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at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at http://www.gutenberg.org/license Title: The Iliad of Homer Author: Homer Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook 6130] Language: English

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE ILIAD OF HOMER***

The Iliad of Homer

Translated by Alexander Pope, with notes by the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, M.A., F.S.A. and Flaxman's Designs. 1899

Contents
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUDING NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xlv 3 41 85 111 137 181 209 233 261 295 319 355 377 415 441 473 513 545 575 593 615 641 667 707 747

Illustrations
HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. . THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEPTUNE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, DISGUISED, INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. . . . . . . . VENUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map, titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the Plain of Troy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, WOUNDED IN THE HAND, CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. . DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. . . . . . . . JUNO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. . 6 13 16 23 27 32 35 38 39 43 66 103 105 108 109 113 135 154 155 175 178 198 201

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BOWS AND BOW CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 IRIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.221 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS. . . . . . . . . . 231 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PLUTO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 GREEK GALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 PROSERPINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . 359 GREEK ALTAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . 380 GREEK EARRINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. . 427 GREEK SHIELD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 BACCHUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. . . . . . . . . 470 CASTOR AND POLLUX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Buckles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 DIANA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 ÆSCULAPIUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . 525 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM. . . . . . . . . . . 543

ix THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET. . . . . . . TRIPOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS. . . . . THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. . HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. . . . . . . . CENTAUR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. . . . THE BATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANDROMACHE FAINTING ON THE WALL. . . . . . THE FUNERAL PILE OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . . CERES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR'S BODY AT THE CAR OF ACHILLES. . . . THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRIS ADVISES PRIAM TO OBTAIN THE BODY OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUNERAL OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 552 . 556 . 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 564 577 592 597 614 628 662 663 677 705 709 710

. 715 . 744

[ix]

INTRODUCTION.
Scepticism is as much the result of knowledge, as knowledge is of scepticism. To be content with what we at present know, is, for the most part, to shut our ears against conviction; since, from the very gradual character of our education, we must continually forget, and emancipate ourselves from, knowledge previously acquired; we must set aside old notions and embrace fresh ones; and, as we learn, we must be daily unlearning something which it has cost us no small labour and anxiety to acquire. And this difficulty attaches itself more closely to an age in which progress has gained a strong ascendency over prejudice, and in which persons and things are, day by day, finding their real level, in lieu of their conventional value. The same principles which have swept away traditional abuses, and which are making rapid havoc among the revenues of sinecurists, and stripping the thin, tawdry veil from attractive superstitions, are working as actively in literature as in society. The credulity of one writer, or the partiality of another, finds as powerful a touchstone and as wholesome a chastisement in the healthy scepticism of a temperate class of antagonists, as the dreams of conservatism, or the impostures of pluralist sinecures in the Church. History and tradition, whether of ancient or comparatively recent times, are subjected to very different handling from that which the indulgence or credulity of former ages could allow. Mere statements are jealously watched, and the motives of the writer form as important an ingredient in the analysis of his history, as the facts he records. Probability is a powerful and troublesome

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[x]

test; and it is by this troublesome standard that a large portion of historical evidence is sifted. Consistency is no less pertinacious and exacting in its demands. In brief, to write a history, we must know more than mere facts. Human nature, viewed under an induction of extended experience, is the best help to the criticism of human history. Historical characters can only be estimated by the standard which human experience, whether actual or traditionary, has furnished. To form correct views of individuals we must regard them as forming parts of a great whole—we must measure them by their relation to the mass of beings by whom they are surrounded, and, in contemplating the incidents in their lives or condition which tradition has handed down to us, we must rather consider the general bearing of the whole narrative, than the respective probability of its details. It is unfortunate for us, that, of some of the greatest men, we know least, and talk most. Homer, Socrates, and Shakespere1
1 "What," says Archdeacon Wilberforce, "is the natural root of loyalty as distinguished from such mere selfish desire of personal security as is apt to take its place in civilized times, but that consciousness of a natural bond among the families of men which gives a fellow-feeling to whole clans and nations, and thus enlists their affections in behalf of those time-honoured representatives of their ancient blood, in whose success they feel a personal interest? Hence the delight when we recognize an act of nobility or justice in our hereditary princes

"'Tuque prior, tu parce genus qui ducis Olympo, Projice tela manu sanguis meus' "So strong is this feeling, that it regains an engrafted influence even when history witnesses that vast convulsions have rent and weakened it and the Celtic feeling towards the Stuarts has been rekindled in our own days towards the grand daughter of George the Third of Hanover. "Somewhat similar may be seen in the disposition to idolize those great lawgivers of man's race, who have given expression, in the immortal language of song, to the deeper inspirations of our nature. The thoughts of Homer or of Shakespere are the universal inheritance of the human race. In this mutual ground every man meets his brother, they have been bet forth by the providence of God to vindicate for all of us what nature could effect, and that, in these representatives of our race, we might recognize our common benefactors.'—Doctrine of the Incarnation, pp. 9, 10.

INTRODUCTION.

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have, perhaps, contributed more to the intellectual enlightenment of mankind than any other three writers who could be named, and yet the history of all three has given rise to a boundless ocean of discussion, which has left us little save the option of choosing which theory or theories we will follow. The personality of Shakespere is, perhaps, the only thing in which critics will allow us to believe without controversy; but upon everything else, even down to the authorship of plays, there is more or less of doubt and uncertainty. Of Socrates we know as little as the contradictions of Plato and Xenophon will allow us to know. He was one of the dramatis personae in two dramas as unlike in principles as in style. He appears as the enunciator of opinions as different in their tone as those of the writers who have handed them down. When we have read Plato or Xenophon, we think we know something of Socrates; when we have fairly read and examined both, we feel convinced that we are something worse than ignorant. It has been an easy, and a popular expedient, of late years, to deny the personal or real existence of men and things whose life and condition were too much for our belief. This system—which has often comforted the religious sceptic, and substituted the consolations of Strauss for those of the New Testament—has been of incalculable value to the historical theorists of the last and present centuries. To question the existence of Alexander the Great, would be a more excusable act, than to believe in that of Romulus. To deny a fact related in Herodotus, because it is inconsistent with a theory developed from an Assyrian inscription which no two scholars read in the same way, is more pardonable, than to believe in the good-natured old king whom the elegant pen of Florian has idealized—Numa Pompilius. Scepticism has attained its culminating point with respect to Homer, and the state of our Homeric knowledge may be described as a free permission to believe any theory, provided we throw overboard all written tradition, concerning the author

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or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey. What few authorities exist on the subject, are summarily dismissed, although the arguments appear to run in a circle. "This cannot be true, because it is not true; and, that is not true, because it cannot be true." Such seems to be the style, in which testimony upon testimony, statement upon statement, is consigned to denial and oblivion. It is, however, unfortunate that the professed biographies of Homer are partly forgeries, partly freaks of ingenuity and imagination, in which truth is the requisite most wanting. Before taking a brief review of the Homeric theory in its present conditions, some notice must be taken of the treatise on the Life of Homer which has been attributed to Herodotus. According to this document, the city of Cumae in Æolia, was, at an early period, the seat of frequent immigrations from various parts of Greece. Among the immigrants was Menapolus, the son of Ithagenes. Although poor, he married, and the result of the union was a girl named Critheis. The girl was left an orphan at an early age, under the guardianship of Cleanax, of Argos. It is to the indiscretion of this maiden that we "are indebted for so much happiness." Homer was the first fruit of her juvenile frailty, and received the name of Melesigenes, from having been born near the river Meles, in Boeotia, whither Critheis had been transported in order to save her reputation. "At this time," continues our narrative, "there lived at Smyrna a man named Phemius, a teacher of literature and music, who, not being married, engaged Critheis to manage his household, and spin the flax he received as the price of his scholastic labours. So satisfactory was her performance of this task, and so modest her conduct, that he made proposals of marriage, declaring himself, as a further inducement, willing to adopt her son, who, he asserted, would become a clever man, if he were carefully brought up." They were married; careful cultivation ripened the talents which nature had bestowed, and Melesigenes soon surpassed

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his schoolfellows in every attainment, and, when older, rivalled his preceptor in wisdom. Phemius died, leaving him sole heir to his property, and his mother soon followed. Melesigenes carried on his adopted father's school with great success, exciting the admiration not only of the inhabitants of Smyrna, but also of the strangers whom the trade carried on there, especially in the exportation of corn, attracted to that city. Among these visitors, one Mentes, from Leucadia, the modern Santa Maura, who evinced a knowledge and intelligence rarely found in those times, persuaded Melesigenes to close his school, and accompany him on his travels. He promised not only to pay his expenses, but to furnish him with a further stipend, urging, that, "While he was yet young, it was fitting that he should see with his own eyes the countries and cities which might hereafter be the subjects of his discourses." Melesigenes consented, and set out with his patron, "examining all the curiosities of the countries they visited, and informing himself of everything by interrogating those whom he met." We may also suppose, that he wrote memoirs of all that he deemed worthy of preservation2 Having set sail from Tyrrhenia and Iberia, they reached Ithaca. Here Melesigenes, who had already suffered in his eyes, became much worse, and Mentes, who was about to leave for Leucadia, left him to the medical superintendence of a friend of his, named Mentor, the son of Alcinor. Under his hospitable and intelligent host, Melesigenes rapidly became acquainted with the legends respecting Ulysses, which afterwards formed the subject of the Odyssey. The inhabitants of Ithaca assert, that it was here that Melesigenes became blind, but the Colophomans make their city the seat of
Eikos de min aen kai mnaemoruna panton grapherthai. Vit. Hom. in Schweigh Herodot t. iv. p. 299, sq. Section 6. I may observe that this Life has been paraphrased in English by my learned young friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, and appended to my prose translation of the Odyssey. The present abridgement however, will contain all that is of use to the reader, for the biographical value of the treatise is most insignificant.
2

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that misfortune. He then returned to Smyrna, where he applied himself to the study of poetry.3 But poverty soon drove him to Cumae. Having passed over the Hermaean plain, he arrived at Neon Teichos, the New Wall, a colony of Cumae. Here his misfortunes and poetical talent gained him the friendship of one Tychias, an armourer. "And up to my time," continued the author, "the inhabitants showed the place where he used to sit when giving a recitation of his verses, and they greatly honoured the spot. Here also a poplar grew, which they said had sprung up ever since Melesigenes arrived".4 But poverty still drove him on, and he went by way of Larissa, as being the most convenient road. Here, the Cumans say, he composed an epitaph on Gordius, king of Phrygia, which has however, and with greater probability, been attributed to
—I.e. both of composing and reciting verses for as Blair observes, "The first poets sang their own verses." Sextus Empir. adv. Mus. p. 360 ed. Fabric. Ou hamelei ge toi kai oi poiaetai melopoioi legontai, kai ta Omaerou epae to palai pros lyran aedeto. "The voice," observes Heeren, "was always accompanied by some instrument. The bard was provided with a harp on which he played a prelude, to elevate and inspire his mind, and with which he accompanied the song when begun. His voice probably preserved a medium between singing and recitation; the words, and not the melody were regarded by the listeners, hence it was necessary for him to remain intelligible to all. In countries where nothing similar is found, it is difficult to represent such scenes to the mind; but whoever has had an opportunity of listening to the improvisation of Italy, can easily form an idea of Demodocus and Phemius."—Ancient Greece, p. 94. 4 "Should it not be, since my arrival? asks Mackenzie, observing that "poplars can hardly live so long". But setting aside the fact that we must not expect consistency in a mere romance, the ancients had a superstitious belief in the great age of trees which grew near places consecrated by the presence of gods and great men. See Cicero de Legg II I, sub init., where he speaks of the plane tree under which Socrates used to walk and of the tree at Delos, where Latona gave birth to Apollo. This passage is referred to by Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. N. T. p. 490, ed. de Pinedo. I omit quoting any of the dull epigrams ascribed
3

Coleridge. 38 in Encycl. 127. 5 It is quoted as the work of Cleobulus. Epische Cyclus. 317. and left them to debate respecting the answer to be given to his proposal. by Diogenes Laert. p." Lit of Greece. p. he retired. and the poet vented his disappointment in a wish that Cumoea might never produce a poet capable of giving it renown and glory. and allowed him a pittance. c. ed. The etymology has been condemned by recent scholars. Vit. Metrop. Having made the speech. "The authenticity of these fragments depends upon that of the pseudo Herodotean Life of Homer. the pension was denied. xiv. but one man observed that "if they were to feed Homers. which shows how similar the world has always been in its treatment of literary men. he frequented the converzationes6 of the old men. See Welcker. and delighted all by the charms of his poetry.INTRODUCTION."7 With a love of economy. 6 I trust I am justified in employing this as an equivalent for the Greek leschai.5 Arrived at Cumae. l. [xiii] . p. The greater part of the assembly seemed favourable to the poet's demand. with the purport of which our author has forgotten to acquaint us. who aimed at the reputation of poetical genius. they would be encumbered with a multitude of useless people. if they would allow him a public maintenance. "Melesigenes acquired the name of Homer. Classic Poets. p. on condition of the verses of the poet passing in his name. One Thestorides. p." "From this circumstance. At Phocoea. Vit. he declared that. omilon pollon te kai achreoin exousin. 311. as Mr. kept Homer in his own house. he would render their city most gloriously renowned. 7 Os ei tous. xvii Cleobulus of Lindus. Casaub. Having to Homer for. Homer was destined to experience another literary distress. from which they are taken. Hom. Cf. for the Cumans call blind men Homers. They avowed their willingness to support him in the measure he proposed. Encouraged by this favourable reception. and Mackenzie's note. Cleob." says the writer. and procured him an audience in the council. pp. 62. Homerous doxei trephein autois. enteuthen de kai tounoma Homeros epekrataese to Melaesigenei apo taes symphoraes oi gar Kumaioi tous tuphlous Homerous legousin. Justice Talfourd rightly observes.

had drawn down the wrath of Jove the Hospitable. At his departure. and the Phocoeid. and he prevailed upon the seamen to allow him to accompany them. vol. 132. nothing is more unintelligible than the human heart. c. 8 . Having embarked. and Mure. Lit. a town of Ionia. 315. of the many things hidden from the knowledge of man. 358. reached the little hamlet of Pithys. Section 3. who. See Muller's Hist. and what could be his design in coming. and he cried out. ouden aphrastoteron peletai noou anthropoisin. For or some time he stood wondering how a blind man should have reached such a place alone. sqq. vi. neglected the man whose brains he had sucked. Homer fortunately met with a person who had known him in Phocoea. He then Thestorides. 284. p. Ibid. of Lit. which we will continue in the words of our author. ran up quickly. No vessel happened then to be setting sail thither. Homer went on.. This at once determined him to set out for Chios. but he found one ready to Start for Erythrae. The dogs barked on his approach. and prayed that he might be able to expose the imposture of Thestorides. and left him. acquainted him with the fact that Thestorides was pursuing a profitable livelihood by the recital of the very same poems. which faces that island. sq. "Having set out from Pithys. like some would-be-literary publishers. called off his dogs. At Erythrae. until some Chian merchants. 272. Here he met with an adventure. thnetoisin anoiston poleon per. p. Homer is said to have observed: "O Thestorides. he invoked a favourable wind. and drove them away from Homer. Thestorides. Homer is said to have composed the Little Iliad. attracted by the cries of some goats that were pasturing.xviii The Iliad of Homer [xiv] collected sufficient poetry to be profitable."8 Homer continued his career of difficulty and distress. after some difficulty. pp. by whose assistance he at length. ii. Welcker. l. struck by the similarity of the verses they heard him recite. Gr. by his breach of hospitality.. During his stay at Phocoea. Glaucus (for that was the name of the goat-herd) heard his voice.

viii. Having finished supper. and led him to his cot. and marvelled at its author. nor thief nor wild beast will approach the fold. This is so pretty a picture of early manners and hospitality. Homer narrating his wanderings. a place near the farm. p. Glaucus resolved to go to his master. Orat. Petav So diaegaemasi sophois omou kai terpnois aedio taen Thoinaen tois hestiomenois epoiei. Themist. xix went up to him. ed. but on the following morning. However. he left Homer at home. Tim. Glaucus was pleased with the advice. So Plato calls the parties conversing daitumones. and he took him. and acquaint him with his meeting with Homer. P. Athenaeus vii p 275. kept barking at the stranger. Bibl. and in eliciting from them the germs of something like a personal narrative. according to their usual habit. Choricius in Fabric. moved him with compassion. and blamed Glaucus for his stupidity in taking in and feeding maimed and enfeebled persons. and finding his mate. See the fourteenth book. and having lit a fire. vi. that it is almost a pity to find that it is obviously a copy from the Odyssey. he told him the whole story respecting Homer and his journey. i. In fact. 374. by recounting to him the whole history of his misfortunes. Having left the goats in charge of a fellow-servant. 851. prythee attend to my behest. Having arrived at Bolissus. and how he had come to desolate places and untrodden spots. since. Homer. A 9 . instead of eating. He paid little attention to what he said. T. Gr. and telling of the cities he had visited. bade him sup. and inquired who he was. he showed some tact in identifying Homer with certain events described in his poems. 10 Dia logon estionto. they banqueted10 afresh on conversation. promising to return quickly. A common metaphor. First give the dogs their supper at the doors of the hut: for so it is better.9 "The dogs. or estiatores. Cf. At length they retired to rest. 168. logois gar estia. my friend. 522 A. whoever was the author of this fictitious biography. p. he bade him bring the stranger to him. and of what he stood in need. and xvi.INTRODUCTION. Whereupon Homer addressed Glaucus thus: O Glaucus. p. whilst they watch.

p. sitting. is rude. and some other minor works. and in the house of this Chian citizen. She is represented. The following passage betrays the same tendency to connect the personages of the poems with the history of the poet. referred to in the Voyage Pittoresque dans la Grece. P. and the Chian persuaded him to remain. The area is bounded by a low rim.12 "the most curious remain is that which has been named. i. and had two daughters. the School of Homer. It is on the coast. or seat. 61." 11 .11 Besides the satisfaction of driving the impostor Thestorides from the island. and probably of the most remote antiquity. car etant alle seul pour l'examiner je perdis mon crayon. assuring him that good fortune would be the result. The shape is oval. that Homer realised a considerable fortune. In the town of Chios he established a school where he taught the precepts of poetry. as usual. 92. or Battle of the Frogs and Mice. where a view of the spot is given of which the author candidly says. vol. at some distance from the city. northward. Conversation soon showed that the stranger was a man of much cleverness and general knowledge. The whole is hewn out of the mountain. the other married a Chian. et je fus oblige de m'en fier a ma memoire. indistinct. and to undertake the charge of his children. Travels. i." So successful was this school. Je ne crois cependant pas avoir trop a me plaindre d'elle en cette occasion.xx The Iliad of Homer [xv] Glaucus told Homer what had taken place." says Chandler.— "Je ne puis repondre d'une exactitude scrupuleuse dans la vue generale que j'en donne. "To this day. and on the back. and bade him follow him. formed on the top of a rock. that Homer is said to have written the Batrachomyomachia. and appears to have been an open temple of Cybele. one of whom died single. the Epicichlidia. The chair has a lion carved on each side. without reason. Homer enjoyed considerable success as a teacher. and about five yards over. which has already been mentioned:— "In his poetical compositions Homer displays great gratitude It was at Bolissus. He married. 12 Chandler. and in the centre is the image of the goddess. vol. the head and an arm wanting.

He also testifies his gratitude to Phemius. Hom. . Heraclid. It is said that his death arose from vexation. whose name he has inserted in his poem as the companion of Ulysses.INTRODUCTION. in the Odyssey. 15 The riddle is given in Section 35. not to vouch for their reasonableness 13 A more probable reason for this companionship. s. he was handsomely received. Halic. is given by the allegorists. who had met with him in Chios. and invited to join in celebrating the Apaturian festival. 14 Vit. and arrived at the island of Ios. p. xxi towards Mentor of Ithaca. He recited some verses. Alleg. In the spring he sailed for Athens. now Ino. where he fell extremely ill. of whose city he had hitherto made no mention. Here being recognized by a Samian. Compare Mackenzie's note. patient. Let us now consider some of the opinions to which a persevering. and died. and by singing the Eiresione at the New Moon festivals. 15. p. made some additions to his poems calculated to please the vanity of the Athenians. whither his reputation had now extended.15 Such is. Section 28. t. with whose children he was very popular. Minerva." His celebrity continued to increase. Hom. Poes. he earned a subsistence. f. xxx. the substance of the earliest life of Homer we possess. and learned—but by no means consistent—series of investigations has led. in brief. Xyland.14 he sent out for Samos. p. Apul. 880.13 in return for the care taken of him when afflicted with blindness. viz. c. ii. I profess to bring forward statements. and many persons advised him to visit Greece. that it is scarcely necessary to point them out in detail. Pont. and so broad are the evidences of its historical worthlessness. at not having been able to unravel an enigma proposed by some fishermen's children. Mythol.: the assumption of Mentor's form by the guardian deity of the wise Ulysses. it is said. and for the character of Mentor itself. Dionys. de Deo Socrat. In doing so. who had given him both sustenance and instruction. The classical reader may compare Plutarch. Opp. Having. of Gale's Opusc. de Hom. visiting the houses of the rich. 531-5. which gave great satisfaction.

It were idle and foolish to shake the contents of a vase. "Homer appeared. Was Homer an individual?17 or were the Iliad and Odyssey the result of an ingenious arrangement of fragments by earlier poets? Well has Landor remarked: "Some tell us there were twenty Homers. must have remained the secret of the poet. we should not expect in it perfect light. The history of this poet and his works is lost in doubtful obscurity. flows like the Nile. because they rose amidst darkness. our devotion to superior power. The majestic stream of his song. With no less truth and feeling he proceeds:— "It seems here of chief importance to expect no more than the nature of things makes possible." Such are the words in which one of the most judicious German critics has eloquently described the uncertainty in which the whole of the Homeric question is involved. its fountains will ever remain concealed. which shows as much insight into the depths of human nature as into the minute wire-drawings of scholastic investigation. The creations of genius always seem like miracles." 16 From this criticism. like the sources of the Nile. Compare Sir E. i. let us pass on to the main question at issue.xxii The Iliad of Homer [xvi] or probability. our composure. 4. through many lands and nations. for the most part. . L. for their origin. Of all the animals 16 17 Heeren's Ancient Greece. in order to let them settle at last. We are perpetually labouring to destroy our delights. Bulwer's Caxtons v. p. as is the history of many of the first minds who have done honour to humanity. created far out of the reach of observation. because they are. some deny that there was ever one. If we were in possession of all the historical testimonies. p. If the period of tradition in history is the region of twilight. and. in all essential points. blessing and fertilizing. we never could wholly explain the origin of the Iliad and the Odyssey. 96.

rather than that of Mr. Brodie or Sir Astley Cooper. . the comprehensive conception of an harmonious whole. My opinion is. for a brief period. nor is it injustice to assert. (at least of the Iliad. examines bit by bit. that what is best for us is our admiration of good. the poetic age of Greece. 18 [xvii] Pericles and Aspasia.. It was not till the age of the grammarians that its primitive integrity was called in question. almost conclusive testimony to its original composition. Works. and to entreat our reader. however. xxiii on earth we least know what is good for us. greatly as we admire the generous enthusiasm which rests contented with the poetry on which its best impulses had been nurtured and fostered. The most exquisite anatomist may be no judge of the symmetry of the human frame: and we would take the opinion of Chantrey or Westmacott on the proportions and general beauty of a form. "There is some truth. to prefer his judgment to his imagination.) I must express my sympathy with the sentiments expressed in the following remarks:— "We cannot but think the universal admiration of its unity by the better. or they to whole The body's harmony." 18 But. and to condescend to dry details. the beaming soul. that the minute and analytical spirit of a grammarian is not the best qualification for the profound feeling. entering into particulars respecting the question of this unity of the Homeric poems. Before. How parts relate to parts. 387. in the lines of Pope. vol ii.INTRODUCTION. without seeking to destroy the vividness of first impressions by minute analysis—our editorial office compels us to give some attention to the doubts and difficulties with which the Homeric question is beset.— "'The critic eye—that microscope of wit Sees hairs and pores. Letter lxxxiv. p. though some malicious exaggeration. No man living venerates Homer more than I do.

ix. and delights you most Oh! answer all. lxxxvii. farewell! and oh! remember me Hereafter. Viz. may your isle explore. the following beautiful passage. rather than in advocating 21 .. Gr. of all the bards you boast.. maid. Othen en tae Odysseia pareikasai tis an kataduomeno ton Omaeron haelio. p. oo dixa taes sphodrotaetos paramenei to megethos 22 See Tatian. Wasse. v. ii. Who sings the sweetest. and 221. And ask you. No. At the end of the seventeenth century.'" See Thucyd. vol. pp. So far. His own views are moderate. 20 19 "Origias. in an oft quoted passage. Mr. Mackenzie has given three brief but elaborate papers on the different writers on the subject. When man's whole frame is obvious to a flea. In fact. Classic Poets. on the whole. II t. See Notes and Queries. p. 286. Burmann. which deserve to be consulted. Longinus. 104. Section 26..—'A blind old man and poor Sweetest he sings—and dwells on Chios' rocky shore. 171. let us now see what are the discoveries to which more modern investigations lay claim. doubts had begun to awaken on the subject.xxiv The Iliad of Homer Are things which Kuster. the voice of antiquity seems to be in favour of our early ideas on the subject. whose very names22 it would be tedious to detail. shall see. The grave and cautious Thucydides quoted without hesitation the Hymn to Apollo. and we find Bentley remarking that Quarterly Review.20 the authenticity of which has been already disclaimed by modern critics. de Sublim. v. among a mass of ancient authors. A hapless wanderer. quoted in Fabric.. for the translation of which I am indebted to Coleridge. when some stranger from the sea. 99.21 and. and perhaps as satisfactory. no suspicion of the personal non-existence of Homer ever arose.'"19 Long was the time which elapsed before any one dreamt of questioning the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. as any of the hypotheses hitherto put forth. they consist in an attempt to blend those hypotheses into something like consistency. Bibl. merely expressed an opinion touching the comparative inferiority of the Odyssey to the Iliad. iii. 147. Longin.

Wolf. Lips. in the form of an epic poem. vol. that we first meet with the germ of the theory. 191. among the early Greeks. for small comings and good cheer. nor. to which their composition is referred. neither the perfect symmetry of so complicated a work could have been originally conceived by any poet. These loose songs were not collected together. and that without writing.INTRODUCTION. xxv "Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies. which had then been recently published. such as must be indispensably supposed for long manuscripts. that the separate constituent portions of the Iliad and Odyssey had not been cemented together into any compact body and unchangeable order. A considerable part of that dissertation (though by no means the whole) is employed in vindicating the position. turning to account the Venetian Scholia. and with the following bold hypothesis. ii. in the sixth century before Christ. Wolf maintained that no written copies of either poem could be shown to have existed during the earlier times. at festivals and other days of merriment. The absence of easy and convenient writing. Indeed. the acute and valuable Prolegomena of F. it is with the Wolfian theory that we have chiefly to deal. p. [xviii] . which we will detail in the words of Grote24 — "Half a century ago. was thus one of the points in Wolf's case against the primitive integrity of the Iliad and any individual theory. sqq. As a step towards that conclusion. until the days of Peisistratus. 23 Letters to Phileleuth. but it is in the "Scienza Nuova" of Battista Vico. first opened philosophical discussion as to the history of the Homeric text. 24 Hist. about five hundred years after. to be sung by himself. previously announced by Bentley. transmitted with assurance to posterity. if realized by him."23 Two French writers—Hedelin and Perrault—avowed a similar scepticism on the subject. subsequently defended by Wolf with so much learning and acuteness. till about Peisistratus' time. amongst others. A. of Greece.

or at what time the practice of doing so became familiar. and the other early elegiac and lyric poets. in the ninth century before the Christian aera. if it could be shown. and the early inscriptions are rude and unskilfully executed. to maintain that they were written poems from the beginning. The traces of writing in Greece. opposed as he is to the Wolfian hypothesis. are exceedingly trifling. Kallinus. "To me it appears. admits this no less than Wolf himself. that the architectonic functions ascribed by Wolf to Peisistratus and his associates. committed their compositions to writing. Tyrtaeus. Few things. "Those who maintain the Homeric poems to have been written from the beginning. in order to controvert it. even in the seventh century before the Christian aera. and Mr. But much would undoubtedly be gained towards that view of the question. The first positive ground which authorizes us to presume the existence of a manuscript of Homer. By Nitzsch. the connection of the one with the other seems to have been accepted as he originally put it. and it has been considered incumbent on those who defended the ancient aggregate character of the Iliad and Odyssey. we are unable to say. we were driven to the necessity of admitting long written poems. are nowise admissible. rest their case.xxvi The Iliad of Homer Odyssey. Simonides of Amorgus.—but upon the supposed necessity that there must have been manuscripts to ensure the preservation of the poems—the unassisted memory of reciters . and other leading opponents of Wolf. but recited and heard. Xanthus. is in the famous ordinance of Solon. not upon positive proofs. with regard to the rhapsodies at the Panathenaea: but for what length of time previously manuscripts had existed. nor can we even assure ourselves whether Archilochus. that. Payne Knight. in reference to the Homeric poems. nor yet upon the existing habits of society with regard to poetry—for they admit generally that the Iliad and Odyssey were not read. in my opinion. can be more improbable. We have no remaining inscription earlier than the fortieth Olympiad.

in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo. for if such had been the fact. we might refer to that of any first rate actor. which seemed to cling to the words much more than to the sense. But even this instance is less wonderful than one as to which we may appeal to any of our readers that happened some twenty years ago to visit the town of Stirling. The author of that hymn. whatever the passage required. in an age essentially non-reading and non-writing. gifted with extraordinary memory. whom Thucydides. indeed not easy to calculate the height to which the memory may be cultivated. as from that of the blind bard of Chios. not only to recite it consecutively. which we know that it was not. that it could produce it under any form. in Scotland. 25 is far less astonishing than that of long manuscripts. Moreover. after a few minutes consideration any verse required from any part of the Bible—even the obscurest and most unimportant enumeration of mere 25 [xix] . had it at such perfect command. Our informant went on to state that this singular being was proceeding to learn the Orlando Furioso in the same manner. he informed us that the day before he had passed much time in examining a man. identifies with Homer himself. who must be prepared. but also to repeat those stanzas in utter defiance of the sense. at a very short warning. alternately the odd and even lines—in short. to 'rhapsodize. could never have described a blind man as attaining the utmost perfection in his art. or from the eighth line to the first. and who held a distinguished rank among the men of letters in the last century. not highly educated. as well from the example of Demodokus.' night after night.INTRODUCTION. But here we only escape a smaller difficulty by running into a greater. Visiting at Naples a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments. there is a strong positive reason for believing that the bard was under no necessity of refreshing his memory by consulting a manuscript. be he who he may. and when even suitable instruments and materials for the process are not obvious. for the existence of trained bards. uneducated man Blind Jamie who could actually repeat. To take an ordinary case. But all this is nothing to two instances of our own day. xxvii being neither sufficient nor trustworthy. the memory. blindness would have been a disqualification for the profession. either forwards or backwards. in the Odyssey. parts which when laid together. would amount to an immense number of lines. as well as the general tenor of Grecian legend. who had learned to repeat the whole Gierusalemme of Tasso. if he had It is. No such person can have forgotten the poor.

but facts they are. a manuscript at its first commencement must have been intended to answer? For whom was a written Iliad necessary? Not for the rhapsodes. for with them it was not only planted in the memory. fair judges of the perfection to which the invention and the memory combined may attain in a simpler age. We do not mention these facts as touching the more difficult part of the question before us. and of countless distracting affairs.xxviii The Iliad of Homer [xx] been conscious that the memory of the bard was only maintained by constant reference to the manuscript in his chest. If Chaucer's poetry. l. must be matter of conjecture. "At what period."— Ancient Greece." The loss of the digamma. in these days of multifarious reading. and yet it exists only in the memory of a people which is not unacquainted with writing. than the rough. but also interwoven with the feelings. and if we find so much difficulty in calculating the extent to which the mere memory may be cultivated. first began to be written. as much as it stands beneath them in merit. or indeed any other Greek poems. Heeren steers between the two opinions. "these poems. and conceived in conjunction with all those flexions and proper names not excepted. we may venture upon naming any more determinate period. the question a once suggests itself. sqq.. it could only have come down to us in a softened form. "The Dschungariade of the Calmucks is said to surpass the poems of Homer in length. are we. more like the effeminate version of Dryden. in that state of society. quaint. had not been written. 143. seems to prove beyond a doubt. But the songs of a nation are probably the last things which are committed to writing. . that quicksand upon which even the acumen of Bentley was shipwrecked. that the pronunciation of the Greek language had undergone a considerable change. and among a more single minded people?—Quarterly Review. had written copies been preserved. What were the purposes which. noble original. that crux of critics. observing that. p. for the very reason that they are remembered. though there is ground for assurance that it was before the time of Solon. 100. If. for instance. Now it is certainly difficult to suppose that the Homeric poems could have suffered by this change. in the absence of evidence." continues Grote. c. p.

we should be able to make a guess at the time when the old epic poems were first committed to writing. Kallinus. on perusing the written words. I ground this supposition on the change then operated in the character and tendencies of Grecian poetry and music—the elegiac and the iambic measures having been introduced as rivals to the primitive hexameter. Incredible as the statement may seem in an age like the present. the written words of the . and who would. xxix intonations of voice. realize in their imaginations a sensible portion of the impression communicated by the reciter. Simonides of Amorgus. If we could discover at what time such a class first began to be formed. pauses. and with its accompaniments of a solemn and crowded festival. Now the period which may with the greatest probability be fixed upon as having first witnessed the formation even of the narrowest reading class in Greece. 660 to B. and there was in early Greece. Not for the general public—they were accustomed to receive it with its rhapsodic delivery. a time when no such reading class existed. and competent to criticize. Archilochus. and the men who stood forward in it. the age of Terpander. yet the nearest approaching to the sense). &c. and which the naked manuscript could never reproduce. It argued a new way of looking at the old epical treasures of the people as well as a thirst for new poetical effect. The only persons for whom the written Iliad would be suitable would be a select few. 630).C. is the middle of the seventh century before the Christian aera (B. a class of readers capable of analyzing the complicated emotions which they had experienced as hearers in the crowd.INTRODUCTION. and poetical compositions having been transferred from the epical past to the affairs of present and real life. studious and curious men. there is in all early societies. from their own individual point of view. may well be considered as desirous to study. and other oral artifices which were required for emphatic delivery. Such a change was important at a time when poetry was the only known mode of publication (to use a modern phrase not altogether suitable.C.

that it is almost incredible. so much must have been done to arrange. in our opinion. both readers and manuscripts. but very narrow class). and the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce.xxx The Iliad of Homer [xxi] Homeric rhapsodies. Anacreon. that stronger marks of Athenian manufacture should not remain. of which. throw some suspicion over the whole history of the Peisistratid compilation. at least over the theory."26 But even Peisistratus has not been suffered to remain in possession of the credit. and the faint echo. alas! we have inherited little more than the fame. manuscripts of the Homeric poems and other old epics. as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey. just as we are told that Kallinus both noticed and eulogized the Thebais as the production of Homer. who flourished at the bright period of Grecian song. and Simonides were employed in the noble task of compiling the Iliad and Odyssey. that the Iliad was cast into its present stately and harmonious form by the directions of the Athenian ruler. II p. and we cannot help feeling the force of the following observations— "There are several incidental circumstances which. would furnish increased facilities for obtaining the requisite papyrus to write upon. if Stesichorus.—the Thebais and the Cypria. There seems. to connect. sqq. 1). to harmonize. . fifty years afterwards. ground for conjecturing that (for the use of this newly-formed and important. Whatever occasional anomalies may be detected. A reading class. though still comparatively few. and formed a tribunal of reference against the carelessness of individual rhapsodes. 198.—began to be compiled towards the middle of the seventh century (B. which took place about the same period. when once formed. therefore. anomalies which no doubt arise out of our own ignorance of the language of the 26 Vol. so that before the time of Solon. would doubtless slowly increase.C. If the great poets. might have attained a certain recognized authority. and the number of manuscripts along with it.

no doubt. not even such faint and indistinct traces of Athenian compilation are discoverable in the language of the poems. and it may fairly be suspected in earlier times. a Theseid would have been much more likely to have emanated from an Athenian synod of compilers of xxxi [xxii] .INTRODUCTION. the Athenians play a most subordinate and insignificant part. may have been the most important ally of the Peloponnesian sovereign. however the irregular use of the digamma may have perplexed our Bentleys. as Sir Walter Scott has done in his continuation of Sir Tristram. It is not quite in character with such a period to imitate an antique style. In later. the Attic dialect may not have assumed all its more marked and distinguishing characteristics—still it is difficult to suppose that the language. finally. Knight may have failed in reducing the Homeric language to its primitive form. at first sight. in order to piece out an imperfect poem in the character of the original. or. and connecting parts. amid all the traditions of the glories of early Greece embodied in the Iliad. the total absence of Athenian national feeling is perhaps no less worthy of observation. particularly in the joinings and transitions. to whom the name of Helen is said to have caused as much disquiet and distress as the fair one herself among the heroes of her age. Homeric age. the Iliad may be true to historic fact. the chieftain of Thessaly. that in its leading outline. however. The songs which spoke of their own great ancestor were. should not more clearly betray the incongruity between the more ancient and modern forms of expression. however. Even the few passages which relate to their ancestors. from his valour and the number of his forces. Mr. the Athenians were more than ordinarily jealous of the fame of their ancestors. It is possible. Knight suspects to be interpolations. indeed. however Mr. the preeminent value of the ancient poetry on the Trojan war may thus have forced the national feeling of the Athenians to yield to their taste. But. "If. that in the great maritime expedition of western Greece against the rival and half-kindred empire of the Laomedontiadae. of far inferior sublimity and popularity.

Notes and Queries. Could France have given birth to a Tasso. as to admit no rivalry. vol. but it explains nothing else. than an Achilleid or an Olysseid. should submit with lofty self denial to the almost total exclusion of their own ancestors—or. the Homeric ballads. This. Pandarus. of the Lycians. He divides the first twenty-two books of the Iliad into sixteen different songs. Berol. were so far superior to the rest of the poetic cycle. l. 1841. "explains the gaps and contradictions in the narrative. 28 27 . p. Quarterly Review. and that the difficulties with which the whole subject is beset. as they are sometimes called. with all its direful consequences. at least. See Grote. p. which related the wrath of Achilles. Nor is Lachmann's28 modification of his theory any better. p.—it is still surprising. we cannot help discovering that they have failed to enlighten us as to any substantial point. Tlepolemus.xxxii The Iliad of Homer ancient song." Moreover. Tancred would have been the hero of the Jerusalem. 221. Odius. v. we find no contradictions warranting this belief."27 To return to the Wolfian theory. Betrachtungen uber die Ilias. of the Rhodians. the French.. are rather augmented than otherwise. to the questionable dignity of only having produced a leader tolerably skilled in the military tactics of his age. that throughout the whole poem the callida junctura should never betray the workmanship of an Athenian hand. and the so-called sixteen poets concur in getting rid of the following leading men in the first battle after the secession of Achilles: Elphenor. c. who have at a later period not inaptly been compared to our self admiring neighbours. that Wolf's objections to the primitive integrity of the Iliad and Odyssey have never been wholly got over. While it is to be confessed. If. 204. and that the national spirit of a race. 131 sq. and treats as ridiculous the belief that their amalgamation into one regular poem belongs to a period earlier than the age of Peisistratus. as Grote observes. however. if we admit his hypothesis. chief of the Euboeans.

familiar to the latter epoch. applying that term to the age of Peisistratus—nothing which brings to our view the alterations brought about by two centuries. and we can but agree with Colonel Mure. and we think with equal success. that "it seems strange that any number of independent poets should have so harmoniously dispensed with the services of all six in the sequel.INTRODUCTION. the mutual frequentation of religious festivals. &c. and the silence of the Alexandrine critics respecting the Peisistratic "recension. supposing that impossible. "the whole tenor of the poems themselves confirms what is here remarked. weeps at his son's funeral in the thirteenth. that. the close military array." The friends or literary employes of Peisistratus must have found an Iliad that was already ancient." he continues. or. in the Greek language. In short. the unison of these parts by Peisistratus. that the two questions relative to the primitive unity of these poems. But he has also shown. Grote. and of Lachmann's modifications with the character of Peisistratus. [xxiii] . the Amphiktyonic convocations. among the numerous manuscripts they examined. either in the Iliad or Odyssey. although not very distinct in stating his own opinions on the subject. "a man may believe the Iliad to have been put together out of pre-existing songs. "Moreover. of the Thracians. which savours of modernism. who is represented as dead in the fifth book. the improved construction of ships. the Oriental and Egyptian veins of religion. this was either wanting. by which Pylaemenes. Pirous and Acamas. are essentially distinct. the coined money. and not before his time. These alterations Onomakritus." The discrepancy. There is nothing." goes far to prove. None of these heroes again make their appearance. xxxiii of the Halizonians. the habits of writing and reading. can only be regarded as the result of an interpolation. or thought unworthy of attention.. without recognising the age of Peisistratus as the period of its first compilation. the despotisms and republican governments. has done much to clearly show the incongruity of the Wolfian theory.

and may well have been heard by Archilochus and Kallinus—in some cases even by Arktinus and Hesiod—as genuine Homeric matter29 As far as the evidences on the case. both in substance and in language. could hardly have failed to notice. I am rather persuaded that the fine taste and elegant mind of that Athenian31 would lead Prolegg.xxxiv The Iliad of Homer and the other literary friends of Peisistratus. even without design.. enabling us to trace the subsequent forward march of the nation. considered in reference to Grecian history. let it be added. so far from believing that the composition or primary arrangement of these poems. At the same time. Vol. our first trustworthy mark of Grecian time. I am inclined to believe. pp. undertaken the task of piecing together many self existent epics into one large aggregate. Indeed. iii. that the labours of Peisistratus were wholly of an editorial character.. as it is the best-authenticated fact. in their present form. and this ancient date." says Cicero. p. although. as well internal as external. was the work of Peisistratus. xxxvi. or whose eloquence is reported to have been more perfected by literature than that of Peisistratus. for they thus afford us an insight into the anti-historical character of the Greeks.C. ii. &c. we seem warranted in believing that the Iliad and Odyssey were recited substantially as they now stand (always allowing for paitial divergences of text and interpolations) in 776 B. that I can lay down nothing respecting the extent of his labours. belongs to an age two or three centuries earlier than Peisistratus. 34. xxxii. even the interpolations (or those passages which.. "was more learned in that age. so it is also the most important attribute of the Homeric poems. enable us to judge. 31 "Who. de Orat. for the first time."30 On the whole. who is said first to have disposed the books of Homer in the 30 29 . and to seize instructive contrasts between their former and their later condition. are pronounced to be such) betray no trace of the sixth century before Christ. had they then. on the best grounds. 214 sqq. Everything in the two great Homeric poems. I must confess.

INTRODUCTION. to unite them into something like consistency. upon their memory. Suffice it to say. were extemporaneous. I will conclude this sketch of the Homeric theories. and was cultivated accordingly in those ancient times. like those of the negroes in the United States. and allusive to events passing around them. Then followed a species of recitative. with an attempt. is little else than a version of the same story as that of Peisistratus. Ballads at first. while its historical probability must be measured by that of many others relating to the Spartan Confucius. Many of these. and down to the beginning of the war with Troy. or whether the art of writing was known in the time of their reputed author. rather than to patch and re-construct them according to a fanciful hypothesis. or Moeonides. that the story which attributes the preservation of these poems to Lycurgus. Tune next followed. that a poet flourished of the name of Melesigenes. besides which. as the mystical legends of former times had done. but most probably the former. were merely recitations. a retentive memory was deemed a virtue of the first water. He saw that these order in which we now have them?" Compare Wolf's Prolegomena. Section 33 [xxiv] . I will not repeat the many discussions respecting whether the poems were written or not. I cannot. that the more we read. some one qualified to 'discourse in excellent music' among them. like the common sailors of some fifty years ago. about four hundred years after the war. xxxv him to preserve an ancient and traditional order of the poems. But what was passing around them? The grand events of a spirit-stirring war. with an intonation. probably with an intoned burden. "It was at this period. as it aided the memory considerably. made by an ingenious friend. however. It is as follows:— "No doubt the common soldiers of that age had. help thinking. occurrences likely to impress themselves. the less satisfied we are upon either subject.

into a chronicle history. connecting them by a tale of his own. in fact. seems to form the primary organization of the poem. R. arguing for the unity of authorship. Solon first. by the people who took to singing them in the streets. in which tongue the ballads were found by him. and so it has proved. p. under the title of the 'Odyssea. ii. However. [xxv] . and. remodelled from the archaic dialect of Crete. and the Achilleis32 grew under his hand. but no mere arrangers or compilers would be competent to do so. first. and agoras. was."—Grote. he published these lays. 'a great poet might have re-cast pre-existing separate songs into one comprehensive whole. or the Collector. but."33 32 "The first book. revised the poems. and then Peisistratus. and the books from the eleventh to the twenty-second inclusive. the poems were destined to undergo many vicissitudes and corruptions.' "While employed on the wild legend of Odysseus. together with the eighth. which. named the Iliad. but this is rather a proof of his modesty and talent. 222 sqq. he met with a ballad. caused him to publish the poem under the same pseudonyme as his former work: and the disjointed lays of the ancient bards were joined together. vol. and restored the works of Melesigenes Homeros to their original integrity in a great measure. as a collection. recording the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. This poem now exists. Mackenzie. Melesigenes knew that the poem was destined to be a lasting one. He therefore called it the poem of Homeros. for. as Grote has finely observed.' The author. Unity of design. H. however. then properly an Achilleis. His noble mind seized the hint that there presented itself. and afterwards Aristoteles and others. Notes and Queries. did not affix his own name to the poem. than of his mere drudging arrangement of other people's ideas.xxxvi The Iliad of Homer ballads might be made of great utility to his purpose of writing a poem on the social position of Hellas. great part of it. however. p. assemblies. 235 33 K. like those relating to the Cid.

are often least competent to carry out their own precepts. xxxvii Having thus given some general notion of the strange theories which have developed themselves respecting this most interesting subject. while the whole weight of historical evidence is against the hypothesis which would assign these great works to a plurality of authors. from Herodotus down to Loewe. also speaks eloquently to the contrary. if we would either understand or enjoy these poems. and that the intrusive hand of the poetasters may here and there have inflicted a wound more serious than the negligence of the copyist. be he Homer or Melesigenes. had they been suggested to the author by his Maecenas or Africanus. I must still express my conviction as to the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. Moreover. those who are most exact in laying down rules of verbal criticism and interpretation. Three parts of the emendations made upon poets are mere alterations. he would probably have adopted. quocunque nomine vocari eum jus fasque sit. the most powerful internal evidence. . Indeed. but it is to a higher criticism that we must appeal. without which our Greek knowledge would be gloomy and jejune. In maintaining the authenticity and personality of their one author. Grammarians are not poets by profession. have given us the history of a thousand minute points. To deny that many corruptions and interpolations disfigure them. But. calculated to substantially improve the poetry of a passage. while I appreciate its importance in a philological view. some of which. I am inclined to set little store on its aesthetic value. would be an absurd and captious assumption. I do not at this moment remember two emendations on Homer.INTRODUCTION. The minutiae of verbal criticism I am far from seeking to despise. although a mass of remarks. considering the character of some of my own books. but may be so per accidens. such an attempt would be gross inconsistency. especially in poetry. I feel conscious that. and that which springs from the deepest and most immediate impulse of the soul.

were literary deceptions. One cuts a supposed knot by expunging what another would explain by omitting something else. or till those. who fancied they possessed the works of some great man. to produce not only these. without wishing to say 34 See his Epistle to Raphelingius. not only in their borrowed phraseology—a phraseology with which writers like Boethius and Saxo Grammaticus were more charmed than ourselves—in their freedom from real poetry. With equal sagacity. in Schroeder's edition.34 Now. we shall feel better satisfied of the utter uncertainty of criticism than of the apocryphal position of Homer. a scholar of no ordinary skill. Justus Lipsius. .. passage after passage. in an ultra-refined and consistent abandonment of good taste.xxxviii The Iliad of Homer [xxvi] But it is not on words only that grammarians. be he Seneca or not. Nor is this morbid species of sagacity by any means to be looked upon as a literary novelty. find that they have been put off with a vile counterfeit got up at second hand. Father Hardouin astonished the world with the startling announcement that the Æneid of Virgil. and last. I will venture to assert. Lachmann. Wolf. mere grammarians. Binding down an heroic or dramatic poet to the block upon which they have previously dissected his words and sentences. 4to. till the author is reduced to a collection of fragments. 1728. they proceed to use the axe and the pruning knife by wholesale. and inconsistent in everything but their wish to make out a case of unlawful affiliation. they cut out book after book. but not least. that few writers of the present day would question the capabilities of the same gentleman. One rejects what another considers the turning-point of his theory. that the tragedies attributed to Seneca are by four different authors. seems to revel in the imaginary discovery. and the satires of Horace. and others. that these tragedies are so uniform. but a great many more equally bad. Delphis. Now. If we compare the theories of Knight. will exercise their elaborate and often tiresome ingenuity.

I have already expressed my belief that the labours of Peisistratus were of a purely editorial character. Nor can I help thinking. that the literary history of more recent times will account for many points of difficulty in the transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey to a period so remote from that of their first creation. xxxix one word of disrespect against the industry and learning—nay. and others. There is a catholicity. who. the main fault in all the Homeric theories is. Our faith in the author of the Iliad may be a mistaken one. of posterity. I must express my fears. I look upon the belief in Homer as one that has nature herself for its mainspring. like some patron saint. but as yet nobody has taught us a better. which makes our whole soul yearn with love and admiration for the blind bard of Chios. the refined acuteness—which scholars. after all. and which are its most fitting judges.—still I am far from wishing to deny that the . While. to elevate analytical judgment at the expense of the most ennobling impulses of the soul. rather than the instruction. But.INTRODUCTION. and there seems no more reason why corrupt and imperfect editions of Homer may not have been abroad in his day. so to speak. like Wolf. hovers round the bed of the poet. have bestowed upon this subject. is to degrade the powers of human invention. however. and to forget the ocean in the contemplation of a polypus. Scaliger. The ingenuity which has sought to rob us of the name and existence of Homer. and even bestows rare gifts from that wealth of imagination which a host of imitators could not exhaust. while I can join with old Ennius in believing in Homer as the ghost. in the very name of Homer. does too much violence to that inward emotion. that they demand too great a sacrifice of those feelings to which poetry most powerfully appeals. that many of our modern Homeric theories will become matter for the surprise and entertainment. To believe the author of the Iliad a mere compiler. than that the poems of Valerius Flaccus and Tibullus should have given so much trouble to Poggio.

it still seems to me that the Homeric question is one that is reserved for a higher criticism than it has often obtained. Traditions the most picturesque. be present. or reveal themselves in more substantial forms to the mind of the poet. a poem like the Iliad can never come to the birth. to which these shall be but as details and embellishments. But we are too well taught the contrary lesson. episodes the most pathetic. yet most distinctly stamped archetypus of the great whole. But it is one thing to use existing romances in the embellishment of a poem. then we might indeed wonder why God willed our ignorance on any matter. another to patch up the poem itself from such materials. We are not by nature intended to know all things. we shall have nought but a scrap-book. the most original writer is still drawing upon outward impressions—nay. but. may crowd in one mighty vision.xl The Iliad of Homer [xxvii] author of these great poems found a rich fund of tradition. are features perfectly consistent with poetical originality. a parterre filled with flowers and weeds strangling each other in their wild redundancy: we shall have a cento of rags and tatters. what bad taste and tedium will not be the infallible result? A blending of popular legends. and it . rather. and aware as I must be of the weighty grounds there are for opposing my belief. a well-stocked mythical storehouse from whence he might derive both subject and embellishment. Were faith no virtue. except the power to create a grand whole. local associations teeming with the thoughts of gods and great men. In fact. even his own thoughts are a kind of secondary agents which support and feed the impulses of imagination. which will require little acuteness to detect. But unless there be some grand pervading principle—some invisible. still less. to compass the powers by which the greatest blessings of life have been placed at our disposal. What consistency of style and execution can be hoped for from such an attempt? or. Sensible as I am of the difficulty of disproving a negative. and a free use of the songs of other bards.

to dwell upon the minute spots which mere analysis can discover. it was reserved to a poet to form that of the Greeks. This is a feature in their character which was not wholly erased even in the period of their degeneracy. or rather. too deeply wrapped in admiration of the whole. and they paid homage to his superior genius. Prophets. who is evidently little disposed in favour of modern theories. In reading an heroic poem we must transform ourselves into heroes of the time being. in which they were to behold the world of gods and heroes no [xxviii] . xli seems as though our faith should be especially tried touching the men and the events which have wrought most influence upon the condition of humanity. as a poet. finely observes:— "It was Homer who formed the character of the Greek nation. but of the greatest writer that ever touched the hearts of men by the power of song. Long and habitual reading of Homer appears to familiarize our thoughts even to his incongruities. When lawgivers and sages appeared in Greece. we shall feel that the poems of Homer are not only the work of one writer. And it was this supposed unity of authorship which gave these poems their powerful influence over the minds of the men of old.INTRODUCTION. and sages have formed the character of other nations. the work of the poet had already been accomplished. exercised a similar influence over his countrymen. He held up before his nation the mirror. we are too much dazzled. Heeren. And if we can but attain this degree of enthusiasm (and less enthusiasm will scarcely suffice for the reading of Homer). if we read in a right spirit and with a heartfelt appreciation. we in imagination must fight over the same battles. which seems to bid us repulse the scepticism which would allegorize their existence into a pleasing apologue. burn with the same sense of injury. as an Achilles or a Hector. woo the same loves. lawgivers. No poet has ever. and measure the giants of intellect by an homeopathic dynameter. And there is a kind of sacredness attached to the memory of the great and the good.

which had been called into being by means of his songs. whole and entire. 101."35 Can we contemplate that ancient monument. than seek to make it a mere centre around which to drive a series of theories. on which the "Apotheosis of Homer"36 is depictured. of elevated. 36 35 . No. 198 sq. wherever his immortal spirit may reside. to see the nations from the fields of Asia to the forests of Hercynia. performing pilgrimages to the fountain which his magic wand caused to flow. on that passion which outweighs all others. is lost by the admittance of any theory but our old tradition? The more we read.xlii The Iliad of Homer less than of feeble mortals. As the hymns. and therefore they enter. let us rather be thankful for the treasury of taste and eloquence thus laid open to our use. wife. and the more we think—think as becomes the readers of Homer. If it is granted to his immortal spirit. His songs were poured forth from a breast which sympathized with all the feelings of man. The best description of this monument will be found in Vaux's "Antiquities of the British Museum. Whatever were the means of its preservation. are not included in Pope's translation. if it is permitted to him to view the vast assemblage of grand. The monument itself (Towneley Sculptures. every breast which cherishes the same sympathies. to look down on his race. and to behold them reflected with purity and truth. of glorious productions. on the love of children. p. 123) is well known. and some other poems usually ascribed to Homer. the love of glory. and will continue to enter.—the more rooted becomes the conviction that the Father of Poetry gave us this rich inheritance." p. His poems are founded on the first feeling of human nature. I will content Ancient Greece. and not feel how much of pleasing association. whose wildness is only equalled by their inconsistency with each other. from another heaven than any of which he dreamed on earth. and country. how much that appeals most forcibly and most distinctly to our minds. this alone would suffice to complete his happiness.

is a strong inducement to believe that none of them were of the Homeric age. 58. Classic Poets. and of many in Asia.INTRODUCTION. "skin." instead of diphthera. "is a short mock-heroic of ancient date. from the pen of a writer who has done it full justice37 :— "This poem. according to Herod. . with as much reason to Homer. mentioned above. if no such intention to parody were discernible in it. it seems sufficient to say that from the beginning to the end it is a plain and palpable parody. 5. p. 276." which. but of the numerous passages of the Iliad itself. not only of the general spirit. it is in a state of society much more refined and permanent than that described in the Iliad. that this poem was another 37 [xxix] Coleridge. before the age of the Ptolemies. the objection would still remain. and whose reputation for humour seems to have invited the appropriation of any piece of ancient wit. xliii myself with a brief account of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice. and even. the author of which was uncertain. and the fact of there having existed three other poems of the same kind attributed. was the material employed by the Asiatic Greeks for that purpose." says Coleridge. it is commonly said to have been a juvenile essay of Homer's genius. and is obviously disturbed and corrupt to a great degree. so little did the Greeks. seems to reverse that order in the development of national taste. that to suppose a work of mere burlesque to be the primary effort of poetry in a simple age. that any popularity would attend such a ridicule of war and the gods as is contained in this poem. others have attributed it to the same Pigrees. know or care about that department of criticism employed in determining the genuineness of ancient writings. which the history of every other people in Europe. has almost ascertained to be a law of the human mind. As to this little poem being a youthful prolusion of Homer. for aught we can see. "writing tablet. The text varies in different editions. Knight infers from the usage of the word deltos.

Pope was not a Grecian. which prove that Pope consulted various friends. and his earliest acquaintance with the poet was through the version of Ogilby.xliv The Iliad of Homer offspring of Attic ingenuity. There are. during the undertaking. than of a desire to make a perfect transcript of the original. that once was our most cherished companion. We must be content to look at it as a most delightful work in itself. Hence his whole work is to be looked upon rather as an elegant paraphrase than a translation. And in those days. and on my own purpose in the present edition. We must not be torn from our kindly associations with the old Iliad. If something like the general sense could be decorated with the easy gracefulness of a practised poet. to be sure. to test Pope's translation by our own advancing knowledge of the original text." [xxx] Having thus given a brief account of the poems comprised in Pope's design. and . Loewe. if the charms of metrical cadence and a pleasing fluency could be made consistent with a fair interpretation of the poet's meaning. his words were less jealously sought for. or our most looked-for prize. It would be absurd. and those who could read so good a poem as Pope's Iliad had fair reason to be satisfied. 191) is a strong argument against so ancient a date for its composition.—a work which is as much a part of English literature as Homer himself is of Greek. therefore. and generally that the familiar mention of the cock (v. His whole education had been irregular. rather than to dive deeply into the minute and delicate features of language. whose classical attainments were sounder than his own. but it is probable that these examinations were the result rather of the contradictory versions already existing. what is called literal translation was less cultivated than at present. I will now proceed to make a few remarks on his translation. It is not too much to say that his whole work bears the impress of a disposition to be satisfied with the general sense. merely because Buttmann. certain conventional anecdotes.

Milton. But we can still dismiss Pope's Iliad to the hands of our readers. us to hold up his translation as what a translation of Homer might be. THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY. will be found to convey as much as is wanted. In the latter task I cannot pretend to novelty. but if I have made Pope's translation a little more entertaining and instructive to a mass of miscellaneous readers. rough old English. .INTRODUCTION. and mainly with the view of helping the general reader. they are drawn up without pretension. and not a substantive. xlv Liddell have made us so much more accurate as to amphikupellon being an adjective. I shall consider my wishes satisfactorily accomplished. bold. as far as the necessary limits of these volumes could be expected to admit. But Pope's version was no field for such a display. and to give a few parallel passages from our English Homer. Christ Church. but I trust that my other annotations. sometimes of a critical character. especially when we think of Chapman's fine. As to the Notes accompanying the present volume. and my purpose was to touch briefly on antiquarian or mythological allusions. with the consciousness that they must have read a very great number of books before they have read its fellow. while utterly disclaiming high scholastic views. Having some little time since translated all the works of Homer for another publisher. to bear upon the text. at least. Far be it from us to defend the faults of Pope.—far be it from. I might have brought a large amount of accumulated matter. To write a commentary on Homer is not my present aim. to notice occasionally some departures from the original.

.

can never attain to this. The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him. the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one. where. It is the invention that. more entertained with. therefore. and industry. but his invention remains yet unrivalled. perhaps. Our author's work is a wild paradise. It is like a .[xxxi] POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art. and such a figure. and is. and without it judgment itself can at best but "steal wisely:" for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. It furnishes art with all her materials. in different degrees. is. And. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets. it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute: as in the most regular gardens. which masters everything besides. art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity. who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences. distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study. if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden. learning. Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment. which the common eye may better take in. than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature.

that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him. however. to cultivate and beautify. every thing lives. like a chariot-wheel. each according to his fancy. that his fancy. just thought. more . and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity. The course of his verses resembles that of the army he describes." It is. this "vivida vis animi. reflected from Homer. by its own rapidity. What he writes is of the most animated nature imaginable. "They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before it. it brightens all the rubbish about it. till we see nothing but its own splendour. the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the poet's imagination. may have been found in a thousand. and make us admire even while we disapprove. every thing moves. Nay. but this poetic fire." in a very few. Exact disposition. you are not coldly informed of what was said or done as from a third person. remarkable. out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants. This fire is discerned in Virgil. is not discovered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its fullest splendour: it grows in the progress both upon himself and others. and turns in one place to a hearer. It is to the strength of this amazing invention we are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer. Hoid' ar' isan hosei te puri chthon pasa nemoito. polished numbers.xlviii The Iliad of Homer [xxxii] copious nursery. it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. but discerned as through a glass. which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind. and is put in action. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil. or a battle fought. correct elocution. this can overpower criticism. and becomes on fire. where this appears. in another to a spectator. though attended with absurdities. which is everywhere vigorous. If a council be called.

drew all things within its vortex. and the marvellous. and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem. he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination. like an accidental fire from heaven: but in Homer." or the like. and the whole compass of nature. became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them. and interrupted flashes: In Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force of art: in Shakspeare it strikes before we are aware. though they did not happen. That which Aristotle calls "the soul of poetry. the allegorical. I shall here endeavour to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors." was first breathed into it by Homer. and episodes of all kinds. but everywhere equal and constant: in Lucan and Statius it bursts out in sudden. "The return of Ulysses. and created a world for himself in the invention of fable." the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. in the violence of its course. as it is naturally the first. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as. to supply his maxims and reflections. and in him only.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER xlix shining than fierce. all the inward passions and affections of mankind. to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in. Fable may be divided into the probable. and crowded with a greater number of councils. though they did. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem. This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star. yet might. or of such as. the settlement of the Trojans in Italy. it burns everywhere clearly and everywhere irresistibly. which. [xxxiii] . Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events. I shall begin with considering him in his part. speeches. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts. in the common course of nature. That of the Iliad is the "anger of Achilles. and as it is taken for fiction. short. battles.

and several others in the same manner. which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso. so is Æneas by Dido. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem. for want of so warm a genius. they all draw up their forces in the same order. aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject. as well as a greater length of time. The other epic poets have used the same practice. but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables. as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius. was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander. If he has funeral games for Patroclus. destroy the unity of action. and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit. If Ulysses visit the shades. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour. but. and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. Virgil has the same for Anchises. and Rinaldo by Armida. and the taking of Troy. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer. but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs. what a new and ample scene of wonder may . where he had not led the way. supplied the want from other Greek authors. those secrets of nature and physical philosophy which Homer is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his allegories. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army. To proceed to the allegorical fable—If we reflect upon those innumerable knowledges. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention. Thus the story of Sinon.l The Iliad of Homer than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus. Virgil. and contracting the design of both Homer's poems into one.

he seems the first who brought them into a system of machinery for poetry. as it was in Homer to make use of it. it then became as reasonable in the more modern poets to lay it aside. If Homer was not the first who introduced the deities (as Herodotus imagines) into the religion of Greece. in forms and persons. the virtues and vices. that mankind have been ever since contented to follow them: none have been able to enlarge the sphere of poetry beyond the limits he has set: every attempt of this nature has proved unsuccessful. that there was not in his time that demand upon him of so great an invention as might be capable of furnishing all those allegorical parts of a poem. with so visible and surprising a variety. The marvellous fable includes whatever is supernatural. his gods continue to this day the gods of poetry. are by no means for their invention in having enlarged his circle. and science was delivered in a plainer manner. the qualifications of the mind. constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it. and whatever commendations have been allowed them on this head. and to introduce them into actions agreeable to the nature of the things they shadowed! This is a field in which no succeeding poets could dispute with Homer. they are so perfect in the poetic. and after all the various changes of times and religions. and especially the machines of the gods. For when the mode of learning changed in the following ages. And perhaps it was no unhappy circumstance for Virgil. and here we shall find no author has ever drawn so many. We come now to the characters of his persons. But whatever cause there might be to blame his machines in a philosophical or religious view. but for their judgment in having contracted it. and such a one as makes its greatest importance and dignity: for we find those authors who have been offended at the literal notion of the gods. or given us such lively and affecting [xxxiv] . which as able to clothe all the properties of elements.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER li this consideration afford us! How fertile will that imagination appear.

that the wisdom of one is artificial and various. They have a parity . that of Menelaus mixed with softness and tenderness for his people: we find in Idomeneus a plain direct soldier. The characters of Virgil are far from striking us in this open manner. and. the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capaneus. even that of Turnus seems no way peculiar. in a great degree. but even in the under parts of it. But they have. to which he takes care to give a tincture of that principal one. Hippomedon. active and vigilant: the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by love of empire and ambition. Every one has something so singularly his own. as it is. that of Diomede forward. and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergestus. Nothing can be more exact than the distinctions he has observed in the different degrees of virtues and vices. of the other natural. besides. Cloanthus. The single quality of courage is wonderfully diversified in the several characters of the Iliad. &c. and this quality also takes a different turn in each from the difference of his prudence. than the poet has by their manners. and subject to command. where they are marked most evidently affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. or the rest. they lie. and regular. hidden and undistinguished. yet listening to advice. that an air of impetuosity runs through them all. His characters of valour are much alike. of Hector. In like manner it may be remarked of Statius's heroes. open. that of Ajax is heavy and self-confiding. and they are distinct in this. in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one.lii The Iliad of Homer impressions of them. for one in the war depends still upon caution. that no painter could have distinguished them more by their features. in a superior degree. the other upon experience. Tydeus. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds. For example: the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom. but. characters of courage. Nor is this judicious and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main of each character. That of Achilles is furious and intractable.

so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule of propriety. which might be equally just in any person's mouth upon the same occasion. And it is with justice an excellent modern writer allows. than when we are engaged in Homer. is. Longinus has given his opinion. being perfect or defective as they agree or disagree with the manners. Homer makes us hearers. if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers. so there is of speeches. that interests us less in the action described. Duport. that they have so remarkable a parity with those of the Scripture. that is. [xxxv] . and that the Roman author seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments where he is not fired by the Iliad. If. he has not so many that are sublime and noble. We oftener think of the author himself when we read Virgil. all which are the effects of a colder invention. The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters. he will be convinced how infinitely superior. It is hardly credible. In Virgil the dramatic part is less in proportion to the narrative. than in any other poem. everything is acted or spoken. "Everything in it has manner" (as Aristotle expresses it). As many of his persons have no apparent characters. I believe when the reader is led into this tract of reflection. has collected innumerable instances of this sort. in a work of such length. As there is more variety of characters in the Iliad. and Virgil leaves us readers. the invention of Homer was to that of all others. how small a number of lines are employed in narration.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER liii of character. What were alone sufficient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his sentiments in general. in this point. that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that are low and vulgar. in his Gnomologia Homerica. we take a view of the sentiments. the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of his thoughts. in the next place. of those who utter them. that it was in this part Homer principally excelled. and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts. which makes them seem brothers of one family.

and individual of nature. which discovers itself to be laid on boldly. and such a profusion of noble ideas. and the like. a weapon "thirsts" to drink the blood of an enemy. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles. and similes. that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master. Aristotle had reason to say. that every battle rises above the last in greatness. which [xxxvi] . It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction. such different kinds of deaths. indeed. though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him." there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever.liv The Iliad of Homer If we observe his descriptions. that no one bears a likeness to another. It is. An arrow is "impatient" to be on the wing. and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay. and executed with rapidity. and it is evident of Virgil especially. the strongest and most glowing imaginable. in their various views presented themselves in an instant. yet his expression is never too big for the sense. and confusion. which take up no less than half the Iliad. but justly great in proportion to it. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet. but several unexpected peculiarities and side views. where we see each circumstance of art. We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction. images. he not only gives us the full prospects of things. If we descend from hence to the expression. and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents. horror. we shall find the invention still predominant. His expression is like the colouring of some great masters. the first who taught that "language of the gods" to men. unobserved by any painter but Homer. and touched with the greatest spirit. summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things. we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner. he was the only poet who had found out "living words.

an expression will be brighter. and the heat more intense. only as the breath within is more powerful. As a metaphor is a short simile. but searched through its different dialects with this particular view. and forms itself about it. We see the motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos. this will become more perspicuous. and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables. Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos. like glass in the furnace. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry. not only as it heightened the diction. we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also. and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. which has a peculiar sweetness. one of these epithets is a short description.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lv rises with it. which grows to a greater magnitude. to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants. and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength. so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. for in the same degree that a thought is warmer. To throw his language more out of prose. but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp. With . What he most affected was the Ionic. and so of others. which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. and refines to a greater clearness. Lastly. from its never using contractions. if we consider his versification. He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece. since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention. as that is more strong.

while we . instead of being fetters to his sense. This is so great a truth. but the finest ear in the world. and the turn and cadence of its verse. Virgil was very sensible of this. though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words. were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture. Thus his measures. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers. in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. which agree with the genius of no other language.lvi The Iliad of Homer [xxxvii] this he mingled the Attic contractions. as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated. always in motion. or takes off its accent. the broader Doric. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head. that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. that they flow with so much ease. will find more sweetness. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author's beauties in this kind. which often rejects its aspirate. and. and majesty of sound. and. in particular. that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman. and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself. than in any other language of poetry. the only reason is. variety. that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses. and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas). and the feebler Æolic. in his treatise of the Composition of Words. and always full. with so much force and inspiriting vigour. and even to give a further representation of his notions. They roll along as a plentiful river. at the same time.

with a gentle and constant stream. like a river in its banks. I have no way derogated from his character. pours out his riches with a boundless overflow. than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them. his speeches more affecting and transported. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work. Virgil. Virgil the better artist. and are only said to have less in comparison with one another. In one we most admire the man. the most rapid. like the Nile. and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. Virgil has in judgment. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment. in what has been said of Virgil. because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree. his manners more lively and strongly marked.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lvii are borne away by a tide of verse. his sentiments more warm and sublime. his images and descriptions more full and animated. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity. Homer scatters with a generous profusion. I hope. what principally strikes us is his invention. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him. and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other. each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer. in the other the work. and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. Nothing is more absurd or endless. his expression more raised and daring. methinks the two poets resemble the heroes [xxxviii] . Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. When we behold their battles. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty. because Homer possessed a larger share of it. and his numbers more rapid and various. with regard to any of these heads. and as Homer has done this in invention. Homer was the greater genius. and yet the most smooth imaginable. Homer. Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. or that Virgil wanted invention.

appears undisturbed in the midst of the action. bears all before him. as with gigantic bodies." and Virgil his "myrtles distilling blood. so may a great judgment decline to coldness. If we look upon Homer in this view." where the latter has not so much as contrived the easy intervention of a deity to save the probability. and as magnanimity may run up to profusion or extravagance. upon which so much criticism has been spent. scattering the lightnings. and. exceed what is commonly thought the due proportion of parts. which. to become miracles in the whole.lviii The Iliad of Homer they celebrate. And when we look upon their machines. and regularly ordering his whole creation. as surpassing all the bounds of probability. As prudence may sometimes sink to suspicion. than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of . exerting themselves with unusual strength. Perhaps it may be with great and superior souls. laying plans for empires. Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors. shaking Olympus. boundless and resistless as Achilles. they naturally border on some imperfection. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more. calmly daring. Among these we may reckon some of his marvellous fictions. it is with great parts. Homer. commit something near extravagance. like Æneas. as with great virtues. Virgil. counselling with the gods. or the fault begins. and it is often hard to distinguish exactly where the virtue ends. disposes all about him. amidst a series of glorious and inimitable performances. like the same power in his benevolence. we shall perceive the chief objections against him to proceed from so noble a cause as the excess of this faculty. that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. Thus Homer has his "speaking horses. and conquers with tranquillity. It is owing to the same vast invention. so may a great invention to redundancy or wildness. like the old heroes of that make. But after all. and shines more and more as the tumult increases. and firing the heavens: Virgil.

but I must here speak a word of the latter. as it is a point generally carried into extremes. and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes. in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards. When we read Homer. Such are his grosser representations of the gods. and princesses drawing water from the springs. I would not be so delicate as those modern critics. which. as they are more contrary to ours. when a spirit of revenge and cruelty. princes tending their flocks. who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original. The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath. . when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images. are so managed as not to overpower the main one. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity.38 "that those times and manners are so much the more excellent. those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in. than an excess of it. however. reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre. If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius. but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lix additional images. joined with the practice of rapine and robbery. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind. both by the censurers and defenders of Homer. to think with Madame Dacier. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity. His similes are like pictures. we ought to 38 [xxxix] Preface to her Homer. and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side." Who can be so prejudiced in their favour as to magnify the felicity of those ages. when the greatest princes were put to the sword.

Homer. will double their pleasure in the perusal of him. indeed. and what usually creates their dislike. &c. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. And. has placed a fourth age. such as the "far-darting Phoebus. Boileau is of opinion. &c. and repeated as such. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more.lx The Iliad of Homer reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world. that they were in the nature of surnames. Edmund Ironside. Edward Longshanks. or his place of birth." the "swift-footed Achilles. and tediously repeated. and had contracted a weight and veneration from the rites and solemn devotions in which they were used: they were a sort of attributes with which it was a matter of religion to salute them on all occasions. we have something parallel to these in modern times. therefore. Mons. If yet this be thought to account better for the propriety than for the repetition. between the brazen and . By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish. Hesiod. either naming his parents expressly. or the like: as Alexander the son of Philip. dividing the world into its different ages. and which it was an irreverence to omit. used such distinctive additions as better agreed with poetry. Diogenes the Cynic. complying with the custom of his country. profession. for the Greeks having no names derived from their fathers. such as the names of Harold Harefoot. As for the epithets of great men.. will become a satisfaction. which some have censured as impertinent. that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity." &c. were obliged to add some other distinction of each person. and those who consider him in this light. This consideration may further serve to answer for the constant use of the same epithets to his gods and heroes. I shall add a further conjecture. and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found." the "blue-eyed Pallas. the only true mirror of that ancient world. Those of the gods depended upon the powers and offices then believed to belong to them. Edward the Black Prince.

are called demi-gods. but will yet be taken notice of as they occur in the course of the work. a divine race who fought at Thebes and Troy. as that the hero is a wiser man. Others quarrel with what they take for low and mean expressions. which is much the same. are such as hardly deserve a reply. they might have this also in common with the gods. and such as might be acceptable to them by celebrating their families. oftener from an ignorance of the graces of the original. there are others. and live by the care of Jupiter in the islands of the blessed. Many have been occasioned by an injudicious endeavour to exalt Virgil. sometimes through a false delicacy and refinement. What other cavils have been raised against Homer. pretending to a fairer proceeding. who.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxi [xl] the iron one. of "heroes distinct from other men. and then triumph in the awkwardness of their own translations: this is the conduct of Perrault in his Parallels. by the whole course of their parallels. as when they prefer the fable and moral of the Æneis to those of the Iliad. Others select those particular passages of Homer which are not so laboured as some that Virgil drew out of them: this is the whole management of Scaliger in his Poetics. not to be mentioned without the solemnity of an epithet. actions or qualities. distinguish between the personal merit of . when the very moral of his poem required a contrary character: it is thus that Rapin judges in his comparison of Homer and Virgil. that these critics never so much as heard of Homer's having written first. as if one should think to raise the superstructure by undermining the foundation: one would imagine. a consideration which whoever compares these two poets ought to have always in his eye." Now among the divine honours which were paid them. as because Achilles is not as good and perfect a prince as Æneas. for the same reasons which might set the Odyssey above the Æneis. Some accuse him for the same things which they overlook or praise in the other. and the action of the one more beneficial to his country than that of the other. Lastly. or else they blame him for not doing what he never designed.

&c. The same might as well be said of Virgil.) to be the causes of his fame.lxii The Iliad of Homer Homer. and that he may be said in his sense to be the master even of those who surpassed him. Opp. What he has done admitted no increase. flourishes. but excels all the inventors of other arts. and the prejudice of those that followed: and in pursuance of this principle. is improved with industry. it only left room for contraction or regulation. This is the method of Mons. they make those accidents (such as the contention of the cities. 155. de la Mott. et Dier. . but when they come to assign the causes of the great reputation of the Iliad. which were in reality the consequences of his merit. and be more approved in the eyes of one sort of critics: but that warmth of fancy will carry the loudest and most universal applauses which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. or any great author whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation. Homer not only appears the inventor of poetry. it was but because he attempted everything. &c. Lib. who yet confesses upon the whole that in whatever age Homer had lived. I. he must have been the greatest poet of his nation. A cooler judgment may commit fewer faults. A work of this kind seems like a mighty tree. He showed all the stretch of fancy at once. have only said that a few branches which run luxuriant through 39 [xli] Hesiod. and that of his work. pleasure and profit join to make it valuable: and they who find the justest faults. they found it upon the ignorance of his times. and if he has failed in some of his flights. that he has swallowed up the honour of those who succeeded him. he still continues superior to them. vers. which rises from the most vigorous seed.39 In all these objections we see nothing that contradicts his title to the honour of the chief invention: and as long as this (which is indeed the characteristic of poetry itself) remains unequalled by his followers. and produces the finest fruit: nature and art conspire to raise it. in this.

description. since these must be his own. I know no liberties one ought to take. the diction and versification only are his proper province. If there be sometimes a darkness. It is a great secret in writing. which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient. there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile. It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect. which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. to know when to be plain. such as the fable. Having now spoken of the beauties and defects of the original. As far as that is seen in the main parts of the poem. in any particular place. than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical. insolent hope of raising and improving their author. dull adherence to the letter. but the others he is to take as he finds them. whoever lessens or too much softens those. without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is. by deviating into the modern manners of expression. but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original. It is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. As it also breaks out in every particular image. takes off from this chief character. It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however. and . might be lopped into form to give it a more regular appearance. with the same view to the chief characteristic. it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole. that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard. It is not to be doubted.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxiii a richness of nature. and sentiments. and simile. manners. and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say. there is often a light in antiquity. no translator can prejudice it but by wilful omissions or contractions. it remains to treat of the translation. and for the rest.

his style must of course bear a greater resemblance to the sacred books than that of any other writer. as well as a bold and sordid one. which his friends must agree together to call simplicity. with all respect to the inspired writings. and. This consideration (together with what has been observed of the parity of some of his thoughts) may. that the Divine Spirit made use of no other words but what were intelligible and common to men at that time. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer. of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity. and another not to be dressed at all. while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. as Homer is the author nearest to those. methinks. which have . but where his is plain and humble. Where his diction is bold and lofty. some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle). and it is what Homer will teach us. which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up. One may affirm. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity. to give in to several of those general phrases and manners of expression. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime. on the one hand. as he may gain by that character of style. in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic.lxiv The Iliad of Homer [xlii] when poetical and figurative. and in that part of the world. induce a translator. others slowly and servilely creeping in his train. if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. However. and the rest of the world will call dulness. let us raise ours as high as we can. This pure and noble simplicity is nowhere in such perfection as in the Scripture and our author. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity. others sunk into flatness. no author is to be envied for such commendations.

to avoid those which have been appropriated to the Divinity. in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavouring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is. Perhaps the mixture of some Graecisms and old words after the manner of Milton." or the like. seemed pleased with them as beauties. I speak of his compound epithets. and in a manner consigned to mystery and religion. a more modern) turn in the paraphrase. without violence to the ear or to the received rules of composition.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxv attained a veneration even in our language from being used in the Old Testament. and are become familiar through their use of them. might not have an ill effect in a version of this particular work." &c. and as I may say. if done without too much affectation. as well as those which have received a sanction from the authority of our best poets. (into which some of his translators have fallen) cannot be allowable. and those who are. as. a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. Many of the former cannot be done literally into English without destroying the purity of our language. such as "platoon. which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight. oracular. those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects. There are two peculiarities in Homer's diction. whenever any can be as fully and [xliii] . campaign. They have something venerable. and of his repetitions. As for the rest. such as "the cloud-compelling Jove. on the other. antique cast. junto. But certainly the use of modern terms of war and government. I believe such should be retained as slide easily of themselves into an English compound. For a further preservation of this air of simplicity. which most of any other seems to require a venerable. those only excepted without which it is impossible to treat the subjects in any living language.

we may divide them into three sorts: of whole narrations and speeches. or where the ceremonial of religion seems to require it. the course to be taken is obvious. I would use the former interpretation. would appear little or ridiculous translated literally "leaf-shaking. as the epithet einosiphyllos to a mountain.lxvi The Iliad of Homer significantly expressed in a single word as in a compounded one. is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them. though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times. in respect of the darts and bow." is capable of two explications. where the dignity of the speaker renders it a sort of insolence to alter his words. where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed. a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment. of single sentences. as neither to lose so known a mark of the author on the one hand. may have justice done them by circumlocution. as to preserve their full image by one or two words. the epithet of Apollo. I hope it is not impossible to have such a regard to these. nor to offend the reader too much on the other. therefore. The repetition is not ungraceful in those speeches. I would make choice of the latter. hekaebolos or "far-shooting. one literal. For example. ." Others that admit of different significations. the ensigns of that god. may receive an advantage from a judicious variation. the other allegorical. in such places where Apollo is represented as a god in person. As for Homer's repetitions. as in the messages from gods to men. and which. it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. with regard to the rays of the sun. and where the effects of the sun are described. Upon the whole. and of one verse or hemistitch. according to the occasions on which they are introduced. in the solemn forms of prayers. or from higher powers to inferiors in concerns of state. and in doing this properly." but affords a majestic idea in the periphrasis: "the lofty mountain shakes his waving woods. Some that cannot be so turned.

that one might think he deviated on purpose. His expression is involved [xliv] . and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. it may reasonably be believed they designed this. and Virgil in the Latin. ver. and fully possessed of his image: however. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse. whether a professed translator be authorized to omit any: if they be tedious. I believe the best rule is. at which the repetitions are placed in the original: when they follow too close. It only remains to speak of the versification. of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. where he has spun twenty verses out of two. and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines. will see I have endeavoured at this beauty. notwithstanding which. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity. and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey. if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. insomuch as to promise. and Ogilby. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author. and varying it on every new subject. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner. the author is to answer for it. in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance. In other cases. or distance. when a writer is warm. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense. I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer. in his rhyming preface. Hobbes. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have. one may vary the expression. but it is a question.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxvii oaths. there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. Upon the whole. or the like. We have only those of Chapman. to be guided by the nearness. 312.

and often omits the most beautiful. In a word. is too mean for criticism. and which very much contributed to cover his defects. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman. it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in. as well as Ogilby's. I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion. the nature of the man may account for his whole performance. His own boast. but from the contractions above mentioned. had he translated the whole work. for he appears. is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation. of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks. shows with what negligence his version was performed. It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. or preserved the antiquities. to have been of an arrogant turn. whose words he sometimes copies. into which no writer of his learning could have fallen. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences. His poetry. Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general. &c. and an enthusiast in poetry. and is now and then guilty of mistakes. but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them. However. But that which is to be allowed him. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the .lxviii The Iliad of Homer [xlv] in fustian. and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original. I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it. and a small part of the sixth. As for its being esteemed a close translation. as in the tragedy of Bussy d'Amboise. but through carelessness. He has left us only the first book. in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense. which proceeds not from his following the original line by line. from his preface and remarks. a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings.

ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer. than from any commentaries. For to satisfy such a want either. in the sentences. in the more active or descriptive parts. with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed. those only who have at once a taste of poetry. is not in the nature of this undertaking. he must hope to please but a few. is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places. how learned soever. But after all. to follow the strongest and most poetical. in the speeches. as most agreeing with that character. a plainness and solemnity. from whose . and a pedant nothing that is not Greek. and the different modulations of his numbers. or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work. a shortness and gravity.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxix commonwealth of letters. What I have done is submitted to the public. or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world. neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. Next these. to preserve. to copy him in all the variations of his style. nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. That which. to study his author rather from his own text. in the more sedate or narrative. a warmth and elevation. to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients. a fulness and perspicuity. where the sense can bear any doubt. and competent learning. in my opinion. What I would further recommend to him is. since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern. not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words. they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it. and Bossu's admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. and with Milton above all the moderns. the Archbishop of Cambray's Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author.

Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read. that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay). who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer. they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men. whatever they shall please to say. that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs. who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity.lxx The Iliad of Homer [xlvi] opinions I am prepared to learn. I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. and Dr. Mr. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. Dr. as well as sincere criticisms. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me. of Mr. and you can read no more. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task. the many friendly offices. and by persons for whom they can have no kindness. Congreve. so poor. As for the worst. though I fear no judges so little as our best poets. whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric). though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last. I must add the names of Mr. is no less extensive than his learning. who are most sensible of the weight of this task. For all books else appear so mean. Parnell. while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers. so complete a praise: "Read Homer once. with infinite pleasure. if an old observation be true. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend. I must also acknowledge. . Rowe. but none as they are malignant writers. and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find.

He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival. I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER And Homer will be all the books you need. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death." lxxi That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me. of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke. when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations. which make the satisfaction of life. In short. will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence. The particular zeal of Mr. and easy friendships. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted. but their correction of several particulars of this translation. I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon. but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence. and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of "Heroic Love" has continued his partiality to me. the University of Oxford. Mr. than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning. not more distinguished in the great scenes of business. the present secretary of state. as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties. or the vanities of . has not refused to be the critic of these sheets. from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. Stanhope.

after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others. . I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit.lxxii The Iliad of Homer particular men. nor disagreeable to myself. Whatever the success may prove. and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies.

[001] THE ILIAD. .

.

and priest of Apollo. his corpse is brought back to the hero. He lends his armour to his friend. ARGUMENT. During this interval. This inexorable man has a friend. upon the successful termination of which the honour of their country depends. the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns. and the hero's arms become the prize of the conqueror. is translated from Bitaube. Chryses. given up to the most lively despair.40 THE CONTENTION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. and the last to Achilles. perhaps. 40 . this friend weeps before him. The prohibition is forgotten. with commission to make compensation for the injury. the friend listens to nothing but his courage. because he reserves to himself the honour of that combat. and for a season withdraws himself and his troops from the war. and animated with a noble resentment. victory abandons the army. prepares to fight. which for nine years has been occupied in a great enterprise. comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her. The hero. The priest being refused. with which the action of the poem opens. and is. and for permission to go to the war in his stead. the army is again defeated. Chryseis and Briseis. The general. he receives from a divinity new armour. the neatest summary that has ever been drawn up:—"A hero. retires to his tent. and encourages Chalcas to The following argument of the Iliad. In the war of Troy. deputes the principal officers of his army to the incensed hero. and because he also fears for his friend's life. who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. and is on the verge of entire destruction. Then the hero. and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon. at length opening his eyes to the fault which he had committed. corrected in a few particulars.BOOK I. injured by his general. persists in his animosity. the father of Chryseis. in the tenth year of the siege. and asks for the hero's arms. Achilles calls a council. but commands him not to engage with the chief of the enemy's army. according to the proud obstinacy of his character. and taken from thence two beautiful captives. allotted the first to Agamemnon. The eloquence of friendship prevails more than the intercession of the ambassadors or the gifts of the general. and to tender magnificent presents. entreats for vengeance from his god.

and lastly to Olympus. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks. But all kinds of birds are not carnivorous. he seizes on Briseis in revenge. till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. Achilles' wrath. heavenly goddess. 41 Vultures: Pope is more accurate than the poet he translates. and complaining to Thetis. enters into a furious contest with Achilles. which Nestor pacifies. thirsting for glory and revenge. to Greece the direful spring Of woes unnumber'd. but finally appeased by the tears and prayers of the father of the slain warrior. The king. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague. honours his friend with superb funeral rites. 42 —i.'—Coleridge. being obliged to send back his captive. and such the will of Jove!42 is reconciled with his general and. and exercises a cruel vengeance on the body of his destroyer. during the whole time of their striving the will of Jove was being gradually accomplished. Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore. Such was the sovereign doom. granting her suit. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Æthiopians. slays the enemy's chief. then changes to Chrysa. for Homer writes "a prey to dogs and to all kinds of birds.4 The Iliad of Homer declare the cause of it. who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis. which he buries with due solemnities.e. incenses Juno: between whom the debate runs high. however. sqq. at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. restores to the old man the corpse of his son. p. by giving victory to the Trojans. she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son. as he had the absolute command of the army.41 Since great Achilles and Atrides strove. sing! That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain. Jupiter. one in the council and quarrel of the princes. enacts prodigies of valour. Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore. recovers the victory. [002] . 177.

But. Apollo's awful ensigns grace his hands By these he begs.e. If mercy fail. For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain His captive daughter from the victor's chain. And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground. yet let my presents move. ." 44 45 46 —Latona's son: i. or of Sinai.45 And for the king's offence the people died. Declare." 43 5 Compare Milton's "Paradise Lost" i. didst inspire That shepherd.BOOK I. heavenly Muse. Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown He sued to all. Suppliant the venerable father stands. from what offended power Latona's son a dire contagion spread. of Atreus' royal race46 "Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown'd. And dread avenging Phoebus. and lowly bending down. oh! relieve a wretched parent's pain. Apollo. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings. O Muse! in what ill-fated hour43 Sprung the fierce strife. that on the secret top Of Horeb.44 And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead. May Jove restore you when your toils are o'er Safe to the pleasures of your native shore. son of Jove. And give Chryseis to these arms again. 6 "Sing. —Brother kings: Menelaus and Agamemnon. The king of men his reverent priest defied. —King of men: Agamemnon.

and thus replied: "Hence on thy life. Mine is thy daughter. Or doom'd to deck the bed she once enjoy'd Hence then.6 The Iliad of Homer The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare. Not so Atrides. Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god. And prayers. Far from her native soil and weeping sire. to Argos shall the maid retire. he. presumptuous. . shall plead in vain. and bribes. and tears. with thy laurel crown. And age dismiss her from my cold embrace. Nor ask. priest." [003] HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. and golden rod. and release the fair. In daily labours of the loom employ'd. with kingly pride. what the king detains Hence. The priest to reverence. Till time shall rifle every youthful grace. and shall remain. and fly these hostile plains. Repulsed the sacred sire.

"History of Greece. and raised a temple to Sminthean Apollo. that when the Teucri were migrating from Crete." for the custom of decorating temples with garlands was of later date. Strabo. 68. was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory. to his god he prays." i. says. Silent he wander'd by the sounding main.47 Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine. and that. 47 "If e'er I roofed thy graceful fane. not daring to complain.49 Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain. And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa's shores. safe at distance. 7 "O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona's line. In fulfilment of the oracle." 48 —Cilla. dates before the earliest period of Aeolian colonization. It should be. . Avenge thy servant. The trembling priest along the shore return'd. however. and the Greeks destroy. in various parts of the Troad and its neighboring territory." [004] —Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos. 49 A mistake. the Phrygian name for a mouse. they settled on the spot. If e'er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane. p. slain by OEnomaus. so called from Cillus. a number of field-mice came and gnawed away the leathern straps of their baggage.BOOK I. where they should not be attacked by the original inhabitants of the land. And in the anguish of a father mourn'd. and thongs of their armour. Grote. a town of Troas near Thebe.48 Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores. Disconsolate. a sister of Hippodamia. having halted for the night. God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ. Till. remarks that the "worship of Sminthean Apollo. The god who darts around the world his rays. they were told by an oracle to settle in that place.

is a different character from the deity of the same name in the later classical pantheon. For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain. Breathing revenge. Bent was his bow. 52 —Convened to council. And from Olympus' lofty tops descends. And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. For nine long nights. shot a dismal glare. it must be borne in mind. his silver shafts resound. sq.51 And last.52 —Bent was his bow "The Apollo of Homer. no less naturally procured him that of god of archery. On mules and dogs the infection first began.8 The Iliad of Homer Thus Chryses pray'd. p. Inspired by Juno. 478. The fleet in view. or of the reckless sinner suddenly checked in his career of crime. symbols of sudden death in every age. he twang'd his deadly bow. The pyres. of the old man dropping peacefully into the grave. the Grecian hearts to wound. "It is an assembly for talk. whatever may have existed in the more esoteric doctrine of the Greek sanctuaries. The public assembly in the heroic times is well characterized by Grote. i. Thetis' godlike son Convened to council all the Grecian train. The oracular functions of the god rose naturally out of the above fundamental attributes. But ere the tenth revolving day was run. all deaths from unforeseen or invisible causes.50 Fierce as he moved. the vengeful arrows fix'd in man. through all the dusky air. the fate of the young child or promising adult. cut off in the germ of infancy or flower of youth. 50 . that most pestilences begin with animals. And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. are ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or Diana. thick-flaming.—the favouring power attends. "History of Greek Literature. Of any connection between Apollo and the Sun. while the arrows with which he and his sister were armed. ii. the ravages of pestilence. and that Homer had this fact in mind. a sudden night he spread. vol. Throughout both poems. p 92." vol. 51 It has frequently been observed. there is no trace in either Iliad or Odyssey."—Mure. for who could more appropriately impart to mortals what little foreknowledge Fate permitted of her decrees than the agent of her most awful dispensations? The close union of the arts of prophecy and song explains his additional office of god of music.

and the future knew: Uprising slow. whose comprehensive view. or some sacred sage. and hecatombs be paid. and sat: when Chalcas thus replied. The past. for dreams descend from Jove. That sacred seer. Let altars smoke. of the people as listeners and sympathizers—often for eloquence. shall dying Greece restore. But let some prophet. the present.BOOK I. The assembly seated. atoned. Achilles thus the king of men address'd: 9 "Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore. And measure back the seas we cross'd before? The plague destroying whom the sword would spare. quotes several passages of the ancients. Explore the cause of great Apollo's rage. in maintenance of the belief that dreams had a divine origin and an import in which men were interested. in which reference is made to these words of Homer. the Grecian priest and guide." 53 Old Jacob Duport. rising o'er the rest. Chalcas the wise. So Heaven. . the venerable sage Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age: Communication and discussion to a certain extent by the chiefs in person. And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more. and sometimes for quarrel—but here its ostensible purposes end. Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove By mystic dreams. 'Tis time to save the few remains of war.53 If broken vows this heavy curse have laid. whose "Gnomologia Homerica" is full of curious and useful things." [005] He said.

