-23.20-1005 1-15.16.20-1005 24 1-23.17.18-1005 1-1005 1-1005 1-14.27-1005 24 1-1005 Lab-A Core Switch Lab-B Core Switch Floor 1 Switch 13 81103107098 .

on the other hand. It is very difficult for humans to read a binary IP address. The 32-bit IP address is defined with IP version 4 (IPv4) and is currently the most common form of IP address on the Internet. the 32 bits are grouped into four 8-bit bytes called octets. Router interfaces that provide connections to an IP network will also have an IP address. each octet is presented as its decimal value. servers. An IP address in this format is hard for humans to read. Each octet is made up of 8 bits and each bit has a value. When a host receives an IP address. Some servers can have more than one NIC and each of these has its own IP address. it looks at all 32 bits as they are received by the NIC. The rightmost bit in an octet has a value of 1 and 14 81103107098 . separated by a decimal point or period. need to convert those 32 bits into their four octet decimal equivalent. To make the IP address easier to understand. An IP address is assigned to the Network interface connection for a host. The four groups of 8 bits have the same set of values. write and remember. Examples of end-user devices with network interfaces include workstations. Every packet sent across the Internet has a source and destination IP address. There are over 4 billion possible IP addresses using a 32-bit addressing scheme.COMPLETE LOGICAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY • IP ADDRESSING A host needs an IP address to participate on the Internet. It must be properly configured and unique in order to communicate with other devices on the Internet. This information is required by networking devices to insure the information gets to the destination and any replies are returned to the source. The IP address is a logical network address that identifies a particular host. • IP ADDRESSING STRUCTURE An IP address is simply a series of 32 binary bits (ones and zeros). This connection is usually a network interface card (NIC) installed in the device. Humans. This is referred to as dotted-decimal notation. For this reason. network printers and IP phones.

32.0).0). Out of these. The remaining to addresses are reserved for network and broadcast address. Classes A. They allow hosts within an organization to communicate with one another without the need of a unique public IP address. The class of an address can be determined by the value of the first octet. are 2.0. These addresses are typically assigned to large organizations. All hosts that connect directly to the Internet require a unique public IP address. • • In the addressing scheme of PurpleLeap. 16. The default subnet mask is 24 bits (255. from right to left. Because of the finite number of 32-bit addresses available. 4. The default subnet mask is 8 bits (255. IP addresses are of two types: Private addresses and Public addresses. The default subnet mask is 16 bits (255. Class C addresses are usually assigned to small networks. This problem can be resolved by the use of Private addresses.255. • IP ADDRESS CLASSES The IP address and subnet mask work together to determine which portion of the IP address represents the network address and which portion represents the host address. In the Class-C addressing scheme. Table below shows a list of Private addresses: 15 81103107098 . we have used Class-C addressing scheme. there is a risk of running out of IP addresses.0. Class A addresses have only one octet to represent the network portion and three to represent the hosts. Class B addresses have two octets to represent the network portion and two for the hosts. These addresses are typically used for medium-sized networks. 254 addresses are usable.the values of the remaining bits. B and C are commercial addresses and are assigned to hosts. 8.0. there are a total of 256 addresses available.255. IP addresses are grouped into 5 classes.0). 64 and 128.255. • Class C addresses have three octets for the network portion and one for the hosts. Class D is reserved for multicast use and Class E is for experimental use.

0. For instance. and to divide the single network into two separate networks. out of another port based on the destination MAC address 16 81103107098 . Custom subnet masks take bits from the host ID portion of the IP address and add them to the default subnet mask. a larger ISR. the router needs a modified or custom subnet mask to distinguish the subnets from each other.0.SUBNETTING The customer network using the single ISR is badly overloaded. the default subnet mask for a Class A network is 255. A default subnet mask and a custom subnet mask differ from each other as follows: Default subnet masks only change on octet boundaries. In the subnetting scheme for PurpleLeap. Routers distinguish between networks by using the subnet mask to determine which bits make up the network ID and which bits make up the host portion of the address. For security purposes. we utilize the concept of classless subnetting where we use custom subnets to differentiate the networks. When a network is partitioned.0. SWITCHING A switch is a device that is able to direct a stream of messages coming in one port. The proposed solution is to add a second networking device. the wireless and wired users need to be on separate local networks.