10 The Iliad of Homer "Beloved of Jove. Till the great king." See the German critics quoted by Arnold. provoked the raging pest. To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey. and speak without control." To whom Pelides:—"From thy inmost soul Speak what thou know'st. without a ransom paid. and funeral fires increase. And whose bless'd oracles thy lips declare. Apollo's vengeance for his injured priest. The priest may pardon. For though we deem the short-lived fury past. To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid. No daring Greek. Achilles! would'st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow? First give thy faith. . "bright-eyed. Bold is the task. E'en by that god I swear who rules the day. And truths. Not e'en the chief by whom our hosts are led. invidious to the great. Against his priest shall lift an impious hand. shall touch that sacred head." 54 Rather. But plagues shall spread. Long as Achilles breathes this vital air. of all the numerous band. and plight a prince's word Of sure protection. when subjects. with added sacrifice and prayer. nor slighted sacrifice. and the god may spare. Nor will the god's awaken'd fury cease." Encouraged thus.54 Perhaps. Instruct a monarch where his error lies. the blameless man replies: "Nor vows unpaid. grown too wise. The king of kings. But he. 'Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last. our chief. reveal. by thy power and sword: For I must speak what wisdom would conceal.

and crown'd with every grace. But since for common good I yield the fair. and so justly mine. When first her blooming beauties bless'd my arms. Fond of the power. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living fire: "Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still. And heavenly charms prefer to proffer'd gold? A maid. That he alone has fought and bled in vain. Our cares are only for the public weal: Let me be deem'd the hateful cause of all. unmatch'd in manners as in face. the beauteous prize. The prize. And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king? For this are Phoebus' oracles explored. my beauteous maid. The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown The monarch started from his shining throne. So dearly valued. Prophet of plagues. Yet. I hold. And suffer. for ever boding ill! Still must that tongue some wounding message bring. I will resign. Is heaven offended. My private loss let grateful Greece repair. The due reward of many a well-fought field? 11 [006] . rather than my people fall. Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra's charms. Nor unrewarded let your prince complain. if the gods demand her. To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord? For this with falsehood is my honour stain'd.BOOK I. Black choler fill'd his breast that boil'd with ire. Skill'd in each art. Because my prize. and a priest profaned. let her sail. but fonder of the prize! Would'st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield." "Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies).

as with toil we gain.55 Ulysses' spoils. by Jove's decree. or Ajax shall fulfil. if our royal pleasure shall ordain. 55 [007] . while Ulysses received Laodice. but he shall rage in vain. At thy demand shall I restore the maid? First let the just equivalent be paid. Yet if our chief for plunder only fight. Or. Whene'er. and let it be A treasure worthy her. And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa's shores. and thou possess'd of thine? Great as thou art. and worthy me.12 The Iliad of Homer The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain. We share with justice. and like a god in fight. The man who suffers.—It now remains We launch a bark to plough the watery plains. Think not to rob me of a soldier's right." Then thus the king: "Shall I my prize resign With tame content. be mine. loudly may complain. Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend. the daughter of Cycnus. Or grant me this. And some deputed prince the charge attend: This Creta's king. and with labouring oars. or with a monarch's claim This hand shall seize some other captive dame. Such as a king might ask. Or wise Ulysses see perform'd our will. The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite. And rage he may. The prize given to Ajax was Tecmessa. or even thy own. The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign. our conquering powers Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers. But this when time requires. But to resume whate'er thy avarice craves (That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves. With chosen pilots.

Hither we sail'd. . To avenge a private.BOOK I. To Phthia's realms no hostile troops they led: Safe in her vales my warlike coursers fed. Rich in her fruits. not a public wrong: What else to Troy the assembled nations draws. the hoarse-resounding main. frowning stern. Shall form an ambush. ever join'd With fraud. Let fierce Achilles. Whose fruitful soil luxuriant harvests grace. At this. arm'd with insolence and pride! Inglorious slave to interest. The god propitiate. replied: "O tyrant. Far hence removed. Pelides. a voluntary throng. unworthy of a royal mind! What generous Greek. and the pest assuage." 13 MARS. and in her martial race. dreadful in his rage. obedient to thy word. And walls of rocks. or shall lift the sword? What cause have I to war at thy decree? The distant Trojans never injured me. Achilles' self conduct her o'er the main. secure my native reign.

an ant. proud monarch. Disgraced and injured by the man we serve? And darest thou threat to snatch my prize away. Thy aid we need not. Though mine the sweat and danger of the day. Of all the kings (the god's distinguish'd care) To power superior none such hatred bear: Strife and debate thy restless soul employ. Thine in each conquest is the wealthy prey. And wars and horrors are thy savage joy. and took their origin from Myrmido. It is fancifully supposed that the name was derived from myrmaex. "because they imitated the 56 . but prize at equal rate Thy short-lived friendship. and thy threats defy. launch thy vessels. For know. O tyrant! match'd with thine. and thy brother's cause? Is this the pay our blood and toils deserve. fly with speed away. and thy groundless hate. mighty warrior! fly. ungrateful. And Jove himself shall guard a monarch's right. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? A prize as small. what conquests. son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa. What spoils. threat thy earth-born Myrmidons:—but here56 The Myrmidons dwelt on the southern borders of Thessaly. I heed thee not. There want not chiefs in such a cause to fight. As thy own actions if compared to mine. But know.14 The Iliad of Homer [008] But thine. shall Atrides gain?" To this the king: "Fly. Some trivial present to my ships I bear: Or barren praises pay the wounds of war. My fleet shall waft me to Thessalia's shore: Left by Achilles on the Trojan plain. Haste. vain man! thy valour is from God. I'm thy slave no more. Go. Rule thy own realms with arbitrary sway. If thou hast strength. 'twas Heaven that strength bestow'd.

And hence. until Ithacus brought them together. to yield thy captive fair: Even in thy tent I'll seize the blooming prize. with grief and rage oppress'd. unseen by the rest. continually employed in cultivating the earth. at first they commonly resided in the open fields. Just as in anguish of suspense he stay'd. Force through the Greeks." . Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruled. and pierce their haughty lord. and only gratify it by withdrawing his services. While half unsheathed appear'd the glittering blade. after Heraclides Ponticus and others." 57 Eustathius. and like them were indefatigable."—Anthon's "Lempriere. was intended to point out the sudden recollection that he would gain nothing by intemperate wrath. as if the appearance of Minerva to Achilles. My bark shall waft her to her native land. Thy loved Briseis with the radiant eyes. Fierce as thou art. 'Tis mine to threaten. But then prepare. and now by reason cool'd: That prompts his hand to draw the deadly sword. and settled them in more secure and comfortable habitations. "De Deo Socratis. The same idea is rather cleverly worked out by Apuleius. Hence shalt thou prove my might. which resembles that of the ant: they bore a further resemblance to these little animals. imperious prince! prepare. allegorizes this apparition. Now fired by wrath. having no other retreats but dens and the cavities of trees. prince. and labour'd in his breast." Achilles heard. to all our hosts it shall be known. and curse the hour Thou stood'st a rival of imperial power. This whispers soft his vengeance to control. His heart swell'd high. and that it were best to restrain his anger. and thine to fear. And calm the rising tempest of his soul.BOOK I. the change from ants to men is founded merely on the equivocation of their name. Know. That kings are subject to the gods alone.57 15 [009] diligence of the ants. in that instead of inhabiting towns or villages. if the god the beauteous dame demand.

Known by the flames that sparkle from her eyes: MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. Behind she stood. A sable cloud conceal'd her from the rest. and sudden to the goddess cries. "Descends Minerva. and by the golden hair Achilles seized. in her guardian care. Sent by the sister and the wife of Jove (For both the princes claim'd her equal care)." .16 The Iliad of Homer Minerva swift descended from above. A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear From Atreus' son?—Then let those eyes that view The daring crime. to him alone confess'd. behold the vengeance too. He sees.

but in heart a deer! When wert thou known in ambush'd fights to dare. thy revenging steel. Command thy passions. and the gods obey. Which thus redoubling on Atrides broke: "O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear. Thine to look on. "Forbear (the progeny of Jove replies) To calm thy fury I forsake the skies: Let great Achilles. The force of keen reproaches let him feel. and bid the valiant die: So much 'tis safer through the camp to go. 'Tis just. Thou dog in forehead. than despoil a foe. To reason yield the empire o'er his mind. Or nobly face the horrid front of war? 'Tis ours. The goddess swift to high Olympus flies. By awful Juno this command is given.BOOK I. And joins the sacred senate of the skies. 17 [010] . For I pronounce (and trust a heavenly power) Thy injured honour has its fated hour. the chance of fighting fields to try. Then let revenge no longer bear the sway." He said. obedient. to the gods resign'd." To her Pelides:—"With regardful ear. observant of the blue-eyed maid. Then in the sheath return'd the shining blade. Hard as it is. When the proud monarch shall thy arms implores And bribe thy friendship with a boundless store. Nor yet the rage his boiling breast forsook. The king and you are both the care of heaven. my vengeance I suppress: Those who revere the gods the gods will bless. But sheathe. O goddess! I thy dictates hear. And rob a subject.

When. Are tamed to wrongs. and furious hurl'd against the ground His sceptre starr'd with golden studs around: Then sternly silent sat. Experienced Nestor. With like disdain The raging king return'd his frowns again. Which never more shall leaves or blossoms bear." . form'd by temper'd steel to prove An ensign of the delegates of Jove. "Paradise Lost. Which sever'd from the trunk (as I from thee) On the bare mountains left its parent tree. Slow from his seat arose the Pylian sage. To calm their passion with the words of age.18 The Iliad of Homer Scourge of thy people. ii: "Though his tongue Dropp'd manna. violent and base! Sent in Jove's anger on a slavish race. Hector comes to spread The purpled shore with mountains of the dead. This sceptre.—or this had been thy last. sweet as honey. from his lips distill'd:58 58 Compare Milton. "For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb." So Proverbs v." bk. lost to sense of generous freedom past." He spoke. flush'd with slaughter. Forced to deplore when impotent to save: Then rage in bitterness of soul to know This act has made the bravest Greek thy foe. Words. 3. Now by this sacred sceptre hear me swear. Who. By this I swear:—when bleeding Greece again Shall call Achilles. From whom the power of laws and justice springs (Tremendous oath! inviolate to kings). she shall call in vain. in persuasion skill'd. Then shall thou mourn the affront thy madness gave.

Let kings be just. Strongest of men. hear my age advise. Achilles. and the friends of Troy! That adverse gods commit to stern debate The best. and sovereign power preside. When Nestor spoke. Wise by his rules. the bravest. even these esteem'd me wise. or Ceneus' deathless name. In early youth my hardy days I led. they pierced the mountain boar. Two generations now had pass'd away. Ranged the wild deserts red with monsters' gore. treat our prince with pride. and happy by his sway. Such as no more these aged eyes shall view! Lives there a chief to match Pirithous' fame. 19 [011] . to toils of battle bred. If in my youth.BOOK I. seize not on the beauteous slave. like the gods in fight? With these of old. And from their hills the shaggy Centaurs tore: Yet these with soft persuasive arts I sway'd. And now the example of the third remain'd. young warriors. Dryas the bold. A godlike race of heroes once I knew. All view'd with awe the venerable man. Young as ye are. Nor think your Nestor's years and wisdom vain. of the Grecian state. what woe is this to Greece! what joy To Troy's proud monarch. endued with more than mortal might. Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd. Who thus with mild benevolence began:— "What shame. Theseus. this youthful heat restrain. Or Polyphemus. Do you. Fired with the thirst which virtuous envy breeds. And smit with love of honourable deeds. they listen'd and obey'd. Atrides. That prize the Greeks by common suffrage gave: Nor thou.

and sceptred sons of Jove. His word the law. thus. and interrupting spoke: "Tyrant." This said. Should I submit to each unjust decree:— Command thy vassals. Forbid it. Like gods in strength. ourself obey? What king can bear a rival in his sway? Grant that the gods his matchless force have given. and thy words are wise. To live thy slave. Before his pride must his superiors fall. and still to serve in vain. O king! to calm Achilles' rage.20 The Iliad of Homer Thee. And furious. whom the Grecians doom'd My prize of war. But that imperious. Him. no more Achilles draws His conquering sword in any woman's cause. as more advanced in age. So shall authority with strength be join'd. he ceased. yet tamely see resumed. No laws can limit. And seize secure. no respect control. The king of men replies: "Thy years are awful. and of a goddess born. and he the lord of all? Him must our hosts. awful majesty exalts above The powers of earth. that unconquer'd soul. Seize on Briseis. Has foul reproach a privilege from heaven?" [012] Here on the monarch's speech Achilles broke. Rule thou thyself. I well deserved thy galling chain. the first honours of the war adorn. and bulwark of our host. The gods command me to forgive the past: But let this first invasion be the last: . The pride of Greece. but command not me. Let both unite with well-consenting mind. Leave me. our chiefs. gods! Achilles should be lost.

salt was thrown into the fresh water to be used for the lustration. embalon alas. when next thou darest invade.713. Along the shore whole hecatombs were laid. "Haste to the fierce Achilles' tent (he cries).BOOK I. Talthybius and Eurybates the good. Thence bear Briseis as our royal prize: Submit he must. or if they will not part. thy blood. if sea-water could not be obtained. For know. Shall stream in vengeance on my reeking blade. Achilles with Patroclus took his way Where near his tents his hollow vessels lay. the pious train59 Are cleansed." At this they ceased: the stern debate expired: The chiefs in sullen majesty retired. and with solemn prayers. phakois. And waft their grateful odours to the skies. from its being supposed to possess certain fiery particles. p. in Clem. The host to expiate next the king prepares. Menander. Wash'd by the briny wave. cut the liquid road. hydati perriranai. . Alex. Hence. Then swiftly sailing. vii. To wait his will two sacred heralds stood. Atrides still with deep resentment raged. And sage Ulysses with the conduct graced: Safe in her sides the hecatomb they stow'd. and cast the ablutions in the main. The sable fumes in curling spires arise. Ourself in arms shall tear her from his heart. The army thus in sacred rites engaged." 21 59 Salt water was chiefly used in lustrations. And bulls and goats to Phoebus' altars paid. Meantime Atrides launch'd with numerous oars A well-rigg'd ship for Chrysa's sacred shores: High on the deck was fair Chryseis placed. With pure lustrations.

Conduct my captive to the haughty king. Pollux. the fair Briseis bring. and proclaim my vow. viii. At awful distance long they silent stand. heralds. and loudest. Unmoved as death Achilles shall remain. and useless to his host. Though prostrate Greece shall bleed at every vein: The raging chief in frantic passion lost. 159. The office was generally given to old men. Not you. With gloomy aspect on his arm reclined. . and thus with accent mild began: "With leave and honour enter our abodes." 60 The persons of heralds were held inviolable. and men below! But first. Witness to gods above. Ye sacred ministers of men and gods!60 I know your message. and they were at liberty to travel whither they would without fear of molestation. Unskill'd to judge the future by the past. Blind to himself. and speak their hard command. to your prince declare (That lawless tyrant whose commands you bear).22 The Iliad of Homer [013] The unwilling heralds act their lord's commands. Loth to advance. In blood and slaughter shall repent at last. Pensive they walk along the barren sands: Arrived. by constraint you came. the hero in his tent they find. But witness. haste. but your imperious lord I blame. and they were believed to be under the especial protection of Jove and Mercury. Onom. Patroclus. p. Decent confusion! This the godlike man Perceived.

Not so his loss the fierce Achilles bore. Patroclus now the unwilling beauty brought. 54 . succeeded in obtaining her hand. slow-moving o'er the strand. who was courted by Neptune and Jupiter. it was known that the son to whom she would give birth must prove greater than his father. And of look'd back. Hygin. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. Her children were all destroyed by fire through her attempts to see whether they were immortal. When. however. retiring to the sounding shore. O'er the wild margin of the deep he hung. with great difficulty. Fab. as she eluded him by assuming various forms.BOOK I. and Achilles would have shared the same fate had not his father rescued him. 23 THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. She afterwards rendered him invulnerable by plunging him into the waters of the Styx. Thetis. as the heralds held her hand. That kindred deep from whence his mother sprung:61 There bathed in tears of anger and disdain. and in pensive thought. She. Pass'd silent. Thus loud lamented to the stormy main: 61 [014] His mother. But sad. with the exception of that part of the heel by which she held him. in soft sorrows. it was determined to wed her to a mortal. and Peleus.

"Why grieves my son? Thy anguish let me share. The waves divide. The goddess-mother heard. Obscures my glories. 62 Thebe was a city of Mysia. And ill he pays the promise of a god. Held forth the sceptre and the laurel crown. . by too severe a doom." Far from the deep recesses of the main. And thus the sorrows of his soul explores. and trust a parent's care. By vote selected. From Thebe. If yon proud monarch thus thy son defies. north of Adramyttium. Beheld him mourning on the naked shores. Reveal the cause.24 The Iliad of Homer "O parent goddess! since in early bloom Thy son must fall. and." He deeply sighing said: "To tell my woe Is but to mention what too well you know. The fleet he reach'd. Sure to so short a race of glory born. And like a mist she rose above the tide. to the general's bed. But bright Chryseis. sacred to Apollo's name62 (Aetion's realm). and resumes my prize. The priest of Phoebus sought by gifts to gain His beauteous daughter from the victor's chain. With treasure loaded and triumphant spoils. our conquering army came. heavenly prize! was led. Where aged Ocean holds his watery reign. Great Jove in justice should this span adorn: Honour and fame at least the thunderer owed. Whose just division crown'd the soldier's toils. Intreating all. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings of Atreus' royal race: The generous Greeks their joint consent declare. lowly bending down.

The traitor-gods. A prophet then. with wonted pride. goddess! thou thy suppliant son attend. faith. the monster Titan came 63 25 [015] That is. defrauds me of the prize allotted me by their votes. And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. Incensed he threaten'd. Defrauds the votes of all the Grecian train.63 And service. the monarch storm'd. Not so Atrides: he. And points the crime. The sire insulted. call'd by thee. . Then. Durst threat with chains the omnipotence of Heaven. and thence derives the woes: Myself the first the assembled chiefs incline To avert the vengeance of the power divine. and his threats perform'd: The fair Chryseis to her sire was sent. To high Olympus' shining court ascend. inspired by heaven. Then rising in his wrath. But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms. But. The warlike maid. and pierce the Grecian hearts. arose. and justice. plead in vain. And sue for vengeance to the thundering god. The priest to reverence. Oft hast thou triumph'd in the glorious boast. When bold rebellion shook the realms above. Urge all the ties to former service owed. and release the fair. With offer'd gifts to make the god relent. and monarch of the main. That thou stood'st forth of all the ethereal host. by mad ambition driven. and his gifts denied: The insulted sire (his god's peculiar care) To Phoebus pray'd.BOOK I. The undaunted guard of cloud-compelling Jove: When the bright partner of his awful reign. and Phoebus heard the prayer: A dreadful plague ensues: the avenging darts Incessant fly.

They dropp'd the fetters. To Fates averse. goddess. While tears celestial trickle from her eyes) Why have I borne thee with a mother's throes. Let Agamemnon lift his haughty head O'er all his wide dominion of the dead. 58. and adored."—'Lectures on the Drama' v. Schlegel well observes. and nursed for future woes?65 So short a space the light of heaven to view! So short a space! and fill'd with sorrow too! 64 Quintus Calaber goes still further in his account of the service rendered to Jove by Thetis: "Nay more. this to his remembrance call." "Unhappy son! (fair Thetis thus replies. the fetters of Almighty Jove She loosed"—Dyce's "Calaber. Embrace his knees. Of the gloomy destiny reigning throughout the Homeric poems. —To Fates averse. Conjure him far to drive the Grecian train. And brandish'd round him all his hundred hands: The affrighted gods confess'd their awful lord. Through wondering skies enormous stalk'd along. To heap the shores with copious death. and bring The Greeks to know the curse of such a king. compared with infinitude. Not he that shakes the solid earth so strong: With giant-pride at Jove's high throne he stands.26 [016] The Iliad of Homer (Whom gods Briareus. and from which even the gods are not exempt. yet. trembled. To hurl them headlong to their fleet and main. And mourn in blood that e'er he durst disgrace The boldest warrior of the Grecian race. 67. they are on an equal footing with himself. 65 ." s. p.64 This. at his tribunal fall. "This power extends also to the world of gods— for the Grecian gods are mere powers of nature—and although immeasurably higher than mortal man. men Ægeon name).

far from Ilion should thy vessels sail. Now mix with mortals. nor disdain to grace The feasts of Æthiopia's blameless race. not mingle in the war. O might a parent's careful wish prevail. the danger shun Which now. alas! too nearly threats my son. from far Behold the field. Meantime. 27 THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. The sire of gods and all the ethereal train. Yet (what I can) to move thy suit I'll go To great Olympus crown'd with fleecy snow. from camps remote. serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes. Far.66 It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments. "I think. "that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon.BOOK I. The sacred ship 66 [017] . secure within thy ships. On the warm limits of the farthest main." says Heeren. And thou. after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship. and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days' absence.

" The goddess spoke: the rolling waves unclose. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals. 98. reconciled. vol. Then down the steep she plunged from whence she rose. since. even according to the interpretation of antiquity. Next on the shore their hecatomb they land. and move The high tribunal of immortal Jove. 67 —Atoned. Eustathius. 1 p. and his twelve days' absence.110. Ulysses led to Phoebus' sacred fane. and is towed along by another boat. p. In Chrysa's port now sage Ulysses rode. In wild resentment for the fair he lost. 1 p."—Long. Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare. And left him sorrowing on the lonely coast. Returning with the twelfth revolving light. and likewise an allegorical one. It is therefore on its voyage. desist to wound. Basil) gives this interpretation. reverend priest! to Phoebus' awful dome A suppliant I from great Atrides come: Unransom'd. they lash the mast aside. 96. sq.28 The Iliad of Homer Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite. And dropp'd their anchors. of my edition. This is the proper and most natural meaning of the word. Her. Atoned by sacrifice. Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter's visit to the Ethiopians. here receive the spotless fair. And may thy god who scatters darts around. which we will spare the reader. as the maid He gave to Chryses."67 of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment. and the pinnace tied. Then will I mount the brazen dome. . thus returning from the furrow'd main. i. Where at his solemn altar. Beneath the deck the destined victims stow'd: The sails they furl'd. (ed. Chryseis last descending on the strand. thus the hero said: "Hail.e. "Egyptian Antiquities" vol. as may be seen from Taylor's remarks in Calmet's Dictionary.

BOOK I. the victims slew:68 29 [018] 68 That is." Dryden's "Virgil. at ease they dine. The limbs yet trembling. With water purify their hands. with their heads to heaven. Whose power incircles Cilla the divine. "If the sacrifice was in honour of the celestial gods. the priest directs his prayer: "God of the silver bow. so lately sought in vain. Thy direful darts inflict the raging pest: Once more attend! avert the wasteful woe. Then near the altar of the darting king. and cheer their souls with wine. The quarry share. Disposed in rank their hecatomb they bring. some portion out the spoil.81."— "Elgin Marbles. Some strip the skin. Restore their strength with meat. And. And smile propitious. And solemn voice. fired to vengeance at thy priest's request. . Apollo heard his prayer: And now the Greeks their hecatomb prepare. And gilds fair Chrysa with distinguish'd rays! If. p. their plenteous dinner haste." vol i. it was killed with its throat toward the ground. thy ear incline. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake. the throat was bent upwards towards heaven. So sadly lost." i. Between their horns the salted barley threw. Stretch'd on the grassy turf. While thus with arms devoutly raised in air. 293. but if made to the heroes. or infernal deities. Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil. drawing back their necks while they cut their throats." So Chryses pray'd. "The jolly crew. the sire embraced the maid again. Whose sacred eye thy Tenedos surveys. At this. and unbend thy bow. in the caldrons boil. unmindful of the past.

filled to the brim. Each takes his seat. restored. When now the rage of hunger was repress'd. and each receives his share. i. where stretch'd along the winding bay. Till rosy morn had purpled o'er the sky: Then launch. The youths with wine the copious goblets crown'd. The youth with instruments surround the fire: The thighs thus sacrificed. 69 . The choicest morsels lay from every part.30 The Iliad of Homer The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide.69 With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends. and sees the flames aspire. With pure libations they conclude the feast. Pours the black wine. and hoist the mast: indulgent gales. Till now the Grecian camp appear'd in view. And. The milk-white canvas bellying as they blow. —Crown'd. the chiefs beside their vessel lie.e. and approves the song. pleased. and entrails dress'd. The thighs. fill the swelling sails. Apollo listens. The paeans lengthen'd till the sun descends: The Greeks. and roast the rest: Then spread the tables. transfix. 'Twas night. The priest himself before his altar stands. the repast prepare. (The crooked keel divides the yellow sand. The custom of adorning goblets with flowers was of later date. selected to the gods.) Then part. And burns the offering with his holy hands. divide: On these. the grateful notes prolong. Supplied by Phoebus. Far on the beach they haul their bark to land. The assistants part. in double cauls involved with art. The parted ocean foams and roars below: Above the bounding billows swift they flew. dispense the flowing bowls around.

and now dishonour'd too. The ships and tents in mingled prospect lay. Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she placed Beneath his beard. where old Olympus shrouds His hundred heads in heaven. Twelve days were past. O father of the gods! (she said) My words could please thee. "If e'er. And pay in glory what in life you owe. first ascending from the watery bowers. Rose from the flood the daughter of the sea: And to the seats divine her flight address'd. and high above the rest. Fame is at least by heavenly promise due To life so short. far apart. stedfast in his hate. nor in council join'd. O ever just and wise! Let Greece be humbled. Avenge this wrong. And scenes of blood rise dreadful in his soul. and the Trojans rise. The thunderer sat. or my actions aid. 31 But raging still. like the morning-mist in early day. Till the proud king and all the Achaian race Shall heap with honours him they now disgrace. and one his knees embraced." [019] . There. Nor mix'd in combat. When. and now the dawning light The gods had summon'd to the Olympian height: Jove. Some marks of honour on my son bestow.BOOK I. Leads the long order of ethereal powers. But wasting cares lay heavy on his mind: In his black thoughts revenge and slaughter roll. amidst his navy sat The stern Achilles. and props the clouds.

and. Is wretched Thetis least the care of Jove?" She said. "O sire of gods and men! thy suppliant hear. sighing. Not so repulsed.32 The Iliad of Homer THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. but Jove in silence held The sacred counsels of his breast conceal'd. for what has Jove to fear? Or oh! declare. Thus Thetis spoke. thus the god replies. Refuse. the goddess closer press'd. or grant. Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies: . and urged the dear request. of all the powers above. Still grasp'd his knees.

BOOK I. xii p. 351.124. And all Olympus to the centre shook. The faithful. Those who beheld this statue are said to have been so struck with it as to have asked whether Jupiter had descended from heaven to show himself to Phidias. The nod that ratifies the will divine. The shining synod of the immortals wait The coming god. The stamp of fate and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took." "Paradise Lost" ii. and by an oath. he is said to have answered by repeating the lines of the first Iliad in which the poet represents the majesty of the god in the most sublime terms. fix'd. 71 "So was his will Pronounced among the gods. irrevocable sign. why should Jove engage In foreign contests and domestic rage. and gives the nod. and awful bends his sable brows. But part in peace. or whether Phidias had been carried thither to contemplate the god. thereby signifying that the genius of Homer had inspired him with it. and Juno's fierce alarms. Jove to his starry mansions in the skies.70 Shakes his ambrosial curls. The gods' complaints.71 Swift to the seas profound the goddess flies. and from their thrones of state Arising silent. lest the haughty partner of my sway With jealous eyes thy close access survey. While I. secure thy prayer is sped: Witness the sacred honours of our head. . That shook heav'n's whole circumference. and this fulfils thy vows—" He spoke. confirm'd. &c. "When a friend inquired of Phidias what pattern he had formed his Olympian Jupiter. This seals thy suit." vol. too partial. "What hast thou ask'd? ah. wrapp'd in holy fear. 33 70 —He spoke."— "Elgin Marbles. aid the Trojan arms? Go.

Jove to his Thetis nothing could deny. In close consult. the silver-footed queen. The first of gods above. Who now partakes the secrets of the skies? Thy Juno knows not the decrees of fate. Which Jove in prudence from his consort hides?" To this the thunderer: "Seek not thou to find The sacred counsels of almighty mind: Involved in darkness likes the great decree. while Jove assumes the throne. remains in force. for me. Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky. nor they. And all thy counsels take the destined course. In vain the partner of imperial state." Full on the sire the goddess of the skies Roll'd the large orbs of her majestic eyes. Trembling they stand.34 The Iliad of Homer Before the majesty of heaven appear. inexorable son? Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain. But 'tis for Greece I fear: for late was seen. and men below. or who controls thy sway? Thy boundless will. artful manager of heaven (she cries). And glut his vengeance with my people slain. From whence this wrath. say. What fatal favour has the goddess won. thou the first shalt know. What fits thy knowledge. What favourite goddess then those cares divides. Nor can the depths of fate be pierced by thee. but the god's imperious queen alone: Late had she view'd the silver-footed dame. And thus return'd:—"Austere Saturnius. "Say. But thou. And all her passions kindled into flame." [021] . All. shall search the thoughts that roll Deep in the close recesses of my soul. To grace her fierce.

nor dare our will withstand. and odious to thy lord." 35 VULCAN. But dread the power of this avenging hand: The united strength of all the gods above In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove. presumptuous and abhorr'd.BOOK I. that ought to be. submit. That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide. Then thus the god: "O restless fate of pride. Vain is the search. Let this suffice: the immutable decree No force can shake: what is. Anxious to thee. Goddess. .

Thus interposed the architect divine: "The wretched quarrels of the mortal state Are far unworthy. something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. The feast disturb'd. he shake the bless'd abodes. and dethrone the gods. if Jove his arm extend. See Buttmann. A reverent horror silenced all the sky. 93 sq. p." Thus Vulcan spoke: and rising with a bound. Thou. nor durst the queen reply. and pleasure his design." i. be patient and obey. the thunderer stands appeased. roused to rage.73 —A double bowl. "Goddess (he cried). Or lift his hand against the force of Jove? Once in your cause I felt his matchless might.e. I can but grieve. gods! of your debate: Let men their days in senseless strife employ.36 The Iliad of Homer [022] The thunderer spoke. If you submit. "Him th' Almighty power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th ethereal sky. Peace at his heart. with our sire comply. i. The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown'd. Launch the red lightning.72 Which held to Juno in a cheerful way. Lexic. unable to defend What god so daring in your aid to move. The gracious power is willing to be pleased. a vessel with a cup at both ends. in eternal peace and constant joy. with sorrow Vulcan saw His mother menaced. 73 "Paradise Lost. With hideous ruin and combustion" 72 . and the gods in awe. 44. Dear as you are. goddess-mother. We. Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height. Nor break the sacred union of the sky: Lest.

Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn. "Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece.. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. ed Gale. See Heraclides. they fabled. and to her hands the goblet heaved. had taken and pillaged Troy." p. to the rest he fill'd. The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast. 'Ponticus. Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round.74 He said. in revenge.BOOK I. the white-arm'd queen received Then. its contentions for power and occasional revolutions. Juno raised a storm. in giddy motion lost. and in his turn. Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong. In feasts ambrosial. which drove him to the island of Cos. Jove. the Muses round With voice alternate aid the silver sound. The Sinthians were a race of robbers. from noon to dewy eve. And unextinguish'd laughter shakes the skies." 74 The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this—After Hercules. Breathless I fell. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction. having previously cast Jove into a sleep. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements from morn To noon he fell. Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies.75 Apollo tuned the lyre. and in Ausonian land Men call'd him Mulciber. Which. and hung her from the sky. and Vulcan. its public meetings in the agora of Olympus. fastened iron anvils to her feet. the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan. 463 sq. Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground. A summer's day and with the setting sun Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star . and how he fell From heaven. and its multitudinous banquets or festivals. to prevent him aiding his son. was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. attempting to relieve her. 37 [023] of ranks and duties. and celestial song. with a smile.

its distribution 75 . And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed. vol i p. 738 It is ingeniously observed by Grote." "Paradise Lost. JUPITER. that "The gods formed a sort of political community of their own which had its hierarchy. 463. th' Aegean isle thus they relate. [024] On Lemnos. roll'd down the rapid light: Then to their starry domes the gods depart. The shining monuments of Vulcan's art: Jove on his couch reclined his awful head." i.38 The Iliad of Homer Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight Descending swift.

39 THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER.BOOK I. .

.

ARGUMENT. AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. as well as by the length of time. several speeches made on the occasion. and run to prepare the ships. The assembly is recalled. that he would propose a return to the soldiers. and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. towards the end it removes to Troy. They are detained by the management of Ulysses. and upon the sea-shore. and to divide them into their several nations. they unanimously agree to it. and the late plague. which was to make a general muster of the troops. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans. who chastises the insolence of Thersites. The general.[025] BOOK II. and in a large catalogue. He first communicates his design to the princes in council. sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon. contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. and at length the advice of Nestor followed. The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance. before they proceeded to battle. but fears the army was discouraged by his absence. and upon moving for a return to Greece. Jupiter. Then he assembles the whole host. persuading him to lead the army to battle. THE TRIAL OF THE ARMY. in pursuance of the request of Thetis. .

" 76 Plato.) Coleridge. And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war: Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight. Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train. well observes. deluding Dream! and light as air. e'en now 'tis given him to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. "When. by Minerva sent. Compare "Paradise Lost." p.42 The Iliad of Homer Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye." —Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter. All. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. "Fly hence. (See Minucius Felix." v. iii. p. 154. 77 . Declare. a fraudful Dream Rush'd from the skies. the bane of her and Troy." Dyce's "Select Translations from Quintus Calaber. 646: [026] "And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. 437. being. that he would fain sentence him to an honourable banishment. And thus commands the vision of the night. was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. p. See Anthon and others. For now no more the gods with fate contend. and at his other attacks on the character of the gods.77 To Agamemnon's ample tent repair. Rep. but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove.10. I think. evidently personified as the god of dreams. that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate will. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. Introd. Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain. Section 22. Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie: The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above.76 To honour Thetis' son he bends his care.

Directs in council. what sleep can close Thy eye-lids?" —"Paradise Lost. with all a monarch's cares oppress'd. companion dear.BOOK II. To whom its safety a whole people owes. Swift as the word the vain illusion fled. and in war presides. Descends. and hovers o'er Atrides' head. 78 "Sleep'st thou. Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage. and revered for age: Around his temples spreads his golden wing. 673. Renown'd for wisdom. ." v. 43 JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. "Canst thou. O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge the rest?78 Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. And thus the flattering dream deceives the king.

Silius neatly translates it. claim his heavenly care. his arm the massy sceptre loads. Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design'd. And trust the vision that descends from Jove. Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy: Vain as he was. Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain. then vanish'd from his sight. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. E'en now. Thou. A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ. This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many a general and statesman of antiquity.44 The Iliad of Homer [027] To waste long nights in indolent repose." . but waking this advice approve. Resolves to air. and to the future blind. and thy glory. Awake. For now no more the gods with fate contend. What scenes of grief. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall.79 Monarch. The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied. What mighty toils to either host remain. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. and in fancy hears The voice celestial murmuring in his ears." The phantom said. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. 79 "Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem. and numbers of the slain! Eager he rises. First on his limbs a slender vest he drew. And last. and mixes with the night. The starry falchion glitter'd at his side. Around him next the regal mantle threw. In just array draw forth the embattled train.

dost thou sleep. The same in habit. Lifts up her light. A dream divine appear'd before my sight. 803." Dryden's Virgil. Whose visionary form like Nestor came. There calls a senate of the peers around: The assembly placed. Directs in council. To waste long nights in indolent repose.BOOK II. Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night. To whom its safety a whole people owes. and in war presides. O Atreus' son? (he said) Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. and opens day above. In his black ship the Pylian prince he found. immortal. The king despatch'd his heralds with commands To range the camp and summon all the bands: The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey. 'And. Unstain'd. 45 Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove. 80 [028] —The same in habit. and the gift of gods. iv. "Friends and confederates! with attentive ear Receive my words. "To whom once more the winged god appears. and in mien the same.80 The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head. &c. the king of men express'd The counsels labouring in his artful breast. His former youthful mien and shape he wears. and credit what you hear. While to the fleet Atrides bends his way. .

obey the god's alarms. But first. For now no more the gods with fate contend. And join to rouse the sons of Greece to arms. Be mine. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. and yours the province to detain. Sent by great Jove to him who rules the host. try what yet they dare. and the gods obey!' The vision spoke.46 The Iliad of Homer Monarch. rising said. Thou and thy glory claim his heavenly care. your faithful ears incline. This hear observant. and rouse the sons of Greece to arms. Unite. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. In just array draw forth the embattled train. And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. Nor doubt the vision of the powers divine. (Nestor.) "Princes of Greece. To move the troops to measure back the main. and pass'd in air away. valiant chiefs! since heaven itself alarms. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. Now." . with caution. Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. E'en now. and sat: when Nestor. whom Pylos' sandy realms obey'd. Forbid it." He spoke. heaven! this warning should be lost! Then let us haste.

Dusky they spread. And o'er the vale descends the living cloud. Xviii. the following host. ii. swarms succeeding swarms. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. 82 It was the herald's duty to make the people sit down. and claps her wings above. Nine sacred heralds now. Rolling and blackening. and their chief obey: The sceptred rulers lead. a close embodied crowd. and wide o'ershades the plain: Along the region runs a deafening sound. Pour'd forth by thousands. The king of kings his awful figure raised: 81 47 [029] "As bees in spring-time. 138). a lengthen'd train Spreads all the beach. 91. Beneath their footsteps groans the trembling ground."—Grote. And fainter murmurs died upon the ear. is also the forerunner of mischief ('Odyssey. New-nibb'd with balm. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. 246) an evening agora. 768."—"Paradise Lost" i. or on the smoothed plank. proclaiming loud82 The monarch's will. p. With deeper murmurs and more hoarse alarms. expatiate and confer Their state affairs.' iii. Fame flies before the messenger of Jove. So thick the very crowd Swarm'd and were straiten'd. Soon as the throngs in order ranged appear.81 So. note. . darkens all the coast. Thus spoke the sage: the kings without delay Dissolve the council. The suburb of this straw-built citadel. As from some rocky cleft the shepherd sees Clustering in heaps on heaps the driving bees. "A standing agora is a symptom of manifest terror (II. to which men came elevated by wine. from the tents and ships. when The sun with Taurus rides. And shining soars.BOOK II. suspend the listening crowd.

he being the wealth giving god. whose blessing is most efficacious in furthering the process of acquisition. To Pelops he the immortal gift resign'd. To rich Thyestes next the prize descends. And now the mark of Agamemnon's reign. p.48 The Iliad of Homer High in his hand the golden sceptre blazed. And artful thus pronounced the speech design'd: "Ye sons of Mars. and our glory lost. partake your leader's care.83 On this bright sceptre now the king reclined. By Vulcan form'd. and enrich'd with spoils. The immortal gift great Pelops left behind."—Grote. and controls the main. from Jove to Hermes came. Now shameful flight alone can save the host. the sire of gods bestow'd The cup on Dardanus. 212. 43). And heavenly oracles believed in vain A safe return was promised to our toils. Golden. i. and framed by art divine (a gift Which to Almighty Jove lame Vulcan brought Upon his nuptial day. Subjects all Argos. And left it. and brothers of the war! Of partial Jove with justice I complain. In Atreus' hand. of celestial flame." . to be possess'd By Ilus he to great Laomedon Gave it. Our blood. Then pledged the chief in a capacious cup. triumphant. 83 This sceptre. which not with Atreus ends. Renown'd. 9. is a type of the supreme and far-spread dominion of the house of the Atrides. The golden sceptre. 10). Compare Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Selections. p. "It is traced through the hands of Hermes. "Thus the monarch spoke. and last to Priam's lot it fell. when he espoused The Queen of Love). Heroes of Greece. with his wealth. See Thucydides i. our treasure. who gave it next To Ericthonius Tros received it then. like that of Judah (Genesis xlix.

And towns and armies humbles to the dust What shame to Greece a fruitful war to wage. your sails and oars employ. Grecians. From east and south when winds begin to roar. summon us away. duty. and sweep 49 [030] Grote. Since first the labours of this war begun: Our cordage torn. to our native shore. Repulsed and baffled by a feeble foe. lasting shame in every future age! Once great in arms. decay'd our vessels lie. Oh. i. Haste. that if wars were ceased. whole decades when they dine Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine. Burst their dark mansions in the clouds. Our shatter'd barks may yet transport us o'er. safety.BOOK II. p. the hosts approve Atrides' speech. And scarce insure the wretched power to fly. 393. and nature we obey. So small their number. fly.000. And Greece triumphant held a general feast. then. 'Tis nature's voice." His deep design unknown. our tender children call: Love.000 men. Now nine long years of mighty Jove are run. The mighty numbers move. So roll the billows to the Icarian shore. for ever leave the Trojan wall! Our weeping wives. Fly.84 But other forces have our hopes o'erthrown. resistless lord of all! At whose command whole empires rise or fall: He shakes the feeble props of human trust. Nichols makes a total of 135. states the number of the Grecian forces at upwards of 100. So Jove decrees. the common scorn we grow. All rank'd by tens. And dream no more of heaven-defended Troy. Safe and inglorious. 84 . And Troy prevails by armies not her own.

Once more refulgent shine in brazen arms. shall Priam. In peace enjoy the fruits of broken vows? And bravest chiefs. The doubling clamours echo to the skies. goddess. But Jove's imperial queen their flight survey'd. sqq. . With long-resounding cries they urge the train To fit the ships.85 Before the blast the lofty harvests bend: Thus o'er the field the moving host appears. ripe for harvest. and thicken to the fleet. unmoved by vain alarms. And as on corn when western gusts descend. and launch into the main. Lie unrevenged on yon detested plain? No: let my Greeks. And sighing thus bespoke the blue-eyed maid: [031] "Shall then the Grecians fly! O dire disgrace! And leave unpunish'd this perfidious race? Shall Troy. Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main." 85 "As thick as when a field Of Ceres. their trampling feet Beat the loose sands. Haste. they sweat. which way the wind Sways them. haste! the flying host detain. With nodding plumes and groves of waving spears."—Paradise Lost. thick clouds of dust arise. and the adulterous spouse.50 The Iliad of Homer The whitening surface of the ruffled deep. E'en then the Greeks had left the hostile plain. And fate decreed the fall of Troy in vain. waving bends His bearded grove of ears. 980. in Helen's quarrel slain." iv. They toil. The gathering murmur spreads.

He fired with praise. He tries our courage.BOOK II." The voice divine confess'd the warlike maid. Each prince of name. Pallas obeys. from Jove his honour springs. divine Laertes' son. The unwary Greeks his fury may provoke. The monarch's will not yet reveal'd appears. and your chiefs reclaim. Ulysses heard. but resents our fears. Thus fly the Greeks (the martial maid begun). or chief in arms approved. "Warriors like you. By brave examples should confirm the rest. nor uninspired obey'd: Then meeting first Atrides. Recall your armies. with strength and wisdom bless'd. Thus graced. Beware! for dreadful is the wrath of kings. he flies through all the Grecian train. attention and respect to gain. Your own resistless eloquence employ. generous Ithacus! prevent the shame. And to the immortals trust the fall of Troy. And fame eternal leave to Priam's race? Shall beauteous Helen still remain unfreed. For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd: Oppress'd with generous grief the hero stood. "And is it thus." 51 . she found. or with persuasion moved. Not thus the king in secret council spoke. a thousand heroes bleed! Haste. Jove loves our chief. Ulysses. Still unrevenged. first in public cares. and from Olympus' height Swift to the ships precipitates her flight. Thus to their country bear their own disgrace. Nor drew his sable vessels to the flood. from his hand Received the imperial sceptre of command. He runs.

the lumber of a land. Desert the ships." ch.52 The Iliad of Homer But if a clamorous vile plebeian rose. The loudest silenced. The rocks remurmur and the deeps rebound. His are the laws. who abused it into a pretext for unlimited usurpation of power. and monarchs to revile. Caligula. and him let all obey. Loquacious. Unknown alike in council and in field! Ye gods. "Ancient Greece. loud. wretch. 86 [032] . what dastards would our host command! Swept to the war. Murmuring they move. we find the maxim propounded by Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles. and to thy betters yield. p. and. Scorn all his joy. Be silent. Dion. and pour upon the plain. Him with reproof he check'd or tamed with blows. vi. and think not here allow'd That worst of tyrants. In scandal busy. This sentiment used to be a popular one with some of the greatest tyrants."86 With words like these the troops Ulysses ruled. the noises cease. And a still silence lulls the camp to peace. in reproaches bold: With witty malice studious to defame. Back to the assembly roll the thronging train. and laughter all his aim:— But chief he gloried with licentious style To lash the great. See some important remarks of Heeren. To one sole monarch Jove commits the sway. Thersites only clamour'd in the throng. and Domitian were particularly fond of it. and turbulent of tongue: Awed by no shame. At length the tumult sinks. by no respect controll'd. thou slave. in an extended form. 105. as when old ocean roars. "Be still. and the fiercest cool'd. an usurping crowd. The groaning banks are burst with bellowing sound. And heaves huge surges to the trembling shores.

But royal scandal his delight supreme. "Amidst the glories of so bright a reign. Thin hairs bestrew'd his long misshapen head. For Troy to ransom at a price too dear? But safer plunder thy own host supplies. which in the shrillest tone.BOOK II. and let him waste his store In loves and pleasures on the Phrygian shore. Spleen to mankind his envious heart possess'd. and one leg was lame: His mountain shoulders half his breast o'erspread. or punish'd for his lust. Say. The golden spoil. Sharp was his voice. What moves the great Atrides to complain? 'Tis thine whate'er the warrior's breast inflames. With all the wealth our wars and blood bestow. Thus with injurious taunts attack'd the throne. but most the best: Ulysses or Achilles still his theme. Long had he lived the scorn of every Greek. Plagued with his pride. And bring the race of royal bastards here. to bless thy kingly bed? Whate'er our master craves submit we must. and thine the lovely dames. if thy heart to generous love be led. What grieves the monarch? Is it thirst of gold? Say. Some captive fair. His figure such as might his soul proclaim. One eye was blinking. And much he hated all. wouldst thou seize some valiant leader's prize? Or. shall we march with our unconquer'd powers (The Greeks and I) to Ilion's hostile towers. Thus at full ease in heaps of riches roll'd. men no more! Hence let us fly. 53 . yet still they heard him speak. Vex'd when he spoke. Thy tents are crowded and thy chests o'erflow. Oh women of Achaia.

and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief. resent that wrong. upbraids the most? Think not the Greeks to shameful flight to bring.87 In generous vengeance of the king of kings. and lines of combatants. on which account the ancients preferred for it such subjects as admitted of an indefinite extension. that the character of Thersites. Schlegel well observes. we lose sight of what precedes. but that we are left to suppose something both to precede and to follow it. and the brave: And durst he. The bas-relief is equally without limit. one by one. Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes. asperse the sovereign reign. either from before or behind. dances. while we advance. so Homer's heroes advance. or the frieze of a rotunda. such as vases. Have we not known thee."—"Dramatic Literature. where." Fierce from his seat at this Ulysses springs. serves admirably to develop the disposition of Ulysses in a new light. 87 . With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate: Curb that impetuous tongue. nor rashly vain. It may be remarked. Reading Homer is very much like such a circuit. and sternly thus replies: "Peace. With indignation sparkling in his eyes. This mighty tyrant were no tyrant long. "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile. From him. revolting and contemptible as it is. the fearless. one object appears as another disappears. and hence they also exhibit bas-reliefs on curved surfaces. When Hector comes: so great Achilles may: From him he forced the prize we jointly gave. sacrificial processions.54 [033] The Iliad of Homer We may be wanted on some busy day. the two ends are withdrawn from our sight. and may be continued ad infinitum. and do not concern ourselves about what is to follow. He views the wretch. in which mere cunning is less prominent. in succession before us. by the curvature. and where. born to vex the state. the present object alone arresting our attention. slave! of all our host. as he ought. 75." p. factious monster. The man who acts the least. they are not grouped together. It has been remarked that the Iliad is not definitively closed. the fierce. And singly mad. but follow one another.

While to his neighbour each express'd his thought: [034] "There cannot be a clearer indication than this description —so graphic in the original poem—of the true character of the Homeric agora. and shrunk in abject fears. of misshapen head. The multitude who compose it are listening and acquiescent. Be that their care. crook-backed. even where his virulent reproaches are substantially well-founded. And let these eyes behold my son no more. to fight like men be ours. 97." 55 He said. Art thou that hero. on thy next offence. than by the chastisement of Odysseus he is lame. The fate which awaits a presumptuous critic. and squinting vision.88 On the round bunch the bloody tumours rise: The tears spring starting from his haggard eyes. and never refractory to the chief. Expel the council where our princes meet. is plainly set forth in the treatment of Thersites. But grant the host with wealth the general load. bald. p. not often hesitating. And send thee scourged and howling through the fleet.BOOK II. If. while the unpopularity of such a character is attested even more by the excessive pains which Homer takes to heap upon him repulsive personal deformities. The weighty sceptre on his bank descends. could those spoils be thine? Gods! let me perish on this hateful shore."—Grote. From his vile visage wiped the scalding tears. Nor let those lips profane the name of king. Trembling he sat. i. what hast thou bestow'd? Suppose some hero should his spoils resign. 88 . For our return we trust the heavenly powers. and cowering as the dastard bends. Except detraction. vol. this hand forbear To strip those arms thou ill deserv'st to wear.

Sedition silence. rising." 'Twas thus the general voice the hero praised. His silence thus the prudent hero broke: "Unhappy monarch! whom the Grecian race With shame deserting. The tedious length of nine revolving years. endure the wintry main? Few leagues removed. his celestial friend. and assert the throne.56 The Iliad of Homer "Ye gods! what wonders has Ulysses wrought! What fruits his conduct and his courage yield! Great in the council. To hear the wisdom of his heavenly tongue. glorious in the field. eternal shame! Expect the time to Troy's destruction given. To curb the factious tongue of insolence. When the ship tosses. Then deeply thoughtful. heap with vile disgrace. What could their wives or helpless children more? What heart but melts to leave the tender train. The expecting crowds in still attention hung. . And. we wish our peaceful seat. and the tempests beat: Then well may this long stay provoke their tears. high the imperial sceptre raised: The blue-eyed Pallas. (In form a herald. But vanquish'd! baffled! oh. Such just examples on offenders shown. Not for their grief the Grecian host I blame. one short month. was then the common cry.) bade the crowds attend. Who. Generous he rises in the crown's defence. but ah! forgotten now: Ne'er to return. Behold them weeping for their native shore. Not such at Argos was their generous vow: Once all their voice. Till Troy's proud structures should in ashes lie. pausing ere he spoke.

The tragedians. Nor long survived: to marble turn'd. What pass'd at Aulis. And try the faith of Chalcas and of heaven.. of dire portent. and seem to have found the sacrifice of Iphigena better suited to form the subject of a tragedy. and support the war. sqq. both the sprig and the remains of the tree were exhibited in his time. From Jove himself the dreadful sign was sent. Straight to the tree his sanguine spires he roll'd. iii. Full of his god. "The god" would be more simple and emphatic. 57 [035] According to Pausanias. Greece can witness bear.e. Compare Dryden's "Æneid. as round the nest she flew. the serpent. he stands A lasting prodigy on Aulis' sands. Seized by the beating wing. The altars heaved. Herself the ninth. Such was the will of Jove. and the victims blazed: 'Twas where the plane-tree spread its shades around. and from the crumbling ground A mighty dragon shot." vol. While hovering near. 89 . The mother last. Stretch'd his black jaws and crush'd the crying young.90 'Ye Grecian warriors! lay your fears aside. For while around we gazed with wondering eyes. as he hung. with miserable moan. 90 —Full of his god. Eight callow infants fill'd the mossy nest. filled with the prophetic spirit. the monster slew. Apollo. And curl'd around in many a winding fold. adopted a different fable to account for the stoppage at Aulis.89 And all who live to breathe this Phrygian air. And trembling sought the powers with sacrifice. This wondrous signal Jove himself displays.BOOK II. the reverend Chalcas cried. Lucretius and others. Beside a fountain's sacred brink we raised Our verdant altars. The topmost branch a mother-bird possess'd. The drooping mother wail'd her children gone. and hence we dare Trust in his omen. i.

The hollow ships each deafening shout rebound. And thunder rolling shook the firmament. Jove. As many birds as by the snake were slain.58 The Iliad of Homer [036] Of long. a prosperous signal sent. not like heroes dare. No wonder Troy so long resists our powers. if any Greek invite His country's troops to base. ye Grecians! with submission wait. Till Helen's woes at full revenged appear. if thou direct the way. Encouraged hence. And Troy's proud matrons render tear for tear. Till every soldier grasp a Phrygian wife. But wait the tenth. your engagements past? Vow'd with libations and with victims then. inglorious flight. long labours. Obey. maintain the glorious strife. Now vanish'd like their smoke: the faith of men! While useless words consume the unactive hours. Then Nestor thus—"These vain debates forbear. Nor let your flight avert the Trojan fate. but eternal praise. plough'd the main. Ye talk like children. thus the Fates succeed. . And view with envy our successful wars. Where now are all your high resolves at last? Your leagues concluded. We march to war. Before that day." He said: the shores with loud applauses sound. Rise. great Atrides! and with courage sway. Stand forth that Greek! and hoist his sail to fly. Big with the fate of Ilion. But leave the few that dare resist thy laws. on the right. The mean deserters of the Grecian cause. for Ilion's fall decreed:' Thus spoke the prophet. To grudge the conquests mighty Jove prepares. when first the martial train. So many years the toils of Greece remain. On that great day.

" To him the king: "How much thy years excel In arts of counsel. a captive maid the cause: If e'er as friends we join. And soon should fall the haughty towers of Troy! But Jove forbids. And die the dastard first. who plunges those he hates In fierce contention and in vain debates: Now great Achilles from our aid withdraws. If fate resists. and in speaking well! O would the gods. should have paid more attention to these lines. or men below. in love to Greece.BOOK II. O monarch! all thy chiefs advise:91 Nor what they offer. of the numerous band. ye warriors. who dreads to die. And. Or bravely fights. Each strengthen each. What chief. or if our arms are slow. decree But ten such sages as they grant in thee. or ill obeys command. Among those counsels. By me provoked. His sharpen'd spear let every Grecian wield. Such wisdom soon should Priam's force destroy. thou thyself despise. But now. well refresh'd. Let all excite the fiery steeds of war. or soldier. 91 . the Trojan wall Must shake. which form a most natural introduction to their enumeration. and heavy will the vengeance fall! But now. In tribes and nations to divide thy train: His separate troops let every leader call. 59 Those critics who have maintained that the "Catalogue of Ships" is an interpolation. If gods above prevent. let not mine be vain. shall soon be known And what the cause of Ilion not o'erthrown. and all encourage all. take a short repast. And every Grecian fix his brazen shield. to bloody conflict haste. When thus distinct they war.

Straight to the tents the troops dispersing bend. too mean to fall by martial power. for Minerva. A black bull. healthy. The birds shall mangle. or a sheep. Apollo. consecrated to particular deities. this dreadful day. inglorious. A heifer." vol. To avert the dangers of the doubtful day. and let the mighty fall. which had never borne the yoke.92 To Jove's high altars Agamemnon led: There bade the noblest of the Grecian peers. and the dogs devour. and Bacchus victims of advanced age might be offered. Diana was propitiated with a stag. p. and pray. That wretch." The monarch spoke. The fires are kindled. let each contend. And each spent courser at the chariot blow. No rest. at a later time. or till death. With hasty feasts they sacrifice. With the huge shield each brawny arm depress'd. Who dares. That dash'd on broken rocks tumultuous roar. 92 . The goat to Bacchus. Till bathed in sweat be every manly breast. To Jupiter. and fed. because he fed on vines. To Ceres a sow was sacrificed. or a boar pig. and the smokes ascend. A steer of five years' age. The most acceptable of all sacrifices was the heifer of a year old. The following observation will be useful to Homeric readers: "Particular animals were. Who dares to tremble on this signal day. and without blemish. An ox of five years old was considered especially acceptable to Jupiter. large limb'd. Loud as the surges when the tempest blows. and straight a murmur rose. Ceres. This day. till the shades descend. and to Venus the dove was consecrated."—"Elgin Marbles. Each aching nerve refuse the lance to throw. 78. as an enemy to corn. a ram. no respite. shall cover all: Let the war bleed. were offerings for Neptune. in his ships to stay. Till darkness. Juno. And foam and thunder on the stony shore.60 The Iliad of Homer [037] And all for combat fit the rattling car. i. The infernal and evil deities were to be appeased with black victims. It was to be perfect in every limb.

and doubled woes on woes. Diomed. who was king of Salamis. Who in the heaven of heavens hast fixed thy throne.BOOK II. He must be distinguished from the other. Before the night her gloomy veil extends. And slaughter'd heroes groan around their lord!" Thus prayed the chief: his unavailing prayer Great Jove refused. Ajax. the last.94 Ajax the less. "Sympos. and toss'd in empty air: The God averse. unbid. Be Priam's palace sunk in Grecian fires. a Locrian.93 and Tydeus' son. has found some curious meaning in what. the son of Oileus. 315. "O thou! whose thunder rends the clouded air. Was there any heroic rule of etiquette which prevented one brother-king visiting another without a formal invitation? . to us. Prepared new toils. Their prayers perform'd the chiefs the rite pursue. Having vowed. during a tempest. 61 93 —Idomeneus. appears to need no explanation.96 The chiefs surround the destined beast. his son fell a victim to his rash vow. was king of Crete. 94 —Tydeus' son. and alone! Hear! and before the burning sun descends. son of Deucalion." p.95 Then wise Ulysses in his rank was placed. while yet the fumes arose. as most advanced in years. on his return from Troy. i. Even Plato. Next came Idomeneus. Low in the dust be laid yon hostile spires.e. 95 That is. And Nestor first. and Ajax Telamon. In Hector's breast be plunged this shining sword. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake: When thus the king prefers his solemn prayer. to sacrifice to Neptune the first creature that should present itself to his eye on the Cretan shore. 96 A great deal of nonsense has been written to account for the word unbid. Supreme of gods! unbounded. in this line. And Menelaus came.

and entrails dress'd The assistants part. now the troops survey. divide. Straight the loud heralds call the gathering bands The chiefs inclose their king. Swells their bold hearts. High in the midst the blue-eyed virgin flies. And lead to war when heaven directs the way. But breathe revenge. From the cleft wood the crackling flames aspire While the fat victims feed the sacred fire. and seem'd to burn in gold. The generous Nestor thus the prince address'd. and lighten'd all the field: Round the vast orb a hundred serpents roll'd. In tribes and nations rank'd on either side. Soon as the rage of hunger was suppress'd. transfix. selected to the gods. The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. in double cauls involved with art. Jove's immortal shield. On these. Blazed on her arm. No more they sigh. Now seize the occasion. The dreadful aegis. the monarch issued his commands." He said. From rank to rank she darts her ardent eyes. the repast prepare. and for the combat burn. to return.62 [038] The Iliad of Homer The barley sprinkled. The choicest morsels lie from every part. Each takes his seat. and strings their nervous arms. With this each Grecian's manly breast she warms. and each receives his share. the hosts divide. The thighs thus sacrificed. Form'd the bright fringe. "Now bid thy heralds sound the loud alarms. The thighs. Then spread the tables. inglorious. and roast the rest. and the victim slew. . And call the squadrons sheathed in brazen arms.

and course in airy rounds. Not less their number than the embodied cranes. everything tends to identify it with Mendere. Along the river's level meads they stand. The legions crowd Scamander's flowery side. or Scamandros. and flows through marshes. 300 feet broad. rising. receives the Simois in its course. the yellow colour of whose waters attracts the attention of travellers. were found in great numbers about the Asian Marsh. The fires expanding. on the highest part of Mount Ida. Juno. As on some mountain. through the lofty grove. "yellow. Or milk-white swans in Asius' watery plains. And thundering footsteps shake the sounding shore. See Virgil. and traces the source of the river to the highest mountain in the chain of Ida. i. o'er the windings of Cayster's springs. That.98 With rushing troops the plains are cover'd o'er. with noise the field resounds. a fenny tract of country in Lydia. the Mendere is 40 miles long. and Venus. deep in the time of flood.BOOK II. nearly dry in the summer. and falling into the sea at Sigaeum. Clarke successfully combats the opinion of those who make the Scamander to have arisen from the springs of Bounabarshy.97 Stretch their long necks. according to Strabo. sq. now Kusdaghy. extending wide. Rennell. Minerva. Now light with noise. Shoot their long beams. was a river of Troas. . Scamander by men. towards its mouth it is very muddy. 383. hence the three goddesses. 98 —Scamander. Now tower aloft. as the winds arise. bathed there before they appeared before Paris to obtain the golden apple: the name Xanthus. formed by the river Cayster." vol. and others maintain. near its mouth. and kindle half the skies: So from the polish'd arms. 63 [039] 97 Fresh water fowl. Dr. A gleamy splendour flash'd along the fields. according to Homer. The crackling flames ascend. Thus numerous and confused. The waters of the Scamander had the singular property of giving a beautiful colour to the hair or wool of such animals as bathed in them. and clap their rustling wings. especially swans. "Georgics. still applicable to the Mendere. Between the Scamander and Simois. was called Xanthus by the gods. as Wood." was given to the Scamander. Homer's Troy is supposed to have stood: this river. and blaze above. from the peculiar colour of its waters. in the same hill with the Granicus and the OEdipus. and brazen shields.

19. (vol. the Grecian squadrons stood In radiant arms. . in the "Elgin Marbles. Not with more ease the skilful shepherd-swain Collects his flocks from thousands on the plain." —"Gier. e di quai parti: Tu 'l sai. and thirst for Trojan blood.64 The Iliad of Homer Thick as in spring the flowers adorn the land. "Ma di' tu." —"Paradise Lost." The torso of Neptune. 103. Musa. virgins. From pail to pail with busy murmur run The gilded legions. Towers o'er his armies. so close. ii. Each leader now his scatter'd force conjoins In close array. In gather'd swarms surround the rural bowers." No. The wandering nation of a summer's day: That.) is remarkable for its breadth and massiveness of development. seated round the throne divine. that round the pastures leads His subject herds. Lib." i. 27. majestically tall. His strength like Neptune. the monarch of the meads. The king of kings. and like Mars his mien. glittering in the sun. So throng'd. at evening hours. the exalted chief was seen.99 Jove o'er his eyes celestial glories spread. Like some proud bull. Or leaves the trees. drawn by milky steams. and outshines them all. p. ma di tant' opra a noi si lunge Debil aura di fama appena giunge. All-knowing goddesses! immortal nine!100 99 It should be "his chest like Neptune. come i primi danni Mandassero a Cristiani. And dawning conquest played around his head. and forms the deepening lines. or thick as insects play. Say. 26. for heav'n hides nothing from thy view. Great as the gods." iv. 100 "Say first.

To count them all. in ordinary cases. A throat of brass. with the remainder of the work. . heaven's umneasur'd height. fired by thirst of fame. still so minute a statistical detail can neither be considered as imperatively required. suggest itself to the mind of a poet. a common practice in epic poems descriptive of great warlike adventures. to Troy's destruction came. the portion of the poem in favour of which a claim to separate authorship has been most plausibly urged.101 65 [040] The hardy warriors whom Boeotia bred. most of them historically unimportant. wretched mortals! lost in doubts below. Daughters of Jove. i. 263. The composition of the Catalogue. Since earth's wide regions. necessarily presumes its author's acquaintance with a previously existing Iliad. demands a thousand tongues. But guess by rumour. Leitus. and but boast we know. assist! inspired by you The mighty labour dauntless I pursue. Their names. (We. and adamantine lungs. Or urged by wrongs. led: 101 "The Catalogue is. Although the example of Homer has since rendered some such formal enumeration of the forces engaged. p.) O say what heroes. Penelius. their numbers. Yet there is scarcely any portion of the Iliad where both historical and internal evidence are more clearly in favour of a connection from the remotest period. hide nothing from your sight. from what climes they bring. Prothoenor. "Language and Literature of Greece. THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. And hell's abyss. but through the medium of the Iliad. nor perhaps such as would.BOOK II. and their chiefs I sing." vol. and incidentally scattered over the thousands which follow: equally inexplicable were the pointed allusions occurring in this episode to events narrated in the previous and subsequent text."—Mure. What crowded armies. several of which could hardly be of traditional notoriety. It were impossible otherwise to account for the harmony observable in the recurrence of so vast a number of proper names. and not a few altogether fictitious: or of so many geographical and genealogical details as are condensed in these few hundred lines. whensoever it may have taken place. perhaps.

.66 The Iliad of Homer NEPTUNE.

Graea near the main. were probably meant to be the largest in the fleet. These head the troops that rocky Aulis yields. and Thisbe. Equal in arms. And Mycalessia's ample piny plain. The average would be eighty-five. which the springs o'erflow. many of which are considerably larger than the largest scale assigned to those of the Greeks. Boeotia's utmost bound. If the total number of the Greek ships be taken at twelve hundred. and Nysa the divine. And Anthedon. according to Thucydides. and Thucydides supposes the troops to have rowed and navigated themselves. Copae. For flocks Erythrae. and that very few. 102 . went as mere passengers or landsmen. the amount of the army. Bryant. Where Myde. comparing it with the allied army at Platae. which carried one hundred and twenty men each. with purple harvests crown'd. besides the chiefs. Or in the meads of Haliartus stray. Heleon and Hyle. the smallest. Or Thespia sacred to the god of day: Onchestus. will be about a hundred and two thousand men. The historian considers this a small force as representing all Greece. Corone. and equal in command. Platea green. With these Arcesilaus and Clonius stand. Glissa for the vine. and those of Philoctetes. And Medeon lofty.BOOK II. rose. famed for silver doves. In short. carrying fifty each. we have in the Homeric descriptions the complete picture of an Indian or African war canoe. Or Harma where Apollo's prophet fell. And Eteon's hills. although in point of fact there are only eleven hundred and eightysix in the Catalogue. Neptune's celebrated groves. thinks it so large as to prove the entire falsehood of the whole story. and Ocalea low. upon the foregoing average. Those who in Peteon or Ilesion dwell. And they whom Thebe's well-built walls inclose. and each conveys Twice sixty warriors through the foaming seas. Eutresis.102 67 [041] —Twice Sixty: "Thucydides observes that the Boeotian vessels. Full fifty ships they send. And Schoenos. and Hyrie's watery fields. Scholos. And Arne rich.

The strength of Mars the blushing maid compress'd) Their troops in thirty sable vessels sweep. Who plough the spacious Orchomenian plain. on the left. Fierce Ajax led the Locrian squadrons on. as their chief. Thronus. Swift in pursuit. With equal oars. and rich Cynos send. Whose virgin charms subdued the god of war: (In Actor's court as she retired to rest. And those who dwell where pleasing Augia stands. Where Anemoria's stately turrets shine. These. the bold Boeotians' side. From Panopea. Ialmen and Ascalaphus the strong: Sons of Astyoche. And where Boagrius floats the lowly lands. the hoarse-resounding deep. Epistrophus and Schedius head the war: From those rich regions where Cephisus leads His silver current through the flowery meads. and Scarphe's bands. Calliarus. ranged in order on the floating tide.68 The Iliad of Homer To these succeed Aspledon's martial train. And fair Lilaea views the rising flood. Which Bessa. Cyparissus stood. and active in the fight. Daulis. Chrysa the divine. Two valiant brothers rule the undaunted throng. Where Pytho. the heavenly fair. Him. Or in fair Tarphe's sylvan seats reside: In forty vessels cut the yielding tide. Close. Opus. Oileus' valiant son. Skill'd to direct the flying dart aright. Ajax the less. . the chosen troops attend. The Phocians next in forty barks repair.

and the Styrian ground. And sends the brave Abantes to the wars: Breathing revenge. commands. Led by Menestheus through the liquid plain. well worth a careful perusal. Twice twenty ships transport the warlike bands. And all the tribes resound the goddess' praise."—Coleridge. Menestheus! Greece could yield. for their curiosity. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hair. where great Erectheus sway'd. Where. That owed his nurture to the blue-eyed maid. Nestor alone. The fair Caristos. Full fifty more from Athens stem the main. To marshal armies in the dusty field.BOOK II. Where Dios from her towers o'erlooks the plain. . For martial conduct bore an equal praise. The extended wings of battle to display. sq. and strong Eretria. Or close the embodied host in firm array.) No chief like thee. Which bold Elphenor. Him Pallas placed amidst her wealthy fane. But with protended spears in fighting fields Pierce the tough corslets and the brazen shields. 211. Adored with sacrifice and oxen slain. as the years revolve. And high Cerinthus views the neighbouring main. 69 Euboea next her martial sons prepares. Their hands dismiss not the long lance in air. her altars blaze. (Athens the fair. in arms they take their way From Chalcis' walls. But from the teeming furrow took his birth. p. The Isteian fields for generous vines renown'd. fierce in arms. The mighty offspring of the foodful earth. and his reasonings and calculations are. improved by length of days.

Great Agamemnon rules the numerous band. And Gonoessa's spires salute the sky. And his refulgent arms in triumph wears. Where Helice and Hyperesia lie.70 The Iliad of Homer With these appear the Salaminian bands. Proud of his host. unrivall'd in his reign. 103 The mention of Corinth is an anachronism. In twelve black ships to Troy they steer their course. High on the deck the king of men appears. These by the brave Euryalus were led. And Epidaure with viny harvests crown'd: And where fair Asinen and Hermoin show Their cliffs above. well observes. Next move to war the generous Argive train. And Ægion. But Velleius. And where Pellene yields her fleecy store. and Adrastus' ancient reign. And crowded nations wait his dread command. A hundred vessels in long order stand. Great Sthenelus. that the poet would naturally speak of various towns and cities by the names by which they were known in his own time. And fair Ægina circled by the main: Whom strong Tyrinthe's lofty walls surround. Corinth. vol. with imperial towers. And those who dwell along the sandy shore. The proud Mycene arms her martial powers. From high Troezene. p. i. [043] . and ample bay below. and Maseta's plain. Ornia's fruitful plain. Cleone. And with the great Athenians join their force. as that city was called Ephyre before its capture by the Dorians. Whom the gigantic Telamon commands.103 Fair Araethyrea. 3. and greater Diomed. But chief Tydides bore the sovereign sway: In fourscore barks they plough the watery way.

in fancy oft he hears The fair one's grief. While vainly fond. The avenging Muses of the light of day Deprived his eyes. Nestor the sage conducts his chosen host: From Amphigenia's ever-fruitful land.BOOK II. Where beauteous Arene her structures shows. Or Messe's towers for silver doves renown'd. vain of mortals' empty praise. And Thryon's walls Alpheus' streams inclose: And Dorion. Where Æpy high. Laas. His hand no more awaked the silver string. No more his heavenly voice was heard to sing. o'er the bending ocean. Superior once of all the tuneful race. His brother follows. 71 . and snatch'd his voice away. Helen's cause. and little Pteleon stand. from Pylos' sandy coast. and those Whom Lacedaemon's lofty hills inclose. Augia's happy ground. Till. Revenge and fury flaming in his eyes. In ninety sail. on the margin of the main: These. exercised in arms: Phares and Brysia's valiant troops. And Helos. and sees her falling tears. And those whom OEtylos' low walls contain. and to vengeance warms The hardy Spartans. In silent pomp he moves along the main. famed for Thamyris' disgrace. In sixty ships with Menelaus draws: Eager and loud from man to man he flies. Amyclae. he strove To match the seed of cloud-compelling Jove! Too daring bard! whose unsuccessful pride The immortal Muses in their art defied.

supplied by Agamemnon's care. The shaded tomb of old Æpytus stood. Their ships. . In sixty sail the Arcadian bands unite. (Ancaeus' son) the mighty squadron led. Whom Hyrmin. Bold Agapenor. Those. Through roaring seas the wondering warriors bear. And Stymphelus with her surrounding grove. glorious at their head. Where the fat herds in plenteous pasture rove.) Diores sprung from Amarynceus' line. Each leads ten vessels through the yielding tide. Stratie. And great Polyxenus. And bounded there. Beneath four chiefs (a numerous army) came: The strength and glory of the Epean name. One was Amphimachus.72 The Iliad of Homer [044] Where under high Cyllene. Tegea's bordering towns. and Orchomenian downs. Parrhasia. But new to all the dangers of the main. crown'd with wood. The Phenean fields. In separate squadrons these their train divide. From Ripe. And high Enispe shook by wintry wind. where fair Elis and Buprasium join. and Myrsinus confine. And fair Mantinea's ever-pleasing site. here. on her snowy cliffs reclined. of force divine. and Thalpius one. (Eurytus' this. and that Teatus' son. where o'er the valleys rose The Olenian rock. The first to battle on the appointed plain. and where Alisium flows.

His forty vessels follow through the main. He led the warriors from the Ætolian shore. But those who view fair Elis o'er the seas From the blest islands of the Echinades. These in twelve galleys with vermilion prores. A chief. Where Ægilipa's rugged sides are seen. And rough Pylene. Or where fair Ithaca o'erlooks the floods. And thence to Troy his hardy warriors led. Thoas came next. With those whom Cephalenia's line inclosed. Andraemon's valiant son. 73 Ulysses follow'd through the watery road. Where high Neritos shakes his waving woods. and the Olenian steep. Begot by Phyleus. For now the sons of OEneus were no more! The glories of the mighty race were fled! OEneus himself. And Chalcis. Or till their fields along the coast opposed. Beneath his conduct sought the Phrygian shores. the beloved of Jove: To strong Dulichium from his sire he fled. and chalky Calydon. beaten by the rolling deep.BOOK II. . In forty vessels under Meges move. From Pleuron's walls. Crocylia rocky. and Zacynthus green. and Meleager dead! To Thoas' care now trust the martial train. in wisdom equal to a god.

Where mighty towns in ruins spread the plain. dreadful as the god of war. And Merion. Idomeneus. From Rhodes. A fleet he built. And showers of wealth descending from the skies. Or white Lycastus glitters to the skies. Of Gnossus. His captive mother fierce Alcides bore From Ephyr's walls and Selle's winding shore. slew. These march'd. Where. And saw their blooming warriors early slain. And those who dwell where Rhytion's domes arise. Alcides' uncle. constrain'd to quit his native place. beneath thy care. and with a numerous train Of willing exiles wander'd o'er the main. Led nine swift vessels through the foamy seas. Lindus. Or where by Phaestus silver Jardan runs. when to manly years he grew. eighty barks the Cretan king commands. old Licymnius. And rules them peaceful in a foreign land. Jalyssus. and Gortyna's bands. For this. the sun of Hercules. The hero. Increased and prosper'd in their new abodes By mighty Jove. Lyctus. With joy they saw the growing empire rise. [045] Tlepolemus. and Camirus white. On happy Rhodes the chief arrived at last: There in three tribes divides his native band. the sire of men and gods. And shun the vengeance of the Herculean race. Crete's hundred cities pour forth all her sons. many seas and many sufferings past. with everlasting sunshine bright.74 The Iliad of Homer Next. .

Nireus. 104 75 [046] "Adam. The Achaians. Full fifty ships beneath Achilles' care. With them the youth of Nisyrus repair. Nireus. Alope. Next thirty galleys cleave the liquid plain. The same their nation. the goodliest man of men since born. where Eurypylus possess'd the sway. 323. the fairest of her daughters Eve. But few his troops. Hellenians bear." iv. whom Aglae to Charopus bore. They hear the brazen voice of war no more. Of those Calydnae's sea-girt isles contain. and Crapathus the fair. Myrmidons. and small his strength in arms. Casus the strong. Till great Alcides made the realms obey: These Antiphus and bold Phidippus bring. The loveliest youth of all the Grecian race. From Alos. Sprung from the god by Thessalus the king. stretch'd along the shore.104 Pelides only match'd his early charms. Since fair Briseis from his arms was torn. and Trechin's towers: From Phthia's spacious vales. Cos. Now. bless'd With female beauty far beyond the rest. Thessalians all.' —"Paradise Lost. Muse.BOOK II. recount Pelasgic Argos' powers. No more the foe they face in dire array: Close in his fleet the angry leader lay. and Hella. . Three ships with Nireus sought the Trojan shore. though various in their name. The noblest spoil from sack'd Lyrnessus borne. But now inglorious. and their chief the same. His sons. in faultless shape and blooming grace.

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Then, when the chief the Theban walls o'erthrew, And the bold sons of great Evenus slew. There mourn'd Achilles, plunged in depth of care, But soon to rise in slaughter, blood, and war.

To these the youth of Phylace succeed, Itona, famous for her fleecy breed, And grassy Pteleon deck'd with cheerful greens, The bowers of Ceres, and the sylvan scenes. Sweet Pyrrhasus, with blooming flowerets crown'd, And Antron's watery dens, and cavern'd ground. These own'd, as chief, Protesilas the brave, Who now lay silent in the gloomy grave: The first who boldly touch'd the Trojan shore, And dyed a Phrygian lance with Grecian gore; There lies, far distant from his native plain; Unfinish'd his proud palaces remain, And his sad consort beats her breast in vain. His troops in forty ships Podarces led, Iphiclus' son, and brother to the dead; Nor he unworthy to command the host; Yet still they mourn'd their ancient leader lost.

The men who Glaphyra's fair soil partake, Where hills incircle Boebe's lowly lake, Where Phaere hears the neighbouring waters fall, Or proud Iolcus lifts her airy wall, In ten black ships embark'd for Ilion's shore, With bold Eumelus, whom Alceste bore: All Pelias' race Alceste far outshined, The grace and glory of the beauteous kind,

BOOK II. The troops Methone or Thaumacia yields, Olizon's rocks, or Meliboea's fields, With Philoctetes sail'd whose matchless art From the tough bow directs the feather'd dart. Seven were his ships; each vessel fifty row, Skill'd in his science of the dart and bow. But he lay raging on the Lemnian ground, A poisonous hydra gave the burning wound; There groan'd the chief in agonizing pain, Whom Greece at length shall wish, nor wish in vain. His forces Medon led from Lemnos' shore, Oileus' son, whom beauteous Rhena bore. The Œchalian race, in those high towers contain'd Where once Eurytus in proud triumph reign'd, Or where her humbler turrets Tricca rears, Or where Ithome, rough with rocks, appears, In thirty sail the sparkling waves divide, Which Podalirius and Machaon guide. To these his skill their parent-god imparts, Divine professors of the healing arts. The bold Ormenian and Asterian bands In forty barks Eurypylus commands. Where Titan hides his hoary head in snow, And where Hyperia's silver fountains flow. Thy troops, Argissa, Polypoetes leads, And Eleon, shelter'd by Olympus' shades, Gyrtone's warriors; and where Orthe lies, And Oloosson's chalky cliffs arise. Sprung from Pirithous of immortal race, The fruit of fair Hippodame's embrace, (That day, when hurl'd from Pelion's cloudy head, To distant dens the shaggy Centaurs fled)

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78 With Polypoetes join'd in equal sway Leonteus leads, and forty ships obey.

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In twenty sail the bold Perrhaebians came From Cyphus, Guneus was their leader's name. With these the Enians join'd, and those who freeze Where cold Dodona lifts her holy trees; Or where the pleasing Titaresius glides, And into Peneus rolls his easy tides; Yet o'er the silvery surface pure they flow, The sacred stream unmix'd with streams below, Sacred and awful! from the dark abodes Styx pours them forth, the dreadful oath of gods! Last, under Prothous the Magnesians stood, (Prothous the swift, of old Tenthredon's blood;) Who dwell where Pelion, crown'd with piny boughs, Obscures the glade, and nods his shaggy brows; Or where through flowery Tempe Peneus stray'd: (The region stretch'd beneath his mighty shade:) In forty sable barks they stemm'd the main; Such were the chiefs, and such the Grecian train. Say next, O Muse! of all Achaia breeds, Who bravest fought, or rein'd the noblest steeds? Eumelus' mares were foremost in the chase, As eagles fleet, and of Pheretian race; Bred where Pieria's fruitful fountains flow, And train'd by him who bears the silver bow. Fierce in the fight their nostrils breathed a flame, Their height, their colour, and their age the same; O'er fields of death they whirl the rapid car, And break the ranks, and thunder through the war. Ajax in arms the first renown acquired, While stern Achilles in his wrath retired:

[048]

BOOK II. (His was the strength that mortal might exceeds, And his the unrivall'd race of heavenly steeds:) But Thetis' son now shines in arms no more; His troops, neglected on the sandy shore. In empty air their sportive javelins throw, Or whirl the disk, or bend an idle bow: Unstain'd with blood his cover'd chariots stand; The immortal coursers graze along the strand; But the brave chiefs the inglorious life deplored, And, wandering o'er the camp, required their lord. Now, like a deluge, covering all around, The shining armies sweep along the ground; Swift as a flood of fire, when storms arise, Floats the wild field, and blazes to the skies. Earth groan'd beneath them; as when angry Jove Hurls down the forky lightning from above, On Arime when he the thunder throws, And fires Typhoeus with redoubled blows, Where Typhon, press'd beneath the burning load, Still feels the fury of the avenging god. But various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, Speeds on the wings of winds through liquid air; In Priam's porch the Trojan chiefs she found, The old consulting, and the youths around. Polites' shape, the monarch's son, she chose, Who from Æsetes' tomb observed the foes,105 High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay. In this dissembled form, she hastes to bring

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105 —Æsetes' tomb. Monuments were often built on the sea-coast, and of a considerable height, so as to serve as watch-towers or land marks. See my notes to my prose translations of the "Odyssey," ii. p. 21, or on Eur. "Alcest." vol. i. p. 240.

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The unwelcome message to the Phrygian king. "Cease to consult, the time for action calls; War, horrid war, approaches to your walls! Assembled armies oft have I beheld; But ne'er till now such numbers charged a field: Thick as autumnal leaves or driving sand, The moving squadrons blacken all the strand. Thou, godlike Hector! all thy force employ, Assemble all the united bands of Troy; In just array let every leader call The foreign troops: this day demands them all!" The voice divine the mighty chief alarms; The council breaks, the warriors rush to arms. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train, Nations on nations fill the dusky plain, Men, steeds, and chariots, shake the trembling ground: The tumult thickens, and the skies resound. Amidst the plain, in sight of Ilion, stands A rising mount, the work of human hands; (This for Myrinne's tomb the immortals know, Though call'd Bateia in the world below;) Beneath their chiefs in martial order here, The auxiliar troops and Trojan hosts appear. The godlike Hector, high above the rest, Shakes his huge spear, and nods his plumy crest: In throngs around his native bands repair, And groves of lances glitter in the air.

[049]

BOOK II. Divine Æneas brings the Dardan race, Anchises' son, by Venus' stolen embrace, Born in the shades of Ida's secret grove; (A mortal mixing with the queen of love;) Archilochus and Acamas divide The warrior's toils, and combat by his side. Who fair Zeleia's wealthy valleys till,106 Fast by the foot of Ida's sacred hill, Or drink, Æsepus, of thy sable flood, Were led by Pandarus, of royal blood; To whom his art Apollo deign'd to show, Graced with the presents of his shafts and bow. From rich Apaesus and Adrestia's towers, High Teree's summits, and Pityea's bowers; From these the congregated troops obey Young Amphius and Adrastus' equal sway; Old Merops' sons; whom, skill'd in fates to come, The sire forewarn'd, and prophesied their doom: Fate urged them on! the sire forewarn'd in vain, They rush'd to war, and perish'd on the plain. From Practius' stream, Percote's pasture lands, And Sestos and Abydos' neighbouring strands, From great Arisba's walls and Selle's coast, Asius Hyrtacides conducts his host: High on his car he shakes the flowing reins, His fiery coursers thunder o'er the plains.

81

—Zeleia, another name for Lycia. The inhabitants were greatly devoted to the worship of Apollo. See Muller, "Dorians," vol. i. p. 248.

106

82 The fierce Pelasgi next, in war renown'd, March from Larissa's ever-fertile ground: In equal arms their brother leaders shine, Hippothous bold, and Pyleus the divine.

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Next Acamas and Pyrous lead their hosts, In dread array, from Thracia's wintry coasts; Round the bleak realms where Hellespontus roars, And Boreas beats the hoarse-resounding shores. With great Euphemus the Ciconians move, Sprung from Troezenian Ceus, loved by Jove. Pyraechmes the Paeonian troops attend, Skill'd in the fight their crooked bows to bend; From Axius' ample bed he leads them on, Axius, that laves the distant Amydon, Axius, that swells with all his neighbouring rills, And wide around the floating region fills. The Paphlagonians Pylaemenes rules, Where rich Henetia breeds her savage mules, Where Erythinus' rising cliffs are seen, Thy groves of box, Cytorus! ever green, And where Ægialus and Cromna lie, And lofty Sesamus invades the sky, And where Parthenius, roll'd through banks of flowers, Reflects her bordering palaces and bowers. Here march'd in arms the Halizonian band, Whom Odius and Epistrophus command, From those far regions where the sun refines The ripening silver in Alybean mines.

[050]

BOOK II. There mighty Chromis led the Mysian train, And augur Ennomus, inspired in vain; For stern Achilles lopp'd his sacred head, Roll'd down Scamander with the vulgar dead. Phorcys and brave Ascanius here unite The Ascanian Phrygians, eager for the fight. Of those who round Maeonia's realms reside, Or whom the vales in shades of Tmolus hide, Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake, Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. There, from the fields where wild Maeander flows, High Mycale, and Latmos' shady brows, And proud Miletus, came the Carian throngs, With mingled clamours and with barbarous tongues.107 Amphimachus and Naustes guide the train, Naustes the bold, Amphimachus the vain, Who, trick'd with gold, and glittering on his car, Rode like a woman to the field of war. Fool that he was! by fierce Achilles slain, The river swept him to the briny main: There whelm'd with waves the gaudy warrior lies The valiant victor seized the golden prize. The forces last in fair array succeed, Which blameless Glaucus and Sarpedon lead The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields, Where gulfy Xanthus foams along the fields.

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—Barbarous tongues. "Various as were the dialects of the Greeks—and these differences existed not only between the several tribes, but even between neighbouring cities—they yet acknowledged in their language that they formed but one nation were but branches of the same family. Homer has 'men of other tongues:' and yet Homer had no general name for the Greek nation."—Heeren, "Ancient Greece," Section vii. p. 107, sq.

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BOOK III.
ARGUMENT. THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS. The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellers observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. Thus by their leaders' care each martial band Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land. With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,108
108

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[052]

With noise, and order, through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, And all the war descends upon the wing, But silent, breathing rage, resolved and skill'd109 By mutual aids to fix a doubtful field, Swift march the Greeks: the rapid dust around Darkening arises from the labour'd ground. Thus from his flaggy wings when Notus sheds A night of vapours round the mountain heads, Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade; While scarce the swains their feeding flocks survey, Lost and confused amidst the thicken'd day: So wrapp'd in gathering dust, the Grecian train, A moving cloud, swept on, and hid the plain. Now front to front the hostile armies stand, Eager of fight, and only wait command; When, to the van, before the sons of fame Whom Troy sent forth, the beauteous Paris came: In form a god! the panther's speckled hide Flow'd o'er his armour with an easy pride:
The cranes. "Marking the tracts of air, the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch'd neck his rank maintains, In marshall'd order through th' ethereal void." Lorenzo de Medici, in Roscoe's Life, Appendix. See Cary's Dante: "Hell," canto v.
109

Silent, breathing rage. "Thus they, Breathing united force with fixed thought, Moved on in silence." "Paradise Lost," book i. 559.

BOOK III. His bended bow across his shoulders flung, His sword beside him negligently hung; Two pointed spears he shook with gallant grace, And dared the bravest of the Grecian race.

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As thus, with glorious air and proud disdain, He boldly stalk'd, the foremost on the plain, Him Menelaus, loved of Mars, espies, With heart elated, and with joyful eyes: So joys a lion, if the branching deer, Or mountain goat, his bulky prize, appear; Eager he seizes and devours the slain, Press'd by bold youths and baying dogs in vain. Thus fond of vengeance, with a furious bound, In clanging arms he leaps upon the ground From his high chariot: him, approaching near, The beauteous champion views with marks of fear, Smit with a conscious sense, retires behind, And shuns the fate he well deserved to find. As when some shepherd, from the rustling trees110 Shot forth to view, a scaly serpent sees, Trembling and pale, he starts with wild affright And all confused precipitates his flight: So from the king the shining warrior flies, And plunged amid the thickest Trojans lies.
110

"As when some peasant in a bushy brake Has with unwary footing press'd a snake; He starts aside, astonish'd, when he spies His rising crest, blue neck, and rolling eyes" Dryden's Virgil, ii. 510.

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[053]

As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat, He thus upbraids him with a generous heat: "Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!111 So fairly form'd, and only to deceive! Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw'st the light, Or died at least before thy nuptial rite! A better fate than vainly thus to boast, And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host. Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see Their fears of danger undeceived in thee! Thy figure promised with a martial air, But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair. In former days, in all thy gallant pride, When thy tall ships triumphant stemm'd the tide, When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow, And crowds stood wondering at the passing show, Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien, You met the approaches of the Spartan queen, Thus from her realm convey'd the beauteous prize, And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen's eyes? This deed, thy foes' delight, thy own disgrace, Thy father's grief, and ruin of thy race; This deed recalls thee to the proffer'd fight; Or hast thou injured whom thou dar'st not right? Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know Thou keep'st the consort of a braver foe. Thy graceful form instilling soft desire, Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre, Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust, When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust: Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Dysparis, i.e. unlucky, ill fated, Paris. This alludes to the evils which resulted from his having been brought up, despite the omens which attended his birth.
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BOOK III. Crush the dire author of his country's woe." His silence here, with blushes, Paris breaks: "'Tis just, my brother, what your anger speaks: But who like thee can boast a soul sedate, So firmly proof to all the shocks of fate? Thy force, like steel, a temper'd hardness shows, Still edged to wound, and still untired with blows, Like steel, uplifted by some strenuous swain, With falling woods to strew the wasted plain. Thy gifts I praise; nor thou despise the charms With which a lover golden Venus arms; Soft moving speech, and pleasing outward show, No wish can gain them, but the gods bestow. Yet, would'st thou have the proffer'd combat stand, The Greeks and Trojans seat on either hand; Then let a midway space our hosts divide, And, on that stage of war, the cause be tried: By Paris there the Spartan king be fought, For beauteous Helen and the wealth she brought; And who his rival can in arms subdue, His be the fair, and his the treasure too. Thus with a lasting league your toils may cease, And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace; Thus may the Greeks review their native shore, Much famed for generous steeds, for beauty more." He said. The challenge Hector heard with joy, Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst, athwart; and near the foe Advanced with steps majestically slow: While round his dauntless head the Grecians pour Their stones and arrows in a mingled shower.

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Then thus the monarch, great Atrides, cried: "Forbear, ye warriors! lay the darts aside: A parley Hector asks, a message bears; We know him by the various plume he wears." Awed by his high command the Greeks attend, The tumult silence, and the fight suspend. While from the centre Hector rolls his eyes On either host, and thus to both applies: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What Paris, author of the war, demands. Your shining swords within the sheath restrain, And pitch your lances in the yielding plain. Here in the midst, in either army's sight, He dares the Spartan king to single fight; And wills that Helen and the ravish'd spoil, That caused the contest, shall reward the toil. Let these the brave triumphant victor grace, And different nations part in leagues of peace." He spoke: in still suspense on either side Each army stood: the Spartan chief replied: "Me too, ye warriors, hear, whose fatal right A world engages in the toils of fight. To me the labour of the field resign; Me Paris injured; all the war be mine. Fall he that must, beneath his rival's arms; And live the rest, secure of future harms. Two lambs, devoted by your country's rite, To earth a sable, to the sun a white, Prepare, ye Trojans! while a third we bring Select to Jove, the inviolable king. Let reverend Priam in the truce engage, And add the sanction of considerate age;

BOOK III. His sons are faithless, headlong in debate, And youth itself an empty wavering state; Cool age advances, venerably wise, Turns on all hands its deep-discerning eyes; Sees what befell, and what may yet befall, Concludes from both, and best provides for all. The nations hear with rising hopes possess'd, And peaceful prospects dawn in every breast. Within the lines they drew their steeds around, And from their chariots issued on the ground; Next, all unbuckling the rich mail they wore, Laid their bright arms along the sable shore. On either side the meeting hosts are seen With lances fix'd, and close the space between. Two heralds now, despatch'd to Troy, invite The Phrygian monarch to the peaceful rite. Talthybius hastens to the fleet, to bring The lamb for Jove, the inviolable king. Meantime to beauteous Helen, from the skies The various goddess of the rainbow flies: (Like fair Laodice in form and face, The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race:) Her in the palace, at her loom she found; The golden web her own sad story crown'd, The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize) And the dire triumphs of her fatal eyes. To whom the goddess of the painted bow: "Approach, and view the wondrous scene below!112

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The following scene, in which Homer has contrived to introduce so brilliant a sketch of the Grecian warriors, has been imitated by Euripides, who in his "Phoenissae" represents Antigone surveying the opposing champions from a high tower, while the paedagogus describes their insignia and details their histories.

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92 The Iliad of Homer Each hardy Greek. and silent all the fields. Each met in arms. . So dreadful late. Panthus. like grasshoppers rejoice. parents. softly sighing. And. and Hicetaon. all that once were dear." This said. and narrative with age. O'er her fair face a snowy veil she threw. and most in Priam's grace. But wise through time. who no more in bloody fights engage. Thymoetes at his side. and thy charms the prize. In summer days. Ceased is the war. and furious for the fight. Lampus and Clytius. and valiant Trojan knight. Antenor grave. Clymene and Æthra. wait Her silent footsteps to the Scaean gate. Thy love the motive. from the loom withdrew. [056] There sat the seniors of the Trojan race: (Old Priam's chiefs. and force a tender tear. once the strong. and wakes her former fires. or lean upon their shields. long in council tried. Rush to her thought. Her country. A bloodless race.) The king the first. the fate of combat tries. Lean'd on the walls and bask'd before the sun: Chiefs. Her handmaids. Paris alone and Sparta's king advance. the many-coloured maid inspires Her husband's love. Now rest their spears. In single fight to toss the beamy lance. And next. the wisest of the reverend throng. that send a feeble voice. and sage Ucalegon.

Zeuxis. is said to have appended these lines to his picture of Helen. No crime of thine our present sufferings draws." Thus ceased the king. so awful. as a motto. The friends and kindred of thy former years. the cause The gods these armies and this force employ. and grace thy father's side. None match his grandeur and exalted mien: He seems a monarch. and she looks a queen! Yet hence." 93 The good old Priam welcomed her. and his country's pride. and say. In secret own'd resistless beauty's power: They cried. &c. but Heaven's disposing will. 113 . and thus the fair replied: —No wonder. These. But lift thy eyes. what Greek is he (Far as from hence these aged orbs can see) Around whose brow such martial graces shine. "Approach. See on the plain thy Grecian spouse appears. The hostile gods conspire the fate of Troy. Not thou. Valer Max. and almost divine! Though some of larger stature tread the green. And from destruction save the Trojan race.BOOK III. So tall. my child. the celebrated artist. O Heaven. 7. when the Spartan queen approach'd the tower. iii. convey that fatal face. "No wonder such celestial charms113 For nine long years have set the world in arms. What winning graces! what majestic mien! She moves a goddess. and cried.

you survey.94 The Iliad of Homer "Before thy presence. I appear. And I. A nation of courageous. When Priam wishes to illustrate emphatically the most numerous host in which he ever found himself included. and daughter left behind. When godlike Mygdon led their troops of horse. False to my country. Successful monarch of a mighty state! How vast thy empire! Of your matchless train What numbers lost. When Bellerophon is to be employed in a [057] . and universally accepted as past realities in the Iliad. for the purpose of resisting the formidable Amazons. what numbers yet remain! In Phrygia once were gallant armies known. With conscious shame and reverential fear. Atrides. father. for the purpose of renovating their numbers. ere to these walk I fled. and a theme eminently popular with his hearers. on the banks of the Sangarius. My brothers. stimulating to the fancy of the poet. In ancient time. False to them all. the wives and daughters of the Grecian heroes. indefatigable women. Ah! had I died. and my nuptial bed. this was at once a general type. he tells us that it was assembled in Phrygia.114 114 The early epic was largely occupied with the exploits and sufferings of women. raised the Trojan force: Against the manlike Amazons we stood. when Otreus fill'd the throne. We find these warlike females constantly reappearing in the ancient poems. friends. and great in arts of sway: My brother once. and thus began: "O bless'd Atrides! born to prosperous fate. hardy. Great in the war. burning out their right breast with a view of enabling themselves to draw the bow freely. to Paris only kind! For this I mourn. to join them. or heroines. before my days of shame! And oh! that still he bore a brother's name!" With wonder Priam view'd the godlike man. Extoll'd the happy prince. permitting only a short temporary intercourse. dwelling apart from men. till grief or dire disease Shall waste the form whose fault it was to please! The king of kings.

From rank to rank he moves. Both brave in arms. Liv 1. O king! have seen that wondrous man When. the Spartan most engaged our view. his shoulders larger spread. by those who prudently wished to procure his death." Antenor took the word.—Grote. The stately ram thus measures o'er the ground. master of the flock. greater reverence drew. (Great Menelaus urged the same request. 2. Just was his sense. But far inferior those. And strength of numbers. Nor yet appear his care and conduct small.BOOK III. and orders all. like Æneas.) My house was honour'd with each royal guest: I knew their persons. and both approved in arts. whose arms lie scatter'd on the plain? Broad is his breast. His fame for wisdom fills the spacious earth. i p. once more he view'd the warrior train. A barren island boasts his glorious birth. yet full. had always been favourable to the restoration of Helen. without a fault. and thus began:115 "Myself. in martial grace. When Atreus' son harangued the listening train. vol. to plead the Grecian cause. and admired their parts. . 115 —Antenor. And. he is despatched against the Amazons. His words succinct. "What's he. To Troy he came. trusting Jove and hospitable laws. Erect. is Ithacus the wise." Then Helen thus: "Whom your discerning eyes Have singled out. Ulysses seated. 289. and his expression plain. to this Grecian race. 95 deadly and perilous undertaking. surveys them round. Though great Atrides overtops his head." This said. And Sangar's stream ran purple with their blood.

Like thunders rolling from a distant cloud. Whose brawny shoulders. See! bold Idomeneus superior towers Amid yon circle of his Cretan powers. Our ears refute the censure of our eyes. Nor lifts the eye. 117 .) Himself a host: the Grecian strength and pride. nor stretch'd his sceptred hand. Pours the full tide of eloquence along. far exceed the rest? "Ajax the great." The king then ask'd (as yet the camp he view'd) "What chief is that. 99. "Gnomol. It. As one unskill'd or dumb. with giant strength endued. Louder the accents rise.96 The Iliad of Homer [058] He spoke no more than just the thing he ought. and on the ground in silence gazed." p." 148. Melting they fall. Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. Nor raised his head. in thought profound. of course. (the beauteous queen replied. And lofty stature. While from his lips the melting torrent flows." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. 116 "His lab'ring heart with sudden rapture seized He paus'd. Now stronger notes engage the listening crowd. here merely denotes the ready fluency of Ulysses. while the chiefs in still attention hung. But when Ulysses rose. Unskill'd and uninspired he seems to stand. Homer. Duport. 20.117 The copious accents fall. he seem'd to stand. what elocution flows! Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. with easy art.116 His modest eyes he fix'd upon the ground. But. nor graceful moves the hand: Then. and whose swelling chest. when he speaks. and yet more loud. and sink into the heart! Wondering we hear. well observes that this comparison may also be sarcastically applied to the frigid style of oratory. and fix'd in deep surprise.

See Hygin. slain during this war. and could in order name. 32. Ashamed to combat in their sister's cause. Virgil and others. whilst besieging Sparta. The rest I know. 118 . My brothers these. Yet two are wanting of the numerous train. thy joyful people wait To seal the truce. With Menelaus on the Spartan shore. and end the dire debate. and heard of wars no more. 487. nor knew her brothers' doom. as one mother bore. In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. and one renown'd for horse. For distant Troy refused to sail the seas. And who his rival shall in arms subdue. make them share immortality by turns. 22.BOOK III. O father of the Trojan state! The nations call. Idaeus' arms the golden goblets press'd. 97 —Her brothers' doom. through the crowded town. One house contain'd us. Adorn'd with honours in their native shore. Æn. Paris. from warlike toils at ease. the same our native shore. Great as a god! I saw him once before. One bold on foot. vi. They perished in combat with Lynceus and Idas. All valiant chiefs. Poet Astr.119 Who thus the venerable king address'd: "Arise. and men of mighty fame. Whom long my eyes have sought." So spoke the fair. Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. Silent they slept. Cf. Perhaps the chiefs. thy son. first in martial force. Meantime the heralds. and Sparta's king advance. however. but sought in vain: Castor and Pollux.118 Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb. Perhaps their swords some nobler quarrel draws. 119 Idreus was the arm-bearer and charioteer of king Priam.

Who high on Ida's holy mountain sway. On either side a sacred herald stands. and all who falsely swear! —Scaea's gates. Amid the Grecian host and Trojan train. And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace: So shall the Greeks review their native shore. Who rule the dead. The wine they mix.98 [059] The Iliad of Homer His be the dame. rather Scaean gates. for beauty more. 121 120 . and view from pole to pole! Thou mother Earth! and all ye living floods! Infernal furies. and his the treasure too. i. From the sign'd victims crops the curling hair. and bade the chiefs prepare To join his milk-white coursers to the car. and on each monarch's hands Pour the full urn. Antenor at his side. Thus with a lasting league our toils may cease. Much famed for generous steeds. then draws the Grecian lord His cutlass sheathed beside his ponderous sword. the left-hand gates. Eternal Jove! and you bright orb that roll From east to west. This was customary in all sacrifices. before which she could not expire.121 The heralds part it." With grief he heard. and Tartarean gods. He mounts the seat. and with him rose the king of men. and the princes share.e. Slow they proceed: the sage Ulysses then Arose. Then loudly thus before the attentive bands He calls the gods. The gentle steeds through Scaea's gates they guide:120 Next from the car descending on the plain. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. and spreads his lifted hands: "O first and greatest power! whom all obey. Hence we find Iras descending to cut off the hair of Dido.

And all their lust be scatter'd as the dust!" Thus either host their imprecations join'd.BOOK III. Be his the wealth and beauteous dame decreed: The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. And Greece returning plough the watery deep. And in the dust their bleeding bodies threw. Whose arms shall conquer and what prince shall fall. Great Menelaus press the fatal plain. May all their consorts serve promiscuous lust. "Hear. Hear. Nor view the danger of so dear a son. If. And every age record the signal day. and mingled with the wind. Shed like this wine. The vital spirit issued at the wound." 99 [060] . who first the league confound. and be witness. This if the Phrygians shall refuse to yield. let the chiefs engage. If by my brother's lance the Trojan bleed. But spare the weakness of my feeble age: In yonder walls that object let me shun. Arms must revenge. reverend Priam rose. While thus their prayers united mount the sky. From the same urn they drink the mingled wine. And left the members quivering on the ground. Which Jove refused. Heaven only knows. And thus express'd a heart o'ercharged with woes: "Ye Greeks and Trojans. by Paris slain. The dame and treasures let the Trojan keep. for heaven disposes all. And add libations to the powers divine. ye gods on high! And may their blood. mighty Jove! and hear. The rites now finish'd." With that the chief the tender victims slew. disdain the thirsty ground. and Mars decide the field.

100 The Iliad of Homer This said. Then. Beside each chief his azure armour lay. Both armies sat the combat to survey. And words like these are heard through all the bands: "Immortal Jove. and the ground inclose: Next to decide. Bold Hector and Ulysses now dispose The lists of combat. With flowers adorn'd. In gilded arms magnificently bright: The purple cuishes clasp his thighs around. On lofty Ida's holy mount adored! Whoe'er involved us in this dire debate. with silver buckles bound: Lycaon's corslet his fair body dress'd. the hoary king no longer stay'd. by sacred lots prepare. Braced in and fitted to his softer breast. And joyful nations join in leagues of peace. The people pray with elevated hands." With eyes averted Hector hastes to turn The lots of fight and shakes the brazen urn. And drove to Troy. O give that author of the war to fate And shades eternal! let division cease. A radiant baldric. The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight. But on his car the slaughter'd victims laid: Then seized the reins his gentle steeds to guide. Paris. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: His youthful face a polish'd helm o'erspread. by fatal chance Ordain'd the first to whirl the weighty lance. Who first shall launch his pointed spear in air. . o'er his shoulder tied. And round the lists the generous coursers neigh. thine leap'd forth. high Heaven's superior lord. Antenor at his side.

bending from the blow. And guard from wrong fair friendship's holy name. a shining orb. In act to throw. Just. With javelins fix'd. and shake the threatening lance. flutt'ring. 101 [061] Now round the lists the admiring armies stand. the chiefs advance. With equal speed and fired by equal charms. Amidst the dreadful vale. 122 —Nor pierced. 742." Be said. All pale with rage. and but barely. but with a bound122 Leap'd from the buckler. . And glancing downward." Dryden's Virgil. Avenge the breach of hospitable laws! Let this example future times reclaim. great Jove! to punish lawless lust. The Spartan hero sheathes his limbs in arms. And lay the Trojan gasping in the dust: Destroy the aggressor. "This said. Which. And in his hand a pointed javelin shakes. Nor pierced the brazen orb. the Greek and Trojan band. blunted. and poised in air the javelin sent. The wary Trojan. and his garment rends. Atrides then his massy lance prepares. The waving horse-hair nodded on his head: His figured shield. near his flank descends. to the mark it held. he takes. on the ground. Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went. his feeble hand a jav'lin threw. The Trojan first his shining javelin threw. His corslet pierces. aid my righteous cause. but first prefers his prayers: "Give me. Full on Atrides' ringing shield it flew. ii. And faintly tinkled on the brazen shield.BOOK III. seemed to loiter as it flew.

and towards the Grecian crew (Seized by the crest) the unhappy warrior drew. The dart falls harmless. well-skill'd to cull . In borrow'd form. Meantime the brightest of the female kind. The casque. Then had his ruin crown'd Atrides' joy." Furious he said. dragg'd the chief along. at his rival's heart. enraged. And left an empty helmet in his hand. And all the dome perfumes with heavenly dews. To her. o'er the walls reclined. beset with Trojan beauties. unfaithful to his hand.102 The Iliad of Homer [062] Eludes the death. The brittle steel. And gently laid him on the bridal bed. But Venus trembled for the prince of Troy: Unseen she came. as once more he lifts the deadly dart. and burst the golden band. and strook Full on his casque: the crested helmet shook. while the embroider'd thong That tied his helmet. The raging warrior to the spacious skies Raised his upbraiding voice and angry eyes: "Then is it vain in Jove himself to trust? And is it thus the gods assist the just? When crimes provoke us. The Greeks with smiles the polish'd trophy view. and the falchion flies. the laughter-loving dame. Raised from the field the panting youth she led. (She seem'd an ancient maid. Heaven success denies. The queen of love her favour'd champion shrouds (For gods can all things) in a veil of clouds. came. The matchless Helen. Struggling he followed. Then. amidst the Greeks he threw. and disappoints his foe: But fierce Atrides waved his sword. Broke short: the fragments glitter'd on the sand. In thirst of vengeance. With pleasing sweets his fainting sense renews.

That shed perfumes. Fair as a god. Not like a warrior parted from the foe. in yonder lofty walls.BOOK III. Safe from the fight. But some gay dancer in the public show. The snowy fleece. DISGUISED. with odours round him spread." .) The goddess softly shook her silken vest. and wind the twisted wool. He lies. and waits thee on the well-known bed. INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. and whispering thus address'd: 103 VENUS. happy nymph! for thee thy Paris calls. "Haste.

she turn'd and made appear Her neck refulgent and dishevell'd hair. to new nations must I cross the main. And keen reproach. And. And widely spread ambrosial scents around.123 Struck with her presence.104 The Iliad of Homer She spoke. thus she said: "Then is it still thy pleasure to deceive? And woman's frailty always to believe! Say. In length of train descends her sweeping gown." Dryden's Virgil. His spouse. (victor in the strife. from every Phrygian dame: Ill suits it now the joys of love to know. reveal'd the queen of soft desire. 556. and if thy Paris bear My absence ill. flowing from her shoulders. Hence let me sail. Be fix'd for ever to the Trojan shore. and Helen's secret soul was moved. but the man she loved. . Or carry wars to some soft Asian plain? For whom must Helen break her second vow? What other Paris is thy darling now? Left to Atrides. and detest his bed. She scorn'd the champion. i. reach'd the ground. and mount the skies no more. And breast. and too wild my woe. A handmaid goddess at his side to wait. "Thus having said. Renounce the glories of thy heavenly state. by her graceful walk. the queen of love is known.) An odious conquest and a captive wife. her eyes that sparkled fire." 123 [063] Reveal'd the queen. For me. let Venus ease his care. Fair Venus' neck. straight the lively red Forsook her cheek. Too deep my anguish. I scorn the coward. Else should I merit everlasting shame. and trembling. or slave. Which. to lawless love no longer led.

and languish in thy eye. Now the bright prize for which mankind engage. the sad victim. than their love before. of the public rage." . every charm must fly. 105 VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. Cease to provoke me. Fade from thy cheek. Than. Then thus incensed. lest I make thee more The world's aversion.BOOK III. the Paphian queen replies: "Obey the power from whom thy glories rise: Should Venus leave thee.

she turn'd away Her glowing eyes. And kind embraces snatch the hasty joy. Led by the goddess of the Smiles and Loves.106 The Iliad of Homer [064] At this. lest thou unskill'd Shouldst fall an easy conquest on the field. Then. and yet survives his fame? O hadst thou died beneath the righteous sword Of that brave man whom once I call'd my lord! The boaster Paris oft desired the day With Sparta's king to meet in single fray: Go now. from the train she moves. as he view'd her charms. Unseen. Nor add reproaches to the wounds I bear. Provoke Atrides. The queen and goddess to the prince ascend. Full in her Paris' sight. when from Sparta's shore . Where. lost to sense of shame. Not thus I loved thee. and thus began to say: "Is this the chief. the fairest of her sex obey'd. But let the business of our life be love: These softer moments let delights employ. and renew the fight: Yet Helen bids thee stay. and enter'd at the palace gate. and silent. once more thy rival's rage excite. various tasks attend. The maids officious round their mistress wait. Arrived. And veil'd her blushes in a silken shade. the queen of love Had placed the beauteous progeny of Jove. divinely fair." The prince replies: "Ah cease. Late fled the field. all dispersing. This day the foe prevail'd by Pallas' power: We yet may vanquish in a happier hour: There want not gods to favour us above. who.

Even those had yielded to a foe so brave The recreant warrior. Let Argive Helen own her lawful lord. Paris he seeks. Our brother's arms the just success have found: Be therefore now the Spartan wealth restor'd. Him Helen follow'd slow with bashful charms. i. his army's loud applauses rise. Athens. my willing heavenly prize I bore. hateful as the grave. And the long shout runs echoing through the skies. "Ye Trojans. When first entranced in Cranae's isle I lay.BOOK III. While these to love's delicious rapture yield. p." vol. Cranaus. 338. the enamour'd Phrygian boy Rush'd to the bed. 107 [065] [066] —Cranae's isle. impatient to destroy. 124 . The stern Atrides rages round the field: So some fell lion whom the woods obey." He ceased. Dardans. all our generous foes! Hear and attest! from Heaven with conquest crown'd. The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. and demands his prey. And age to age record this signal day. Roars through the desert. Then speaking thus. the king of kings arose.124 Mix'd with thy soul. impatient for the joy. But seeks in vain along the troops of Troy. and all dissolved away!" Thus having spoke. ii. My forced." and Alberti's "Hesychius. And clasp'd the blooming hero in her arms. See the "Schol.e. This name was derived from one of its early kings.

.108 The Iliad of Homer VENUS.

titled "Graeciae Antiquae".BOOK III. 109 Map. .

.

and exhorts the leaders.[067] BOOK IV. fresh with bloom divine. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline. Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general. The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war: they agree upon the continuation of it. and almost to the end of the seventh book). The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy. The gods. who is wounded. ARGUMENT. . And now Olympus' shining gates unfold. assume their thrones of gold: Immortal Hebe. and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce. The battle joins. with Jove. he reviews the troops. and great numbers are slain on both sides. In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. some by praises and others by reproof. The golden goblet crowns with purple wine: While the full bowls flow round. THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE. She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus. the powers employ Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy. but cured by Machaon. AND THE FIRST BATTLE.

disposed to tempt Saturnia's spleen. Each danger wards. Though great Atrides gain'd the glorious strife. But Juno. impotent of passion. Her act has rescued Paris' forfeit life. enraged. Saves in the moment of the last despair. in close consult engaged: Apart they sit. Atrides soon might gain his beauteous bride. The queen of pleasures shares the toils of fight. and the martial maid. and constant in her care. ye powers! what signal issue waits To crown this deed. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. Not thus fair Venus helps her favour'd knight. Imperial Juno." Thus while he spoke. Still Priam's walls in peaceful honours grow. And through his gates the crowding nations flow.112 The Iliad of Homer [068] When Jove. "Two powers divine the son of Atreus aid. and with fury spoke: . the queen of heaven. Or rouse the furies. would the gods for human good provide. and gaze from far. their deep designs employ. broke Her sullen silence. And queen of war. The tame spectators of his deeds of war. and finish all the fates! Shall Heaven by peace the bleeding kingdoms spare. Thus waked the fury of his partial queen. The prudent goddess yet her wrath suppress'd.125 But high in heaven they sit. and awake the war? Yet. And meditate the future woes of Troy. Then say.

shook Ilion with alarms. In the original. Sighs from his inmost soul. —The martial maid." The sire whose thunder shakes the cloudy skies. Assembled nations." i. "Minerva Alalcomeneis. Not all the gods are partial and unjust. At length ripe vengeance o'er their heads impends. 113 THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. O tyrant of the ethereal reign! My schemes. and thus replies: "Oh lasting rancour! oh insatiate hate To Phrygia's monarch. so called from her temple at Alalcomene in Boeotia. my labours. The immortal coursers scarce the labour bore. Loth as thou art to punish lawless lust. and my hopes be vain? Have I. I flew from shore to shore. for this. the defender.e. But Jove himself the faithless race defends. set two worlds in arms? To spread the war. "Shall then. and the Phrygian state! What high offence has fired the wife of Jove? Can wretched mortals harm the powers above.BOOK IV. 125 [069] .

Met. No mortals merit more distinguish'd grace Than godlike Priam. 453. Till vast destruction glut the queen of heaven! So let it be. Bleed all his sons.126 When heaven no longer hears the name of Troy. Then on the Thunderer fix'd them. More dear than all the extended earth contains. or earth-born men enjoy. vi. p. Remember Troy." At this the goddess rolled her radiant eyes. 127 126 . and the Spartan wall. and she was regarded as the patron deity of that city. Argos. Burst all her gates. whose guilt demands their fate. For know. and wrap her walls in fire! Let Priam bleed! if yet you thirst for more. Apul. 28.114 The Iliad of Homer That Troy. And yon fair structures level with the ground! Haste. of all the numerous towns that rise Beneath the rolling sun and starry skies. or than Priam's race. and give the vengeance way.. Which gods have raised. Presume not thou the lifted bolt to stay.. i. Still to our name their hecatombs expire. fulfil thy stern desire. and Troy's whole race thou wouldst confound. leave the skies. and Ilion float with gore: To boundless vengeance the wide realm be given. Æn. and replies: "Three towns are Juno's on the Grecian plains. Servius on Virg. And altars blaze with unextinguish'd fire. Mycenae. and Jove his peace enjoy. None stands so dear to Jove as sacred Troy.127 "Anything for a quiet life!" —Argos. The worship of Juno at Argos was very celebrated in ancient times. But should this arm prepare to wreak our hate On thy loved realms.

) 128 115 [070] —A wife and sister. but must resent in vain. iii. And heaven shall act as we direct the way. Fired with the charge. Sprung with thyself from one celestial sire. Or trembling sailors on the wintry main. and bade Minerva fly. Nor thou a wife and sister's right deny. And styled the consort of the thundering Jove. And shot like lightning from Olympus' height. Yet some distinction Juno might require. Their sudden friendship by her arts may cease." i. "conjuge me Jovis et sorore. A goddess born. and both by terms comply. the sister-wife of Jove. So shall the gods our joint decrees obey. she headlong urged her flight. l. These thou mayst raze. 64. from Saturnius sent To fright the nations with a dire portent." The sire of men and monarch of the sky The advice approved. to share the realms above. The crime's sufficient that they share my love. Of power superior why should I complain? Resent I may. 70. And the proud Trojans first infringe the peace. As the red comet." Dryden's "Virgil." . Od. nor I forbid their fall: 'Tis not in me the vengeance to remove. See ready Pallas waits thy high commands To raise in arms the Greek and Phrygian bands. and so Horace. c.128 Let both consent. Dissolve the league. who walk in awful state above The majesty of heav'n. and all her arts employ To make the breach the faithless act of Troy.BOOK IV. (A fatal sign to armies on the plain. So Apuleius. "But I. 3. speaks of her as "Jovis germana et conjux.

Amidst his triumph. the gods this signal sent. Who from Antenor traced his high descent. in open sight Shot the bright goddess in a trail of light.130 With flaming shields in martial circle stood. gleaming through the even On a sunbeam. Amidst the ranks Lycaon's son she found." iv. Whose squadrons. The warlike Pandarus. Like bold Laodocus. couldst thou direct thy dart." They said. Thy country's foe. 555. when vapours fired Impress the air. from Paris wouldst thou gain. her course she bent. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds.) pass'd disguised along. and the heavens on fire! "The gods (they cried). in the southern part of the chain of Ida. With eyes erect the gazing hosts admire The power descending. (In shape a mortal. And fate now labours with some vast event: Jove seals the league. And shakes the sparkles from its blazing hair:129 Between both armies thus. Jove. To him the goddess: "Phrygian! canst thou hear A well-timed counsel with a willing ear? What praise were thine.116 The Iliad of Homer With sweeping glories glides along in air. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. the Grecian glory slain? 129 "Thither came Uriel. the great arbiter of peace and wars. led from black Æsepus' flood." —"Paradise Lost. or bloodier scenes prepares. while Pallas through the Trojan throng. rising from Mount Cotyius. A river of Mysia. to the Spartan's heart? What gifts from Troy. —Æsepus' flood. 130 . for strength renown'd.

"131 He heard. And swear the firstlings of thy flock to pay. to the god of day. Who pierced long since beneath his arrows bled. Drawn to an arch. One from a hundred feather'd deaths he chose. Now with full force the yielding horn he bends. and madly at the motion pleased. and may that aim succeed! But first. Screen'd by the shields of his surrounding friends: There meditates the mark. And sixteen palms his brow's large honours spread: The workmen join'd. .BOOK IV. to speed the shaft. 131 117 [071] —Zelia. and smooth'd with artful toil: A mountain goat resign'd the shining spoil. Sounds the tough horn. And beaten gold each taper point adorns. and couching low. His polish'd bow with hasty rashness seized. Close to his breast he strains the nerve below. The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead. and joins the doubling ends. the warrior bends. at the foot of Ida. dare the mighty deed. and shaped the bended horns. Till the barb'd points approach the circling bow. Then offers vows with hecatombs to crown Apollo's altars in his native town. Fated to wound. 'Twas form'd of horn. On Zelia's altars. This. Then seize the occasion. Aim at his breast. Fits the sharp arrow to the well-strung bow. and cause of future woes. The impatient weapon whizzes on the wing. by the Greeks unseen. a town of Troas. address thy vow To Lycian Phoebus with the silver bow. and twangs the quivering string.

to be slain! The race of Trojans in thy ruin join. The watchful mother wafts the envenom'd fly. And grasp'd his hand. and through the corslet drove. while all the Greeks around With answering sighs return'd the plaintive sound. [072] "Oh. Stains the pure ivory with a lively red. dear as life! did I for this agree The solemn truce. Pass'd the broad belt. A nymph in Caria or Maeonia bred. and (weakened in its force) Diverts the weapon from its destined course: So from her babe. The royal brother thus his grief express'd. the plaited linen tore. and drew the purple gore. Pallas assists. the king of men descried The shaft infix'd. which. and saw the gushing tide: Nor less the Spartan fear'd. Then. when slumber seals his eye. Where linen folds the double corslet lined. And razed the skin. To fight for Greece.118 The Iliad of Homer But thee. Atrides! in that dangerous hour The gods forget not. As down thy snowy thigh distill'd the streaming flood. that heaved his manly breast. and the Tyrian dye: So great Atrides! show'd thy sacred blood. nor thy guardian power. with a sigh. The shining whiteness. and conquer. Just where his belt with golden buckles join'd. She turn'd the shaft. . With equal lustre various colours vie. before he found The shining barb appear above the wound. hissing from above. The folds it pierced. a fatal truce to thee! Wert thou exposed to all the hostile train. As when some stately trappings are decreed To grace a monarch on his bounding steed. With horror seized.

Jove but prepares to strike the fiercer blow. his mighty brother slain. When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. And only mourn. I see the god. and bid the thunder roll.) 'Such are the trophies Greece from Ilion brings. Troy seized of Helen.BOOK IV. Thy bones shall moulder on a foreign coast. which thus the Spartan cheers: "Let not thy words the warmth of Greece abate. earth! and hide a monarch's shame. the heartless Greeks no more Shall dream of conquests on the hostile shore. O'erwhelm me. And faith is scorn'd by all the perjured line. that great avenging day. Not thus our vows. The feeble dart is guiltless of my fate: 119 . from the pole Bare his red arm. While some proud Trojan thus insulting cries. The day shall come. And unrevenged. and our glory lost. And one prodigious ruin swallow all. I see the Eternal all his fury shed. Still must I mourn the period of thy days. When Priam's powers and Priam's self shall fall. without my share of praise? Deprived of thee. alas! deserv'st a happier fate. But thou. and those oaths we swore. (And spurns the dust where Menelaus lies. confirm'd with wine and gore. already. And shake his aegis o'er their guilty head. Such mighty woes on perjured princes wait.' Oh! ere that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. And such the conquest of her king of kings! Lo his proud vessels scatter'd o'er the main. Shall all be vain: when Heaven's revenge is slow. Those hands we plighted." He said: a leader's and a brother's fears Possess his soul.

may Heaven thy life defend! Now seek some skilful hand. A grief to us. called Asklepiads. but also as their actual progenitor. Through the thick files he darts his searching eyes.120 The Iliad of Homer Stiff with the rich embroider'd work around. and who principally dwelt near the temples of Asklepius. to the king repair."—Grote vol. always thus." To whom the king: "My brother and my friend. Pierced with a winged shaft (the deed of Troy). whose powerful art May stanch the effusion. and the Dardan's joy." 132 —Podaleirius and Machaon are the leeches of the Grecian army. or whether he was first a man and then became afterwards a god. the Iliou Persis. a triumph to the foe. and extract the dart. where sublime he stands132 In arms incircled with his native bands. Herald. 248." With hasty zeal the swift Talthybius flies. [073] . It was Podaleirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax. whither sick and suffering men came to obtain relief—all recognized the god not merely as the object of their common worship. The many families or gentes. Throughout all the historical ages the descendants of Asklepius were numerous and widely diffused. The Grecian's sorrow. Then thus: "Machaon. the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. Pierced by some Lycian or Dardanian bow. i. "Galen appears uncertain whether Asklepius (as well as Dionysus) was originally a god. Their medical renown was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arktinus. and bid Machaon bring His speedy succour to the Spartan king. highly prized and consulted by all the wounded chiefs. p. who devoted themselves to the study and practice of medicine. His wounded brother claims thy timely care. Thus. be swift. wherein the one was represented as unrivalled in surgical operations. My varied belt repell'd the flying wound. And finds Machaon. but Apollodorus professed to fix the exact date of his apotheosis.

"Brave men!" he cries. and Æsculapius used. Nor had you seen the king of men appear Confused.133 Which Chiron gave. (to such who boldly dare 133 121 "The plant she bruises with a stone. Where to the steely point the reed was join'd. and stands Tempering the juice between her ivory hands This o'er her breast she sheds with sovereign art And bathes with gentle touch the wounded part The wound such virtue from the juice derives. and sovereign balm infused. the youth revives. . but left the head behind. At once the blood is stanch'd. Or press'd the car with polish'd brass inlaid But left Eurymedon the reins to guide. unactive." "Orlando Furioso. or surprised with fear. Then suck'd the blood. But fond of glory. On foot through all the martial ranks he moves And these encourages. His beating bosom claim'd the rising fight. Straight the broad belt with gay embroidery graced. The heavy tidings grieved the godlike man Swift to his succour through the ranks he ran." book 1. The shaft he drew. The dauntless king yet standing firm he found. with severe delight. Once more they glitter in refulgent arms. And all the chiefs in deep concern around. and those reproves. the corslet from his breast unbraced.BOOK IV. Once more the fields are fill'd with dire alarms. The Trojans rush tumultuous to the war. He loosed. No longer with his warlike steeds he stay'd. While round the prince the Greeks employ their care. The fiery coursers snorted at his side.

122 The Iliad of Homer [074] Urge their swift steeds to face the coming war). and let us trust in Jove. to dread. Her sons and matrons Greece shall lead in chains. but doom'd to fly in vain? Confused and panting thus. Still must ye wait the foes. but guilty Troy. And clasp'd the warrior to his armed breast. "Your ancient valour on the foes approve. dastard race?" This said." Thus with new ardour he the brave inspires. Or thus the fearful with reproaches fires: "Shame to your country. Prepared for flight. when the generous bowls Restore our blood. Till yon tall vessels blaze with Trojan fire? Or trust ye. And bold Meriones excite the rear. First in the fight and every graceful deed. For this. and still retire. in banquets. 'Tis not for us. Jove is with Greece. the hunted deer Falls as he flies. "Divine Idomeneus! what thanks we owe To worth like thine! what praise shall we bestow? To thee the foremost honours are decreed. he stalk'd with ample strides along. . High at their head he saw the chief appear. To save a trembling. a victim to his fear. At this the king his generous joy express'd. scandal of your kind. Though all the rest with stated rules we bound. heartless. To Crete's brave monarch and his martial throng. Jove a valiant foe shall chase. And her dead warriors strew the mournful plains. Born to the fate ye well deserve to find! Why stand ye gazing round the dreadful plain. Whose crimes sit heavy on her perjured head. and raise the warriors' souls.

The cloud condensing as the west-wind blows: He dreads the impending storm. the embattled squadrons stood." 123 Charm'd with this heat. The field shall prove how perjuries succeed. and so thick. Spread in dim streams. and drives his flock To the close covert of an arching rock. . and sail along the skies. And chains or death avenge the impious deed. O king! exhort the rest. Till black as night the swelling tempest shows. Thy firm associate in the day of war. Slow from the main the heavy vapours rise. To mix in fight is all I ask of Heaven. And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields. a moving iron wood: A shady light was shot from glimmering shields. Maintain thy honours. Thus from the lofty promontory's brow A swain surveys the gathering storm below. A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground. the king his course pursues. and enlarge thy fame." To whom the Cretan thus his speech address'd: "Secure of me. Be still thyself. But let the signal be this moment given. Unmix'd. With spears erect. [075] Such. are thy goblets crown'd. Fix'd to thy side. in arms a mighty name. unmeasured. And next the troops of either Ajax views: In one firm orb the bands were ranged around.BOOK IV. in every toil I share.

Nor seek unpractised to direct the car. The middle space suspected troops supply. And with inspiring eloquence commands. There reverend Nestor ranks his Pylian bands. But fight. Nor cause confusion. Ah! would the gods but breathe in all the rest Such souls as burn in your exalted breast. Our great forefathers held this prudent course. Whose godlike virtue we but urge in vain.124 The Iliad of Homer "O heroes! worthy such a dauntless train. Haemon. By laws like these immortal conquests made. who raise your eager bands With great examples. thus preserved their force. Soon should our arms with just success be crown'd. mount the next in haste. And Troy's proud walls lie smoking on the ground. He whom the fortune of the field shall cast From forth his chariot. nor left the power to fly. Bias the good. a firm embodied train. Content with javelins to provoke the war. no warrior turn the rein. be tried: The charge once made." Then to the next the general bends his course. Chromius. nor the ranks exceed: Before the rest let none too rashly ride. but just in time. Thus ruled their ardour. (Exclaim'd the king). more than loud commands. (His heart exults. He gives command to "curb the fiery steed. With strictest order sets his train in arms. or fall. and Pelagon the great. Alastor. . Inclosed by both. The horse and chariots to the front assign'd. No strength nor skill. and glories in his force). The foot (the strength of war) he ranged behind. The chiefs advises. round him wait. and the soldiers warms.

Let sage advice. viii. But heaven its gifts not all at once bestows. fell prostrate on the plain. be mine. Such as I was. could mortal wish renew134 That strength which once in boiling youth I knew." Dryden's Virgil. And touch'd with transport great Atrides' heart. He shook his hoary locks. Exhaust thy spirits. that wither human race. and thus replied: "Well might I wish. oh ever mightst thou be! And age the lot of any chief but thee.BOOK IV. The solemn council best becomes the old: To you the glorious conflict I resign. And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire. slain Beneath this arm. These years with wisdom crowns. And nerves to second what thy soul inspires! But wasting years. "Would heav'n (said he) my strength and youth recall. "Oh! hadst thou strength to match thy brave desires. . Whom with three lives Feronia did endue." 125 So spoke the master of the martial art. and thy arms unbrace. And earth's proud tyrants low in ashes laid. What once thou wert. with action those: The field of combat fits the young and bold. When Herilus in single fight I slew. 742. Such as I was beneath Praeneste's wall— Then when I made the foremost foes retire. the palm of age." 134 [076] —Well might I wish. when Ereuthalion." Thus to the experienced prince Atrides cried.

With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved: "Can Peleus' son forget a warrior's part. the king replies: . skill'd in every art? Why stand you distant. For this your names are call'd before the rest. and but expect command. And found Menestheus on the dusty shore." Ulysses heard: the hero's warmth o'erspread His cheek with blushes: and severe. they stood intent To watch the motion.126 The Iliad of Homer He said." Struck with his generous wrath. Behold me plunging in the thickest fight. chiefs! without a blush survey Whole troops before you labouring in the fray? Say. And fears Ulysses. To share the pleasures of the genial feast: And can you. With joy the monarch march'd before. With whom the firm Athenian phalanx stands. dubious of the event. nor heard the sounds of war. but the last in fight. is it thus those honours you requite? The first in banquets. Who dares to act whate'er thou dar'st to view. and commence the war. and the rest expect To mix in combat which yourselves neglect? From you 'twas hoped among the first to dare The shock of armies. If glorious deeds afford thy soul delight. who saw their squadrons yet unmoved. nor knew so far The peace infringed. with his subject bands. The tumult late begun. Remote their forces lay. Then give thy warrior-chief a warrior's due. he said: "Take back the unjust reproach! Behold we stand Sheathed in bright arms. And next Ulysses. The king.

While dreadful comets glaring from afar. (The warlike Sthenelus attends his side. a son of Capaneus. and a careless eye? Not thus thy sire the fierce encounter fear'd. Sage as thou art. he approach'd the foes. remote. sent by Greece from where Asopus flows. 127 —Sthenelus. one of the Epigoni. Forewarn'd the horrors of the Theban war. whose strength could tame The bounding steed.BOOK IV. His steeds and chariots wedged in firm array. the mingling hosts descry. 136 —Forwarn'd the horrors. To this day. modern nations are not wholly free from this superstition. The gods that make. He was one of the suitors of Helen. Not we denied. 135 . A peaceful guest. With hands unactive. Who view'd him labouring through the ranks of fight? I saw him once. and armies had been given. Haste to the fight. and pass'd where great Tydides lay." He said. and is said to have been one of those who entered Troy inside the wooden horse. thy care and ardour are the same. friends. shall keep the worthy. A fearless envoy. The same portent has already been mentioned. and in council wise! With ours.)135 To whom with stern reproach the monarch cried: "O son of Tydeus! (he. secure of just amends. Forgive the transport of a martial mind. Armies he ask'd. what wonders they recite. in arms a mighty name) Canst thou. but Jove forbade from heaven. when gathering martial powers. "O great in action. Nor need I to commend. he sought Mycenae's towers. and learn'd in human kind. Thebes' hostile walls unguarded and alone. Still first in front the matchless prince appear'd: What glorious toils. nor aught to blame.136 Next.

Those fifty slaughter'd in the gloomy vale. For Pallas strung his arm and edged his sword. Ourselves to lessen. Far more than heirs of all our parents' fame. within the winding way. and hardy Lycophon. and such his martial fire. Our glories darken their diminish'd name. The sons subdued. Two heroes led the secret squadron on. . while our sire you raise? Dare to be just. Atrides! and confess Our value equal. And dared to combat all those chiefs around: Dared. which had seven gates. Stung with the shame. He spared but one to bear the dreadful tale. the boaster thus begun: [078] "What needs. Gods! how the son degenerates from the sire!" No words the godlike Diomed return'd. Boeotian Thebes. And happier saw the sevenfold city fall. for Heaven was on their side. With fewer troops we storm'd the Theban wall. But heard respectful. To bar his passage fifty warriors lay. and in secret burn'd: Not so fierce Capaneus' undaunted son. Mason the fierce. O monarch! this invidious praise." 137 —Sevenfold city. The tyrant feasting with his chiefs he found. Stern as his sire. though our fury less. and demands the throne.128 The Iliad of Homer Dauntless he enters.137 In impious acts the guilty father died. Such Tydeus was. and subdued before their haughty lord.

'Tis ours to labour in the glorious fight. were Ilion's towers o'erthrown. Then roars the main. As if some god had snatch'd their voice away." He spoke. Those only heard. To him Tydides thus: "My friend. forbear. and ardent.138 First move the whitening surface of the seas. White foam at first on the curl'd ocean fries. Foam o'er the rocks. . Till. and men drove men along Sedate and silent move the numerous bands. 138 129 —As when the winds. Not so the Trojans. Till. with awe the rest obey. the chief disgrace his own. Shields urged on shields. from their host ascends A general shout that all the region rends." Dryden's Virgil. on the trembling ground Sprung from his car: his ringing arms resound. by the fury of the storm full blown. Dire was the clang. and the king revere: His high concern may well excuse this rage. vii. So to the fight the thick battalions throng. Of arm'd Tydides rushing to the war. Whose cause we follow. and whose war we wage: His the first praise. and dreadful from afar. no whisper. with the growing storm. when a black-brow'd gust begins to rise. but the chief's commands. As when the winds. 736. and thunder to the skies. And. The muddy billow o'er the clouds is thrown.BOOK IV. the deeps arise. Let him the Greeks to hardy toils excite. the billows mount the skies. if we fail. The billows float in order to the shore. "Thus. ascending by degrees. Suppress thy passion. The wave behind rolls on the wave before. No sound.

She stalks on earth. and the combat burns. The lambs reply from all the neighbouring hills: Such clamours rose from various nations round." —"Paradise Lost. To armour armour. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and confused the sound. While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound. where'er her steps she turns. and wait the milker's hand. Small at her birth. 986. And shrilling shouts and dying groans arise. The hollow vales incessant bleating fills.130 The Iliad of Homer [079] As when the fleecy flocks unnumber'd stand In wealthy folds." iv. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. with helmet helmet closed. And discord raging bathes the purple plain. . Mix'd was the murmur. Now shield with shield. 139 "Stood Like Teneriffe or Atlas unremoved. but rising every hour. and dreadful terror reign. Pale flight around. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. lance to lance opposed. and each a god inspires. and shakes the world around. Each host now joins. The groan still deepens.139 The nations bleed. Host against host with shadowy squadrons drew. Discord! dire sister of the slaughtering power. and those Minerva fires. His stature reach'd the sky. Victors and vanquish'd join'd promiscuous cries. These Mars incites.

increased by numerous rills. Warm'd in the brain the brazen weapon lies. Razed his high crest. and pour'd along the plain. its walls besmear'd with blood. 140 131 [080] The Abantes seem to have been of Thracian origin.140 Seized to despoil. Man dies on man. So mix both hosts. As torrents roll. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. With rage impetuous. the warriors bleed again: As o'er their prey rapacious wolves engage. Roar through a thousand channels to the main: The distant shepherd trembling hears the sound. Fair Simoisius. The war renews. unbraced. and so their cries rebound. down their echoing hills Rush to the vales. whom his mother bore Amid the flocks on silver Simois' shore: The nymph descending from the hills of Ide. unguarded by his ample shield. and through his helmet drives. Agenor's javelin reach'd the hero's heart. and dragg'd the corpse along: But while he strove to tug the inserted dart. the bold leader of the Abantian throng. His flank. The soul comes floating in a tide of gore. and spurns the field. that long assaults had stood Of force and fire. Trojans and Greeks now gather round the slain. and all is blood and rage. The nerves. .BOOK IV. Admits the lance: he falls. The bold Antilochus the slaughter led. So sinks a tower. Him. support his limbs no more. To seek her parents on his flowery side. The first who struck a valiant Trojan dead: At great Echepolus the lance arrives. And shades eternal settle o'er his eyes. In blooming youth fair Simoisius fell.

Simoisius lies Stretch'd on the shore. With all its beauteous honours on its head There. At Ajax. Democoon was his name. that in watery ground Raised high the head. who from Abydos came. He falls. A chief stood nigh. once for all. Short was his date! by dreadful Ajax slain. but cautious look'd around. and thus neglected dies. (Fell'd by some artist with his shining steel. with stately branches crown'd. and with grief enraged. And trembling heard the javelin as it flew. Strode where the foremost of the foes engaged. he meditates the wound. And thence from Simois named the lovely boy. slew. This saw Ulysses. Old Priam's son. it withers on the plain Thus pierced by Ajax. Cold through his temples glides the whizzing spear. Struck at his sight the Trojans backward drew. In act to throw. loved by wise Ulysses. He drops the corpse of Simoisius slain. To shape the circle of the bending wheel. And Leucus.132 The Iliad of Homer Brought forth the babe.141 With piercing shrieks the youth resigns his breath. The weapon entered close above his ear. and renders all their cares in vain! So falls a poplar. smooth. their common care and joy. left a subject to the wind and rain. remark that Homer is most anatomically correct as to the parts of the body in which a wound would be immediately mortal.) Cut down it lies. And scorch'd by suns. The pointed lance with erring fury flew. His eye-balls darken with the shades of death. I may. Arm'd with his spear. 141 . Antiphus his javelin threw. and largely spread. And sinks a breathless carcase on the plain. tall.

Have ye forgot what seem'd your dread before? The great. and crash'd the solid bone. and animates the fight. And shouts and thunders in the fields below. the fierce Achilles fights no more. by doom divine. a fountain almost proverbial for its coldness. E'en godlike Hector seems himself to fear. And the warm life came issuing from the wound. the rest tumultuous fled. The Greeks with shouts press on. his clanging arms resound. Before his helpless friends. In vain his valour and illustrious line. Seized with affright the boldest foes appear. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. Ponderous he falls. nor ribb'd with steel. (Who from cold Ænus led the Thracian crew. roused the Trojan powers: While war's fierce goddess fires the Grecian foe. Array'd in terrors. The foe rush'd furious as he pants for breath. and native bands. and force with force oppose. A broken rock the force of Pyrus threw. and your strokes they feel. Then great Diores fell. and spoil the dead: But Phoebus now from Ilion's towering height Shines forth reveal'd.BOOK IV. And through his navel drove the pointed death: His gushing entrails smoked upon the ground. Slow he gave way. Your weapons enter." Apollo thus from Ilion's lofty towers. "Trojans. Burst the strong nerves. . be bold.)142 Full on his ankle dropp'd the ponderous stone. Your foaming steeds urge headlong on the foes! Nor are their bodies rocks. And spreads for aid his unavailing hands. 142 133 [081] —Ænus. Supine he tumbles on the crimson sands.

And gash'd his belly with a ghastly wound. And one the leader of the Epeian race. A grove of lances glitter'd at his breast. And quivering in his heaving bosom stood: Till from the dying chief. And swords around him innocently play. Deep in his breast above the pap it went. The Thracian bands against the victor press'd. Might darts be bid to turn their points away. Thus fell two heroes. one the pride of Thrace. So fought each host. Stern Thoas.134 The Iliad of Homer His lance bold Thoas at the conqueror sent. Amid the lungs was fix'd the winged wood. approaching near. In dust the vanquish'd and the victor lies. The war's whole art with wonder had he seen. Had some brave chief this martial scene beheld. The Ætolian warrior tugg'd his weighty spear: Then sudden waved his flaming falchion round. And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired. The corpse now breathless on the bloody plain. glaring with revengeful eyes. And counted heroes where he counted men. By Pallas guarded through the dreadful field. In sullen fury slowly quits the prize. Death's sable shade at once o'ercast their eyes. With copious slaughter all the fields are red. And heap'd with growing mountains of the dead. [082] . To spoil his arms the victor strove in vain. with thirst of glory fired.

135 Map of the Plain of Troy.BOOK IV. .

.

Æneas joins Pandarus to oppose him. and sends him groaning to heaven. where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus.. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars. the latter incites Diomed to go against that god. But Pallas now Tydides' soul inspires. performs wonders in this day's battle. excepting Venus. Lib. Pandarus wounds him with an arrow. 7: "Nuovo favor del cielo in lui niluce E 'l fa grande.143 Fills with her force. Gl' empie d' honor la faccia. assisted by Pallas. and at length carries off Æneas to Troy. e vi riduce Di giovinezza il bel purpureo lume. Pandarus is killed. and warms with all her fires. who." . enables him to discern gods from mortals. but the goddess cures him. and assists Hector to make a stand. 143 Compare Tasso. is wounded on the hand by Diomed. xx. ARGUMENT. The first battle continues through this book. Gier. among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon.[083] BOOK V. he wounds him. Mars rallies the Trojans. et angusto oltre il costume. THE ACTS OF DIOMED. The scene is the same as in the former. and Æneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus. and prohibits him from contending with any of the former. as she is removing her son from the fight. and they overthrow several of the Greeks. In the meantime Æneas is restored to the field. Diomed. Apollo seconds her in his rescue.

The sons of Dares first the combat sought. [084] . Tydides on the plain. His beamy shield emits a living ray. Increased the spoils of gallant Diomed. in pity to the sire. A wealthy priest. the fierce effulgence flow'd: Onward she drives him. Where the fight burns. High on his helm celestial lightnings play. The sons to toils of glorious battle bred. And had not Vulcan lent celestial aid. shoots a keener light. Not so. Seized with unusual fear. Left the rich chariot. Fierce for renown the brother-chiefs draw near. And crown her hero with distinguish'd praise. and where the thickest rage. And. Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies. flew thy lance in vain. Idaeus fled. Such. from his arms. These. bathed in ocean. but rich without a fault. These singled from their troops the fight maintain. Tydides. Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow'd. The steeds and chariot. and stretch'd him on the plain. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. He too had sunk to death's eternal shade. But pierced his breast. The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies. In Vulcan's fane the father's days were led. to the navy led. furious to engage. But in a smoky cloud the god of fire Preserved the son. And first bold Phegeus cast his sounding spear. and his brother dead.138 The Iliad of Homer Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise. from their steeds. And spent in empty air its erring force. When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight.

the spirit wings its way. The god of arms and martial maid retreat. Who bathe in blood. O Phaestus! doom'd to feel The great Idomeneus' protended steel. mighty Jove decide: While we from interdicted fields retire. His death ennobled by Atrides' hand: As he to flight his wheeling car address'd. or fled. 139 . And everlasting shades his eyes surround. Struck with amaze and shame. Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging sire. the Trojan crew. Whom Borus sent (his son and only joy) From fruitful Tarne to the fields of Troy. and bites the bloody sand. Thy fate was next. the Greeks the Trojan race pursue. Or slain. on Xanthus' flowery bounds They sat. The Cretan javelin reach'd him from afar. Removed from fight. Meantime. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground. the sons of Dares view. The speedy javelin drove from back to breast. And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. When by the blood-stain'd hand Minerva press'd The god of battles. and this speech address'd: "Stern power of war! by whom the mighty fall.BOOK V. And some bold chieftain every leader slew: First Odius falls." Her words allay the impetuous warrior's heat. In dust the mighty Halizonian lay. And whose the conquest. His arms resound. and listen'd to the dying sounds. and shake the lofty wall! Let the brave chiefs their glorious toils divide.

Thy father's skill. How vain those cares! when Meges in the rear Full in his nape infix'd the fatal spear. expert in the chase. the mystic will of heaven unknown. In woods and wilds to wound the savage race. Theanor. Through his broad back and heaving bosom went: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. Beneath his hand the fleet of Paris rose. The fatal lance arrests him as he flies. Pallas did impart To him the shipwright's and the builder's art. Nor saw his country's peril. From Menelaus' arm the weapon sent.140 The Iliad of Homer Then died Scamandrius. And death in lasting slumber seals his eyes. Whose generous spouse. while confused he fled. From Meges' force the swift Pedaeus fled. For loved by Pallas. The fatal cause of all his country's woes. Between the bladder and the bone it pass'd. The hapless artist. with forceful fury cast. Diana taught him all her sylvan arts. nor his own. To bend the bow. The spear of Merion mingled with the dead. Nursed the young stranger with a mother's care. Bold Merion sent him to the realms of hell. Next artful Phereclus untimely fell. and aim unerring darts: But vainly here Diana's arts he tries. The graceful fabric and the fair design. But he. His brazen armour rings against the ground. heavenly fair. [085] . Antenor's offspring from a foreign bed. Prone on his knees he falls with fruitless cries. O Phereclus! was thine. Through his right hip.

Eurypylus inflicts a deadly wound.BOOK V. Uproot the forest oaks. Who near adored Scamander made abode. and fate suppress'd his breath. Which stain'd with sacred blood the blushing sand. In every quarter fierce Tydides raged. Pours on the rear. he darts from place to place." Dryden's Virgil ii. and bursts the lofty bounds. Down sunk the priest: the purple hand of death Closed his dim eye. in different parts engaged. and the peasant's gains. folds. Thence glancing downwards. descending on the plains. and honoured as a god. On his broad shoulders fell the forceful brand. and sweep the trees along. generous and divine. Now here. and bear away Flocks. . now there. Amid the Greek. 408. Through ruin'd moles the rushing wave resounds. Sprung from the brave Dolopion's mighty line. destroy the pains Of lab'ring oxen. amid the Trojan train. an undistinguish'd prey. Sweep o'er the yellow year. or lightens in their face. and trees. one sad waste appear!144 144 141 [086] "Or deluges. Rapt through the ranks he thunders o'er the plain. And the cold tongue and grinning teeth divides. Then died Hypsenor. Thus toil'd the chiefs. Priest of the stream. Swift through his crackling jaws the weapon glides. On him. lopp'd his holy hand. O'erwhelm's the bridge. Thus from high hills the torrents swift and strong Deluge whole fields. And flatted vineyards. The yellow harvests of the ripen'd year. amidst the flying numbers found.

That vaunts these eyes shall view the light no more. and made all Troy retire. Not long the deathful dart he can sustain. When thus the king his guardian power address'd. Deep in his shoulder pierced." . now. behind his car retired. Drove armies back. boundless in his ire. Whose forky point the hollow breastplate tore. If e'er I felt thee in the fighting field." So spoke he. Swift from his seat he leap'd upon the ground. And tugg'd the weapon from the gushing wound. The wounded chief. And lay the boaster grovelling on the shore. ye Trojans. Now. thy sacred succour yield. O give my lance to reach the Trojan knight. Whose arrow wounds the chief thou guard'st in fight. Swift to the mark the thirsty arrow flew. With grief the leader of the Lycian band Saw the wide waste of his destructive hand: His bended bow against the chief he drew. Or Phoebus urged me to these fields in vain.142 The Iliad of Homer While Jove descends in sluicy sheets of rain. and drank the gore: The rushing stream his brazen armour dyed. So raged Tydides. The helping hand of Sthenelus required. And all the labours of mankind are vain. hither drive your steeds! Lo! by our hand the bravest Grecian bleeds. The purple current wandering o'er his vest: "O progeny of Jove! unconquer'd maid! If e'er my godlike sire deserved thy aid. and mock'd the shooter's art. goddess. boastful: but the winged dart Stopp'd short of life. While the proud archer thus exulting cried: "Hither.

He feels each limb with wonted vigour light. If chance some shepherd with a distant dart The savage wound. He foams. and Minerva heard. thy protection mine. his languid spirits cheer'd. Rush to the fight. Wake each paternal virtue in thy soul: Strength swells thy boiling breast. With tenfold ardour now invades the plain. As on the fleecy flocks when hunger calls. Yet more. he roars. and every foe control. the shepherd dares not stay. (she cried). Heaps fall on heaps. "Be bold. But trembling leaves the scattering flocks a prey. And all thy godlike father breathes in thee. through all the embattled plain. 411.BOOK V.145 And set to view the warring deities. Her shalt thou wound: so Pallas gives command." "Paradise Lost. The hero rush'd impetuous to the fight." With that. Thus pray'd Tydides. If Venus mingle in the martial band. War be thy province. the blue-eyed virgin wing'd her flight. infused by me. "But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. Nor rashly strive where human force is vain." xi. and more enraged by pain. . in every combat shine. Not with less fury stern Tydides flew. Wild with delay. he bathes with blood the ground. Amidst the field a brindled lion falls. from mortal mists I purge thy eyes. 145 143 [087] —From mortal mists. he rouses at the smart. His nerves confirm'd. Then leaps victorious o'er the lofty mound. His beating bosom claim'd the promised fight. These see thou shun.

Hypenor's shoulder his broad falchion cleaves. The race forgotten. . and sprung with noble rage Abas and Polyidus to engage. As when the lordly lion seeks his food Where grazing heifers range the lonely wood. and Thoon felt his rage. and mystic dreams unfold. He leaps amidst them with a furious bound. Could fate foresee. and the name no more. Astynous' breast the deadly lance receives. and tears them to the ground: So from their seats the brother chiefs are torn. His people's pastor. Cold death o'ertakes them in their blooming years. Those slain he left. The joy and hope of Phaenops' feeble age: Vast was his wealth. wise and old. and by his side. Astynous breathless fell.144 The Iliad of Homer And two brave leaders at an instant slew. Though now determined by Tydides' spear. Glittering in arms. Young Xanthus next. And the sad father tried his arts in vain. The youths return'd not from the doubtful plain. and these the only heirs Of all his labours and a life of cares. and combat side by side. Bends their strong necks. And leaves the father unavailing tears: To strangers now descends his heapy store. good Hypenor. Sons of Eurydamus. died. [088] Two sons of Priam in one chariot ride. who. Their steeds and chariot to the navy borne. No mystic dream could make their fates appear.

" To him the Lycian: "Whom your eyes behold. Exploring Pandarus with careful eyes. if god. If right I judge. Nor join'd swift horses to the rapid car. Or god incensed. Through the thick storm of singing spears he flies. some angry god withstands. Skill'd in the bow. Thy matchless skill. who quits the distant skies To punish Troy for slighted sacrifice. and so flames his shield. 145 . is Diomed the bold: Such coursers whirl him o'er the dusty field. he wears that chief's disguise: Or if that chief. some guardian of the skies. and his friends pursued. Involved in clouds. thy yet unrivall'd fame. oh avert from our unhappy state! For what so dreadful as celestial hate)? Whoe'er he be. If 'tis a god. His fate was due to these unerring hands. entreat to spare. The stroke had fix'd him to the gates of hell. If man. are all thy honours now. Thy winged arrows and unerring bow. To whom the chief of Venus' race begun: "Where. but some god.BOOK V. With deep concern divine Æneas view'd The foe prevailing. So towers his helmet. protects him in the fray. Pandarus. And turns unseen the frustrate dart away. At length he found Lycaon's mighty son. destroy. And. I wing'd an arrow. which not idly fell. And boasted glory of the Lycian name? O pierce that mortal! if we mortal call That wondrous force by which whole armies fall. (Which. on foot I sought the war. propitiate Jove with prayer.

Cursed be the fate that sent me to the field Without a warrior's arms. When first for Troy I sail'd the sacred seas. The good old warrior bade me trust to these. These shafts. aloft. carry death no more. In fields. And twice ten coursers wait their lord's command.146 The Iliad of Homer Ten polish'd chariots I possess'd at home. In evil hour these bended horns I strung. In vain they bleed: this unavailing bow Serves. the whirling car to guide." . unfaithful to my glorious aims. Tydeus' and Atreus' sons their points have found. And still they grace Lycaon's princely dome: There veil'd in spacious coverlets they stand. not to slaughter. If e'er I see my spouse and sire again. This bow. And seized the quiver where it idly hung. But vain with youth. shall feed the blazing flames. And thought the steeds (your large supplies unknown) Might fail of forage in the straiten'd town. and yet to thrift inclined. [089] "Too late. but provoke the foe. And through the ranks of death triumphant ride. the spear and shield! If e'er with life I quit the Trojan plain. I heard his counsels with unheedful mind. once fatal. Broke by my hand. And undissembled gore pursued the wound. O friend! my rashness I deplore. So took my bow and pointed darts in hand And left the chariots in my native land.

the victor's prize. The distant dart be praised. if. encounter force with force. or urge the rapid race. Secure with these. to chase.BOOK V. Practised alike to turn. we desert the fight. unhappy. to great Tydides cried: 147 . though here we need The rushing chariot and the bounding steed. Else shall our fates be number'd with the dead. Or safe to Troy. in triumph led. practised to their lord's command. But. To whom the leader of the Dardan race: "Be calm." And now both heroes mount the glittering car. and from the chariot's height Observe my father's steeds. Take thou the spear. To dare the shock. seize the whip. Shall bear the rein. alarm'd. be thine the task to guide." "O prince! (Lycaon's valiant son replied) As thine the steeds. Thine be the guidance. The bounding coursers rush amidst the war. and snatch the guiding rein. hand to hand. to stop. Against yon hero let us bend our course. if Jove assist the foe. then: with spear and shield Myself will charge this terror of the field. And. nor Phoebus' honour'd gift disgrace. Now mount my seat. Who thus. through fighting fields we go. and answer to thy hand. Haste. The warrior's fury let this arm sustain. renown'd in fight. The horses. And these. if to combat thy bold heart incline. the chariot's care be mine. Their fierce approach bold Sthenelus espied. Thy voice alone can animate their flight. Or.

But if she dooms. "A pair of coursers. Whose wombs conceived a more than mortal birth. I hate the cumbrous chariot's slow advance. and emulate my sire. Ascend thy car! And save a life. bear them both away. So Pallas tells me. By substituting mares produced on earth. Who from their nostrils breathed ethereal fire. inglorious flight? Know. that fierce to fight convey Those threatening heroes. The race of those. and if no god withstand. Fix'd on the chief with scorn. and thus he spoke: "Me dost thou bid to shun the coming fight? Me wouldst thou move to base. Dreadful they come. .148 The Iliad of Homer [090] "O friend! two chiefs of force immense I see. Whom Circe stole from her celestial sire. which once the thundering god146 146 —The race of those. 'tis not honest in my soul to fear. And great Æneas. Then heed my words: my horses here detain. and bend their rage on thee: Lo the brave heir of old Lycaon's line. That both shall fall by one victorious hand. and forbids to fly. Nor was Tydides born to tremble here. my force entire. One chief at least beneath this arm shall die. And the long distance of the flying lance." At this the hero cast a gloomy look. But while my nerves are strong. Swift to Æneas' empty seat proceed. Fix'd to the chariot by the straiten'd rein. Thus front the foe. Nor shall yon steeds. sprung from race divine! Enough is given to fame. And seize the coursers of ethereal breed. the bulwark of our war. born of heav'nly breed.

Though late in vain assail'd. were the rich immortal prize our own. By mortal mares. The spear may enter where the arrow fail'd. These. Beneath the rising or the setting sun. headlong from his car. the foe came furious on. and in his cuirass hung. the mighty warrior lies!" "Mistaken vaunter! (Diomed replied. "He bleeds! the pride of Greece! (the boaster cries. Pierced the tough orb." . and now my spear be tried." He said. from fierce Laomedon: Four of this race his ample stalls contain. Through the wide world should make our glory known.) Thy dart has erred.BOOK V. thou art met. and flung." 149 Thus while they spoke. And two transport Æneas o'er the plain. For ravish'd Ganymede on Tros bestow'd. And stern Lycaon's warlike race begun: "Prince.) Our triumph now. Hence great Anchises stole a breed unknown. then shook the ponderous lance. one. With hostile blood shall glut the god of war. Ye 'scape not both. On his broad shield the sounding weapon rung. The best that e'er on earth's broad surface run.

O'er the fall'n trunk his ample shield display'd. Which. His falling bulk his bended arm sustains. and from the fields Heaved with vast force. And stripp'd the skin. Discharged the ponderous ruin at the foe. Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. vii. Sunk on his knees. gathering strength to throw. and staggering with his pains. Through both the tendons broke the rugged stone. sqq. and rising hurl'd his forceful dart. Watchful he wheels. The belief in the existence of men of larger stature in earlier times. and cleft the tongue within. but forbear the prize. To guard his slaughter'd friend. is by no means confined to Homer. driven by Pallas. 386. Full in his face it enter'd. Headlong he falls. He hides the hero with his mighty shade. Till the bright point look'd out beneath the chin. Full on the bone the pointed marble lights. and. Dryden's Virgil. As the grim lion stalks around his prey. and betwixt The nose and eye-ball the proud Lycian fix'd. 147 . and his arms resound. and crack'd the solid bone. Crash'd all his jaws. his helmet knocks the ground: Earth groans beneath him. a rocky fragment wields. Where to the hip the inserted thigh unites. The starting coursers tremble with affright. The soul indignant seeks the realms of night. Then fierce Tydides stoops. And threats aloud! the Greeks with longing eyes Behold at distance. Æneas flies.150 The Iliad of Homer [091] He spoke. His spear extending where the carcase lies. pierced a vital part. protects it every way. Such men as live in these degenerate days:147 He swung it round.

with unassisting hands. Lost in a dizzy mist the warrior lies. Like Pallas dreadful with her sable shield. removed from out the war. Remain'd unheedful of his lord's commands: His panting steeds. (Whom most he loved. About her much-loved son her arms she throws. A sudden cloud comes swimming o'er his eyes. who mighty numbers sway'd.BOOK V. Next. and feather'd flight Of sounding shafts. Oppress'd had sunk to death's eternal shade. Or fierce Bellona thundering at the wall. mindful of the love She bore Anchises in the Idaean grove. Screen'd from the foe behind her shining veil. Her arms whose whiteness match the falling snows. That charge to bold Deipylus he gave. resumed the rein. Meanwhile (his conquest ravished from his eyes) The raging chief in chase of Venus flies: No goddess she. While flames ascend. 151 [092] . and mighty ruins fall. Safe through the rushing horse. No longer now a Trojan lord obey'd. she bears him from the fight. But heavenly Venus.) Then mounting on his car. He fix'd with straiten'd traces to the car. And follow'd where Tydides swept the plain. as brave men love the brave. His danger views with anguish and despair. The swords wave harmless. There the brave chief. detains The heavenly coursers with the flowing manes: These in proud triumph to the fleet convey'd. And guards her offspring with a mother's care. commission'd to the field. rushing to the Dardan spoil. Nor Sthenelus. and the javelins fail.

Her snowy hand the razing steel profaned.152 The Iliad of Homer He knew soft combats suit the tender dame. and wards the mortal wound. The king insults the goddess as she flies: "Ill with Jove's daughter bloody fights agree. Taught by this stroke renounce the war's alarms. Nor wine's inflaming juice supplies their veins:) With tender shrieks the goddess fill'd the place. terrestrial blood: (For not the bread of man their life sustains. ." "Paradise Lost. i. and still a foe to fame. And dropp'd her offspring from her weak embrace.148 Pure emanation! uncorrupted flood! Unlike our gross. Such stream as issues from a wounded god. such as celestial spirits may bleed. let thy own soft sex employ thy care." vi. Sanguine. 339." 148 —Such stream. From the clear vein a stream immortal flow'd. The field of combat is no scene for thee: Go. Then with a voice that shook the vaulted skies. And the transparent skin with crimson stain'd. diseased. or blood of the gods. And at the goddess his broad lance extends. "A stream of nect'rous humour issuing flow'd. New to the field. Go. The ambrosial veil which all the Graces wove.e. Him Phoebus took: he casts a cloud around The fainting chief. Through breaking ranks his furious course he bends. or delude the fair. lull the coward. the ichor. Through her bright veil the daring weapon drove. And learn to tremble at the name of arms.

Before her mother. And to her hand commits the golden rein. But with the gods (the immortal gods) engage. Confused." . Tydides thus. and livid look'd the wound. The lash resounds. they bent their way: Far. who dares encounter heaven. Low at his knee. O'erwhelmed with anguish. who sat remote. his foaming steeds before. And in a moment scales the lofty skies: They stopp'd the car. And ask'd what god had wrought this guilty deed? 153 [093] Then she: "This insult from no god I found. Pale was her cheek. the rapid chariot flies. The goddess. and dissolved in tears: She raised her in her arms. seized with dread. swift the winged Iris flew. on the left. Wrapt in a mist above the warring crew.BOOK V. with clouds involved he lay. and there the coursers stood. Stern Mars attentive hears the queen complain. The queen of love with faded charms she found. To Mars. distain'd with gore. distracted. rein'd with gold. beheld her bleed. To aid her. from the conflict fled. And. love's bright queen appears. Beside him stood his lance. And show'd the wound by fierce Tydides given. An impious mortal gave the daring wound! Behold the deed of haughty Diomed! 'Twas in the son's defence the mother bled. to mount the distant skies. A mortal man. Fed by fair Iris with ambrosial food. The war with Troy no more the Grecians wage. oppress'd with silent woe. She mounts the seat. Driven by the goddess of the painted bow. she begg'd with streaming eyes Her brother's car.

154 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. This was during the wars with the Titans. And men with woes afflict the gods again.149 And lodged in brazen dungeons underground. Full thirteen moons imprison'd roar'd in vain. Dione then: "Thy wrongs with patience bear. The imperial partner of the heavenly reign. Hercules. Amphitryon's son infix'd the deadly dart. The mighty Mars in mortal fetters bound. the wife of Amphitryon. CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. WOUNDED IN THE HAND. 150 149 [094] .150 And fill'd with anguish her immortal heart. born to Jove by Alcmena. Otus and Ephialtes held the chain: Perhaps had perish'd had not Hermes' care Restored the groaning god to upper air. —Amphitryon's son. Great Juno's self has borne her weight of pain. And share those griefs inferior powers must share: Unnumber'd woes mankind from us sustain.

and closed the wound. Pierced in his own dominions of the dead. impious man! to stain the bless'd abodes. "But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed). [095] . E'en hell's grim king Alcides' power confess'd. The shaft found entrance in his iron breast. whoe'er with heavenly power contends. Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed. Short is his date. And drench his arrows in the blood of gods! 155 OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. Where Paeon.BOOK V. To Jove's high palace for a cure he fled. sprinkling heavenly balm around. From fields of death when late he shall retire. Know thou. No infant on his knees shall call him sire. Assuaged the glowing pangs. Rash. and soon his glory ends.

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Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found, To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground; Thy distant wife, Ægiale the fair,151 Starting from sleep with a distracted air, Shall rouse thy slaves, and her lost lord deplore, The brave, the great, the glorious now no more!"

This said, she wiped from Venus' wounded palm The sacred ichor, and infused the balm. Juno and Pallas with a smile survey'd, And thus to Jove began the blue-eyed maid:

"Permit thy daughter, gracious Jove! to tell How this mischance the Cyprian queen befell, As late she tried with passion to inflame The tender bosom of a Grecian dame; Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy, To quit her country for some youth of Troy; The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound, Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound."

The sire of gods and men superior smiled, And, calling Venus, thus address'd his child: "Not these, O daughter are thy proper cares, Thee milder arts befit, and softer wars; Sweet smiles are thine, and kind endearing charms; To Mars and Pallas leave the deeds of arms."
—Ægiale daughter of Adrastus. The Cyclic poets (See Anthon's Lempriere, s. v.) assert Venus incited her to infidelity, in revenge for the wound she had received from her husband.
151

BOOK V. Thus they in heaven: while on the plain below The fierce Tydides charged his Dardan foe, Flush'd with celestial blood pursued his way, And fearless dared the threatening god of day; Already in his hopes he saw him kill'd, Though screen'd behind Apollo's mighty shield. Thrice rushing furious, at the chief he strook; His blazing buckler thrice Apollo shook: He tried the fourth: when, breaking from the cloud, A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. "O son of Tydeus, cease! be wise and see How vast the difference of the gods and thee; Distance immense! between the powers that shine Above, eternal, deathless, and divine, And mortal man! a wretch of humble birth, A short-lived reptile in the dust of earth." So spoke the god who darts celestial fires: He dreads his fury, and some steps retires. Then Phoebus bore the chief of Venus' race To Troy's high fane, and to his holy place; Latona there and Phoebe heal'd the wound, With vigour arm'd him, and with glory crown'd. This done, the patron of the silver bow A phantom raised, the same in shape and show With great Æneas; such the form he bore, And such in fight the radiant arms he wore. Around the spectre bloody wars are waged, And Greece and Troy with clashing shields engaged. Meantime on Ilion's tower Apollo stood, And calling Mars, thus urged the raging god:

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"Stern power of arms, by whom the mighty fall; Who bathest in blood, and shakest the embattled wall, Rise in thy wrath! to hell's abhorr'd abodes Despatch yon Greek, and vindicate the gods. First rosy Venus felt his brutal rage; Me next he charged, and dares all heaven engage: The wretch would brave high heaven's immortal sire, His triple thunder, and his bolts of fire." The god of battle issues on the plain, Stirs all the ranks, and fires the Trojan train; In form like Acamas, the Thracian guide, Enraged to Troy's retiring chiefs he cried: "How long, ye sons of Priam! will ye fly, And unrevenged see Priam's people die? Still unresisted shall the foe destroy, And stretch the slaughter to the gates of Troy? Lo, brave Æneas sinks beneath his wound, Not godlike Hector more in arms renown'd: Haste all, and take the generous warrior's part. He said;—new courage swell'd each hero's heart. Sarpedon first his ardent soul express'd, And, turn'd to Hector, these bold words address'd: "Say, chief, is all thy ancient valour lost? Where are thy threats, and where thy glorious boast, That propp'd alone by Priam's race should stand Troy's sacred walls, nor need a foreign hand? Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends, And the proud vaunt in just derision ends. Remote they stand while alien troops engage, Like trembling hounds before the lion's rage. Far distant hence I held my wide command, Where foaming Xanthus laves the Lycian land;

BOOK V. With ample wealth (the wish of mortals) bless'd, A beauteous wife, and infant at her breast; With those I left whatever dear could be: Greece, if she conquers, nothing wins from me; Yet first in fight my Lycian bands I cheer, And long to meet this mighty man ye fear; While Hector idle stands, nor bids the brave Their wives, their infants, and their altars save. Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten'd state, Or one vast burst of all-involving fate Full o'er your towers shall fall, and sweep away Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish'd prey. Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight; These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night; With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose; Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes." Stung to the heart the generous Hector hears, But just reproof with decent silence bears. From his proud car the prince impetuous springs, On earth he leaps, his brazen armour rings. Two shining spears are brandish'd in his hands; Thus arm'd, he animates his drooping bands, Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. They turn, they stand; the Greeks their fury dare, Condense their powers, and wait the growing war. As when, on Ceres' sacred floor, the swain Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain, And the light chaff, before the breezes borne, Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn; The grey dust, rising with collected winds, Drives o'er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:

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So white with dust the Grecian host appears. From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers; The dusky clouds from labour'd earth arise, And roll in smoking volumes to the skies. Mars hovers o'er them with his sable shield, And adds new horrors to the darken'd field: Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil, In Troy's defence, Apollo's heavenly will: Soon as from fight the blue-eyed maid retires, Each Trojan bosom with new warmth he fires. And now the god, from forth his sacred fane, Produced Æneas to the shouting train; Alive, unharm'd, with all his peers around, Erect he stood, and vigorous from his wound: Inquiries none they made; the dreadful day No pause of words admits, no dull delay; Fierce Discord storms, Apollo loud exclaims, Fame calls, Mars thunders, and the field's in flames. Stern Diomed with either Ajax stood, And great Ulysses, bathed in hostile blood. Embodied close, the labouring Grecian train The fiercest shock of charging hosts sustain. Unmoved and silent, the whole war they wait Serenely dreadful, and as fix'd as fate. So when the embattled clouds in dark array, Along the skies their gloomy lines display; When now the North his boisterous rage has spent, And peaceful sleeps the liquid element: The low-hung vapours, motionless and still, Rest on the summits of the shaded hill; Till the mass scatters as the winds arise, Dispersed and broken through the ruffled skies.

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BOOK V. Nor was the general wanting to his train; From troop to troop he toils through all the plain, "Ye Greeks, be men! the charge of battle bear; Your brave associates and yourselves revere! Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire, And catch from breast to breast the noble fire! On valour's side the odds of combat lie, The brave live glorious, or lamented die; The wretch who trembles in the field of fame, Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!" These words he seconds with his flying lance, To meet whose point was strong Deicoon's chance: Æneas' friend, and in his native place Honour'd and loved like Priam's royal race: Long had he fought the foremost in the field, But now the monarch's lance transpierced his shield: His shield too weak the furious dart to stay, Through his broad belt the weapon forced its way: The grisly wound dismiss'd his soul to hell, His arms around him rattled as he fell. Then fierce Æneas, brandishing his blade, In dust Orsilochus and Crethon laid, Whose sire Diocleus, wealthy, brave and great, In well-built Pherae held his lofty seat:152 Sprung from Alpheus' plenteous stream, that yields Increase of harvests to the Pylian fields. He got Orsilochus, Diocleus he, And these descended in the third degree. Too early expert in the martial toil, In sable ships they left their native soil, To avenge Atrides: now, untimely slain,
152

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—Pherae, a town of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly.

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They fell with glory on the Phrygian plain. So two young mountain lions, nursed with blood In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, Rush fearless to the plains, and uncontroll'd Depopulate the stalls and waste the fold: Till pierced at distance from their native den, O'erpowered they fall beneath the force of men. Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they. Great Menelaus views with pitying eyes, Lifts his bright lance, and at the victor flies; Mars urged him on; yet, ruthless in his hate, The god but urged him to provoke his fate. He thus advancing, Nestor's valiant son Shakes for his danger, and neglects his own; Struck with the thought, should Helen's lord be slain, And all his country's glorious labours vain. Already met, the threatening heroes stand; The spears already tremble in their hand: In rush'd Antilochus, his aid to bring, And fall or conquer by the Spartan king. These seen, the Dardan backward turn'd his course, Brave as he was, and shunn'd unequal force. The breathless bodies to the Greeks they drew, Then mix in combat, and their toils renew. First, Pylaemenes, great in battle, bled, Who sheathed in brass the Paphlagonians led. Atrides mark'd him where sublime he stood; Fix'd in his throat the javelin drank his blood. The faithful Mydon, as he turn'd from fight His flying coursers, sunk to endless night; A broken rock by Nestor's son was thrown: His bended arm received the falling stone;

BOOK V. From his numb'd hand the ivory-studded reins, Dropp'd in the dust, are trail'd along the plains: Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound; He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground: Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there The head stood fix'd, the quivering legs in air, Till trampled flat beneath the coursers' feet: The youthful victor mounts his empty seat, And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.

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Great Hector saw, and, raging at the view, Pours on the Greeks: the Trojan troops pursue: He fires his host with animating cries, And brings along the furies of the skies, Mars, stern destroyer! and Bellona dread, Flame in the front, and thunder at their head: This swells the tumult and the rage of fight; That shakes a spear that casts a dreadful light. Where Hector march'd, the god of battles shined, Now storm'd before him, and now raged behind.

Tydides paused amidst his full career; Then first the hero's manly breast knew fear. As when some simple swain his cot forsakes, And wide through fens an unknown journey takes: If chance a swelling brook his passage stay, And foam impervious 'cross the wanderer's way, Confused he stops, a length of country pass'd, Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last. Amazed no less the great Tydides stands: He stay'd, and turning thus address'd his bands:

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"No wonder, Greeks! that all to Hector yield; Secure of favouring gods, he takes the field; His strokes they second, and avert our spears. Behold where Mars in mortal arms appears! Retire then, warriors, but sedate and slow; Retire, but with your faces to the foe. Trust not too much your unavailing might; 'Tis not with Troy, but with the gods ye fight." Now near the Greeks the black battalions drew; And first two leaders valiant Hector slew: His force Anchialus and Mnesthes found, In every art of glorious war renown'd; In the same car the chiefs to combat ride, And fought united, and united died. Struck at the sight, the mighty Ajax glows With thirst of vengeance, and assaults the foes. His massy spear with matchless fury sent, Through Amphius' belt and heaving belly went; Amphius Apaesus' happy soil possess'd, With herds abounding, and with treasure bless'd; But fate resistless from his country led The chief, to perish at his people's head. Shook with his fall his brazen armour rung, And fierce, to seize it, conquering Ajax sprung; Around his head an iron tempest rain'd; A wood of spears his ample shield sustain'd: Beneath one foot the yet warm corpse he press'd, And drew his javelin from the bleeding breast: He could no more; the showering darts denied To spoil his glittering arms, and plumy pride. Now foes on foes came pouring on the fields, With bristling lances, and compacted shields; Till in the steely circle straiten'd round,

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BOOK V. Forced he gives way, and sternly quits the ground. While thus they strive, Tlepolemus the great,153 Urged by the force of unresisted fate, Burns with desire Sarpedon's strength to prove; Alcides' offspring meets the son of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms each adverse chief came on. Jove's great descendant, and his greater son. Prepared for combat, ere the lance he toss'd, The daring Rhodian vents his haughty boast: "What brings this Lycian counsellor so far, To tremble at our arms, not mix in war! Know thy vain self, nor let their flattery move, Who style thee son of cloud-compelling Jove. How far unlike those chiefs of race divine, How vast the difference of their deeds and thine! Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul No fear could daunt, nor earth nor hell control. Troy felt his arm, and yon proud ramparts stand Raised on the ruins of his vengeful hand: With six small ships, and but a slender train, lie left the town a wide-deserted plain. But what art thou, who deedless look'st around, While unrevenged thy Lycians bite the ground! Small aid to Troy thy feeble force can be; But wert thou greater, thou must yield to me. Pierced by my spear, to endless darkness go! I make this present to the shades below."

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—Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyochia. Having left his native country, Argos, in consequence of the accidental murder of Liscymnius, he was commanded by an oracle to retire to Rhodes. Here he was chosen king, and accompanied the Trojan expedition. After his death, certain games were instituted at Rhodes in his honour, the victors being rewarded with crowns of poplar.

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The son of Hercules, the Rhodian guide, Thus haughty spoke. The Lycian king replied: "Thy sire, O prince! o'erturn'd the Trojan state, Whose perjured monarch well deserved his fate; Those heavenly steeds the hero sought so far, False he detain'd, the just reward of war. Nor so content, the generous chief defied, With base reproaches and unmanly pride. But you, unworthy the high race you boast, Shall raise my glory when thy own is lost: Now meet thy fate, and by Sarpedon slain, Add one more ghost to Pluto's gloomy reign." He said: both javelins at an instant flew; Both struck, both wounded, but Sarpedon's slew: Full in the boaster's neck the weapon stood, Transfix'd his throat, and drank the vital blood; The soul disdainful seeks the caves of night, And his seal'd eyes for ever lose the light. Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone Sarpedon's thigh, had robb'd the chief of breath; But Jove was present, and forbade the death. Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng, The wounded hero dragg'd the lance along. (His friends, each busied in his several part, Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.) The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired; Whose fall Ulysses view'd, with fury fired; Doubtful if Jove's great son he should pursue, Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew. But heaven and fate the first design withstand, Nor this great death must grace Ulysses' hand.

BOOK V. Minerva drives him on the Lycian train; Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew'd the plain, Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell:154 And numbers more his sword had sent to hell, But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight, Rush'd terrible amidst the ranks of fight. With joy Sarpedon view'd the wish'd relief, And, faint, lamenting, thus implored the chief: "O suffer not the foe to bear away My helpless corpse, an unassisted prey; If I, unbless'd, must see my son no more, My much-loved consort, and my native shore, Yet let me die in Ilion's sacred wall; Troy, in whose cause I fell, shall mourn my fall." He said, nor Hector to the chief replies, But shakes his plume, and fierce to combat flies; Swift as a whirlwind, drives the scattering foes; And dyes the ground with purple as he goes. Beneath a beech, Jove's consecrated shade, His mournful friends divine Sarpedon laid: Brave Pelagon, his favourite chief, was nigh, Who wrench'd the javelin from his sinewy thigh. The fainting soul stood ready wing'd for flight, And o'er his eye-balls swam the shades of night; But Boreas rising fresh, with gentle breath, Recall'd his spirit from the gates of death.

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These heroes' names have since passed into a kind of proverb, designating the oi polloi or mob.

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The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace, Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face; None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight, Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight. Who first, who last, by Mars' and Hector's hand, Stretch'd in their blood, lay gasping on the sand? Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown'd For managed steeds, and Trechus press'd the ground;, Next OEnomaus and OEnops' offspring died; Oresbius last fell groaning at their side: Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay, In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway, Where lakes surround low Hyle's watery plain; A prince and people studious of their gain.

The carnage Juno from the skies survey'd, And touch'd with grief bespoke the blue-eyed maid: "Oh, sight accursed! Shall faithless Troy prevail, And shall our promise to our people fail? How vain the word to Menelaus given By Jove's great daughter and the queen of heaven, Beneath his arms that Priam's towers should fall, If warring gods for ever guard the wall! Mars, red with slaughter, aids our hated foes: Haste, let us arm, and force with force oppose!"

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She spoke; Minerva burns to meet the war: And now heaven's empress calls her blazing car. At her command rush forth the steeds divine; Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine.

BOOK V. Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe, ever young, The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung. On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel Of sounding brass; the polished axle steel. Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame; The circles gold, of uncorrupted frame, Such as the heavens produce: and round the gold Two brazen rings of work divine were roll'd. The bossy naves of sold silver shone; Braces of gold suspend the moving throne: The car, behind, an arching figure bore; The bending concave form'd an arch before. Silver the beam, the extended yoke was gold, And golden reins the immortal coursers hold. Herself, impatient, to the ready car, The coursers joins, and breathes revenge and war. Pallas disrobes; her radiant veil untied, With flowers adorn'd, with art diversified, (The laboured veil her heavenly fingers wove,) Flows on the pavement of the court of Jove. Now heaven's dread arms her mighty limbs invest, Jove's cuirass blazes on her ample breast; Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field, O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield, Dire, black, tremendous! Round the margin roll'd, A fringe of serpents hissing guards the gold: Here all the terrors of grim War appear, Here rages Force, here tremble Flight and Fear, Here storm'd Contention, and here Fury frown'd, And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. The massy golden helm she next assumes, That dreadful nods with four o'ershading plumes; So vast, the broad circumference contains

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A hundred armies on a hundred plains. The goddess thus the imperial car ascends; Shook by her arm the mighty javelin bends, Ponderous and huge; that when her fury burns, Proud tyrants humbles, and whole hosts o'erturns. Swift at the scourge the ethereal coursers fly, While the smooth chariot cuts the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers,155 Heaven's golden gates, kept by the winged Hours;156 Commission'd in alternate watch they stand, The sun's bright portals and the skies command, Involve in clouds the eternal gates of day, Or the dark barrier roll with ease away. The sounding hinges ring on either side The gloomy volumes, pierced with light, divide. The chariot mounts, where deep in ambient skies, Confused, Olympus' hundred heads arise; Where far apart the Thunderer fills his throne, O'er all the gods superior and alone. There with her snowy hand the queen restrains The fiery steeds, and thus to Jove complains:
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—Spontaneous open.

"Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, upspringing light Flew through the midst of heaven; th' angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th' empyreal road; till at the gate Of heaven arrived, the gate self-open'd wide, On golden hinges turning." —"Paradise Lost," v. 250.
156

"Till Morn, Waked by the circling Hours, with rosy hand Unbarr'd the gates of light." —"Paradise Lost," vi, 2.

BOOK V. "O sire! can no resentment touch thy soul? Can Mars rebel, and does no thunder roll? What lawless rage on yon forbidden plain, What rash destruction! and what heroes slain! Venus, and Phoebus with the dreadful bow, Smile on the slaughter, and enjoy my woe. Mad, furious power! whose unrelenting mind No god can govern, and no justice bind. Say, mighty father! shall we scourge this pride, And drive from fight the impetuous homicide?" To whom assenting, thus the Thunderer said: "Go! and the great Minerva be thy aid. To tame the monster-god Minerva knows, And oft afflicts his brutal breast with woes." He said; Saturnia, ardent to obey, Lash'd her white steeds along the aerial way Swift down the steep of heaven the chariot rolls, Between the expanded earth and starry poles Far as a shepherd, from some point on high,157 O'er the wide main extends his boundless eye, Through such a space of air, with thundering sound, At every leap the immortal coursers bound Troy now they reach'd and touch'd those banks divine, Where silver Simois and Scamander join There Juno stopp'd, and (her fair steeds unloosed) Of air condensed a vapour circumfused For these, impregnate with celestial dew, On Simois, brink ambrosial herbage grew.

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—Far as a shepherd. "With what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities! He here measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. And who is there, that, considering the exceeding greatness of the space would not with reason cry out that 'If the steeds of the deity were to take a second leap, the world would want room for it'?"—Longinus, Section 8.

157

And shouts..158 Whose throats surpass'd the force of fifty tongues. Or foaming boars. and scarce the seas remain. "Inglorious Argives! to your race a shame. In the early Saracen campaigns frequent mention is made of the service rendered by men of uncommonly strong voices.—Coleridge. the terror of the wood Heaven's empress mingles with the mortal crowd. aloud.. Smooth as the sailing doves they glide along. And only men in figure and in name! Once from the walls your timorous foes engaged. the uncle of Mohammed. While fierce in war divine Achilles raged. are used in the Homeric action itself." "No trumpets. Now issuing fearless they possess the plain.172 The Iliad of Homer Thence to relieve the fainting Argive throng. and is introduced for the purpose of illustration as employed in war. but the trumpet was known. the battle of Honain was restored by the shouts and menaces of Abbas. Now win the shores. Stentor was an indispensable officer. Hence arose the value of a loud voice in a commander. Such was their look as lions bathed in blood. Stentor the strong. or any other instruments of sound." &c. [105] The best and bravest of the Grecian band (A warlike circle) round Tydides stand. 158 . endued with brazen lungs. 213. in Stentor's sounding voice. p.

and warn'd our Argive bands: 173 . While near Tydides stood the Athenian maid. thou know'st. many a hardy knight. Her speech new fury to their hearts convey'd. and confess thy aid. And Venus only found resistance here.) Large drops of sweat from all his limbs descend. and vanquish'd. goddess! heedful of thy high commands. The king beside his panting steeds she found. No drop of all thy father warms thy veins. Foremost he press'd in glorious toils to share. once he dared to go. or sloth detains. Beside his coursers. Thou too no less hast been my constant care. There braved. unguarded." The chief thus answered mild: "Immortal maid! I own thy presence. Nor sloth hath seized me. The goddess leaning o'er the bending yoke. incircled by the Theban foe. (The wound inflicted by the Lycian dart. Whose ample belt. Alone. O'erspent with toil reposing on the ground. And scarce refrain'd when I forbade the war. To cool his glowing wound he sat apart. withholds me from the plains. He eased. Not fear. that o'er his shoulder lay. Loth I gave way. and such force in fight. And feast. and sent thee forth to war: But thee or fear deters. Whose little body lodged a mighty mind. Beneath his ponderous shield his sinews bend. and wash'd the clotted gore away. Such nerves I gave him. Thy hands I arm'd. Hence. thus her silence broke: "Degenerate prince! and not of Tydeus' kind. but thy word restrains: From warring gods thou bad'st me turn my spear.BOOK V.

So great a hero. Drew from his seat the martial charioteer. the homicide. Large promise makes. and so great a god. sq. Fierce for revenge. furious. she lash'd with all her force. and raging round the field.174 The Iliad of Homer For Mars. and breaks the promise made: Now gives the Grecians. Full on the god impel thy foaming horse: Pallas commands. fear. hear! Not Mars himself. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends. and Pallas lends thee force. 761. spread Black Orcus' helmet o'er her radiant head. And full on Mars impelled the foaming horse: But first. to hide her heavenly visage." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. nor aught immortal. now the Trojans aid. from these to those he flies. 159 "Long had the wav'ring god the war delay'd. and to the steeds approaching near." vi. And every side of wavering combat tries. She snatch'd the reins. . blind. While Greece and Troy alternate own'd his aid." [106] Then thus Minerva:—"Brave Tydides."159 She said. and Diomed attends: The groaning axle bent beneath the load. With slaughter red. Rash. these eyes beheld.

As vapours blown by Auster's sultry breath. When shouting millions shake the thundering field. It pierced the god: his groin received the wound. The javelin hiss'd. Both armies start. From Mars's arm the enormous weapon fled: Pallas opposed her hand. the goddess urged it on: Where the broad cincture girt his armour round. The god. Pregnant with plagues. leaves his prostrate prize Stretch'd where he fell. and shedding seeds of death. From the rent skin the warrior tugs again The smoking steel. Mars bellows with the pain: Loud as the roar encountering armies yield. 175 DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. [107] . who slew him. the dreadful god of war! Full at the chief.BOOK V. Then threw the force of Tydeus' warlike son. and caused to glance Far from the car the strong immortal lance. The strongest warrior of the Ætolian train. and trembling gaze around. in equal arms appear The daring Greek. Just then gigantic Periphas lay slain. above his courser's head. Now rushing fierce. and at Tydides flies. And earth and heaven re-bellow to the sound.

Against the immortals lifts his raging hand: The heavenly Venus first his fury found. supine. wild. There sullen sat beneath the sire of gods. All heaven beside reveres thy sovereign sway. Choke the parch'd earth. And gods on gods exert eternal rage: From thee. flagitious facts survey. And thy fell daughter with the shield and spear. and blacken all the skies. Me next encountering. for ages lie. even I. at her command. Vanquish'd I fled. Pernicious. And brook the furies of this daring day? For mortal men celestial powers engage. and heaving under loads of slain! Or pierced with Grecian darts. High o'er the dusky whirlwind scales the heaven. and thy behests obey: 'Tis hers to offend." . Thou gavest that fury to the realms of light. Wild with his pain. Else hadst thou seen me sink on yonder plain. From mortal madness scarce was saved by flight. Condemn'd to pain. Thy voice we hear. Now frantic Diomed. me he dared to wound. thy counsels. and even offending share Thy breast. the god of fight. he sought the bright abodes. O father! all these ills we bear.176 The Iliad of Homer Beneath the rage of burning Sirius rise. though fated not to die. and with a groan Thus pour'd his plaints before the immortal throne: "Can Jove. regardless of the right. In such a cloud the god from combat driven. thy distinguish'd care: So boundless she. Heap'd round. Show'd the celestial blood. and thou so partial grown. Well may we deem the wondrous birth thy own.

Then gave to Paeon's care the bleeding god. fair Hebe dress'd His mighty limbs in an immortal vest. Cleansed from the dust and gore. Fast by the throne of heaven's superior lord.BOOK V. no law. singed with lightning. Thou most unjust. and the rage of fight. thy fiery temper quells. . And all thy mother in thy soul rebels. She gives the example. 177 Him thus upbraiding. hadst thou hence been thrown. and mix among the gods.160 With gentle hand the balm he pour'd around. No bounds. Juno and Pallas mount the bless'd abodes. Their task perform'd. and closed the wound. Sudden the fluids fix the parts combined. infused in cream. and her son pursues. In vain our threats. in majesty restored. and stern bespoke: "To me. The waste of slaughter. Such. with a wrathful look The lord of thunders view'd. in vain our power we use. most odious in our eyes! Inhuman discord is thy dire delight. Glorious he sat. And heal'd the immortal flesh. perfidious! this lamenting strain? Of lawless force shall lawless Mars complain? Of all the gods who tread the spangled skies. Yet long the inflicted pangs thou shall not mourn. As when the fig's press'd juice. Sprung since thou art from Jove. To curds coagulates the liquid stream. Else. the ethereal texture join'd." [108] Thus he who shakes Olympus with his nod. and heavenly-born. Where chain'd on burning rocks the Titans groan. and so soon.

.178 The Iliad of Homer JUNO.

what Podaleirius and Machaon were to the Grecian heroes. 179 —Paeon seems to have been to the gods.BOOK V. 160 .

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of the friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors. commands Hector to return to the city. the tide of combat flows. they make exchange of their arms. THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED.[109] BOOK VI. where. and. The gods having left the field. in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva. coming to the knowledge. Now here. ARGUMENT. taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache. . now there. Helenus. the Grecians prevail. and then changes to Troy. that bound the deathful plain On either side. The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector. Hector. Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies. between the rivers Simois and Scamander. AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. While Troy's famed streams. run purple to the main. the chief augur of Troy. to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight. hastens again to the field. having performed the orders of Helenus. Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield To human force and human skill the field: Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes. The scene is first in the field of battle. prevails upon Paris to return to the battle.

In secret woods he won the naiad's grace. That monarch's first-born by a foreign bed. and good: In fair Arisbe's walls (his native place)161 He held his seat! a friend to human race. and young. Broke the thick ranks. Next Teuthras' son distain'd the sands with blood. From a fair naiad and Bucolion sprung: (Laomedon's white flocks Bucolion fed. To stern Tydides now he falls a prey. No friend to guard him in the dreadful day! Breathless the good man fell. and by his side His faithful servant. and relieved the poor. Fast by the road. hospitable. And next he laid Opheltius on the plain. And seals in endless shades his swimming eyes. Fix'd in his front the brazen weapon lies. rich. The ruthless victor stripp'd their shining arms. beautiful.182 The Iliad of Homer [110] Great Ajax first to conquest led the way. bold. And hew'd the enormous giant to the ground. The Thracian Acamas his falchion found. old Calesius died. 161 —Arisbe. Axylus. a colony of the Mitylenaeans in Troas. And two fair infants crown'd his strong embrace:) Here dead they lay in all their youthful charms. his ever-open door Obliged the wealthy. and turn'd the doubtful day. By great Euryalus was Dresus slain. His thundering arm a deadly stroke impress'd Where the black horse-hair nodded o'er his crest. . Two twins were near.