a switch performs the Layer 2. known as the data-link layer function. A switch cannot route traffic between two different local networks. Only one message can be sent through an Ethernet hub at a time. by project teams. A switch is preferred over hubs in the networking model of PurpleLeap because of the large collision domain associated with hubs. So. It allows an administrator to group together stations by logical function. the electronic signals that make up the messages collide with each other at the hub. Since a switch uses micro-segmentation. 17 81103107098 . If this happens.within the frame. we have used the concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN). A collision causes the messages to become garbled and unreadable by the hosts. The network of PurpleLeap uses 9 CISCO switches. it narrows down the collision domain. therefore it does not detect that the message is garbled and repeats it out all the ports. It is possible for two or more hosts connected to a hub to attempt to send a message at the same time. A hub does not decode the messages. Configuring a VLAN: In order to configure VLAN on a switch. VIRTUAL LAN A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments. In the context of the OSI model. or by applications. which can result in a huge broadcast domain. A VLAN groups devices. without regard to physical location of the users. A VLAN has two major functions: • • A VLAN contains broadcasts. connect it with a terminal device using a console cable. The area of the network where a host can receive a garbled message resulting from a collision is known as a collision domain. Devices located on one VLAN are not visible to devices located on another VLAN. to minimize the domain.

use the following command 18 81103107098 .end_of_range Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan vlan_number Switch(config-if)#exit To disassociate a port from a specific VLAN: Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#no switchport access vlan vlan_number A switch port can function in two modes: Access and Trunk mode.Enter the privileged mode using the enable command Switch>enable Switch# Enter the configuration mode using the configure terminal command Switch# configure terminal Switch (config) # Enter the name and VLAN number using the commands Switch(config)#vlan vlan_number Switch(config-vlan)#name vlan_name Switch(config-vlan)#exit Use the following commands to assign individual ports to VLANs: Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan vlan_number Switch(config-if)# exit Use the following commands to assign a range ports to VLANs: Switch(config)#interface range fa#/start_of_range . To switch between the two modes.

26-1005 1-23.1/1 Gb E 2/1 Gb E 3/1 Gb E 0/1.17. SWITCH CONFIGURATION Core Switches SWITCH Server Switch INTERFACE Gb E 0/1.27-1005 1-1005 1-14.18-1005 1-1005 1-1005 Floor-1 Switch Lab A Core Switch 0/1 .20-1005 1-15. whereas an access mode is used for connection to terminal devices.3/1 1/1 2/1 4/1 0/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 Lab B Core Switch 19 81103107098 MODE Access Trunk Access Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk Trunk VLAN ID 28 1-1005 27 24 1-23.16.20-1005 1-14.25.Switch(config)#interface fa#/# Switch(config-if)#switchport mode <trunk/access> A switchport in the trunk mode is used for a switch-switch or switch-router connection.

Switch INTERFACE Fa E 0/1-0/6 Fa E 0/7-0/11 Gb E 1/1 Electrical Deptt.20-1005 Other Switches SWITCH Mechanical Deptt.14-1005 Fa E 0/1-2/1.11.2/1 1-14. Switch Fa E 0/1-0/8 Fa E 0/10-0/13 Gb E 1/1 Boys Hostel Switch Girls Hostel Switch DB Switch OP Switch PC Switch Lab B Main 20 81103107098 MODE Access Access Trunk Access Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Trunk VLAN ID 18 19 1-1005 15 17 1-1005 16 1-1005 13 1-1005 12 1-1005 9 1-1005 11 1-1005 1-8.4/1 3/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Gb E 0/1 .

These routing tables can also contain information about the routes. or paths. Each port. Routers. on a router connects to a different local network. like switches. Configuring a ROUTER: 21 81103107098 . that the router uses to reach other remote networks that are not locally attached.14-1005 1-8. Router interfaces do not forward messages that are addressed to the broadcast MAC address.Switch Gb Gb Gb Gb Gb D Switch HD Switch E E E E E 1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1 5/1 Trunk Trunk Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk Access Trunk 1-9. The process of forwarding the packets toward their destination network is called routing. A router is a networking device that connects a local network to other local networks. to the destination network. Every router contains a table of all locally-connected networks and the interfaces that connect to them. local network broadcasts are not sent across routers to other local networks.14-1005 1-8. routers decode the packet that is encapsulated within the frame. At the Distribution Layer of the network. or interface. it decodes the frame to get to the packet containing the destination IP address. As a result. the router encapsulates the packet in a new frame in order to send it out. If the destination network address is in the table.12. Unlike switches. It forwards the new frame out of the interface associated with the path. When a router receives a frame. which only decode (unencapsulate) the frame containing the MAC address information. routers direct traffic and perform other functions critical to efficient network operation.13-1005 10 1-1005 26 1-1005 25 1-1005 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 Fa E <all> Gb E 1/1 ROUTING Routing is the process of finding a path to the destination host. It matches the address of the destination to all of the networks that are contained in the routing table. are able to decode and read the messages that are sent to them.