Great Agamemnon. In reference also to the metals. The mortal wound of rich Elatus gave. not in battle slain. 163 162 . copper. and electrum.163 183 —Pedasus. And Phylacus from Leitus flies in vain.BOOK VI. Who held in Pedasus his proud abode. that. Thy hollow ships his captive son detain: Rich heaps of brass shall in thy tent be told. copper. For Troy they fly. precipitate in flight.162 And till'd the banks where silver Satnio flow'd. His headlong steeds. resistless as the wind. Wide o'er the field. and for the life I owe Large gifts of price my father shall bestow. a town near Pylos. By Teucer's shaft brave Aretaon bled. Scared with the din and tumult of the fight. and leave their lord behind. leader of the brave. —Rich heaps of brass. and thus his prayer address'd: "O spare my youth. Unbless'd Adrastus next at mercy lies Beneath the Spartan spear. Prone on his face he sinks beside the wheel: Atrides o'er him shakes his vengeful steel. it deserves to be remarked. while large stocks of yet unemployed metal—gold. a living prize. Ulysses' spear Pidytes sent to hell. The fallen chief in suppliant posture press'd The victor's knees. When fame shall tell. and broke The shatter'd chariot from the crooked yoke. Rush'd on a tamarisk's strong trunk. "The halls of Alkinous and Menelaus glitter with gold. and iron are stored up in the treasure-chamber of Odysseus and other chiefs. And Nestor's son laid stern Ablerus dead. Coined money is unknown in the Homeric age—the trade carried on being one of barter. Melanthius by Eurypylus was slain. Astyalus by Polypoetes fell.

i. quarter seems never to have been given. both offensive and defensive. nor age. vol. and not iron. And. furious. p. thus: "Oh impotent of mind!164 Shall these. but the use of iron for these objects belongs to a later age. ii. Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus with unmanly softness. except with a view to the ransom of the prisoner. &c. And cropt the wailing infant at the birth. vol. we do not know. so as to serve the purpose of the warrior. And they who ne'er offended find a foe?" Rowe's Lucan. impatient of delay. It struck the bending father to the earth. shall these Atrides' mercy find? Well hast thou known proud Troy's perfidious land. . To warn the nations.184 The Iliad of Homer And steel well-temper'd. 164 —Oh impotent.165 A dreadful lesson of exampled fate. p. and bury all. suspended with the lifted dart: As pity pleaded for his vanquish'd prize. to be employed for arms. nor sex."—Grote. 142. 181 165 "The ruthless steel. Her babes. Shall save a Trojan from our boundless rage: Ilion shall perish whole. and himself puts the suppliant to the sword. her infants at the breast. Forbade the sire to linger out the day. By what process the copper was tempered and hardened. and to curb the great!" that the Homeric descriptions universally suppose copper." [111] He said: compassion touch'd the hero's heart He stood. Can innocents the rage of parties know. shall fall. And well her natives merit at thy hand! Not one of all the race. Stern Agamemnon swift to vengeance flies."—Thirlwall. ii. bk. and persuasive gold. "In battle. when he is on the point of sparing a fallen enemy.

your future spoil! First gain the conquest. No son of Mars descend. with great Æneas join'd. Wise to consult. To touch the booty. to the town retire.BOOK VI. and roused the warrior's rage. The monarch spoke. 185 [112] . at our gates. To rigid justice steel'd his brother's breast Fierce from his knees the hapless chief he thrust. Old Nestor saw. The monarch's javelin stretch'd him in the dust. Where Hector stood. here fix'd. The sport and insult of the hostile train. heroes! thus the vigorous combat wage. Had not sage Helenus her state redress'd. Ourselves. Then pressing with his foot his panting heart. for servile gains. and active to defend! Here. The seer reveal'd the counsels of his mind: "Ye generous chiefs! on whom the immortals lay The cares and glories of this doubtful day. the words. Turn back the routed. with warmth address'd. Meanwhile thou. retired. Press'd as we are. then reward the toil. On whom your aids. will make the dangerous stand. When your commands have hearten'd every band. your brave efforts unite. Ere yet their wives' soft arms the cowards gain. Hector. while a foe remains. Taught by the gods that moved his sacred breast. and sore of former fight. your country's hopes depend. and forbid the flight. These straits demand our last remains of might. "Thus. And frighted Troy within her walls. Forth from the slain he tugg'd the reeking dart. Behold yon glittering host." And now had Greece eternal fame acquired.

To Pallas' fane in long procession go. With offer'd vows. and seek the power. and our city spare. and labour'd o'er with gold. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. In hopes to reconcile their heav'nly foe: They weep. That mows whole troops.166 Unbar the sacred gates. and 'midst her triumphs fears. atoned by fervent prayer. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. And turn the tide of conflict on the foe: Fierce in the front he shakes two dazzling spears. with a bound. And bids the thunder of the battle rise. Our wives. In rage unbounded. Through all his host inspiring force he flies. i. The largest mantle her rich wardrobes hold. our infants. they thought. and unmatch'd in might. Not thus resistless ruled the stream of fight. Most prized for art. 670 . Sprung though he was from more than mortal bed. And twelve young heifers to her altars led: If so the power. Some god." Hector obedient heard: and. oppress'd with woe. they beat their breasts. Leap'd from his trembling chariot to the ground. 166 "Meantime the Trojan dames." Dryden's Virgil. With rage recruited the bold Trojans glow. And rich embroider'd vests for presents bear. they rend their hair. who ruled the fate of wars.186 The Iliad of Homer And teach our mother what the gods require: Direct the queen to lead the assembled train Of Troy's chief matrons to Minerva's fane. All Greece recedes. in Ilion's topmost tower. and makes all Troy retire. Not thus Achilles taught our hosts to dread.

or by fixing attention for a while on some new transaction. To bid our altars flame." . Near as they drew. one or more heroes are despatched on some commission. as it were. at the close of which the further account of the mission is resumed. I trust. as a general rule. Shot down avenging from the vault of stars. with ample strides the hero pass'd. hear! And you whom distant nations send to war! Be mindful of the strength your fathers bore. either by a temporary continuation of the previous narrative. Now paused the battle (godlike Hector gone). seek the gods in vain. 187 Then thus aloud: "Ye dauntless Dardans. and victims fall: Nor shall. His neck o'ershading. And as he march'd the brazen buckler rung. p. i.298: "The poet's method of introducing his episode. the matrons' holy train. vol. for example. Be still yourselves. Tydides thus began: 167 [113] The manner in which this episode is introduced. And reverend elders.167 Where daring Glaucus and great Tydeus' son Between both armies met: the chiefs from far Observed each other. immediately described.BOOK VI. The shield's large orb behind his shoulder cast. Where. is well illustrated by the following remarks of Mure. One hour demands me in the Trojan wall. also. the fulfilment of this task is not." This said. illustrates in a curious manner his tact in the dramatic department of his art. to his ankle hung. which interval is dramatised. to be executed at a certain distance of time or place. and Hector asks no more. A certain interval is allowed them for reaching the appointed scene of action. and had mark'd for war.

Cheerless he breathed. from Nyssa's sacred grove: Their consecrated spears lay scatter'd round. That daring man who mix'd with gods in fight. Approach. Bacchus. Where fame is reap'd amid the embattled field. Yet far before the troops thou dar'st appear. and hated by the gods! I brave not heaven: but if the fruits of earth Sustain thy life. (The immortals bless'd with endless ease above. or who my sire. boldest of the race of man? Our eyes till now that aspect ne'er beheld. Now green in youth.188 The Iliad of Homer "What art thou. Know with immortals we no more contend. and successive rise: . They fall successive.) Deprived of sight by their avenging doom. Not long Lycurgus view'd the golden light." "What. (Replied the chief. Unhappy they. thou descend. While Bacchus headlong sought the briny flood. With brandish'd steel. and wander'd in the gloom. or from whence I am. and Bacchus' votaries. too prodigal of breath. A wretch accursed. and enter the dark gates of death. he drove. And Thetis' arms received the trembling god. Bold as thou art. Nor fail'd the crime the immortals' wrath to move. With curling vines and twisted ivy bound. and human be thy birth.) can Tydeus' son inquire? Like leaves on trees the race of man is found. And meet a lance the fiercest heroes fear. Another race the following spring supplies. Who tempt our fury when Minerva fires! But if from heaven. and born of luckless sires. celestial. Then sunk unpitied to the dire abodes. now withering on the ground.

for warlike steeds renown'd. These probably were only devices of a hieroglyphical character. With tablets seal'd. father of Bellerophon. 192. Great Glaucus.168 Now bless'd by every power who guards the good. 189 [114] —With tablets sealed. Then mighty Praetus Argos' sceptre sway'd. (Argos the fair. Whether writing was known in the Homeric times is utterly uncertain. sqq. Nine days he feasted. But if thou still persist to search my birth. So flourish these. 168 . And begg'd revenge for her insulted bed: Incensed he heard. vol ii. Endued with wisdom. Loved for that valour which preserves mankind. "A city stands on Argos' utmost bound. that told his dire intent. sacred fear. The chief arrived at Xanthus' silver flood: There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due. And strove to tempt him from the paths of fame: In vain she tempted the relentless youth. With direful jealousy the monarch raged. Who o'er the sons of men in beauty shined.BOOK VI. See Grote. with wisdom bless'd. and nine bulls he slew. Fired at his scorn the queen to Praetus fled. Then hear a tale that fills the spacious earth. But hospitable laws restrain'd his hate: To Lycia the devoted youth he sent. For him Antaea burn'd with lawless flame. Then call'd Ephyre: Glaucus was his son. So generations in their course decay. and truth. resolving on his fate. when those are pass'd away.) Aeolian Sisyphus. And the brave prince in numerous toils engaged. In ancient time the happy wall possess'd. p. Whose hard commands Bellerophon obey'd.

and god-descended chief. with repentant grief. a people of Lycia. . There long the chief his happy lot possess'd. for heaven was on his side. With levell'd spears along the winding shore: There fell they breathless. Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire. A mingled monster of no mortal kind! Behind. With half the honours of his ample reign: The Lycians grant a chosen space of ground. and return'd no more. the stranger to detain. With woods. "At length the monarch. with vineyards. (for he read the skies.190 The Iliad of Homer But when the tenth bright morning orient glow'd. a dragon's fiery tail was spread. At his return. And conquer'd still. "Nor ended here his toils: his Lycian foes. The deathful secret to the king reveal'd.) Then met in arms the Solymaean crew. dire Chimaera's conquest was enjoin'd. a treacherous ambush rose. A goat's rough body bore a lion's head. and with harvests crown'd.169 (Fiercest of men. With two brave sons and one fair daughter bless'd. 169 [115] —Solymaean crew. The faithful youth his monarch's mandate show'd: The fatal tablets. till that instant seal'd. Next the bold Amazons' whole force defied.) and those the warrior slew. "This pest he slaughter'd. Confess'd the gods. His daughter gave. Her gaping throat emits infernal fire. And trusted heaven's informing prodigies. First.

In combat on the Solymaean plain. distracted in his mind. "the plain of wandering. thus the Lycian prince address'd: "Welcome. By his decree I sought the Trojan town. Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race. Before my eyes my mighty sires to place.e. Know. The honour'd author of my birth and name.) But when at last." He spoke. Forsook by heaven. To add new honours to my native land.BOOK VI. hypochondria received the name of "Morbus Bellerophonteus. forsaking humankind. and transport fill'd Tydides' heart. Bellerophon the bold: Our ancient seat his honour'd presence graced. A long. Where twenty days in genial rites he pass'd. The parting heroes mutual presents left. The "Aleian field. Hippolochus survived: from him I came. In earth the generous warrior fix'd his dart. my brave hereditary guest! Thus ever let us meet." i. our grandsires have been guests of old. By his instructions learn to win renown. with kind embrace. p. Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray. 112. OEneus the strong. His eldest born by raging Mars was slain. uncomfortable way!170 Woes heap'd on woes consumed his wasted heart: His beauteous daughter fell by Phoebe's dart." was situated between the rivers Pyramus and Pinarus. forlorn. 191 170 From this "melancholy madness" of Bellerophon. . chief. Then friendly." See my notes in my prose translation. in Cilicia. And emulate the glories of our race. To stand the first in worth as in command. (Fair e'en in heavenly eyes: her fruitful love Crown'd with Sarpedon's birth the embrace of Jove.

of mean device." [116] Thus having said.) For Diomed's brass arms. ii. still adorns my board: For Tydeus left me young. of gold. safely stored Among my treasures.171 A hundred beeves the shining purchase bought. That rich with Tyrian dye refulgent glow'd. the gallant chiefs alight. (Jove warm'd his bosom. and I in Lycia thine. which. This bad bargain has passed into a common proverb. —His own. and enlarged his mind. (This from his pledge I learn'd. Now change we arms. 171 . But thou and Diomed be foes no more. when Thebe's wall Beheld the sons of Greece untimely fall. their mutual faith they plight. Brave Glaucus then each narrow thought resign'd. in friendship let us join. If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline.) He gave his own. and prove to either host We guard the friendship of the line we boast.192 The Iliad of Homer A golden goblet was thy grandsire's gift. of gold divinely wrought. In the full harvest of yon ample field.) Mindful of this. See Aulus Gellius. (a vulgar price. For which nine oxen paid. Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore. My guest in Argos thou. 23. Their hands they join. OEneus a belt of matchless work bestowed. Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield.

Rais'd on arch'd columns of stupendous frame.173 Opposed to those.) The ports of plated gold. ii. He bids the train in long procession go. O'er these a range of marble structure runs. Twelve domes for them and their loved spouses shone. where Priam's daughters sate. enter'd at the Scaean gate. Meantime the guardian of the Trojan state. So large a promise of a progeny. and tender thus begun: "O Hector! say. brothers. And now to Priam's stately courts he came. (such hopes had he. when Greece surrounds our walls. 172 173 193 —Scaean. nor pass'd unseen Of royal Hecuba. what great occasion calls My son from fight. i e. and of polish'd stone. from Ilion's lofty tower? Stay. And press'd his hand. The rich pavilions of his fifty sons. (With her Laodice.BOOK VI. left hand. and hung with spoils. his mother-queen. till I bring the cup with Bacchus crown'd. all press'd with pious care For husbands. In fifty chambers lodged: and rooms of state. Of equal beauty. Hither great Hector pass'd." Dryden's Virgil. to avert the impending woe. The Trojan matrons and the Trojan maids Around him flock'd. —In fifty chambers.172 Beneath the beech-tree's consecrated shades. sons. whose beauteous face Surpass'd the nymphs of Troy's illustrious race. And seek the gods. engaged in war. "The fifty nuptial beds. Com'st thou to supplicate the almighty power With lifted hands.658 .) Long in a strict embrace she held her son. Great Hector.

The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. Then with a plenteous draught refresh thy soul. &c. pernicious to mankind. The brave defender of thy country's right. And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane. You. irregular burst of popular indignation to which Hector alludes. and spare the sacred juice To sprinkle to the gods. Our wives. The recreant warrior hear the voice of fame. By me that holy office were profaned.) Inflaming wine. and dulls the noble mind. with human gore distain'd. Spent as thou art with long laborious fight.194 The Iliad of Homer In Jove's high name. Most prized for art. would kind earth the hateful wretch embrace. If yet not lost to all the sense of shame. That pest of Troy. its better use. Ill fits it me. with your matrons. And draw new spirits from the generous bowl. and makes all Troy retire. And twelve young heifers to her altar led. Be this. go! a spotless train. "It is apparently a sudden. Or offer heaven's great Sire polluted praise. And pay due vows to all the gods around. To the pure skies these horrid hands to raise. when he regrets that the Trojans 174 [117] . that ruin of our race!174 —O would kind earth. and labour'd o'er with gold. O mother. our infants. Oh. Who mows whole troops. (the chief rejoin'd. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. to sprinkle on the ground. and our city spare. Let chiefs abstain. So may the power. atoned by fervent prayer." "Far hence be Bacchus' gifts. your religious care: I go to rouse soft Paris to the war. Unnerves the limbs.

and thus she prays: 195 [118] had not spirit enough to cover Paris with a mantle of stones. Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come. This. 171. and unbars the gates. in ascribing it to the heroic ages. It may have been originally connected with the same feeling—the desire of avoiding the pollution of bloodshed—which seems to have suggested the practice of burying prisoners alive. as the queen revolved with careful eyes The various textures and the various dyes. Though Homer makes no mention of this horrible usage. With hands uplifted and imploring eyes." This heard. They fill the dome with supplicating cries. Antenor's consort. The train majestically slow proceeds. however. p. With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore."—Thirlwall's Greece. she gave command: and summon'd came Each noble matron and illustrious dame. She chose a veil that shone superior far. was also one of the ordinary formal modes of punishment for great public offences. Deep to the dark abyss might he descend. sq. Troy yet should flourish. Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore. and my sorrows end. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. vol. Placed on Minerva's knees. The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. i. fair Theano. Here. the example of the Roman Vestals affords reasons for believing that. Herself with this the long procession leads.BOOK VI. There lay the vestures of no vulgar art. . The priestess then the shining veil displays. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. And awful reach the high Palladian dome. with a scantling of food by their side. Sophocles followed an authentic tradition. waits As Pallas' priestess. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part.

and our city spare!" So pray'd the priestess in her holy fane. 175 . Ourselves. from every part Assembling architects of matchless art. Beside him Helen with her virgins stands. and polishing the bow. vol. —Paris' lofty dome. and let him fall Prone on the dust before the Trojan wall! So twelve young heifers. which are oftenest described. While these appear before the power with prayers. in the glittering rooms he found His brother-chief."—Thirlwall's Greece. and the town commands. So vow'd the matrons. our infants. unconquer'd Pallas. Brightening the shield. His eyes delighting with their splendid show. and affords no conception of the style which prevailed in them or of their effect on the eye. But thou. p. the poet's language barely enables us to form a general notion of their ordinary plan. strength and convenience. Shall fill thy temple with a grateful smoke.175 Himself the mansion raised. aid! Break thou Tydides' spear. It seems indeed probable. at each motion shined Thus entering. "With respect to the private dwellings. Troy's strong defence. and it is. guiltless of the yoke. Before him brandish'd. The steely point with golden ringlets join'd. that he means to commend. in speaking of the fair house which Paris had built for himself with the aid of the most skilful masons of Troy. from the manner in which he dwells on their metallic ornaments that the higher beauty of proportion was but little required or understood. i. but they vow'd in vain. perhaps. atoned by penitence and prayer.196 The Iliad of Homer "Oh awful goddess! ever-dreadful maid. A spear the hero bore of wondrous strength. Near Priam's court and Hector's palace stands The pompous structure. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. 231. rather than elegance. Hector to Paris' lofty dome repairs. whose useless arms lay round.

and our toils to share? Rise. the matron mourns. and instructs their hands. And all the Phrygian glories at an end. or behold the conquering flames ascend. Guides their rich labours. 'Tis man's to fight. And mourn'd. and high-resenting spoke. nor answer'd Priam's warlike son. (replied the beauteous youth. 'tis just. is this the time to show? (O wretch ill-fated. 'Tis now enough. For thee the soldier bleeds. Conquest to-day my happier sword may bless. with an ardent look The prince beheld. "Thy hate to Troy.) Thy free remonstrance proves thy worth and truth: Yet charge my absence less. Our troops to hearten. O generous chief! On hate to Troy. now glory spreads her charms. Ungrateful man! deserves not this thy care. and their vengeful ire. And beauteous Helen calls her chief to arms. his and Ilion's fate. Till heaps of dead alone defend her wall. Or go. and thy country's foe!) Paris and Greece against us both conspire. When Helen thus with lowly grace begun: ." 197 [119] He said. Thy close resentment. contain thy ardent mind. hid from human eyes.BOOK VI. For thee great Ilion's guardian heroes fall. and Paris shall not lag behind. But while I arm. thy brother sate. but heaven's to give success. Him thus inactive." "Brother. in secret. than conscious shame and grief: Here. And wasteful war in all its fury burns.

" [120] . sustain'd for Paris' sake and mine The gods have link'd our miserable doom. and last through ages long. The day that show'd me to the golden sun Had seen my death! why did not whirlwinds bear The fatal infant to the fowls of air? Why sunk I not beneath the whelming tide. some regard of fame! Now tired with toils. "Oh. Helen at least a braver spouse might claim. ere all these dreadful deeds were done.198 The Iliad of Homer HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. Our present woe. thy fainting limbs recline. Example sad! and theme of future song. And midst the roarings of the waters died? Heaven fill'd up all my ills. and infamy to come: Wide shall it spread. Warm'd with some virtue. and Paris of those ills the worst. generous brother! (if the guilty dame That caused these woes deserve a sister's name!) Would heaven. With toils. and I accursed Bore all.

BOOK VI. The chief replied: "This time forbids to rest; The Trojan bands, by hostile fury press'd, Demand their Hector, and his arm require; The combat urges, and my soul's on fire. Urge thou thy knight to march where glory calls, And timely join me, ere I leave the walls. Ere yet I mingle in the direful fray, My wife, my infant, claim a moment's stay; This day (perhaps the last that sees me here) Demands a parting word, a tender tear: This day, some god who hates our Trojan land May vanquish Hector by a Grecian hand." He said, and pass'd with sad presaging heart To seek his spouse, his soul's far dearer part; At home he sought her, but he sought in vain; She, with one maid of all her menial train, Had hence retired; and with her second joy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy, Pensive she stood on Ilion's towery height, Beheld the war, and sicken'd at the sight; There her sad eyes in vain her lord explore, Or weep the wounds her bleeding country bore. But he who found not whom his soul desired, Whose virtue charm'd him as her beauty fired, Stood in the gates, and ask'd "what way she bent Her parting step? If to the fane she went, Where late the mourning matrons made resort; Or sought her sisters in the Trojan court?" "Not to the court, (replied the attendant train,) Nor mix'd with matrons to Minerva's fane: To Ilion's steepy tower she bent her way, To mark the fortunes of the doubtful day.

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Troy fled, she heard, before the Grecian sword; She heard, and trembled for her absent lord: Distracted with surprise, she seem'd to fly, Fear on her cheek, and sorrow m her eye. The nurse attended with her infant boy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy."

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Hector this heard, return'd without delay; Swift through the town he trod his former way, Through streets of palaces, and walks of state; And met the mourner at the Scaean gate. With haste to meet him sprung the joyful fair. His blameless wife, Aetion's wealthy heir: (Cilician Thebe great Aetion sway'd, And Hippoplacus' wide extended shade:) The nurse stood near, in whose embraces press'd, His only hope hung smiling at her breast, Whom each soft charm and early grace adorn, Fair as the new-born star that gilds the morn. To this loved infant Hector gave the name Scamandrius, from Scamander's honour'd stream; Astyanax the Trojans call'd the boy, From his great father, the defence of Troy. Silent the warrior smiled, and pleased resign'd To tender passions all his mighty mind; His beauteous princess cast a mournful look, Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke; Her bosom laboured with a boding sigh, And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.

BOOK VI.

201

THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE.

"Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run? Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and son! And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, A widow I, a helpless orphan he? For sure such courage length of life denies, And thou must fall, thy virtue's sacrifice. Greece in her single heroes strove in vain; Now hosts oppose thee, and thou must be slain. O grant me, gods, ere Hector meets his doom, All I can ask of heaven, an early tomb! So shall my days in one sad tenor run, And end with sorrows as they first begun. No parent now remains my griefs to share, No father's aid, no mother's tender care. The fierce Achilles wrapt our walls in fire, Laid Thebe waste, and slew my warlike sire! His fate compassion in the victor bred;

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Stern as he was, he yet revered the dead, His radiant arms preserved from hostile spoil, And laid him decent on the funeral pile; Then raised a mountain where his bones were burn'd, The mountain-nymphs the rural tomb adorn'd, Jove's sylvan daughters bade their elms bestow A barren shade, and in his honour grow. "By the same arm my seven brave brothers fell; In one sad day beheld the gates of hell; While the fat herds and snowy flocks they fed, Amid their fields the hapless heroes bled! My mother lived to wear the victor's bands, The queen of Hippoplacia's sylvan lands: Redeem'd too late, she scarce beheld again Her pleasing empire and her native plain, When ah! oppress'd by life-consuming woe, She fell a victim to Diana's bow. "Yet while my Hector still survives, I see My father, mother, brethren, all, in thee: Alas! my parents, brothers, kindred, all Once more will perish, if my Hector fall, Thy wife, thy infant, in thy danger share: Oh, prove a husband's and a father's care! That quarter most the skilful Greeks annoy, Where yon wild fig-trees join the wall of Troy; Thou, from this tower defend the important post; There Agamemnon points his dreadful host, That pass Tydides, Ajax, strive to gain, And there the vengeful Spartan fires his train. Thrice our bold foes the fierce attack have given, Or led by hopes, or dictated from heaven. Let others in the field their arms employ, But stay my Hector here, and guard his Troy."

BOOK VI.

203

The chief replied: "That post shall be my care, Not that alone, but all the works of war. How would the sons of Troy, in arms renown'd, And Troy's proud dames, whose garments sweep the ground Attaint the lustre of my former name, Should Hector basely quit the field of fame? My early youth was bred to martial pains, My soul impels me to the embattled plains! Let me be foremost to defend the throne, And guard my father's glories, and my own. "Yet come it will, the day decreed by fates! (How my heart trembles while my tongue relates!) The day when thou, imperial Troy! must bend, And see thy warriors fall, thy glories end. And yet no dire presage so wounds my mind, My mother's death, the ruin of my kind, Not Priam's hoary hairs defiled with gore, Not all my brothers gasping on the shore; As thine, Andromache! Thy griefs I dread: I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led! In Argive looms our battles to design, And woes, of which so large a part was thine! To bear the victor's hard commands, or bring The weight of waters from Hyperia's spring. There while you groan beneath the load of life, They cry, 'Behold the mighty Hector's wife!' Some haughty Greek, who lives thy tears to see, Imbitters all thy woes, by naming me. The thoughts of glory past, and present shame, A thousand griefs shall waken at the name! May I lie cold before that dreadful day, Press'd with a load of monumental clay! Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,

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Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep." Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then kiss'd the child, and, lifting high in air, Thus to the gods preferr'd a father's prayer: "O thou! whose glory fills the ethereal throne, And all ye deathless powers! protect my son! Grant him, like me, to purchase just renown, To guard the Trojans, to defend the crown, Against his country's foes the war to wage, And rise the Hector of the future age! So when triumphant from successful toils Of heroes slain he bears the reeking spoils, Whole hosts may hail him with deserved acclaim, And say, 'This chief transcends his father's fame:' While pleased amidst the general shouts of Troy, His mother's conscious heart o'erflows with joy." He spoke, and fondly gazing on her charms, Restored the pleasing burden to her arms; Soft on her fragrant breast the babe she laid, Hush'd to repose, and with a smile survey'd. The troubled pleasure soon chastised by fear, She mingled with a smile a tender tear. The soften'd chief with kind compassion view'd, And dried the falling drops, and thus pursued:

BOOK VI. "Andromache! my soul's far better part, Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart? No hostile hand can antedate my doom, Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb. Fix'd is the term to all the race of earth; And such the hard condition of our birth: No force can then resist, no flight can save, All sink alike, the fearful and the brave. No more—but hasten to thy tasks at home, There guide the spindle, and direct the loom: Me glory summons to the martial scene, The field of combat is the sphere for men. Where heroes war, the foremost place I claim, The first in danger as the first in fame."

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Thus having said, the glorious chief resumes His towery helmet, black with shading plumes. His princess parts with a prophetic sigh, Unwilling parts, and oft reverts her eye That stream'd at every look; then, moving slow, Sought her own palace, and indulged her woe. There, while her tears deplored the godlike man, Through all her train the soft infection ran; The pious maids their mingled sorrows shed, And mourn the living Hector, as the dead.

But now, no longer deaf to honour's call, Forth issues Paris from the palace wall. In brazen arms that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the warrior bends his way.

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The wanton courser thus with reins unbound176 Breaks from his stall, and beats the trembling ground; Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted tides, And laves, in height of blood his shining sides; His head now freed, he tosses to the skies; His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies; He snuffs the females in the distant plain, And springs, exulting, to his fields again. With equal triumph, sprightly, bold, and gay, In arms refulgent as the god of day, The son of Priam, glorying in his might, Rush'd forth with Hector to the fields of fight. And now, the warriors passing on the way, The graceful Paris first excused his stay. To whom the noble Hector thus replied: "O chief! in blood, and now in arms, allied! Thy power in war with justice none contest; Known is thy courage, and thy strength confess'd. What pity sloth should seize a soul so brave, Or godlike Paris live a woman's slave! My heart weeps blood at what the Trojans say, And hopes thy deeds shall wipe the stain away. Haste then, in all their glorious labours share, For much they suffer, for thy sake, in war. These ills shall cease, whene'er by Jove's decree We crown the bowl to heaven and liberty: While the proud foe his frustrate triumphs mourns,
176

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—The wanton courser.

"Come destrier, che da le regie stalle Ove a l'usa de l'arme si riserba, Fugge, e libero al fiu per largo calle Va tragl' armenti, o al fiume usato, o a l'herba." Gier, Lib. ix. 75.

BOOK VI. And Greece indignant through her seas returns."

207

BOWS AND BOW CASE.
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IRIS.

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BOOK VII.
ARGUMENT THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX. The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor purposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax, the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain and one more in building the fortification before the ships. So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.

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So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state, Then rush'd impetuous through the Scaean gate. Him Paris follow'd to the dire alarms; Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms. As when to sailors labouring through the main, That long have heaved the weary oar in vain, Jove bids at length the expected gales arise; The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies. So welcome these to Troy's desiring train, The bands are cheer'd, the war awakes again. Bold Paris first the work of death begun On great Menestheus, Areithous' son, Sprung from the fair Philomeda's embrace, The pleasing Arne was his native place. Then sunk Eioneus to the shades below, Beneath his steely casque he felt the blow177 Full on his neck, from Hector's weighty hand; And roll'd, with limbs relax'd, along the land. By Glaucus' spear the bold Iphmous bleeds, Fix'd in the shoulder as he mounts his steeds; Headlong he tumbles: his slack nerves unbound, Drop the cold useless members on the ground. When now Minerva saw her Argives slain, From vast Olympus to the gleaming plain Fierce she descends: Apollo marked her flight, Nor shot less swift from Ilion's towery height. Radiant they met, beneath the beechen shade; When thus Apollo to the blue-eyed maid:
—Casque. The original word is stephanae, about the meaning of which there is some little doubt. Some take it for a different kind of cap or helmet, others for the rim, others for the cone, of the helmet.
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BOOK VII. "What cause, O daughter of Almighty Jove! Thus wings thy progress from the realms above? Once more impetuous dost thou bend thy way, To give to Greece the long divided day? Too much has Troy already felt thy hate, Now breathe thy rage, and hush the stern debate; This day, the business of the field suspend; War soon shall kindle, and great Ilion bend; Since vengeful goddesses confederate join To raze her walls, though built by hands divine." To whom the progeny of Jove replies: "I left, for this, the council of the skies: But who shall bid conflicting hosts forbear, What art shall calm the furious sons of war?" To her the god: "Great Hector's soul incite To dare the boldest Greek to single fight, Till Greece, provoked, from all her numbers show A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe." At this agreed, the heavenly powers withdrew; Sage Helenus their secret counsels knew; Hector, inspired, he sought: to him address'd, Thus told the dictates of his sacred breast: "O son of Priam! let thy faithful ear Receive my words: thy friend and brother hear! Go forth persuasive, and a while engage The warring nations to suspend their rage; Then dare the boldest of the hostile train To mortal combat on the listed plain. For not this day shall end thy glorious date; The gods have spoke it, and their voice is fate."

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He said: the warrior heard the word with joy; Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst athwart. On either hand The squadrons part; the expecting Trojans stand; Great Agamemnon bids the Greeks forbear: They breathe, and hush the tumult of the war. The Athenian maid, and glorious god of day,178 With silent joy the settling hosts survey: In form of vultures, on the beech's height They sit conceal'd, and wait the future fight. The thronging troops obscure the dusky fields, Horrid with bristling spears, and gleaming shields. As when a general darkness veils the main, (Soft Zephyr curling the wide wat'ry plain,) The waves scarce heave, the face of ocean sleeps, And a still horror saddens all the deeps; Thus in thick orders settling wide around, At length composed they sit, and shade the ground. Great Hector first amidst both armies broke The solemn silence, and their powers bespoke: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What my soul prompts, and what some god commands. Great Jove, averse our warfare to compose, O'erwhelms the nations with new toils and woes; War with a fiercer tide once more returns, Till Ilion falls, or till yon navy burns. You then, O princes of the Greeks! appear; 'Tis Hector speaks, and calls the gods to hear: From all your troops select the boldest knight, And him, the boldest, Hector dares to fight. Here if I fall, by chance of battle slain,
178

—Athenian maid: Minerva.

BOOK VII. Be his my spoil, and his these arms remain; But let my body, to my friends return'd, By Trojan hands and Trojan flames be burn'd. And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust; If mine the glory to despoil the foe; On Phoebus' temple I'll his arms bestow: The breathless carcase to your navy sent, Greece on the shore shall raise a monument; Which when some future mariner surveys, Wash'd by broad Hellespont's resounding seas, Thus shall he say, 'A valiant Greek lies there, By Hector slain, the mighty man of war,' The stone shall tell your vanquish'd hero's name. And distant ages learn the victor's fame."

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This fierce defiance Greece astonish'd heard, Blush'd to refuse, and to accept it fear'd. Stern Menelaus first the silence broke, And, inly groaning, thus opprobrious spoke:

"Women of Greece! O scandal of your race, Whose coward souls your manly form disgrace, How great the shame, when every age shall know That not a Grecian met this noble foe! Go then! resolve to earth, from whence ye grew, A heartless, spiritless, inglorious crew! Be what ye seem, unanimated clay, Myself will dare the danger of the day; 'Tis man's bold task the generous strife to try, But in the hands of God is victory."

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These words scarce spoke, with generous ardour press'd, His manly limbs in azure arms he dress'd. That day, Atrides! a superior hand Had stretch'd thee breathless on the hostile strand; But all at once, thy fury to compose, The kings of Greece, an awful band, arose; Even he their chief, great Agamemnon, press'd Thy daring hand, and this advice address'd: "Whither, O Menelaus! wouldst thou run, And tempt a fate which prudence bids thee shun? Grieved though thou art, forbear the rash design; Great Hectors arm is mightier far than thine: Even fierce Achilles learn'd its force to fear, And trembling met this dreadful son of war. Sit thou secure, amidst thy social band; Greece in our cause shall arm some powerful hand. The mightiest warrior of the Achaian name, Though bold and burning with desire of fame, Content the doubtful honour might forego, So great the danger, and so brave the foe." He said, and turn'd his brother's vengeful mind; He stoop'd to reason, and his rage resign'd, No longer bent to rush on certain harms; His joyful friends unbrace his azure arms. He from whose lips divine persuasion flows, Grave Nestor, then, in graceful act arose; Thus to the kings he spoke: "What grief, what shame Attend on Greece, and all the Grecian name! How shall, alas! her hoary heroes mourn Their sons degenerate, and their race a scorn! What tears shall down thy silvery beard be roll'd, O Peleus, old in arms, in wisdom old!

Phoebus. Lament inglorious Greece. I led my troops to Phea's trembling wall. Great Areithous. To Ereuthalion he consign'd the prize. where Jardan's waters fall. Nor aught the warrior's thundering mace avail'd.179 There Ereuthalion braved us in the field. each action. nor bent the twanging bow. And dared the trial of the strongest hands. Deep in a winding way his breast assailed. Furious with this he crush'd our levell'd bands. 179 215 [131] —Celadon. knotted. known from shore to shore By the huge. Once with what joy the generous prince would hear Of every chief who fought this glorious war. and almighty Jove! Years might again roll back. and beg to die! Oh! would to all the immortal powers above. Supine he fell: those arms which Mars before Had given the vanquish'd. And with the Arcadian spears my prowess tried. now the victor bore: But when old age had dimm'd Lycurgus' eyes. Proud Areithous' dreadful arms to wield. my youth renew. . a river of Elis. with this. and pleased inquire Each name. Whose guileful javelin from the thicket flew. And give this arm the spring which once it knew When fierce in war. How would he lift his aged arms on high. Minerva. iron mace he bore. Where Celadon rolls down his rapid tide. Participate their fame. the battle of the foe. But broke. And trembling all before one hostile hand. Him not by manly force Lycurgus slew. and each hero's sire! Gods! should he see our warriors trembling stand. No lance he shook.BOOK VII.

met whom all our army fear'd. the examples of our host. the noblest of the Grecian name. And. his huge tempestuous sway Till I. What then I was. appear'd. Oileus follow'd. be his the chance to raise His country's fame. let the gods decide.216 The Iliad of Homer Nor could the strongest hands his fury stay: All saw. Sprung from such fathers. I fought the chief: my arms Minerva crown'd: Prone fell the giant o'er a length of ground. alike inspired with noble rage." . What chief shall combat. who such numbers sway. And nine. Whom heaven shall choose. Idomen was there. And wise Ulysses closed the daring band. But. and fear'd. the youngest of the host. great in arms. you that youthful vigour boast. Up-started fierce: but far before the rest The king of men advanced his dauntless breast: Then bold Tydides. Demand the fight. To whom the Pylian sage: "Lest thirst of glory your brave souls divide. The flower of Greece. dreadful as the god of war: With these Eurypylus and Thoas stand.180 And Merion. warriors. And next his bulk gigantic Ajax rear'd. Can you stand trembling. appear'd. his own immortal praise. and desert the day?" His warm reproofs the listening kings inflame. All these. youngest. O were your Nestor now! Not Hector's self should want an equal foe.

of every Greek desired. Till godlike Ajax finds the lot his own. And. your vows declare In such a voice as fills the earth and air. the son of Oileus. with lifted eyes and hands. son of Telamon. and arm with joy. Now while my brightest arms my limbs invest. 181 —In the general's helm. A worthy champion for the Grecian state: This task let Ajax or Tydides prove. Each to his rival yields the mark unknown. It was customary to put the lots into a helmet.e. Held out in order to the Grecian peers. And vows like these ascend from all the bands: "Grant. Then casts before him. Or he. i. in which they were well shaken up. beloved by Jove. And deem your prayers the mean effect of fear. in contradistinction to Ajax. fear no force on earth. and with transport cries: "Warriors! I claim the lot. the king of kings. Leap'd forth the lot. lest the foes should hear. Be mine the conquest of this chief of Troy. Ajax. This from the right to left the herald bears. Surveys the inscription with rejoicing eyes. By heaven inspired. Lives there a chief whom Ajax ought to dread? Ajax. each hero signs his own: Then in the general's helm the fates are thrown. in all the toils of battle bred! From warlike Salamis I drew my birth. thou Almighty! in whose hand is fate. born to combats. 180 .BOOK VII. Said I in secret? No. To Saturn's son be all your vows address'd: But pray in secret." 217 —Oileus.181 The people pray. The lots produced. each man then took his choice." Old Nestor shook the casque.

Or. according to his Thracian epithet. or Mavors. Sheathed in bright steel the giant-warrior shone: He moves to combat with majestic pace." —"Paradise Lost. That both may claim it. Felt his great heart suspended in his breast: —God of Thrace. Mars." Now Ajax braced his dazzling armour on." 183 —Grimly he smiled. Implore the god whose thunder rends the skies: "O father of mankind." —Carey's Dante: Hell. "And death Grinn'd horribly a ghastly smile. 182 [133] . Thus march'd the chief. Through every Argive heart new transport ran. And gives whole nations to the waste of wars. He stood. and that both may share." ii. that Telamon may bear away The praise and conquest of this doubtful day. tremendous as a god. superior lord! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored: Who in the highest heaven hast fix'd thy throne. if illustrious Hector be thy care. v. The troops with elevated eyes. 845.182 When Jove to punish faithless men prepares. Supreme of gods! unbounded and alone: Grant thou. the bulwark of the Grecian band. Hence "Mavortia Moenia. earth trembled as he strode:183 His massy javelin quivering in his hand. All Troy stood trembling at the mighty man: Even Hector paused. Grimly he smiled.218 The Iliad of Homer He said. So stalks in arms the grisly god of Thrace. and with new doubt oppress'd. "There Mavors stands Grinning with ghastly feature.

and bred amidst alarms: I know to shift my ground. o'erlook'd the field. (The work of Tychius. thus his adverse chief address'd: "Hector! approach my arm. No more—be sudden. and singly know What strength thou hast. Indulge his wrath. Stern Telamon behind his ample shield. and what the Grecian foe. and not unskill'd in war: Let him. New to the field. To combat born. Such as I am. Himself had challenged. and bold each blow. I come to prove thy might. threatening. And bear thick battle on my sounding shield But open be our fight. Achilles shuns the fight. who in Hyle dwell'd And in all arts of armoury excell'd. As from a brazen tower. Turn. Whole troops of heroes Greece has yet to boast. a sample of her host. And sends thee one.) This Ajax bore before his manly breast. and aid our arms no more. Of tough bull-hides. To right.BOOK VII. unactive on the sea-beat shore. and trembling at the fight? Thou meet'st a chief deserving of thy arms. with seven thick folds o'ercast. or woman. thy country's pride! (To Ajax thus the Trojan prince replied) Me. to left. 'Twas vain to seek retreat. charge. and answer every call of war." "O son of Telamon. wouldst thou fright. and the foe drew near. remount the car." 219 . yet some there are. the dexterous lance I wield. of solid brass the last. and begin the fight. Huge was its orb. Not void of soul. I steal no conquest from a noble foe. as a boy. And. and vain to fear.

It reach'd his neck. Till in the seventh it fix'd. The blunted point against the buckler bends. with matchless strength impell'd! Spouts the black gore. and swinging round on high. His corslet enters. let the ruin fly. In his strong hand up-heaved a flinty stone. Great Hector falls extended on the field. and the charge renew. Then close impetuous. and restored to fight. but stooping down. and bending low Beneath his buckler. From their bored shields the chiefs their javelins drew. and rising. The wary Trojan shrinks. Then Ajax threw. But Ajax. near his flank descends. high above the field Whirl'd the long lance against the sevenfold shield. craggy. Full on the brass descending from above Through six bull-hides the furious weapon drove. disappoints the blow. . Fierce as the mountain-lions bathed in blood. watchful as his foe drew near. Yet ceased not Hector thus. At Ajax. Through Hector's shield the forceful javelin flew. Black. Full on the brazen boss the stone descends. With force tempestuous. Hector his long lance extends. Applied each nerve. Or foaming boars. and dims his shining shield. The hollow brass resounded with the shock: Then Ajax seized the fragment of a rock. vast: to this his force he bends. The huge stone thundering through his buckler broke: His slacken'd knees received the numbing stroke. And glancing downwards.220 The Iliad of Homer [134] He said. His bulk supporting on the shatter'd shield: Nor wanted heavenly aid: Apollo's might Confirm'd his sinews. Drove through the Trojan targe the knotty spear. the terror of the wood. and his garment rends.

Con pari honor di pari ambo possenti. incomincio Pindoro. Both dear to men. And first Idaeus' awful voice was heard: 221 [135] HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS. and war is all your own. . Each sounds your praise. be the night obey'd. The sacred ministers of earth and heaven: Divine Talthybius. The goddess parts you. And sage Idaeus on the part of Troy.BOOK VII. whom the Greeks employ. But now the Night extends her awful shade. To either host your matchless worth is known. my sons! your further force to prove."184 184 "Sete o guerrieri. "Forbear. And now both heroes their broad falchions drew In flaming circles round their heads they flew. But then by heralds' voice the word was given. Between the swords their peaceful sceptres rear'd. and both beloved of Jove.

that the Phrygian train. . He gave the Greek. Who wearies heaven with vows for Hector's life. vi. e de la notte. and the sheath enchased. but glory. Then with majestic grace they quit the plain. And heaven enjoins it. This seeks the Grecian. If first he ask'd it. 'Not hate. The generous Greek bestow'd A radiant belt that rich with purple glow'd. on this memorable day. brave Ajax." "O first of Greeks! (his noble foe rejoin'd) Whom heaven adorns. be the night obey'd. Exchange some gift: that Greece and Troy may say. made these chiefs contend.'" With that. 51. With strength of body." —Gier. And joy the nations whom thy arm defends. Dunque cessi la pugna. and Trojan wife. Hereafter we shall meet in glorious war. But let us. the night extends her gloomy shade. and with worth of mind! Now martial law commands us to forbear. who first provoked our chiefs to fight. Return. e non sian rotte Le ragioni. And cease the strife when Hector shows the way. superior to thy kind.222 The Iliad of Homer To whom great Ajax his high soul express'd: "O sage! to Hector be these words address'd. Some future day shall lengthen out the strife. Let him. Let him demand the sanction of the night. The baldric studded. a sword with stars of silver graced. As I shall glad each chief. And let the gods decide of death or life! Since. And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. Lib. e 'l riposo. I content obey. then. to thy Grecian friends.

What Greeks are perish'd! what a people lost! What tides of blood have drench'd Scamander's shore! What crowds of heroes sunk to rise no more! Then hear me. Thus Benjamin was honoured with a "double portion. the repast prepare. in each persuasive art approved. O kings! this fatal day has cost. they survey him round. But Ajax. and the joints divide. viii. In words like these his prudent thought express'd: "How dear. From the red field their scatter'd bodies bear.BOOK VII. unarm'd. as their late despair. Alive. glorying in his hardy deed. they strip the smoking hide. While we to flames our slaughter'd friends bequeath. 185 . The beast they quarter. chief! nor let the morrow's light Awake thy squadrons to new toils of fight: Some space at least permit the war to breathe. See Virg. The victim falls. and each receives his share. Of full five years. The well-arm'd Greeks to Agamemnon lead. 34. The Trojan bands returning Hector wait. And hail with joy the Champion of their state. Nestor." Gen. A steer for sacrifice the king design'd. or person to whom respect was to be shown. The sage whose counsels long had sway'd the rest. Then spread the tables. To Troy's high gates the godlike man they bear Their present triumph. Æn. 181. 223 [136] It was an ancient style of compliment to give a larger portion of food to the conqueror. Escaped great Ajax. Each takes his seat. xliii. The king himself (an honorary sign) Before great Ajax placed the mighty chine. and vigorous from his wound. and of the nobler kind.185 When now the rage of hunger was removed.

The Trojan peers in nightly council sate. where on one promiscuous pile they blazed. Dardans. The ties of faith. And pious children o'er their ashes weep. For passing chariots. So hope success. or dread the dire effect. thus demands their ear: "Ye Trojans. High o'er them all a general tomb be raised. Antenor. and auxiliars. Raise an embattled wall. as of choice: Their hearts were fearful. And I but move what every god requires: Let Sparta's treasures be this hour restored. the sworn alliance. Meanwhile. to secure our camp and naval powers." . So decent urns their snowy bones may keep. A senate void of order. So Greece to combat shall in safety go. with lofty towers. hear! 'Tis heaven the counsel of my breast inspires.224 The Iliad of Homer And nigh the fleet a funeral structure rear. and a trench profound. and confused their voice. convened at Priam's palace-gate. From space to space be ample gates around. Nor fear the fierce incursions of the foe. The sceptred kings of Greece his words approved. or reject. Our impious battles the just gods provoke." 'Twas thus the sage his wholesome counsel moved. As this advice ye practise. And Argive Helen own her ancient lord. rising. Here. broke. Next.

in thy time. That done. and auxiliar bands! Now take refreshment as the hour demands. My treasures too. may become thy years But sound ungrateful in a warrior's ears: Old man. Guard well the walls. Thy words express the purpose of thy heart.BOOK VII. Till the new sun restores the cheerful light. once more the fate of war be tried. that Troy may burn Her slaughter'd heroes. 225 The senior spoke and sate. To whom replied The graceful husband of the Spartan bride: "Cold counsels. Before their ships proclaim my son's intent. if void of fallacy or art. for peace. more sound advice hast given. And whose the conquest. relieve the watch of night. Next let a truce be ask'd. Slow from his seat the reverend Priam rose: His godlike aspect deep attention drew: He paused. But be this bright possession ever mine. Then hear me. I will resign. but not the dame. Trojan. princes of the Trojan name! Their treasures I'll restore. mighty Jove decide!" . But wisdom has its date. Then shall our herald. to the Atrides sent. Dardans. assign'd by heaven. and their bones inurn. Thou. and these pacific words ensue: "Ye Trojans." 'Twas then. the growing discord to compose.

And Troy already totters to her fall. That done. author of the war. and Troy's great monarch. hear. Pleased may ye hear (so heaven succeed my prayers) What Paris. and Troy requests in vain. declares. to the sons of Mars. give ear! The words of Troy. and their bones inurn. Let conquest make them ours: fate shakes their wall. He raised his voice: the host stood listening round." . At length Tydides rose. To the black ships Idaeus bent his way. "Ye sons of Atreus. But to restore the beauteous bride again. Their proffer'd wealth. And whose the conquest.226 The Iliad of Homer The monarch spoke: the warriors snatch'd with haste (Each at his post in arms) a short repast. This Greece demands. but none the silence broke. mighty Jove decide!" [138] The Greeks gave ear. There. in council found. friends! defrauded of your fame. and rising spoke: "Oh. take not. Next. and ye Greeks. The spoils and treasures he to Ilion bore (Oh had he perish'd ere they touch'd our shore!) He proffers injured Greece: with large increase Of added Trojan wealth to buy the peace. once more the fate of war be tried. nor even the Spartan dame. Soon as the rosy morn had waked the day. O ye chiefs! we ask a truce to burn Our slaughter'd heroes.

To shed his sacred light on earth again. to sacred Troy return'd. Be witness. let funeral flames be fed With heroes' corps: I war not with the dead: Go search your slaughtered chiefs on yonder plain. sadly slow. And. With general shouts return'd him loud acclaim. and the bodies bore. some fell the sounding grove: Nor less the Greeks. He came. and standing in the midst. Jove. To sacred Troy. And. explain'd The peace rejected. Sage Priam check'd their grief: with silent haste The bodies decent on the piles were placed: With melting hearts the cold remains they burn'd. and rear'd his sceptre to the sky. their pious tears they shed. And tipp'd the mountains with a purple ray. where all her princes lay To wait the event. deplored the dead. The admiring chiefs. Then thus the king of kings rejects the peace: "Herald! in him thou hear'st the voice of Greece For what remains. Some search the plains.BOOK VII. Straight to their several cares the Trojans move. laid along their cars. And gratify the manes of the slain. The wounds they wash'd. With dust dishonour'd. and deformed with gore. descending on the shore. whose thunder rolls on high!" He said. Nor less the Greeks their pious sorrows shed. In mingled throngs the Greek and Trojan train Through heaps of carnage search'd the mournful plain. And now from forth the chambers of the main. Arose the golden chariot of the day. Hew'd the green forests. 227 . and all the Grecian name. but the truce obtain'd. Scarce could the friend his slaughter'd friend explore. the herald bent his way.

This takes place in the seventh book. in the midst of a hostile country. began: 186 —Embattled walls. in the battles previous to the eighth book.228 The Iliad of Homer [139] And decent on the pile dispose the dead. whose trident shakes the earth. The reason ascribed for the glaring improbability that the Greeks should have left their camp and fleet unfortified during nine years. and a trench profound Of large extent. the destiny of Achilles. is a purely poetical one: 'So long as Achilles fought. Amazed beheld the wondrous works of man: Then he. vol. For passing chariots. sadly.. in all those which follow it forms a prominent feature. to their fleet repair. in the anomaly as in the propriety of the Iliad. forms the pervading bond of connexion to the whole poem. The cold remains consume with equal care. 257. the terror of his name sufficed to keep every foe at a distance. They raised embattled walls with lofty towers:186 From space to space were ample gates around. And slowly.' The disasters consequent on his secession first led to the necessity of other means of protection. Accordingly. i."—Mure. or rather this peculiar crisis of it. no allusion occurs to a rampart. then. Strong piles infix'd stood adverse to the foe. . p. About the dying flames the Greeks appear'd. Now. Here. Then. In shining circle round their father Jove. to secure the camp and naval powers. "Another essential basis of mechanical unity in the poem is the construction of the rampart. And round the pile a general tomb they rear'd. ere the morn had streak'd with reddening light The doubtful confines of the day and night. and deep in earth below. So toil'd the Greeks: meanwhile the gods above.

&c. Our fanes frequent. and no victim slain! Their fame shall fill the world's remotest ends. 304. and the name no more. The sapp'd foundations by thy force shall fall. and thy thoughtless reign?" Dryden's Virgil. Those radiant structures raised by labouring gods.BOOK VII. "What mortals henceforth shall our power adore. No trace remain where once the glory grew. our oracles implore. Thy power is honour'd. and thy fame shall last. whose rage can make The solid earth's eternal basis shake! What cause of fear from mortal works could move187 The meanest subject of our realms above? Where'er the sun's refulgent rays are cast. No god consulted. And. While old Laomedon's divine abodes. That clouds the world. But yon proud work no future age shall view. iv. If the proud Grecians thus successful boast Their rising bulwarks on the sea-beat coast? See the long walls extending to the main. whelm'd beneath the waves. and blackens half the skies: "Strong god of ocean! thou. razed and lost. ." 187 —What cause of fear. "Seest thou not this? Or do we fear in vain Thy boasted thunders. drop the huge wall: Vast drifts of sand shall change the former shore: The ruin vanish'd. 229 The almighty Thunderer with a frown replies. Wide as the morn her golden beam extends. in long oblivion sleep." Thus spoke the hoary monarch of the deep. Shall.

some. proportion'd treasures gave. Of fragrant wines the rich Eunaeus sent A thousant measures to the royal tent. o'er the Grecian train. All night they feast. an ox. arrived from Lemnos' strands. the Roman lawyer. pale horror seized on all.) The rest they purchased at their proper cost. xxiii. and these within their towers. But Jove averse the signs of wrath display'd. And large libations drench'd the thirsty ground: Then late. The rolling sun descending to the main Beheld the finish'd work. While the deep thunder shook the aerial hall. whom Hypsipyle of yore To Jason. (Eunaeus. tit.230 The Iliad of Homer [140] Thus they in heaven: while. the Greek and Trojan powers: Those on the fields. Section 1. as exhibiting the most ancient mention of barter. Back from the tents the savoury vapour flew. With Bacchus' blessings cheered the generous bands. Enjoy'd the balmy blessings of the night. And now the fleet. And shot red lightnings through the gloomy shade: Humbled they stood. in exchange. Each pour'd to Jove before the bowl was crown'd. And well the plenteous freight supplied the host: Each. These lines are referred to by Theophilus. refresh'd with sleep from toils of fight. brass or iron. or slave. shepherd of his people. Their bulls they slew. —In exchange. 188 .188 Some. bore. iii.

. 231 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS.BOOK VII.

.

. The night puts an end to the battle. and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. in the military details of the narrative. vol. v. but are restrained by Iris. sent from Jupiter. vol. p 257. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians. but in vain. whose exploits. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him." ch. Section 6. In the opening of the twentieth book this interdict is withdrawn. ii. AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS. No interposition takes place but on the part of the specially authorised agents of Jove."—Mure. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks. are excellently described. against any further interference of the gods in the battles. Hector continues in the field. p. or on that of one or two contumacious deities. During the twelve intermediate books it is kept steadily in view. (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships. Muller.[141] BOOK VIII. described as boldly setting his commands at defiance. and carried off. 252. THE SECOND BATTLE.189 his balances the fates of both. The acts of Teucer. who is at length wounded by Hector. i. repeatedly allude to the supreme edict as the cause of their present inactivity. is the decree issued by Jupiter. ARGUMENT. Jupiter assembles a council of the deities. while the other divine warriors. See however. but checked and reprimanded for their disobedience. "Greek Literature. who in the previous and subsequent cantos are so active in support of their favourite heroes. and those of Hector. at the commencement of the eighth book.) and gives orders to keep the watch 189 "A similar bond of connexion. and Grote. and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels.

The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore. Or far." —"Paradise Lost. The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book. from steep Olympus thrown. The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke: "Celestial states! immortal gods! give ear. When Jove convened the senate of the skies. Tanto e piu in su de la stellata spera" . fair daughter of the dawn.190 190 [142] "As far removed from God and light of heaven. Where high Olympus' cloudy tops arise. ye powers. As deep beneath the infernal centre hurl'd. oh far. and reverence what ye hear. As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. The sire of gods his awful silence broke. With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors. the scorn of heaven. to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight. or but wills to yield. Thou.234 The Iliad of Homer all night in the camp. They kindle fires through all the fields. Gash'd with dishonest wounds. Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn. Aurora now. The fix'd decree which not all heaven can move. Who yields assistance. fate! fulfil it! and. And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors. Back to the skies with shame he shall be driven. and pass the night under arms. Hear our decree." "E quanto e da le stelle al basso inferno. Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan. approve! What god but enters yon forbidden field.

the ocean. To drag. League all your forces. The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth. Yet it would seem. unbounded and above. link'd in a golden chain To that side heav'n. As from that centre to the ethereal world. and earth. Lib. sq. vol. . and try the omnipotence of Jove. the Almighty is the god of gods. Join all. earth. I heave the gods. i. from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tartarus. 217." —"Paradise Lost. that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. by this. and the land. in which it was not attached to any geographical site—seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain. and main Strive all. and gods. ye powers above. nor durst the powers reply: A reverend horror silenced all the sky.BOOK VIII. another world Hung e'er my realm. 1004. then. dread those dire abodes: And know. Let down our golden everlasting chain191 Whose strong embrace holds heaven."—Thirlwall's Greece." ii. 7. 235 —Gier. But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally." The all-mighty spoke. nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atlas. "Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal. And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! For such I reign. compared to Jove. and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aerian regions above The idea of a seat of the gods—perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition. And such are men. Let him who tempts me. i. the Thunderer down to earth Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand. I fix the chain to great Olympus' height. of mortal and immortal birth. 191 "Now lately heav'n. p. who holds the lofty pillars which keep earth and heaven asunder.

Then call'd his coursers. spoke: "O first and greatest! God. With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain. our father and our lord! But. and his chariot took." [143] The cloud-compelling god her suit approved. the sacred sire Of gods and men released the steeds of fire: Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced.236 The Iliad of Homer Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look. the power of wisdom. His fane breathed odours. Refulgent. ah! permit to pity human state: If not to help. Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. and tents. High on the throne he shines: his coursers fly Between the extended earth and starry sky. at least lament their fate. High on the cloudy point his seat he placed. And smiled superior on his best beloved. The town. from his radiant car. Brass were their hoofs. by gods adored We own thy might. . Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys. their curling manes of gold: Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array. flash'd intolerable day. and navigable seas. The stedfast firmament beneath them shook: Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot roll'd. and his altar blazed: There. Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove. But when to Ida's topmost height he came.) Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised. and of savage game. (Fair nurse of fountains. At length his best-beloved.

v 687.192 192 237 [144] —His golden scales. "Jove now. But when the sun the height of heaven ascends. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train. steeds. wives." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. Troy roused as soon. for on this dreadful day The fate of fathers. The tumult thickens. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and chariots shake the trembling ground. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. and infants lay. The sequel each of parting and of fight: . shields to shields opposed. In these he puts two weights. increasing bright. with balanced air In counterpoise. and the skies resound. O'er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light. sole arbiter of peace and war. now ponders all events. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. Host against host with shadowy legends drew. Till Troy descending fix'd the doubtful scale. And buckled on their shining arms with haste. Held forth the fatal balance from afar: Each host he weighs. Long as the morning beams. by turns they both prevail. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain: Men. Battles and realms. To lances lances. And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries. Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales. Wherein all things created first he weighed. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise. to prevent such horrid fray. sqq. The sire of gods his golden scales suspends. "Th' Eternal.BOOK VIII. Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast. The pendulous round earth. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew.

Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads." iv. That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand The hoary monarch of the Pylian band. and freed The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed. the king of war. When dreadful Hector. But Diomed beheld. thundering through the war. flight unworthy great Laertes' son! The latter quick up flew. Scarce had his falchion cut the reins. . and kick'd the beam. Thick lightnings flash. The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads. and poised the mighty weight: Press'd with its load. Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car. 496. Their strength he withers. The gods in terrors. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. from forth the crowd He rush'd. and on Ulysses call'd aloud: "Whither. oh whither does Ulysses run? Oh. and unmans their souls. Fix'd in the forehead. the alarm sustain'd Nestor alone. Nor each stern Ajax. and the skies on fire. Paw with his hoofs aloft. where the springing man Curl'd o'er the brow. amidst the storm remain'd. he begins to rear. the Trojan strikes the skies.238 The Iliad of Homer With equal hand: in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy." "Paradise Lost. the muttering thunder rolls. Mad with his anguish. and lash the air. Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear. it stung him to the brain. for Paris' dart Had pierced his courser in a mortal part. Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire. Unwilling he remain'd. thunderbolts of war: Nor he.

ascend my seat. or urge the rapid race: These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein. renown'd in war. To dare the fight. and ascends the car: The steeds he left. A single warrior midst a host of foes. a vile. to chase. Pierced in the back. even he may learn to fear The thirsty fury of my flying spear. Thy veins no more with ancient vigour glow.BOOK VIII. and shelters there. to stop. Approves his counsel. skill'd in war. Tydides whirl'd his spear. and Sthenelus the bold: The reverend charioteer directs the course. Ulysses seeks the ships. Fierce he drove on. Then haste. But bold Tydides to the rescue goes. and from the car Observe the steeds of Tros. and thy coursers slow. and anxious thus bespoke the king: "Great perils. their trusty servants hold. And strains his aged arm to lash the horse. father! wait the unequal fight. Weak is thy servant. With these against yon Trojans will we go. unknowing how to fear. Hector they face. Fierce as he is. Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe." Thus said the chief. Practised alike to turn. Before the coursers with a sudden spring He leap'd. Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train. Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found. and Nestor. Eurymedon. dishonest wound? Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage The glory of the Greeks." His fruitless words are lost unheard in air. These younger champions will oppress thy might. the Pylian sage. 239 [145] .

." vi. The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight. The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue. But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay. And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright: He dropp'd the reins: and. Rose Archeptolemus. This day. 'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move: The great will glory to submit to Jove. Till. warn'd the intrepid Diomed: "O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised." —"Paradise Lost. . and spurns the plain. shook with sacred dread. Some other sun may see the happier hour. Yet unrevenged permits to press the field. 669.. where he sits . "And now all heaven Had gone to wrack.193 Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound: Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew. with ruin overspread. the sovereign of the skies Assists great Hector. &c. averse." 193 —And now. and urge the chariot hence. And now had death and horror cover'd all. foreseen. turning. The steeds fly back: he falls. His opening hand in death forsakes the rein. When Greece shall conquer by his heavenly power. Had not th' Almighty Father. to supply his place and rule the car. Thus.240 The Iliad of Homer The spear with erring haste mistook its way. the fierce in war. and our palm denies. Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd.

but who shall heed the boast? Not those who felt thy arm. Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. Nor Troy. and to stand the fight. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place in which Nestor was educated." He said. Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies. and thy words are wise. Pleased. and thrice imperial Jove 241 [146] —Gerenian Nestor. 194 . p. viii.BOOK VIII. in II. The storm of hissing javelins pours behind. what grief! should haughty Hector boast I fled inglorious to the guarded coast. To stop his coursers. or merely signifies honoured. 336. and stretch thee dead. presumptuous prince! are fled. and hide a warrior's shame!" To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied:194 "Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride? Hector may vaunt. Hector braves the warrior as he flies. See Schol. lamented lord." Now fears dissuade him. hasty. earth. B. This arm shall reach thy heart. "O reverend prince! (Tydides thus replies) Thy years are awful. and now hopes invite. in the form of man! To scale our walls. Go less than woman. o'er the gasping throng Drives the swift steeds: the chariot smokes along. to wrap our towers in flames. To lead in exile the fair Phrygian dames. Thy once proud hopes. Venet. yet bleeding in her heroes lost. mighty hero! graced above the rest In seats of council and the sumptuous feast: Now hope no more those honours from thy train. who dreads the sword That laid in dust her loved. The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind. the Dardan host. revered. Strabo. and. But ah. "Go. O'erwhelm me. Not even a Phrygian dame. Thrice turn'd the chief. 340.

this important day. And all your master's well-spent care repay. For this. All Greece. urge the chase. and by a princess' hand. Till. on Greece eternal shame. be fearless.242 The Iliad of Homer On Ida's summits thunder'd from above. And thou. Fight each with flames. the labour of a god: These if we gain. For this my spouse. of great Aetion's line. All famed in war. high-fed. Encouraged his proud steeds. Great Hector heard. So oft has steep'd the strengthening grain in wine. Be fleet.) and thus urged the fight: "Hear. High o'er their slighted trench our steeds shall bound. (The sign of conquest. Lampus. Served with pure wheat. Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won. Now swift pursue. And pass victorious o'er the levell'd mound. Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame Await on Troy. in plenteous stalls ye stand. every Trojan. now thunder uncontroll'd: Give me to seize rich Nestor's shield of gold. then bending o'er the yoke. destined by this arm to fall. Podargus! prove thy generous race. Weak bulwarks. encompass'd. Your great forefathers' glories. ye powers! [147] . while thus he spoke: "Now. and your own. and toss the blazing brand. Soon as before yon hollow ships we stand. and dreadful hand to hand. their proud navy wrapt in smoke and fires. then victory. he saw the flashing light. in one blaze expires. Dardan band. Xanthus. Æthon. From Tydeus' shoulders strip the costly load. Lycian. In vain they skulk behind their boasted wall." Furious he said. Vulcanian arms.

Would all the deities of Greece combine. A dreadful front! they shake the brands. The king of men. 195 . In vain the gloomy Thunderer might repine: Sole should he sit. Helice. Nor swells thy heart in that immortal breast? Yet Ægae. Where the deep trench in length extended lay. Toil'd through the tents. this glorious night. Squadrons on squadrons drives. She shook her throne.BOOK VIII.195 And gifts unceasing on thine altars lay. Helice. that shook the starry pole: And thus to Neptune: "Thou. and threat With long-destroying flames the hostile fleet. Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array. thy power obey. with scarce a god to friend. 243 —Ægae. All above Submit and tremble at the hand of Jove. and all his army fired. and with thicken'd shields." Now godlike Hector. deep anguish stung Saturnia's soul. the fleet is ours!" That heard. by Juno's self inspired. whose force can make The stedfast earth from her foundations shake. to whose matchless might Jove gave the glory of the destined fight. and fills the fields With close-ranged chariots. And see his Trojans to the shades descend: Such be the scene from his Idaean bower. Seest thou the Greeks by fates unjust oppress'd. This night. what madness. Both these towns were conspicuous for their worship of Neptune. Ungrateful prospect to the sullen power!" Neptune with wrath rejects the rash design: "What rage. furious queen! is thine? I war not with the highest.

by happy signs declares. Give these at least to 'scape from Hector's hand. and my people slain! To thee my vows were breathed from every shore. in bitterness of soul preferr'd: The wrath appeased. My glory ravish'd. "O Argives! shame of human race! (he cried: The hollow vessels to his voice replied. A fawn his talons truss'd. Who paid their vows to Panomphaean Jove. his voice was heard: To Ajax and Achilles reach'd the sound. . and while the goblet flows. from Ulysses' deck. Your hasty triumphs on the Lemnian shore? Each fearless hero dares a hundred foes. bright ensign of command. sacred bird of heaven! he sent. And gives the people to their monarch's prayers. gracious god! far humbler our demand. Now.244 The Iliad of Homer [148] Swift as he moved. And save the relics of the Grecian land!" Thus pray'd the king. When the fight rages. he lifted in his hand His purple robe. While the feast lasts. Whose distant ships the guarded navy bound. His eagle. like me oppress'd? With power immense.) Where now are all your glorious boasts of yore. And ask'd destruction to the Trojan name. and the flames surround? O mighty Jove! O sire of the distress'd! Was ever king like me. (divine portent!) High o'er the wondering hosts he soar'd above. What altar smoked not with our victims' gore? With fat of bulls I fed the constant flame. with justice arm'd in vain. But who to meet one martial man is found. High on the midmost bark the king appear'd: There. and heaven's great father heard His vows.

Secure behind the Telamonian shield The skilful archer wide survey'd the field. the troops revive. Evaemon's son next issues to the foe. With every shaft some hostile victim slew. Struck through the back. the passage freed. then fell Ormenus dead: The godlike Lycophon next press'd the plain.BOOK VIII. the Ajaces next succeed: Meriones. Then let the prey before his altar fall. Who first by Teucer's mortal arrows bled? Orsilochus. their strongest battle tore. O'er the broad ditch impell'd his foaming horse. Retires for safety to the mother's arms. Young Agelaus (Phradmon was his sire) With flying coursers shunn'd his dreadful ire. and issued at his breast: Headlong he quits the car: his arms resound. and transport seized on all: Encouraged by the sign. and turns the shining shield. And dyed his javelin red with Trojan gore. like Mars in arms renown'd. And last young Teucer with his bended bow. Daetor. now passed the mound. The Greeks beheld. the Phrygian fell oppress'd. And fierce on Troy with doubled fury drive. Forth rush a tide of Greeks. Then close beneath the sevenfold orb withdrew: The conscious infant so. The Atridae first. Thus Ajax guards his brother in the field. The bloody pile great Melanippus crown'd. of all the Grecian force. when fear alarms. And godlike Idomen. Tydides first. The dart drove on. Pierced the deep ranks. His ponderous buckler thunders on the ground. Ophelestes slain: Bold Hamopaon breathless sunk to ground. With Chromius. 245 [149] . Moves as he moves.

" To this the chief: "With praise the rest inspire. Now hear a monarch's vow: If heaven's high powers Give me to raze Troy's long-defended towers.246 The Iliad of Homer Heaps fell on heaps. sad trophies of his art. Till every shaft in Phrygian blood be dyed. he own'd the generous flame. Great Agamemnon views with joyful eye The ranks grow thinner as his arrows fly: "O youth forever dear! (the monarch cried) Thus. Shall recompense the warrior's toils with love. thy early worth be tried. whom thy eyes approve. always thus. Since rallying from our wall we forced the foe. The vigorous offspring of a stolen embrace: Proud of his boy. The next rich honorary gift be thine: Some golden tripod. Nor urge a soul already fill'd with fire." . Thy country's saviour. A Trojan ghost attending every dart. Whatever treasures Greece for me design. Thy brave example shall retrieve our host. With coursers dreadful in the ranks of war: Or some fair captive. And the brave son repays his cares with fame. be now in battle tried. or distinguished car. What strength I have. Still aim'd at Hector have I bent my bow: Eight forky arrows from this hand have fled. and thy father's boast! Sprung from an alien's bed thy sire to grace. this dog of Troy. And eight bold heroes by their points lie dead: But sure some god denies me to destroy This fury of the field.

This offspring added to king Priam's line. overcharged with rain. . So sinks the youth: his beauteous head. E in atto si gentil languir tremanti Gl' occhi. Dreadful he shouts: from earth a stone he took. The youth already strain'd the forceful yew. depress'd Beneath his helmet. and twang'd the string. Quits his bright car. The feather in his hand. "Il suo Lesbia quasi bel fior succiso. Phoebus turn'd the flying wound. And dipp'd its feathers in no vulgar gore. just wing'd for flight. The weapon flies At Hector's breast. 85.) As full-blown poppies. Another shaft the raging archer drew. 196 247 [150] —As full blown. ix." Gier. And rush'd on Teucer with the lifted rock. but pierced Gorgythio's heart.BOOK VIII.196 Decline the head. Hector with grief his charioteer beheld All pale and breathless on the sanguine field: Then bids Cebriones direct the rein. and sings along the skies: He miss'd the mark. e cader siu 'l tergo il collo mira.) Yet fell not dry or guiltless to the ground: Thy breast. He said. That other shaft with erring fury flew. &c. (Fair Castianira. brave Archeptolemus! it tore. Headlong he falls: his sudden fall alarms The steeds. and drooping kiss the plain. and issues on the plain. Touch'd where the neck and hollow chest unite. There. nymph of form divine. that startle at his sounding arms. Lib. (From Hector. And drench'd in royal blood the thirsty dart. drops upon his breast. The shaft already to his shoulder drew. where the juncture knits the channel bone.

With beating bosom. and Mecistheus. and more than mortal strong. or fastens on his heels. And fired the troops. that gives the lion chase. And his numb'd hand dismiss'd his useless bow. Troy yet found grace before the Olympian sire.248 The Iliad of Homer The furious chief discharged the craggy stone: The bow-string burst beneath the ponderous blow. The Greeks repulsed. Till great Alaster. Hector still the hindmost slew. to war's triumphant maid: . and with eager pace. With terror clothed. Thus oft the Grecians turn'd. great Hector march'd along. and fill'd their breasts with fire. Fierce on his rattling chariot Hector came: His eyes like Gorgon shot a sanguine flame That wither'd all their host: like Mars he stood: Dire as the monster. Before the ships a desperate stand they made. Or in the trench on heaps confusedly fall. And screen'd his brother with the mighty shade. but still they flew. dreadful as the god! Their strong distress the wife of Jove survey'd. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground. retreat behind their wall. He fell: but Ajax his broad shield display'd. Thus following. and called the gods to aid. bore The batter'd archer groaning to the shore. and circles as he wheels. Then pensive thus. Guards as he turns. Hangs on his haunch. First of the foe. When flying they had pass'd the trench profound. He arm'd their hands. As the bold hound.

Oh had my wisdom known this dire event. I shot from heaven. in deep dismay. inflexible and hard. And drain the dregs of heaven's relentless hate? Gods! shall one raging hand thus level all? What numbers fell! what numbers yet shall fall! What power divine shall Hector's wrath assuage? Still swells the slaughter. nor hell explored in vain. By stern Eurystheus with long labours press'd? He begg'd. Stretch'd by some Argive on his native shore: But he above. Averse to me of all his heaven of gods. in this moment of her last despair. To grace her gloomy. and slights our just demands.BOOK VIII. with tears he begg'd. Some future day. perhaps. and still grows the rage!" So spake the imperial regent of the skies. withstands. Forgets my service and deserved reward: Saved I. Mocks our attempts. he may be moved . The stubborn god. Shall wretched Greece no more confess our care. fierce. and gave his arm the day. and my Greeks undone. When to grim Pluto's gloomy gates he went. his favourite son distress'd. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. resenting son. and shake the sable shield! Now. 249 "O daughter of that god. Condemn'd to suffer the full force of fate. for this. To whom the goddess with the azure eyes: "Long since had Hector stain'd these fields with gore. At Thetis' suit the partial Thunderer nods. The triple dog had never felt his chain. the sire of heaven. My hopes are frustrate. Nor Styx been cross'd.

Heaven's golden gates. Saturnia lends the lash. Myself will arm. and thunder at thy side. and glut the dogs with gore?" She ceased. or roll those clouds away. launch thy chariot.250 The Iliad of Homer To call his blue-eyed maid his best beloved. Expiring. and spreads the court of Jove. through yon ranks to ride. ponderous. His cuirass blazes on her ample breast. The sun's bright portals and the skies command. kept by the winged Hours. and Juno rein'd the steeds with care: (Heaven's awful empress. shall Hector glory then? (That terror of the Greeks. Commission'd in alternate watch they stand. strong! that when her fury burns Proud tyrants humbles. Then. the coursers fly. Her father's arms her mighty limbs invest. goddess! say. The sounding hinges ring. on yonder shore. the eternal gates of day Bar heaven with clouds. Saturn's other heir:) Pallas. Smooth glides the chariot through the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers. Close. The radiant robe her sacred fingers wove Floats in rich waves. that man of men) When Juno's self. With flowers adorn'd. [152] . the massy javelin bends: Huge. and whole hosts o'erturns. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends: Shook by her arm. Haste. or unfold. meanwhile. Prone down the steep of heaven their course they guide. the clouds divide. and Pallas shall appear. pale. with art immortal crown'd. All dreadful in the crimson walks of war! What mighty Trojan then. and terrible no more. her various veil unbound. Shall feast the fowls.

and stop their car. and what I speak is fate: Their coursers crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. She claims some title to transgress our will. incensed. 251 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. "Thaumantia! mount the winds. And hurl them flaming. headstrong and imperious still. headlong. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. to the ground. scatter'd o'er the sky: My lightning these rebellious shall confound. But Jove.BOOK VIII. Their car in fragments." [153] . from Ida's top survey'd. Condemn'd for ten revolving years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. Thus have I spoke. And thus enjoin'd the many-colour'd maid. For Juno. Against the highest who shall wage the war? If furious yet they dare the vain debate. So shall Minerva learn to fear our ire.

ever constant. And. mounting on the pinions of the wind. And speaks the mandate of the sire of gods. So shall Minerva learn to fear his ire. She claims some title to transgress his will: But thee. "What frenzy goddesses! what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. Restrains their progress from the bright abodes. Your horses crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. obedient to his high command: This is his word. Yourselves condemn'd ten rolling years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. and know his word shall stand: His lightning your rebellion shall confound. what desperate insolence has driven To lift thy lance against the king of heaven?" Then." . ever rule mankind. and Juno thus her rage resign'd: "O daughter of that god. They breathe or perish as the fates ordain: But Jove's high counsels full effect shall find. now miserably slain.252 The Iliad of Homer Swift as the wind. Triumphant now. to the ground. She flew. For Juno. To great Olympus' shining gate she flies. And hurl ye headlong. and shake the dreadful shield No more let beings of superior birth Contend with Jove for this low race of earth. Your car in fragments scatter'd o'er the sky. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. headstrong and imperious still. There meets the chariot rushing down the skies. the various-colour'd maid From Ida's top her golden wings display'd. flaming.

and heavenly bright. The pensive goddesses. and reach the sky. the wheels instinctive fly. The Hours unloosed them. Mix with the gods. She spoke. 253 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. panting as they stood. 'Twas Neptune's charge his coursers to unbrace. abash'd.BOOK VIII. And now the Thunderer meditates his flight From Ida's summits to the Olympian height. And fix the car on its immortal base. beaming forth its rays. controll'd. Till with a snowy veil he screen'd the blaze. There tied. they rest in high celestial stalls. Swifter than thought. [154] . And heap'd their mangers with ambrosial food. There stood the chariot. and fill their seats of gold. Adorn'd with manes of gold. and backward turn'd her steeds of light. The chariot propp'd against the crystal walls. Flame through the vast of air.

if our arms we take. replies: "What hast thou said. Cut off. [155] ." Juno and Pallas grieving hear the doom. The prudent goddess yet her wrath repress'd. 'Tis thine to punish. and exiled from the ethereal race. abandon'd by her fate To drink the dregs of thy unmeasured hate. What power soe'er provokes our lifted hand. But know. Confused and silent. Your hearts shall tremble. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. O tyrant of the skies! Strength and omnipotence invest thy throne. For thus I speak. ours to grieve alone. But feast their souls on Ilion's woes to come. and what I speak shall stand. unconquer'd is our hand: Who shall the sovereign of the skies control? Not all the gods that crown the starry pole. On this our hill no more shall hold his place. Trembling afar the offending powers appear'd. and thus his word imparts: "Pallas and Juno! say. why heave your hearts? Soon was your battle o'er: proud Troy retired Before your face. High heaven the footstool of his feet he makes. For Greece we grieve. And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes. for his frown they fear'd. But Juno. whoe'er almighty power withstand! Unmatch'd our force. whose all-conscious eyes the world behold. Yet grant our counsels still their breasts may move.254 The Iliad of Homer He. And each immortal nerve with horror shake. He saw their soul. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. impotent of rage. The eternal Thunderer sat. enthroned in gold. With arms unaiding see our Argives slain. and in your wrath expired.

awaked by loud alarms. And drew behind the cloudy veil of night: The conquering Trojans mourn his beams decay'd. for what I will. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there." 255 The goddess thus. and view in vain. if thy wilt.BOOK VIII. nor canst thou turn its course With all thy rage. and thus the god replies. Where cursed Iapetus and Saturn dwell. The Greeks rejoicing bless the friendly shade. shall stand. Those radiant eyes shall view. Who swells the clouds. Lest all should perish in the rage of Jove. For such is fate." Now deep in ocean sunk the lamp of light. within the streams of hell. Even till the day when certain fates ordain That stern Achilles (his Patroclus slain) Shall rise in vengeance. Fly. Shall see the almighty Thunderer in arms. . and thy Greeks in flight. with all thy rebel force. Where on her utmost verge the seas resound. and lay waste the plain. The navy flaming. No cheerful gales refresh the lazy air: There arm once more the bold Titanian band. What heaps of Argives then shall load the plain. to earth's remotest bound. Fast by the brink. and blackens all the skies: "The morning sun. And arm in vain. Nor shall great Hector cease the rage of fight.

[156] . Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. or safely cleave the main. to save the cowards. Fix'd to the wood with circling rings of gold: The noble Hector on his lance reclined. in the silence and the shades of night. Where thinly scatter'd lay the heaps of dead. high blazing to the sky. and Hector calls A martial council near the navy walls. Some lasting token of the Phrygian foe. Wounds. refulgent to behold. Greece on her sable ships attempt her flight. give ear! This day. and use her peaceful hours Our steeds to forage. Straight from the town be sheep and oxen sought. Let numerous fires the absent sun supply. Not unmolested let the wretches gain Their lofty decks. that long hence may ask their spouses' care. and generous aids. and refresh our powers.256 The Iliad of Homer The victors keep the field. would wrap in conquering flame Greece with her ships. and their prince surround. The assembled chiefs. These to Scamander's bank apart he led. Lest. The point was brass. falls. The flaming piles with plenteous fuel raise. descending on the ground. thus reveal'd his mind: "Ye valiant Trojans. And. Attend his order. But darkness now. And strengthening bread and generous wine be brought Wide o'er the field. Till the bright morn her purple beam displays. A massy spear he bore of mighty strength. Some hostile wound let every dart bestow. with attention hear! Ye Dardan bands. we hoped. and crown our toils with fame. And guards them trembling in their wooden walls. Obey the night. bending forward.

our battlements surround. oh! might my days endure. And warn their children from a Trojan war. with fates averse. shall give to Hector's hand From these detested foes to free the land. to-night. I trust. And the fired fleet behold the battle rage. The insidious foe the naked town invade. With this keen javelin shall his breast be gored. Like Pallas worshipp'd. Certain as this." The leader spoke. the last they shall enjoy. Our common safety must be now the care. Who plough'd. A nobler charge shall rouse the dawning day. But soon as morning paints the fields of air. The gods. Sheathed in bright arms let every troop engage. Suffice. while distant lie our powers. under covert of the midnight shade. and black death secure. Now through the circuit of our Ilion wall. From age inglorious. the watery way: For Trojan vultures a predestined prey. And beardless youths.BOOK VIII. Shall crush the Greeks. like the sun renown'd! As the next dawn. So might my life and glory know no bound. And prostrate heroes bleed around their lord. these orders to obey. and end the woes of Troy. Firm be the guard. And let the matrons hang with lights the towers. From all his host around Shouts of applause along the shores resound. To-morrow's light (O haste the glorious morn!) Shall see his bloody spoils in triumph borne. Let sacred heralds sound the solemn call. To bid the sires with hoary honours crown'd. Lest. then shall Hector and Tydides prove Whose fates are heaviest in the scales of Jove. 257 . Then.

refulgent lamp of night. As when the moon. Full hecatombs lay burning on the shore: The winds to heaven the curling vapours bore. . With generous wine. When the unmeasured firmament bursts to disclose her light. And stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole. 527. Fat sheep and oxen from the town are led. And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene.198 O'er heaven's pure azure spreads her sacred light. because the cause in which they were engaged was unjust. "Struck by the lab'ring priests' uplifted hands The victims fall: to heav'n they make their pray'r.258 The Iliad of Homer [157] Each from the yoke the smoking steeds untied. that glad the shepherd's heart. Around her throne the vivid planets roll. And stars shine cleare. 197 —Ungrateful. 198 "As when about the silver moon. The troops exulting sat in order round. O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed. But vain their toil: the pow'rs who rule the skies Averse beheld the ungrateful sacrifice." Chapman. to whose sweet beams high prospects on the brows Of all steepe hills and pinnacles thrust up themselves for shows. and her guilty race. And beaming fires illumined all the ground. Ungrateful offering to the immortal powers!197 Whose wrath hung heavy o'er the Trojan towers: Nor Priam nor his sons obtain'd their grace. When not a breath disturbs the deep serene. vi. And even the lowly valleys joy to glitter in their sight." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. And fix'd their headstalls to his chariot-side. The curling vapours load the ambient air. sqq. and all-sustaining bread. And all the signs in heaven are seene. when aire is free from winde. Proud Troy they hated.

BOOK VIII. Whose umber'd arms. A flood of glory bursts from all the skies: The conscious swains. Full fifty guards each flaming pile attend. Loud neigh the coursers o'er their heaps of corn. 259 [158] . Eye the blue vault. the rocks in prospect rise. and tremble on the spires. And lighten glimmering Xanthus with their rays. rejoicing in the sight. and bless the useful light. So many flames before proud Ilion blaze. by fits. And ardent warriors wait the rising morn. A thousand piles the dusky horrors gild. And shoot a shady lustre o'er the field. The long reflections of the distant fires Gleam on the walls. And tip with silver every mountain's head: Then shine the vales. thick flashes send.

.260 The Iliad of Homer THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES.

but "a great and general one. and return to their country. Diomed opposes this. caused by Hector and the Trojans. who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. pale comrade of inglorious flight. in order to move him to a reconciliation. While fear. but with the approval of Jove. proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege. and the next following. Sat on each face. who are accompanied by old Phoenix. This book. ARGUMENT. take up the space of one night. was not a supernatural flight caused by the gods. praising his wisdom and resolution. each of them. 358. which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of. and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. after the last day's defeat. according to Buttmann. THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. p. Lexil. This flight of the Greeks. Thus joyful Troy maintain'd the watch of night. and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles. and Nestor seconds him. Agamemnon. on the Grecian part. Agamemnon pursues this advice. and the troops betake themselves to sleep." 199 . and sadden'd every heart. The scene lies on the sea-shore. the station of the Grecian ships.[159] BOOK IX.199 And heaven-bred horror. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp. They make. but are rejected with roughness by Achilles. very moving and pressing speeches. He orders the guard to be strengthened.

from a rock's tall head. from Thracia's frozen shore. In sable streams soft-trickling waters shed. Who shakes the feeble props of human trust. With conquest honour'd and enrich'd with spoils: Now shameful flight alone can save the host. Haste then. Himself his orders to the heralds bears. mix'd with sighs. A double tempest of the west and north Swells o'er the sea. thus bursting from his breast: "Ye sons of Greece! partake your leader's care. and our glory lost. With more than vulgar grief he stood oppress'd. Fellows in arms and princes of the war! Of partial Jove too justly we complain. . Words. at whose nod whole empires rise or fall. A safe return was promised to our toils. our people. and bids the Ægean roar: This way and that the boiling deeps are toss'd: Such various passions urged the troubled host. But bid in whispers: these surround their chief. In solemn sadness and majestic grief. Our wealth. almighty lord of all! Jove. So silent fountains. Haste to the joys our native country yields. And heavenly oracles believed in vain.262 The Iliad of Homer [160] As from its cloudy dungeon issuing forth. for ever quit these fatal fields. So Jove decrees. Spread all your canvas. all your oars employ. Heaps waves on waves. Great Agamemnon grieved above the rest. The king amidst the mournful circle rose: Down his wan cheek a briny torrent flows. To bid to council all the Grecian peers. And towers and armies humbles to the dust. Superior sorrows swell'd his royal breast.

" . Thou first. 'tis what our king commands. and extirpate Troy. unmov'd in dire dismay they stand. and Sthenelus. and 'twas with God we came. or. and defame my might: Nor from a friend the unkind reproach appear'd. The gods have made thee but by halves a king: They gave thee sceptres. A pensive scene! till Tydeus' warlike son Roll'd on the king his eyes. God bade us fight. To combat. O chief! from whom our honours spring.BOOK IX. till Troy or I expire. The gods. Myself. The noblest power that might the world control They gave thee not—a brave and virtuous soul. If I oppose thee. all our army heard. Is this a general's voice. and a wide command. prince! thy wrath withhold. First let him speak who first has suffer'd shame. and thou alone. will fight for fame." 263 He said: deep silence held the Grecian band. They gave dominion o'er the seas and land. Ships thou hast store. he stands. Here Greece shall stay. conquer. Durst brand my courage. in fields of fight. Myself shall stay. The laws of council bid my tongue be bold. if all Greece retire. The Greeks stood witness. Go thou. A noble care the Grecians shall employ. and nearest to the main. that would suggest Fears like his own to every Grecian breast? Confiding in our want of worth. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. inglorious! from the embattled plain. And if we fly. Silent. and thus begun: "When kings advise us to renounce our fame.

A thought unfinish'd in that generous mind. assembled not with any power of peremptorily arresting mischievous resolves of the king. And yet those years that since thy birth have run Would hardly style thee Nestor's youngest son. ii. And voice to voice resounds Tydides' praise. or offend the king: "Cursed is the man. vol. or private care. as in courage. Whose lust is murder. because with truth. 91." 200 . Still first to act what you advise so well. after noticing the modest calmness and respect with which Nestor addresses Agamemnon. that monster. That wretch. a bold but prudent youth: And blame even kings with praise. Unworthy property. the Greeks loud acclamations raise. refresh and fortify thy train. Age bids me speak! nor shall the advice I bring Distaste the people. To tear his country. Unfit for public rule. you excel. p. and void of law and right. Wise Nestor then his reverend figure rear'd. and his kind destroy! This night. Kings thou canst blame. "The Homeric Council is a purely consultative body. He spoke: the host in still attention heard:200 "O truly great! in whom the gods have join'd Such strength of body with such force of mind: In conduct. observes. but solely for his information and guidance. Applauding Greece with common voice approves. These wholesome counsels which thy wisdom moves. Then let me add what yet remains behind. who delights in war.264 The Iliad of Homer [161] He ceased. and whose horrid joy. Between the trench and wall let guards remain: Grote. unworthy light.

Aphareus. unmoved. and others man the wall. Ialmen. O king. Thy high commands must spirit all our wars. The generous Thrasymed. Each seized a portion of the kingly feast. The fires they light. For happy counsels flow from sober feasts. to short repasts they fall.BOOK IX. for wisdom long approved. to council call the old. thus the council moved. See what a blaze from hostile tents aspires. But thou. and can close to-night? This dreadful interval determines all. Seven were the leaders of the nightly bands. Troy must flame. Swift through the gates the guards direct their way. Merion join. Convened the princes in his ample tent. Be that the duty of the young and bold. How near our fleet approach the Trojan fires! Who can. Great is thy sway. The king of men. or Greece must fall. And slowly rising. and weighty are thy cares. His son was first to pass the lofty mound. And such a monarch as can choose the best." Thus spoke the hoary sage: the rest obey. behold the dreadful light? What eye beholds them. And each bold chief a hundred spears commands. And Lycomed of Creon's noble line. on public counsels bent. 265 [162] . weighty counsels aid a state distress'd. stood. Then Nestor spoke. To-morrow. in arms renown'd: Next him. Some line the trench. Wise. Ascalaphus. But stay'd his hand when thirst and hunger ceased. The double offspring of the warrior-god: Deipyrus. With Thracian wines recruit thy honour'd guests.

and I with reason own. When from Pelides' tent you forced the maid. and himself a host. and make the wisdom thine. Thee. (Tacit. And millions own the care of thee and Heaven. not now conceived in haste. But follow it. repine. 201 [163] . Germ. with regard give ear. whom Jove still honours most. At once my present judgment and my past. And ratify the best for public good. when headlong fury fired. Pronounce with judgment. which err'd through frantic rage. Heaven fights his war. all ye Greeks. or with gifts to bend. and humbles all our bands. by men and gods admired: Now seek some means his fatal wrath to end. I first opposed. and formed the income of the German. But bold of soul. durst dissuade. with thee must end. though a meaner give advice. If gifts immense his mighty soul can bow. it is not unfrequent for the king to receive presents to purchase freedom from his wrath. and lords of earth obey. Is more than armies. or immunity from his exactions. With thee my cares begin. To see no wholesome motion be withstood. Such gifts gradually became regular. and witness what I vow. O king! the counsels of my age attend. this wondrous hero stands. In the heroic times. prince! it fits alike to speak and hear. That happy man. Nor." To whom the king. The wrathful chief and angry gods assuage. Fain would my heart.266 The Iliad of Homer "Monarch of nations! whose superior sway Assembled states. and faithful. Bless'd in his love. With prayers to move him. "With justice hast thou shown A prince's faults. You wronged the man.201 Hear. The laws and sceptres to thy hand are given. Hear then a thought.

(Rich were the man whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. but. Untouch'd she stay'd. and small the part she plays—what little is said is pre-eminently calculated to enhance her fitness to be the bride of Achilles. x. and guiltless of my loves. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould: Seven sacred tripods. When Lesbos sank beneath the hero's arms: All these. vi.202 These instant shall be his. 189) This fact frees Achilles from the apparent charge of sordidness. "We cannot commend Phoenix. should we commend Achilles himself. nor again.' (Hallam. says. and retiring delicacy. 202 It may be observed. Purity. to buy his friendship. And still victorious in the dusty course. Skill'd in each art.89). (De Rep.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. iii. p. however. as if he spoke correctly. And solemn swear those charms were never mine. 4). shall be paid. and other kings. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. that. With all her charms. Then shall he store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass his loaded navy's sides: Besides. unmatch'd in form divine." &c. 'The feudal aids are the beginning of taxation. Plato. of which they for a long time answered the purpose. but tender disposition of the hero. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race 267 Section 15) Persian. (Herodot. ch. the tutor of Achilles. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. when counselling him to accept of presents and assist the Greeks. pt. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers.BOOK IX. So. . in the middle ages. without presents. And join'd with these the long-contested maid. The same I chose for more than vulgar charms. too. brief as is the mention of Briseis in the Iliad. Briseis I resign. uninjured she removes. or approve of his being so covetous as to receive presents from Agamemnon. 1. not to desist from his wrath. nor has felt the flame. Middle Ages. Twelve steeds unmatch'd in fleetness and in force. are features well contrasted with the rough. Pure from my arms.

204 "Agamemnon. . And the same thing may be intimated when it is said that Peleus bestowed a great people. the pastures Hira yields. note. and labouring oxen toil. Seven ample cities shall confess his sway. And rule the tributary realms around. And sacred Pedasus for vines renown'd. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. Yet more—three daughters in my court are bred. is not mentioned by Homer. among the daughters of Agamemnon. Iphianassa. 162. on Phoenix.268 The Iliad of Homer [164] With copious love shall crown his warm embrace. Her let him choose whom most his eyes approve. Bold are the men. p. And with Orestes' self divide my care. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. Such as himself will choose. when he offers to transfer to Achilles seven towns inhabited by wealthy husbandmen. than an authority over them. If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. i Section 6. And each well worthy of a royal bed. There shall he reign. seems likewise to assume rather a property in them. who yield to none. Laodice and Iphigenia fair. 203 —Laodice. Æpea fair. who would enrich their lord by presents and tribute. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields:204 The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. and generous is the soil. I ask no presents. and Pherae him obey. with power and justice crown'd. vol. There shall he live my son.203 And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair. our honours share. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. Him Enope. Along the verdant margin of the main There heifers graze."—Thirlwall's Greece. the Dolopes of Phthia. no reward for love: Myself will give the dower. or Iphigenia.

Let chosen delegates this hour be sent (Myself will name them) to Pelides' tent. Lives dark and dreadful in deep hell's abodes. and who hears no prayers. "Abstain from expressions unsuitable to the solemnity of the occasion. by offending the god. And such as fits a generous king to make. Great Ajax next. Let Phoenix lead. And mortals hate him. as Kennedy has explained it." 269 The monarch thus. This is one of the most ancient superstitions respecting prayer. who never spares. Since more than his my years. it fits him to obey. Who feels no mercy. Rather: "use well-omened words. All this I give. revered for hoary age.205 and with purest hands. 205 . And sure all this may move his mighty soul. Yet more to sanctify the word you send. and more my sway. Now pray to Jove to grant what Greece demands. which. Let Hodius and Eurybates attend. the grisly god. as the worst of gods Great though he be. his vengeance to control. and Ithacus the sage. The reverend Nestor then: "Great Agamemnon! glorious king of men! Such are thy offers as a prince may take." 206 —Purest hands.BOOK IX. might defeat the object of their supplications. and one founded as much in nature as in tradition." or."206 [165] —Pray in deep silence. Pluto. Pray in deep silence.

270 The Iliad of Homer PLUTO. .

ruler of the seas profound. And large libations drench'd the sands around. The youth with wine the sacred goblets crown'd. their embassy to bless. To Neptune. The rite perform'd. arrived. and all approved. the godlike man they found. He said.BOOK IX. The heralds bring The cleansing water from the living spring. the chiefs their thirst allay. and hear the roar Of murmuring billows on the sounding shore. Amused at ease. Whose liquid arms the mighty globe surround. instructs them to apply. . Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound. where on the sandy bay The Myrmidonian tents and vessels lay. Ulysses most. Through the still night they march. To deprecate the chief. Wise Nestor turns on each his careful eye. And calm the rage of stern Æacides. Forbids to offend. And now. 271 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. and save the host. They pour forth vows. Much he advised them all. Then from the royal tent they take their way.

and these thy friend. and sings The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings. attends the lofty strain: Full opposite he sat.272 The Iliad of Homer [166] (The well wrought harp from conquered Thebae came. and laid the harp aside. Of all the warriors yonder host can send. Patroclus only of the royal train. Of polish'd silver was its costly frame. though Greeks! for not as foes ye came. Leap'd from his seat. Then thus—"Patroclus. Or strong necessity. and listen'd long. To me more dear than all that bear the name. Mix purer wine. the great Ulysses leads. Unseen the Grecian embassy proceeds To his high tent. crown a larger bowl. the chiefs beneath his roof he led. all hail! whatever brought you here. In silence waiting till he ceased the song. With like surprise arose Menoetius' son: Pelides grasp'd their hands. or urgent fear. and thus begun: "Princes. Placed in his tent." . Welcome. And placed in seats with purple carpets spread." With that. as the chiefs he spied. Thy friend most honours these. and open every soul. Achilles starting.) With this he soothes his angry soul.

Which round the board Menoetius' son bestow'd. indulging in the social feast. Above the coals the smoking fragments turns And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urns. The parts transfixes. He strows a bed of glowing embers wide. The first fat offering to the immortals due. the fire to raise. and for the living fear. The tent is brighten'd with the rising blaze: Then. and with skill divides. Then each. His speech addressing to the godlike man. With bread the glittering canisters they load. and orders every rite. and instant thus began. What scenes of slaughter in yon fields appear! The dead we mourn. But greater cares sit heavy on our souls. Nor eased by banquets or by flowing bowls. sheep. to Phoenix Ajax gave the sign: Not unperceived.BOOK IX. Greece on the brink of fate all doubtful stands. Which flesh of porker. "Health to Achilles! happy are thy guests! Not those more honour'd whom Atrides feasts: Though generous plenty crown thy loaded boards. when the languid flames at length subside. Meanwhile Patroclus sweats. He said: Patroclus o'er the blazing fire Heaps in a brazen vase three chines entire: The brazen vase Automedon sustains. Each portion parts. Ulysses crown'd with wine The foaming bowl. His thirst and hunger soberly repress'd. Himself. Agamemnon's regal tent affords. opposed to Ulysses full in sight. Achilles at the genial feast presides. That done. That. 273 [167] . Amidst the greedy flames Patroclus threw. and goat contains.

That heart shall melt. full of Jove. And point at every ship their vengeful flame! For them the father of the gods declares. that courage rise in vain: Regard in time. And shun contention. ah. when. Their threatening tents already shade our wall: Hear how with shouts their conquest they proclaim. though late. Achilles: oh return. and stop the course of Fate. Lest Fate accomplish all his rage design'd! And must we. what lightning in his eyes! He waits but for the morn. Heavens! how my country's woes distract my mind. with glory.274 The Iliad of Homer And owns no help but from thy saving hands: Troy and her aids for ready vengeance call. avenging Hector rise! See! heaven and earth the raging chief defies. and this the fatal day? Return. gods! our heads inglorious lay In Trojan dust. and success. That young and old may in thy praise combine. To save thy Greeks. and all the Grecian name. these accents were his last: "'My child! with strength. What fury in his breast. See. Rise to redeem. Theirs are his omens. to sink in flame The ships. and subdue thy rage: From gentler manners let thy glory grow. the Greeks. thy cares engage To calm thy passions. rise! The day may come. Thy arms may Juno and Minerva bless! Trust that to Heaven: but thou. When Peleus in his aged arms embraced His parting son. If in that heart or grief or courage lies. . the sure source of woe. all our warriors slain. O prince divinely brave! Those wholesome counsels which thy father gave. yet to conquer. and his thunder theirs.

If not—but hear me. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould. Gifts worthy thee his royal hand prepares. With all her charms. Seven sacred tripods. Twelve steeds unmatched in fleetness and in force. join'd with these. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. Skill'd in each art. Untouch'd she stay'd.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. the long-contested maid. Then shalt thou store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass thy loaded navy's sides. unmatch'd in form divine. nor has felt the flame. who yield to none. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race With copious love shall crown thy warm embrace. an exhaustless store. uninjured she removes. whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. Such as thyself shall chose. (Rich were the man. And solemn swear those charms were only thine. and guiltless of his loves. And still victorious in the dusty course. 275 [168] . If thou wilt yield to great Atrides' prayers. The virtues of humanity be thine—' This now-despised advice thy father gave. Pure from his arms. And. and be truly brave. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. All these. Briseis he'll resign. The same he chose for more than vulgar charms. Besides. When Lesbos sank beneath thy conquering arms. These instant shall be thine. Ah! check thy anger. to buy thy friendship shall be paid. while I number o'er The proffer'd presents.BOOK IX.

for vines renown'd: Æpea fair. And with Orestes' self divide his care. whose unresisted ire Made nations tremble. Hear thy own glory. adored. The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. amongst her guardian gods. Such are the proffers which this day we bring. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. Bold are the men. Such the repentance of a suppliant king. And sacred Pedasus. There heifers graze. If no regard thy suffering country claim. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. Along the verdant margin of the main. There shalt thou reign. There shalt thou live his son. no reward for love: Himself will give the dower. And each well worthy of a royal bed: Laodice and Iphigenia fair. his honour share.276 The Iliad of Homer [169] If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. Seven ample cities shall confess thy sway. Proud Hector. He asks no presents. And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair: Her shalt thou wed whom most thy eyes approve. Yet more—three daughters in his court are bred. thou disdain. the pastures Hira yields. the unequal fight demands. Yet some redress to suppliant Greece afford. now. And be. with power and justice crown'd. If honour and if interest plead in vain. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields. And rule the tributary realms around. and labouring oxen toil. and the voice of fame: For now that chief. But if all this. . relentless. and whole hosts retire. and generous is the soil. The Enope and Pherae thee obey.

207 277 It must be recollected. Who dares think one thing. hear A faithful speech. or who bravely dies. From the following verses. And only triumphs to deserve thy hands. Fight or not fight. But now the unfruitful glories charm no more. Of all my dangers.BOOK IX. I sack'd twelve ample cities on the main. Alike regretted in the dust he lies. and my deeds make good. a like reward we claim. it is evident that fruits of these maraudings went to the common support of the expedition. all my glorious pains. "Then thus in short my fix'd resolves attend. And sweat laborious days in dust and blood. my purpose I retain: Nor with new treaties vex my peace in vain. Let Greece then know. And with the untasted food supplies her care: For thankless Greece such hardships have I braved. My heart detests him as the gates of hell. My tongue shall utter. The wretch and hero find their prize the same. Long toils." Then thus the goddess-born: "Ulysses. Which nor Atrides nor his Greeks can bend. Her wives. In search of prey she wings the spacious air. by my labours saved. that knows nor art nor fear. 207 . and another tell. A life of labours. long perils in their cause I bore. Long sleepless nights in heavy arms I stood. and not to the successful plunderer. and that many of the chieftains busied themselves in piratical expeditions about its neighborhood. lo! what fruit remains? As the bold bird her helpless young attends. Such a one was that of which Achilles now speaks. and from want defends. that the war at Troy was not a settled siege. What in my secret soul is understood. her infants. Who yields ignobly. From danger guards them.

Some few my soldiers had. Slave as she was. Ulysses. Sure every wise and worthy man will love. nor dared to wait . of Greece to Troy? What to these shores the assembled nations draws. But what's the quarrel. too. my soul adored the dame. Some present. He kept the verge of Troy. let him (as he may) enjoy. Wrong'd in my love. What needs he the defence this arm can make? Has he not walls no human force can shake? Has he not fenced his guarded navy round With piles. Ye have my answer—what remains to do. and a trench profound? And will not these (the wonders he has done) Repel the rage of Priam's single son? There was a time ('twas when for Greece I fought) When Hector's prowess no such wonders wrought. See what pre-eminence our merits gain! My spoil alone his greedy soul delights: My spouse alone must bless his lustful nights: The woman. Deceived for once. Your king. and the spoils I made. What calls for vengeance but a woman's cause? Are fair endowments and a beauteous face Beloved by none but those of Atreus' race? The wife whom choice and passion doth approve. And every prince enjoys the gift he made: I only must refund. then. Nor did my fair one less distinction claim.278 The Iliad of Homer [170] And twelve lay smoking on the Trojan plain: Then at Atrides' haughty feet were laid The wealth I gathered. I trust not kings again. all proffers I disdain. Your mighty monarch these in peace possess'd. of all his train. himself the rest. with ramparts. to every prince was paid. may consult with you.

Not though he proffer'd all himself possess'd. No—let the stupid prince. And all that rests of my unravish'd prey. whom Jove deprives Of sense and justice. that all the Greeks may hear. For once deceiv'd. His gifts are hateful: kings of such a kind Stand but as slaves before a noble mind. To-morrow we the favouring gods implore. Though shameless as he is. The ruddy gold.BOOK IX. nor his battle join. The third day hence shall Pthia greet our sails. One only valued gift your tyrant gave.) Tell him. all commerce I decline. Achilles' fury at the Scaean gate. Nor share his council.208 If mighty Neptune send propitious gales. all terms. and scarce was saved by fate. but twice were mine. And hear with oars the Hellespont resound. run where frenzy drives. mankind he braves. Pthia to her Achilles shall restore The wealth he left for this detested shore: Thither the spoils of this long war shall pass. And that resumed—the fair Lyrnessian slave. Then shall you see our parting vessels crown'd. And meditates new cheats on all his slaves. the steel. the capital of Achilles' Thessalian domains. Then tell him: loud. . to face these eyes Is what he dares not: if he dares he dies. (For arm'd in impudence. and shining brass: My beauteous captives thither I'll convey. And learn to scorn the wretch they basely fear. But now those ancient enmities are o'er. was his. And all his rapine could from others wrest: Not all the golden tides of wealth that crown 208 279 [171] —Pthia. He tried it once.

The reverend Peleus shall elect my wife. a large portion of the lake was in the condition of alluvial land." &c. p. But when the channels came to be either neglected. Bless'd in kind love. 209 .209 Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain. 181). pre-eminently rich and fertile.210 Though bribes were heap'd on bribes. If heaven restore me to my realms with life." (Ibid. and I scorn them all. "on the northern bank of the lake Æpais. And kings that sue to mix their blood with mine. Thessalian nymphs there are of form divine." as it was. The topography of Orchomenus. but also other rivers from Parnassus and Helicon" (Grote. 162. "situated. 'Tis he that offers. my years shall glide away. was a sufficient reason for its prosperity and decay.. p. the water accumulated in such a degree as to occupy the soil of more than one ancient islet. vol. —Orchomenian town. Should all these offers for my friendship call. seems to be merely expressive of a great number. or sands along the shore. The world's great empress on the Egyptian plain (That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states. See notes to my prose translation.) 210 The phrase "hundred gates. And vied with Pallas in the works of art. which receives not only the river Cephisus from the valleys of Phocis. I hate alliance with a tyrant's race. Like golden Venus though she charm'd the heart. in number more Than dust in fields. Atrides' daughter never shall be led (An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed. in Boeotia. and to occasion the change of the site of Orchomenus itself from the plain to the declivity of Mount Hyphanteion. "As long as the channels of these waters were diligently watched and kept clear. And pours her heroes through a hundred gates.280 The Iliad of Homer [172] The many-peopled Orchomenian town. Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace. Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars From each wide portal issuing to the wars). or designedly choked up by an enemy. Content with just hereditary sway.

life or fame. And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled. One stratagem has fail'd. if I stay. I find my fond mistake. His age be sacred. Or Troy once held." 281 . their native seats enjoy. To quit these shores. all your armies join. Let all your forces. Returns no more to wake the silent dead. report our fix'd design. Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold. Short is my date. though late. But whether he remain or sail with me. My fates long since by Thetis were disclosed. Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain. from fire. Go then—digest my message as ye may— But here this night let reverend Phoenix stay: His tedious toils and hoary hairs demand A peaceful death in Pthia's friendly land. Here. in peace and pride of sway. and others will: Ye find. and long-extended days. And warn the Greeks the wiser choice to make. And each alternate. Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold. Go then to Greece. the troops. Convinced. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. all your arts conspire. Achilles is unconquer'd still. Enjoy the dear prerogative of life. To save the ships. the chiefs. and her glories rise. before the Trojan town. proposed. There. but deathless my renown: If I return. deaf for ever to the martial strife. and his will be free. Jove's arm display'd asserts her from the skies! Her hearts are strengthen'd. I quit immortal praise For years on years. Bid all your counsels.BOOK IX.

Attend the stern reply.282 The Iliad of Homer GREEK GALLEY.) And while the fate of suffering Greece he mourn'd. The son of Peleus ceased: the chiefs around In silence wrapt. (Down his white beard a stream of sorrow flows. in consternation drown'd. . Then Phoenix rose. With accent weak these tender words return'd.

. 283 PROSERPINE.BOOK IX.

. And ruthless Proserpine. confirm'd his vow. And leave our hosts in blood. and prevent my sire. and with force detain. On fat of rams.284 The Iliad of Homer [173] "Divine Achilles! wilt thou then retire. ah. My sire with curses loads my hated head. Strong guards they placed. Old as he was. How shall thy friend. 'Ye furies! barren be his bed. and brawny swine.' Infernal Jove. When Greece of old beheld my youthful flames (Delightful Greece. our fleets on fire? If wrath so dreadful fill thy ruthless mind. adored a stranger's charms. and no fate divide. Never. with draughts of fragrant wine. and in camps to dare. Not though the god. They daily feast. To shine in councils. stay behind? The royal Peleus. Thy youth as then in sage debates unskill'd. And new to perils of the direful field: He bade me teach thee all the ways of war. My father faithless to my mother's arms. that breathed my life. I tried what youth could do (at her desire) To win the damsel. and the port I bore. restore The bloom I boasted. Then meditate my flight: my friends in vain With prayers entreat me. the land of lovely dames). and watch'd nine nights entire. Despair and grief distract my labouring mind! Gods! what a crime my impious heart design'd! I thought (but some kind god that thought suppress'd) To plunge the poniard in my father's breast. thy Phoenix. the vengeful fiends below. black bulls. And cries. never let me leave thy side! No time shall part us. when from Pthia's coast He sent thee early to the Achaian host.

Your sire received me." "And the wine Held to thy lips. My travels thence through spacious Greece extend. and anxiously enjoin'd That I should rear thee as my own with all A parent's love. No food was grateful but from Phoenix' hand. which distinguished the age of Anne. and many a time in fits Of infant frowardness the purple juice 211 . And early wisdom to thy soul convey'd: Great as thou art.— "Many gifts he gave. let me add. on my bosom laid The precious charge.BOOK IX. From thy sweet lips the half articulate sound Of Father came. With gifts enrich'd. unseen of all: And. The roofs and porches flamed with constant fire. and o'er Dolopia bade me rule. but a hero gave. p. favour'd by the night. In Phthia's court at last my labours end. and with possessions bless'd. The tenth. artificial taste. thee in his arms He brought an infant. o'erleap'd the wall. Mewling and puking didst thou drench my tunic. as his son caress'd. in translating which. as children use." "This description. while round my neck thy hands were lock'd. and oft. my lessons made thee brave: A child I took thee.211 285 [174] Compare the following pretty lines of Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Select Translations. Thy infant breast a like affection show'd." observes my learned friend (notes. omits the natural (and. The strong Dolopians thenceforth own'd my reign. I forced the gates. I fail'd not in my trust And oft. affecting) circumstance. II ix. And all the coast that runs along the main. with that squeamish. p 88). Still in my arms (an ever-pleasing load) Or at my knee. Pope. By love to thee his bounties I repaid. by Phoenix wouldst thou stand. 121) "is taken from the passage of Homer.

vows. and tramples o'er mankind. Offending man their high compassion wins. O let not headlong passion bear the sway These reconciling goddesses obey Due honours to the seed of Jove belong. fierce injustice then Descends to punish unrelenting men. And Phoenix felt a father's joys in thee: Thy growing virtues justified my cares. Lame are their feet. resign'd. and only wise) Are moved by offerings. thy fatal rage. And fill'd my bosom. Constant they follow. and wrinkled is their face. The sire revenges for the daughters' sake. and with dejected eyes. Who hears these daughters of almighty Jove. move slow behind. Were rage still harbour'd in the haughty king.286 The Iliad of Homer [175] I pass my watchings o'er thy helpless years. A cruel heart ill suits a manly mind: The gods (the only great. erect. From Jove commission'd. The gods (I thought) reversed their hard decree. and unconfined. Now be thy rage. And promised comfort to my silver hairs. and bend the strong. Were these not paid thee by the terms we bring. With humble mien. ." —Cowper. to heal her wrongs. Due honours calm the fierce. where injustice flies. For him they mediate to the throne above When man rejects the humble suit they make. Injustice swift. Rejecting thou hast deluged all my vest. the compliant cares. Prayers are Jove's daughters. Sweeps the wide earth. While Prayers. The tender labours. And daily prayers atone for daily sins. of celestial race. and sacrifice.

And sends by those whom most thy heart commends. p. Strong as they were. p. That levell'd harvests. In vengeance of neglected sacrifice. For a good sketch of the story of Meleager. Permit not these to sue. Hear what our fathers were.BOOK IX. The best and noblest of the Grecian train. Nor Greece nor all her fortunes should engage Thy friend to plead against so just a rage. a new debate arose. 195. to conquer. too long to be inserted here. these advance. vol. sqq. The silver Cynthia bade contention rise. 287 "Where Calydon on rocky mountains stands212 Once fought the Ætolian and Curetian bands. see my notes to the prose translation. On OEneus fields she sent a monstrous boar. —Where Calydon. for his spoils. Who conquer'd their revenge in former days. Then.. But since what honour asks the general sends. The neighbour nations thence commencing foes. While Meleager's thundering arm prevail'd: Till rage at length inflamed his lofty breast (For rage invades the wisest and the best). and for the authorities. see Grote. To guard it those. A great example drawn from times of old. 166. 212 . the bold Curetes fail'd. i. and sue in vain! Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold. and what their praise. and whole forests tore: This beast (when many a chief his tusks had slain) Great Meleager stretch'd along the plain. And mutual deaths were dealt with mutual chance.

and call'd the powers beneath On her own son to wreak her brother's death. and half with vineyards crown'd:) His suppliant father. Hell heard her curses from the realms profound. a name to show The father's grief. The walls are scaled. and supplicating tears. At length his wife (a form divine) appears. divinely fair. In vain Ætolia her deliverer waits. his friends before him fall: He stands relentless. aged OEneus. And matchless Idas. and their proffers great: (Full fifty acres of the richest ground. came. From Cleopatra changed their daughter's name. War shakes her walls. and thunders at her gates. Half pasture green.288 The Iliad of Homer [176] "Cursed by Althaea. Priests of the gods. the mourning mother's woe. Besought the chief to save the sinking state: Their prayers were urgent. to his wrath he yields. And in his wife's embrace forgets the fields. Against the god the father bent his arms: The afflicted pair. and rejects them all. With piercing cries. even the vengeful dame. more than man in war: The god of day adored the mother's charms. His sisters follow'd. (She from Marpessa sprung. . But found no peace from fierce Althaea's hate: Althaea's hate the unhappy warrior drew. a chosen band. sues. And the red fiends that walk the nightly round. Meanwhile the victor's shouts ascend the skies. She sent ambassadors. Althaea. the rolling flames arise. She beat the ground.) To her the chief retired from stern debate. And call'd Alcyone. Whose luckless hand his royal uncle slew. and elders of the land. their sorrows to proclaim.

and his will confines. The matrons ravish'd. And be amongst our guardian gods adored. For him these sorrows? for my mortal foe? A generous friendship no cold medium knows. Do this. or our stay. My friend must hate the man that injures me. now took their turn. Jove honours me. Let these return: our voyage. One should our interests and our passions be.BOOK IX. long disdain'd. and my reverend guide: Thy friend. The Ætolians. he vanquish'd. And here I stay (if such his high behest) While life's warm spirit beats within my breast. Yet hear one word. And share my realms. And asks no honours from a mortal's hands. my honours. 'tis a generous part. Nor stay till yonder fleets ascend in fire. She paints the horrors of a conquer'd town. Rest undetermined till the dawning day. with one resentment glows. the whole race enslaved: The warrior heard. and favours my designs. Burns with one love. and my heart. betimes to curb pernicious ire. draw thy conquering sword. Learn hence. and lodge it in thy heart: No more molest me on Atrides' part: Is it for him these tears are taught to flow. my Phoenix." . And left the chief their broken faith to mourn. The heroes slain. the palaces o'erthrown. His pleasure guides me. no such gifts demands. Accept the presents. and he saved." 289 Thus he: the stern Achilles thus replied: "My second father. believe me.

The Greeks expect them. A sire the slaughter of his son forgives. we remit the deed.213 The gods that unrelenting breast have steel'd. that iron heart retains Its stubborn purpose. Revere thy roof. Proud as he is. One woman-slave was ravish'd from thy arms: Lo. And thus. And gifts can conquer every soul but thine. On just atonement. impatient. Even for real and deep injuries they were commonly willing to accept a pecuniary compensation. Stern and unpitying! if a brother bleed." vol. seven are offer'd." 213 . and our heroes wait. And know the men of all the Grecian host. Then hear.290 The Iliad of Homer He ceased. With that. stern Ajax his long silence broke. his words we must relate. p." "Gifts can conquer"—It is well observed by Bishop Thirlwall. Achilles! be of better mind. the murderer lives: The haughtiest hearts at length their rage resign. 180. Who honour worth. nor to conceive that it left a stain which could only be washed away by blood. The price of blood discharged. and of equal charms. and his friends disdains. i. and to thy guests be kind. that the law of honour among the Greeks did not compel them to treasure up in their memory the offensive language which might be addressed to them by a passionate adversary. and prize thy valour most. to Ulysses spoke: [177] "Hence let us go—why waste we time in vain? See what effect our low submissions gain! Liked or not liked. And cursed thee with a mind that cannot yield. "Greece. then order'd for the sage's bed A warmer couch with numerous carpets spread.

but at the tyrant's name My rage rekindles." 291 This said. Not till. Achilles slept. each prince a double goblet crown'd. and in his warm embrace Fair Diomede of the Lesbian race. The chiefs return. Just there. the impetuous homicide shall stand. With fleeces. Achilles to his friend consign'd her charms When Scyros fell before his conquering arms. by Hector's fury thrown. heroes! and our answer bear.BOOK IX. Not till the flames. The blood of Greeks shall dye the sable main. Whose nightly joys the beauteous Iphis shared. for Patroclus was the couch prepared. But in his inner tent. and approach my own. and there feel our hand. [178] . In slumber sweet the reverend Phoenix lay. and soft linen spread: There. Last. and my soul's on flame: 'Tis just resentment. carpets. Meantime Achilles' slaves prepared a bed. till the sacred morn restored the day. The glorious combat is no more my care. divine Ulysses leads. through the gloomy shades. amidst yon sinking navy slain. and thy people's guide! (To Ajax thus the first of Greeks replied) Well hast thou spoke. "O soul of battles. Consume your vessels. and becomes the brave: Disgraced. an ampler space. And cast a large libation on the ground. There cease his battle. like the vilest slave! Return. Then to their vessels. dishonour'd. then.

when morning paints the sky. thy proposals scorns. if other he decree. But Phoenix in his tent the chief retains. To save our army. Pass'd through the hosts. Us too he bids our oars and sails employ. The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands Hail'd their return: Atrides first begun: "Say what success? divine Laertes' son! Achilles' high resolves declare to all: "Returns the chief. and his choice is free. and bids her glory shine. Is not his care. Your eyes shall view. Beneath his oars the whitening billows fly. Nor hope the fall of heaven-protected Troy. thus implored. with goblets in their hands. He slights thy friendship. These sacred heralds and great Ajax heard." .292 The Iliad of Homer And now the elected chiefs whom Greece had sent. His age is sacred. Safe to transport him to his native plains When morning dawns. Such was his word: what further he declared. with fiercer fury burns. And. and our fleets to free. Then rising all. and reach'd the royal tent. Inspires her war. unconquer'd is his pride. or must our navy fall?" "Great king of nations! (Ithacus replied) Fix'd is his wrath. For Jove o'ershades her with his arm divine. but left to Greece and thee.

as in high command. let due repast refresh our powers. And those are owed to generous wine and food. This night. And prayers will burst that swelling heart with pride. Attend the stern reply. descending o'er the tents. bestows The grateful blessings of desired repose. to his madness. Tydides broke The general silence. The first in danger. in consternation lost. Be the fierce impulse of his rage obey'd. "Why should we gifts to proud Achilles send. or to Heaven commit: What for ourselves we can." 293 [179] Shouts of acclaim the listening heroes raise. Then let him arm when Jove or he think fit: That. a long-extended line: In the dread front let great Atrides stand. Ulysses ceased: the great Achaian host. Our battles let him or desert or aid.) But when the rosy messenger of day Strikes the blue mountains with her golden ray. Till sleep.BOOK IX. (For strength consists in spirits and in blood. Ranged at the ships. Then each to Heaven the due libations pays. let all our squadrons shine In flaming arms. is always ours."—Milton . With sorrow seized."214 214 "The boon of sleep. Or strive with prayers his haughty soul to bend? His country's woes he glories to deride. and undaunted spoke.

294 The Iliad of Homer ACHILLES. .

with several of his officers. whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians. but passes through the camp. Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army. . and particularly of Rhesus. They call a council of war. From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces. ARGUMENT. 767. the scene lies in the two camps. and discover their intentions. and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. Menelaus. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise. iv. awaking the leaders. and the Thracians who were lately arrived. with which they return in triumph to the camp. Ulysses. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES. and contriving all possible methods for the public safety. kill Rhesus. the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. Nestor. and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. And lost in sleep the labours of the day: All but the king: with various thoughts oppress'd. In their passage they surprise Dolon.215 215 "All else of nature's common gift partake: Unhappy Dido was alone awake. They pass on with success. All night the chiefs before their vessels lay. and seize the famous horses of that prince. to learn their posture. The same night continues." —Dryden's Virgil. He takes no rest that night.[180] BOOK X. and determine to send scouts into the enemies' camp.

Hears in the passing wind their music blow. A leopard's spotted hide his shoulders spread: A brazen helmet glitter'd on his head: . Alike denied the gifts of soft repose. in wholesome counsels. He rends his hair. Anxious he sorrows for the endangered host. And heaven flames thick with momentary fires: So bursting frequent from Atrides' breast.296 The Iliad of Homer [181] His country's cares lay rolling in his breast. Next on his feet the shining sandals bound. Laments for Greece. while glory and despair Divide his heart. Now o'er the fields. that in his cause before So much had suffer'd and must suffer more. dejected. he surveys From thousand Trojan fires the mounting blaze. and first he cast his mantle round. Meanwhile his brother. Or sends soft snows to whiten all the shore. press'd with equal woes. A thousand cares his labouring breast revolves. To seek sage Nestor now the chief resolves. Sighs following sighs his inward fears confess'd. And marks distinct the voices of the foe. Now looking backwards to the fleet and coast. and wage a double war. His warlike hand a pointed javelin held. He rose. By fits one flash succeeds as one expires. or weighty shower. to debate What yet remains to save the afflicted state. And sues to him that ever lives above: Inly he groans. With him. As when by lightnings Jove's ethereal power Foretels the rattling hail. A lion's yellow spoils his back conceal'd. Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar. in sacrifice to Jove.

is now no easy part. And midst a hostile camp explore the foe. But asks high wisdom. deep design. through night's dark shade to go. To try yon camp. and watch the Trojan powers? But say. Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair. Joyful they met. by one great arm achieved. And we beheld. Greece to preserve. There call great Ajax. [182] . And bows his head to Hector's sacrifice. In one great day. the last revolving sun What honours the beloved of Jove adorn! Sprung from no god. To keep the guards on duty be his care. averse. What eye has witness'd. alone. Thus (with a javelin in his hand) he went To wake Atrides in the royal tent. or what ear believed. Already waked. And curse the battle where their fathers fell. For Jove. No vulgar counsel our affairs demand. Such wondrous deeds as Hector's hand has done. Atrides he descried. our humble prayer denies.BOOK X. and art. what hero shall sustain that task? Such bold exploits uncommon courage ask. and of no goddess born. as Greeks unborn shall tell. "Now speed thy hasty course along the fleet." 297 To whom the king: "In such distress we stand. amidst these silent hours. His armour buckling at his vessel's side. the Spartan thus begun: "Why puts my brother his bright armour on? Sends he some spy. Yet such his acts. Guideless. and the prince of Crete.

or with despatch return?" "There shall thou stay. Then. must prove our worth. with your voice the slothful soldiers raise. but thy purpose tell. and the pointed spears. approach not. o'er the watch presides. While others sleep. and the camp so wide." . Still. The dreadful weapons of the warrior's rage. each parted to his several cares: The king to Nestor's sable ship repairs. thus range the camp alone. speak. That. but works." This said. disdain'd the peace of age. Seek'st thou some friend or nightly sentinel? Stand off. shall I stay. Say.") To whom the Spartan: "These thy orders borne. leaning on his hand his watchful head. Forget we now our state and lofty birth.) Else may we miss to meet. the shield he rears. that on designs unknown. The sage protector of the Greeks he found Stretch'd in his bed with all his arms around The various-colour'd scarf. The hoary monarch raised his eyes and said: "What art thou. Whose son with Merion.298 The Iliad of Homer (For Nestor's influence best that quarter guides. without a guide. he gave us woe. (the king of men replied. The paths so many. old in arms. Urge by their fathers' fame their future praise. And when Jove gave us life. The shining helmet. To labour is the lot of man below. Not titles here.

The unhappy general of the Grecian bands. So near. I wander thus alone.) Pride of the Greeks. remotest of the fleet. faithful Nestor thy command obeys." To him thus Nestor: "Trust the powers above. Some other be despatch'd of nimbler feet. And woes. that only with his life shall end! Scarce can my knees these trembling limbs sustain. "O son of Neleus. and favour'd by the gloomy shade. (Since cares. No taste of sleep these heavy eyes have known. Tired with the toils of day and watch of night. And all my people's miseries are mine. Whom Jove decrees with daily cares to bend. and assist thy friend. Meges for strength. With fears distracted. 299 [183] . with no fix'd design. What toils attend thee. The care is next our other chiefs to raise: Ulysses. Now let us jointly to the trench descend. (thus the king rejoin'd. Oileus famed for speed. if the gods ordain That great Achilles rise and rage again. Nor think proud Hector's hopes confirm'd by Jove: How ill agree the views of vain mankind. and glory of thy kind! Lo. And scarce my heart support its load of pain.BOOK X. and sad. deprive thy soul of rest. and what woes remain! Lo.) Impart thy counsel. At every gate the fainting guard excite. If aught of use thy waking thoughts suggest. And the wise counsels of the eternal mind! Audacious Hector. Diomed. To those tall ships. Confused. like mine. Else may the sudden foe our works invade. we chiefly need. here the wretched Agamemnon stands.

yet learn to spare them now: My generous brother is of gentle kind. .300 The Iliad of Homer Where lie great Ajax and the king of Crete. Assembling there. Claims all our hearts. The camp he traversed through the sleeping crowd. Content to follow when we lead the way: But now. that lighten'd as he pass'd. Long ere the rest he rose. Then rushing from his tent. and dear to thee.216 To rouse the Spartan I myself decree. Preventing every part perform'd by you. he snatch'd in haste His steely lance. the venerable warrior rose. He seems remiss. Warm with the softest wool. our chosen council waits." "Then none (said Nestor) shall his rule withstand. His purple mantle golden buckles join'd. The chiefs you named. 216 —The king of Crete: Idomeneus. and urges all our hands. between the trench and gates. The shining greaves his manly legs enclose. and doubly lined. Stopp'd at Ulysses' tent. but bears a valiant mind. and call'd aloud." With that. Yet must I tax his sloth. our ills industrious to prevent. Prepare to meet us near the navy-wall. For great examples justify command. Near the night-guards. For strong necessity our toils demands. that claims no share With his great brother in his martial care: Him it behoved to every chief to sue. Dear as he is to us. Through too much deference to our sovereign sway. already at his call." To whom the king: "With reverence we allow Thy just rebukes. and sought my tent.

old Nestor gently shakes The slumbering chief. All. sudden as the voice was sent. and in these words awakes: "Rise. His head reclining on his bossy shield. Without his tent. starts up. Then. A wood of spears stood by. all depend on this important night!" He heard. Then join'd the chiefs. A bull's black hide composed the hero's bed. "What new distress. and shades our walls below?" At this. return'd. Ulysses. Let younger Greeks our sleeping warriors wake. A splendid carpet roll'd beneath his head. soft slumber from his eyelids fled. Though years and honours bid thee seek repose. and took his painted shield. extended on the field. and the night too long. when from yon hill the foe Hangs o'er the fleet. fix'd upright." 301 [184] . Whatever counsels can inspire our thought. and said: "Wondrous old man! whose soul no respite knows. be now thy wisdom tried: Whatever means of safety can be sought. All sheathed in arms.BOOK X. bold Diomed they found. The warrior saw the hoary chief. with his foot. Ill fits thy age these toils to undertake. or to fly or fight. Whatever methods. that. his brave companions round: Each sunk in sleep. Shot from their flashing points a quivering light. what sudden cause of fright. and issues from his tent. But sleep'st thou now. and follow'd through the field. son of Tydeus! to the brave and strong Rest seems inglorious. Awakes. Thus leads you wandering in the silent night?" "O prudent chief! (the Pylian sage replied) Wise as thou art.

Watch every side. who serves his country best. with Ajax famed for speed. with hunger bold. No hour must pass. my subjects and my sons might bear. He serves me most. each motion. Employ thy youth as I employ my age. (he answered. Each voice. With toil protected from the prowling train. Then seized his ponderous lance. The warrior roused. These toils. the clamours strike their ear Of hounds and men: they start. And. and more loud. So faithful dogs their fleecy charge maintain. and strode along. Loud. Meges the bold. Each single Greek. cautious of surprise. Springs from the mountains toward the guarded fold: Through breaking woods her rustling course they hear. and to the entrenchments lead. Succeed to these my cares. couching close.302 The Iliad of Homer "My friend. Stands on the sharpest edge of death or life: Yet. [185] . repel invading sleep. When the gaunt lioness. they gaze around. if my years thy kind regard engage. A wakeful squadron.) generous is thy care. Their loyal thoughts and pious love conspire To ease a sovereign and relieve a sire: But now the last despair surrounds our host. and rouse the rest. that to his ankles hung. and turn to every sound. drew their ears and eyes: Each step of passing feet increased the affright." This said. each in arms prepared: The unwearied watch their listening leaders keep. no moment must be lost. in this conclusive strife. And now the chiefs approach the nightly guard. the hero o'er his shoulders flung A lion's spoils. Thus watch'd the Grecians.

BOOK X. Or Troy once more must be the seat of war? This could he learn. What fame were his through all succeeding days. and to our peers recite. The trenches pass'd. from his vengeful hand Reprieved the relics of the Grecian band: (The plain beside with mangled corps was spread. His son. Nestor with joy the wakeful band survey'd. yet undefiled with gore. And thus accosted through the gloomy shade. in these words begun: "Is there (said he) a chief so greatly brave. And all his progress mark'd by heaps of dead:) There sat the mournful kings: when Neleus' son. When night descending. His life to hazard. my sons! your nightly cares employ. and godlike Merion. march'd behind (For these the princes to their council join'd). their counsels. "'Tis well. While Phoebus shines. A place there was. Else must our host become the scorn of Troy. and designs to hear? If to besiege our navies they prepare. And pass unharm'd the dangers of the night. or seize some straggling foe? Or favour'd by the night approach so near. Then o'er the trench the following chieftains led. And hostile Troy was ever full in sight. Watch thus. and Greece shall live." The hero said. who singly dares to go To yonder camp. Their speech. and his country save? Lives there a man. the assembled kings around In silent state the consistory crown'd. The council opening. The spot where Hector stopp'd his rage before. or men have tongues to praise! What gifts his grateful country would bestow! What must not Greece to her deliverer owe? 303 .

With each a sable lambkin by her side. And inly trembled for his brother's sake. Tydides spoke—"The man you seek is here. Just be thy choice. Bold Merion strove. By mutual confidence and mutual aid. nor wish'd in vain. Undaunted Diomed! what chief to join In this great enterprise." The monarch spake. and great discoveries made. Through yon black camps to bend my dangerous way. Each generous breast with emulation glows. But let some other chosen warrior join. without affection made. At every rite his share should be increased. To birth. To raise my hopes. . and second my design. or office. The wise new prudence from the wise acquire. And one brave hero fans another's fire. and Nestor's valiant heir. no respect be paid. untaught to fear. is only thine. And his the foremost honours of the feast. and thou best of friends. Some god within commands." Contending leaders at the word arose. Then thus the king of men the contest ends: "Thou first of warriors. and I obey. And great Ulysses wish'd." [186] Fear held them mute: alone. The Spartan wish'd the second place to gain.304 The Iliad of Homer A sable ewe each leader should provide. Let worth determine here. So brave a task each Ajax strove to share. Great deeds are done.

while great Ulysses stands To lend his counsels and assist our hands? A chief. or to blame: Praise from a friend. Short of its crest. Soft wool within. pressed in between the straps.) his temples crown'd. i e. A bow and quiver. In arms terrific their huge limbs they dress'd. Wisdom like his might pass through flames of fire. and make the helmet fit close. with leather braces bound. The stars shine fainter on the ethereal plains. to Tydides gave: Then in a leathern helm he cased his head. But let us haste—Night rolls the hours away." "It fits thee not.) to praise me. a kind of woollen stuffing. I no aid require. and with no plume o'erspread: (Such as by youths unused to arms are worn:) No spoils enrich it. Next him Ulysses took a shining sword. in the works of war: Bless'd in his conduct. How can I doubt. so dreadful. in order spread. A two-edged falchion Thrasymed the brave. 217 .BOOK X. (Thy gift. "Then thus (the godlike Diomed rejoin'd) My choice declares the impulse of my mind. 305 [187] —Soft wool within. and no studs adorn. And of night's empire but a third remains. whose safety is Minerva's care. Are lost on hearers that our merits know.217 A boar's white teeth grinn'd horrid o'er his head. with bright arrows stored: A well-proved casque. The reddening orient shows the coming day. or censure from a foe. with generous ardour press'd. This from Amyntor. And ample buckler. to protect the head. before these chiefs of fame. (Replied the sage. rich Ormenus' son. Meriones. So famed. without." Thus having spoke.

from him the prize Molus received. A long-wing'd heron great Minerva sent: This. received with peaceful show. in sign she favour'd their intent. And let some deed this signal night adorn. And dark through paths oblique their progress take. Peace was his charge. and made numbers yield. And now Ulysses' thoughtful temples press'd. Great queen of arms. Thus sheathed in arms. O celestial maid! . unconquer'd Pallas! hear. and sought the Theban towers. Safe by thy succour to our ships convey'd. and address'd the maid: "O daughter of that god whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. though surrounding shades obscured their view. As from the right she soar'd. but return'd a foe: Then help'd by thee. Just then. and shake the dreadful shield! O thou! for ever present in my way. the pledge of social ties. The helmet next by Merion was possess'd. When on Æsopus' banks the banded powers Of Greece he left." Then godlike Diomed preferr'd his prayer: "Daughter of Jove. Ulysses pray'd. And gave Amphidamas. whose favour Tydeus won. the council they forsake. defend the son. Who all my motions. He went a legate. He fought with numbers. By the shrill clang and whistling wings they knew. all my toils survey! Safe may we pass beneath the gloomy shade. Hail'd the glad omen.306 The Iliad of Homer Autolycus by fraudful rapine won. As thou defend'st the sire. So now be present. and cover'd by thy shield. To claim the tears of Trojans yet unborn.

and with spreading horns. Now." [188] . for high attempts prepared. o'er arms. Whose taper tops refulgent gold adorns. What watch they keep. With ample forehead. And. On high designs the wakeful hours employ. Untamed. through blood. and Pallas from the skies Accords their vow. Dares greatly venture for a rich reward? Of yonder fleet a bold discovery make. and the sons of Troy. Of all the plunder of the vanquish'd host. Through dust. unconscious of the galling yoke. spent with toil. With dreadful thoughts they trace the dreary way. Through the black horrors of the ensanguined plain. like two lions panting for the prey. And his the glory to have served so well. and what resolves they take? If now subdued they meditate their flight. and hills of slain. Who thus the counsels of his breast proposed: "What glorious man. His the fair steeds that all the rest excel. neglect the watch of night? His be the chariot that shall please him most. So still continue to the race thine aid! A youthful steer shall fall beneath the stroke." The heroes pray'd.BOOK X. The assembled peers their lofty chief enclosed. 307 Nor less bold Hector. succeeds their enterprise.

Eumedes' only boy." The chief then heaved the golden sceptre high. But the rash youth prepares to scour the plain: Across his back the bended bow he flung. their whole intention know. all their aims betray. and rich in gold. Even to the royal tent pursue my way. And him alone the immortal steeds adorn. "Hector! (he said) my courage bids me meet This high achievement. Scarce had he pass'd the steeds and Trojan throng. and the glittering car. (Five girls beside the reverend herald told. Dolon his name. and matchless in the race. and explore the fleet: But first exalt thy sceptre to the skies.) . Fulfil thy wish. A wolf's grey hide around his shoulders hung. Then (never to return) he sought the shore.308 The Iliad of Homer A youth there was among the tribes of Troy. But swift of foot." Thus Hector swore: the gods were call'd in vain. Encouraged thus. Attesting thus the monarch of the sky: "Be witness thou! immortal lord of all! Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall: By none but Dolon shall this prize be borne. (Still bending forward as he coursed along. Not bless'd by nature with the charms of face. The immortal coursers. And trod the path his feet must tread no more.) Rich was the son in brass. no idle scout I go. A ferret's downy fur his helmet lined. That bear Pelides through the ranks of war. And swear to grant me the demanded prize. And in his hand a pointed javelin shined. And all their counsels.

) When now new furrows part the approaching ploughs. Moving this way. (As Dolon pass'd. So close. Betwixt the camp and him our spears employ. Confine his course along the fleet and shore. and such the space between. so constant.) behind a heap of dead: Along the path the spy unwary flew. When. 309 [189] . and check'd his haste. both the chiefs pursue. Now Dolon. And from the herd still turn the flying prey: So fast. But if too swift of foot he flies before. they intercept his way. Then rush behind him. (To whom the hind like shares of land allows. and with such fears. Now lost. and win a little space. on the hollow way. "O friend! I hear some step of hostile feet. As when two teams of mules divide the green. So distant they. and prevent his pace. or hastening to the fleet. Or chase through woods obscure the trembling hind. And mingles with the guards that watch the walls. Soft. As when two skilful hounds the leveret wind. Hector (he thought) had sent. heard them as they pass'd. and thus to Diomed. the bold Greeks pursue. Till scarce at distance of a javelin's throw." With that they stepp'd aside. And intercept his hoped return to Troy. he perceived the foe. No voice succeeding. at just distance. to lurk beside the main. the Trojan flew. listening. and stoop'd their head.BOOK X. Now almost on the fleet the dastard falls. Or nightly pillager that strips the slain. now seen. the approaching tread Ulysses mark'd. Yet let him pass. Some spy. perhaps.

And steel well-temper'd and refulgent gold. remain. And snatch the glory from his lifted lance. The panting warriors seize him as he stands. Then thus aloud: "Whoe'er thou art. and for the breath I owe. and o'er his shoulder pass'd. and high in air the weapon cast. Which wilful err'd. By Hector prompted. to despoil the dead?" . Then fix'd in earth. Against the trembling wood The wretch stood propp'd. A sudden palsy seized his turning head. or thy daring mind? Or art some wretch by hopes of plunder led." To whom Ulysses made this wise reply: "Whoe'er thou art. Large gifts of price my father shall bestow: Vast heaps of brass shall in your ships be told. To roam the silent fields in dead of night? Cam'st thou the secrets of our camp to find. Through heaps of carnage. when sleep has closed the sight. be bold. Lest on the foe some forward Greek advance. What moves thee.310 The Iliad of Homer When brave Tydides stopp'd. say. "O spare my youth." He said. This javelin else shall fix thee to the plain. and his colour fled. nor fear to die. a gen'rous thought (Inspired by Pallas) in his bosom wrought. and quiver'd as he stood. And with unmanly tears his life demands. His loose teeth chatter'd.

" 311 . Safe in their cares. with a fearful look: (Still. be faithful. neglect the watch of night. the auxiliar forces sleep. Or here to combat. No certain guards the nightly watch partake. replies. what resolves you take: If now subdued. Where'er yon fires ascend. since this conquest. And scorn the guidance of a vulgar hand." "Bold was thy aim. from their city far. Then thus pale Dolon. Much did he promise. A council holds at Ilus' monument. Urged me. rashly I believed: No less a bribe than great Achilles' car. Or back to Ilion's walls transfer the war?" Ulysses thus. the Trojans wake: Anxious for Troy. from the danger far. Even great Achilles scarce their rage can tame. Discharge their souls of half the fears of war. you fix your hopes on flight. with a scornful smile. But say. what their counsels are. and the truth recite! Where lies encamp'd the Trojan chief to-night? Where stand his coursers? in what quarter sleep Their other princes? tell what watch they keep: Say. his faithful tongue shall own. and glorious was the prize. and thus Eumedes' son: "What Dolon knows.) Far other rulers those proud steeds demand. as he spoke. his limbs with horror shook:) "Hither I came. To learn what counsels. by Hector's words deceived. unwilling. Hector. And. the guard the natives keep. the peers assembling in his tent. (Ulysses. Achilles sprung from an immortal dame. this attempt to make.BOOK X. tired with toils. And those swift steeds that sweep the ranks of war. Whose wives and infants.

" To this Tydides. encamp along the coast. thou betray'st no more. unhappy. Led on by Rhesus.312 The Iliad of Homer [191] "Then sleep those aids among the Trojan train. No mortal shoulders suit the glorious load. till your return reveal The truth or falsehood of the news I tell. Rich silver plates his shining car infold. The Thracians utmost. and Maeonian band. flame with gold. Or leave me here. refulgent. the Pelasgian host. (Inquired the chief. by Thymbras' ancient wall. Mysian. dreadful with their bended bows. Celestial panoply.) or scattered o'er the plain?" To whom the spy: "Their powers they thus dispose The Paeons. Caucons." . In cruel chains. These Troy but lately to her succour won. and apart from all. though all the truth be shown: Shall we dismiss thee. a captive's fate to mourn. to your fleet be borne. The Carians. with a gloomy frown: "Think not to live. And Leleges. great Eioneus' son: I saw his coursers in proud triumph go. And Phrygia's horse. Swift as the wind. Not distant far. and white as winter-snow. to grace a god! Let me. lie higher on the land The Lycian. His solid arms. in some future strife To risk more bravely thy now forfeit life? Or that again our camps thou may'st explore? No—once a traitor.

Thee. Sternly he spoke. High on a spreading tamarisk he placed. And let the Thracian steeds reward our toil. yet speaking. Through the brown shade the fulgid weapons shined: Amidst lay Rhesus. To guide their footsteps to the place again. The head. and the car behold! Described by Dolon.BOOK X. Slippery with blood. Then heap'd with reeds and gathered boughs the plain. "The man. the unbended bow and spear. stretch'd in sleep profound. And eased in sleep the labours of the day. o'er arms and heaps of shields. And the white steeds behind his chariot bound. The furry helmet from his brow they tear. O speed our labours. 313 . and direct our ways!" This said. Their arms in order on the ground reclined. The wolf's grey hide. and cuts the nerves in two. with the arms of gold. the coursers. One instant snatch'd his trembling soul to hell. To favouring Pallas dedicates the prize: "Great queen of arms. Like lightning swift the wrathful falchion flew. Arriving where the Thracian squadrons lay. the spoils. with dropping gore defaced. Ranged in three lines they view the prostrate band: The horses yoked beside each warrior stand. receive this hostile spoil. The welcome sight Ulysses first descries. and as the wretch prepared With humble blandishment to stroke his beard. first of all the heavenly host. Divides the neck. mutter'd as it fell. Through the still night they cross the devious fields. we praise. And points to Diomed the tempting prize. These great Ulysses lifting to the skies.

He falls. and strung his nervous arms. Or if thy soul aspire to fiercer deeds. and invades the pen. and to think it not 218 [192] . not yet to battles bred. Nor stopp'd the fury of his vengeful hand. Now twelve despatch'd. beholding his enemy in a dream.314 The Iliad of Homer Now. brave Tydides! now thy courage try. Approach the chariot. A warlike form appear'd before his tent. Bathed all his footsteps. Should start. So the grim lion. the monarch last they found. Where'er he pass'd. and Diomede with the sword in his hand hanging over the head of that prince—furnished Homer with the idea of this fiction. This image is very natural. which represents Rhesus lying fast asleep. fat with hostile blood. Whose visionary steel his bosom tore: So dream'd the monarch. Urge thou the slaughter. The milk-white coursers studious to convey Safe to the ships. a purple stream pursued His thirsty falchion. Till twelve lay breathless of the Thracian band. Just then a deathful dream Minerva sent. O'erleaps the fences. he wisely cleared the way: Lest the fierce steeds. while I seize the steeds. and the steeds untie. Ulysses following. and awaked no more. resistless in his way. plunging the sword into his bosom. Rhesus buried in a profound sleep. and tremble at the heaps of dead. and. from his nightly den. as it were. dyed the fields with gore. Tydides' falchion fix'd him to the ground.218 "All the circumstances of this action—the night. for a man in his condition awakes no farther than to see confusedly what environs him. Back by the foot each slaughter'd warrior drew. And a low groan remurmur'd through the shore. On sheep or goats. as his partner slew." Pallas (this said) her hero's bosom warms. Breathed in his heart. and foaming rends the guardless prey.

Saw Tydeus' son with heavenly succour bless'd. and lift away. from further slaughter cease. Pallas appears. and one cry'd murder. and depart in peace. new achievements fire. my son. Regard thy safety. In haste he mounted."—Pope. Doubtful he stood. They wak'd each other. And leads them. fasten'd by the silver reins. and her word obey'd. . a reality but a dream. he lash'd along. And vengeful anger fill'd his sacred breast. (The scourge forgot. These. and thus her chief commands: "Enough. Nor tempt too far the hostile gods of Troy." 315 [193] —Macbeth." The voice divine confess'd the martial maid. new dangers. Drag off the car where Rhesus' armour lay.BOOK X. Swift as the wind. the gotten spoils enjoy. Not unobserved they pass'd: the god of light Had watch'd his Troy. and mark'd Minerva's flight. Or heave with manly force. Haste to the ships. "There's one did laugh in his sleep. on Rhesus' chariot hung. While unresolved the son of Tydeus stands. Ulysses now the snowy steeds detains. But him. and white as winter-snow. The coursers fly before Ulysses' bow.) Then gave his friend the signal to retire. Swift to the Trojan camp descends the power. or with his reeking blade To send more heroes to the infernal shade. with his bow unbent.

DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. For each he wept. and instructive friend. arriving at the shade Where late the spoils of Hector's spy were laid. with wild affright. (On Rhesus' side accustom'd to attend. Ulysses stopp'd. Meanwhile the chiefs. and saw the field deform'd with blood. dropping yet with Dolon's gore: Then mounts again. The yet-warm Thracians panting on the coast. A faithful kinsman. to him Tydides bore The trophy. An empty space where late the coursers stood. . but for his Rhesus most: Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. On heaps the Trojans rush.) He rose. and thunder towards the fleet. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain. again their nimbler feet The coursers ply. And wondering view the slaughters of the night.316 The Iliad of Homer And wakes Hippocoon in the morning-hour.

And spring to earth. The care of him who bids the thunder roar. whose fury bathes the world with gore. whose praises all our host proclaim. and Nestor first demands: "Say thou. Perhaps some horses of the Trojan breed (So may. even now pursued. Old Nestor first perceived the approaching sound. so radiant and so gay. That draw the burning chariot of the day. Bespeaking thus the Grecian peers around: "Methinks the noise of trampling steeds I hear. ye gods! my pious hopes succeed) The great Tydides and Ulysses bear. Thickening this way. Thou living glory of the Grecian name! Say whence these coursers? by what chance bestow'd. when. may that fear be vain!) The chiefs outnumber'd by the Trojan train. Old as I am. they seek the shore. I deem. lo! the chiefs appear. And daily mingle in the martial field. oh! perhaps those heroes are no more." 317 [194] Scarce had he spoke. Perhaps. Yet much I fear (ah. Some god. Return'd triumphant with this prize of war. or present of a god? Not those fair steeds.BOOK X. Bless'd as ye are. and gathering on my ear. Or. the Greeks dismiss their fear: With words of friendship and extended hands They greet the kings. conspicuous through the ranks of fight. conferred the glorious prize. But sure till now no coursers struck my sight Like these. and favourites of the skies. And her. to age I scorn to yield. The spoil of foes." .

) The gifts of heaven are of a nobler kind. But Dolon's armour. High on the painted stern Ulysses laid. Now from nocturnal sweat and sanguine stain They cleanse their bodies in the neighb'ring main: Then in the polished bath. (sage Ithacus rejoin'd. Of Thracian lineage are the steeds ye view.318 The Iliad of Homer "Father! not so. And first to Pallas the libations pour: They sit. And twelve beside lay gasping on the ground. These other spoils from conquer'd Dolon came. The matchless steeds his ample stalls adorn: The neighing coursers their new fellows greet. Their joints they supple with dissolving oil. refresh'd from toil. with all his guards around. And the full racks are heap'd with generous wheat. By Hector sent our forces to explore. A wretch. He now lies headless on the sandy shore. A trophy destin'd to the blue-eyed maid. Sleeping he died. to his ships convey'd. And the crown'd goblet foams with floods of wine. whose swiftness was his only fame. In due repast indulge the genial hour. . Straight to Tydides' high pavilion borne. The joyful Greeks with loud acclaim pursue. rejoicing in her aid divine." Then o'er the trench the bounding coursers flew. Whose hostile king the brave Tydides slew.

and assists him in that distress. Agamemnon bears all before him and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement. tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his countrymen. or at least to permit him to do it. Nestor entertains him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day. Achilles (who overlooked the action from his ship) sent Patroclus to inquire which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. and Minerva give the signals of war. and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. till the king shall be wounded and retire from the field. Hector comes against Ajax. till Menelaus and Ajax rescue him. In the meantime Machaon. Patroclus. in the other wing of the army.[195] BOOK XI. AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON. Agamemnon. ARGUMENT THE THIRD BATTLE. being wounded by Paris. clad in Achilles' armour. and a long recital of some former wars which he remembered. on his return. with its various actions and adventures is . meets Eurypylus also wounded. and the same day. and in the utmost danger. Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him for a time but the latter. is pierced with an arrow by Paris. wounded. while Jupiter. having armed himself. Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them. who is encompassed by the Trojans. He then makes a great slaughter of the enemy. Juno. This book opens with the eight and-twentieth day of the poem. but that hero alone opposes multitudes. is obliged to desert his companion. leads the Grecians to battle. and rallies the Greeks.

219 "Aurora now had left her saffron bed. fourteenth. and at the dire alarms Each bosom boils. The scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus. With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. with early blushes spread. thirteenth. fifteenth. The saffron morn. and part of the eighteenth books. wrapt in tempests. But breathe revenge. and for the combat burn. and thunder'd through the seas and land. And. No more they sigh. High on Ulysses' bark her horrid stand She took.320 The Iliad of Homer extended through the twelfth. remote.219 Now rose refulgent from Tithonus' bed. seventeenth. o'er the fleet descends. inglorious to return. Whose ships. 639 . sixteenth. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light: When baleful Eris." Dryden's Virgil. Through the red skies her bloody sign extends. [196] Even Ajax and Achilles heard the sound. iv. And beams of early light the heavens o'erspread. sent by Jove's command. Thence the black fury through the Grecian throng With horror sounds the loud Orthian song: The navy shakes. The torch of discord blazing in her hand. each warrior starts to arms. the guarded navy bound.

the friendship of the chief to gain. himself before the rest His mighty limbs in radiant armour dress'd. Whose imitated scales against the skies Reflected various light. and twelve of ductile gold. Three glittering dragons to the gorget rise. The beaming cuirass next adorn'd his breast. 'Twas then. Twice ten of tin. Like colour'd rainbows o'er a showery cloud . 321 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. nor sent in vain:) Ten rows of azure steel the work infold. and arching bow'd. This glorious gift he sent. The same which once king Cinyras possess'd: (The fame of Greece and her assembled host Had reach'd that monarch on the Cyprian coast. And first he cased his manly legs around In shining greaves with silver buckles bound. with great example fires! Himself first rose.BOOK XI. The king of men his hardy host inspires With loud command.

Last o'er his brows his fourfold helm he placed. in close array combined. A radiant baldric. and golden hangers graced. Placed as a sign to man amidst the skies). The fiery coursers to their chariots bound The squires restrain'd: the foot. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: Gold was the hilt. As with the light the warriors' toils begun. His buckler's mighty orb was next display'd. with those who wield The lighter arms. On which a mimic serpent creeps along. Now shouts and tumults wake the tardy sun. a silver sheath encased The shining blade. To second these. Close to the limits of the trench and mound. expect the war. That round the warrior cast a dreadful shade. And in his hands two steely javelins wields. Ten zones of brass its ample brim surround. And twice ten bosses the bright convex crown'd: Tremendous Gorgon frown'd upon its field. And. leaning from the clouds.322 The Iliad of Homer [197] (Jove's wondrous bow. High o'er the chief they clash'd their arms in air. His azure length in easy waves extends. In happy thunders promised Greece their aid. That instant Juno. and the martial maid. And circling terrors fill'd the expressive shield: Within its concave hung a silver thong. o'er his shoulder tied. and lighten all the fields. Till in three heads the embroider'd monster ends. That blaze to heaven. . With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. The squadrons spread their sable wings behind. of three celestial dies. rush forward to the field.

The brother-warriors of Antenor's line: With youthful Acamas. And falling ranks are strow'd on every side. distill'd Red drops of blood o'er all the fatal field. whose beauteous face And fair proportion match'd the ethereal race. Flash from his arms. It is one. Lib. As sweating reapers in some wealthy field. restless as he flies. Thick fall the heapy harvests at their feet: So Greece and Troy the field of war divide. ix. as lightning from the skies. And all the slaughters that must stain the day.BOOK XI. Gier. Agenor the divine. None stoop'd a thought to base inglorious flight. Bear down the furrows. till their labours meet. i p.220 The woes of men unwilling to survey."—Mure. Great Hector. in order ranged around. however. if a mere fruit of the poet's imagination. Plunged in the rear. and now in night retires. Even Jove." 221 . of ascertained reality. e sanguigne. Ranged in two bands. 493. Tasso. While streamy sparkles. and orders all the field. whose thunder spoke his wrath. honour'd as a guardian god. As the red star now shows his sanguine fires Through the dark clouds. "This phenomenon. might seem arbitrary or far-fetched. Bold Polybus.221 323 [198] 220 —Red drops of blood. The Trojan lines possess'd the rising ground: There wise Polydamas and Hector stood. Thus through the ranks appear'd the godlike man. 15: "La terra in vece del notturno gelo Bagnan rugiade tepide. Cf. Æneas. their crooked weapons wield. cover'd with his spacious shield. Plies all the troops. or blazing in the van. Near Ilus' tomb. and of no uncommon occurrence in the climate of Greece.

no unbecoming deed That argued fear. on his awful throne. And each accused the partial will of Jove. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. Thus while the morning-beams. the fields with armies spread. But not till half the prostrate forests lay Stretch'd in long ruin." —"Paradise Lost. and man to man they fight. Meanwhile apart. And mark'd the spot where Ilion's towers arise. Each wounds. and exposed to day) "No thought of flight." vi. But now (what time in some sequester'd vale The weary woodman spreads his sparing meal. On earth he turn'd his all-considering eyes. The sea with ships. And claim a respite from the sylvan war. Not rabid wolves more fierce contest their prey. each bleeds. The victor's rage. superior. of all the immortal train. Wrapt in the blaze of boundless glory sate. The eternal Monarch. fulfill'd the just decrees of fate. and alone.324 The Iliad of Homer But horse to horse. the dying. and the dead. . but none resign the day. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. O'er heaven's pure azure spread the glowing light. And drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes: Discord alone. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill: But general murmurs told their griefs above. Swells the red horrors of this direful plain: The gods in peace their golden mansions fill. When his tired arms refuse the axe to rear. increasing bright. None of retreat. Discord with joy the scene of death descries. 236. And fix'd.

ii. he was commonly very well treated. The Trojans see the youths untimely die. vol. These on the mountains once Achilles found. note. This took the charge to combat. The product. Swift to the spoil the hasty victor falls. On Ida's tops. and fly. But in his front he felt the fatal wound. But helpless tremble for themselves. their features to his mind recalls. So when a lion ranging o'er the lawns. their father's fleecy sheep. 114. And captive led. Then. Their snowy limbs and beauteous bodies lie. Then to their sire for ample sums restored. one of love:222 In the same car the brother-warriors ride. one of marriage. the Greeks' impulsive might Pierced the black phalanx. nor till then. Priam appears to be the only one of whom polygamy is directly asserted in the Iliad. Which pierced his brain. and let in the light. . their glittering armour vain: Now soil'd with dust. than when they wont to keep. that to guide: Far other task. And slew Bienor at his people's head: Whose squire Oileus. But now to perish by Atrides' sword: Pierced in the breast the base-born Isus bleeds: Cleft through the head his brother's fate succeeds. Although a bastard brother received only a small portion of the inheritance. Leap'd from the chariot to revenge his king. Great Agamemnon then the slaughter led. p. Two sons of Priam next to battle move. and left them on the plain: Vain was their youth. stript. and stretch'd him on the ground. with pliant osiers bound. Grote. 325 [199] 222 —One of love.BOOK XI. and naked to the sky. And. with a sudden spring. Atrides spoil'd.

Then in the chariot on their knees they fall. The frighted hind beholds. ye die. and for the life we owe. that. The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. And the big tears roll trickling from her eyes. The youths address'd to unrelenting ears: The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply: "If from Antimachus ye spring. and dropp'd the silken rein." These words. the couching fawns. not in battle slain.326 The Iliad of Homer Finds. on some grassy lair. attended with the flood of tears. All drown'd in sweat. And steel well-tempered. And grinds the quivering flesh with bloody jaws. Atrides mark'd. For proffer'd peace! and sues his seed for grace? No. The sons of false Antimachus were slain. And slew the children for the father's fault. and dares not stay. Amidst the tumult of the routed train. They shook with fear. And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold. He who for bribes his faithless counsels sold. Their bones he cracks. Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow: Soon as he hears. their reeking vitals draws. die." [200] . And thus with lifted hands for mercy call: "O spare our youth. the panting mother flies. But swift through rustling thickets bursts her way. Their headstrong horse unable to restrain. Large heaps of brass in ransom shall be told. as these their safety sought. and pay the forfeit of your race. and persuasive gold. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood.

and intercept the skies. And many a car. lay foaming on the plain. Shade the black host. And o'er the forests roll the flood of fire. Horse trod by horse. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise. now. But Jove and destiny prolong'd his date. And one refulgent ruin levels all: Before Atrides' rage so sinks the foe. now lighted of its lord. The distanced army wonders at his deeds. the victor flew. His sever'd head was toss'd among the throng. The trenchant falchion lopp'd his hands away. and proud heads lie low. And. His brother leap'd to earth. Whole squadrons vanish. Wide o'er the field with guideless fury rolls. and blood. And pierced his breast: supine he breathed his last. In blazing heaps the grove's old honours fall. The brass-hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. the care of heaven he stood. 327 . to vultures than their wives! Perhaps great Hector then had found his fate. This said. Safe from the darts. And the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. and dust. While his keen falchion drinks the warriors' lives. Then. and crushing out their souls. Pisander from the car he cast. as he lay. drew a bloody train along. Still slaughtering on. rolling. Now by the foot the flying foot were slain. More grateful. but. the king of men proceeds. Breaking their ranks. and death. Amidst alarms.BOOK XI. where the thickest fought. The steeds fly trembling from his waving sword. The king's example all his Greeks pursue. As when the winds with raging flames conspire.

And thus the many-coloured maid bespoke: "Iris. To godlike Hector this our word convey— While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. Atrides with loud shouts pursued. and death. The path they take. Still press'd the rout. fly the Trojan train. The savage seizes. As swift. Now near the beech-tree. and depart. Not with less fury stem Atrides flew. but issue forth commands. And down their summits pour'd a hundred rills: The unkindled lightning in his hand he took. Bid him give way. and his associates waits. Meanwhile on every side around the plain. Dispersed.328 The Iliad of Homer [201] Now past the tomb where ancient Ilus lay. Fights in the front. and bathed in hostile blood. That chief shall mount his chariot. On heaps they tumble with successless haste. and meditates their fall. The hero halts. or wounded by the spear or dart. and bathes with blood the ground. Hurl'd from their cars the bravest chiefs are kill'd. Through the mid field the routed urge their way: Where the wild figs the adjoining summit crown. draws. But Jove descending shook the Idaean hills. Hot with his toil. Now storms the victor at the Trojan wall. with haste thy golden wings display. and still the hindmost slew. and carnage load the field. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. Surveys the towers. disorder'd. and the Scaean gates. and speed to reach the town. . And rage. and rends the last. So flies a herd of beeves. that hear dismay'd The lion's roaring through the midnight shade.

new spirit. And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. 329 [202] . and fire his breast. In clanging arms: he grasps in either hand A pointed lance. or to die." She said. The chief she found amidst the ranks of war. Till to the main the burning sun descend. with a bound. and speeds from band to band. Till to the main the burning sun descend. While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. They stand to arms: the Greeks their onset dare. and bathes with blood the ground. And sacred night her awful shade extend." He spoke. Revives their ardour. to each breast returns. hear! From Jove I come. and fire thy breast. And learn from him to conquer. or wounded by the spear or dart. and depart. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. Hector. Springs from his chariot on the trembling ground. The fight renew'd with fiercer fury burns: The king leads on: all fix on him their eye. Close to the bulwarks. On wings of winds descends the various maid. and Iris at his word obey'd. Abstain from fight. Then Jove shall string thy arm. on his glittering car. Then Jove shall string his arm. The chief shall mount his chariot. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. And sacred night her awful shade extend. and his high mandate bear. The goddess then: "O son of Priam. and vanish'd. Condense their powers. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd.BOOK XI. yet issue forth commands. New force. Fights in the front. and wait the coming war. turns their steps from flight.

and repell'd the wound. And swift to aid his dearer country flies. he wrench'd it from his hands. Towering in arms. The Trojan stoop'd. At once his weighty sword discharged a wound Full on his neck. And early honour warm his generous breast. Who faced him first. Atrides stands. At once a virgin. and by his prowess fell? The great Iphidamas. Whom from his youth his grandsire Cisseus bred. And nursed in Thrace where snowy flocks are fed. Thence took the long laborious march by land. the youth directs his dart: But the broad belt. From his loved bride departs with melting eyes. Atrides first discharged the missive spear. before the ranks he springs. Now fierce for fame. And sleep eternal seals his swimming eyes. When the kind sire consign'd his daughter's charms (Theano's sister) to his youthful arms. grasp'd with force. and braves the king of kings. The point rebated. Oh worthy better fate! oh early slain! Thy country's friend. with plates of silver bound. and virtuous.330 The Iliad of Homer Ye sacred nine! celestial Muses! tell. the javelin pass'd in air. Scarce did the down his rosy cheeks invest. With twelve black ships he reach'd Percope's strand. He leaves untasted the first fruits of joy. Encumber'd with the dart. With all his strength. Stretch'd in the dust the unhappy warrior lies. the bold and young. Then near the corslet. But call'd by glory to the wars of Troy. at the monarch's heart. Till. that fell'd him to the ground. From sage Antenor and Theano sprung. and at once a bride! . though in vain! No more the youth shall join his consort's side.

331 [203] . With every weapon art or fury yields: By the long lance. Defends him breathless on the sanguine field. Coon. This.BOOK XI. his time he took. Or lay the spoils of conquest at her feet. and whole troops o'erthrown. the sword. And through his arm stood forth the barbed dart. But when the wound grew stiff with clotted blood. No more with presents her embraces meet. while yet warm distill'd the purple flood. at the sight. While the proud victor bore his arms away. And o'er the body spreads his ample shield. and near his elbow strook. Bestow'd so much. And the pale features now deform'd with blood. on the plain he lay. Whole ranks are broken. And calls his country to assert his cause. and vainly promised more! Unwept. was nigh: Tears. Then. Atrides. or ponderous stone. Aim'd at the king. with his spear. yet void of fear On Coon rushes with his lifted spear: His brother's corpse the pious Trojan draws. Antenor's eldest hope. Surprised the monarch feels. And join each other in the realms below. marking an unguarded part. uncover'd. unseen. On whom his passion. lavish of his store. The monarch's falchion lopp'd his head away: The social shades the same dark journey go. Transfix'd the warrior with his brazen dart. The thrilling steel transpierced the brawny part. came starting from his eye. While pierced with grief the much-loved youth he view'd. The vengeful victor rages round the fields. Prone on his brother's bleeding breast he lay.

The wounded monarch at his tent they place. the chariot smokes along. the general flies! deserts his powers! Lo. No sooner Hector saw the king retired. sure of glory. But thus his Trojans and his aids he fired: "Hear. Your great forefathers' virtues. The horses fly. Sad mothers of unutterable woes!) Stung with the smart. and dreadful face to face: Now call to mind your ancient trophies won. And envies half the glories of the day. Clouds from their nostrils the fierce coursers blow. And. all ye Dardan. He mounts the car. Shot through the battle in a moment's space. all ye Lycian race! Famed in close fight. thus exhorts the throng: "O friends! O Greeks! assert your honours won. Proceed. and gives his squire the rein." . And pain augmented. Less keen those darts the fierce Ilythiae send: (The powers that cause the teeming matron's throes.332 The Iliad of Homer Then grinding tortures his strong bosom rend. Then with a voice which fury made more strong. And from their sides the foam descends in snow. Behold." He said: the driver whirls his lengthful thong. Jove himself declares the conquest ours! Now on yon ranks impel your foaming steeds. all-panting with the pain. and finish what this arm begun: Lo! angry Jove forbids your chief to stay. and your own. dare immortal deeds.

Then brave Hipponous. and awaked his worth. Opheltius. charged with storms. As the bold hunter cheers his hounds to tear The brindled lion. His soul rekindled. Nor prompts alone. As from the cloud's deep bosom. sunk to endless night. Now breaks the surge. and every bosom warms. and wide the bottom bares: Thus. or the tusky bear: With voice and hand provokes their doubting heart. all chiefs of name. Now Greece had trembled in her wooden walls. swell'd with showers. "And stand we deedless. Dispels the gather'd clouds that Notus forms: The gust continued. As when a western whirlwind. famed in many a fight. And springs the foremost with his lifted dart: So godlike Hector prompts his troops to dare. Now the last ruin the whole host appals. Æsymnus. O eternal shame! Till Hector's arm involve the ships in flame? 333 . Now to the skies the foaming billows rears. The rest were vulgar deaths unknown to fame. and Autonous died. O'erturns. raging Hector. Say. Dolops.BOOK XI. and tosses all the deeps. Beneath his arm what heroes bit the ground? Assaeus. But wise Ulysses call'd Tydides forth. Muse! when Jove the Trojan's glory crown'd. violent and strong. Rolls sable clouds in heaps on heaps along. confounds. On the black body of the foe he pours. Drives the wild waves. but leads himself the war. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. Orus. with resistless hands. Opites next was added to their side. and scatters all their bands. Writh words like these the fiery chief alarms His fainting host. Agelaus.

they left them in eternal night.334 The Iliad of Homer Haste. pursued his lord. And rich Hippodamus becomes his prize. on foot he strove to fly. Then swift revert. They rush'd to fight. And from his car the proud Thymbraeus fell: Molion. The stern Tydides strips their shining arms. Jove our foe. the charioteer. And level hangs the doubtful scale of fight. Stern Hector's conquests in the middle plain Stood check'd awhile. Then plunged amidst the thickest ranks of fight." He sigh'd. and thus the friend replied: "No martial toil I shun. raised his vengeful steel. and wounds return for wounds. I wait his fury here. The far-famed hero of Paeonian strain. all human force is vain. Their breasts no more the vital spirit warms. Wing'd with his fears." The warrior thus. Let Hector come. His death ennobled by Ulysses' sword. but. Fate urged them on: the father warn'd in vain. But Jove with conquest crowns the Trojan train: And. Hypirochus by great Ulysses dies. So two wild boars outstrip the following hounds. Great Jove from Ide with slaughter fills his sight. no danger fear. By Tydeus' lance Agastrophus was slain. Towering they rode in one refulgent car: In deep prophetic arts their father skill'd. and the foe too nigh: [205] . sighing. and Greece respired again. The sons of Merops shone amidst the war. Had warn'd his children from the Trojan field. and perish'd on the plain. let us join. and combat side by side. His steeds too distant. There slain.

recover'd from the trance. Nor miss'd its aim. And oft that partial power has lent his aid. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Mark how this way yon bending squadrons yield! The storm rolls on. inglorious! but thy flight. Tydides followed to regain his lance. and thence obliquely glanced. Or thank that swiftness which outstrips the death. Shouts. His arm and knee his sinking bulk sustain. and herds amidst the crowd: The Greek pursues him.BOOK XI. that. And a short darkness shades his swimming eyes. He fled. and Hector rules the field: Here stand his utmost force. as his experienced eyes Traverse the files. this day. Great Diomed himself was seized with fear. Safe in his helm (the gift of Phoebus' hands) Without a wound the Trojan hero stands. Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. Through broken orders. and exults aloud: "Once more thank Phoebus for thy forfeit breath. But yet so stunn'd. If any god assist Tydides' hand. Well by Apollo are thy prayers repaid. And moving armies on his march attend. Swift at the word his ponderous javelin fled. swifter than the wind. and to the rescue flies. Remounts his car. O'er his dim sight the misty vapours rise."—The warrior said. but where the plumage danced Razed the smooth cone. While Hector rose." 335 . staggering on the plain. Fly then. the crystal regions rend. but flying left his life behind. Thou shall not long the death deserved withstand. as he pass'd. This Hector sees.

Paris eyed from far. and nail'd it to the plain. he bent his bow. and death is on the steel: Where this but lights. The bowstring twang'd. and insults the king. Should breathe from slaughter and in combat stand: Whose sons now tremble at his darted spear. The laughing Trojan. And leaves such objects as distract the fair. Thou woman-warrior with the curling hair. some noble life expires. Fate wings its flight. Vain archer! trusting to the distant dart.) Around the fields his feather'd shafts he sent. But pierced his foot. and drew the corslet from his breast. A coward's weapon never hurts the brave. gluts the birds of air. bathes the cheeks of sires." . Its touch makes orphans." He dauntless thus: "Thou conqueror of the fair. relieved from that wide-wasting hand. the fair cause of war. but not incense a man. Just as he stoop'd. Not so this dart. Steeps earth in purple. Such hands may wound. while he triumph'd. Leaps from his ambush. which thou may'st one day feel. And wing'd an arrow at the unwary foe. (The spouse of Helen. "He bleeds! (he cries) some god has sped my dart! Would the same god had fix'd it in his heart! So Troy. Nor boast the scratch thy feeble arrow gave. Agastrophus's crest To seize. nor flew the shaft in vain.336 The Iliad of Homer [206] Him. As scatter'd lambs the rushing lion fear. From ancient Ilus' ruin'd monument: Behind the column placed. with a joyful spring. Unskill'd in arms to act a manly part! Thou hast but done what boys or women can.

singly if I stand the ground. in the warrior. an eager pang succeeds. and bending draws the dart: Forth flows the blood. inglorious if I quit the plain? What danger. These. He grinds his ivory tusks. And. their own fate enclose. what hopes remain? What shame. proves a hero's heart. But stands collected in himself. all the foes around? Yet wherefore doubtful? let this truth suffice. and whole. And round him deep the steely circle grows. and the coward flies. To die or conquer. I know a soldier's part. 337 Now on the field Ulysses stands alone. Before him steps. My friends all scatter'd. Ulysses hastens with a trembling heart. The Greeks all fled. His sanguine eye-balls glare with living fire. Tydides mounts." Such thoughts revolving in his careful breast.BOOK XI. the shady cohorts press'd. The brave meets danger. he foams with ire. And questions thus his own unconquer'd soul: "What further subterfuge. Near. So fares a boar whom all the troop surrounds Of shouting huntsmen and of clamorous hounds. and to the navy speeds. knowing this. the Trojans pouring on. and more near. [207] .

the generous. And the red slaughter spreads on every side. Stopp'd short of life. The wound not mortal wise Ulysses knew. And end at once the great Hippasian race. by those. was near. Near as he drew. pierced by this. Chersidamas. Or thou beneath this lance must press the field. Then furious thus (but first some steps withdrew): "Unhappy man! whose death our hands shall grace. and bared it to the bone. Charops. the warrior thus began: "O great Ulysses! much-enduring man! Not deeper skill'd in every martial sleight. Falls prone to earth. first Deiopis fell. nor with his entrails mix'd. and grasps the bloody dust. beneath the navel thrust. and forceful pierced his spacious shield: Through the strong brass the ringing javelin thrown. Plough'd half his side. Ulysses reach'd him with the fatal spear. By Pallas' care. Socus the brave. Fate calls thee hence and finish'd is thy race. though deep infix'd. to endless darkness go. Next Ennomus and Thoon sank to hell. the spear. Nor longer check my conquests on the foe. and the wise. But to his aid his brother Socus flies." He said. But. and active in the fight! This day two brothers shall thy conquest grace. And add one spectre to the realms below!" . Than worn to toils. Pierced through the shoulder.338 The Iliad of Homer By these. the son of Hippasus. on every part is plied.

With solemn funerals and a lasting tomb. Ah. while Socus. And hovering vultures scream around their prey. the best may fall. Thrice to its pitch his lofty voice he rears. He spoke. Now troops on troops the fainting chief invade. when I meet my doom. Then thus Ulysses. Me Greece shall honour. Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date. and extracts the dart.BOOK XI. his armour rings against the ground." 339 [208] . Trembling gave way. The well-known voice thrice Menelaus hears: Alarm'd. Thy dying eyes no tender mother close. gazing on the slain: "Famed son of Hippasus! there press the plain. and turn'd his back to flight. Between his shoulders pierced the following dart. yet one opposed to all. Who shares his labours. And feel a loss not ages can repair. There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate. Greece robb'd of him must bid her host despair. Distressed he seems. and loudly calls for aid. seized with sudden fright. and defends his side: "O friend! Ulysses' shouts invade my ear. He falls. And gladden'd Troy with sight of hostile blood. Oppress'd by multitudes. and no assistance near. And held its passage through the panting heart: Wide in his breast appear'd the grisly wound. wretch! no father shall thy corpse compose. He writhes his body. But hungry birds shall tear those balls away. The dart a tide of spouting gore pursued. Strong as he is." Then raging with intolerable smart. Forced he recedes. to Ajax Telamon he cried.

Ulysses thus. like the god of war. whilst his warm blood doth flow. And teare his flesh—when instantly fortune sends in the powers Of some sterne lion. And first Doryclus. Down his cleft side. . A single warrior half a host sustains: But soon as Ajax leaves his tower-like shield. And lays Lysander bleeding on the ground. with whose sighte they flie and he devours. saved from numbers. Wild mountain-wolves the fainting beast surround: Just as their jaws his prostrate limbs invade. and scuds from hills to hills.340 The Iliad of Homer Then. Till life's warm vapour issuing through the wound. to his car conveys. Victorious Ajax plies the routed crew. Great Ajax. the jackals charge him round. he slew. his course he bends. The lordly savage vindicates his prey. while fresh the blood distils. From the blind thicket wounds a stately deer. On strong Pandocus next inflicts a wound. The scattered crowds fly frighted o'er the field. though hungry.223 As when some huntsman. He bounds aloft. The lion rushes through the woodland shade. scour dispersed away. The wolves. Priam's son. With bands of furious Trojans compass'd round. So they around Ulysses prest. The prudent chief in sore distress they found. And. with a flying spear. 223 "Circled with foes as when a packe of bloodie jackals cling About a goodly palmed hart. unconquer'd by his pains." —Chapman. And his light knees have power to move: but (maistred by his wound) Embost within a shady hill. hurt with a hunter's bow Whose escape his nimble feet insure. attends. Atrides' arm the sinking hero stays. where the cry directs.

To Nestor then Idomeneus begun: "Glory of Greece. steeds. Had pierced Machaon with a distant wound: In his right shoulder the broad shaft appear'd. Is more than armies to the public weal. old Neleus' valiant son! Ascend thy chariot. Pours from the mountains o'er the deluged plains. 341 But Hector. As when a torrent. [209] . or from the chariot's height. haste with speed away. from this scene of slaughter far. And pines and oaks. There fierce on foot. There Nestor and Idomeneus oppose The warrior's fury. roll in heaps along.BOOK XI. A wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. His sword deforms the beauteous ranks of fight. The spouse of Helen." Old Nestor mounts the seat. And great Machaon to the ships convey. swell'd with wintry rains. beside him rode The wounded offspring of the healing god. the steeds with sounding feet Shake the dry field. and thunder toward the fleet. Men. A country's ruins! to the seas are borne: Fierce Ajax thus o'erwhelms the yielding throng. there the battle glows. He lends the lash. And trembling Greece for her physician fear'd. dealing darts around. Raged on the left. from their foundations torn. and ruled the tide of war: Loud groans proclaim his progress through the plain. and chariots. And deep Scamander swells with heaps of slain.

dashing. Before great Ajax see the mingled throng Of men and chariots driven in heaps along! I know him well. or ponderous stone. O'er his broad back his moony shield he threw. from Hector's car. Stung by the stroke. And groans of slaughter mix with shouts of fight. [210] . the coursers scour the fields. Shot heaven-bred horror through the Grecian's heart. The ranks he scatter'd and the troops o'erthrown:) Ajax he shuns. with terrors not his own.342 The Iliad of Homer But now Cebriones. Thither. through all the dire debate. glaring round. thither urge thy steeds. And fears that arm whose force he felt so late. There danger calls. espousing Hector's part. Amazed he stood. the driver's lash resounds. Thus the grim lion his retreat maintains. and there the combat bleeds. Confused. the sword. The horses' hoofs are bathed in heroes' gore. by tardy steps withdrew." Thus having spoke. Here Hector. distinguish'd o'er the field By the broad glittering of the sevenfold shield. Swift through the ranks the rapid chariot bounds. But partial Jove. and let in the light: (By the long lance. Trojans on Trojans yonder load the plain. purple all the car before. The groaning axle sable drops distils. plunging through the thickest fight. And. and hills of shields. There horse and foot in mingled deaths unite. And mangled carnage clogs the rapid wheels. unnerved in Hector's presence grown. Survey'd the various fortune of the war: "While here (he cried) the flying Greeks are slain. O Hector. And. O'er heaps of carcases. Broke the dark phalanx.

While hissing darts descend in iron showers: In his broad buckler many a weapon stood. In some wide field by troops of boys pursued. While his swoln heart at every step rebell'd. And his slack knees desert their dying load. Crops the tall harvest. Fix'd as the bar between two warring powers. yet hardly seems to fly. Great Apisaon felt the fatal blow. and thirsts for blood in vain. and lays waste the plain. The patient animal maintains his ground. From his torn liver the red current flow'd. The strokes redoubled on his buckler rung. and though hunger calls. Repulsed by numbers from the nightly stalls. 343 . guiltless on the plain. Though rage impels him. Thick on his hide the hollow blows resound. Now stiff recedes. by whole hosts repell'd. Then sourly slow the indignant beast retires: So turn'd stern Ajax. and missile fires. Though round his sides a wooden tempest rain. Beset with watchful dogs. with heavy strength endued. and backward bears the yielding bands. Marks the dry dust. Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased. Its surface bristled with a quivering wood. Whose eager javelin launch'd against the foe. and shouting swains. And stirs but slowly when he stirs at last: On Ajax thus a weight of Trojans hung. But bold Eurypylus his aid imparts. And dauntless springs beneath a cloud of darts. And many a javelin. Confiding now in bulky strength he stands. As the slow beast. Long stands the showering darts. Now turns. And threats his followers with retorted eye.BOOK XI.

Yet thus retreating. Who spread their bucklers. Fix'd was the point. great Machaon.344 The Iliad of Homer The victor rushing to despoil the dead. And this the last brave battle he shall wage: Haste. In evil hour! Then fate decreed his doom." Thus urged the chief: a generous troop appears. bore. great Ajax joins the band: Each takes new courage at the hero's sight. The hero rallies. the slaying. and stain'd with gore. To guard their wounded friend: while thus they stand With pious care. and advance their spears. from the topmost height Of his proud fleet. and the slain. While Nestor's chariot far from fight retires: His coursers steep'd in sweat. Thus raged both armies like conflicting fires. Fix'd in his nervous thigh the weapon stood. and renews the fight. A transient pity touch'd his vengeful breast. his associates fired: "What god. Patroclus quits his tent. [211] . The Greeks' preserver. From Paris' bow a vengeful arrow fled. and your country save. 'tis Ajax claims your aid. but broken was the wood. Straight to Menoetius' much-loved son he sent: Graceful as Mars. turn to arms. from the gloomy grave The warrior rescue. o'erlook'd the fields of fight. His feasted eyes beheld around the plain The Grecian rout. That hour Achilles. Back to the lines the wounded Greek retired. join your forces. O Grecians! has your hearts dismay'd? Oh. His friend Machaon singled from the rest. This hour he stands the mark of hostile rage. And fix'd the date of all his woes to come.

seen at distance. "Why calls my friend? thy loved injunctions lay. and from him be taught What wounded warrior late his chariot brought: For. a royal slave. graced with golden hairs: (Whom to his aged arms. and but seen behind. Greece. and wash away the gore.BOOK XI. And wholesome garlic. when yon despairing host Shall learn the value of the man they lost: Now at my knees the Greeks shall pour their moan. Nor could I. Go now to Nestor. as the prize of Nestor's wisdom gave:) A table first with azure feet she placed. Then to consult on farther methods went. Through intermingled ships and tents he pass'd. fair Hecamede prepares. To dry their sweat. The coursers pass'd me with so swift a pace. and ever at my side! The time is come. discern his face. Arsinous' daughter." "O first of friends! (Pelides thus replied) Still at my heart. His form recall'd Machaon to my mind. through yon cloud. Patroclus shall obey. His friend obey'd with haste. while the gentle gale Convey'd that freshness the cool seas exhale. Whate'er thy will. And proud Atrides tremble on his throne. 345 [212] . the sacred flour of wheat. Honey new-press'd. Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced. The draught prescribed. The chiefs descending from their car he found: The panting steeds Eurymedon unbound." The hero said. crown'd the savoury treat. And took their seats beneath the shady tent. Here paused a moment. The warriors standing on the breezy shore.

Old Nestor. And last with flour the smiling surface strows: This for the wounded prince the dame prepares: The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares: Salubrious draughts the warriors' thirst allay. bending o'er the brink. what hero. yet heaved with ease by him." "Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd) Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Seeks he the sorrows of our host to know? This is not half the story of our woe. When the brisk nectar overlook'd the brim. and four handles hold. Meantime Patroclus. Was borne from combat by thy foaming steeds? With grief I see the great Machaon bleeds. Temper'd in this. Unheard approached. A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings From eldest times: emboss'd with studs of gold. and stood before the tent. Two feet support it. two turtles seem to drink: A massy weight. This to report. . Who asks. To great Achilles this respect I owe.346 The Iliad of Homer Next her white hand an antique goblet brings. the nymph of form divine Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine. The great Achilles with impatience stays. On each bright handle. In sculptured gold. by Achilles sent. rising then. Thou know'st the fiery temper of my friend. wounded by the foe. With goat's-milk cheese a flavourous taste bestows. And pleasing conference beguiles the day. the hero led To his high seat: the chief refused and said: "'Tis now no season for these kind delays. my hasty course I bend.

And shares were parted to each Pylian lord. but derides our pain: Even till the flames consume our fleet he stays. And ours was all the plunder of the plains: Fifty white flocks. I won. Ulysses. When this bold arm the Epeian powers oppress'd. All teeming females. The state of Pyle was sunk to last despair. The bulls of Elis in glad triumph led. ah! what flattering hopes I entertain! Achilles heeds not. When the proud Elians first commenced the war: For Neleus' sons Alcides' rage had slain. I alone remain! Oppress'd. My sire three hundred chosen sheep obtain'd. Diomed. Old Neleus gloried in his conquering son. Our bravest heroes in the navy groan. not great Machaon bleeds alone. we arm'd. as my first essay of arms. Calm he looks on. and now this conquest gain'd. Oh! had I still that strength my youth possess'd. and insulted fame. full fifty herds of swine. as many lowing kine: And thrice the number of unrivall'd steeds. As many goats. Chief after chief the raging foe destroys. and every death enjoys. Agamemnon. and ends my manly prime. But. Thus Elis forced. 347 [213] . already bleed. and of generous breeds. For prize defrauded. Now the slow course of all-impairing time Unstrings my nerves. And stern Eurypylus. These. her long arrears restored. And stretch'd the great Itymonaeus dead! Then from my fury fled the trembling swains. Of twelve bold brothers. And waits the rising of the fatal blaze. Tell him. (That large reprisal he might justly claim.BOOK XI.

"Along fair Arene's delightful plain Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main: There.) The rest the people shared. Alphaeus. exposed to stern alarms. and detain'd my arms. Detain'd his chariot.348 The Iliad of Homer When Elis' monarch. While round the town the fierce Epeians stood. And sheathed in arms. for the goddess led. when Elis rose to war. the Pylian troops unite. . beside the winding flood. Pallas. An untamed heifer pleased the blue-eyed maid. Each burns for fame. To great Alphaeus' sacred source we came. The sons of Actor at their army's head (Young as they were) the vengeful squadrons led. With many a courser. descending in the shades of night. And stopp'd my chariot. but my sire denied. and a bull was slain To the blue monarch of the watery main. expect the dawning light. and due victims paid. and swells with martial pride. In arms we slept. My sire denied in vain: on foot I fled Amidst our chariots. Fear'd for my youth. Three days were past. Thence. myself survey'd The just partition. and with many a car. A bull. with all-revealing ray. and victorious horse. at the public course. Our utmost frontier on the Pylian lands: Not far the streams of famed Alphaeus flow: The stream they pass'd. Myself the foremost. ere the sun advanced his noon-day flame. Soon as the sun. Alarms the Pylians and commands the fight. There first to Jove our solemn rites were paid. and pitch'd their tents below. horse and foot. High on the rock fair Thryoessa stands.

to Nestor. As first of gods. The foe dispersed. impell'd by youthful blood. And every herb that drinks the morning dew:) I seized his car.BOOK XI. but Neptune shrouds The youthful heroes in a veil of clouds. And gives to passion what to Greece he owes. The nations meet. King Augias' son. and works of war appear. So proved my valour for my country's good. Then back to Pyle triumphant take my way. Then Actor's sons had died. Collecting spoils. when to the eternal shade Her hosts shall sink. Two chiefs from each fell breathless to the plain. of mankind. Till Pallas stopp'd us where Alisium flows. How shall he grieve. Fierce as the whirlwind now I swept the field: Full fifty captive chariots graced my train. the van of battle led. "Achilles with unactive fury glows. There to high Jove were public thanks assign'd. and spouse of Agamede: (She that all simples' healing virtues knew. Bright scenes of arms. they trembled. and slaughtering all along. 349 [214] . Flamed in the front of Heaven. And the same arm that led concludes the day. The first who fell. O'er heapy shields. and they fled. Even there the hindmost of the rear I slay. and o'er the prostrate throng. Elis here. gathering aids along the Grecian sea. their bravest warrior kill'd. Where o'er the vales the Olenian rocks arose. The Epeians saw. When. nor his the power to aid! 0 friend! my memory recalls the day. there Pylos. and gave the day. Through wide Buprasian fields we forced the foes. beneath my javelin bled. Such then I was.

where." This touch'd his generous heart. and of race divine. Thyself.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court: Words now forgot. though now of vast import. if thou appear. . Achilles. If aught from Heaven withhold his saving arm. and Ulysses. Press'd by fresh forces. and found you fierce for fame. Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend. A bull to Jove he slew in sacrifice. touch'd at Phthia's port. Peleus said only this:—'My son! be brave. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. If some dire oracle his breast alarm. he may yield to love. Clad in Achilles' arms. And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs. If thou but lead the Myrmidonian line.350 The Iliad of Homer [215] I. We then explained the cause on which we came. Some favouring god Achilles' heart may move. Your ancient fathers generous precepts gave. and share the genial rites. Ah! try the utmost that a friend can say: Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey. Soon as he came. Social we sit. and Greece respire again. to the feast invites. and rule thy friend. Though deaf to glory. Proud Troy may tremble. and thy reverend sire Menoetius. and from the tent Along the shore with hasty strides he went. turn'd the fragments on the fire. Let thy just counsels aid.' Menoetius thus: 'Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. and desist from war. Urged you to arms. Achilles sees us. And entered Peleus' hospitable court. on the crowded strand. her o'er-labour'd train Shall seek their walls.