The router locates the destination IP address and does a routing table lookup. use the following steps: 1. If the exit interface of the router is 802. the following commands can be executed. This type of configuration is often referred to as a router-on-a-stick. the frame retains its 4-byte VLAN tag. Configure a trunk port on the switch.In order to configure a router.1Qcompatible. Enter the privileged mode using the enable command Router>enable Router# Enter the configuration mode using the configure terminal command Router# configure terminal Router (config) # The host from the sending VLAN forwards traffic to the router using the default gateway. On the router.1Q-compatible. The sub-interface for the VLAN specifies the default gateway for all hosts in that VLAN. If the outbound interface is not 802. Router(config)#interface fa0/1 Router(config-if)#no ip address Router(config-if)#no shutdown 22 81103107098 . configure a FastEthernet interface with no IP address or subnet mask. the router forwards the traffic back down to the source switch using the subinterface parameters of the destination VLAN ID. Switch(config)#interface fa0/2 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk 2. the router strips the tag from the frame and returns the frame to its original Ethernet format. To configure inter-VLAN routing. If the destination VLAN is on the same switch as the source VLAN.

255.1 29 192.2 25 93 192.255. configure one subinterface with an IP address and subnet mask for each VLAN.1 255.210222 192.226254 192. 240 09 192.178190 Simulation 192. 240 On the router. 09 192. 240 255. Use the following commands to verify the inter-VLAN routing configuration and functionality.2.168. 240 255. Each subinterface has an 802. 224 255.168.0 4.168. Switch#show trunk Router#show ip interfaces Router#show ip interfaces brief Router#show ip route ADDRESSING SCHEME ROOM Manager’s Office Human Resources Dept Accounts Dept Application Development Marketing Room Special Projects Room Testing Room & IP ADDRESS RANGE 192.255.168. Router(config)#interface fa0/ SUBNET MASK 255.10 Router(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 10 Router(config-subif)#ip address encapsulation. 192.194206 61 192. 240 255.130158 23 81103107098 .1 77 192.2.255. 224 DEFAULT GATEWAY 192.

2.255.3 3 192.255.3. 224 5 192.2-62 Desk/Customer 192. ISPs range in size from small to very large and differ in terms of the area they service.255.168. 224 255.1 192. business or organization that wants to connect to the Internet must use an Internet Service Provider (ISP).3.3 3 192.168. 0 5 192.1 192. ISPs also differ in the types of connection technologies and speeds they offer.34-62 192. It can also provide additional services such as Email and web hosting.1 Documentation Room Cafeteria INTERNET CONNECTION The Internet is a network of networks that connects users in every country in the world.168.168.168. Any home.168.255.66-94 192.2-62 192. 240 255.98-126 192.0-254 255.3. There are currently over one billion Internet users worldwide. No one gets on the Internet without a host computer. and no one gets on the Internet without going through an ISP.255.2. 192 255.255. 192 255.168. 224 255.168.168. 240 255.4. An ISP is a company that provides the connections and support to access the Internet. Room Optimization Room Prototype Construction Conference Hall Waiting Room Help Care 192. ISP LEVELS OF SERVICE 24 81103107098 . ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet. 192.9 7 192.255.

Downloading refers to information coming from the Internet to your computer. The PurpleLeap is to use T1 symmetric connection from any ISP. it is called asymmetric.When data is transferred. or video. it is called symmetric. Moreover. When the download transfer rate is different from the upload transfer rate. multimedia. from your computer to the Internet. ISPs can offer both asymmetric and symmetric services. The advantage of using a symmetric T1 connection is that it can carry large amounts of data in both directions at equal rates. 25 81103107098 . it helps when we need to upload large amounts of traffic such as intensive graphics. When the transfer rate is the same in both directions. while uploading indicates the reverse path. it is either uploaded or downloaded. The network for PurpleLeap was established with an eye towards the prospects for future upgrades.

Chapter 4 Result and Conclusion 26 81103107098 .

It is formed by following best practices as commenced by the CISCO N/W academy. The N/W created gives functioning environment to the next shown Physical Layout 27 81103107098 .The PurpleLeap network built up is installed in the Computer Lab. It adjusts and accommodates major upgrades without changing the actual model. The N/W model is suited for a small business and work. and is based on the same networking model created and discussed here in the project report. Any additional constraints can be added and the N/W be redesigned with those constraints functional. The model is laid down by the prospect of future upgrades as required by the enterprise.

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