As faintly reeling he confess'd the smart. but dauntless was his heart. sighing.BOOK XI. Those chiefs. An arrow's head yet rooted in his wound. and from your native shore? Say. And altars to the guardian gods arise. sad. Who. my friend. Lead to my ships. Her force increasing as her toil renews. thou. thus his bleeding friend address'd: "Ah. Large painful drops from all his members run. he met the brave Euaemon's son. Far from your friends. that used her utmost rage to meet. Patroclus! act a friendly part. With healing balms the raging smart allay. sire of pharmacy. and bleeding in the fleet. and Achilles thee. But. With lukewarm water wash the gore away. Once taught Achilles. to glut the dogs with gore. hapless leaders of the Grecian host! Thus must ye perish on a barbarous coast? Is this your fate. The sable blood in circles mark'd the ground. Even to the ships victorious Troy pursues. There. Divine compassion touch'd Patroclus' breast. Lie pierced with wounds. Podalirius stands 351 . And this the period of our wars and fame?" Eurypylus replies: "No more. and draw this deadly dart. The public mart and courts of justice stand. Greece is no more! this day her glories end. Weak was his pace. great Eurypylus! shall Greece yet stand? Resists she yet the raging Hector's hand? Or are her heroes doom'd to die with shame. Such as sage Chiron. Of two famed surgeons. Where the tall fleet of great Ulysses lies.

Patroclus cut the forky steel away: Then in his hands a bitter root he bruised." To him the chief: "What then remains to do? The event of things the gods alone can view.352 The Iliad of Homer [216] This hour surrounded by the Trojan bands. The slaves their master's slow approach survey'd. and in his arms upheld the chief. Charged by Achilles' great command I fly. And great Machaon. . The wound he wash'd. and the blood to flow. And hides of oxen on the floor display'd: There stretch'd at length the wounded hero lay. And bear with haste the Pylian king's reply: But thy distress this instant claims relief. wounded in his tent." He said. the styptic juice infused. Now wants that succour which so oft he lent. The closing flesh that instant ceased to glow. The wound to torture.

353 HERCULES. .BOOK XI.

.

and having divided their army into five bodies of foot. Polydamas advises to quit their chariots. casting a stone of vast size. who victoriously pursue the Grecians even to their ships. the trenches sunk in vain. . forces open one of the gates. And mutual deaths are dealt with mutual rage. Trojans and Greeks with clashing shields engage. which appeared on the left hand of the Trojans. Their powers neglected. in which. While thus the hero's pious cares attend The cure and safety of his wounded friend.[217] BOOK XII. and manage the attack on foot. Hector also. and continues the attack. after many actions. With gods averse the ill-fated works arose. Polydamas endeavours to withdraw them again. Nor long the trench or lofty walls oppose. Hector attempts to force them. The walls were raised. The Greeks having retired into their intrenchments. This Hector opposes. and enters at the head of his troops. and no victim slain. THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL. Sarpedon makes the first breach in the wall. But upon the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons. but it proving impossible to pass the ditch. begin the assault. The Trojans follow his counsel. ARGUMENT.

The god of ocean. and godlike heroes slain: These. 142. &c. rolling to the main224 Helmets. marching stern before. Vast stones and piles from their foundation heaves. In their old bounds the rivers roll again. or wander o'er the plain. Æsepus.225 224 —Simois. how short a period stands The proudest monument of mortal hands! This stood while Hector and Achilles raged. "In those bloody fields Where Simois rolls the bodies and the shields Of heroes. And to the sea the floating bulwarks fall. turn'd by Phoebus from their wonted ways.356 The Iliad of Homer [218] Without the gods. 225 . And gulfy Simois. And Xanthus foaming from his fruitful source. and shields. Incessant cataracts the Thunderer pours. While sacred Troy the warring hosts engaged. No fragment tells where once the wonder stood. And what survived of Greece to Greece return'd. Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills. With his huge trident wounds the trembling shore. And whelms the smoky ruin in the waves. i. with mingled force. Now smooth'd with sand. Then Ida's summits pour'd their watery store. The weight of waters saps the yielding wall. Granicus. And half the skies descend in sluicy showers. Deluged the rampire nine continual days. Then Neptune and Apollo shook the shore. her city burn'd. railing. Caresus roaring down the stony hills. But when her sons were slain. Shine 'twixt the hills." —Dryden's Virgil. and levell'd by the flood.

Close by their hollow ships the Grecians lay: Hector's approach in every wind they hear. and drove the field along. The bottom bare. And snort and tremble at the gulf beneath. . Fierce of his might. Exhorts his armies. The panting steeds impatient fury breathe. Eager they view'd the prospect dark and deep. So 'midst the dogs and hunters' daring bands. and the skies resound. a boar or lion stands. The strokes yet echoed of contending powers. and paw the ground. ii. he glares. Below the wall's foundation drives his mace. (a formidable show!) And bristled thick with sharpen'd stakes below. 825. And if he falls. Vast was the leap. With equal rage encompass'd Hector glows. And hissing javelins rain an iron storm: His powers untamed. like a whirlwind. Just at the brink they neigh. their bold assault defy. And where he turns the rout disperse or die: He foams. and blood distain'd the towers. and braved the storm.BOOK XII. And Hector's fury every moment fear.—where clouds of dust arise. his courage makes him fall. War thunder'd at the gates. Neptune holds his place. He. he bounds against them all. As yet the bulwark stood. and headlong hung the steep. And the turf trembles." 357 Dryden's Virgil. toss'd the scattering throng. Mingled the troops. And heaves the building from the solid base. Smote by the arm of Jove with dire dismay. and the trenches shows. Stones rent from stones. Arm'd foes around a dreadful circle form. "Where yon disorder'd heap of ruin lies.— Amid that smother. But this the gods in later times perform.

by our own troops confused." . And this (if Jove consent) her fatal hour. ye warriors! and obey with speed. Oh may this instant end the Grecian name! Here. Hear then. without a thousand wounds. The stakes beneath. What hopes. what methods of retreat remain? Wedged in the trench. This saw Polydamas. let their heroes fall. Back from the trenches let your steeds be led.358 The Iliad of Homer [219] The foot alone this strong defence could force. Nor shall a Trojan live to tell the tale. bold leader of the Trojan bands! And you. the Grecian walls behind? No pass through those. Proceed on foot. No space for combat in yon narrow bounds. if their arms prevail. and here oppress our train. and this counsel gave: "O thou. So Greece shall stoop before our conquering power. Restrain'd great Hector. On certain dangers we too rashly run: If 'tis will our haughty foes to tame. Then all alighting. and Hector lead the way. And one great day destroy and bury all! But should they turn. Proud of the favours mighty Jove has shown. confederate chiefs from foreign lands! What entrance here can cumbrous chariots find. All Troy must perish. wisely brave. far from Argos. And try the pass impervious to the horse. In one promiscuous carnage crush'd and bruised. who. wedged in firm array.

Before the next the graceful Paris shines. Deiphobus. And bold Alcathous. and issues on the plain. The coursers fed on Selle's winding shore. Polydamas. And all obey their several chiefs' commands. Antenor's sons the fourth battalion guide. In arms with these the mighty Asius stood. The chief's example follow'd by his train. and brave Cebriones. and Helenas the seer. Each quits his car. 359 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. The best and bravest in the first conspire. and threat the fleet with fire: Great Hector glorious in the van of these. [220] . This counsel pleased: the godlike Hector sprung Swift from his seat. The forces part in five distinguish'd bands. Pant for the fight. Who drew from Hyrtacus his noble blood.BOOK XII. By orders strict the charioteers enjoin'd Compel the coursers to their ranks behind. his clanging armour rung. And whom Arisba's yellow coursers bore. The sons of Priam with the third appear. and Agenor joins.

Asius alone. Such their proud hopes. where from the plain The flying Grecians strove their ships to gain. but all their hopes were vain! . Now with compacted shields in close array. Swift through the wall their horse and chariots pass'd. The advice of wise Polydamas obey'd. But he more brave than all the hosts he led. and every aid. Divine Sarpedon the last band obey'd. His vaunted coursers urged to meet the war. Next him. While every Trojan thus. And see the Grecians gasping at their feet. born on fountful Ide. confiding in his car.360 The Iliad of Homer And great Æneas. Those wheels returning ne'er shall mark the plain. Unhappy hero! and advised in vain. Whom Glaucus and Asteropaeus aid. he flies: His following host with clamours rend the skies: To plunge the Grecians headlong in the main. No more those coursers with triumphant joy Restore their master to the gates of Troy! Black death attends behind the Grecian wall. the bravest. The moving legions speed their headlong way: Already in their hopes they fire the fleet. at their army's head. Thither. exulting in his force. And great Idomeneus shall boast thy fall! Fierce to the left he drives. The gates half-open'd to receive the last.

Around their heads the whistling javelins sung. and stood themselves the war. And that Leonteus. High on the hills appears their stately form. So two wild boars spring furious from their den. Their roots in earth. and defend the wall. And their deep roots for ever brave the storm.BOOK XII. and so the shock they stand Of raging Asius. before the wall they rise. So graceful these. Opposed their breasts. with fire their eye-balls roll. They gnash their tusks. As two tall oaks. two mighty chiefs attend. while yet the Grecian powers Maintain'd the walls. and his furious band. Fierce was the fight. their heads amidst the skies: Whose spreading arms with leafy honours crown'd. And OEnomaus and Thoon close the rear: In vain their clamours shake the ambient fields. Acamas. The fearless brothers on the Grecians call. in front appear. To guard the gates. To guard their navies. And Greece tumultuous from her towers descend. Till some wide wound lets out their mighty soul. On every side the crackling trees they tear. Orestes. and mann'd the lofty towers: To save their fleet their last efforts they try. Forbid the tempest. In vain around them beat their hollow shields. With sounding strokes their brazen targets rung. Roused with the cries of dogs and voice of men. 361 [221] . Forth from the portals rush'd the intrepid pair. like the god of war. And stones and darts in mingled tempests fly. Who from the Lapiths' warlike race descend. And root the shrubs. Even when they saw Troy's sable troops impend. great Perithous' heir. and lay the forest bare. and protect the ground. This Polypoetes.

Like deeds of arms through all the forts were tried. The frantic Asius thus accuses Heaven: "In powers immortal who shall now believe? Can those too flatter. Nor moved great Jove's unalterable mind. To raise each act to life. So down the rampires rolls the rocky shower: Heavy. and can Jove deceive? What man could doubt but Troy's victorious power Should humble Greece. resound the batter'd shields. With shame repulsed. and defraud the fates?" These empty accents mingled with the wind. The blaze of flames. the flash of arms appear'd. To guard the entrance of their common hive. and brings The dreary winter on his frozen wings. and sing with fire! [222] . and whiten all the fields below: So fast the darts on either army pour. To godlike Hector and his matchless might Was owed the glory of the destined fight. and this her fatal hour? But like when wasps from hollow crannies drive. that to death contend: So fierce these Greeks their last retreats defend. Through the long walls the stony showers were heard. A race determined. Repel an army. And all the gates sustain'd an equal tide. and thick. Darkening the rock. with grief and fury driven. while with unwearied wings They strike the assailants. And the deaf echo rattles round the fields. and infix their stings.362 The Iliad of Homer As when sharp Boreas blows abroad. The spirit of a god my breast inspire. Gods! shall two warriors only guard their gates. Beneath the low-hung clouds the sheets of snow Descend.

The weapon drank the mingled brains and gore! The warrior sinks. Their martial fury in their wonder lost. Then sudden waved his unresisted sword: Antiphates. tremendous now no more! Next Ormenus and Pylon yield their breath: Nor less Leonteus strews the field with death. Secure of death. Menon. A bleeding serpent of enormous size. the bravest of the Trojan crew. In airy circles wings his painful way. and rends the heaven with cries: 363 . and curling round. While Greece unconquer'd kept alive the war. whose throat received the wound: Mad with the smart. by prodigies amazed: A signal omen stopp'd the passing host. And wrap in rolling flames the fleet and wall. The falchion struck. Bold Hector and Polydamas. By Heaven alarm'd. fell. in deep dismay. With unassisting arms deplored the day. Even yet the dauntless Lapithae maintain The dreadful pass. Meantime. First through the belt Hippomachus he gored. And all her guardian gods. confiding in despair. and fate pursued the stroke: Iamenus. and round them heap the slain. Pierced through his helmet's brazen visor. as through the ranks he broke. He stung the bird. These on the farther bank now stood and gazed. pursue. Orestes. And round him rose a monument of dead. bled. Floats on the winds. His talons truss'd. he drops the fatal prey.BOOK XII. by Polypoetes' steel. alive. Fierce with impatience on the works to fall. Jove's bird on sounding pinions beat the skies. First Damasus.

For thus a skilful seer would read the skies. and sentiments sincere? True to those counsels which I judge the best. thy reproach I bear. Jove his omen sent. But tends to raise that power which I obey. and in fight. Long weigh'd the signal. and more heroes bleed. Though these proud bulwalks tumble at our feet. Then hear my words. nor may my words be vain! Seek not this day the Grecian ships to gain. mark its spires unroll'd. And all I move. And Jove's portent with beating hearts behold. Dismiss'd his conquest in the middle skies. deferring to thy sway. are decreed. For words well meant. Allow'd to seize. not thy reason wrong: Or if the purpose of thy heart thou vent. For sure. I tell the faithful dictates of my breast. whose sinister flight Retards our host. to warn us. in council. and fiercer. and fills our hearts with fright. To speak his thoughts is every freeman's right. Thus. [223] . his eyes with fury burn'd:) "Are these the faithful counsels of thy tongue? Thy will is partial. In peace. They. Then first Polydamas the silence broke. and bids me thus advise. though we gird with fires the Grecian fleet. in war. pale with terror. So bodes my soul.364 The Iliad of Homer Amidst the host the fallen serpent lies. and to Hector spoke: "How oft. Toils unforeseen. but not possess the prize." To him then Hector with disdain return'd: (Fierce as he spoke. my brother. And thus my mind explains its clear event: The victor eagle. More woes shall follow.

and guide my wavering mind By wandering birds that flit with every wind? Ye vagrants of the sky! your wings extend. And gives great Hector the predestined day. Or where the suns arise. Close to the works their rigid siege they laid. With ardour follow where their leader flies: Redoubling clamours thunder in the skies. While I the dictates of high heaven obey. Yet should the fears that wary mind suggests Spread their cold poison through our soldiers' breasts. for thou canst be a slave. rushing to the wall.BOOK XII. My javelin can revenge so base a part." Furious he spoke. Trust thy own cowardice to escape their fire. And free the soul that quivers in thy heart. These shall I slight. And happy thunders of the favouring god. but stronger in his aid. to left. Jove breathes a whirlwind from the hills of Ide. the irrevocable nod. What coward counsels would thy madness move Against the word. But thou canst live. And drifts of dust the clouded navy hide. Calls on his host. 365 [224] . But why should'st thou suspect the war's success? None fears it more. and. Sure heaven resumes the little sense it lent. Troy and her sons may find a general grave. Strong in themselves. his host obey the call. the will reveal'd of Jove? The leading sign. He fills the Greeks with terror and dismay. unheeded take your way. And asks no omen but his country's cause. as none promotes it less: Though all our chiefs amidst yon ships expire. or where descend. Without a sign his sword the brave man draws. To right.

" Their ardour kindles all the Grecian powers. and those they rend. Shield touching shield. The generous impulse every Greek obeys. whose ardour hopes an equal name! Since not alike endued with force or art. fill the thoughts of all. and those who faint. And opes his cloudy magazine of storms. In winter's bleak un comfortable reign. a long refulgent row. Seek not your fleet. not safety. And rouse. "Fellows in arms! whose deeds are known to fame. the Grecian power. And you. To gain new glories. . Then pours the silent tempest thick and deep.366 The Iliad of Homer In vain the mounds and massy beams defend. and the valiant. praise. Conquest. The bold Ajaces fly from tower to tower. And Troy lie trembling in her walls again. excite. and bids the skies to sleep. And heaps on heaps the smoky ruins fall. A snowy inundation hides the plain. Upheaved the piles that prop the solid wall. Greece on her ramparts stands the fierce alarms. While these they undermine. Urge those who stand. Behold a day when each may act his part! A day to fire the brave. or augment the old. As when high Jove his sharp artillery forms. He stills the winds. and warm the cold. Threats urge the fearful. but sally from the wall. incessant. And now the stones descend in heavier showers. with flame divine. Drown Hector's vaunts in loud exhorts of fight. So Jove once more may drive their routed train. The crowded bulwarks blaze with waving arms. rain below. Whence hissing darts.

BOOK XII. nor the Greeks would yield. In arms he shines. Bent with the weight. and stern disdain: In vain loud mastiffs bay him from afar. and then the sandy shore. For mighty Jove inspired with martial flame His matchless son. furious. the nodding woods are seen. And bears aloft his ample shield in air. and leads his Lycian bands. Within whose orb the thick bull-hides were roll'd. Drink the dissolving fleeces as they fall: So from each side increased the stony rain. 367 Thus godlike Hector and his troops contend To force the ramparts. . he roars. And first the mountain-tops are cover'd o'er. And shepherds gall him with an iron war. and urged him on to fame. And the white ruin rises o'er the plain. and the gates to rend: Nor Troy could conquer. from the mountain's brow Descends a lion on the flocks below. Till great Sarpedon tower'd amid the field. So stalks the lordly savage o'er the plain. He foams. alone absorbing all. and bound with ductile gold: And while two pointed javelins arm his hands. In sullen majesty. [225] So press'd with hunger. conspicuous from afar. And one bright waste hides all the works of men: The circling seas. Majestic moves along. he pursues his way. Ponderous with brass. Then the green fields. he rends the panting prey. Regardless.

Unless great acts superior merit prove. And vindicate the bounteous powers above? 'Tis ours. Then casting on his friend an ardent look. and meditates their fall. and so much to him due Of hazard more. And hills where vines their purple harvest yield. thus he spoke: "Why boast we. Our feasts enhanced with music's sprightly sound? Why on those shores are we with joy survey'd. Admired as heroes. deserve the sovereign state." —"Paradise Lost. due alike to him Who reigns.226 Where Xanthus' streams enrich the Lycian plain. Which claims no less the fearful and the brave. and as gods obey'd. divine Sarpedon glows With generous rage that drives him on the foes. 450. "Wherefore do I assume These royalties and not refuse to reign. He views the towers. as he above the rest High honour'd sits. Glaucus! our extended reign. they may cry. . the dignity they give to grace.368 The Iliad of Homer Resolved alike. Fired with the thirst of glory. Our numerous herds that range the fruitful field. Our foaming bowls with purer nectar crown'd. That when with wondering eyes our martial bands Behold our deeds transcending our commands. as the first in place. For lust of fame I should not vainly dare 226 —Why boast we." ii. To sure destruction dooms the aspiring wall. The first in valour. Whom those that envy dare not imitate! Could all our care elude the gloomy grave. Such. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour.

Rush to the foe. thunders all the ground Then thus to Thoos: "Hence with speed (he said). at least. prodigal of blood.BOOK XII. or glory give!" 369 [226] He said. and repel the foe. And give to fame what we to nature owe. The troops pursue their leaders with delight. to view from far What aid appear'd to avert the approaching war. In fighting fields. nor urge thy soul to war. our towers defend." . The best and bravest of the hostile force. Let Telamon. alas! ignoble age must come. and rouse the warrior's fire. In vain he calls. let us bestow. and claim the promised fight. his words the listening chief inspire With equal warmth. Of fight insatiate. and blackening in the field: Around the walls he gazed. And saw where Teucer with the Ajaces stood. which others pay. Menestheus from on high the storm beheld Threatening the fort. And urge the bold Ajaces to our aid. united. Or let us glory gain. But since. But if too fiercely there the foes contend. Heaven trembles. roar the mountains. and echoes through the fields. the din of helms and shields Rings to the skies. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. and honour'd if we live. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Hither the Lycian princes bend their course. the walls resound. and death's inexorable doom The life. Disease. The brazen hinges fly. Their strength. Brave though we fall.

their utmost force unite. Fierce Ajax first the advancing host invades. and thickens in the skies. let Telamon those towers defend. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Thither the Lycian princes bend their course. the herald speeds along The lofty ramparts. Till by this arm the foe shall be repell'd: That done. Prepared to labour in the unequal fight: The war renews. valiant Lycomede! exert your might. And thus bespoke his brothers of the war: "Now. Your strength. But if too fiercely. With equal steps bold Teucer press'd the shore. Tumultuous clamour mounts. united.370 The Iliad of Homer Swift. Opposed in combat on the dusty shore. To you I trust the fortune of the field. Like some black tempest gathering round the towers: The Greeks. At least. prove your force in fight. expect me to complete the day Then with his sevenfold shield he strode away. at the word. [227] . through the martial throng. The best and bravest of the hostile force. mix'd shouts and groans arise. "Ye valiant leaders of our warlike bands! Your aid (said Thoos) Peteus' son demands. High on the walls appear'd the Lycian powers. And sends the brave Epicles to the shades. brave Oileus. here. oppress'd. Whose fatal bow the strong Pandion bore." Straight to the fort great Ajax turn'd his care. the foes contend. And. and repel the foe. And finds the heroes bathed in sweat and gore.

The ponderous ruin crush'd his batter'd crown. Alcmaon first was doom'd his force to feel. Sarpedon's friend. a rocky fragment lay. His beating breast with generous ardour glows. who fear'd some foe's insulting boast Might stop the progress of his warlike host. . and. And murmuring to the shades the soul retires.BOOK XII. 371 While to the ramparts daring Glaucus drew. He springs to fight. Rent from the walls. Across the warrior's way. Conceal'd the wound. His brazen armour rings against the ground. and labour'd up the sky. leaping from his height Retired reluctant from the unfinish'd fight. Then from the yawning wound with fury tore The spear. then in groans expires. In modern ages not the strongest swain Could heave the unwieldy burden from the plain: He poised. The chief. It flew with force. Divine Sarpedon with regret beheld Disabled Glaucus slowly quit the field. and swung it round. So falls Epicles. Deep in his breast he plunged the pointed steel. pursued by gushing streams of gore: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. From Teucer's hand a winged arrow flew. Full on the Lycian's helmet thundering down. As skilful divers from some airy steep Headlong descend. and shoot into the deep. then toss'd on high. and flies upon the foes. The bearded shaft the destined passage found. And on his naked arm inflicts a wound.

but neither gain. rushes in the war. Fix'd in his belt the feather'd weapon stood. And. and fired with glory's charms. and soon that hostile fleet shall fall: The force of powerful union conquers all. not meditating flight. like a deluge. "O where. and every nerve applies: It shakes. the walls lie bare. At once bold Teucer draws the twanging bow. is the strength you boast? Your former fame and ancient virtue lost! The breach lies open. And through his buckler drove the trembling wood. they fall." This just rebuke inflamed the Lycian crew. The rolling ruins smoke along the field. . and avert his fate. As on the confines of adjoining grounds.372 The Iliad of Homer [228] Swift to the battlement the victor flies. they fight. Tugs with full force. But urging vengeance. Thus obstinate to death. They join. one inch. but your chief in vain Attempts alone the guarded pass to gain: Unite. of the contended field. they thicken. and severer fight. One foot. Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towers. His fainting squadrons to new fury warms. To shield his offspring. Then raised with hope. But Jove was present in the dire debate. And Ajax sends his javelin at the foe. ye Lycians. The prince gave back. and the assault renew: Unmoved the embodied Greeks their fury dare. Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds. And fix'd support the weight of all the war. Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian powers. A mighty breach appears. They tug. nor yield. the ponderous stones disjointed yield. they sweat.

245.BOOK XII." —"Paradise Lost. nor this. "Advance. he toss'd. and all the rising host appears. As when two scales are charged with doubtful loads. the labour of a god. Such men as live in these degenerate days: Yet this. From side to side the trembling balance nods.) Till poised aloft. and lighten'd of its load The unwieldy rock. and rough and gross below: Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. For Jove upheld. 227 373 [229] —Each equal weight. The copious slaughter covers all the shore. Their manly breasts are pierced with many a wound. A ponderous stone bold Hector heaved to throw. ye Trojans! lend your valiant hands." vi. Haste to the fleet. till Hector's matchless might. and ascend the wall: Around the works a wood of glittering spears Shoots up. nor those can win the wall. and. descends:227 So stood the war. With nice exactness weighs her woolly store. and toss the blazing brands!" They hear. . Loud strokes are heard. Nor these can keep. and rattling arms resound. Pointed above. And the high ramparts drip with human gore. With fates prevailing. the resting beam suspends Each equal weight. as easy as a swain could bear The snowy fleece. nor that. and shook in air. "Long time in even scale The battle hung. turn'd the scale of fight. gathering at his call. just and poor. And fires his host with loud repeated cries. they run. Raise scaling engines. Fierce as a whirlwind up the walls he flies. (While some laborious matron.

831 ." vi." —"Paradise Lost. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living flame. through the gaping space. He moves a god. With iron bars and brazen hinges strong. Of massy substance. from the crackling door Leap the resounding bars. the solid beams give way. And seems a match for more than mortal force. and they fly. and tumult rends the sky. The shore is heap'd with death. The folds are shatter'd. 228 "He on his impious foes right onward drove. The Greeks behold. Drives the sharp rock. the furious chief appears. Then pouring after. Gloomy as night! and shakes two shining spears:228 A dreadful gleam from his bright armour came. they tremble. Gloomy as night. Now rushing in. A tide of Trojans flows. On lofty beams of solid timber hung: Then thundering through the planks with forceful sway. resistless in his course.374 The Iliad of Homer Thus arm'd. the flying hinges roar. and fills the place. and stupendous frame. before the folded gates he came.

.BOOK XII. 375 GREEK ALTAR.

.

) assumes the shape of Calchas. rejoins Polydamas. Meriones. he kills Othryoneus. and renews the attack. Polydamas advises to call a council of war: Hector approves of his advice. Menelaus wounds Helenus. The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. losing his spear in the encounter. THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED. ARGUMENT. till. The scene is between the Grecian wall and the sea-shore. Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaces. upbraids Paris. and put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. Several deeds of valour are performed. concerned for the loss of the Grecians. in the form of one of the generals. repairs to seek another at the tent of Idomeneus: this occasions a conversation between those two warriors. and kills Pisander. (who had entered the gate near the station of the Ajaces. and Alcathous: Deiphobus and Æneas march against him. The Ajaces form their troops in a close phalanx.[230] BOOK XIII. but goes first to rally the Trojans. meets Ajax again. and inspires those heroes to oppose him: then. Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest. Neptune. upon seeing the fortification forced by Hector. Asius. who return together to the battle. The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing. and at length Idomeneus retires. . IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS THE GREEKS: THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS. being galled by the Locrian slingers and archers. encourages the other Greeks who had retired to their vessels.

which he regards as the result of their poverty and uprightness. Some authors have regarded the phrase "Hippomolgian. And hardy Thracians tame the savage horse." i. It may mean. He sat. has occasioned much discussion. Renown'd for justice and for length of days.e. on a mountain's brow. he deems. While his high law suspends the powers of Heaven. Whose waving woods o'erhung the deeps below. "milking their mares. also speaks of the independence of these people. and dying men: No aid. p. Below. and round him cast his azure eyes Where Ida's misty tops confusedly rise. seek their simple food: Jove sees delighted. Meantime the monarch of the watery main Observed the Thunderer. And where the far-famed Hippomolgian strays. in bloody fray To toil and struggle through the well-fought day. since the oldest of the Samatian nomads made their mares' milk one of their chief articles of diet. There." as an epithet applicable to numerous tribes." or "bowless. innoxious.378 The Iliad of Homer [231] When now the Thunderer on the sea-beat coast Had fix'd great Hector and his conquering host. The crowded ships and sable seas between. In Samothracia.229 Thrice happy race! that. The epithet abion or abion. From milk. nor observed in vain. either "long-lived. 229 . and avoids the scene Of guilty Troy. Arrian. in this passage. iv. de Exp. To where the Mysians prove their martial force. to either host is given. according as we read it. Then turn'd to Thracia from the field of fight Those eyes that shed insufferable light. fair Ilion's glittering spires were seen. from the crystal chambers of the main —Renown'd for justice and for length of days. innocent of blood. He left them to the fates. 239." the latter epithet indicating that they did not depend upon archery for subsistence. Alex. of arms.

Prone down the rocky steep he rush'd along. He sits superior. Between where Tenedos the surges lave. Fierce as he pass'd. earth trembled as he trod. at the fourth. and deck'd with golden manes. the distant Ægae shook. Fleet as the winds. the lofty mountains nod. the golden scourge applies. And. He mounts the car. Eternal frame! not raised by mortal hands: This having reach'd. Exults. immortal: there they stay: 379 . Deep in the liquid regions lies a cave. The parting waves before his coursers fly. The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. And rocky Imbrus breaks the rolling wave: There the great ruler of the azure round Stopp'd his swift chariot. his brass-hoof'd steeds he reins. Immortal arms of adamant and gold. and the chariot flies: His whirling wheels the glassy surface sweep. Far in the bay his shining palace stands. From realm to realm three ample strides he took. Fed with ambrosial herbage from his hand. Emerged.BOOK XIII. The forest shakes. Infrangible. and owns the monarch of the main. The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. with grief and fury stung. Refulgent arms his mighty limbs infold. And link'd their fetlocks with a golden band. he sat. and his steeds unbound. At Jove incensed. And heavy whales in awkward measures play. and mourn'd his Argives slain. The wondering waters leave his axle dry. And felt the footsteps of the immortal god.

The god whose earthquakes rock the solid ground. in a gloomy throng. rising from the seas profound.380 The Iliad of Homer [232] The father of the floods pursues his way: Where. like a tempest. And in their hopes the fleets already flame. and such his manly mien. Such his loud voice. . as Hector rush'd along: To the loud tumult and the barbarous cry The heavens re-echo. His shouts incessant every Greek inspire. NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. But Neptune. Or fiery deluge that devours the ground. like Calchas seen. Now wears a mortal form. Embattled roll'd. adding fire to fire. But most the Ajaces. The impatient Trojans. darkening heaven around. and the shores reply: They vow destruction to the Grecian name.

darts herself from high. if you cease to fear. On other works though Troy with fury fall. and skims along the sky: Such. and steel'd their manly souls: Strength. as a falcon from the rocky height. and Jove's own aid. Vaunts of his gods. Her strength were vain. the power of ocean flew. The wide horizon shut him from their view. Breathe in your hearts. Then. I dread for you alone: Here Hector rages like the force of fire. "'Tis yours. all our hopes to raise: Oh recollect your ancient worth and praise! 'Tis yours to save us. and so swift. And pour her armies o'er our batter'd wall: There Greece has strength: but this. Flight. Prompts their light limbs. Shoots on the wing. the touch divine imparts. and calls high Jove his sire: If yet some heavenly power your breast excite. and swells their daring hearts. and string your arms to fight. be vain. and thus to Telamon: ." 381 Then with his sceptre. more than shameful. He touch'd the chiefs. her threaten'd fleet maintain: And Hector's force. not their own.BOOK XIII. [233] The inspiring god Oileus' active son Perceived the first. this part o'erthrown. Forth-springing instant. that the deep controls. Her quarry seen. O warriors. is destructive here. impetuous at the sight. Greece yet may live.

and wills to stand the storm. the venerable seer. Who.382 The Iliad of Homer "Some god. and the steps he trod." Full of the god that urged their burning breast. some god in human form Favouring descends. Teucer and Leitus first his words excite. in arms renown'd. But breathe new courage as they feel the power. The heroes thus their mutual warmth express'd. And swarms victorious o'er their yielding walls: Trembling before the impending storm they lie. I saw the power appear: I mark'd his parting. Then stern Peneleus rises to the fight. and brace my arm. Lift each impatient limb. While tears of rage stand burning in their eye. Not Calchas this. Short as he turned. The blood pours back. and tread in air!" "With equal ardour (Telamon returns) My soul is kindled. yon towering chief I meet. unthinking. and this their fatal hour. pale. And Merion next. my friend. While thus the god the martial fire awakes: . Neptune meanwhile the routed Greeks inspired. with length of labours tired. methinks. His own bright evidence reveals a god. And stretch the dreadful Hector at my feet. the impulsive fury found. while Troy to conquest calls. and fortifies my heart: Singly. This ready arm. Even now some energy divine I share. Last Nestor's son the same bold ardour takes. and my bosom burns. New rising spirits all my force alarm. Greece sunk they thought. shakes the dart. breathless. Thoas. Pant in the ships. And seem to walk on wings. Deipyrus.

Like frighted fawns from hill to hill pursued. Not born to glories of the dusty plain. and subdue! on dastards dead to fame I waste no anger. who prizes fame or breath. Let each reflect. and her navy free: Ah. Think. so late who trembled at your name. The purchase infamy. and life the price? 'Tis not your cause. A prey to every savage of the wood: Shall these.BOOK XIII. to see Brave Greece victorious. a straggling train. the flower of all our host. this battle. no—the glorious combat you disclaim. a fate more vile. but yours the shame. for they feel no shame: But you. On endless infamy. say. Must you be cowards. oh dire disgrace To chiefs of vigorous youth. involve your ships in flame? A change so shameful. or the general's fault? Fools! will ye perish for your leader's vice. Achilles' injured fame: Another's is the crime. "Oh lasting infamy. what cause has wrought? The soldiers' baseness. the pride. Invade your camps. till this amazing day! Fly we at length from Troy's oft-conquer'd bands? And falls our fleet by such inglorious hands? A rout undisciplined. and you. unthought. and your country save: Small thought retrieves the spirits of the brave. My heart weeps blood to see your glory lost! Nor deem this day. Unseen. and manly race! I trusted in the gods. if your king's unjust? Prevent this evil. ensues. all you lose. Grant that our chief offend through rage or lust. on instant death: 383 [234] . Heavens! what a prodigy these eyes survey. A day more black. And one black day clouds all her former fame.

As Pallas' self might view with fix'd delight. At every shock the crackling wood resounds. the brazen barriers roar! Impetuous Hector thunders at the wall. and man drove man along. lo! the fated time. The hour. A chosen phalanx. on targets targets throng. And levell'd at the skies with pointing rays. The god of war had own'd a just surprise. With well-ranged squadrons strongly circled round: So close their order. so disposed their fight. in terrible array. Fix'd at his post was each bold Ajax found. Or had the god of war inclined his eyes. Spears lean on spears. Their brandish'd lances at each motion blaze. The close compacted legions urged their way: Fierce they drove on. Helms stuck to helms. Armour in armour lock'd. or to fall. with fury borne. A rock's round fragment flies. firm. The floating plumes unnumber'd wave above. resolved as fate." These words the Grecians' fainting hearts inspire. the spot. Troy charged the first.) Precipitate the ponderous mass descends: From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds.384 The Iliad of Homer For. And listening armies catch the godlike fire. and shields in shields. As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn. [235] . An iron scene gleams dreadful o'er the fields. impatient to destroy. Thus breathing death. to conquer. Descending Hector and his battle wait. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends. As when an earthquake stirs the nodding grove. and Hector first of Troy. the appointed shore: Hark! the gates burst.

BOOK XIII. resounding everie shocke. this arm shall make your way Through yon square body. it stirs not any way:— So Hector. Strong as they seem. held Before his wary steps his ample shield. 230 Compare Chapman's quaint. unmoved. Forth march'd Deiphobus. Their whole force he proved. and that black array: Stand. The Trojan warrior. And then (tho' never so impelled). The Greek. marching. leaps. And on. and my spear shall rout their scattering power. the darts are shed. when he stopp'd.—" . bold verses:— "And as a round piece of a rocke. and roused the soul in every breast: Urged with desire of fame. On the raised orb to distance bore the spear. "Trojans! be firm. Bold Merion aim'd a stroke (nor aim'd it wide). impetuous to the plain: There stops—so Hector. this day inspires our arms." He said. touch'd with timely fear. The first of gods. beyond the rest. The point broke short. And all their falchions wave around his head: Repulsed he stands. But with repeated shouts his army fires. Whirls. when a shoure poured from a bursten cloud. embattled like a tower. but. retreating. 385 Still gathering force. and sparkled in the sand. it headlong leaps till in a plaine it stay. For he that Juno's heavenly bosom warms. which with a winter's flood Is from his top torn. and thunders down. But pierced not through: unfaithful to his hand.230 Resistless when he raged. Hath broke the naturall band it had within the roughftey rock. and urged amain. Flies jumping all adourne the woods. On him the war is bent. uncheckt. it smokes. nor from his stand retires. The glittering javelin pierced the tough bull-hide. and. mourn'd his frustrate blow.

And match'd the bravest of her chiefs in fame: With Priam's sons.386 The Iliad of Homer And cursed the treacherous lance that spared a foe. To seek a surer javelin in his tent. And blest in bright Medesicaste's arms: (This nymph. and pierced Amphimachus's heart. The tumult thickens. his clanging arms resound. And just had fastened on the dazzling prize. of Neptune's forceful line. And soils its verdant tresses on the ground. [236] . remote from war's alarms. his arms the fall resound. To seize his beamy helm the victor flies. a tall ash tumbles down. In fair Pedaeus' verdant pastures bred. and the clamour grows. Cteatus' son. Meanwhile with rising rage the battle glows. Vain was his courage. Ere yet to Troy the sons of Greece were led. and his race divine! Prostrate he falls. beloved and honour'd as his own. The youth had dwelt. And his broad buckler thunders on the ground. when glory call'd his arms. Subdued by steel. Then to the ships with surly speed he went. From Hector's hand a shining javelin fled: He saw. Allied the warrior to the house of Troy:) To Troy. the forceful dart Sung on. Him Teucer pierced between the throat and ear: He groans beneath the Telamonian spear. By Teucer's arm the warlike Imbrius bleeds. So falls the youth. rich in generous steeds. and shunn'd the death. As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown. the fruit of Priam's ravish'd joy. Then Teucer rushing to despoil the dead. a guardian of the throne. he came. He lived. The son of Mentor.

the chief: great Ajax from the dead Strips his bright arms. Between the leaders of the Athenian line. a slaughter'd fawn.) Deplored Amphimachus. Him to the surgeons of the camp he sent: That office paid. the victor Greeks obtain The spoils contested. and bear off the slain. He finds the lance-famed Idomen of Crete. And sprinkling all the shrubs with drops of blood. Repulsed he yields. At Hector's feet the gory visage lay. Snatch'd from devouring hounds. And his sad comrades from the battle bore. fired with stern disdain. Oileus lops his head: Toss'd like a ball. Imbrius remains the fierce Ajaces' prize. (Stichius the brave. He felt the shock. The god of ocean. Inspires the Grecian hearts. Andraemon's valiant son. And pierced with sorrow for his grandson slain. His pensive brow the generous care express'd With which a wounded soldier touch'd his breast. And breathes destruction on the Trojan bands.BOOK XIII. and sheath'd in shining steel. In their fell jaws high-lifting through the wood. Who ruled where Calydon's white rocks arise. In Thoas' voice. confirms their hands. sad object! lies. Swift as a whirlwind rushing to the fleet. Full on the shield's round boss the weapon rung. When Ajax' manly arm a javelin flung. Secure in mail. So these. 387 [237] . he issued from his tent Fierce for the fight: to whom the god begun. Whom in the chance of war a javelin tore. Menestheus the divine. As two grim lions bear across the lawn. and whirl'd in air away. nor more was doom'd to feel.

and war is all her own. Nor dares to combat on this signal day! For this. Two. far distant from our native home Wills us to fall inglorious! Oh. behold! in horrid arms I shine. alas! and Jove's all-powerful doom. Together let us battle on the plain. the bravest have confess'd in fight. But feed the vultures on this hateful strand. and proud Ilion lost?" To whom the king: "On Greece no blame be thrown. urge the rest. And urge thy soul to rival acts with mine. Her hardy heroes from the well-fought plains Nor fear withholds.388 The Iliad of Homer And Pleuron's chalky cliffs emblaze the skies: "Where's now the imperious vaunt. now perform thy best. my friend! Once foremost in the fight. Who seeks ignobly in his ships to stay. And what thou canst not singly." . if their force unite. nor even this succour vain: Not vain the weakest. Arms are her trade." Thus he: and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Ah! never may he see his native land. But ours. That far. Of Greece victorious. not the worst. still prone to lend Or arms or counsels. nor shameful sloth detains: 'Tis heaven. the daring boast.

This said. near his tent. kindling all the skies. And clad in arms that lighten'd all the strand. Which to pale man the wrath of heaven declares. in every art of battle skill'd. as the monarch flash'd along. Like lightning bursting from the arm of Jove. Swift to his tent the Cretan king returns: From thence. Fierce on the foe the impetuous hero drove.BOOK XIII. two javelins glittering in his hand. From pole to pole the trail of glory flies: Thus his bright armour o'er the dazzled throng Gleam'd dreadful. And glows with prospects of th' approaching day. The rest lies rooted in a Trojan shield. Whom thus he questions: "Ever best of friends! O say. What holds thy courage from so brave a field? On some important message art thou bound. 389 Him." [238] . In streamy sparkles. Meriones attends." "O prince! (Meriones replies) whose care Leads forth the embattled sons of Crete to war. he rushes where the combat burns. This speaks my grief: this headless lance I wield. my soul abhors to stay. Or terrifies the offending world with wars. Or bleeds my friend by some unhappy wound? Inglorious here.

390 The Iliad of Homer To whom the Cretan: "Enter." To this. Against his bosom beats his quivering heart. singled from the rest. and see on heaps the helmets roll'd. determined is his eye. Nor trust the dart.) That shed a lustre round the illumined wall. Though I. still the same. Yet hand to hand I fight. Spears I have store. And high-hung spears. and stiffening hair. What need I more? If any Greek there be Who knows not Merion. stands confess'd. Unchanged his colour. He shifts his place: his colour comes and goes: A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part. nor aim the uncertain spear. (and Trojan lances all. and unmoved his frame: Composed his thought. No force." "Nor vain (said Merion) are our martial toils. or valour. I fight conspicuous in the van of war. We too can boast of no ignoble spoils: But those my ship contains. and these arms I gain. Terror and death in his wild eye-balls stare. those my tent can give. and receive The wonted weapons. and spoil the slain. the pale coward shows. And looks a bloodless image of despair! Not so the brave—still dauntless. I appeal to thee. . no firmness. And thence these trophies. disdainful of the distant war. whence distant far. and unconquer'd might: And were some ambush for the foes design'd. Even there thy courage would not lag behind: In that sharp service. With chattering teeth he stands. The fear of each. Idomeneus: "The fields of fight Have proved thy valour. Enter. and shields that flame with gold.

) Terror.BOOK XIII. and enormous force. breathing slaughter. Stand we to talk. when glory calls to arms? Go—from my conquer'd spears the choicest take. 'Tis but the wish to strike before the rest. But why. And every art of dangerous war thy own. The pride of haughty warriors to confound. Arm'd with stern boldness. call'd to the dire alarms Of warring Phlegyans. Or combat in the centre of the fight? Or to the left our wonted succour lend? Hazard and fame all parts alike attend. And to their owners send them nobly back. cold to honour's charms. like infants. relentless they dispose. By chance of fight whatever wounds you bore. Those wounds were glorious all. attends his course. Invoked by both." 391 [239] . follow'd to the war. And fix'd his soul. And their bright arms shot horror o'er the plain. Then first spake Merion: "Shall we join the right. To these glad conquest. Such as may teach. So Mars armipotent invades the plain. "In such assays thy blameless worth is known. to conquer or to die: If aught disturb the tenour of his breast. and all before. and Ephyrian arms. (The wide destroyer of the race of man. his best-beloved son." Swift at the word bold Merion snatch'd a spear And. 'twas still thy brave delight T'oppose thy bosom where thy foremost fight. murderous rout to those. And lay the strength of tyrants on the ground: From Thrace they fly. So march'd the leaders of the Cretan train.

On every side the dusty whirlwinds rise. In standing fight he mates Achilles' force. . Nor feed like mortals on the fruits of earth. that flash'd afar. hope. All dreadful glared the iron face of war. darken'd heaven. Fierce as the god of battles." He said: and Merion to th' appointed place. And live with glory. Each godlike Ajax makes that post his care. Till Jove himself descends. in Sirius' sultry reign. helms. Their force embodied in a tide they pour. And hurl the blazing ruin at our head. And gallant Teucer deals destruction there. meeting. together driven. nor steel can wound. Soon as the foe the shining chiefs beheld Rush like a fiery torrent o'er the field. Dire was the gleam of breastplates. the navy fears no flame. Him neither rocks can crush. of more than human birth. As warring winds. Met the black hosts. These can the rage of haughty Hector tame: Safe in their arms. rage.392 The Iliad of Homer "Not in the centre (Idomen replied:) Our ablest chieftains the main battle guide. And the dry fields are lifted to the skies: Thus by despair. The rising combat sounds along the shore. From different quarters sweep the sandy plain. Excell'd alone in swiftness in the course. Or bear close battle on the sounding shield. or with glory die. his bolts to shed. Great must he be. and shields. Whom Ajax fells not on the ensanguined ground. Skill'd or with shafts to gall the distant field. urged his pace. and. Bristled with upright spears. Then to the left our ready arms apply.

Warr'd on the king of heaven with stern disdain. These powers enfold the Greek and Trojan train In war and discord's adamantine chain. 393 [240] . Saturn's great sons in fierce contention vied. While Neptune. by his vaunts abused. But Jove the greater. and grown in combats grey. But touch'd with joy the bosoms of the brave. of one ethereal race. Swell'd with false hopes. And polish'd arms emblazed the flaming fields: Tremendous scene! that general horror gave. From high Cabesus' distant walls he came. And more than men. Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers. The king consented. Alike divine. For this. and heaven their native place. and fired the Grecian train. Gods of one source. but the fates refused. or gods. of Jove's superior might afraid. supremely wise. rising from his azure main. The bold Idomeneus controls the day.BOOK XIII. And promised conquest was the proffer'd dower. And crowds of heroes in their anger died. Indissolubly strong: the fatal tie Is stretch'd on both. Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame. Cassandra's love he sought. with boasts of power. The sire of earth and heaven. first-born of the skies. with mad ambition vain. The king consented. And breathed revenge. and close compell'd they die. First by his hand Othryoneus was slain. by Thetis won To crown with glory Peleus' godlike son. Neptune in human form conceal'd his aid. Dreadful in arms. But spared awhile the destined Trojan towers.

Come. The field he measured with a larger stride. or poplar tall. And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine. "And thus (he cries) behold thy promise sped! Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring. unable to contain. The great Idomeneus bestrides the dead. His arms resounded as the boaster fell. Him as he stalk'd. Groans to the oft-heaved axe. as his foe drew near. to his squire consign'd." He spoke. And such the contract of the Phrygian king! Our offers now. There hear what Greece has on her part to say. with ours thy forces join. . And stretch'd before his much-loved coursers lay.394 The Iliad of Homer [241] Proud of himself. As when the mountain-oak. the Cretan javelin found. and dragg'd the gory corse away. follow to the fleet thy new allies. Vain was his breastplate to repel the wound: His dream of glory lost. The wary Cretan. For such an aid what will not Argos give? To conquer Troy. he plunged to hell. illustrious prince! receive. And glitter'd. Before his chariot warring on the plain: (His crowded coursers. Full on his throat discharged the forceful spear: Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide. with many a wound. Impatient panted on his neck behind:) To vengeance rising with a sudden spring. extant at the further side. and of the imagined bride. on further methods to advise. fit mast for some great admiral. Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground: So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day. Or pine. He hoped the conquest of the Cretan king. Meantime. This Asius view'd.

And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung. He grinds the dust distain'd with streaming gore. Beneath the spacious targe." . Deprived of motion. his people's guardian now no more! "Not unattended (the proud Trojan cries) Nor unrevenged. Stands all aghast his trembling charioteer. And made. (a blazing round.) He lay collected in defensive shade. through hell's black portals stand display'd. obliquely. stooping. an unresisting prey: Pierced by Antilochus. O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung. lamented Asius lies: For thee. But falls transfix'd. king Hypsenor's breast: Warm'd in his liver. nor turns the steeds away. Nor shuns the foe. fierce in death. And pierced. On his raised arm by two strong braces stay'd. and. This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade.BOOK XIII. Thus Asius' steeds (their mighty master gone) Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son. to the ground it bore The chief. Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbits bound. Deiphobus drew nigh. caused to glance From his slope shield the disappointed lance. lies foaming on the shore. with force. 395 Stabb'd at the sight. stiff with stupid fear. the vengeful weapon fly. he pants beneath The stately car. And. and labours out his breath. Even then the spear the vigorous arm confess'd. The Cretan saw.

but Nestor's son the most. Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes. The long lance shakes. Anchises' eldest hope. Fix'd as some column. Touch'd every Greek. whom heaven and he shall doom To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom. and darling care: Who charm'd her parents' and her husband's heart With beauty. or deep-rooted oak.396 The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish. Before the ponderous stroke his corslet yields. sense. . And fetters every limb: yet bent to meet His fate he stands. While the winds sleep. Or find some foe. The fairest she of all the fair of Troy. The riven armour sends a jarring sound. and vibrates in the wound. divinely fair. at the haughty boast. his pious arms attend. Life's purple tide impetuous gush'd away. Long used to ward the death in fighting fields. By Neptune now the hapless hero dies. Grieved as he was. Resolved to perish in his country's cause. [242] Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws. nor shuns the lance of Crete. and every work of art: He once of Ilion's youth the loveliest boy. His labouring heart heaves with so strong a bound. Fast flowing from its source. He sees Alcathous in the front aspire: Great Æsyetes was the hero's sire. his breast received the stroke. as prone he lay. And his broad buckler shields his slaughter'd friend: Till sad Mecistheus and Alastor bore His honour'd body to the tented shore. His spouse Hippodame.

and one roof contain'd. and said: "Now. His first-born I. my third victim. And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. the third from Jupiter: O'er spacious Crete. Great Minos. and the warrior's loved remains defend. and her bold sons. To him. Trojan prince. was Minos' heir. uncertain or to meet. insulting o'er the slain: "Behold. came: Deucalion. If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms. guardian of his country. And thence my ships transport me through the main: Lord of a host. employ thy pious arms. This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe. A scourge to thee. Deiphobus! nor vaunt in vain: See! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend. to the shades I send.BOOK XIII. I reign. thy brother and thy friend. The bold Deiphobus approach'd. Or seek auxiliar force. Where he. This." The Trojan heard. Alcathous dies. Then Idomen. at length decreed To call some hero to partake the deed. Approaching now thy boasted might approve. blameless prince. And sees superior posts in meaner hands. incensed at partial Priam. ambitious of so great an aid. Beneath his cares thy early youth was train'd. with venturous arms the king of Crete. Forthwith Æneas rises to his thought: For him in Troy's remotest lines he sought. Come." 397 [243] . thy father. o'er all my host I shine. From Jove. and revenge it on th' insulting foe. stands. One table fed you. and thy line. Alone. Haste. enamour'd of a mortal dame.

of glory.398 The Iliad of Homer Æneas heard. Arm'd with wild terrors. As the fell boar. And met the Trojan with a lowering look. and to slaughter bred. He fresh in youth. and for a space resign'd To tender pity all his manly mind. in field renown'd: To these the warrior sent his voice around. Then rising in his rage. Paris. erect and bold. Their lifted bucklers cast a dreadful shade Around the chief. were near. Deipyrus. Else should this hand. and more than mortal bold. and expects the war. Æneas too demands Th' assisting forces of his native bands. and all. When the loud rustics rise. Antilochus. The great dispute. His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage. . Attends the tumult. The youthful offspring of the god of war. obey'd. join. Deiphobus. Merion. Like Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain. great Æneas rushes to the fight: Sprung from a god. or of life. and Aphareus. Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eyes. he burns to fight: The Greek awaits him with collected might. this hour decide the strife. Before his fleecy care. But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage: So stood Idomeneus. (Co-aids and captains of the Trojan line. and shout from far. Lo. as with one soul. O'er his bent back the bristly horrors rise.) In order follow all th' embodied train. Agenor. on some rough mountain's head. "Fellows in arms! your timely aid unite. his javelin shook. and I in arms grown old." He spoke.

His tired slow steps he drags from off the field. There great Idomeneus. The Trojan weapon whizz'd along in air. The Cretan saw. On every side the steely circle grows. And. a parting javelin cast: 399 [244] . Stretch'd on the plain. he sobs away his breath. And o'er their heads unheeded javelins sing. With joy the swain surveys them. But OEnomas received the Cretan's stroke. And. Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmets ring. and quiver'd where it stood. In standing fight he yet maintains his force. The victor from his breast the weapon tears. as he leads To the cool fountains. Stalks the proud ram. Till faint with labour. His spoils he could not. two towering chiefs appear. Though now unfit an active war to wage. Æneas here. Heavy with cumbrous arms. the missive wood Stuck deep in earth. The forceful spear his hollow corslet broke. Round dread Alcathous now the battle rose. fired with hate. and stretches o'er the land. It ripp'd his belly with a ghastly wound. furious. the father of the bold. as his native band Moves on in rank. grasps the bloody dust in death. Above the rest. Deiphobus beheld him as he pass'd. And burn'd to drench the ground with mutual blood. for the shower of spears. stiff with cold age. His listless limbs unable for the course. Like gods of war. and shunn'd the brazen spear: Sent from an arm so strong. And roll'd the smoking entrails on the ground. through the well-known meads: So joys Æneas. they stood. and by foes repell'd.BOOK XIII. dispensing fate.

the sands with gore. Nor knew the furious father of his fall. From his torn arm the Grecian rent away The reeking javelin. Swift as a vulture leaping on his prey. And pierced Ascalaphus. On golden clouds th' immortal synod sate. Rapt from the lessening thunder of the war.400 The Iliad of Homer The javelin err'd. Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies. the brave and young: The son of Mars fell gasping on the ground. To Troy they drove him. And gnash'd the dust. Detain'd from bloody war by Jove and Fate. Now. groaning from the shore. And from the rage of battle gently drew: Him his swift coursers. His wounded brother good Polites tends. Around his waist his pious arms he threw. And sprinkling. and rejoin'd his friends. For slain Ascalaphus commenced the fray. The hollow helmet rings against the plain. disabled with the pain. . And from his temples rends the glittering prize. Meriones drew near. on his splendid car. as he pass'd. where in dust the breathless hero lay. High-throned amidst the great Olympian hall. Valiant as Mars. And on his loaded arm discharged his spear: He drops the weight. but held its course along. all bloody with his wound.

His shield emboss'd the ringing storm sustains. drew near. From his broad shoulders tore the spoils away. Antilochus. Obeys each motion of the master's mind! Restless it flies. (Great Neptune's care preserved from hostile rage This youth. Faced every foe. Transpierced his back with a dishonest wound: The hollow vein. And blunts the javelin of th' eluded foe: In the broad buckler half the weapon stood. Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood. impatient to be free. The son of Asius. for closed by foes around. His time observed. his eager javelin rends: Supine he falls. And meditates the distant enemy. Bold Aphareus by great Æneas bled. with the first he fought. depress'd Beneath his helmet. and to his social train Spreads his imploring arms. and heaven and earth resound. His shield reversed o'er the fallen warrior lies. 401 . resistless as the wind. and every danger sought. And struck his target with the brazen spear Fierce in his front: but Neptune wards the blow. nods upon his breast. leaping where he lay. the joy of Nestor's glorious age. And everlasting slumber seals his eyes. but spreads in vain. He pierced his throat. His winged lance. Heaps fall on heaps. But he impervious and untouch'd remains. as Thoon turn'd him round.BOOK XIII. Adamas. Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine ground. As toward the chief he turn'd his daring head. that to the neck extends Along the chine. Th' exulting victor.) In arms intrepid. the bending head. On all sides thick the peals of arms resound.

Thus an ox in fetters tied. to the victor turns: That shook the ponderous lance. great Menelaus burns. watchful of the unwary foe. and doubled to the ground. His bulk enormous on the field displays. But Merion's spear o'ertook him as he flew. Atrides. Pierced with his lance the hand that grasp'd the bow. As on some ample barn's well harden'd floor. While death's strong pangs distend his labouring side. and mortal is the wound. His heaving heart beats thick as ebbing life decays. And nailed it to the yew: the wounded hand Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood the sand: But good Agenor gently from the wound . Next brave Deipyrus in dust was laid: King Helenus waved high the Thracian blade. For dark in death the godlike owner lies! Raging with grief. (The winds collected at each open door.402 The Iliad of Homer [246] Disarm'd. and roll'd amid the throng: There for some luckier Greek it rests a prize. in act to throw. Where sharp the pang. he mingled in the Trojan crew. Bending he fell. Repell'd to distance flies the bounding dart. And this stood adverse with the bended bow: Full on his breast the Trojan arrow fell. But harmless bounded from the plated steel. And death's dim shadows swarm before his view. The helm fell off. Lay panting.) While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around. And fraught with vengeance. The spear the conqueror from his body drew. Light leaps the golden grain. Deep in the belly's rim an entrance found. resulting from the ground: So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart. And smote his temples with an arm so strong.

Tore off his arms. Vain dreams of conquest swell his haughty mind. Atrides waved his steel: Deep through his front the weighty falchion fell. and spouting gore. and fall by thee. 403 Behold! Pisander. His left arm high opposed the shining shield: His right beneath. The lance far distant by the winds was blown. The plume dropp'd nodding to the plain below. and brazen was the blade. and the bandage bound. the warrior came. Dauntless he rushes where the Spartan lord Like lightning brandish'd his far beaming sword. the cover'd pole-axe held.) This on the helm discharged a noble blow. And fierce Atrides spurn'd him as he bled. First the sharp lance was by Atrides thrown. In dust and blood the groaning hero lay: Forced from their ghastly orbs. The clotted eye-balls tumble on the shore. to the future blind. said: . At once the tent and ligature supplied. snatch'd from a soldier's side. Great Menelaus! to enchance thy fame: High-towering in the front. and. urged by fate's decree. Not so discouraged. Shorn from the crest. The crashing bones before its force gave way. The spear solicits. Distinct with studs. A sling's soft wool. loud-exulting. Nor pierced Pisander through Atrides' shield: Pisander's spear fell shiver'd on the field. Springs through the ranks to fall. (An olive's cloudy grain the handle made.BOOK XIII.

The feast. or the fear of Jove. thus. and in lust of fight. O race perfidious.404 The Iliad of Homer [247] "Thus. O thou. A princess raped transcends a navy storm'd: In such bold feats your impious might approve. Crimes heap'd on crimes. shall bend your glory down. he seized (while yet the carcase heaved) The bloody armour. Never. from death he flies. supremely wise! If from thy hand the fates of mortals flow. which his train received: Then sudden mix'd among the warring crew. beyond their measure. who delight in war! Already noble deeds ye have perform'd. Harpalion had through Asia travell'd far. And the bold son of Pylaemenes slew. great father! lord of earth and skies. never to behold it more! His unsuccessful spear he chanced to fling Against the target of the Spartan king." This said. The violated rites. Sleep's balmy blessing. and lust? The best of things. From whence this favour to an impious foe? A godless crew. the ravish'd dame. at length be taught to fear. cloy. Without th' assistance. the dance. Following his martial father to the war: Through filial love he left his native shore. abandon'd and unjust. Our heroes slaughter'd and our ships on flame. Still breathing rapine. But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight In thirst of slaughter. violence. whate'er mankind desire. Even the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire. Trojans. ah. Above the thought of man. . And whelm in ruins yon flagitious town. love's endearing joy. Thus of his lance disarm'd.

And chose the certain glorious path to death. unrevenged. father now no more! Attends the mournful pomp along the shore. Polydus' son. And in short pantings sobb'd his soul away. The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead. a seer of old renown.) While life's red torrent gush'd from out the wound. a youth of matchless grace. With pity soften'd and with fury swell'd: His honour'd host. By arms abroad. the brave Euchenor named. And.BOOK XIII. For riches much. And. driving down. And loved of all the Paphlagonian race! With his full strength he bent his angry bow. Him. and more for virtue famed. deplored his offspring dead. Beneath his ear the pointed arrow went. Paris from far the moving sight beheld. or slow disease at home: He climb'd his vessel. the swelling bladder rends: Sunk in his sad companions' arms he lay. Him on his car the Paphlagonian train In slow procession bore from off the plain. Beneath the bone the glancing point descends. The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: His limbs. And everlasting darkness shades him round. (Like some vile worm extended on the ground. Who held his seat in Corinth's stately town. And unavailing tears profusely shed. through the hip transpiercing as he fled. And wing'd the feather'd vengeance at the foe. unnerved. And turns around his apprehensive eyes. A chief there was. Oft had the father told his early doom. drop useless on the ground. prodigal of breath. The pensive father. 405 [248] .

active in the fight. But in the centre Hector fix'd remain'd. Locrians and Phthians. . on the shores of Troy.) There join'd. and their arms employ. and Amphion bold: The Phthians. and th' Epaean force. And conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands. Phidas. on the margin of the hoary deep. led. The flower of Athens. repel not Hector's fiery course. Where late in fight both foot and horse engaged. by a stolen embrace. There. He dwelt far distant from his native place. Medon. But join'd. And all the thunder of the battle raged. And where low walls confine the beating tides. Bias and great Menestheus at their head: Meges the strong the Epaean bands controll'd. This drew from Phylacus his noble line. famed for martial might. (Wrapp'd in the cloud and tumult of the field:) Wide on the left the force of Greece commands. With such a tide superior virtue sway'd. Stichius. the whole Boeotian strength remains. Whose humble barrier scarce the foe divides. Mix'd with Boeotians. And he that shakes the solid earth gave aid. Where first the gates were forced. And Dracius prudent.406 The Iliad of Homer Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield. And brave Podarces. By his fierce step-dame from his father's reign Expell'd and exiled for her brother slain:) These rule the Phthians. Iphiclus' son: and that (Oileus) thine: (Young Ajax' brother. The proud Iaonians with their sweeping trains. and bulwarks gain'd. (Their naval station where the Ajaces keep.

Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow soil. remissive of his might. Or fell the distant warrior to the ground. Join'd to one yoke. But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing. the stubborn earth they tear. Now side by side. O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow. Address'd great Hector. nor lift the moony shield. The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin wield. Who bore by turns great Ajax' sevenfold shield.BOOK XIII. and this counsel gave: . with like unwearied care. No following troops his brave associate grace: In close engagement an unpractised race. discreetly brave. with equal toil. Or whirl the sounding pebble from the sling. Thus in the van the Telamonian train. But sage Polydamas. The mingled tempest on the foes they pour. Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky. Throng'd in bright arms. And streams of sweat down their sour foreheads flow. 407 [249] Now had the Greeks eternal fame acquired. A train of heroes followed through the field. Whene'er he breathed. Troy's scattering orders open to the shower. And trace large furrows with the shining share. And the gall'd Ilians to their walls retired. Tired with the incessant slaughters of the fight. Dexterous with these they aim a certain wound. a pressing fight maintain: Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie. Nor bear the helm. Each Ajax laboured through the field of war: So when two lordly bulls.

lest Greece. To some the powers of bloody war belong. Attend. scarce the war maintain! And what brave heroes at the ships lie slain! Here cease thy fury: and. yet remains On yonder decks. not yet undone. and yet o'erlooks the plains!" . on dangers dangers spread. O Hector! what I judge the best. all-considering mind. weigh the sum of things. as thou mov'st. To few. and wondrous few. How widely differs this from warring well! Content with what the bounteous gods have given. out-number'd. extensive.408 The Iliad of Homer [250] "Though great in all. the chiefs and kings Convoked to council. And towns and empires for their safety bless. But in cool thought and counsel to excel. or fall! What troops. See. Pay the large debt of last revolving sun. disperse. Behold! distress'd within yon hostile wall. Whether (the gods succeeding our desires) To yon tall ships to bear the Trojan fires. Contented with the conquest of the day. I fear. To some sweet music and the charm of song. How many Trojans yield. I fear. the nations round confess. Or quit the fleet. thou seem'st averse to lend Impartial audience to a faithful friend. To gods and men thy matchless worth is known. Achilles. Seek not alone to engross the gifts of Heaven. And every art of glorious war thy own. great Achilles. and pass unhurt away. Their guardians these. If Heaven have lodged this virtue in my breast. has Jove assign'd A wise. And war's whole fury burns around thy head.

nor Asius' self appear: For these were pierced with many a ghastly wound. And bids anew the martial thunder rise. some groaning on the ground. but look'd in vain. Swift as he leap'd his clanging arms resound. and round the plain. whom. the towering chief prepares to go. and Hector.BOOK XIII. For many a chief he look'd. "To guard this post (he cried) thy art employ. The counsel pleased. th' impatient chief reproved: . Where yonder heroes faint. he flies. And seems a moving mountain topp'd with snow. And here detain the scatter'd youth of Troy. Some cold in death. Through all his host. Leap'd from his chariot on the trembling ground. amid the throng he found (Cheering the troops. Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow. I bend my way. inspiring force. Opprobrious thus. To Panthus' son. nor Helenus the seer. at Hector's high command Haste the bold leaders of the Trojan band: But round the battlements. with a bound. Far on the left. And hasten back to end the doubtful day. and dealing deaths around) The graceful Paris." 409 This said. Some low in dust. (a mournful object) lay. Deiphobus. Nor Asius' son. with fury moved. High on the wall some breathed their souls away.

But 'tis not ours. Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue offend." When Paris thus: "My brother and my friend. two alone remain. I scatter'd slaughter from my fatal bow. Cebrion. Imperial Troy from her foundations nods. from Ascania far. where thy soul inspires: This heart and hand shall second all thy fires: What with this arm I can. Though then not deedless. nor unknown to fame: But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low. Whelm'd in thy country's ruin shalt thou fall. prepare to know. where Asius gone? The godlike father. Each now disabled by a hostile spear. Phalces. dispensing fate. successful. and Helenus the seer. and th' intrepid son? The force of Helenus. Of all those heroes. distain'd with blood. stern Orthaeus stood. so fear'd of late? Black fate hang's o'er thee from th' avenging gods. and blow for blow. Palmus. And one devouring vengeance swallow all. Around Polydamas. In other battles I deserved thy blame. And great Othryoneus. with forces not our own To combat: strength is of the gods alone. As smooth of face as fraudulent of mind! Where is Deiphobus. Till death for death be paid." These words the hero's angry mind assuage: Then fierce they mingle where the thickest rage.410 The Iliad of Homer "Ill-fated Paris! slave to womankind. [251] . And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line (Who reach'd fair Ilion. with Polypoetes the divine. The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie slain. Go then. Deiphobus.

illumined all the field. Like Mars commission'd to confound mankind. The former day. the thick battalions throng. 'Tis not thy arm. 411 . the next engaged in war). The towering Ajax. Shot terrors round. That bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful wings. and tumbling to the shore: Thus rank on rank. Lo! Greece is humbled. gather'd. Far o'er the plains. Long ere in flames our lofty navy fall. in dreadful order bright. Then. His piercing eyes through all the battle stray. And. The waves behind impel the waves before. and thus the chief defied: "Hector! come on. but not an Argive shook. 'tis thundering Jove we fear: The skill of war to us not idly given. death was in his look: Whole nations fear'd. but Heaven. settles on the hoary deeps. Wide o'er the blasted fields the tempest sweeps. with an ample stride. and man drove man along. thy empty threats forbear.BOOK XIII. Advanced the first. Vain are the hopes that haughty mind imparts. Thus stalk'd he. The afflicted deeps tumultuous mix and roar. Chief urged on chief. Before him flaming his enormous shield. Like the broad sun. and your god-built wall. The brazen arms reflect a beamy light: Full in the blazing van great Hector shined. Wide rolling. while beneath his targe he flash'd along. dreadful. As when from gloomy clouds a whirlwind springs. that wither'd e'en the strong. To force our fleet: the Greeks have hands and hearts. foaming high. not by Troy. His nodding helm emits a streamy ray. Your boasted city.

his progress through the skies: Far-echoing clamours bound from side to side. thou shalt meet thy fate: That giant-corse." As thus he spoke. Shalt run. A shout that tore heaven's concave. And thou. The blue-eyed maid. They ceased.) As this decisive day shall end the fame Of Greece. Even thou shalt wish. and thus the chief of Troy replied: "From whence this menace. And hail. (Not that short life which mortals lead below. and like a lion stalk'd along: With shouts incessant earth and ocean rung. But such as those of Jove's high lineage born. in open view. or he that gilds the morn. Even thou shalt call on Jove. above. chased along the plain. The time shall come. when. extended on the shore. and Argos be no more a name. And spread a long unmeasured ruin round. and call in vain. Shall largely feast the fowls with fat and gore. Shook the fix'd splendours of the throne of Jove.412 The Iliad of Homer [252] Shall sink beneath us. While clouds of friendly dust conceal thy shame." He said. with shouts. So may the gods on Hector life bestow. smoking on the ground. forgetful of a warrior's fame. To Jove's glad omen all the Grecians rise. The wings of falcons for thy flying horse. and. to aid thy desperate course. On sounding wings a dexter eagle flew. this insulting strain? Enormous boaster! doom'd to vaunt in vain. . imperious! if thy madness wait The lance of Hector. behold. Sent from his following host: the Grecian train With answering thunders fill'd the echoing plain.

413 GREEK EARRINGS.BOOK XIII. .

.

sitting at the table with Machaon. much distressed. till the Trojans. This book forms a most agreeable interruption to The continuous round of battles. she goes to mount Ida. She then applies herself to the god of sleep.[253] BOOK XIV. sinks in her embraces. and hastens to Agamemnon. are obliged to give way: the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a particular manner. and (the more surely to enchant him) obtains the magic girdle of Venus. which occupy the latter part of the Iliad. is alarmed with the increasing clamour of war. wounded as they were.231 JUNO DECEIVES JUPITER BY THE GIRDLE OF VENUS. that. It is as well to observe. Nestor. and succours the Greeks: Hector is struck to the ground with a prodigious stone by Ajax. ARGUMENT. and carried off from the battle: several actions succeed. to which Diomed adds his advice. whom he informs of the extremity of the danger. where the god. Neptune takes advantage of his slumber. they should go forth and encourage the army with their presence. 231 . forms a design to over-reach him: she sets off her charms with the utmost care. and. that the sameness of these scenes renders many notes unnecessary. at first sight. seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the Trojans. which Ulysses withstands. on his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses. Juno. Agamemnon proposes to make their escape by night. persuades him to seal the eyes of Jupiter: this done. is ravished with her beauty. and is laid asleep. with some difficulty. which advice is pursued.

to his wounded friend: "What new alarm. Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul. As when old ocean's silent surface sleeps. Debating long. and blackens in the sky. and cleanse the clotted gore. The mass of waters will no wind obey. Refresh thy wound. or to the general haste. While I the adventures of the day explore." He said: and. Let Hecamede the strengthening bath prepare. Dire disarray! the tumult of the fight. and thicken to the fleet! Here with the cordial draught dispel thy care. Then thus. While wavering counsels thus his mind engage. What mix'd events attend this mighty day? Hark! how the shouts divide. impatient. To join the host.) hasten'd to the field. and how they meet. nor flowing bowl. Jove sends one gust. [254] . Fluctuates in doubtful thought the Pylian sage. divine Machaon. And now come full. Weighs down the cloud. Soon as the prospect open'd to his view. His wounded eyes the scene of sorrow knew.) Then snatch'd a lance. (His valiant offspring. and bids them roll away. and issued from the door. and the Greeks in flight. say. the sight his bosom warms. The waves just heaving on the purple deeps: While yet the expected tempest hangs on high. (That day the son his father's buckler bore. His startled ears the increasing cries attend. he fixes on the last: Yet. as he moves.416 The Iliad of Homer But not the genial feast. The field rings dreadful with the clang of arms. seizing Thrasymedes' shield. The wall in ruins.

Ulysses the divine. Blows echo blows. By tardy steps ascending from the fleet: The king of men. the fleet unable to contain At length. beside the margin of the main. Diomed. Rank above rank. in his march. Whom thus the general of the host address'd: "O grace and glory of the Achaian name.BOOK XIV. 417 Him. .) Supported on the spears. and all or kill or die. from the field of fame? Shall then proud Hector see his boast fulfill'd. On many a Grecian bosom writ in blood. they took their way. Our fleets in ashes. i. the javelins fly. Nestor's approach alarm'd each Grecian breast. the crowded ships they moor: Who landed first. but anxious for the day. And who to Tydeus owes his noble line. Nestor.232 (Their ships at distance from the battle stand. the wounded princes meet. ah! now too soon made good. In lines advanced along the shelving strand: Whose bay. and our heroes kill'd? Such was his threat. nor will one chief engage? And have I lived to see with mournful eyes In every Greek a new Achilles rise?" 232 —Who to Tydeus owes. The gleaming falchions flash. Is every heart inflamed with equal rage Against your king. Unfit to fight. lay highest on the shore. What drives thee.e.

Now heaven averse. Not Jove himself. to run. The wall. On speedy measures then employ your thought In such distress! if counsel profit aught: Arms cannot much: though Mars our souls incite. lies smoking in the dust. Bring all to sea. And launch what ships lie nearest to the main." . lies smoking on the ground: Even to the ships their conquering arms extend. Cease we at length to waste our blood in vain. wills our ruin here. And that the rampart. Not he that thunders from the aerial bower. Leave these at anchor. and hoist each sail for flight.418 The Iliad of Homer [255] Gerenian Nestor then: "So fate has will'd. And all his favour. our hands from battle ties. And groans of slaughter'd Greeks to heaven ascend." To him the monarch: "That our army bends. Past are the days when happier Greece was blest. These gaping wounds withhold us from the fight. our late inviolable bound. That Troy triumphant our high fleet ascends. well foreseen. Than perish in the danger we may shun. far from Argos. late our surest trust And best defence. And all-confirming time has fate fulfill'd. Who. all his aid confess'd. And lifts the Trojan glory to the skies. if impetuous Troy forbear the fight. All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear. till the coming night: Then. And best defence. Better from evils. upon the past has power.

And wilt thou thus desert the Trojan plain? And have whole streams of blood been spilt in vain? In such base sentence if thou couch thy fear. While war hangs doubtful. And taught to conquer. Lives there a man so dead to fame. for thy words are wise. while his soldiers fight? What more could Troy? What yet their fate denies Thou givest the foe: all Greece becomes their prize. Employ'd our youth. with despair shall see. or to fall in fight: Adventurous combats and bold wars to wage. And thou the shame of any host but ours! A host.BOOK XIV. more conducive to our weal. or young. or the thought declares? And comes it even from him whose sovereign sway The banded legions of all Greece obey? Is this a general's voice that calls to flight. I force not Greece to quit this hateful coast. Unwilling as I am to lose the host. And owe destruction to a prince like thee. or old. lest a Greek should hear. who dares To think such meanness. No more the troops (our hoisted sails in view. But thy ships flying. Glad I submit. and yet employs our age. Speak it in whispers." 419 [256] . by Jove endued with martial might. The sage Ulysses thus replies. Aught. unfold. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes: "What shameful words (unkingly as thou art) Fall from that trembling tongue and timorous heart? Oh were thy sway the curse of meaner powers. whoe'er. Thus he. Themselves abandon'd) shall the fight pursue." "Thy just reproofs (Atrides calm replies) Like arrows pierce me.

Young though he be. and. There. Then. and in exile dwell'd. and animate the rest. Advance the glory which he cannot share. and rule the distant war.420 The Iliad of Homer Tydides cut him short. Inspire the ranks. though with wounds oppress'd. and flourish'd where Adrastus reign'd. rich in fortune's gifts. my sire. witness of the war. what for common good my thoughts inspire. from the tumult far. Brave in his life. May speak to councils and assembled kings. Attend. who from the mighty Tydeus springs. and glorious in his fall. Safe let us stand. Beheld his vines their liquid harvest yield. But lest new wounds on wounds o'erpower us quite. The monarch's daughter there (so Jove ordain'd) He won. Though not partaker. Though sore of battle. And numerous flocks that whiten'd all the field. and in the son respect the sire. behold the man Who boldly gives it. the foremost once in fame! Nor lives in Greece a stranger to his name. Such Tydeus was. and what he shall say. disdain not to obey: A youth. Who Pleuron's walls and Calydon possess'd. Melas and Agrius. and thus began: "Such counsel if you seek. From him. his acres till'd. Whose honoured dust (his race of glory run) Lies whelm'd in ruins of the Theban wall. Beyond the missile javelin's sounding flight. Let each go forth. He pass'd to Argos. From Calydon expell'd. Hear then in me the great OEnides' son." . With three bold sons was generous Prothous bless'd. but (who far surpass'd The rest in courage) OEneus was the last.

And thus the venerable hero spoke: 421 "Atrides! lo! with what disdainful eye Achilles sees his country's forces fly. while proud kings. and chiefs renown'd. So may he perish. as the shout encountering armies yield When twice ten thousand shake the labouring field." [257] He spoke. Blind. and such the thundering sound Of him whose trident rends the solid ground. and o'erwhelm with shame! But Heaven forsakes not thee: o'er yonder sands Soon shall thou view the scattered Trojan bands Fly diverse. Driven heaps on heaps. Loud. impious man! whose anger is his guide. then rush'd amid the warrior crew. their winged wheels employ To hide their ignominious heads in Troy. . And sent his voice before him as he flew. Who glories in unutterable pride.BOOK XIV. so may Jove disclaim The wretch relentless. He added not: the listening kings obey. And grisly war appears a pleasing sight. Press'd in his own. with clouds involved around Of rolling dust. Atrides leads the way. Each Argive bosom beats to meet the fight. Slow moving on. Such was the voice. the general's hand he took. The god of ocean (to inflame their rage) Appears a warrior furrowed o'er with age.

perfumed. Far-beaming pendants tremble in her ear. and round her body pours Soft oils of fragrance. and trembles at the sight. Jove to deceive. Thus while she breathed of heaven. Touch'd with her secret key. through earth. A golden zone her swelling bosom bound. yet still successful.422 The Iliad of Homer Meantime Saturnia from Olympus' brow. Part o'er her shoulders waved like melted gold. beheld the fields below. That rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd: Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round. on Ida's shady height She sees her Jove. Safe from access of each intruding power. Sacred to dress and beauty's pleasing cares: With skill divine had Vulcan form'd the bower. with decent pride Her artful hands the radiant tresses tied. the doors unfold: Self-closed. And lull the lord of thunders in her arms. Where her great brother gave the Grecians aid. cheat of love. what methods shall she try. Here first she bathes. . With joy the glorious conflict she survey'd. Part on her head in shining ringlets roll'd. to blind his all-beholding eye? At length she trusts her power. Against his wisdom to oppose her charms. High-throned in gold. and ambrosial showers: The winds. What arts. Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd. behind her shut the valves of gold. the balmy gale convey Through heaven. But placed aloft. Swift to her bright apartment she repairs. resolved to prove The old. and all the aerial way: Spirit divine! whose exhalation greets The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets.

If I compose those fatal feuds again. On the last limits of the land and deep. I hear. and what love. Whelm'd under the huge mass of earth and main.BOOK XIV. Then o'er her head she cast a veil more white Than new-fallen snow. which melts mankind in fierce desires. and dazzling as the light. will Venus aid Saturnia's joy. Of upper heaven to Jove resign'd the reign. Forth from the dome the imperial goddess moves. repay their age!" . What time old Saturn. And. what my youth has owed. has made the union cease. Each gem illumined with a triple star. Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. What honour. In their kind arms my tender years were past. and deem her will obey'd. That power. Where the great parents. from Olympus cast. "How long (to Venus thus apart she cried) Shall human strife celestial minds divide? Ah yet. Last her fair feet celestial sandals grace. That love." 423 [258] "Then grant me (said the queen) those conquering charms. And calls the mother of the smiles and loves. For strife. (sacred source of gods!) Ocean and Tethys their old empire keep. Thus issuing radiant with majestic pace. which mortals and immortals warms. shall I obtain. And set aside the cause of Greece and Troy?" "Let heaven's dread empress (Cytheraea said) Speak her request. And burns the sons of heaven with sacred fires! "For lo! I haste to those remote abodes. Once more their minds in mutual ties engage.

O'er fair Emathia's ever-pleasing shore. Whilst from Olympus pleased Saturnia flew. And from her fragrant breast the zone embraced. O'er Hemus' hills with snows eternal crown'd. She speeds to Lemnos o'er the rolling deep. 234 vi.424 The Iliad of Homer She said. This on her hand the Cyprian Goddess laid: "Take this. Nor once her flying foot approach'd the ground. e liete paci. The kind deceit. e cari vezzi. and the more persuasive sighs. e placide.234 233 [259] Compare Tasso:— Teneri sdegni. O'er high Pieria thence her course she bore. Persuasive speech. Sleep. In this was every art. and with it all thy wish. the still-reviving fire. And seeks the cave of Death's half-brother. the gay desire. Then taking wing from Athos' lofty steep. parolette. e sospir tronchi. the gentle vow. and every charm. To win the wisest. e tranquille Repulse. bk. and the coldest warm: Fond love. Then Venus to the courts of Jove withdrew. With smiles she took the charm. 25 Compare the description of the dwelling of Sleep in Orlando Furioso. and eloquence of eyes.233 With various skill and high embroidery graced. Lib. Sorrisi. Silence that spoke. ." she said. and smiling press'd The powerful cestus to her snowy breast. e molli baci. With awe divine." Gier. xvi. e dolci stille Di pianto. the queen of love Obey'd the sister and the wife of Jove.

O power of slumbers! hear. A splendid footstool. shall I dare to steep Jove's awful temples in the dew of sleep? Long since. "Sweet pleasing Sleep! (Saturnia thus began) Who spread'st thy empire o'er each god and man. The work of Vulcan. When wine and feasts thy golden humours please. Impower'd the wrath of gods and men to tame. owns my reign. the tempests roar. to indulge thy ease. But how. and a throne. Somnus. Shed thy soft dews on Jove's immortal eyes. and tumbled gods on gods. old Ocean. and from the realms on high Had hurl'd indignant to the nether sky. Great Saturn's heir. to whom I fled for aid. His conquering son. unbidden. And drive the hero to the Coan shore: Great Jove. (The friend of earth and heaven. and favour still. If e'er obsequious to thy Juno's will. Me chief he sought. When lo! the deeps arise. What time. plough'd the main. awaking. On those eternal lids I laid my hand. at thy bold command. deserting Ilion's wasted plain. Alcides. The sire of all. Even Jove revered the venerable dame. shook the blest abodes With rising wrath. But gentle Night." . And his hush'd waves lie silent on the main. and empress of the skies! O'er other gods I spread my easy chain. shall be thine. too venturous." 425 "Imperial dame (the balmy power replies). that shine With gold unfading.) her wings display'd. While sunk in love's entrancing joys he lies.BOOK XIV.

the charming daughters of the main— Around my person wait. seq. speaking. that with Chronos dwell. and second my design. The youngest Grace.426 The Iliad of Homer "Vain are thy fears (the queen of heaven replies. shall be ever mine. shall be thine. and bind the invoking gods: Let the great parent earth one hand sustain. The fairest. rolls her large majestic eyes). 107. my loved-one. The youngest Grace. And those who rule the inviolable floods." Dryden's Virgil. That she. Pasithae the divine. Nor for the deed expect a vulgar prize. Think'st thou that Troy has Jove's high favour won. . his all-conquering son? Hear. thy loved-one shall be ever thine. Deiopeia. and from the infernal bowers Invokes the sable subtartarean powers."235 [260] "Swear then (he said) by those tremendous floods That roar through hell. and obey the mistress of the skies. 235 "Twice seven. For know. To hear and witness from the depths of hell. Like great Alcides. Æn. And stretch the other o'er the sacred main: Call the black Titans." The queen assents. and bear my train: Succeed my wish. Pasithae the divine. Whom mortals name the dread Titanian gods. i. And.

BOOK XIV. . 427 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER.

Through air.) [261] To Ida's top successful Juno flies. in likeness of the bird of night. Great Jove surveys her with desiring eyes: The god. whose lightning sets the heavens on fire. There on a fir.428 The Iliad of Homer Then swift as wind. unseen. Fierce as when first by stealth he seized her charms. and melted in her arms: Fix'd on her eyes he fed his eager look. conceal'd from sight. But call'd Cymindis by the race of earth. (Chalcis his name by those of heavenly birth. involved in darkness glide. And not her steeds and flaming chariot nigh?" . whose echoing hills Are heard resounding with a hundred rills:) Fair Ida trembles underneath the god. Hush'd are her mountains. and her forests nod. and thus with transport spoke: "Why comes my goddess from the ethereal sky. whose spiry branches rise To join its summit to the neighbouring skies. Mix'd with her soul. o'er Lemnos' smoky isle They wing their way. Then press'd her hand. Through all his bosom feels the fierce desire. Dark in embowering shade. Sat Sleep. on the point of Ide: (Mother of savages. and Imbrus' sea-beat soil. And light on Lectos.

beautiful and young. The steeds. he is likewise the adopted son of Asterius. Let softer cares the present hour employ. from that Alcides came:) Nor Phoenix' daughter. I hear. has made that union cease Which held so long that ancient pair in peace.BOOK XIV. Then she—"I haste to those remote abodes Where the great parents of the deathless gods. Or for an earthly. and he is thus carried back into the remotest period of Cretan antiquity known to the poet. or a heavenly love: Not when I press'd Ixion's matchless dame. Ne'er did my soul so strong a passion prove. the sacred cells Deep under seas. I leave the Olympian bower. Wait under Ide: of thy superior power To ask consent. where hoary Ocean dwells. Whence rose Pirithous like the gods in fame: Not when fair Danae felt the shower of gold Stream into life." "For that (said Jove) suffice another day! But eager love denies the least delay. The reverend Ocean and gray Tethys. On the last limits of the land and main. Nor seek. Whence godlike Rhadamanth and Minos sprung. prepared my chariot to convey O'er earth and seas. I visit these. and of the daughter of Phoenix. to whose indulgent cares I owe the nursing of my tender years: For strife. and through the aerial way. unknown to thee. Not thus I burn'd for either Theban dame: (Bacchus from this. apparently as a native hero. 236 .236 429 —And Minos. Minos is described as the son of Jupiter. But in a genealogy recorded by later writers. "By Homer. And be these moments sacred all to joy. and too ancient to allow his descent to be traced to any other source. Illustrious enough for a divine parentage. whom all succeeding authors name Europa. reign. whence Perseus brave and bold.

that. Not thus even for thyself I felt desire. to that recess retire."—Thirlwall. who is related either to have crossed over from Thessaly. smiling with superior love. Nor comelier Ceres' more majestic grace. And whose broad eye the extended earth surveys. Shaded with clouds. seq. who darts through heaven his rays. In secret there indulge thy soft desire. son of Dorus. All heaven beholds me recent from thy arms? With skill divine has Vulcan form'd thy bower. and thus replies: "Is this a scene for love? On Ida's height.430 The Iliad of Homer Not thus I burn'd for fair Latona's face. Sacred to love and to the genial hour. p. ." [262] He spoke. the son of Helen. with disorder'd charms. As now my veins receive the pleasing fire. Exposed to mortal and immortal sight! Our joys profaned by each familiar eye. Or mix among the senate of the gods? Shall I not think." as descendant of Dorus. and. and is thus connected with a colony said to have been led into Creta by Tentamus. or Tectamus. Not even the sun. The sport of heaven. the goddess with the charming eyes Glows with celestial red. If such thy will." She ceased. Thus answer'd mild the cloud-compelling Jove: "Nor god nor mortal shall our joys behold. 136. and circumfused in gold. and fable of the sky: How shall I e'er review the blest abodes. or to have embarked at Malea after having led his followers by land into Laconia.

and hyacinth with rich inlay. Crocus. Steep'd in soft joys and circumfused with air. And sudden hyacinths the turf bestrow. The panting thunderer nods. unperceived. kindling at the view. To check a while the haughty hopes of Troy: While Jove yet rests. 700." Thus having said. 'Broider'd the ground. descending o'er the ground. His eager arms around the goddess threw. renews his care. Neptune! now." —"Paradise Lost. the important hour employ. 237 . Glad Earth perceives. 431 [263] Milton has emulated this passage. and breathe ambrosia round: At length. in describing the couch of our first parents:— "Underneath the violet. while yet my vapours shed The golden vision round his sacred head. and from her bosom pours Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers: Thick new-born violets a soft carpet spread. On human lids to drop the balmy dew. and sinks to rest. with love and sleep's soft power oppress'd. To Neptune's ear soft Sleep his message brings.BOOK XIV. Perfume the mount. the power of slumber flew. And thus with gentle words address'd the god: "Now. For Juno's love. Have closed those awful and eternal eyes. he stood. with zeal increased. Now to the navy borne on silent wings. And clustering lotos swell'd the rising bed. and. Gazing he spoke." iv. Neptune. Celestial dews. and Somnus' pleasing ties.237 And flamy crocus made the mountain glow There golden clouds conceal the heavenly pair. Beside him sudden.

Be still yourselves. in bright array The legions march. their martial arms they change: The busy chiefs their banded legions range. Like lightning flashing through the frighted skies. Thus arm'd. Brace on your firmest helms. Let to the weak the lighter arms belong. ye Greeks! myself will lead the way. not Hector shall our presence stay." The troops assent. The weaker warrior takes a lighter shield. Thus sheath'd in shining brass. Pale mortals tremble. Indignant thus—"Oh once of martial fame! O Greeks! if yet ye can deserve the name! This half-recover'd day shall Troy obtain? Shall Hector thunder at your ships again? Lo! still he vaunts. and confess their fears. While stern Achilles in his wrath retires. and stand to arms: His strongest spear each valiant Grecian wield. if glory any bosom warms. Clad in his might. The ponderous targe be wielded by the strong. Myself. and oppress'd with pain. the earth-shaking power appears. The kings. and threats the fleet with fires. though wounded. .432 The Iliad of Homer And towering in the foremost ranks of war. The strong and cumbrous arms the valiant wield. With helpful hands themselves assist the train. and Neptune leads the way: His brandish'd falchion flames before their eyes. Each valiant Grecian seize his broadest shield. and ye shall need no more. Oh yet. One hero's loss too tamely you deplore.

BOOK XIV. 433 GREEK SHIELD. .

When stormy winds disclose the dark profound. On the razed shield the fallen ruin rings. and one sustain'd his sword. Both armies join: earth thunders. appear: The sea's stern ruler there. and wondrous man. Nor deaden'd there its giddy fury spends. Full on his breast and throat with force descends. Catch the dry mountain. Rose in huge ranks. Darts on the consecrated plant of Jove. Direct at Ajax' bosom winged its course. And such a clamour shakes the sounding heaven. when flames in torrents pour. with many a fiery round.434 The Iliad of Homer [264] Troy's great defender stands alone unawed. But whirling on. The roaring main. and dares oppose a god: And lo! the god. With such a rage the meeting hosts are driven. Arms his proud host. his tempestuous hand A ponderous stone upheaving from the sand. Or served to ballast. urged by Hector's force. (One braced his shield. Not half so loud the bellowing deeps resound. Smokes in the dust. Less loud the winds that from the Æolian hall Roar through the woods.) Toss'd round and round. ocean roars. Less loud the woods. As when the bolt. red-hissing from above. and form'd a watery wall Around the ships: seas hanging o'er the shores. the missive marble flings. and its shades devour. (Where heaps laid loose beneath the warrior's feet.) Then back the disappointed Trojan drew. And cursed the lance that unavailing flew: But 'scaped not Ajax. . and ploughs into the ground. and make whole forests fall. The first bold javelin. But there no pass the crossing belts afford. and Hector here. or to prop the fleet. at her great master's call.

and despite. And own the terrors of the almighty hand! So lies great Hector prostrate on the shore." vi. He lies protected. where it stood retir'd From off the files of war. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. His mournful followers. Black from the blow. in hope. The pious warrior of Anchises' line. swifter than the wind. there they him laid. and leave the war behind. with assistant care. and shame.238 Polydamas. Troy's great defender slain: All spring to seize him. storms of arrows fly. Gnashing for anguish. 335. a dead and hollow sound. And thicker javelins intercept the sky. The groaning hero to his chariot bear. His load of armour. who interpos'd Defence. and smokes of sulphur rise. Stiff with amaze the pale beholders stand.BOOK XIV. His slacken'd hand deserts the lance it bore. His foaming coursers." "Paradise Lost. His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread. Beneath his helmet dropp'd his fainting head. Agenor the divine. . In vain an iron tempest hisses round. 238 435 [265] —He lies protected. seq. And each bold leader of the Lycian band. Greece sees. Speed to the town. and without a wound. The mountain-oak in flaming ruin lies. Clanks on the field. With covering shields (a friendly circle) stand. "Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By angels many and strong. Loud shouts of triumph fill the crowded plain. sinking to the ground.

An arduous battle rose around the dead. his swimming eyes. Soon as the Greeks the chief's retreat beheld. (Satnius the brave. And at Prothoenor shook the trembling spear. He sinks to earth. he now ejects the gore. Fired with revenge. Where gentle Xanthus rolls his easy tide. guide thy darksome steps to Pluto's dreary hall. by turns the Trojans bled. the warrior lies Supine. By fits he breathes. With double fury each invades the field. low-sinking on the shore.436 The Iliad of Homer When now they touch'd the mead's enamell'd side. and shades eternal veil his eyes. Pierced by whose point the son of Enops bled. by fits. Propp'd on that spear to which thou owest thy fall. And seals again." . Polydamas drew near. Placed on the margin of the flowery ground. Oilean Ajax first his javelin sped. By turns the Greeks. and grasps the bloody dust. The driving javelin through his shoulder thrust.) Struck through the belly's rim. "Lo thus (the victor cries) we rule the field. Raised on his knees. Now faints anew. With watery drops the chief they sprinkle round. And thus their arms the race of Panthus wield: From this unerring hand there flies no dart But bathes its point within a Grecian heart. whom beauteous Neis bore Amidst her flocks on Satnio's silver shore. half views the fleeting skies. Go.

" He spake. A victim owed to my brave brother's death. that yet the body stood Erect. nor of vulgar race. 437 [266] . may make his lineage known. it fled Full on the juncture of the neck and head. but haughty Greece. proud Polydamas. and the wounds of war. He said. He pierced his heart—"Such fate attends you all. shunn'd the flying death. But fate. As by his side the groaning warrior fell. and smiled severe. reclining. Swift to perform heaven's fatal will. for well he knew The bleeding youth: Troy sadden'd at the view. Some lines. And took the joint. is this chief extended on the plain A worthy vengeance for Prothoenor slain? Mark well his port! his figure and his face Nor speak him vulgar. Archilochus. and sorrow touch'd each Argive breast: The soul of Ajax burn'd above the rest. As Promachus his slaughtered brother draws. or perhaps his son. the sorrows. methinks. demands thy breath: Thy lofty birth no succour could impart. Behold your Promachus deprived of breath. So just the stroke. then roll'd along the sands in blood. here turn thy eyes! (The towering Ajax loud-insulting cries:) Say. But furious Acamas avenged his cause. Antenor's brother. The wings of death o'ertook thee on the dart. and cut the nerves in twain: The dropping head first tumbled on the plain. "Here. Proud Argives! destined by our arms to fall. shall share The toils. Not Troy alone. At the fierce foe he launch'd his piercing steel. The foe.BOOK XIV.

and they fly: Aghast they gaze around the fleet and wall. And from the spouting shoulders struck his head. of all the Trojan train Whom Hermes loved. The Trojans hear. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. He lifts his miserable arms in vain! Swift his broad falchion fierce Peneleus spread. they tremble. Such as to Promachus' sad spouse we bear. The lance. And from the fibres scoop'd the rooted ball. To earth at once the head and helmet fly. as aloft he shook The gory visage. and taught the arts of gain:) Full in his eye the weapon chanced to fall. Let doleful tidings greet his mother's ear. then toss'd the head on high. Drove through the neck. to his father let the tale be told: Let his high roofs resound with frantic woe. And the pale matron in our triumphs mourn." Dreadful he spoke. Ilioneus. .438 Not unappeased he enters Pluto's gate. At the proud boaster he directs his course. The boaster flies. yet sticking through the bleeding eye. and hurl'd him to the plain. And dread the ruin that impends on all. his father's only care: (Phorbas the rich." The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish struck the Grecian host. Such as the house of Promachus must know. The victor seized. When we victorious shall to Greece return. and. and shuns superior force. But young Ilioneus received the spear. But touch'd the breast of bold Peneleus most. thus insulting spoke: "Trojans! your great Ilioneus behold! Haste.

BOOK XIV. Bold Merion. leader of the Mysian train. when Neptune made proud Ilion yield. mighty numbers run. Daughters of Jove! that on Olympus shine. what hero first embrued the field? Of all the Grecians what immortal name. will ye raise to fame? Thou first. of all the Grecian race Skill'd in pursuit. But stretch'd in heaps before Oileus' son. 439 [267] BACCHUS. . And whose bless'd trophies. Ajax the less. Morys and Hippotion slew. Fall mighty numbers. all-recording nine! O say. Strong Periphaetes and Prothoon bled. And the fierce soul came rushing through the wound. Hyperenor fell. Eternal darkness wrapp'd the warrior round. great Ajax! on the unsanguined plain Laid Hyrtius. Nestor's son o'erthrew. Phalces and Mermer. Ye all-beholding. What chief. Pierced in the flank by Menelaus' steel. His people's pastor. and swiftest in the chase. By Teucer's arrows mingled with the dead.

.

repairing to the assembly of the gods. but is prevented by Minerva. Juno. . to which. Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle. and horror in their eye. Hector in a swoon. sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground: Then stopp'd and panted.[268] BOOK XV. ARGUMENT. and attempt to fire the first line of the fleet. brings him back to the battle. Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound. she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. to incense them against Jupiter. awaken'd from his dream of love. with extraordinary address. On Ida's summit sat imperial Jove: Round the wide fields he cast a careful view. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter. after much reluctance and passion. he is ready to take arms. but are. in particular she touches Mars with a violent resentment. Apollo reinspires Hector with vigour. he consents. and Neptune at the head of the Greeks: he is highly incensed at the artifice of Juno. Jupiter. AND THE ACTS OF AJAX. the Greeks pursue. There saw the Trojans fly. THE FIFTH BATTLE AT THE SHIPS. Meanwhile. He breaks down great part of the Grecian wall: the Trojans rush in. where the chariots lie Fear on their cheek. as yet. and turns the fortune of the fight. marches before him with his aegis. repelled by the greater Ajax with a prodigious slaughter. awaking. attempts. who appeases him by her submissions.

and his native shore. Hear this. Not far. And.442 The Iliad of Homer These proud in arms. and brave the almighty hand? Hast thou forgot. And sent to Argos. and breathless with the fall. trembling.) Ejecting blood. From the vast concave of the spangled sky. His senses wandering to the verge of death. to fraudful Juno spoke: "O thou. And driven his conquering squadrons from the field. the monarch of the main. by thy wiles induced. incensed. The god beheld him with a pitying look. 'midst the war. Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head. those scatter'd o'er the plain And. bound and fix'd on high. unhappy in thy wiles. And thus. remember. I hung thee trembling in a golden chain. Canst thou. still adverse to the eternal will. (His sad associates round with weeping eyes. Stunn'd in the whirl. and well-dissembled love. Him through a thousand forms of death I bore. great Hector on the dust he spies. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. For ever studious in promoting ill! Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield. when. these submissive words return'd: [269] . Lest arts and blandishments successless prove. Nor seem'd the vengeance worthy such a son: When. and our fury dread. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. Thy soft deceits. And all the raging gods opposed in vain? Headlong I hurl'd them from the Olympian hall. and panting yet for breath." The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn'd. withstand Our power immense.

divine Sarpedon. And calls his senses from the verge of death. tremendous Styx! that flow Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below. He. What youths he slaughters under Ilion's walls! Even my loved son. The foodful earth and all-infolding skies.) Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey. Let her descend. our virgin bed! Not by my arts the ruler of the main Steeps Troy in blood. even to Achilles' fleet. he fought and disobey'd: Else had thy Juno better counsels given. If truth inspires thy tongue. not untouch'd with pity. but shall send in vain. and from the embattled plain Command the sea-god to his watery reign: While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare To rise afresh. his own pity sway'd. to the plain Shall send Patroclus. falls! [270] . And call the god that bears the silver bow. proclaim our will To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill. Nor dare to act but when we point the way.BOOK XV. "By every oath that powers immortal ties. And that unbroken vow. By the dread honours of thy sacred head. By thy black waves. and ranges round the plain: By his own ardour. Shall fall by thousands at the hero's feet. Our high decree let various Iris know. And taught submission to the sire of heaven. and once more wake the war: His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath." 443 "Think'st thou with me? fair empress of the skies! (The immortal father with a smile replies. To help his Greeks. Greece chased by Troy.

Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage. If thought of man can match the speed of gods. There sat the powers in awful synod placed. Such was our word. and measures space with space: So swift flew Juno to the bless'd abodes. Nor one of all the heavenly host engage In aid of Greece." The trembling queen (the almighty order given) Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven. nor till then. and lofty Ilion burns. and made obeisance as she pass'd Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown'd239 They hail her queen. As some wayfaring man. the nectar streams around. viii.444 The Iliad of Homer Vanquish'd at last by Hector's lance he lies. Joins hill to dale. Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl. and seal'd it with the almighty nod. who wanders o'er In thought a length of lands he trod before. See the note on Bk. From that great hour the war's whole fortune turns. shall great Achilles rise: And lo! that instant. . godlike Hector dies. and fate the word obeys. They bow'd. Then. Pallas assists. Achilles' glory to the stars to raise. Page 142. Sends forth his active mind from place to place. The promise of a god I gave. And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul? 239 —The brazen dome.

If that loved boasted offspring be thy own. While on her wrinkled front. dare not vent a sigh. To whom the white-arm'd goddess thus replies: "Enough thou know'st the tyrant of the skies. great Mars. Bid the crown'd nectar circle round the hall: But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome Such stern decrees. Go thou. and lowering discontent." 445 The goddess said. Unmoved his mind. ye powers above! But know. And damp the eternal banquets of the skies. Thus she proceeds—"Attend. in pride of sway. such threaten'd woes to come. the feasts of heaven attend thy call.BOOK XV. begin and show the way. To see the gathering grudge in every breast. and eyebrow bent." [271] . immortals! all he wills. Black horror sadden'd each celestial face. Severely bent his purpose to fulfil. 'tis madness to contest with Jove: Supreme he sits. Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die. As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise. and sees. But dare not murmur. Sat stedfast care. and sullen took her place. and unrestrain'd his will. and bends the poles. Shakes all the thrones of heaven. obey: And thou. Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o'erthrown. Submiss. Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express'd. Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey: Fierce in the majesty of power controls.

Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies. And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven? Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage. And now had Jove. and yet shall fall. But Pallas. immortals! thus shall Mars obey. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven. Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. and yield my vengeance way: Descending first to yon forbidden plain. and fierce begun: "Thus then. Heroes as great have died. with hasty vengeance flies. by bold rebellion driven. springing through the bright abode. Dares. with anguish for his slaughter'd son.446 The Iliad of Homer Stern Mars. Then the huge helmet lifting from his head. The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage." With that he gives command to Fear and Flight To join his rapid coursers for the fight: Then grim in arms. Forgive me. gods. The god of battles dares avenge the slain. Smote his rebelling breast. furious! art thou toss'd? Striv'st thou with Jove? thou art already lost. And was imperial Juno heard in vain? Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven. Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call. . Struck for the immortal race with timely fear. Thus to the impetuous homicide she said: "By what wild passion. Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. From frantic Mars she snatch'd the shield and spear. Starts from her azure throne to calm the god.

and shakes the steady poles. And various Iris. Veil'd in a mist of fragrance him they found. Sullen he sat. he whose nod controls The trembling world. With clouds of gold and purple circled round. Why should heaven's law with foolish man comply Exempted from the race ordain'd to die?" This menace fix'd the warrior to his throne. and execute his dread command." She said. Receive. wing their airy way. Well-pleased the Thunderer saw their earnest care. by whom his power was given. and curb'd the rising groan. and sat. How shall his rashness stand the dire alarms. If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Strives he with me. and the god of day. If he refuse. then let him timely weigh Our elder birthright. Swift as the wind. Then Juno call'd (Jove's orders to obey) The winged Iris. "Go wait the Thunderer's will (Saturnia cried) On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide: There in the father's awful presence stand. And prompt obedience to the queen of air. and superior sway. Report to yon mad tyrant of the main. And is there equal to the lord of heaven?" 447 [272] . Bid him from fight to his own deeps repair. Then (while a smile serenes his awful brow) Commands the goddess of the showery bow: "Iris! descend. (Fair nurse of fountains. and what we here ordain. to Ida's hills they came. Or breathe from slaughter in the fields of air.BOOK XV. the god that gilds the day. and of savage game) There sat the eternal.

or fleecy snows. our triple rule we know. the goddess wing'd her flight To sacred Ilion from the Idaean height. am I. and superior sway. Ethereal Jove extends his high domain. replies. Olympus. [273] . And ancient Rhea. And to blue Neptune thus the goddess calls: "Attend the mandate of the sire above! In me behold the messenger of Jove: He bids thee from forbidden wars repair To thine own deeps. How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Striv'st thou with him by whom all power is given? And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?" "What means the haughty sovereign of the skies? (The king of ocean thus. O'er the wide clouds. So from the clouds descending Iris falls. he bids thee timely weigh His elder birthright. incensed.448 The Iliad of Homer The all-mighty spoke. And hush the roarings of the sacred deep. Swift as the rattling hail. This if refused. Drive through the skies. and o'er the starry plain. Infernal Pluto sways the shades below. nor of his train. No vassal god. and this earth. or to the fields of air. when Boreas fiercely blows. in common lie: What claim has here the tyrant of the sky? Far in the distant clouds let him control.) Rule as he will his portion'd realms on high. earth's immortal dame: Assign'd by lot. My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. And awe the younger brothers of the pole. Three brother deities from Saturn came.

" Thus speaking. and the queen of heaven. The trembling. The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last. and thus bespoke the source of light: . forgetful of his promise given To Hermes. and our birth the same. Give him to know. A noble mind disdains not to repent.BOOK XV. though angry. If yet. There to his children his commands be given. second race of heaven." "Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin'd) When ministers are blest with prudent mind: Warn'd by thy words. To favour Ilion. And plunged into the bosom of the flood. The lord of thunders. To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven. He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race. Pallas. unless the Grecian train Lay yon proud structures level with the plain. And quit. To elder brothers guardian fiends are given. and change thy rash intent. Howe'er the offence by other gods be pass'd. servile. O sire of floods! Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods? Correct it yet." 449 "And must I then (said she). The same our honours. that perfidious place. the contended field: Not but his threats with justice I disclaim. to powerful Jove I yield. furious from the field he strode. from his lofty height Beheld.

Swell his bold heart. Even power immense had found such battle hard. shooting from the Idaean brow. Seeks his own seas. Go thou. Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm. Glides down the mountain to the plain below. half unseal'd his sight: . and well the vengeance spared. withholds thee from the war?" The fainting hero. His sense returning with the coming breeze. Again his pulses beat. And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell. As Phoebus. Burn'd to the bottom of his seas profound. To whom the god who gives the golden day: "Why sits great Hector from the field so far? What grief. Again his loved companions meet his eyes. Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care. my son! the trembling Greeks alarm. what wound. Jove thinking of his pains." The godhead said. as the vision bright Stood shining o'er him. till the Achaian train Fly to their ships and Hellespont again: Then Greece shall breathe from toils. His will divine the son of Jove obey'd. Else had my wrath. and urge his strength to war: Let Ilion conquer.450 The Iliad of Homer [274] "Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl'd Around the globe. That drives a turtle through the liquid skies. they pass'd away. heaven's thrones all shaking round. Desists at length his rebel-war to wage. Well was the crime. his spirits rise. whose earthquakes rock the world. Not half so swift the sailing falcon flies. There Hector seated by the stream he sees. and trembles at our rage.

" To him Apollo: "Be no more dismay'd." Thus to bold Hector spoke the son of Jove. now freed. or branching hind. And springs. Inspire thy warriors then with manly force. Behold! thy Phoebus shall his arms employ.BOOK XV. and be strong! the Thunderer sends thee aid. His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies: He snuffs the females in the well-known plain. how. And hell's black horrors swim before my eye. Breaks from his stall. His head. propitious still to thee and Troy. and all his hosts pursue. As when the pamper'd steed. and pours along the ground. (not fated yet to die) 451 . thus Hector flew. the gliding ghosts I spy. with reins unbound. Thus wakens Hector from the sleep of death? Has fame not told. As when the force of men and dogs combined Invade the mountain goat. And to the ships impel thy rapid horse: Even I will make thy fiery coursers way. with commanding breath. and cool his fiery blood. And breathed immortal ardour from above. With ample strokes he rushes to the flood. while my trusty sword Bathed Greece in slaughter. exulting. Phoebus. to his fields again: Urged by the voice divine. To bathe his sides. and her battle gored. Full of the god. See. And drive the Grecians headlong to the sea. he tosses to the skies. Far from the hunter's rage secure they lie Close in the rock. The mighty Ajax with a deadly blow Had almost sunk me to the shades below? Even yet. methinks. "What blest immortal.

Thoas. the bravest of the Ætolian force. Fierce as he is. Jove! without thy powerful will. Thickening their ranks. let Hector learn to fear. and provoke the storm. Than winning words and heavenly eloquence. . and consent to fear." The warrior spoke. late. that late in conquering troops pursued. by thundering Ajax kill'd: What god restores him to the frighted field. the listening Greeks obey. Soon as they see the furious chief appear. and his worst withstand: The Greeks' main body to the fleet command. Lo! still he lives. Pours new destruction on her sons again? He comes not. [275] Thoas with grief observed his dreadful course. But let the few whom brisker spirits warm. "Gods! what portent (he cried) these eyes invades? Lo! Hector rises from the Stygian shades! We saw him. So Greece. Forget to vanquish. Skill'd to direct the javelin's distant flight. and conquers still! Yet hear my counsel. And mark'd their progress through the ranks in blood. and form a deep array. And not content that half of Greece lie slain. Not more in councils famed for solid sense. pursues.452 The Iliad of Homer When lo! a lion shoots across the way! They fly: at once the chasers and the prey. And bold to combat in the standing fight. and when such foes appear. Thus point your arms. Stand the first onset.

Sat doubtful conquest hovering o'er the field. Approach the foe. The Greeks expect the shock. As long as Phoebus bore unmoved the shield. and their fear confess'd. and lightens in their eyes. And Mars-like Meges: these the chiefs excite. scatter'd wide. And arrows leaping from the bow-string sung. by heroes flung. Dire was the hiss of darts. and shaded all the field. And spread the carnage through the shady gloom. Full on the front the pressing Trojans bear. Their force is humbled. Heaps fall on heaps: the slaughter Hector leads. then Stichius bleeds. unnumber'd multitudes attend. and meet the coming fight. and mingle in the skies. and thirst for blood in vain. First great Arcesilas. Merion gave command. Deep horror seizes every Grecian breast. and the shores defend. To flank the navy.BOOK XV. Impending Phoebus pours around them fear. and no day to guide. 453 [276] . To scatter hosts and terrify mankind. A veil of clouds involved his radiant head: High held before him. Teucer. Vulcan to Jove the immortal gift consign'd. Shouts in their ears. But when aloft he shakes it in the skies. Jove's enormous shield Portentous shone. Behind. So flies a herd of oxen. And Hector first came towering to the war. No swain to guard them. The valiant leader of the Cretan band. When two fell lions from the mountain come. These drink the life of generous warriors slain: Those guiltless fall. Phoebus himself the rushing battle led. the clamours rise From different parts. Each Ajax. And Troy and Hector thunder in the rear.

And starry pole. This sprang from Phelus.—Thou also mad'st the night." and the transition from the direct to the oblique construction. animates the fight. earth. Though born of lawless love: from home expell'd. Him Ajax honour'd with a brother's name. and under open sky ador'd The God that made both sky." Milton. Which they beheld. and thou the day. "Paradise Lost. Troy ends at last his labours and his life. The Greeks dismay'd. Maker omnipotent. confused. Points to the fleet: "For. by this hand he dies. On rush'd bold Hector. some skulk behind the wall. both stood. gloomy as the night. brave Clonius. in Phylace he dwell'd.454 The Iliad of Homer One to the bold Boeotians ever dear. 240 —For. By Paris. the moon's resplendent globe. air. Both turn'd. others pant for breath. and heaven. Mecystes next Polydamas o'erthrew. And one Menestheus' friend and famed compeer." Book iv. A banish'd man. And thee. Medon and Iasus. And o'er the slaughter stalks gigantic death. . Pierced through the shoulder as he basely flies. Some seek the trench. So in Milton:— "Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd. Stretch'd on one heap. by the gods! who flies. Polites' arm laid Echius on the plain.240 Who dares but linger. No weeping sister his cold eye shall close. While these fly trembling. great Agenor slew. Deiochus inglorious dies. But hapless Medon from Oileus came. Press'd by the vengeance of an angry wife. by the gods! who flies. and the Athenians led. Forbids to plunder. Observe the bold ellipsis of "he cries. Æneas sped. disperse or fall. the victors spoil the slain.

Confused. Sweeps the slight works and fashion'd domes away: Thus vanish'd at thy touch. No friendly hand his funeral pyre compose. And weeps his country with a father's eyes. eyes. Who stops to plunder at this signal hour. Experienced Nestor chief obtests the skies. Then with his hand he shook the mighty wall. with praises. The sportive wanton. 455 [277] The Grecians gaze around with wild despair. The birds shall tear him. The horses thunder. And lo! the turrets nod. the bulwarks fall: Easy as when ashore an infant stands. Before them flamed the shield. the smoking chariot bounds. The hosts rush on. . And urge the gods. earth and ocean roar! Apollo. with voices. A sudden road! a long and ample way. and weary all the powers with prayer: Exhort their men. Push'd at the bank: down sank the enormous mound: Roll'd in the ditch the heapy ruin lay. threats. the towers and walls. The toil of thousands in a moment falls. the smarting scourge resounds. loud clamours shake the shore. and men." Furious he said. The wondering crowds the downward level trod. and hands. and cars tumultuous pass. commands. pleased with some new play.BOOK XV. and the dogs devour. O'er the dread fosse (a late impervious space) Now steeds. And draws imagined houses in the sands. planted at the trench's bound. The coursers fly. and march'd the god.

And labouring armies round the works engaged. But when he saw. And save the relics of the Grecian name. Still in the tent Patroclus sat to tend The good Eurypylus. Victorious Troy. He wrings his hands. when black tempests mix the seas and skies. And adds discourse. We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold. .456 The Iliad of Homer "O Jove! if ever. his wounded friend. As. Its womb they deluge. If e'er thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod: Perform the promise of a gracious god! This day preserve our navies from the flame. While thus the thunder of the battle raged. starting from his seat. on his native shore. Fierce on the ships above. Mount the thick Trojans up the Grecian wall. ascending up the fleet. He sprinkles healing balms. in hope our country to behold. and o'erpowering all. If e'er. to anguish kind. With bitter groans his sorrows he express'd. The roaring deeps in watery mountains rise. These wield the mace. Above the sides of some tall ship ascend. And peals of thunder shook the firmament. he beats his manly breast. Presumptuous Troy mistook the accepting sign. One Greek enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore. Legions on legions from each side arise: Thick sound the keels. And catch'd new fury at the voice divine. the cars below. the medicine of the mind. and those the javelin throw." Thus prayed the sage: the eternal gave consent. then. the storm of arrows flies. and its ribs they rend: Thus loudly roaring.

through that firm array. The voice is powerful of a faithful friend. A mournful witness of this scene of woe." He spoke. expires: Thundering he falls. shakes a flaming brand. swifter than the wind Sprung from the tent. "Though yet thy state require redress (he cries) Depart I must: what horrors strike my eyes! Charged with Achilles' high command I go. and godlike Hector meet. Perhaps some favouring god his soul may bend. though numerous. By the just rule. and. to repulse in vain: Nor could the Trojans. Force to the fleet and tents the impervious way. and shine again in war. and left the war behind. For one bright prize the matchless chiefs contend. high-towering o'er the fleet. and drops the extinguish'd fires. with like skill and care.BOOK XV. That fix'd as fate. pierced by Telamon's huge lance. Nor this the ships can fire. The deck approaching. And every ship sustained an equal tide. But strive. As when a shipwright. with Palladian art. 457 [278] . and the directing line: The martial leaders. Smooths the rough wood. But. With equal hand he guides his whole design. and levels every part. Ajax the great. The embodied Greeks the fierce attack sustain. I haste to urge him by his country's care To rise in arms. speaking. The son of Clytius in his daring hand. Brave deeds of arms through all the ranks were tried. nor that defend: One kept the shore. and equal kept the war. and one the vessel trod. At one proud bark. this acted by a god. Preserved their line. Great Hector view'd him with a sad survey.

as he lived. Not vainly yet the forceful lance was thrown. It stretch'd in dust unhappy Lycophron: An exile long. to Hector's rage we owe. his eager javelin sought the foe: But Ajax shunn'd the meditated blow.458 The Iliad of Homer As stretch'd in dust before the stern he lay. behold! extended on the shore Our friend. Where are those darts on which the fates attend? And where the bow which Phoebus taught to bend?" . "Oh! all of Trojan. all of Lycian race! Stand to your arms. With anguish Ajax views the piercing sight. sustain'd at Ajax' board. Ah. This death deplored. he died. save his arms. secure his obsequies!" This said. maintain this arduous space: Lo! where the son of royal Clytius lies. In peace. Revenge. From the high poop he tumbles on the sand. revenge it on the cruel foe. for ever at his side. Near his loved master. And thus inflames his brother to the fight: [279] "Teucer. And lies a lifeless load along the land. and war. our loved companion! now no more! Dear as a parent. A faithful servant to a foreign lord. with a parent's care To fight our wars he left his native air.

Till sad Polydamas the steeds restrain'd. hastening to his aid. propitious to the Trojan foe. Pisenor's son. Polydamas! an honour'd name) Drove through the thickest of the embattled plains The startling steeds. The pointed death arrests him from behind: Through his fair neck the thrilling arrow flies. Impatient Teucer.BOOK XV. The well-stored quiver on his shoulders hung: Then hiss'd his arrow. As all on glory ran his ardent mind. Down dropp'd the bow: the shaft with brazen head Fell innocent. and strengthen'd every blow. and the bowstring sung. The astonish'd archer to great Ajax cries. (To thee. "Some god prevents our destined enterprise: Some god. At Hector's breast a chosen arrow draws: And had the weapon found the destined way. great Trojan! had renown'd that day. But Hector was not doom'd to perish then: The all-wise disposer of the fates of men (Imperial Jove) his present death withstands. to thy careful hand. And gave. renown'd in fame. and shook his eager reins. The headlong coursers spurn his empty car. Thy fall. Clytus. at distance far. Nor was such glory due to Teucer's hands. 459 . Struck by an arm unseen. and on the dust lay dead. Then. In youth's first bloom reluctantly he dies. rush'd amidst the foe: Rage edged his sword. Hurl'd from the lofty seat. Before the chief his ample bow display'd. Astynous. it burst in two. in his country's cause. fired to vengeance. Once more bold Teucer. At its full stretch as the tough string he drew.

and sweat. And spread your glory with the navy's flame. from my arm unfailing. The fourfold buckler o'er his shoulder tied. whose point with brass refulgent shines. And broke the nerve my hands had twined with art. And quit the quiver for the ponderous shield. . Strong to impel the flight of many a dart. Jove is with us. When happy nations bear the marks divine! How easy then. by long successes vain.460 The Iliad of Homer Has. and blood: their utmost might Shall find its match—No more: 'tis ours to fight. struck the bow. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. Death is the worst. and his great brother joins." "Since heaven commands it (Ajax made reply) Dismiss the bow. This Hector saw. In the first ranks indulge thy thirst of fame. Fierce as they are. Thy brave example shall the rest inflame. or even a ship to gain. Asks toil. reprobate! Such is the fate of Greece. and thus express'd his joy: "Ye troops of Lycia. ye warriors. your ancient fame. and lay thy arrows by: Thy arms no less suffice the lance to wield. On his brave head a crested helm he placed." [280] Then Teucer laid his faithless bow aside. and exert your powers. To force our fleet. Dardanus. I saw his hand. From the proud archer strike his vaunted bow: Indulgent Jove! how plain thy favours shine. to see the sinking state Of realms accursed. A dart. and Troy! Be mindful of yourselves. but now. The warrior wields. a fate which all must try. deserted. and such is ours: Behold.

His own brave friends shall glory in his fate. or to live or die? What hopes remain. Still press'd. (To generous Argos what a dire disgrace!) How long on these cursed confines will ye lie. though slain in fight he be. what methods to retire. It calls to death.BOOK XV. To your own hands are trusted all your fates. And better far in one decisive strife. 'tis a bliss to die. And for our country. his children free. and all the rage of fights. ye warriors of the Argive race. how near they fall. Entails a debt on all the grateful state. Yet undetermined. and Troy obeys his call! Not to the dance that dreadful voice invites. Than keep this hard-got inch of barren sands. 'Tis now no time for wisdom or debates. And late posterity enjoy the deed!" 461 This roused the soul in every Trojan breast: The godlike Ajax next his Greeks address'd: "How long. His wife live honour'd. all his race succeed. The gallant man. and press'd by such inglorious hands. How Hector calls. If once your vessels catch the Trojan fire? Make how the flames approach. One day should end our labour or our life." . Yet leaves his nation safe.

(Well-known in fight on Selle's winding shore. His radiant arms triumphant Meges bore. And every kindling bosom pants for fame. Meantime their fight the Spartan king survey'd. and battles won. sunk Laodamas.462 The Iliad of Homer The listening Grecians feel their leader's flame. in cities storm'd. extended on the ground. Which held its passage through the panting heart. of old Antenor's race. Full at the Trojan's head he urged his lance. Shorn from the crest. and now saves the son. There. Sprung from the race of old Laomedon. pierced by Ajax. With thundering sound The warrior falls. the son of Lampus. And stood by Meges' side a sudden aid. And famed for prowess in a well-fought field. the purple honours glow. Dolops. stooping. And issued at his breast. Polydamas laid Otus on the sand. Had saved the father. Compact. [281] . He pierced the centre of his sounding shield: But Meges. from the death withdrew. The victor. Phyleus' ample breastplate wore. Chief of the foot. His lance bold Meges at the victor threw. Where the high plumes above the helmet dance. O Phoebus! was thy care) But Croesmus' bosom took the flying spear: His corpse fell bleeding on the slippery shore. (That valued life. and firm with many a jointed scale) Which oft. Through Dolops' shoulder urged his forceful dart. For king Euphetes gave the golden mail. Then mutual slaughters spread on either side. New ting'd with Tyrian dye: in dust below. The fierce commander of the Epeian band. rushes on. By Hector here the Phocian Schedius died.

pointing to the dead. And thus inflamed him. gallant. in Priam's court. and excell'd in war. his country claim'd his care. The wretch that trembles in the field of fame. and all her glory end. where Dolops lies. He (ere to Troy the Grecians cross'd the main) Fed his large oxen on Percote's plain. one common fall. "Lo. And is it thus our royal kinsman dies? O'ermatch'd he falls. But when oppress'd." 463 [282] . to two at once a prey. and worse than death. The hero most. Or Ilion from her towery height descend. brave. Him Hector singled. as his troops he led. and learn an honest shame: Let mutual reverence mutual warmth inspire. and bury all In one sad sepulchre. Respect yourselves. In rush the conquering Greeks to spoil the slain: But Hector's voice excites his kindred train. he held his place. from Hicetaon sprung. and young. Return'd to Ilion.BOOK XV. And catch from breast to breast the noble fire. eternal shame. Meets death. On valour's side the odds of combat lie. For this. Melanippus! lo. And lo! they bear the bloody arms away! Come on—a distant war no longer wage. Beloved no less than Priam's royal race." Hector (this said) rush'd forward on the foes: With equal ardour Melanippus glows: Then Ajax thus—"O Greeks! respect your fame. The brave live glorious. Heaved from the lowest stone. Fierce Melanippus. But hand to hand thy country's foes engage: Till Greece at once. or lamented die.

464 The Iliad of Homer His generous sense he not in vain imparts. It sunk. his lance he threw. The fiery Spartan first. in order blaze above. or shepherd's swain. While conscious of the deed. though impell'd by Jove. So strong to fight. his falling arms resound. "Is there (he said) in arms a youth like you. so active to pursue? Why stand you distant. The victor leaps upon his prostrate prize: Thus on a roe the well-breath'd beagle flies. and felt it in his heart: Thundering he falls. The troops of Troy recede with sudden fear. Beyond the foremost ranks. Observing Hector to the rescue flew. Warms the bold son of Nestor in his cause. Antilochus withdrew. they thicken at his call. and make some Trojan bleed. Timely he flies the yet-untasted food. . And hears the gathering multitude resound. nor attempt a deed? Lift the bold lance. ranging o'er the plain. and backward to the lines retired. Has torn the shepherd's dog. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. And stop the Trojans. And round the black battalions cast his view. Advancing Melanippus met the dart With his bold breast. and rooted in the Grecian hearts: They join. Forth rush'd the youth with martial fury fired. fresh-bleeding with the dart The distant hunter sent into his heart. with loud applause. Bold as he was. he glares around. Shields touching shields. And flank the navy with a brazen wall. So when a savage. While the swift javelin hiss'd along in air." He said. And rends his side. they throng.

the scale of war shall turn. Wraps the vast mountains. And gave what fate allow'd. nor till then. Not with more rage a conflagration rolls. and involves the poles. He raises Hector to the work design'd. and Pelides' spear: Yet Jove deferr'd the death he was to pay. on the foe. He foams with wrath. and conquer'd Ilion burn. But lifts to glory Troy's prevailing bands. Waves when he nods. confirming Thetis' prayer. Then. and strengthens all their hands. Due to stern Pallas. And drives him. And gains the friendly shelter of the wood: So fears the youth. and lightens as he turns: For Jove his splendour round the chief had thrown. The Grecian ardour quench'd in deep despair. Shakes his huge javelin. when human crimes for vengeance call. Bids him with more than mortal fury glow. all Troy with shouts pursue. While stones and darts in mingled tempest flew. Swells all their hearts. The Trojans fly. and whole armies fall. And cast the blaze of both the hosts on one. But enter'd in the Grecian ranks. To view the navy blazing to the skies. So Mars. beneath his gloomy brow Like fiery meteors his red eye-balls glow: The radiant helmet on his temple burns. like a lightning. Unhappy glories! for his fate was near. the honours of a day! 465 [283] . These fates revolved in his almighty mind.BOOK XV. On Ida's top he waits with longing eyes. and with new fury burns. Now on the fleet the tides of Trojans drove. he turns His manly breast. Fierce to fulfil the stern decrees of Jove: The sire of gods.

the winds aloud Howl o'er the masts. his eyes Burn at each foe. swell'd with tempests. The Grecian phalanx. And. trembling. yet resists his power: So some tall rock o'erhangs the hoary main. Some lordly bull (the rest dispersed and fled) 241 —So some tall rock. and bursts upon them all: Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. the thickest fight. and so shakes the fleet. and sing through every shroud: Pale. he seems to fall Like fire from Jove. At large expatiate o'er the ranker mead) Leaps on the herds before the herdsman's eyes.466 The Iliad of Homer Now all on fire for fame. Amidst the plain of some wide-water'd fen. and the sounding tides. the sailors freeze with fears. So pale the Greeks the eyes of Hector meet. and exerts his might. vii. . the tempest blow. The trembling herdsman far to distance flies. On all sides batter'd. moveless as a tower. Unmoved it hears. and the rising waves— Propp'd on himself he stands: his solid sides Wash off the sea-weeds. 809. The chief so thunders. Girt in surrounding flames. his breast. on the ship descends. (Where numerous oxen. He points his ardour. a rock that braves The raging tempest. And instant death on every wave appears. [284] As when a lion. and single every prize. White are the decks with foam. as at ease they feed." Dryden's Virgil. tired. rushing from his den. by billows beat in vain.241 By winds assail'd. "But like a rock unmov'd. And sees the watery mountains break below. above. Still at the closest ranks.

In wisdom great. Now fear itself confines them to the fight: Man courage breathes in man. or of peace or war: But doom'd to Hector's stronger force to yield! Against the margin of his ample shield He struck his hasty foot: his heels up-sprung. and lays him dead. arrests. And by their parents. in arms well known to fame. Copreus was his sire: The son redeem'd the honours of the race. fled. who strove to guard too late The unhappy hero. Wall'd round with sterns. He singles out. desperate band. a mighty name. his brazen helmet rung. a gloomy. And plunged the pointed javelin in his breast. adjures. The minister of stern Eurystheus' ire Against Alcides. or shared his fate. but Nestor most (The sage preserver of the Grecian host) Exhorts. by themselves implores. . His circling friends. Supine he fell. but one he seized.BOOK XV. to guard these utmost shores. O'er all his country's youth conspicuous far In every virtue. On the fallen chief the invading Trojan press'd. the Grecian train Now man the next. receding toward the main: Wedged in one body at the tents they stand. Now manly shame forbids the inglorious flight. and slew: Mycenian Periphes. A son as generous as the sire was base. 467 Chased from the foremost line. Thus from the rage of Jove-like Hector flew All Greece in heaps.

The scene wide-opening to the blaze of light. His port majestic. fix'd to certain stands But looks a moving tower above the bands. The mist of darkness Jove around them threw She clear'd. your infants. And show'd the shores. your fortunes. Absent. and his ample size: A ponderous mace with studs of iron crown'd. practised to obey. He shifts his seat. the navy. and the main: Hector they saw. and now to that he flies. and round him breathed heroic fires. and their fame. and your parents share: Think of each living father's reverend head. by me they sue." He spoke. he swings around.468 The Iliad of Homer "Oh friends! be men: your generous breasts inflame With mutual honour. restoring all the war to view. all the care Your wives. They ask their safety. and with mutual shame! Think of your hopes. And all are lost. like others. [285] . To some great city through the public way. Full twenty cubits long. High on the decks with vast gigantic stride. and all who fly. and vaults from one to one. The godlike hero stalks from side to side. or fight. A sudden ray shot beaming o'er the plain. Think of each ancestor with glory dead. First of the field great Ajax strikes their eyes. So when a horseman from the watery mead (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding steed) Drives four fair coursers. from you: The gods their fates on this one action lay. Minerva seconds what the sage inspires. Safe in his art. by me they speak. And now to this. if you desert the day. as side by side they run. Nor fights.

And. And each contends. Jove leads him on with his almighty hand. so furious was their fire. "Twas thou. Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight. So the strong eagle from his airy height.BOOK XV. kept alive the war. while they light for food. Thick beats the combat on the sounding prores. And rush'd enraged before the Trojan crowd. Secure of death. Stoops down impetuous. 469 From ship to ship thus Ajax swiftly flew. stooping. The warring nations meet. darkens with his wings the flood. whose beaky prores Lay rank'd contiguous on the bending shores. And the long battle was but then begun. [286] . and from despair. yet unconquer'd. bold Hector! whose resistless hand First seized a ship on that contested strand. No less the wonder of the warring crew. and red with heroes slain: Like strength is felt from hope. And breathes fierce spirits in his following band. Greece. the battle roars. No force could tame them. Admiring numbers follow with their eyes. confiding in despair: Troy in proud hopes already view'd the main Bright with the blaze. Hector thunder'd threats aloud. Then swift invades the ships. As furious. as his were all the war. Thou wouldst have thought. and no toil could tire. As if new vigour from new fights they won.

And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. ciii.470 The Iliad of Homer The same which dead Protesilaus bore. There is a most elegant tribute to his memory in the Preface to the Heroica of Philostratus. And bathed their generous breasts with mutual blood. Tzetz.242 The first that touch'd the unhappy Trojan shore: For this in arms the warring nations stood. With streaming blood the slippery shores are dyed. and shorten'd darts. He was buried on the Chersonese. Hector with his ample hand Grasps the high stern. slain by Hector. shields rattle. The falchions ring. But hand to hand. as he leaped from the vessel to the Trojan shore. Hygin Fab. 528. and gives this loud command: AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. 242 Protesilaus was the first Greek who fell. and seek each other's hearts With falchions. axes. on Lycophr. Still raging. No room to poise the lance or bend the bow. 245. swords. and man to man. axes sound. Swords flash in air. . or glitter on the ground. near the city of Plagusa. they wound. they grow: Wounded.

"O friends! O heroes! names for ever dear. bring the flames! that toil of ten long years Is finished. to lose or keep. Amidst attacks. Yet." 471 [287] . Now shakes his spear. no city to defend. 'Tis hostile ground you tread. Even Ajax paused. No friends to help. and now protends. "Haste. Wakes all our force. your native lands Far. the Greeks with piercing shouts inspires. and deaths. But now in peals of thunder calls to arms: In this great day he crowns our full desires. and here rolls the deep. Even yet. and darts. What aids expect you in this utmost strait? What bulwarks rising between you and fate? No aids. Bright with destruction of yon hostile fleet. There stand the Trojans. no bulwarks your retreat attend. Once sons of Mars. and fires.) Stepp'd back. (so thick the javelins fly. and doubted or to live or die. The coward-counsels of a timorous throng Of reverend dotards check'd our glory long: Too long Jove lull'd us with lethargic charms. This spot is all you have. Your great forefathers' virtues and your own. where the oars are placed.BOOK XV." He spoke—the warriors at his fierce command Pour a new deluge on the Grecian band. and thunderbolts of war! Ah! yet be mindful of your old renown. now lifts. he stands to wait What chief approaching dares attempt his fate: Even to the last his naval charge defends. and seconds all our fires. and the day desired appears! This happy day with acclamations greet. far from hence: your fates are in your hands.

So well the chief his naval weapon sped. But turns his javelin to the work of death. Whate'er bold Trojan arm'd his daring hands. with flaming brands. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. the boldest. . in a moment fell. Against the sable ships. CASTOR AND POLLUX. nor further wastes his breath. The luckless warrior at his stern lay dead: Full twelve.472 The Iliad of Homer Raging he spoke.

ARGUMENT THE SIXTH BATTLE. The armour. So warr'd both armies on the ensanguined shore. The streaming tears fall copious from his eyes Not faster. THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. neglecting the orders of Achilles. and Hector kills him. He agrees to it. From the tall rock the sable waters flow. Achilles offers a libation for the success of his friend. at the sight of Patroclus in Achilles' armour. Meantime Patroclus to Achilles flies. with compassion moved. though Jupiter was averse to his fate. Sarpedon is killed. after which Patroclus leads the Myrmidons to battle. he beats them off from the vessels. Euphorbus wounds him. Several other particulars of the battle are described. and officers are described. without further pursuit of the enemy. which concludes the book. where Apollo repulses and disarms him. Patroclus. Hector himself flies. horses. are cast into the uttermost consternation. pursues the foe to the walls of Troy. Divine Pelides.[288] BOOK XVI. trickling to the plains below. but at the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the fleet. While the black vessels smoked with human gore. . in the heat of which. taking him for that hero. The Trojans. soldiers.

It is true that the relation between them is not always one of perfect equality. p. i. Not more the mother's soul. is manifestly viewed by the poet in the same light. to what end Thy melting sorrows thus pursue thy friend? his unequalled prowess. and this is a feature no less prominent in the earliest than in later times. p. and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another. if not of equal antiquity. Diomedes and Sthenelus.) well illustrate the character of the friendship subsisting between these two heroes— "One of the noblest and most amiable sides of the Greek character."—Thirlwall. 176. as the persons themselves are less important. 176 seq. 243 —His best beloved. no infant whom the mother keeps From her loved breast. is the readiness with which it lent itself to construct intimate and durable friendships. It was indeed connected with the comparatively low estimation in which female society was held. vol. with fonder passion weeps. The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which. and reaching at her arms. it is kept more in the back-ground. vol. that infant warms. to his best beloved:243 [289] "Patroclus. without such a brother in arms by his side. Clung to her knees. was not the less admirable and engaging. The idea of a Greek hero seems not to have been thought complete. were grounded on the same feeling. but this is a circumstance which. while it often adds a peculiar charm to the poetical . though. But the mutual regard which united Idomeneus and Meriones. seq. with scarcely a wish or object apart. indulgent. but the devotedness and constancy with which these attachments were maintained. That flows so fast in these unmanly tears? No girl.474 The Iliad of Homer Thus spoke. Than thou hast mine! Oh tell me. i. say. what grief thy bosom bears. The following elegant remarks of Thirlwall (Greece. seem to have but one heart and soul. Greece.

BOOK XVI. O great in vain! unprofitably brave! Thy country slighted in her last distress. and bleeding in his tent: Eurypylus. and Patroclus spoke: "Let Greece at length with pity touch thy breast. of Greeks the best! Lo! every chief that might her fate prevent. what man. and though These may owe the greater part of their fame to the later epic or even dramatic poetry. May never rage like thine my soul enslave. of Orestes and Pylades. at the navy groan. "Griev'st thou for me. And pay the forfeit of their haughty lord? Whate'er the cause. More for their country's wounds than for their own. Atreus' son. from thee shall hope redress? 475 description. Thy good Menoetius breathes the vital air. or for. Tydides. detracts little from the dignity of the idea which it presents. Pleased in their age to hear their children's praise. Thyself a Greek. and. my martial band? Or come sad tidings from our native land? Our fathers live (our first. Doom'd in their ships to sink by fire and sword. Such were the friendships of Hercules and Iolaus. Another follow'd. And speak those sorrows which a friend would share. Their pain soft arts of pharmacy can ease. Lies pierced with wounds. Or may some meaner cause thy pity claim? Perhaps yon relics of the Grecian name. most tender care). And wise Ulysses. the moral groundwork undoubtedly subsisted in the period to which the traditions are referred. whose love for the greater hero is only tempered by reverence for his higher birth and . Thy breast alone no lenitives appease. of Theseus and Pirithous. And hoary Peleus yet extends his days. once. The argument of the Iliad mainly turns on the affection of Achilles for Patroclus." A sigh that instant from his bosom broke. What friend. reveal thy secret care.

stop thy arm. Nor aught a mother's caution can suggest. And thy mere image chase her foes away. this reply: "Patroclus! thy Achilles knows no fears. her o'erlabour'd train Shall quit the ships. my wrongs." Thus. A soul well suiting that tempestuous kind. inspire my rage: I made him tyrant: gave him power to wrong Even my: I felt it. and ages yet behind.476 The Iliad of Homer No—men unborn. Nor ever amorous hero caused thy birth. If aught from Jove. So rough thy manners. But sure thou spring'st not from a soft embrace. blind to fate! with supplicating breath. that unforgiving mind. and with it. Press'd by fresh forces. And raging seas produced thee in a storm. Proud Troy shall tremble. and Greece respire again. so untamed thy mind. Shall curse that fierce. Unfortunately good! a boding sigh Thy friend return'd. Nor ever tender goddess brought thee forth: Some rugged rock's hard entrails gave thee form. Without thy person Greece shall win the day. Thou begg'st his arms. and desert the war. "O man unpitying! if of man thy race. Those. If I but lead the Myrmidonian line: Clad in thy dreadful arms if I appear. . and in his arms thy death. The tyrant's pride lies rooted in my breast. my sole oracles. [290] "If some dire oracle thy breast alarm. or Thetis. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. my constant thought engage. and shall feel it long. Nor words from Jove nor oracles he hears. My wrongs.

the bold and brave. like the meanest slave. No longer flames the lance of Tydeus' son. But bear we this—the wrongs I grieve are past. at my sight amazed. his dreadful breath Commands your slaughter. Due to my conquest of her father's reign. I hear. And give the Greeks to visit Greece again. From me he forced her. How the cloud blackens. no bulwarks now the Trojans fear. See the thin relics of their baffled band At the last edge of yon deserted land! Behold all Ilion on their ships descends. the shouts invade my ears. the day I wish'd appears: How Hector to my ships his battle bears. The maid.BOOK XVI. alone. dishonour'd. he forced away. Go then. The flames my eyes. issue to the plain: Now save the ships. Patroclus. Due to the votes of all the Grecian train. Yon ample trench had buried half her host. me. as this helmet blazed: Had not the injurious king our friendship lost. my black-eyed maid. Disgraced. when. and in Achilles' arms: Lead forth my martial Myrmidons to fight. Yet now. 477 [291] . Troy saw and trembled. No more your general calls his heroes on: Hector. how the storm impends! It was not thus. But heed my words. the rising fires restrain. Due to the toils of many a well-fought day. Go save the fleets. and mark a friend's command. Who trusts his fame and honours in thy hand. Patroclus! court fair honour's charms In Troy's famed fields. No camps. and conquer in my right. no Achilles there. 'Tis time our fury should relent at last: I fix'd its date. or proclaims your death. Those are not dreadful.

Muses. and woe succeeds to woe. consult my glory. comes and goes. Pallas. Apollo. The fleet once saved. And not a Greek of all the race survive: Might only we the vast destruction shun. desist from further chase. His hollow helm with falling javelins rung. and almighty Jove! That not one Trojan might be left alive. But touch not Hector. ever kind to Troy. Nor lead to Ilion's walls the Grecian race.478 The Iliad of Homer And from thy deeds expects the Achaian host Shall render back the beauteous maid he lost: Rage uncontroll'd through all the hostile crew. O! would to all the immortal powers above. And painful sweat from all his members flows. Hector is my due. Some adverse god thy rashness may destroy. How first the navy blazed with Trojan flame? . Be just. Some god. like Phoebus. Dangers on dangers all around him glow. Yet scarce an army stirs him from his post. Do her own work. Say. And toil to toil. throned above the starry frame. while on the strand Great Jove with conquest crown'd the Trojan band. Though Jove in thunder should command the war. redeem'd from this destructive strait. And only we destroy the accursed town!" Such conference held the chiefs. Let Greece. and forbear. he barely breathes at most. Ajax no more the sounding storm sustain'd. So thick the darts an iron tempest rain'd: On his tired arm the weighty buckler hung. Spent and o'erpower'd. His breath. and leave the rest to fate. in quick short pantings.

ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. O'er the high stern the curling volumes rise. arm. He flash'd around intolerable day. and thus aloud exclaims: "Arm. His pointless spear the warrior shakes in vain.BOOK XVI. thick streams the fiery shower. and trembling at the sign. That the broad falchion lopp'd its brazen head. and standing near. and first around His manly legs. and own'd the hand divine. Stern Hector waved his sword. He cased his limbs in brass. ere the Grecians be no more a name. Where furious Ajax plied his ashen spear. Then swift from all sides pour The hissing brands. with silver buckles bound The clasping greaves. The friend with ardour and with joy obey'd. Alone untouch'd. Arm. Warn'd he retreats. And sheets of rolling smoke involve the skies. Confessing Jove. Not to be poised but by Pelides' hands: . then to his breast applies The flaming cuirass of a thousand dyes. Emblazed with studs of gold his falchion shone In the rich belt. The brazen head falls sounding on the plain. Arm. Great Ajax saw. the blaze aspires! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. Achilles' helmet nodded o'er his head: Adorn'd in all his terrible array."—The hero said. Patroclus! Lo. Pelides' javelin stands. 479 [292] Divine Achilles view'd the rising flames. Full on the lance a stroke so justly sped. I haste to bring the troops. And smote his thigh. as in a starry zone: Achilles' shield his ample shoulders spread.

The second to his lord in love and fame. The brave Automedon (an honour'd name. A mortal courser match'd the immortal race. Sprung from the wind. . (Once great Aetion's. Whose son's great arm alone the weapon wields. swift Podarge. bore. like in strength. Xanthus and Balius. Whom the wing'd harpy. of immortal breed.480 The Iliad of Homer From Pelion's shady brow the plant entire Old Chiron rent. By Zephyr pregnant on the breezy shore: Swift Pedasus was added to their side. and like the wind in speed. The death of heroes. and shaped it for his sire. and the dread of fields. Buckles. and partner of the war) The winged coursers harness'd to the car. now Achilles' pride) Who. in swiftness. and in grace. In peace his friend.

Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats with blood. and such their deathful view. terrific. but miscall'd by fame The son of Borus. of celestial birth. And long to temper their dry chaps in blood— So rush'd we forth at once. rush'd the Myrmidonian crew. First march'd Menestheus. Scour through the fields. 244 481 "As hungry wolves with raging appetite. that espoused the dame. When some tall stag. had launch'd for Ilion's shores Full fifty vessels. 479.BOOK XVI. ii. whose waters wash the earth. Derived from thee. Such their dread strength. With paunch distended. around the chief they stand. formidable band: Grim as voracious wolves." —Dryden's Virgil. their black jaws belch the gore. Like furious. a hideous throng. and with lolling tongue. Such was Menestheus. and the war commands. Divine Sperchius! Jove-descended flood! A mortal mother mixing with a god. ne'er fear the stormy night— Their whelps at home expect the promised food. All breathing death. Achilles speeds from tent to tent. He. loved of Jove. A grim. And gorged with slaughter still they thirst for more. as in sway. that seek the springs244 When scalding thirst their burning bowels wrings. and warms His hardy Myrmidons to blood and arms. fresh-slaughtered in the wood. Directs their order. Fire fills their eye. mann'd with fifty oars: Five chosen leaders the fierce bands obey. . To the black fount they rush. High in the midst the great Achilles stands. Himself supreme in valour.

Or if a surer. and crown'd his fire. bless'd in all those charms That pleased a god. Strong Echecleus. great Patroclus! thine. (thus ye used to say. No hand so sure of all the Emathian line. The god pursued her. Think what reproach these ears endured so long. and order'd all the war. Her sire caress'd him with a parent's care. Her. ye chiefs. raging. or aim the distant dart. produced to-day. return!' [294] . While restless. succeeded to her arms. Soon as Achilles with superior care Had call'd the chiefs. As with swift step she form'd the running maze: To her high chamber from Diana's quire. The fourth by Phoenix' grave command was graced. Laerces' valiant offspring led the last. in your ships you lay) Oh nursed with gall. sly Cellenius loved: on her would gaze. Whose rage defrauds us of so famed a field: If that dire fury must for ever burn.482 The Iliad of Homer Eudorus next. With gifts of price he sought and won the dame. unknowing how to yield. This stern remembrance to his troops he gave: "Ye far-famed Myrmidons. whom Polymele the gay. 'Stern son of Peleus. ye fierce and brave! Think with what threats you dared the Trojan throng. Her secret offspring to her sire she bare. The son confess'd his father's heavenly race. matchless in his art To wing the spear. Famed in the graceful dance. And heir'd his mother's swiftness in the chase. long hid from fame. Pisander follow'd. urged. Not conscious of those loves. What make we here? Return.

and weary all your hands!" 483 DIANA. with equal fury fired. two bodies with one soul inspired. Shield urged on shield. Brothers in arms. Glut all your hearts. Float in one sea. of arms a steely ring Still grows. There bold Automedon. Of strength defensive against wind and storms.BOOK XVI. bathe your swords in gore! This day shall give you all your soul demands. warriors! grieve no more. Such were your words—Now. and crest to crest they throng. together join'd. Ranks wedged in ranks. Close and more close the listening cohorts press'd. Patroclus here. Thick. Thus while he roused the fire in every breast. Two friends. And round him wide the rising structure grows: So helm to helm. and wave before the wind. As when a circling wall the builder forms. . and man drove man along. undistinguish'd plumes. Far o'er the rest in glittering pomp appear. Compacted stones the thickening work compose. and spreads. Lo there the Trojans. and thickens round the king.

at Thetis' prayer. and carpets stiff with gold. Glory to me. Though still determined. Oh! be his guard thy providential care. and thus the god implored: "O thou supreme! high-throned all height above! O great Pelasgic. thy dark decrees. and Peleus' son to none Had raised in offerings. Nor raised in offerings to the power divine. Achilles went To the rich coffer in his shady tent. of antique frame. I stay but half behind. and string his arm to war: Press'd by his single force let Hector see . And costly furs. There lay on heaps his various garments roll'd. low-whispered in the breeze. He purged. Lo. and to the Greeks despair. and wash'd it in the running stream.) Hear. This tinged with sulphur.484 The Iliad of Homer [295] But mindful of the gods. Their feet unwash'd. Confirm his heart. their slumbers on the ground. But Peleus' son. race austere! surround. I yield. and vapours chill. Patroclus gone. as of old! Thou gav'st. Presid'st on bleak Dodona's vocal hill: (Whose groves the Selli. And catch the fates. to my ships confined. Then cleansed his hands. (The presents of the silver-footed dame) From thence he took a bowl. to the dangers of the fighting field The best. but to Jove alone. his feet upon the place Of sacrifice. the purple draught he pour'd Forth in the midst. from rustling oaks. Dodonaean Jove! Who 'midst surrounding frosts. Who hear. and fixing for a space His eyes on heaven. the dearest of my friends. sacred first to flame. Which never man had stained with ruddy wine.

His safe return. Your godlike master let your acts proclaim. Let him with conquest and renown retire. And safe return him to these eyes again!" Great Jove consents to half the chief's request. and buzzing progeny. To free the fleet was granted to his prayer. and. And humble the proud monarch whom you save. His fame in arms not owing all to me. Whet all their stings. Who thus inflames them with heroic fires: "O warriors. and so keen their arms: Their rising rage Patroclus' breath inspires. Meanwhile the troops beneath Patroclus' care. preserve his social train. As wasps. So loud their clamours. But heaven's eternal doom denies the rest. Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms.BOOK XVI. And waits the combat with impatient eyes. provoked by children in their play. Pour from their mansions by the broad highway. Preserve his arms. Assert their waxen domes." 485 [296] . with a general cry. In swarms the guiltless traveller engage. and commence the war. and call forth all their rage: All rise in arms. Think your Achilles sees you fight: be brave. But when the fleets are saved from foes and fire. And add new glories to his mighty name. partners of Achilles' praise! Be mindful of your deeds in ancient days. the winds dispersed in air. Invade the Trojans. Back to his tent the stern Achilles flies.

scatter'd o'er the distant plain. with a flashing ray. Where the war raged. When great Achilles' shining armour blazed: Troy saw. From shore to shore the doubling shouts resound. and all around them gazed. At once they see. The hollow ships return a deeper sound. So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head. And streams.) His shoulder-blade receives the fatal wound. O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread. Triumphant Greece her rescued decks ascends. involved in fire and smoke. Clear'd from the smoke the joyful navy lies. and kindling as he spoke.486 The Iliad of Homer Joyful they heard. The smiling scene wide opens to the sight. the rocks in prospect rise. And loud acclaim the starry region rends. and where the tumult grew. divine Patroclus! flew. and vales. Then first thy spear. (Who led his bands from Axius' winding flood. And all the unmeasured ether flames with light. strike the eyes. and lets down the day: The hills shine out. Bursts through the darkness. His troops. And from the half-burn'd ship proud Troy retires. and they fly. Close to the stern of that famed ship which bore Unbless'd Protesilaus to Ilion's shore. Sudden the Thunderer. Flew to the fleet. The great Paeonian. and thought the dread Achilles nigh. bold Pyrechmes stood. they tremble. Fly diverse. In heaps on heaps the foe tumultuous flies. . The groaning warrior pants upon the ground. The war stood still. Patroclus' arm forbids the spreading fires. and forests. that see their country's glory slain.

thus two brothers bleed. effused with gushing gore. lamented youth! he lies. The thigh transfix'd. the warrior lay. His arm falls spouting on the dust below: He sinks. who. Slain by two brothers. Phylides' dart (as Amphidus drew nigh) His blow prevented. Thy breast.BOOK XVI. with endless darkness cover'd o'er: And vents his soul. Forced from the navy. Skill'd in the dart in vain. and transpierced his thigh. bold Patroclus flew: As Areilycus had turn'd him round. In darkness. Atymnius dies. 487 [297] In equal arms two sons of Nestor stand. Furious he flies. Defends the breathless carcase on the ground. Tore all the brawn. Amisodarus. Sharp in his thigh he felt the piercing wound. Thoas was thy chance. Next. and in death. Pierced in the flank. yet the fight maintains. Kind Maris. and broke the brittle bone: Headlong he fell. And two bold brothers of the Lycian band: By great Antilochus. received the Spartan lance. unarm'd. bleeding in his brother's wound. Now every Greek some hostile hero slew. But still the foremost. his sons expire. And pay the forfeit of their guilty sire. abhorr'd Chimaera bred. with vigour thrown. Between his arm and shoulder aims a blow. his murderer to engage: But godlike Thrasimed prevents his rage. . The bane of men. Amisodarus' seed. by Furies led. and scatter'd o'er the plains. Sarpedon's friends. But Troy repulsed. The brazen-pointed spear. and rent the nerves away.

his nostrils. unresisting prey: Thus on the foe the Greeks impetuous came. with mutual thirst of fame. seal his eyes. As when the flocks neglected by the swain. A troop of wolves the unguarded charge survey. Or kids. Now.488 The Iliad of Homer Stopp'd in the tumult Cleobulus lies. He sobs his soul out in the gush of blood. O'ertaken Neamas by Merion bleeds. The thirsty falchion drank his reeking blood: Plunged in his throat the smoking weapon lies. and fierce Peneleus came. On the plumed crest of his Boeotian foe The daring Lycon aim'd a noble blow. His open'd mouth received the Cretan steel: Beneath the brain the point a passage tore. . Next Erymas was doom'd his fate to feel. and drown'd the teeth in gore: His mouth. lie scatter'd o'er the plain. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground: His swimming eyes eternal shades surround. A living prize not long the Trojan stood. a living prize. Troy fled. In vain their javelins at each other flew. Black death. Crash'd the thin bones. pour a flood. Hung by the skin. The sword broke short. the body sunk to dust. or lambs. Pierced through the shoulder as he mounts his steeds. Lycon the brave. Beneath Oileus' arm. but his. unmindful of her former fame. divided by a stroke so just. Amid the ranks. met in arms. their eager swords they drew. his eyes. And rend the trembling. and fate unpitying. Peneleus sped Full on the juncture of the neck and head: The head.

Yet stops.BOOK XVI. Wedged in the trench. his javelin flamed. Loud o'er the rout was heard the victor's cry. experienced in the field. Even Hector fled. Where horse and arms. and heaven is snatch'd from sight. Dark o'er the fields the ascending vapour flies. and blots the golden skies: So from the ships. along the dusky plain. Clouds rise on clouds. through heads of disarray The fiery coursers forced their lord away: While far behind his Trojans fall confused. O'er his broad shoulders spread the massy shield. The affrighted steeds their dying lords cast down. and saves his loved allies. Scour o'er the fields. The Trojan chief. And rolls the cloud to blacken heaven with storms. Observed the storm of darts the Grecians pour. Thick drifts of dust involve their rapid flight. pointed at his breast. As when the hand of Jove a tempest forms. And shades the sun. and stretch to reach the town. and chariots he o'erthrown. Tumultuous clamour fills the fields and skies. and where the thickest die. 489 But still at Hector godlike Ajax aim'd. In vain they labour up the steepy mound. Fierce on the rear. Where the war bleeds. Dire Flight and Terror drove the Trojan train. and turns. with shouts Patroclus flies. while the madding steeds break short their yokes. in one vast carnage bruised: Chariots on chariots roll: the clashing spokes Shock. Their charioteers lie foaming on the ground. . And on his buckler caught the ringing shower: He sees for Greece the scale of conquest rise. And bleeding heroes under axles groan. Still.

High-bounding o'er the fosse. . Patroclus mark'd him as he shunn'd the war. the whirling car Smokes through the ranks. And forced the routed ranks to stand the day. And earth is loaden with incessant showers. Bore down half Troy in his resistless way. All grim in dust and blood Patroclus stands. with less impetuous force. And thunders after Hector. Which pierced below the shield his valiant heart. Nor stood to combat. and where the rampires rose. with wild and haggard eye. no check. the steeds of Peleus knew: From bank to bank the immortal coursers flew. Whole fields are drown'd. nor had force to fly. and mountains swept away. Thestor was next. Hector flies.) From their deep beds he bids the rivers rise.490 The Iliad of Homer No stop. And trembling man sees all his labours vain! [299] And now the chief (the foremost troops repell'd) Back to the ships his destined progress held. Or judges. And fell the victim of his coward fear. And turns the slaughter on the conquering bands. Between the space where silver Simois flows. Than when in autumn Jove his fury pours. Where lay the fleets. Shrunk up he sat. Not with less noise. And opens all the flood-gates of the skies: The impetuous torrents from their hills obey. o'ertakes the flying war. Patroclus shakes his lance. Loud roars the deluge till it meets the main. The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course. but fate denies. who saw the chief appear. betray the righteous cause. First Pronous died beneath his fiery dart. (When guilty mortals break the eternal laws. bribed.

And burst the helm. Where'er he moves. the growing slaughters spread In heaps on heaps a monument of dead. was by his fury thrown: Full on his crown the ponderous fragment flew. With this reproach his flying host he warms: "Oh stain to honour! oh disgrace to arms! Forsake. And dropp'd the flowing reins. 491 Next on Eryalus he flies. the contended plain. and cleft the head in two: Prone to the ground the breathless warrior fell. Who mows whole troops. Large as a rock. Then low in dust Epaltes. and gasping on the field. Amphoterus and Erymas succeed. lie. When now Sarpedon his brave friends beheld Grovelling in dust. And last Tlepolemus and Pyres bleed. as the spear was shook. Some mighty fish draws panting to the shore: Not with less ease the barbed javelin bore The gaping dastard. Polymelus." . Ipheas. Evippus. And death involved him with the shades of hell. He fell. And with unmanly tremblings shook the car. Him 'twixt the jaws. An angler. As on a rock that overhangs the main. This hand unaided shall the war sustain: The task be mine this hero's strength to try.BOOK XVI. and from the chariot draws. die. The javelin sticks. inglorious. Echius. studious of the line and cane. and makes an army fly. a stone. and life his heartless breast forsook.

they raise a screaming cry.492 The Iliad of Homer [300] He spake: and. which was almost entirely lost from view amidst the nearly equal scepticism and credulity of subsequent ages. and with equal rage. This seems to be the true character of the Homeric deity. the son of Menoetius! Indeed. —The destinies ordain. long since destined by fate (palai pepromenon)? You may do it—but we. Jove view'd the combat: whose event foreseen. leaps from off the car: Patroclus lights. The desert echoes. do not sanction it. dearest to me of men. shall I snatch him from impending fate. His life is owed to fierce Patroclus' hands. What passions in a parent's breast debate! Say. my heart is divided within me while I ruminate it in my mind. should be slain by Patroclus.' Here it is clear from both speakers. the will of the father of gods and men is absolute and uncontrollable. and place him entirely out of the reach of any such event.—"In the mythology. the rest of the gods. they tear. As when two vultures on the mountain's height Stoop with resounding pinions to the fight. if he pleased. Jupiter might still. and the rocks reply: The warriors thus opposed in arms. that although Sarpedon is said to be fated to die. whether having snatched him up from out of the lamentable battle. save him. also. I should not at once place him alive in the fertile land of his own Lycia. purely Pagan as it is. 'Alas me!' says he 'since it is fated (moira) that Sarpedon. we discover one important truth unconsciously involved. No distinct empire is assigned to fate or fortune.245 My godlike son shall press the Phrygian plain: Already on the verge of death he stands. They cuff. speaking. or whether I should now destroy him by the hands of the son of Menoetius!' To which Juno answers—'Dost thou mean to rescue from death a mortal man. and it is very necessary that the student of Greek literature should bear it constantly in mind. A strong instance in the Iliad itself to illustrate this position. and sternly waits the war. the destinies ordain. in the alternative. that Jupiter himself would destroy him by the hands 245 . He thus bespoke his sister and his queen: "The hour draws on. is the passage where Jupiter laments to Juno the approaching death of Sarpedon. engage With equal clamours. of the Iliad. and further. Zeus or Jupiter is popularly to be taken as omnipotent.

And fatten. Let Sleep and Death convey. O sovereign of the skies! Short is the date prescribed to mortal man. with celestial blood. and ratifies the doom. distant far From all the dangers and the toils of war. debate would rise above. And send him safe to Lycia. Before proud Ilion must resign their breath! Were thine exempt. overcome. 156. Whose bounds were fix'd before his race began? How many sons of gods. And murmuring powers condemn their partial Jove. And when the ascending soul has wing'd her flight. And lasting honours to his ashes give." She said: the cloud-compeller. Assents to fate. Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight. the field?" 493 Then thus the goddess with the radiant eyes: "What words are these. Shall Jove for one extend the narrow span."—Coleridge.BOOK XVI. Then touch'd with grief. seq. by thy command. His friends and people. p. foredoom'd to death. to his future praise. The breathless body to his native land. His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. [301] . the weeping heavens distill'd A shower of blood o'er all the fatal field: of another. Or to his doom my bravest offspring yield. A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise.

and poised the lifted spear. The nerves unbraced no more his bulk sustain. the combatants appear. predestined to be slain. his happy native reign. till with a groaning sound . or poplar tall. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. Where the strong fibres bind the solid heart. Divides the traces with his sword. he reel'd around. Laments his son. and the chariot shook: When bold Automedon. Or pine (fit mast for some great admiral) Nods to the axe. Each axle crackled.494 The Iliad of Homer The god. Aim'd at his breast it pierced a mortal part. Roll'd in the bloody dust. Each heaved the shield. And pass'd the groin of valiant Thrasymed. He falls. and paw'd the slippery ground. And spent in empty air its dying force. The towering chiefs to fiercer fight advance: And first Sarpedon whirl'd his weighty lance. Two sounding darts the Lycian leader threw: The first aloof with erring fury flew. to disengage The starting coursers. The next transpierced Achilles' mortal steed. Not so Patroclus' never-erring dart. and restrain their rage. Then as the mountain oak. Now met in arms. His sudden fall the entangled harness broke. and freed The encumbered chariot from the dying steed: The rest move on. and falling bites the bloody plain. From strong Patroclus' hand the javelin fled. The generous Pedasus of Theban breed: Fix'd in the shoulder's joint. his eyes averting from the plain. obedient to the rein: The car rolls slowly o'er the dusty plain. Far from the Lycian shores.

The insulting victor with disdain bestrode The prostrate prince. If these spoil'd arms adorn a Grecian foe! Then as a friend. thy task be first to dare The glorious dangers of destructive war. and hollow roars. 495 It sinks. conquer in my right: That. From the wide wound gush'd out a stream of blood. and supply the dead. lay groaning on the shore. To lead my troops. And the soul issued in the purple flood. and on his bosom trod. all may try Like thee to vanquish. or like me to die. be bold. Tell them. to combat at their head. Then to the leader of the Lycian band The dying chief address'd his last command. Then drew the weapon from his panting heart. While the grim savage grinds with foamy jaws The trembling limbs. What grief. rebellow through the wood. taught by great examples. and as a warrior fight. the Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. Incite the living. pale in death. So lies a bull beneath the lion's paws. and laid on earth supine. and spreads its honours on the ground. their mighty master slain. And. The reeking fibres clinging to the dart. His flying steeds the Myrmidons detain. what shame. [302] ." He ceased.BOOK XVI. Defend my body. And his eyes darken'd with the shades of death. must Glaucus undergo. Deep groans. and sucks the smoking blood. Unguided now. "Glaucus. Before his chariot stretch'd his form divine: He grasp'd the dust distain'd with streaming gore. Thus fell the king. I charged them with my latest breath Not unrevenged to bear Sarpedon's death.

To guard the relics of my slaughter'd friend: For thou. though distant. To head my Lycians. Inflaming thus the rage of all their hosts. Or sacred Ilion. at distance from the glorious war. And sigh. And owns the assistance of immortal hands. canst restore my might. Now fires Agenor.496 The Iliad of Homer All-impotent of aid. His heavenly hand restrain'd the flux of blood. the hero stands. Supported on his better hand he stay'd: To Phoebus then ('twas all he could) he pray'd: "All-seeing monarch! whether Lycia's coast. Powerful alike to ease the wretch's smart. Then loudly calls on Troy's vindictive arms. That thrills my arm. He drew the dolours from the wounded part. But thou." Apollo heard. and pierced with pain. and shoots through every vein. With ample strides he stalks from place to place. . and support the fight. Nor Jove vouchsafed his hapless offspring aid. now Polydamas: Æneas next. and Hector he accosts. O god of health! thy succour lend. O hear me! god of every healing art! Lo! stiff with clotted blood. And breathed a spirit in his rising heart. Renew'd by art divine. Unhappy Glaucus heard the dying chief: His painful arm. I stand unable to sustain the spear. thy bright presence boast. Low in the dust is great Sarpedon laid. yet useless with the smart Inflicted late by Teucer's deadly dart. First to the fight his native troops he warms. and. suppliant as he stood. transfix'd with grief.

and their own. who. and lost to thee! Stretch'd by Patroclus' arm on yonder plains. the slaughter round him spread. Transfix'd with deep regret. Or weigh the great occasion. and kept his people free. Tis half the glory to maintain our prize. and be more. Lies pale in death. Nor on his corse revenge her heroes lost!" He spoke: each leader in his grief partook: Troy. But o'er the dead the fierce Patroclus stands. extended on the field. and in council wise. from their country far. be what you were before. roused the listening bands: "Heroes. be men. Breathe their brave souls out in another's war. at the loss. And send the living Lycians to the dead. through all her legions shook. they view o'erthrown At once his country's pillar.BOOK XVI. strip his arms. And rousing Ajax. Who guarded right. who led to Troy's beleaguer'd wall A host of heroes. O save from hostile rage his loved remains! Ah let not Greece his conquer'd trophies boast. regardless chief! thy breast employ? Oh too forgetful of the friends of Troy! Those generous friends. To all his Lycians lost. Fired. The chief who taught our lofty walls to yield. A chief. See! where in dust the great Sarpedon lies. And with superior vengeance greatly glows." 497 [303] . In action valiant. To guard his body Troy in numbers flies. and outshined them all. they rush on. Haste. first Hector seeks the foes. "What thoughts.

Which sunk him to the dead: when Troy. Hurl'd by Hectorean force it cleft in twain His shatter'd helm. With horrid shouts they circle round the slain. to swell the horrors of the fight. Sprung on the Trojan and the Lycian band. Achilles' arms to aid. too near That arm. all the rest inspired. drew back. What grief thy heart. or at the fighting foe. and great Epigeus falls. like an eagle darting at his game. Great Jove. and Greece. O'er the fierce armies pours pernicious night. Who chased for murder thence a suppliant came To Peleus. Now Greece gives way. [304] . He pays due vengeance to his kinsman's shade. And. oppose their arms. and the silver-footed dame. A rock's large fragment thunder'd on his head. Till Glaucus. and stretch'd him o'er the slain. At Sthenelaus flew the weighty stone. what fury urged thy hand. Fierce to the van of fight Patroclus came. Far as an able hand a lance can throw. The martial squadrons close on either hand: Here Troy and Lycia charge with loud alarms.498 The Iliad of Homer The heroes kindle at his fierce command. and Hector learn'd to fear. Or at the lists. from Budium's lofty walls. So far the Trojans from their lines retired. turning. The clash of armour rings o'er all the plain. O generous Greek! when with full vigour thrown. And round his son confounds the warring hosts. Soon as his luckless hand had touch'd the dead. His fate ennobling with a crowd of ghosts. Now sent to Troy. Thessalia there. Agacleus' son.

The priest of Jove. issued at the vent. My spear. and rooted in the field.BOOK XVI. the destined passage had it found. Despatch'd by Merion to the shades of death: On Ida's holy hill he made abode. He fell. Who stooping forward from the death withdrew. There yet scarce spent. The lance hiss'd harmless o'er his covering shield. The Achaians sorrow for their heroes slain. An iron circle round the carcase grows. Between the jaw and ear the javelin went. His spear Aeneas at the victor threw. Sent by the great Aeneas' arm in vain. and eager to pursue The flying Lycians. With conquering shouts the Trojans shake the plain. exhaling. and falling made the fields resound. it quivers on the plain. With stately seats. Wide o'er the land was stretch'd his large domain. The soul. 499 Then brave Laogonus resign'd his breath. bold with youth. Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground. Then Bathyclaeus fell beneath his rage. and riches blest in vain: Him. Glaucus met and slew. And crowd to spoil the dead: the Greeks oppose." . and honour'd like his god. The only hope of Chalcon's trembling age. "Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries) And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize. Pierced through the bosom with a sudden wound. And trembling struck.

To speak. his thy parting ghost. Mine is the glory. Patroclus to the battle flies. instant. Great Merion follows. An arm as strong may stretch thee in the dust. as the warriors close. ill befits the brave. helmets rattle. Blows following blows are heard re-echoing wide.500 The Iliad of Homer "O valiant leader of the Dardan host! (Insulted Merion thus retorts the boast) Strong as you are. While crackling forests fall on every side: Thus echoed all the fields with loud alarms. and so rung their arms. Not empty boasts the sons of Troy repel. 'tis mortal force you trust. . beseems the council. Vain are thy vaunts. success is still from heaven: This. The labours of the woodman's axe resound. Your swords must plunge them to the shades of hell. And if to this my lance thy fate be given. sends thee down to Pluto's coast. or mountain ground. As through the shrilling vale. And thick and heavy sounds the storm of blows. but to dare In glorious action. So fell the warriors." This said. is the task of war. and new shouts arise: Shields." [305] "O friend (Menoetius' son this answer gave) With words to combat.

Lies undistinguish'd from the vulgar dead. . And stretch him breathless on his slaughter'd son. And eyes that flash'd intolerable day. bids him drive the foe.BOOK XVI. and meditates the fates: Whether to urge their prompt effect. and pants with awe divine. Fix'd on the field his sight. he sees decline The scales of Jove. and chased return again. Or yet. He mounts his car. On every side the busy combat grows. Sunk with Troy's heavy fates. Now great Sarpedon on the sandy shore. Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode (The pails high foaming with a milky flood) The buzzing flies. Augment the fame and horror of the fight. 501 Jove view'd the combat with a stern survey. His heavenly form defaced with dust and gore. and. his breast debates The vengeance due. To crown Achilles' valiant friend with praise At length he dooms. Nor unattended see the shades below. And stuck with darts by warring heroes shed. Then Hector's mind he fills with dire dismay. This instant see his short-lived trophies won. with many a soul's untimely flight. His long-disputed corse the chiefs enclose. that his last of days Shall set in glory. and calls his hosts away. a persevering train. Incessant swarm. and call The force of Hector to Patroclus' fall.

And left their monarch with the common dead: Around. Then Sleep and Death. With dust dishonour'd. And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain. Veil'd in a cloud. Those rites discharged. Those unavailing honours we may give!" [306] Apollo bows. And with celestial robes adorn the dead. in heaps on heaps. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood. Patroclus' ships the glorious spoils adorn. There bathed his honourable wounds. and his form renews. as the heroes fall. Then thus to Phoebus. two twins of winged race. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove: "Descend. and from mount Ida's height. in the realms above. Swift to the field precipitates his flight. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews Restores his freshness. and despoil the slain. His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear: What honour mortals after death receive. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear. a dreadful wall Of carnage rises. his sacred corse bequeath To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death. . the hardy Lycians fled. O'er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed. and dress'd His manly members in the immortal vest. my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain. (So Jove decreed!) At length the Greeks obtain The prize contested.502 The Iliad of Homer Then. nor before. to silver Simois' shore. The radiant arms are by Patroclus borne. and deform'd with blood.

And in a moment reach'd the Lycian land. but of silent pace. Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew. at the god's command. For he. With foaming coursers. Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains. The god who gives. and urged thee on to fall. He urged thee on. and orders all. [307] . Vain was thy friend's command. thy courage vain. and confound the bold. and with loosen'd reins. The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid. Of matchless swiftness. Received Sarpedon. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain. resumes.BOOK XVI. whose counsels uncontroll'd Dismay the mighty. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade. the god. 503 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA.

and receive assistance from their allies to the very end. next young Megas bleeds. "Patroclus! cease. dispersing. trust their fates to flight. Epistor. But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook. thy greater far. personal prowess decided every thing. bursting from the cloud. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles' hand. "The art military of the Homeric age is upon a level with the state of navigation just described.504 The Iliad of Homer Who first. and enact almost as much as the knights of romance. There is no mention of a ditch or any other line or work round the town. Autonous then succeeds. although much esteemed. The slaughter." —Thrice at the battlements. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. Elasus and Mulius crown'd: Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night. brave hero! by that arm was slain. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led. Who last beneath thy vengeance press'd the plain. when. bite the ground. He tried the fourth. The chiefs fight in advance. 212. Thy friend. the night attack and the ambuscade. Patroclus thrice mounts it in armour. Melanippus. Now Troy had stoop'd beneath his matchless power. and the wall itself was accessible without a ladder. The siege of Troy was as little like a modern siege as a captain in the guards is like Achilles. And call'd to fill the number of the dead? Adrestus first. were never upon a large scale. The rest. this heaven-defended wall Defies thy lance. Echeclus follows. it shall withstand. The Trojans are in no respects blockaded. 246 . not fated yet to fall. It was probably a vast mound of earth with a declivity outwards."—Coleridge.246 His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook. p.

A valiant warrior. impatient for the fight. one undistinguish'd wound: The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground. haughty." So spoke the inspiring god. The Greek obeys him. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight. "What a shameful sight! God! is it Hector that forbears the fight? Were thine my vigour this successful spear Should soon convince thee of so false a fear. The god the Grecians' sinking souls depress'd. In Asius' shape. Patroclus lights. His front. and young. while yet he held the rein. and with awe retires. who reigned by Sangar's flood. Thus while he thought. And pour'd swift spirits through each Trojan breast. And in Patroclus' blood efface thy shame. (Thy brother. The lawless offspring of king Priam's bed. beside him Phoebus stood. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. Hecuba! from Dymas sprung. the coursers rush to war. in his breast debates. checking at the Scaean gates His panting coursers. then took his flight. Turn thee.) Thus he accosts him.BOOK XVI. a stone employs his right: With all his nerves he drives it at the foe. eyes. The lash resounds. He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed. bold. Or in the field his forces to employ. ah turn thee to the field of fame. brows. and rough and gross below: The falling ruin crush'd Cebrion's head. 505 [308] . Pointed above. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires. The charioteer. Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy. While Hector. A spear his left.

That sweeps the field. the wild winds roar aloud In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood. Stung with fierce hunger. Thus for some slaughter'd hind. rage. falls headlong on the plain. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior's head. confusion. And from his fatal courage finds his bane. Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight. depopulates the fold. and the Sylvans groan. [309] . "Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows! What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes! Mark with what ease they sink into the sand! Pity that all their practice is by land!" Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize. terrible and bold. To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies: Swift as a lion. aloft in air are blown. Pierced through the dauntless heart. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades. The broad oaks crackle. each the prey invades. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead: While all around. the rattling thicket bends. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage. then tumbles slain. Leaves. and provokes the war. and fright. At once bold Hector leaping from his car. While the proud victor thus his fall derides.506 The Iliad of Homer Struck from the car. Darts shower'd on darts. now round the carcase ring. And the whole forest in one crash descends. Not with less noise. Defends the body. and trees. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides. So pent by hills. This way and that. arms. with less tumultuous rage. with equal rage.

The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel. Sol had driven His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows. His bounding helmet on the champaign rung. black remnant of so bright a line: Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way. That plume which never stoop'd to earth before. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains. And. some clatter on the fields. and heavy. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms. They draw the conquer'd corse and radiant arms. pours amid the foes. and numbers sank to hell. But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains. But when his evening wheels o'erhung the main. His eyes flash sparkles. Achilles' plume is stain'd with dust and gore. 507 . And breathing slaughter. While on each host with equal tempests fell The showering darts. far to distance flung. in fighting fields to shine. stretch'd in death. untouch'd. and heaven allows no longer day! For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string: Stones follow stones. forgets the guiding reins! Now flaming from the zenith. shake the sounding shields. Death calls. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine The last. Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train. And shade the temples of the mad divine. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew. his stunn'd senses reel In giddy darkness.BOOK XVI. Long used. Some hard. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew.

And turn'd him short. From Panthus sprung. Nor. His spear in shivers falls. and his arms resound. Wounded. along the desert score. Retires for succour to his social train. While yet he learn'd his rudiments of war. and mortal spear. Patroclus yields to fear. [310] . well known to fame. and matchless in the course: Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car. and all-assistless stands: Such is the force of more than mortal hands! A Dardan youth there was. his ample shield Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field: The corslet his astonish'd breast forsakes: Loose is each joint. at once. Euphorbus was his name. Skill'd in the dart. but he durst no more. Breaks through the ranks. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse. He struck. and his retreat pursues: The lance arrests him with a mortal wound. and the god. scorch'd with heat. though disarm'd. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar. earth thunders. Fast by the spring. Patroclus' fury stood: But swift withdrew the long-protended wood. Stern Hector.508 The Iliad of Homer Jove dooms it now on Hector's helm to nod. which heaven decreed. Not long—for fate pursues him. that moment all Her yet-surviving heroes seem'd to fall. With him all Greece was sunk. by an arm divine. His venturous spear first drew the hero's gore. in vain. as the bleeding chief he views. he wounded. And flies the fate. He falls. Thus. Stupid he stares. and herded in the crowd. So. each nerve with horror shakes. they both dispute the flood.

the chief replies: . Without the bloody arms of Hector dead. And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames. With flaming eyes. Patroclus thus. the joy Thy pride once promised. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid. and jaws besmear'd with blood. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life. this important day. As dying now at Hector's feet he lies. and triumphant cries: 509 "Lie there. And much enjoin thee. 'Return not. So many lives effused. so many chiefs o'erthrown. Patroclus march'd. With faint. of subverting Troy. At length the sovereign savage wins the strife." Supine. and thus he sped. Patroclus! and with thee. Though much at parting that great chief might say. my brave friend (perhaps he said).' He spoke.BOOK XVI. expiring breath. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free. and wildly gazing on the skies. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames. expires his own. He sternly views him. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee: But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made.

and thy hour draws nigh.510 The Iliad of Homer [311] "Vain boaster! cease. not thine." He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way. To heaven is owed whate'er your own you call. thus address'd the dead: "From whence this boding speech. they had sunk in fight: By fate and Phoebus was I first o'erthrown. Euphorbus next. tore the lance away. and by Achilles' hand. the third mean part thy own. and know the powers divine! Jove's and Apollo's is this deed. uncomfortable coast. I see thee fall. wandering. or why denounced to me? Why not as well Achilles' fate be given To Hector's lance? Who knows the will of heaven?" Pensive he said. Even now on life's last verge I see thee stand. Black fate o'erhangs thee. each thy match in might. (The beauteous body left a load of clay) Flits to the lone. and charges the bold charioteer. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove. imperious! hear my latest breath. And heaven itself disarm'd me ere my fall. the stern decree Of death denounced. Had twenty mortals. and it sounds thy death: Insulting man. But swift Automedon with loosen'd reins Rapt in the chariot o'er the distant plains. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear He shakes. melancholy ghost! Then Hector pausing. as his eyes he fed On the pale carcase. . A naked. The gods inspire it. thou shalt be soon as I. then pressing as he lay His breathless bosom. Opposed me fairly. But thou. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove.

511 .BOOK XVI.

.512 The Iliad of Homer ÆSCULAPIUS.

[312] BOOK XVII. This. and first-born of her loves. but soon returns with Ajax. Hector advancing. Fruit of her throes.—THE ACTS OF MENELAUS. ARGUMENT. Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight. FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. and bare) . is slain. On the cold earth divine Patroclus spread. and drives him off. Aeneas and Hector Attempt the chariot of Achilles. with the news of Patroclus' death: then returns to the fight. defends his body from the enemy: Euphorbus. which is borne off by Automedon. bear off the body to the ships. he and Meriones. Thus round her new-fallen young the heifer moves. till Ajax rallies them: Aeneas sustains the Trojans. Menelaus retires. Springs to the front. The scene lies in the fields before Troy. Great Menelaus. who thereupon puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus. Menelaus. where. And anxious (helpless as he lies. though attacked with the utmost fury. Menelaus sends Antilochus to Achilles. assisted by the Ajaces. The horses of Achilles deplore the loss of Patroclus: Jupiter covers his body with a thick darkness: the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. and renews the battle. touch'd with generous woe. Lies pierced with wounds among the vulgar dead. and guards him from the foe. THE SEVENTH BATTLE. The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. The Greeks give way. who attempts it. upon the death of Patroclus.

Presumptuous youth! like his shall be thy doom. When mortals boast of prowess not their own? Not thus the lion glories in his might. Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight. Opposed to each that near the carcase came. and his lances flame. No more to cheer his spouse. fell. nor tempt an equal blow: To me the spoils my prowess won. and are wise too late. and vaunts in vain. These sons of Panthus vent their haughty mind." . resign: Depart with life. Jove! from thy superior throne. Eyes the dead hero. These eyes beheld him on the dust expire. and in scorn return'd: "Laugh'st thou not. "This hand. and leave the glory mine" [313] The Trojan thus: the Spartan monarch burn'd With generous anguish. avoid the threaten'd fate. or glad his sire. and insults the friend. The son of Panthus.) Man only vaunts his force. Against our arm which rashly he defied. with a mother's care. Atrides. His broad shield glimmers. But far the vainest of the boastful kind. Yet 'twas but late. Warrior! desist. while thou may'st. Vain was his vigour. Fools stay to feel it. wait thy brother to the Stygian gloom. Go. laid Patroclus low. and re-turns her. Or. skill'd the dart to send. Hyperenor. Nor thus the boar (those terrors of the plain.514 The Iliad of Homer Turns. beneath my conquering steel This boaster's brother. and as vain his pride.

Euphorbus thus: "That action known. and life. On Jove the father great Atrides calls. and glorious in the prize. in some sylvan scene. for my brother's blood repay thy own. On these thy conquer'd spoils I shall bestow. It lies uprooted from its genial bed. and withers all its shades. and bent him to the plain. Unmoved. fame. And spouse. Lifts the gay head. bestrow the shore. and his arms resound. As the young olive. Proud of his deed. But blunted by the brass." Swift as the word the missile lance he flings. in snowy flowerets fair. And plays and dances to the gentle air. His weeping father claims thy destined head. Prone sinks the warrior. Wide through the neck appears the grisly wound. No longer then defer the glorious strife. Come. a widow in her bridal bed. While the fierce Spartan tore his arms away. Euphorbus lay. Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green. To soothe a consort's and a parent's woe. Instarr'd with gems and gold. and deform'd with gore. Which even the Graces might be proud to wear. thus beautiful. Affrighted Troy the towering victor flies: 515 [314] . A lovely ruin now defaced and dead: Thus young. The well-aim'd weapon on the buckler rings.BOOK XVII. Let heaven decide our fortune. innoxious falls. It pierced his throat. Nor flies the javelin from his arm in vain. With dust dishonour'd. The shining circlets of his golden hair. When lo! a whirlwind from high heaven invades The tender plant.

these. When o'er the slaughter'd bull they hear him roar. Turn. 247 —Ciconians. view'd The breathless hero in his blood imbued. By Sparta slain! for ever now suppress'd The fire which burn'd in that undaunted breast!" Thus having spoke. and fired the nations as it went. as prone he lay) And in the victor's hands the shining prey. and the vales resound. and behold the brave Euphorbus slain. (Forth welling from the wound. Too long amused with a pursuit so vain. Sheath'd in bright arms. They shout incessant. and. And sends his voice in thunder to the skies: Fierce as a flood of flame by Vulcan sent. as before some mountain lion's ire The village curs and trembling swains retire.)247 "Forbear (he cried) with fruitless speed to chase Achilles' coursers. Apollo wing'd his flight. Meanwhile Apollo view'd with envious eyes. instant. beneath whose martial care The rough Ciconians learn'd the trade of war. Or stoop to none but great Achilles' hand. near the Hebrus.—A people of Thrace. They stoop not. And mix'd with mortals in the toils of fight: His words infix'd unutterable care Deep in great Hector's soul: through all the war He darts his anxious eye.516 The Iliad of Homer Flies. at distance scatter'd round. (In Mentes' shape. Atrides from the voice the storm divined. . through cleaving ranks he flies. And urged great Hector to dispute the prize. of ethereal race. to mortal man's command. It flew. And see his jaws distil with smoking gore: All pale with fear.

Slain in my cause. and sighing quits the dead. he turn'd His manly breast. There breathing courage. And through the cloud the godlike Ajax knew. but to heaven I yield. 'Tis not to Hector. but threatens as he flies. All grim in arms. To brave the hero were to brave the god: Forgive me. and a storm of darts. the relics. nor heaven. O'er all the black battalions sent his view. [315] . A sable scene! The terrors Hector led. Greece. no more The time allow'd: Troy thicken'd on the shore. still battle on the plains. nor the god. And thus explored his own unconquer'd mind: 517 "Then shall I quit Patroclus on the plain.BOOK XVII. And give Achilles all that yet remains Of his and our Patroclus—" This. He flies indeed. Forced by loud clamours. of my friend? Or singly. should give me fear. Now enter'd in the Spartan ranks. So from the fold the unwilling lion parts. Where labouring on the left the warrior stood. Hector and his troops attend? Sure where such partial favour heaven bestow'd. where the god of day Had sunk each heart with terror and dismay. and cover'd o'er with blood. Yet. Slow he recedes. Did but the voice of Ajax reach my ear: Still would we turn. and for my honour slain! Desert the arms. if once I quit the field. With heart indignant and retorted eyes. and with new fury burn'd.

And Hector glories in the dazzling prize. And doom'd to Trojan gods the unhappy dead. oh my friend! Haste. Already had stern Hector seized his head. And now before. he lies. and measured back the field. But soon as Ajax rear'd his tower-like shield. and now behind he stood: Thus in the centre of some gloomy wood. beset by men and hounds. alas. Sprung to his car.518 The Iliad of Homer To him the king: "Oh Ajax. The raging pair Pierced the thick battle. and feeds his inward woes. Elate her heart. the lioness surrounds Her tawny young. thus his flight upbraids: . and provoke the war. and rousing all her powers. we can no more! For naked now. With many a step. Dark o'er the fiery balls each hanging eyebrow lours. Meanwhile great Ajax (his broad shield display'd) Guards the dead hero with the dreadful shade. On Hector frowning. To stand a trophy of his fame in war. His train to Troy the radiant armour bear. But Glaucus. leader of the Lycian aids. despoiled of arms. and touch'd his heart. and Patroclus' loved remains defend: The body to Achilles to restore Demands our care." He said. Fast by his side the generous Spartan glows With great revenge.

And lo! already thou prepar'st to fly. Oh! were Patroclus ours. And drag yon carcase to the walls of Troy. But words are vain—Let Ajax once appear. (Such as should burn in every soul that draws The sword for glory. Did such a spirit as the gods impart Impel one Trojan hand or Trojan heart. Is this. and all the fowls of air. empty boast! but shall the Lycians stake Their lives for you? those Lycians you forsake? What from thy thankless arms can we expect? Thy friend Sarpedon proves thy base neglect. nor ask a foreign hand: Mean. And thus due honours purchased to his shade. without a manly mind. Thou dar'st not meet the terrors of his eye. and give up Troy to fate. is the name! Since battle is renounced. shall our slaughter'd bodies guard your walls. And Hector trembles and recedes with fear. and his country's cause) Even yet our mutual arms we might employ.BOOK XVII. A feast for dogs. thy thoughts employ What other methods may preserve thy Troy: 'Tis time to try if Ilion's state can stand By thee alone. without the merit. While unreveng'd the great Sarpedon falls? Even where he died for Troy. you left him there. "Where now in Hector shall we Hector find? A manly form. On my command if any Lycian wait." 519 [316] . O chief! a hero's boasted fame? How vain. Say. Hence let him march. we might obtain Sarpedon's arms and honour'd corse again! Greece with Achilles' friend should be repaid.

I shun great Ajax? I desert my train? 'Tis mine to prove the rash assertion vain. in action as in name. is it just. if I fear to-day.520 The Iliad of Homer The Trojan chief with fix'd resentment eyed The Lycian leader. and allies! Be men. And yet be mindful of your ancient fame. Now crowns with fame the mighty man." Then turning to the martial hosts. Hector in proud Achilles' arms shall shine." . Torn from his friend. through yon squadrons let us hew the way. The strong he withers. my friends. and confounds the bold. that Hector's ear From such a warrior such a speech should hear? I deem'd thee once the wisest of thy kind. my friend. Or yet their hero dare defend the dead. and sedate replied: "Say. I joy to mingle where the battle bleeds. and now Strikes the fresh garland from the victor's brow! Come. Lycians. But ill this insult suits a prudent mind. Dardans. he cries: "Ye Trojans. But Jove's high will is ever uncontroll'd. If yet a Greek the sight of Hector dread. And thou be witness. And hear the thunder of the sounding steeds. by right of conquest mine.

For ah! no more Andromache shall come With joyful tears to welcome Hector home. as thus he said: (The sable plumage nodded o'er his head:) Swift through the spacious plain he sent a look. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn. By aged Peleus to Achilles given. Him. Now blazing in the immortal arms he stands. The god whose thunder rends the troubled air Beheld with pity. wretched man! unmindful of thy end! A moment's glory. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. one instant overtook The distant band. Olympus trembled. No more officious. proud in triumph.BOOK XVII. that on the sandy shore The radiant spoils to sacred Ilion bore. There his own mail unbraced the field bestrow'd. He strode along the field. Forbid by fate to reach his father's years. The work and present of celestial hands. He shook the sacred honours of his head. look'd through all the scene of fate. as apart he sat. and the godhead said. "Ah. As first to Peleus by the court of heaven: His father's arms not long Achilles wears. Yet live! I give thee one illustrious day. and armies tremble at thy sight. with endearing charms. One instant saw. conscious. His train to Troy convey'd the massy load. Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. and what fates attend! In heavenly panoply divinely bright Thou stand'st. 521 . As at Achilles' self! beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part. glittering from afar. And.

and share the fame. and hear. he inspires.522 The Iliad of Homer From thy tired limbs unbrace Pelides' arms!" Then with his sable brow he gave the nod That seals his word. in augury renown'd. And glean the relics of exhausted Troy. Whatever hand shall win Patroclus slain. Whoe'er shall drag him to the Trojan train. Now Mesthles. Medon. and our future race. With Hector's self shall equal honours claim. all ye hosts. the sanction of the god. The blood in brisker tides began to roll. or of distant lands! 'Twas not for state we summon'd you so far. And look'd. Glaucus. our products. Now then. Asteropaeus kindled at the sound. enlarged his members grew. Exhorting loud through all the field he strode. and Hippothous fires. To die or conquer are the terms of war. unnumber'd bands Of neighbouring nations. And Mars himself came rushing on his soul. To save our present. The stubborn arms (by Jove's command disposed) Conform'd spontaneous. Now Phorcys. Through all his veins a sudden vigour flew. To boast our numbers." [318] . and moved. to conquer or to die prepare. and the pomp of war: Ye came to fight. you enjoy. With Hector part the spoil. Chromius. our wealth. And Ennomus. Tor this. or a god. "Hear. and around him closed: Fill'd with the god. a valiant foe to chase. Achilles. The great Thersilochus like fury found.

my friend. whom this well-known voice shall reach from far. The bravest Greeks: this hour demands them all. perhaps. alas! is come. And each from Ajax hopes the glorious prey: Vain hope! what numbers shall the field o'erspread. Condemn'd to vultures on the Trojan plain. See what a tempest direful Hector spreads. Fired by his words. whose glory is from heaven! Whom with due honours both Atrides grace: Ye guides and guardians of our Argive race! All. Come all! let generous rage your arms employ. they protend their spears. on me. "O chiefs! O princes. it thunders on our heads! Call on our Greeks. whom I see not through this cloud of war. to whose hand is given The rule of men. if any hear the call. They join. And all our wars and glories at an end! 'Tis not this corse alone we guard in vain. on all. Full on the Greeks they drive in firm array. All. What victims perish round the mighty dead! 523 Great Ajax mark'd the growing storm from far.BOOK XVII. We too must yield: the same sad fate must fall On thee. the troops dismiss their fears. And lo! it bursts. my friend. they thicken." The warrior raised his voice. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Our fatal day." . And save Patroclus from the dogs of Troy. and wide around The field re-echoed the distressful sound.

. The river trembles to his utmost shore. Nor dooms his carcase to the birds of air. and ready was his aid: Next him Idomeneus. [319] The first attack the Grecians scarce sustain. And Merion. Jove. for he lived a friend: Dead he protects him with superior care. Nor less resolved. Swift was his pace. pouring darkness o'er the mingled fight. Fierce to the charge great Hector led the throng. Conceals the warriors' shining helms in night: To him.524 The Iliad of Homer Oilean Ajax first the voice obey'd. and eager all for fame. The long-succeeding numbers who can name? But all were Greeks. Where some swoln river disembogues his waves. to revenge led on By the swift rage of Ajax Telamon. Thus. for a distance round. Full in the mouth is stopp'd the rushing tide. Repulsed. The boiling ocean works from side to side. more slow with age. they yield. and next in fame) With headlong force the foremost ranks he tore. the chief for whom the hosts contend Had lived not hateful. the firm Achaian band With brazen shields in horrid circle stand. burning with a hero's rage. when a mountain billow foams and raves. So through the thicket bursts the mountain boar. (Ajax to Peleus' son the second name. And distant rocks re-bellow to the roar. Then fierce they rally. the Trojans seize the slain. In graceful stature next. And rudely scatters. Whole Troy embodied rush'd with shouts along.

Lamented youth! in life's first bloom he fell. The son of Lethus. And ill requites his parents' tender care. Doom'd by great Ajax' vengeful lance to bleed: It cleft the helmet's brazen cheeks in twain. 525 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS.BOOK XVII. The Grecian marking. Shunn'd the descending death. dragg'd the carcase through the war. brave Pelasgus' heir. Once more at Ajax Hector's javelin flies. The sinewy ankles bored. [320] . Stretch'd in the dust the great Iphytus' son. and o'er him spread. which hissing on. the feet he bound With thongs inserted through the double wound: Inevitable fate o'ertakes the deed. Hippothous. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. as it cut the skies. his native air. Now lies a sad companion of the dead: Far from Larissa lies. The frighted hunter and the baying hound. The shatter'd crest and horse-hair strow the plain: With nerves relax'd he tumbles to the ground: The brain comes gushing through the ghastly wound: He drops Patroclus' foot.

Greece. Revered for prudence. Fled to her ramparts. In clanging arms the hero fell and all The fields resounded with his weighty fall. as slain Hippothous he defends. And deep transpiercing through the shoulder stood. And through the wound the rushing entrails broke: In strong convulsions panting on the sands He lies. The Telamonian lance his belly rends. and grasps the dust with dying hands. for strength renown'd. by Greece compell'd to yield. Phorcys.526 The Iliad of Homer Schedius the brave. the weapon drank his blood. and ruled the realms around. He held his seat.) . recede the Trojan train: The shouting Argives strip the heroes slain. and with prudence bold. of all the Phocian kind The boldest warrior and the noblest mind: In little Panope. had turn'd the scale of fate: But Phoebus urged Æneas to the fight. With Jove averse. Struck at the sight. He seem'd like aged Periphas to sight: (A herald in Anchises' love grown old. and resign'd the field. And now had Troy. Plunged in his throat. in her native fortitude elate. The hollow armour burst before the stroke.

Rank within rank. when fortune smiles." Æneas through the form assumed descries The power conceal'd. In vain beloved by valiant Lycomede. Asteropeus with grief beheld the slain. who. my bosom warms. 527 [321] . when Jove declares His partial favour. A brazen bulwark. but he rush'd in vain: Indissolubly firm. From rich Paeonia's vales the warrior came.BOOK XVII. Have forced the powers to spare a sinking state. with vigorous force address'd. And rush'd to combat. Asteropeus! in place and fame. And hemm'd with bristled spears. the Grecians stood. Swift to revenge it sent his angry lance. Then. And gain'd at length the glorious odds of fate: But you. To save your Troy. and an iron wood. Leocritus beneath him bled. and foremost to the combat flew: The bold example all his hosts pursue. Thus he—"What methods yet." He spoke. and by arts of war. grieving at the chance. Next thee. And tells me. The whirling lance. By valour. A god. first. and pants in Apisaon's breast. around the dead. and. by virtuous care. Who view'd his fall. We seek our ramparts. and thus to Hector cries: "Oh lasting shame! to our own fears a prey. though heaven its fall ordain? There have been heroes. and desert the day. numbers. Descends. O chief! remain. on buckler buckler spread. Jove asserts the Trojan arms. nor is he less. And force the unwilling god to ruin Troy. Your shameful efforts 'gainst yourselves employ. and assists your wars.

Such o'er Patroclus' body hung the night. Greece. in the rear. and collected might. Nor knew the fortune of Achilles' friend. The youthful brothers thus for fame contend. The sun. When from the ships he sent the Pylian band. thickening round them. rise the hills of dead. wound A sanguine torrent steeps the reeking ground: On heaps the Greeks. Fierce as conflicting fires the combat burns. Dispersed around the plain. and sways the wavering fight. And stands the centre and the soul of all: Fix'd on the spot they war. Yet suffers least. And skirmish wide: so Nestor gave command. The golden sun pour'd forth a stronger ray. now it sinks by turns. Meanwhile the sons of Nestor. There burn'd the war. Unclouded there. Close in their ranks commands to fight or fall. the moon. the aerial azure spread. and wounded. and there the mighty bled. (Their fellows routed. And.) toss the distant spear.528 The Iliad of Homer Great Ajax eyes them with incessant care. in close order. and open light. And all heaven's splendours blotted from the skies. The rest in sunshine fought. on heaps the Trojans bled. and all the ethereal host Seem'd as extinct: day ravish'd from their eyes. And all the broad expansion flamed with day. . And in an orb contracts the crowded war. by fits they fight. And here and there their scatter'd arrows light: But death and darkness o'er the carcase spread. No vapour rested on the mountain's head. In one thick darkness all the fight was lost. And now it rises.

The mangled body bathed in sweat and blood. Not Pallas' self. drunk with fat and gore: So tugging round the corse both armies stood. Expects him glorious from the conquered plain. and tugg'd from side to side. Such. Could blame this scene. and sweat. their feet. and dealing death to Troy. And thick and heavy grows the work of death: O'erlabour'd now. As when a slaughter'd bull's yet reeking hide. Glorious in arms.BOOK XVII. Though well he knew. In thought they view'd him still. in pity to her son. the clouds on clouds arise. now to Troy. their legs. Perhaps to him: this Thetis had reveal'd. Jove to honour the great dead ordain'd. Their knees. and darkness fills their eyes. The brawny curriers stretch. conceal'd. In dust extended under Ilion's wall. Now to the ships to force it. Achilles in his ships at distance lay. While Greeks and Ilians equal strength employ. And for his wish'd return prepares in vain. are covered o'er. Nor he whose anger sets the world in arms. Drops follow drops. and labour o'er The extended surface. with dust. The rest. And carnage clogs their hands. her breast when fury warms. Nor knew the fatal fortune of the day. 529 But round the corse the heroes pant for breath. with martial joy. such horror reign'd. yet unconscious of Patroclus' fall. such rage. to make proud Ilion bend Was more than heaven had destined to his friend. He. and gore. Strain'd with full force. [322] .

"To close the pomp. Unmindful of their pasture and their love. the steed of state. ii . hangs his languid head. and drink our blood for sacrifice. ere haughty Troy shall boast We lost Patroclus. and shared in human miseries. But pensive herds that for their master low. the clangours rise. with a sullen pace He walks.530 The Iliad of Homer Still raged the conflict round the hero dead. Jove! or heap us on the dead!" Then clash their sounding arms. Straggling and comfortless about they rove. And shake the brazen concave of the skies. ibid. Is led. and careless of his golden grain. Æthon. And. id. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood: Their godlike master slain before their eyes. at distance from the scene of blood. "Nothing is heard upon the mountains now. the funeral of his lord to wait. Meantime. They wept. "Cursed be the man (even private Greeks would say) Who dares desert this well-disputed day! First may the cleaving earth before our eyes Gape wide." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. He stands. "Grant this day. 18-24. Stripp'd of his trappings. sunk in sorrow." Dryden's Virgil. And heaps on heaps by mutual wounds they bled. 3. Weeps his associates and his master slain. and the big tears run rolling down his face.248 248 [323] —They wept. bk. v. parodied. First perish all. and our glory lost!" Thus they: while with one voice the Trojans said." Moschus. "Fast by the manger stands the inactive steed.

BOOK XVII. Placed on the hero's grave. now in vain. Restive they stood. While thus relenting to the steeds he spoke: "Unhappy coursers of immortal strain. Trail'd on the dust beneath the yoke were spread. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go. Along their face The big round drops coursed down with silent pace. calamitous. and blind? A miserable race! but cease to mourn: For not by you shall Priam's son be borne High on the splendid car: one glorious prize He rashly boasts: the rest our will denies. Now plies the lash. and soothes and threats in vain. Ourself with rising spirits swell your heart. Exempt from age. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein. And prone to earth was hung their languid head: Nor Jove disdain'd to cast a pitying look. Only. and waved in state. Did we your race on mortal man bestow. Conglobing on the dust. On some good man or woman unreproved Lays its eternal weight. never to be moved. as stands A marble courser by the sculptor's hands. That breathes or creeps upon the dust of earth. and obstinate in woe: Still as a tombstone. For yet 'tis given to Troy to ravage o'er 531 . alas! to share in mortal woe? For ah! what is there of inferior birth. Than man more weak. that late Circled their arched necks. Ourself will swiftness to your nerves impart. and deathless. or fix'd. Automedon your rapid flight shall bear Safe to the navy through the storm of war. What wretched creature of what wretched kind. Their manes.

Snatches the reins. and Hector wields Achilles' arms triumphant in the fields. Now plies the javelin. Alcimedon. Alone. with active heat. now directs the reins: Him brave Alcimedon beheld distress'd. their rage could tame. The chief of Troy descried. while he lived. His friend descends.532 The Iliad of Homer The field." He said. and the chief address'd: "What god provokes thee rashly thus to dare." He said. From their high manes they shake the dust. [324] . and breathing in the immortal horse Excessive spirit. and vaults into the seat. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew. that scream. and scatter round the plain. The sun shall see her conquer." "In happy time (the charioteer replies) The bold Alcimedon now greets my eyes. urged them to the course. and spread her slaughters to the shore. in the thickest war? Alas! thy friend is slain. to thee resign The ruling charge: the task of fight be mine. and bear The kindling chariot through the parted war: So flies a vulture through the clamorous train Of geese. Or holds their fury in suspended reins: Patroclus. And now to conquest with like speed pursue. No Greek like him the heavenly steeds restrains. unaided. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains. till his fall With sacred darkness shades the face of all. And call'd Æneas fighting near his side. But now Patroclus is an empty name! To thee I yield the seat. Approach'd the chariot.

For hard the fight. and Æneas' rage: Yet mighty as they are. 'Tis Hector comes: and when he seeks the prize. determined is the foe.) Turn where distress demands immediate aid. Then o'er their backs they spread their solid shields: With brass refulgent the broad surface shined. Unmov'd. (he said. and we prevail. "Hither turn. Automedon attends the fight. "Lo. brave youths. to my sight. And save the living from a fiercer foe." Then through the field he sends his voice aloud. The dead. Each hopes the conquest of the lofty steeds: In vain. deserted of its lord! The glorious steeds our ready arms invite.BOOK XVII. with glorious hopes ye burn. Then turning to his friend. And thick bull-hides the spacious concave lined. And calls the Ajaces from the warring crowd. With great Atrides. Achilles' car. with dauntless mind: "Oh keep the foaming coursers close behind! Full on my shoulders let their nostrils blow. he wins it or he dies. War knows no mean. my friend. forego. beyond our hope restored. encircled by his friends. Aretus succeeds." 533 . unequal to engage The force of Hector. and collects his might. Can such opponents stand when we assail? Unite thy force." The son of Venus to the counsel yields. Scarce their weak drivers guide them through the fight. my force to prove Is only mine: the event belongs to Jove. Unhelp'd we stand. In vain advance! not fated to return. Them Chromius follows. Implores the Eternal.

the javelin idly fled. . With clashing falchions now the chiefs had closed. and thus have paid. that with impetuous spring Darts. Cleaves the broad forehead of some brawny bull:249 Struck 'twixt the horns. As when a ponderous axe. But left their slain companion in his blood: His arms Automedon divests. the air his soul received. Deep rooted in the ground. "Like to a bull. But each brave Ajax heard. "Accept. he shunn'd. emboss'd with curious art. Then tumbling rolls enormous on the ground: Thus fell the youth. and high the sounding javelin flung. he springs with many a bound.534 The Iliad of Homer [325] He spoke. And the spear trembled as his entrails heaved. some offering to thy shade. this mean sacrifice: Thus have I soothed my griefs. xii. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. descending full. c. And hiss'd innoxious o'er the hero's head. Then in the lower belly struck the dart. Stooping. the forceful spear In long vibrations spent its fury there. and interposed. and cries." 249 —Some brawny bull. the meditated blow. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. Now at Automedon the Trojan foe Discharged his lance. Patroclus. Nor longer Hector with his Trojans stood. Which pass'd the shield of Aretus the young: It pierced his belt. Poor as it is." —Carey's Dante: Hell.

and ward the storm of war! But Hector. O father! (Atreus' son replies) O full of days! by long experience wise! What more desires my soul. And o'er his seat the bloody trophies hung. And Jove's own glories blaze around his head!" [326] .BOOK XVII. O'er the dark clouds extends his purple bow. And from his half-till'd field the labourer flies: In such a form the goddess round her drew A livid cloud. and to the battle flew. 535 And now Minerva from the realms of air Descends impetuous. And in his well-known voice to Sparta calls: "And lies Achilles' friend. So looks the lion o'er a mangled boar. The lord of thunders sent the blue-eyed maid. As when high Jove denouncing future woe. pleased at length the Grecian arms to aid. we dread. Assuming Phoenix' shape on earth she falls.) The drooping cattle dread the impending skies. High on the chariot at one bound he sprung. A prey to dogs beneath the Trojan wall? What shame 'o Greece for future times to tell. All grim with rage. For. and horrible with gore. Or from the rage of man. (In sign of tempests from the troubled air. would Minerva send me strength to rear This wearied arm. and renews the war. than here unmoved To guard the body of the man I loved? Ah. destructive war. like the rage of fire. To thee the greatest in whose cause he fell!" "O chief. beloved by all.

A chief once thought no terror of the field? Yet singly.536 The Iliad of Homer Pleased to be first of all the powers address'd. . the long-disputed prize He bears victorious. The friend of Hector. and his guest. and lust of fight. (Asius the great. who held his wealthy reign In fair Abydos. She breathes new vigour in her hero's breast. Sudden at Hector's side Apollo stood. So burns the vengeful hornet (soul all o'er). unrevenged. Like Phaenops. not unknown to fame. by the rolling main. And sent his soul with every lance he threw. his comrade. And fills with keen revenge. and rage. Rage lifts his lance. appear'd the god. and with courage bless'd. Fired with like ardour fierce Atrides flew. untired.) "Oh prince! (he cried) Oh foremost once in fame! What Grecian now shall tremble at thy name? Dost thou at length to Menelaus yield. attacks. Asius' son. By Hector loved. ponderous as he falls. Aetion's son. and thirsty still of gore. and stings. o'er Hector spreads a cloud of woe. and drives him on the foe. Through his broad belt the spear a passage found. and Podes was his name: With riches honour'd. (Bold son of air and heat) on angry wings Untamed. now. And. There stood a Trojan. with fell despite. he turns. while our army flies: By the same arm illustrious Podes bled. is dead!" This heard. his arms resound. Repulsed in vain. Desire of blood.

BOOK XVII. The son of Priam whirl'd the massive wood. and the tongue it rent. Leitus quits the plain. and now laid low. Pierced through the wrist. Between his cheek and ear the weapon went. the impetuous spear Struck to the dust the squire and charioteer Of martial Merion: Coeranus his name. Idomen address'd The flaming javelin to his manly breast. But the brave squire the ready coursers brought. Polydamas drew near. Exulting Troy with clamour fills the fields: High on his chariots the Cretan stood. But now the Eternal shook his sable shield. Prone from the seat he tumbles to the plain. Then trembled Greece: the flight Peneleus led. Grasps his once formidable lance in vain. and the victors fly. Had graced the triumphs of his Trojan foe. the thunder roar'd aloud. A rolling cloud Involved the mount. That shaded Ide and all the subject field Beneath its ample verge. For as the brave Boeotian turn'd his head To face the foe. and raging with the pain. 537 [327] . As Hector follow'd. And razed his shoulder with a shorten'd spear: By Hector wounded. But erring from its aim. The teeth it shatter'd. The brittle point before his corslet yields. And blaze beneath the lightnings of the god: At one regard of his all-seeing eye The vanquish'd triumph. And with his life his master's safety bought. The affrighted hills from their foundations nod. On foot bold Merion fought. Who left fair Lyctus for the fields of fame.

Some hero too must be despatch'd to bear The mournful message to Pelides' ear. Not Ajax less the will of heaven descried. Then thus begun. His friend. scarce rescued from their fates. He suffers every lance to fall in vain. bending from the car. Give me to see. his loved Patroclus. And conquest shifting to the Trojan side. distant on the shore. For sure he knows not. He guides each arrow to a Grecian heart: Not so our spears.538 The Iliad of Homer His dying hand forgets the falling rein: This Merion reaches. incessant though they rain. and Ajax asks no more: If Greece must perish. If yet this honour'd corse. all are lost In general darkness—Lord of earth and air! Oh king! Oh father! hear my humble prayer: Dispel this cloud. the armies. Who tremble yet. the godlike Telamon: "Alas! who sees not Jove's almighty hand Transfers the glory to the Trojan band? Whether the weak or strong discharge the dart. But let us perish in the face of day!" . But such a chief I spy not through the host: The men. And urges to desert the hopeless war: Idomeneus consents. To Atreus's seed. we thy will obey. the lash applies. the light of heaven restore. Deserted of the god. And the swift chariot to the navy flies. is no more. Turn'd by the hand of Jove. yet let us try What human strength and prudence can supply. And still hear Hector thundering at their gates. in triumph borne. May glad the fleets that hope not our return. the steeds.

How skill'd he was in each obliging art. Atrides! cast around thy sight. And bear the merits of the dead in mind. much adjured his train: "O guard these relics to your charge consign'd. as in life a friend!" . now. The blaze of armour flash'd against the day. and fretted sore with wounds. So moved Atrides from his dangerous place With weary limbs. And the red terrors of the blazing brands: Till late. The darts fly round him from a hundred hands. If yet Antilochus survives the fight. he fear'd. alas! but fate decreed his end. The foe. And much admonish'd. and with hunger bold. at the dawn of day Sour he departs. The mildest manners. might yet Patroclus gain. reluctant. In death a hero. With tears the hero spoke. and the gentlest heart: He was. Though high in courage. Let him to great Achilles' ear convey The fatal news"—Atrides hastes away. Long gall'd by herdsmen. and long vex'd by hounds. and quits the untasted prey. Forth burst the sun with all-enlightening ray. and at his prayer The god relenting clear'd the clouded air. 539 [328] So turns the lion from the nightly fold. "Now.BOOK XVII. Stiff with fatigue. but with unwilling pace.

To brave Laodocus his arms he flung. And round on all sides sent his piercing view. drove his steeds along. Snatches his life amid the clouds of air. For sadder tidings never touch'd thy ear. and the Achaians mourn. through the ranks of fight: Till on the left the chief he sought. Not with less quickness. and sousing on the quivering hare. and tell The sad Achilles. this instant fly. near him wheeling. This is not all: Patroclus. As the bold bird. he strove to say What sorrow dictates. his exerted sight Pass'd this and that way." The youthful warrior heard with silent woe. Then stoops. and with dejected heart. how his loved-one fell: He too may haste the naked corse to gain: The arms are Hector's. he found. Fly to the fleet. on the shore Now pale and dead. and sees the distant thicket move. Thy eyes have witness'd what a fatal turn! How Ilion triumphs. who despoil'd the slain. The sacred eagle. Then ran the mournful message to impart.540 The Iliad of Homer So parts the chief. shall succour Greece no more. endued with sharpest eye Of all that wings the mid aerial sky. and spreading deaths around: To him the king: "Beloved of Jove! draw near. Cheering his men. Who. from his walks above Looks down. but no word found way. from rank to rank he flew. From his fair eyes the tears began to flow: Big with the mighty grief. With tearful eyes. [329] .

Himself returns to his Patroclus slain. But bids bold Thrasymede those troops sustain. to their fears they yield. What Troy can dare. and round the forest fly. Swift fled the youth: nor Menelaus stands (Though sore distress'd) to aid the Pylian bands. fighting side by side. 'Tis in our hands alone our hopes remain. that many a length before Their furious hunters. warriors. All pale they tremble and forsake the field. High from the ground the warriors heave the dead. But hope not. They howl aloof. Wave their thick falchions.BOOK XVII. Have tried it. With Merion's aid. Voracious hounds. And save ourselves. and have stood. Myself. and their javelins shower: But Ajax turning. But if the savage turns his glaring eye. and my bold brother will sustain The shock of Hector and his charging train: Nor fear we armies. drive the wounded boar. while with impetuous hate Troy pours along. and renew the fight. and this way rolls our fate. for Achilles' aid: Though fierce his rage." The hero said. and with thirst of blood. he fights not with the Trojan foe. Unarm'd. Thus on retreating Greece the Trojans pour. unbounded be his woe. 541 . 'Tis our own vigour must the dead regain. Not fiercer rush along the gloomy wood. "Gone is Antilochus (the hero said). we have already tried." "'Tis well (said Ajax). be it then thy care. A general clamour rises at the sight: Loud shout the Trojans. With rage insatiate. the weighty corse to rear.

and still the battle bleeds. And sheets of smoke mount heavy to the poles. Some interposing hill the stream divides. And breaks the torrent of the rushing bands. and all the way. From the steep mountain with exerted strength Drag some vast beam. horror. . and turns the winding tides. Such horror Jove impress'd! yet still proceeds The work of death. And breaks its force. and the mingled cry: Within. Such the wild terror. The heroes sweat beneath their honour'd load: As when two mules. Strow'd in bright heaps. urged the rout along: Less fierce the winds with rising flames conspire To whelm some city under waves of fire. threats their callow young. hung High on poised pinions. like a flight of cranes. Now sink in gloomy clouds the proud abodes. along the rugged road. Now crack the blazing temples of the gods. So from the Trojan chiefs the Grecians fly. Aeneas storms. Inly they groan. or mast's unwieldy length. chariots. their arms and armour lay. without the trench. steeds. That shriek incessant. thick retreat maintains. Thus when a river swell'd with sudden rains Spreads his broad waters o'er the level plains. Wedged in one body. Still close they follow.542 The Iliad of Homer [330] While thus aloft the hero's corse they bear. tumult. close the rear engage. Behind them rages all the storm of war: Confusion. The rumbling torrent through the ruin rolls. The enormous timber lumbering down the hill: So these—Behind. big drops of sweat distil. o'er the throng Of men. and Hector foams with rage: While Greece a heavy. the bulk of Ajax stands. while the falcon.

543 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM.BOOK XVII. .

.

from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus. where Hellespont's broad waters flow. to remain encamped in the field. ARGUMENT. lastly. comes with all her sea.nymphs to comfort him. and the night ensuing. THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES. Thus like the rage of fire the combat burns. where Hector and Polydamas disagree in their opinions: but the advice of the former prevails. Meanwhile. AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY VULCAN. 250 . The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day. The Trojans call a council. Thetis. The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by Antilochus. This is connected with the earlier part of last book. hearing his lamentations. take up this book: the scene is at Achilles' tent on the sea-shore. The speeches of the mother and son on this occasion. and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrenchments.[331] BOOK XVIII.250 And now it rises. and the body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan to obtain new arms for her son. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of Juno. the regular narrative being interrupted by the message of Antilochus and the lamentations of Achilles. now it sinks by turns. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan: and. that noble one of the shield of Achilles. The sight of him turns the fortunes of the day.

now to quit the plains? Is this the day. which heaven so long ago Ordain'd. His purple garments. His naked corse: his arms are Hector's right. and his golden hairs. with disorder'd charms. Fallen is the warrior." A sudden horror shot through all the chief. And tells the melancholy tale with tears. Thus to his soul he said: "Ah! what constrains The Greeks. And wretched I.546 The Iliad of Homer Stood Nestor's son. as to earth he grew. for all that fate design'd Rose in sad prospect to his boding mind. On hoisted yards extended to the gales. Those he deforms with dust.) when by a Trojan hand The bravest of the Myrmidonian band Should lose the light! Fulfilled is that decree. son of Peleus! thou must hear. the unwilling messenger! Dead is Patroclus! For his corse they fight.) Rush'd from their tents with cries. Pensive he sat. and these he tears. with furious hands he spread The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head. or by Patroclus' arms. And roll'd and grovell'd. "Sad tidings. to sink me with the weight of woe? (So Thetis warn'd. The virgin captives. late victors. and gathering round. and Patroclus he! In vain I charged him soon to quit the plain. Cast on the ground. (Won by his own. . On the hard soil his groaning breast he threw. And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief. And warn'd to shun Hectorean force in vain!" [332] Thus while he thinks. the messenger of woe: There sat Achilles. shaded by his sails. Antilochus appears.

Clymene. amidst his frantic woe. All these. Their locks Actaea and Limnoria rear. Thalia. And swift Dynamene. Nesaea mild. Doris. Dexamene the slow. and answer'd groan for groan. and Janassa fair. 547 [333] —Far in the deep. Then Proto. And oft prevents the meditated blow. And black Janira. 251 . Bright Galatea quits her pearly bed. and all that deep in ocean held Their sacred seats. the glimmering grotto fill'd. Amphinome. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries. Glauce (every watery name). Melita. Hangs on his arms. And Amatheia with her amber hair. now cut the tides: Iaera now the verdant wave divides: Nemertes with Apseudes lifts the head. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. Agave gentle. the train extend. and the watery train.BOOK XVIII. and Amphithoe gay: Next Callianira. Pherusa. Beat their white breasts. Far in the deep abysses of the main. And mourns the warrior with a warrior's heart. Maera. and comes from the depths of the sea to comfort him. So Oceanus hears the lamentations of Prometheus. These Orythia. And the blue languish of soft Alia's eye. Callianassa show Their sister looks.251 With hoary Nereus. and fainted on the ground: While Nestor's son sustains a manlier part. Thoa. Doto. in the play of Æschylus. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. Panope appear. and silver Spio came: Cymothoe and Cymodoce were nigh. attend.

ascended up the strand. were I mortal. ye sisters of the main! How just a cause has Thetis to complain! How wretched. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart. by my careful hand He grew. and judge. The immortal mother. he flourish'd and adorn'd the land To Troy I sent him: but the fates ordain He never." She said. And thus the silver-footed dame began: "Why mourns my son? thy late preferr'd request The god has granted.548 The Iliad of Homer Each beat her ivory breast with silent woe. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. Then. So short a space the light of heaven to view. Reveal the cause. So short. to his sighs replied. The bravest far that ever bore the name. were my fate! How more than wretched in the immortal state! Sprung from my bed a godlike hero came. and the Greeks distress'd: Why mourns my son? thy anguish let me share." . never must return again. Till Thetis' sorrows thus began to flow: "Hear me. I go at least to bear a tender part. and trust a parent's care. but I must deplore. the melancholy train Attend her way. All bathed in tears. Approaching now. Wide-opening part the tides. Along the coast their mingled clamours ran. While the long pomp the silver wave divides. they touch'd the Trojan land. alas! and fill'd with anguish too! Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore! I cannot ease them. two by two. Like some fair olive. and left the caverns of the main.

led A mortal beauty to his equal bed! Ere the sad fruit of thy unhappy womb Had caused such sorrows past. shall create again. Pursued the pleasures of the watery reign: And happier Peleus. Since. Patroclus—Ah!—say. a hundred ghosts demand 549 [334] . can I boast A pleasure now? revenge itself is lost. a sister of the main. Beyond mankind. Cursed be that day. loved of all my martial train. Patroclus dead. For soon. He. see thee dead! When Hector falls. and woes to come. 'Tis not in fate the alternate now to give. wish'd my aid in vain. On these conditions will I breathe: till then. thou diest. since from this miserable day I cast all hope of my return away. And let me fall! (Achilles made reply) Far lies Patroclus from his native plain! He fell. Let me revenge it on proud Hector's heart. alas! that wretched offspring slain. Let his last spirit smoke upon my dart. New woes. Not even the Thunderer's favour brings relief. Ah then. at this. Hector bears the glorious load. Achilles hates to live. new sorrows. I see thee dying. less ambitious. I blush to walk among the race of men. and falling. goddess. Patroclus. deeply groaning—"To this cureless grief. when all the powers above Thy charms submitted to a mortal love: O hadst thou still. beyond myself is slain! Lost are those arms the gods themselves bestow'd On Peleus." A flood of tears."—"Let Hector die.BOOK XVIII. the goddess shed: "Ah then. unrevenged.

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The fate of Hector from Achilles' hand; Since here, for brutal courage far renown'd, I live an idle burden to the ground, (Others in council famed for nobler skill, More useful to preserve, than I to kill,) Let me—But oh! ye gracious powers above! Wrath and revenge from men and gods remove: Far, far too dear to every mortal breast, Sweet to the soul, as honey to the taste: Gathering like vapours of a noxious kind From fiery blood, and darkening all the mind. Me Agamemnon urged to deadly hate; 'Tis past—I quell it; I resign to fate. Yes—I will meet the murderer of my friend; Or (if the gods ordain it) meet my end. The stroke of fate the strongest cannot shun: The great Alcides, Jove's unequall'd son, To Juno's hate, at length resign'd his breath, And sunk the victim of all-conquering death. So shall Achilles fall! stretch'd pale and dead, No more the Grecian hope, or Trojan dread! Let me, this instant, rush into the fields, And reap what glory life's short harvest yields. Shall I not force some widow'd dame to tear With frantic hands her long dishevell'd hair? Shall I not force her breast to heave with sighs, And the soft tears to trickle from her eyes? Yes, I shall give the fair those mournful charms— In vain you hold me—Hence! my arms! my arms!— Soon shall the sanguine torrent spread so wide, That all shall know Achilles swells the tide." "My son (coerulean Thetis made reply, To fate submitting with a secret sigh,)

BOOK XVIII. The host to succour, and thy friends to save, Is worthy thee; the duty of the brave. But canst thou, naked, issue to the plains? Thy radiant arms the Trojan foe detains. Insulting Hector bears the spoils on high, But vainly glories, for his fate is nigh. Yet, yet awhile thy generous ardour stay; Assured, I meet thee at the dawn of day, Charged with refulgent arms (a glorious load), Vulcanian arms, the labour of a god." Then turning to the daughters of the main, The goddess thus dismiss'd her azure train: "Ye sister Nereids! to your deeps descend; Haste, and our father's sacred seat attend; I go to find the architect divine, Where vast Olympus' starry summits shine: So tell our hoary sire"—This charge she gave: The sea-green sisters plunge beneath the wave: Thetis once more ascends the bless'd abodes, And treads the brazen threshold of the gods.

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[335]

And now the Greeks from furious Hector's force, Urge to broad Hellespont their headlong course; Nor yet their chiefs Patroclus' body bore Safe through the tempest to the tented shore. The horse, the foot, with equal fury join'd, Pour'd on the rear, and thunder'd close behind: And like a flame through fields of ripen'd corn, The rage of Hector o'er the ranks was borne. Thrice the slain hero by the foot he drew; Thrice to the skies the Trojan clamours flew: As oft the Ajaces his assault sustain;

[336]

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THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. But check'd, he turns; repuls'd, attacks again. With fiercer shouts his lingering troops he fires, Nor yields a step, nor from his post retires: So watchful shepherds strive to force, in vain, The hungry lion from a carcase slain. Even yet Patroclus had he borne away, And all the glories of the extended day, Had not high Juno from the realms of air, Secret, despatch'd her trusty messenger. The various goddess of the showery bow, Shot in a whirlwind to the shore below; To great Achilles at his ships she came, And thus began the many-colour'd dame: "Rise, son of Peleus! rise, divinely brave! Assist the combat, and Patroclus save: For him the slaughter to the fleet they spread, And fall by mutual wounds around the dead.

BOOK XVIII. To drag him back to Troy the foe contends: Nor with his death the rage of Hector ends: A prey to dogs he dooms the corse to lie, And marks the place to fix his head on high. Rise, and prevent (if yet you think of fame) Thy friend's disgrace, thy own eternal shame!"

553

"Who sends thee, goddess, from the ethereal skies?" Achilles thus. And Iris thus replies:

"I come, Pelides! from the queen of Jove, The immortal empress of the realms above; Unknown to him who sits remote on high, Unknown to all the synod of the sky." "Thou comest in vain (he cries, with fury warm'd); Arms I have none, and can I fight unarm'd? Unwilling as I am, of force I stay, Till Thetis bring me at the dawn of day Vulcanian arms: what other can I wield, Except the mighty Telamonian shield? That, in my friend's defence, has Ajax spread, While his strong lance around him heaps the dead: The gallant chief defends Menoetius' son, And does what his Achilles should have done."

"Thy want of arms (said Iris) well we know; But though unarm'd, yet clad in terrors, go! Let but Achilles o'er yon trench appear, Proud Troy shall tremble, and consent to fear; Greece from one glance of that tremendous eye Shall take new courage, and disdain to fly."

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[337]

She spoke, and pass'd in air. The hero rose: Her aegis Pallas o'er his shoulder throws; Around his brows a golden cloud she spread; A stream of glory flamed above his head. As when from some beleaguer'd town arise The smokes, high curling to the shaded skies; (Seen from some island, o'er the main afar, When men distress'd hang out the sign of war;) Soon as the sun in ocean hides his rays, Thick on the hills the flaming beacons blaze; With long-projected beams the seas are bright, And heaven's high arch reflects the ruddy light: So from Achilles' head the splendours rise, Reflecting blaze on blaze against the skies. Forth march'd the chief, and distant from the crowd, High on the rampart raised his voice aloud; With her own shout Minerva swells the sound; Troy starts astonish'd, and the shores rebound. As the loud trumpet's brazen mouth from far With shrilling clangour sounds the alarm of war, Struck from the walls, the echoes float on high, And the round bulwarks and thick towers reply; So high his brazen voice the hero rear'd: Hosts dropp'd their arms, and trembled as they heard: And back the chariots roll, and coursers bound, And steeds and men lie mingled on the ground. Aghast they see the living lightnings play, And turn their eyeballs from the flashing ray. Thrice from the trench his dreadful voice he raised, And thrice they fled, confounded and amazed. Twelve in the tumult wedged, untimely rush'd On their own spears, by their own chariots crush'd: While, shielded from the darts, the Greeks obtain The long-contended carcase of the slain.

BOOK XVIII. A lofty bier the breathless warrior bears: Around, his sad companions melt in tears. But chief Achilles, bending down his head, Pours unavailing sorrows o'er the dead, Whom late triumphant, with his steeds and car, He sent refulgent to the field of war; (Unhappy change!) now senseless, pale, he found, Stretch'd forth, and gash'd with many a gaping wound. Meantime, unwearied with his heavenly way, In ocean's waves the unwilling light of day Quench'd his red orb, at Juno's high command, And from their labours eased the Achaian band. The frighted Trojans (panting from the war, Their steeds unharness'd from the weary car) A sudden council call'd: each chief appear'd In haste, and standing; for to sit they fear'd. 'Twas now no season for prolong'd debate; They saw Achilles, and in him their fate. Silent they stood: Polydamas at last, Skill'd to discern the future by the past, The son of Panthus, thus express'd his fears (The friend of Hector, and of equal years; The self-same night to both a being gave, One wise in council, one in action brave):

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"In free debate, my friends, your sentence speak; For me, I move, before the morning break, To raise our camp: too dangerous here our post, Far from Troy walls, and on a naked coast. I deem'd not Greece so dreadful, while engaged In mutual feuds her king and hero raged; Then, while we hoped our armies might prevail

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JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET.

We boldly camp'd beside a thousand sail. I dread Pelides now: his rage of mind Not long continues to the shores confined, Nor to the fields, where long in equal fray Contending nations won and lost the day; For Troy, for Troy, shall henceforth be the strife, And the hard contest not for fame, but life. Haste then to Ilion, while the favouring night Detains these terrors, keeps that arm from fight. If but the morrow's sun behold us here, That arm, those terrors, we shall feel, not fear; And hearts that now disdain, shall leap with joy, If heaven permit them then to enter Troy. Let not my fatal prophecy be true, Nor what I tremble but to think, ensue. Whatever be our fate, yet let us try What force of thought and reason can supply; Let us on counsel for our guard depend;

BOOK XVIII. The town her gates and bulwarks shall defend. When morning dawns, our well-appointed powers, Array'd in arms, shall line the lofty towers. Let the fierce hero, then, when fury calls, Vent his mad vengeance on our rocky walls, Or fetch a thousand circles round the plain, Till his spent coursers seek the fleet again: So may his rage be tired, and labour'd down! And dogs shall tear him ere he sack the town." "Return! (said Hector, fired with stern disdain) What! coop whole armies in our walls again? Was't not enough, ye valiant warriors, say, Nine years imprison'd in those towers ye lay? Wide o'er the world was Ilion famed of old For brass exhaustless, and for mines of gold: But while inglorious in her walls we stay'd, Sunk were her treasures, and her stores decay'd; The Phrygians now her scatter'd spoils enjoy, And proud Maeonia wastes the fruits of Troy. Great Jove at length my arms to conquest calls, And shuts the Grecians in their wooden walls, Darest thou dispirit whom the gods incite? Flies any Trojan? I shall stop his flight. To better counsel then attention lend; Take due refreshment, and the watch attend. If there be one whose riches cost him care, Forth let him bring them for the troops to share; 'Tis better generously bestow'd on those, Than left the plunder of our country's foes. Soon as the morn the purple orient warms, Fierce on yon navy will we pour our arms. If great Achilles rise in all his might, His be the danger: I shall stand the fight.

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558 Honour, ye gods! or let me gain or give; And live he glorious, whosoe'er shall live! Mars is our common lord, alike to all; And oft the victor triumphs, but to fall."

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The shouting host in loud applauses join'd; So Pallas robb'd the many of their mind; To their own sense condemn'd, and left to choose The worst advice, the better to refuse. While the long night extends her sable reign, Around Patroclus mourn'd the Grecian train. Stern in superior grief Pelides stood; Those slaughtering arms, so used to bathe in blood, Now clasp his clay-cold limbs: then gushing start The tears, and sighs burst from his swelling heart. The lion thus, with dreadful anguish stung, Roars through the desert, and demands his young; When the grim savage, to his rifled den Too late returning, snuffs the track of men, And o'er the vales and o'er the forest bounds; His clamorous grief the bellowing wood resounds. So grieves Achilles; and, impetuous, vents To all his Myrmidons his loud laments. "In what vain promise, gods! did I engage, When to console Menoetius' feeble age, I vowed his much-loved offspring to restore, Charged with rich spoils, to fair Opuntia's shore?252 But mighty Jove cuts short, with just disdain, The long, long views of poor designing man! One fate the warrior and the friend shall strike, And Troy's black sands must drink our blood alike:
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Opuntia, a city of Locris.

BOOK XVIII. Me too a wretched mother shall deplore, An aged father never see me more! Yet, my Patroclus! yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. Ere thy dear relics in the grave are laid, Shall Hector's head be offer'd to thy shade; That, with his arms, shall hang before thy shrine; And twelve, the noblest of the Trojan line, Sacred to vengeance, by this hand expire; Their lives effused around thy flaming pyre. Thus let me lie till then! thus, closely press'd, Bathe thy cold face, and sob upon thy breast! While Trojan captives here thy mourners stay, Weep all the night and murmur all the day: Spoils of my arms, and thine; when, wasting wide, Our swords kept time, and conquer'd side by side."

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He spoke, and bade the sad attendants round Cleanse the pale corse, and wash each honour'd wound. A massy caldron of stupendous frame They brought, and placed it o'er the rising flame: Then heap'd the lighted wood; the flame divides Beneath the vase, and climbs around the sides: In its wide womb they pour the rushing stream; The boiling water bubbles to the brim. The body then they bathe with pious toil, Embalm the wounds, anoint the limbs with oil, High on a bed of state extended laid, And decent cover'd with a linen shade; Last o'er the dead the milk-white veil they threw; That done, their sorrows and their sighs renew.

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Meanwhile to Juno, in the realms above, (His wife and sister,) spoke almighty Jove. "At last thy will prevails: great Peleus' son Rises in arms: such grace thy Greeks have won. Say (for I know not), is their race divine, And thou the mother of that martial line?"
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"What words are these? (the imperial dame replies, While anger flash'd from her majestic eyes) Succour like this a mortal arm might lend, And such success mere human wit attend: And shall not I, the second power above, Heaven's queen, and consort of the thundering Jove, Say, shall not I one nation's fate command, Not wreak my vengeance on one guilty land?"

So they. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame Reach'd the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame! High-eminent amid the works divine, Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. There the lame architect the goddess found, Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round, While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew; And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew. That day no common task his labour claim'd: Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed, That placed on living wheels of massy gold, (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place, around the bless'd abodes Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods: For their fair handles now, o'erwrought with flowers, In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours. Just as responsive to his thought the frame

BOOK XVIII.

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TRIPOD.

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Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came: Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair, (With purple fillets round her braided hair,) Observed her entering; her soft hand she press'd, And, smiling, thus the watery queen address'd:

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"What, goddess! this unusual favour draws? All hail, and welcome! whatsoe'er the cause; Till now a stranger, in a happy hour Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower."

THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN.

BOOK XVIII. High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, And various artifice, the queen she placed; A footstool at her feet: then calling, said, "Vulcan, draw near, 'tis Thetis asks your aid." "Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim, An ever-dear, an ever-honour'd name! When my proud mother hurl'd me from the sky, (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,) She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress'd, And soft received me on their silver breast. Even then these arts employ'd my infant thought: Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode, Secure I lay, conceal'd from man and god: Deep in a cavern'd rock my days were led; The rushing ocean murmur'd o'er my head. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say, For such desert what service can I pay? Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share The genial rites, and hospitable fare; While I the labours of the forge forego, And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow." Then from his anvil the lame artist rose; Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes, And stills the bellows, and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress'd His brawny arms embrown'd, and hairy breast. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire, Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire: The monarch's steps two female forms uphold, That moved and breathed in animated gold; To whom was voice, and sense, and science given

563

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Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!) On these supported, with unequal gait, He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate; There placed beside her on the shining frame, He thus address'd the silver-footed dame:

"Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honour'd walls? 'Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay, And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey."

VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS.

BOOK XVIII. To whom the mournful mother thus replies: (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:) "O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows, so o'erwhelm'd as mine? Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare For Thetis only such a weight of care? I, only I, of all the watery race By force subjected to a man's embrace, Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays The mighty fine imposed on length of days. Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came, The bravest sure that ever bore the name; Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand He grew, he flourish'd, and he graced the land: To Troy I sent him! but his native shore Never, ah never, shall receive him more; (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;) Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow! Robb'd of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave, The king of nations forced his royal slave: For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress'd Required his arm, he sorrow'd unredress'd. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send; In vain—he arms not, but permits his friend His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ: He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy: Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name) At once resigns his armour, life, and fame. But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won: Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son, And to the field in martial pomp restore, To shine with glory, till he shines no more!"

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deep fix'd. and you there might view The stars that gem the still-revolving heaven. Then first he form'd the immense and solid shield.253 253 Quintus Calaber. . who had there described The heaven. now low. They raise a tempest. Rich various artifice emblazed the field. strong strokes. [345] "In the wide circle of the shield were seen Refulgent images of various forms. The work of Vulcan. is ever thine. the clouds. has attempted to rival Homer in his description of the shield of the same hero. the eternal anvils stand. or they gently blow. seq. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand. O could I hide him from the Fates. as well. Just as the god directs. As I shall forge most envied arms. p. v. And twenty forges catch at once the fires. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll'd. the doubling vaults rebound. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel. Soon as he bade them blow. the ether. and the earth and sea. what Vulcan can. 104. and the world's amaze!" Thus having said. And thick. and where the furnace burn'd.566 The Iliad of Homer To her the artist-god: "Thy griefs resign. the moon. Dyce's version (Select Translations. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires. lib. and solid gold. the gaze Of wondering ages. now loud. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound. the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths. And stubborn brass.. the sun. and tin.) may here be introduced. the father of the fires To the black labours of his forge retires. His left with tongs turns the vex'd metal round. apart In different stations. Before. Secure. The winds. A few extracts from Mr.

567 Two cities radiant on the shield appear. and one of war. The realms of Tethys. And. The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd. and cithern's silver sound: Through the fair streets the matrons in a row Stand in their porches. revolving. which unnumber'd streams. with outstretch'd wings. Along the street the new-made brides are led. around the axle of the sky. To which. and hymeneal rite. The image one of peace. and enjoy the show. Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight. the vast expanse of air. Seem'd to augment. the moon completely round. The Pleiads. to the nuptial bed: The youthful dancers in a circle bound To the soft flute. With torches flaming. Hyads. And godlike labours on the surface rose. In which. There shone the image of the master-mind: There earth. The unwearied sun. there heaven. Around the shield the waves of ocean flow'd. In azure mazes rolling o'er the earth.BOOK XVIII. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose. And great Orion's more refulgent beam. points his golden eye. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main. the long-beak'd bird Winnow'd the gale. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain. there ocean he design'd. And solemn dance. A silver chain suspends the massy round. under them. as if instinct with life. with the northern team. The Bear." .

with sceptres in their hands: On seats of stone. smear'd with reeking gore. see Thirlwall's Greece. And rising solemn. "And here Were horrid wars depicted. which one denied. in sight. note." —Dyce's Calaber. 254 . beside her Rout was seen. each his sentence spoke Two golden talents lay amidst. within the sacred place. And Gorgons. p. &c. On the independence of the judicial office in The heroic times. The prize of him who best adjudged the right. round whom did Battles throng. 166. and Furies breathing flames: Nor absent were the Fates. The subject of debate. Stern stalked Bellona. grimly pale Were heroes lying with their slaughter'd steeds Upon the ground incarnadin'd with blood. Their limbs distilling plenteous blood and sweat. each the attesting sceptre took. Such were the horrors of dire war. Discord to the fatal strife Inciting men.568 The Iliad of Homer There in the forum swarm a numerous train. p. ii. That shot their forky tongues incessant forth. 255 —Another part. or that. And bade the public and the laws decide: The witness is produced on either hand: For this. Another part (a prospect differing far)255 —On seats of stone. a townsman slain: One pleads the fine discharged. and the tall shape Of ghastly Death.254 The reverend elders nodded o'er the case. i. in a circle called the Urtheilsring or gerichtsring"— Grote. vol. And form a ring. And Terror. 100. "Several of the old northern Sagas represent the old men assembled for the purpose of judging as sitting on great stones. the partial people stand: The appointed heralds still the noisy bands. Alternate. whose long locks were twisting snakes. Through charging ranks.

And gold their armour: these the squadron led. divine. the shepherd swains! The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear. and horrid war. August. Behind them piping on their reeds they go. Meantime the townsmen. nor suspect a foe. by Pallas and by Mars made bold: Gold were the gods. approach. that freshly bled With new-made wounds. there Contention stood confess'd. And one would pillage. 569 [346] . A secret ambush on the foe prepare: Their wives.BOOK XVIII. now there. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains. and the watchful band Of trembling parents. And. Now here. and two shepherd swains. And steers slow-moving. Cover'd with shields. and watchful seem If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. all amidst them. They march. another dragg'd a dead. One held a living foe. superior by the head! A place for ambush fit they found. The waving silver seem'd to blush with blood. and met the eye. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden. take horse. their children. and meet the war. their radiant garments gold. Two spies at distance lurk. One rear'd a dagger at a captive's breast. and stood. grim with human gore. beside the silver flood. There Tumult. dead. Glow'd with refulgent arms. on the turrets stand. they fall. the carcases they tore: Fate stalk'd amidst them. And the whole war came out. one would burn the place. They fight. Nor fear an ambush. They rise. arm'd with silent care. Two mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. beside a silver flood. hills of slaughter heap the ground.

Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil: Behind.570 The Iliad of Homer And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. . while with goading wand The active youths impell'd them. Sheaves heap'd on sheaves here thicken up the ground. The hearty draught rewards. "Here was a corn field. And last the children. and collect in bands. Here a feast Was graved: to the shrill pipe and ringing lyre A band of blooming virgins led the dance. The gatherers follow. And sable look'd. With bended sickles stand the reaper train: Here stretched in ranks the levell'd swarths are found. sturdy bullocks here The plough were drawing. the rising earth in ridges roll'd. [347] A field deep furrow'd next the god design'd. as the harvest fell. The master meets them with his goblet crown'd. Each with a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand. And turn their crooked yokes on every side. With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide. Work'd busily. renews their toil. and. though form'd of molten gold. Still as at either end they wheel around. and the furrow'd glebe Was black behind them. The rustic monarch of the field descries. 256 —A field deep furrowed.256 The third time labour'd by the sweating hind." —Dyce's Calaber. As if endued with life. Others were ready still to bind the sheaves: Yoked to a wain that bore the corn away The steers were moving. in whose arms are borne (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn. reapers in a row. Another field rose high with waving grain.

Here herds of oxen march. And seized a bull. Dread the grim terrors. Two lions rushing from the wood appear'd. and answer to the strain. The dogs (oft cheer'd in vain) desert the prey. one pathway gently winding leads. Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade. Tune soft the voice. (Fair maids and blooming youths. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare. To this. in order glow: A darker metal mix'd intrench'd the place. Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings.) that smiling bear The purple product of the autumnal year.BOOK XVIII. With silent glee. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings. the men withstood. a vineyard shines. They tore his flesh. ripe in yellow gold. Where march a train with baskets on their heads. the woman's care. erect and bold. In measured dance behind him move the train. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show. Rear high their horns. the master of the herd: He roar'd: in vain the dogs. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band. The reaper's due repast. and seem to low in gold. 571 [348] . the heaps around him rise. and at distance bay. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace. and drank his sable blood. A ready banquet on the turf is laid. Next. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores A rapid torrent through the rushes roars: Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand. And curl'd on silver props.

A figured dance succeeds. bounding hand in hand. and a length of meads. Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold. . rapid as it runs. the moving maze: Now forth at once. that whiten all the scene. the single spokes are lost. they spring. Form'd by Daedalean art. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest: Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll'd. and pour'd the ocean round: In living silver seem'd the waves to roll. in giddy circle toss'd. now low. The gazing multitudes admire around: Two active tumblers in the centre bound. a comely band Of youths and maidens. And. And beat the buckler's verge. the eye the art of Vulcan leads Deep through fair forests. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. their pliant limbs they bend: And general songs the sprightly revel end. from silver belts depend. and scatter'd cots between. That glittering gay. and folds. Now high. And undistinguish'd blend the flying ring: So whirls a wheel. And stalls. Now all at once they rise. And fleecy flocks. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. and bound the whole. such once was seen In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen. Confusedly regular.572 The Iliad of Homer Next this. too swift for sight. at once descend.

the imagery differs in little more than the names and arrangements. the cuirass that outshone the fires.257 573 257 Coleridge (Greek Classic Poets. This done. the superiority of Homer is decisive—while in those of war and tumult it may be thought. waking the echoes of Olympus to celestial harmonies. and upon the untenable supposition of the genuineness of this poem.— but the gap is wide indeed between them and Apollo with the Muses. and other images of war. we are hurried back to Perseus. in which the sporting dolphins. and the difference of arrangement in the Shield of Hercules is altogether for the worse. the helm impress'd With various sculpture. seq. 182. The Hesiodic images are huddled together without connection or congruity: Mars and Pallas are awkwardly introduced among the Centaurs and Lapithae.) has diligently compared this with the description of the shield of Hercules by Hesiod. The natural consecution of the Homeric images needs no exposition: it constitutes in itself one of the beauties of the work. perhaps.BOOK XVIII. are minutely represented. "with two or three exceptions. At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay: She. and at sublimity by exaggeration. and the golden crest. the leading remark is. in the description of scenes of rustic peace. that they catch at beauty by ornament. whence however. And bears the blazing present through the skies. and the fisherman on the shore with his casting net. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies." . p. the fugitive fishes. over an arm of the sea. As to the Hesiodic images themselves. as a falcon cuts the aerial way. there is this curious peculiarity. He remarks that. whate'er a warrior's use requires He forged. that the Hesiodic poet has more than once the advantage. that. the Gorgons. The greaves of ductile tin.

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not astonished by that prodigy. The hero obstinately refuses all repast. Minerva descends to strengthen him. Soon as Aurora heaved her Orient head Above the waves. Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses. He arms for the fight: his appearance described. Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan. THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. ARGUMENT. One of them is miraculously endued with voice. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches. and ceremonies on that occasion. rushes with fury to the combat. She preserves the body of his friend from corruption. presents. The presents are conveyed to the tent of Achilles. to declare his resentment at an end. and gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. by the order of Jupiter.[349] BOOK XIX. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light. The scene is on the sea-shore. and commands him to assemble the army. (With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. and inspired to prophesy his fate: but the hero.) The immortal arms the goddess-mother bears Swift to her son: her son she finds in tears . The thirteenth day. that blush'd with early red. where Briseis laments over the body of Patroclus. He addresses himself to his horses. and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus.

my son. and ring the shores around. his hand soft touching. "Goddess! (he cried. that gave the blow. confess the hand divine.576 The Iliad of Homer Stretch'd o'er Patroclus' corse. Unmoved the hero kindles at the show. this rage of grief. And flash incessant like a stream of fire: He turns the radiant gift: and feeds his mind On all the immortal artist had design'd. Arms worthy thee. the carcase of the slain. Clang the strong arms. And feels with rage divine his bosom glow. while all the rest Their sovereign's sorrows in their own express'd. And heaven with strength supply the mighty rage!" [350] . And from the broad effulgence turn their eyes. as affairs require. that shine With matchless art. uninjured shall remain. And thus. (The azure goddess to her son replied. and worms obscene. or fit to grace a god. Now to the bloody battle let me bend: But ah! the relics of my slaughter'd friend! In those wide wounds through which his spirit fled. From his fierce eyeballs living flames expire. Behold what arms by Vulcan are bestow'd. Achilles. pollute the dead?" "That unavailing care be laid aside. but heaven. But go." Then drops the radiant burden on the ground. Before the Grecian peers renounce thine ire: Then uncontroll'd in boundless war engage. Thetis said: "Suppress. and know It was not man. Shall flies. A ray divine her heavenly presence shed.) these glorious arms. Back shrink the Myrmidons with dread surprise. Fresh as in life.) Whole years untouch'd.

shine in arms again. transported. Atrides. at the well-known sound. Studious to see the terror of the plain. Achilles (rising in the midst) begun: [351] . and sacred from decay.BOOK XIX. Frequent and full. Lame with their wounds. or guide them o'er the main. The heroes heard. Then in the nostrils of the slain she pour'd Nectareous drops. Alarm'd. The flies forbid their prey. Long lost to battle. The king of men. These on the sacred seats of council placed. and leaning on the spear. Tydides and Ulysses first appear. 577 THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. came the last: He too sore wounded by Agenor's son. the great assembly crown'd. Untouch'd it rests. and rich ambrosia shower'd O'er all the corse. and all the naval train That tend the ships. Achilles to the strand obedient went: The shores resounded with the voice he sent.

untimely joy suspend. angry Jove. no more the subject of debate. .578 The Iliad of Homer "O monarch! better far had been the fate Of thee. the king of men begun: "Hear me. long shall Greece the woes we caused bewail. of all the Grecian state. Nor Troy's glad fields been fatten'd with our gore. Now call the hosts. ye Greeks. injurious clamours end: Unruly murmurs." He said: his finish'd wrath with loud acclaim The Greeks accept. and with joy repose. Long. and resign'd to fate. But this. Shall 'scape with transport. Wrong the best speaker. If (ere the day when by mad passion sway'd. the dire debate: Know. Why should. And even as Greece has bled. Rash we contended for the black-eyed maid) Preventing Dian had despatch'd her dart. a mortal man. ye sons of Greece! with silence hear! And grant your monarch an impartial ear: Awhile your loud. And sad posterity repeat the tale. And let your rash. or ill-timed applause. as I. Is past. and try if in our sight Troy yet shall dare to camp a second night! I deem. not rising from his lofty throne. And shot the shining mischief to the heart! Then many a hero had not press'd the shore. Nor charge on me. When thus. let Ilion bleed. and the justest cause. of me. and shout Pelides' name. Burn with a fury that can never die? Here then my anger ends: let war succeed. and all-compelling Fate. their mightiest. alas. In state unmoved. when this arm he knows. forgotten.

and vaunted of his matchless boy: 'From us. And Jove himself. unsuspicious of the fraud. and female art: For when Alcmena's nine long months were run. just issuing to the day. And claims thy promise to be king of kings. And Jove expected his immortal son. What then could I against the will of heaven? Not by myself. but vengeful Ate driven. Then bids Saturnius bear his oath in mind. To gods and goddesses the unruly joy He show'd. the sire of men and gods. enter'd in my breast. (he said) this day an infant springs. and born a king of kings. With fell Erinnys. She. urged my wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey. felt her venom'd dart. And fix dominion on the favour'd youth. 'A youth (said she) of Jove's immortal kind Is this day born: from Sthenelus he springs. Deceived by Juno's wiles. lay Sthenelus's wife. fated to infest The race of mortals. Jove's dread daughter. Fated to rule. inextricable woes! Of old. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men. to vouch the truth. The joyful goddess. Swift to Achaian Argos bent her flight: Scarce seven moons gone. The world's great ruler.BOOK XIX. She push'd her lingering infant into life: Her charms Alcmena's coming labours stay. Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god. she stalk'd amid the bright abodes. Not on the ground that haughty fury treads.' Saturnia ask'd an oath. from Olympus' height. And stop the babe. inflicting as she goes Long-festering wounds.' 579 [352] . The Thunderer.

when his afflicting trials are brought to a close: he is then admitted to the godhead. The dread. my treasures are thy own: This instant from the navy shall be sent Whate'er Ulysses promised at thy tent: But thou! appeased. and shine again in war. 128. Stung to the soul. Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell. where perch'd she sate. "This legend is one of the most pregnant and characteristic in the Grecian Mythology. From his ambrosial head. The immortal seats should ne'er behold her more. was I misled. i. for ever driven From bright Olympus and the starry heaven: Thence on the nether world the fury fell. While raging Hector heap'd our camps with dead. he sorrow'd. And whirl'd her headlong down. the irrevocable oath he swore. the most renowned subjugator of all the semi-divine personages worshipped by the Hellenes. and he raged. Full oft the god his son's hard toils bemoan'd. 'tis equal: all we ask is war.258 Even thus. like Jove himself. vol. Resume thy arms. according to the religious ideas familiar to the old epic poets. propitious to our prayer. by his oath engaged. yet condemned constantly to labour for others and to obey the commands of a worthless and cowardly persecutor. Cursed the dire fury. p. be thy care. To us. 258 . His recompense is reserved to the close of his career. and in secret groan'd. What can the errors of my rage atone? My martial troops. both the distinguishing attributes and the endless toil and endurances of Heracles."—Grote." [353] " O king of nations! whose superior sway (Returns Achilles) all our hosts obey! To keep or send the presents. and especially beloved by Zeus. it explains.—a being of irresistible force. He snatch'd the fury-goddess of debate. and receives in marriage Hebe.580 The Iliad of Homer Grief seized the Thunderer.

or but an instant shun The fight. And the full price of injured honour paid. With strong repast to hearten every band. godlike. And solemn swear (observant of the rite) That. a sumptuous banquet shall be made. but. In full assembly of all Greece be laid. Shrunk with dry famine. At least our armies claim repast and rest: Long and laborious must the combat be. Stretch not henceforth. Can last a hero through a single day? Courage may prompt. who sees my spear confound The Trojan ranks. thou art by no toils oppress'd. With emulation.! thy sovereign might 581 . spotless. the maid removes. The king of men shall rise in public sight. When by the gods inspired. our glorious work remains undone. and led by thee. Strength is derived from spirits and from blood. and give command. The son of Peleus thus. But let the presents to Achilles made. and deal destruction round. And those augment by generous wine and food: What boastful son of war. then. Pure from his arms. he tires a war. without that stay. The drooping body will desert the mind: But built anew with strength-conferring fare. and guiltless of his loves. That done. Ithacus the wise: "Though. With limbs and soul untamed. Mere unsupported man must yield at length. and with toils declined. ebbing out his strength. what I act survey.BOOK XIX. Dismiss the people. and thus replies The great in councils. And learn from thence the business of the day. While yet we talk. as she came. Let every Greek. O prince.

All grim with gaping wounds. shall commence the fight: Then. extinguish'd. let generous bowls." "For this (the stern Æacides replies) Some less important season may suffice. Till from the fleet our presents be convey'd.582 The Iliad of Homer Beyond the bounds of reason and of right. By Hector slain. A train of noble youths the charge shall bear. Till my insatiate rage be cloy'd with blood: Pale lies my friend. glad your weary souls. Let not my palate know the taste of food. When the stern fury of the war is o'er. And wrath. the firm compact made. their faces to the sky. Each due atonement gladly I prepare. 'Tis the chief praise that e'er to kings belong'd. this instant. Revenge is all my soul! no meaner care. our heroes lie: Those call to war! and might my voice incite. These to select. now." To him the monarch: "Just is thy decree. [354] . be thy care: In order rank'd let all our gifts appear. Now. Sacred to Jove. Ulysses. And copious banquets. And heaven regard me as I justly swear! Here then awhile let Greece assembled stay. when the day's complete. To right with justice whom with power they wrong'd. and wisdom breathes in thee. Nor great Achilles grudge this short delay. and yon bright orb of day. Thy words give joy. And Jove attesting. And his cold feet are pointed to the door. with wounds disfigured o'er. burns my breast no more. And the fair train of captives close the rear: Talthybius shall the victim boar convey.

But old experience and calm wisdom mine. Then hear my counsel." 583 "O first of Greeks. Yet a short interval. Though vast the heaps that strow the crimson plain. (Ulysses thus rejoin'd. Destruction be my feast. Eternal sorrows what avails to shed? Greece honours not with solemn fasts the dead: Enough. and to reason yield. Embodied. the dire effects shall find. by thousands daily fall.) The best and bravest of the warrior kind! Thy praise it is in dreadful camps to shine. and none shall dare Expect a second summons to the war. The bravest soon are satiate of the field. One chief with patience to the grave resign'd. Who waits for that. to weep for all. The bloody harvest brings but little gain: The scale of conquest ever wavering lies. Let generous food supplies of strength produce. to pay The tribute of a melancholy day. or thought. and agonizing sounds. If trembling in the ships he lags behind." . Our care devolves on others left behind.BOOK XIX. Great Jove but turns it. has room to harbour there. And endless were the grief. And all at once on haughty Troy descend. and mortal wounds. and the victor dies! The great. to the battle let us bend. And scenes of blood. the bold. Interest. And pour new furies on the feebler foe. Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow. Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice. when death demands the brave.

And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. And Melanippus. The eighth Briseis. and offering meditates his vow. If this be false. And twice the number of high-bounding steeds: Seven captives next a lovely line compose. thunderbolts of war.584 The Iliad of Homer [355] And now the delegates Ulysses sent. Phyleus' valiant heir. His hands uplifted to the attesting skies. form'd the chosen train. Who rule the dead. . like the blooming rose. All-good. On heaven's broad marble roof were fixed his eyes. With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. and all-surveying Jove! And mother-earth. Swift as the word was given. Pure and unconscious of my manly loves. and all who falsely swear! The black-eyed maid inviolate removes. First of the train. the golden talents bore: The rest in public view the chiefs dispose. all-wise. the youths obey'd: Twice ten bright vases in the midst they laid. And ye. fell furies of the realms of night. To bear the presents from the royal tent: The sons of Nestor. The solemn words a deep attention draw. A splendid scene! then Agamemnon rose: The boar Talthybius held: the Grecian lord Drew the broad cutlass sheath'd beside his sword: The stubborn bristles from the victim's brow He crops. A row of six fair tripods then succeeds. Thias and Merion. heaven all its vengeance shed. "Witness thou first! thou greatest power above. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. and heaven's revolving light. before. Closed the bright band: great Ithacus.

and thus she cries: [356] . 'Twas Jove's high will alone. beheld with sad survey Where. His train before March'd onward. and tore her golden hair. Achilles waits ye. her humid eyes Shining with tears she lifts. unwilling. gash'd with cruel wounds. Patroclus lay. radiant as the queen of love. Beat her sad breast." The speedy council at his word adjourn'd: To their black vessels all the Greeks return'd. and doom'd the Greeks to fall. And levell'd thunder strike my guilty head!" 585 With that. All beautiful in grief. ye Greeks! and know Whate'er we feel. Prone on the body fell the heavenly fair. bending with the gifts they bore. To their new seats the female captives move Briseis. force the dame. The sacred herald rolls the victim slain (A feast for fish) into the foaming main. and expects the fight. Achilles sought his tent. Nor from my arms. That doom'd our strife. o'erruling all. Not else Atrides could our rage inflame. Those in the tents the squires industrious spread: The foaming coursers to the stalls they led.BOOK XIX. ye chiefs! indulge the genial rite. Go then. Then thus Achilles: "Hear. his weapon deep inflicts the wound. The bleeding savage tumbles to the ground. 'tis Jove inflicts the woe. Slow as she pass'd.

and with sighs denied. for ever kind." He spoke. For thee.586 The Iliad of Homer "Ah. "If yet Achilles have a friend. And dried my sorrows for a husband slain. ah. youth for ever dear. he raves. this request forbear. nor his grief control. Unmoved he heard them. And make me empress in his native land. in beauty gay. the dearest partner of his love. Accept these grateful tears! for thee they flow. Till yonder sun descend. That rites divine should ratify the band. never doom'd to end! The first loved consort of my virgin bed Before these eyes in fatal battle bled: My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trod the dark. The first. strive to calm his grief and rage: His rage they calm not. And Phoenix. Achilles' care you promised I should prove. Ulysses sage. Now find thee cold. He groans. The leaders press'd the chief on every side. irremeable way: Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain. let me pay To grief and anguish one abstemious day. that ever felt another's woe!" Her sister captives echoed groan for groan. Nor mourn'd Patroclus' fortunes. whose care Is bent to please him. inanimated clay! What woes my wretched race of life attend! Sorrows on sorrows. Idomeneus. he sorrows from his soul. but their own. and from the warriors turn'd his face: Yet still the brother-kings of Atreus' race. Once tender friend of my distracted mind! I left thee fresh in life. . Nestor.

I hoped Patroclus might survive. What more if hoary Peleus were deceased? Who now. And glad his eyes with his paternal reign. rushing to the war. For Peleus breathes no more the vital air. wage a hateful war. this cruel stroke attend. Fate claim'd Achilles. and the large domain. sink into the grave? If yet that offspring lives. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate. And thus with pity to his blue-eyed maid: . should Neoptolemus the brave. to rear My tender orphan with a parent's care. and drops a tender tear. But now. What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? What greater sorrow could afflict my breast. alas! to death's cold arms resign'd. Or drags a wretched life of age and care. "Thou too. thy winning care. Their mingled grief the sire of heaven survey'd. What more. but might spare his friend.) I could not this." 587 [357] Sighing he said: his grief the heroes join'd. perhaps. Of all neglectful.BOOK XIX. Patroclus! (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents: Thy sweet society. Once stay'd Achilles. The lofty palace. Each stole a tear for what he left behind. My only offspring. But till the news of my sad fate invades His hastening soul. and sinks him to the shades. From Scyros' isle conduct him o'er the main. (I distant far.

With splendour flame the skies. Catch the quick beams. And like a deluge pour'd upon the plain. Whose dazzling lustre whitens all the skies: So helms succeeding helms. spears with pointed rays. swift ascending. where yon sails their canvas wings extend. The wide air floating to her ample wings. and brighten all the fields. Thick beats the centre as the coursers bound. (refection of the gods!) Then. All comfortless he sits. As when the piercing blasts of Boreas blow.259 With nectar sweet. . Mix in one stream. so shields from shields." He spoke. Haste and infuse ambrosia in his breast. So swift through ether the shrill harpy springs. reflecting blaze on blaze.588 The Iliad of Homer "Is then Achilles now no more thy care. and wails his friend: Ere thirst and want his forces have oppress'd. To great Achilles she her flight address'd. sought the bright abodes. Broad glittering breastplates. And scatter o'er the fields the driving snow. And dost thou thus desert the great in war? Lo. Shot the descending goddess from above. and laugh the fields around. And pour'd divine ambrosia in his breast. at the word of Jove. Now issued from the ships the warrior-train. and sudden. From dusky clouds the fleecy winter flies.

and drives them o'er the main. starr'd with gems. a light appears. 249. Grief and revenge his furious heart inspire. like the moon. Wide o'er the watery waste. the broad refulgent shield Blazed with long rays. So to night-wandering sailors. Loud howls the storm. The silver cuishes first his thighs infold.BOOK XIX. high-towering o'er the rest. Streams from some lonely watch-tower to the sky: With mournful eyes they gaze. . and hopes the bloody day. And. vi. His glowing eyeballs roll with living fire. Brings nectar temper'd with ambrosial dews. and gaze again. His limbs in arms divine Achilles dress'd. That. He grinds his teeth. "The blue-eyed maid. Which on the far-seen mountain blazing high. The brazen sword a various baldric tied. and furious with delay O'erlooks the embattled host. pale with fears. Forged on the eternal anvils of the god. In ev'ry breast new vigour to infuse. hung glittering at his side. Arms which the father of the fire bestow'd. 259 —Ambrosia. Then o'er his breast was braced the hollow gold." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. 589 Full in the midst. and gleam'd athwart the field.

Buoy'd by some inward force. pestilence. So stream'd the golden honours from his head. his high head the helmet graced. return'd behind. Trembled the sparkling plumes. The chief beholds himself with wondering eyes. and the radiant car. and restores the day. and to the chariot join'd. behind The sweepy crest hung floating in the wind: Like the red star. And thunders to his steeds these dread commands: . and shaped it for his sire. All bright in heavenly arms. all terrible he stands. High o'er the host. he seems to swim.590 The Iliad of Homer Next. that from his flaming hair Shakes down diseases. His arms he poises. And feels a pinion lifting every limb. Automedon and Alcimus prepare The immortal coursers. (The silver traces sweeping at their side. The charioteer then whirl'd the lash around. and sets the field on fire. and his motions tries.) Their fiery mouths resplendent bridles tied. Waved o'er their backs. Ponderous and huge. A spear which stern Achilles only wields. Not brighter Phoebus in the ethereal way Flames from his chariot. which not a Greek could rear. and war. and the dread of fields. above his squire Achilles mounts. From Pelion's cloudy top an ash entire Old Chiron fell'd. The death of heroes. The ivory-studded reins. and the loose glories shed. And now he shakes his great paternal spear. And swift ascended at one active bound.

the fatal time must come. The bright far-shooting god who gilds the day (Confess'd we saw him) tore his arms way. strange to tell! (so Juno will'd) he broke Eternal silence. His fateful voice. And bow'd to dust the honours of his mane. as ye left Patroclus. but God decrees thy doom. Nor. Not through our crime. or slowness in the course. and my native shore— Enough—when heaven ordains. All were in vain—the Fates thy death demand." The generous Xanthus. be mindful of the load ye bear. The intrepid chief replied With unabated rage—"So let it be! Portents and prodigies are lost on me. When. by the Furies tied. I know my fate: to die. and droop'd his head: Trembling he stood before the golden wain. Seem'd sensible of woe.BOOK XIX. .) Be swift. "Achilles! yes! this day at least we bear Thy rage in safety through the files of war: But come it will. but by heavenly force. Not ours the fault. leave your lord. Or beat the pinions of the western gale." Then ceased for ever. and rush'd to fight. (Unless ye boast that heavenly race in vain. to see no more My much-loved parents. and portentous spoke. Fell thy Patroclus. as the words he said. And learn to make your master more your care: Through falling squadrons bear my slaughtering sword. I sink in night: Now perish Troy!" He said. 591 "Xanthus and Balius! of Podarges' strain. Due to a mortal and immortal hand. No—could our swiftness o'er the winds prevail.

.592 The Iliad of Homer HERCULES.

The terrors of the combat described. Then Jove to Themis gives command. calls a council of the gods. upon Achilles' return to the battle. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. These shining on. or rosy bower. beside her vessels stood. not a rural power That haunts the verdant gloom. After a long conversation. but Apollo conveys him away in a cloud. Not one was absent. sheathed in arms. While near impending from a neighbouring height. but Æneas is preserved by the assistance of Neptune. AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES. Troy's black battalions wait the shock of fight. The same day continues. when the deities are engaged. Thus round Pelides breathing war and blood Greece. in long procession come To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans. Apollo encourages Æneas to meet Achilles. and is upon the point of killing Hector. The scene is in the field before Troy. ARGUMENT. . Jupiter. Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter. and permits them to assist either party. to call The gods to council in the starry hall: Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills she flies. these two heroes encounter.[360] BOOK XX. Each fair-hair'd dryad of the shady wood. And summons all the senate of the skies.

hoary sire! who keeps His ancient seat beneath the sacred deeps. And question'd thus the sire of men and gods: [361] "What moves the god who heaven and earth commands. the louring hosts appear. Thus to convene the whole ethereal state? Is Greece and Troy the subject in debate? Already met." "'Tis true (the cloud-compelling power replies) This day we call the council of the skies In care of human race. And as your minds direct. And death stands ardent on the edge of war. All but old Ocean." .) sat the powers around. Even he whose trident sways the watery reign Heard the loud summons. even Jove's own eye Sees with regret unhappy mortals die. though fate forbids the fall. and see the hand of fate Work out our will. and forsook the main. If uncontroll'd Achilles fights alone: Their troops but lately durst not meet his eyes. Far on Olympus' top in secret state Ourself will sit. gods! or Ilion's sacred wall May fall this day. (The work of Vulcan.594 The Iliad of Homer Each azure sister of the silver flood. with lucid columns crown'd. And grasps the thunder in his awful hands. your succour lend To either host. Assumed his throne amid the bright abodes. What can they now. if in his rage he rise? Assist them. Troy soon must lie o'erthrown. On marble thrones. Celestial powers! descend.

Hermes. the laughter-loving dame. Then tumult rose: fierce rage and pale affright Varied each face: then Discord sounds alarms.BOOK XX. Phoebus came. He said. The mountain shook. the maid in arms renown'd. On adverse parts the warring gods engage: Heaven's awful queen. from Ilion's topmost towers: Now shouts to Simois. Each Argive bosom swell'd with manly joy. The vessels tremble as the gods alight. Mars fiery-helm'd. Dreadful he stood in front of all his host. In aid of Troy. Now through the trembling shores Minerva calls. the rapid stream stood still. Her bravest heroes pant with inward fear. and the nations rush to arms. shone in arms again. his terror shrouds In gloomy tempests. Mars hovering o'er his Troy. Long lost to battle. And the chaste huntress of the silver bow. from her beauteous hill. the black sovereign of the fire: These to the fleet repair with instant flight. And Vulcan. Ere yet the gods their various aid employ. And now she thunders from the Grecian walls. 595 . Latona. And trembling see another god of war. But when the powers descending swell'd the fight. of profitable arts the sire. whose streams in golden currents flow. and a night of clouds: Now through each Trojan heart he fury pours With voice divine. and fired their heavenly breasts with rage. Pale Troy beheld. Earth echoes. and seem'd already lost. Xanthus. and he whose azure round Girds the vast globe. While great Achilles (terror of the plain).

" Merrick's Tryphiodorus.260 The infernal monarch rear'd his horrid head. Against Latona march'd the son of May. Should fill (a countless throng!) his dark abode. 769. 6-8. The quiver'd Dian. when the gods contend First silver-shafted Phoebus took the plain Against blue Neptune. Opposed to Pallas. . He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds. the mountains nod around. sister of the day. and the cloud is not rent under them. And pour in light on Pluto's drear abodes. Abhorr'd by men. Troy's turrets totter on the rocking plain. stern Neptune shakes the solid ground. war's triumphant maid. sqq.596 The Iliad of Homer [362] Above. And the toss'd navies beat the heaving main. vi.261 Such war the immortals wage. And peals on peals redoubled rend the poles. and destruction hath no covering. Through all their summits tremble Ida's woods. The forests wave. The god of arms his giant bulk display'd. Beneath. Leap'd from his throne. "Hell is naked before him. 261 260 "Swift from his throne the infernal monarch ran. such horrors rend The world's vast concave. lest Neptune's arm should lay His dark dominions open to the day. and dreadful even to gods. And from their sources boil her hundred floods. Slain by Jove's wrath. lest the race of man. and led by Hermes' rod. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place. monarch of the main. and hangeth the earth upon nothing. All pale and trembling. the sire of gods his thunder rolls." Job xxvi. Deep in the dismal regions of the dead.

While thus the gods in various league engage. Æneas was the first who dared to stay. In voice and aspect.BOOK XX. how late with scorn In distant threats he braved the goddess-born. [363] . Half-forced and half-persuaded to the fight. Apollo wedged him in the warrior's way. of the royal line. seem'd the power divine. defied. Xanthus his name with those of heavenly birth. And burst like lightning through the ranks. But called Scamander by the sons of earth. and vow'd To glut the god of battles with his blood.) Saturnia. for Hector only burn'd. Achilles glow'd with more than mortal rage: Hector he sought. With fiery Vulcan last in battle stands The sacred flood that rolls on golden sands. And bade the chief reflect. But swell'd his bosom with undaunted might. (Her golden arrows sounding at her side. 597 THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. Like young Lycaon. in search of Hector turn'd His eyes around. majesty of heaven.

Pedasus in ashes lay. Our force he scattered. An aged sea-god father of his line. assembling all the powers. But (Jove assisting) I survived the day: Else had I sunk oppress'd in fatal fight By fierce Achilles and Minerva's might. she said: . Nor fear the vaunting of a mortal foe. Though strong in battle as a brazen tower. From Ida's woods he chased us to the field. Were God my aid. Where'er he moved. And be what great Achilles was before. And he but from a sister of the main." To whom the son of Jove: "That god implore. Then lift thy weapon for a noble blow. Lyrnessus. and our herds he kill'd. the goddess shone before. and spirit breathed into his breast. And suffer not his dart to fall in vain. What mortal man Achilles can sustain? The immortals guard him through the dreadful plain.598 The Iliad of Homer Then thus the hero of Anchises' strain: "To meet Pelides you persuade in vain: Already have I met. From heavenly Venus thou deriv'st thy strain. But Jove himself the sacred source of thine. Through the thick troops the embolden'd hero press'd: His venturous act the white-arm'd queen survey'd. And thus. this arm should check his power. And bathed his brazen lance in hostile gore." This said. nor void of fear Observed the fury of his flying spear.

" 262 These words seem to imply the old belief. gods! that claims your care. to behold a deity. Lo great Æneas rushing to the war! Against Pelides he directs his course. Phoebus impels. came down. "Behold an action. 20. but never wholly set aside. xiii.BOOK XX. and add to his renown. if not fatal. Restrain his bold career. Thence on the gods of Troy we swift descend: Full soon. Hereafter let him fall. let some power descend. that the Fates might be delayed. But if the armipotent. as Fates design. I doubt not. and Phoebus gives him force. To guard his life. at least. 263 It was anciently believed that it was dangerous. When heaven's refulgent host appear in arms?"263 599 Thus she. xxxiii. Give him to know what powers assist this day: For how shall mortal stand the dire alarms. so feeble known. We. or god of light. in ruin and confusion hurl'd. Judg. or commence the fight. See Exod. the great armament of heaven. Obstruct Achilles. . That spun so short his life's illustrious line:262 But lest some adverse god now cross his way. shall the conflict end. to attend Our favour'd hero. 22. Why should celestial powers exert their own? Suffice from yonder mount to view the scene. Yield to our conquering arms the lower world. And leave to war the fates of mortal men. and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Against the might of man. And these.

) What time a vengeful monster of the main Swept the wide shore. Stalks careless on.600 The Iliad of Homer Thus having said. and a veil of air: The adverse powers. Coerulean Neptune. here. so he moved. Here Neptune and the gods of Greece repair. though Jove on high Gives the loud signal. Intent to form the future scheme of fate. and chiefs in armour bright. around Apollo laid. the tyrant of the sea. With clouds encompass'd. The nodding plumage on his helmet danced: Spread o'er his breast the fencing shield he bore. bold Æneas. rose. Crown the fair hills that silver Simois shade. Though all in arms the peopled city rise. Amid both hosts (a dreadful space) appear. Such the lion's rage. and the heavens reply. Not so Pelides. And. Who viewing first his foes with scornful eyes. [365] . In circle close each heavenly party sat. his javelin flamed before. furious to engage. by some brave youth defied. The gleaming champaign glows with brazen light. Advanced upon the field there stood a mound Of earth congested. with Minerva's aid. But mix not yet in fight. and trench'd around. With towering strides Aeneas first advanced. There great Achilles. Meanwhile the rushing armies hide the ground. and drove him to the plain. In elder times to guard Alcides made. The trampled centre yields a hollow sound: Steeds cased in mail. Till at the length. (The work of Trojans. with unregarding pride. wall'd. and led the way. He rush'd impetuous.

Those. Resolved on vengeance. and arable for grain? Even this. The partial monarch may refuse the prize. To his bold spear the savage turns alone. He calls up all his rage. Her lofty walls not long our progress stay'd. Nor. begun The seed of Thetis thus to Venus' son: "Why comes Æneas through the ranks so far? Seeks he to meet Achilles' arm in war. he foams. he grinds his teeth.BOOK XX. Sons he has many. the great Aeneas fled too fast. In hope the realms of Priam to enjoy. Pallas. Ere yet the stern encounter join'd. or a fair domain. 'Tis true. he rolls his eyes around Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides resound. perhaps. But can Achilles be so soon forgot? Once (as I think) you saw this brandish'd spear And then the great Æneas seem'd to fear: With hearty haste from Ida's mount he fled. in reward of thy victorious hand. So stands Æneas. He murmurs fury with a hollow groan. turn'd his head. Or. and we. Jove. those thy pride may quell: And 'tis his fault to love those sons too well. So fierce Achilles on Æneas flies. till he reach'd Lyrnessus. Has Troy proposed some spacious tract of land An ample forest. will hardly prove thy lot. Defrauded of my conquest once before. or resolved on death. Of hills for vines. in ruins laid: In Grecian chains her captive race were cast. 601 . and his force defies. And prove his merits to the throne of Troy? Grant that beneath thy lance Achilles dies. He grins.

The natives were content to till The shady foot of Ida's fountful hill. Three thousand mares his spacious pastures bred. Conceal'd his godhead in a flowing mane. the best may be defied With mean reproaches. once. 'Tis not in words the glorious strife can end. Fools stay to feel it. .602 The Iliad of Homer What then I lost. the gods this day restore. If yet thou further seek to learn my birth (A tale resounded through the spacious earth) Hear how the glorious origin we prove From ancient Dardanus. Thetis' this day." To this Anchises' son: "Such words employ To one that fears thee. enamour'd of the sprightly train. In humble vales they built their soft abodes. thus derived. of Asia's wealthy kings. the first from Jove: Dardania's walls he raised. The richest. And tears shall trickle from celestial eyes: For when two heroes.) Was not. Boreas." Dryden's Virgil. 264 [366] "Ere Ilium and the Trojan tow'rs arose. contend. half divine. 150. and unmanly pride. half human. Such we disdain. for Ilion. Three thousand foals beside their mothers fed.264 From Dardanus great Erichthonius springs. (The city since of many-languaged men. Each goddess-born. then. avoid the threaten'd fate. iii. some unwarlike boy. Go. and are wise too late. Unworthy the high race from which we came Proclaim'd so loudly by the voice of fame: Each from illustrious fathers draws his line. while thou may'st. or Venus' offspring dies.

These lightly skimming. Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth.BOOK XX. enamour'd. Three sons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed. Compare Virgil's description of Camilla. 1100. Whom heaven. vii. And Priam. ever-honour'd pair. now in cares grown old. From him Tithonus. Such Erichthonius was: from him there came The sacred Tros. or takes away. who "Outstripp'd the winds in speed upon the plain. The grace and glory of the ambrosial feast). bless'd with Hector. With voice dissembled to his loves he neigh'd. brave and bold. The two remaining sons the line divide: First rose Laomedon from Ilus' side. . 265 603 [367] —Along the level seas. source of power and might! with boundless sway. of whom the Trojan name. And when along the level seas they flew. when they swept the plain. Flew o'er the field. Clytius and Lampus. And Hicetaon. divinely fair. Nor plied the grass. as she skimm'd along. From great Assaracus sprang Capys. and Ganymed: The matchless Ganymed. and father wind. Ilus. Swift as their mother mares. nor bent the tender grain. snatch'd to upper air. nor hurt the bearded grain: She swept the seas. But Jove alone endues the soul with worth: He. And coursed the dappled beauties o'er the mead: Hence sprung twelve others of unrivall'd kind. To bear the cup of Jove (ethereal guest." Dryden.265 Scarce on the surface curl'd the briny dew. he Begat Anchises. and. Her flying feet unbathed on billows hung. and Anchises me. All human courage gives. thunderbolt of war. Assaracus.

Fix'd deep. and the middle gold: There stuck the lance. Arm'd or with truth or falsehood. we wound. His fears were vain. Reproach is infinite. by the third repell'd." He spoke. For every man has equal strength to rail: Women alone. Of tin each inward. But stopp'd. And pierced the Dardan shield's extremest bound. Five plates of various metal. With all his force the javelin flung. right or wrong. . The forceful spear of great Achilles flew. Where the shrill brass return'd a sharper sound: Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides. and loudly in the buckler rung. but to prove our might. Receive this answer: 'tis my flying spear. So voluble a weapon is the tongue. To all those insults thou hast offer'd here. Perhaps excel us in this wordy war. Through two strong plates the point its passage held. and knows no end. Wounded. And the slight covering of expanded hides.604 The Iliad of Homer Long in the field of words we may contend. and rested. encompass'd with the crowd. impenetrable charms Secured the temper of the ethereal arms. Far on his outstretch'd arm. and neither side can fail. Cease then—Our business in the field of fight Is not to question. when in the streets they jar. And vent their anger impotent and loud. Then rising ere he threw. nor void of fear Saw. Pelides held (To meet the thundering lance) his dreadful shield. the immeasurable spear. Composed the shield. various mould. Like us they stand. That trembled as it stuck. of brass each outward fold. ere it fell.

in the Æneas of Virgil. 605 [368] —The future father. though he wars for Troy. Achilles. And at his back perceives the quivering spear: A fate so near him. nor thus can Jove resign The future father of the Dardan line:266 The first great ancestor obtain'd his grace. and Priam's faithless kind. Sure. p. And o'er him high the riven targe extends. 427. Sees. and a sympathy with the Greeks. At length are odious to the all-seeing mind. i. through its parting plates. he claims our aid. whose earthquakes rock the ground. heaves a mighty stone: A mass enormous! which in modern days No two of earth's degenerate sons could raise. and at Æneas flies: Æneas rousing as the foe came on. "Æneas and Antenor stand distinguished from the other Trojans by a dissatisfaction with Priam. Æneas his contracted body bends. And swims before his eyes the many-colour'd light."—Grote.—a suspicion indirectly glanced at. rushing in with dreadful cries. And can ye see this righteous chief atone With guiltless blood for vices not his own? To all the gods his constant vows were paid. chills his soul with fright. and moved the powers around: "Lo! on the brink of fate Æneas stands. though emphatically repelled. 266 . Saw the distress. which is by Sophocles and others construed as treacherous collusion. the upper air. With force collected. An instant victim to Achilles' hands. Draws his broad blade. And still his love descends on all the race: For Priam now. But ocean's god. Fate wills not this. but Phoebus has bestow'd His aid in vain: the man o'erpowers the god.BOOK XX. By Phoebus urged.

. when I sought with joy The vow'd destruction of ungrateful Troy. Pallas and I. O Neptune! be thy care. by all that gods can bind. v. And at his master's feet the weapon threw. Sustain'd the vanquish'd. Smooth-gliding without step. and of bounding steeds: 267 [369] Neptune thus recounts his services to Æneas: "When your Æneas fought. And casts thick darkness o'er Achilles' eyes. but fought with odds Of force unequal. with force divine he snatch'd on high The Dardan prince. Swift interposed between the warrior flies. Through all the whistling darts his course he bends. and secured his flight— Even then secured him. above the heads Of warring heroes." The great earth-shaker thus: to whom replies The imperial goddess with the radiant eyes: "Good as he is.606 The Iliad of Homer On great Æneas shall devolve the reign. That done. Have sworn destruction to the Trojan kind.267 From great Æneas' shield the spear he drew. Or save one member of the sinking state. Till her last flame be quench'd with her last gore." Dryden's Virgil. And even her crumbling ruins are no more. 1058. Not even an instant to protract their fate. to immolate or spare The Dardan prince. and unequal gods: I spread a cloud before the victor's sight. And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain. and bore him through the sky." The king of ocean to the fight descends.

The scene of war came rushing on his sight. Then thus. and make whole armies fly: No god can singly such a host engage. To mow whole troops. nor antedate thy doom. Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come. Laid here before me! and the Dardan lord. and arms to arms! 'Tis not in me. Where the slow Caucans close the rear of fight. Urged thee to meet Achilles' arm in war? Henceforth beware. that parted on the wings of wind. to fly. and every rank alarms) Join battle. 607 . Let then the furies of that arm be known. Now then let others bleed. Then from Achilles chased the mist away: Sudden. vanish'd from my sword! I thought alone with mortals to contend. he left him wondering as he lay. our arms he scarce will try. aloud He vents his fury and inflames the crowd: "O Greeks! (he cries. Secure no Grecian force transcends thy own. with all his gods. nor great Minerva's rage. The godhead there (his heavenly form confess'd) With words like these the panting chief address'd: "What power." This said.BOOK XX. But powers celestial sure this foe defend. That fell this instant. amazed. Content for once." With that. Till at the battle's utmost verge they light. though favour'd by the sky. Great as he is. man to man. Not Mars himself. But when the day decreed (for come it must) Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dust. "What wonders strike my mind! My spear. O prince! with force inferior far. returning with a stream of light.

All. that dreadful hand. plunged within the ranks. . And thin the squadrons with my single spear. Greeks! is yours to-day. More safe to combat in the mingled band. they thicken to the war. your Hector should withstand. That fire. Not though his heart were steel. Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty son.608 The Iliad of Homer But whatsoe'er Achilles can inspire." [370] Thus (breathing rage through all) the hero said. Through yon wide host this arm shall scatter fear. The godlike Hector warm'd the troops of Troy: "Trojans. all Achilles. They join. And brave that vengeful heart. But shrinks and shudders when the thunder flies." He said: nor less elate with martial joy. Whate'er of active force. Clamours on clamours tempest all the air. Hector leads you on. his hands were fire. to war! Think. A wood of lances rises round his head. And. Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand. But Phoebus warns him from high heaven to shun The single fight with Thetis' godlike son. Whate'er this heart can prompt. awaits the fight. E'en these with words Insult the brave. obedient to the god of light. He hears. or acting fire. who tremble at their swords: The weakest atheist-wretch all heaven defies. Deeds must decide our fate. or hand obey. that steel. they throng. Nor from yon boaster shall your chief retire.

though Gygae boast thy birth. crown'd with snow. and brave the host he led. And dash'd and mingled all the brains with gore. And plenteous Hermus swells with tides of gold. Are thine no more. Deserts his chariot for a swifter flight: The lance arrests him: an ignoble wound The panting Trojan rivets to the ground. The impatient steel with full-descending sway Forced through his brazen helm its furious way. The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore. At Neptune's shrine on Helice's high shores. Fierce as he springs. Resistless drove the batter'd skull before. First falls Iphytion. the price of rashness paid. Demoleon next. the sword his head divides: The parted visage falls on equal sides: With loud-resounding arms he strikes the plain. laid Breathless in dust. While thus Achilles glories o'er the slain: "Lie there. 609 . Beneath the shades of Tmolus. Those beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd. at his army's head. This sees Hippodamas. His mother was a Nais. Then fierce Achilles. Brave was the chief. Antenor's offspring. and seized with fright. He groans away his soul: not louder roars. Otryntides! the Trojan earth Receives thee dead. shouting to the skies."—The insulting hero said. From great Otrynteus he derived his blood.BOOK XX. of the flood. From Hyde's walls he ruled the lands below. And left him sleeping in eternal shade. And dash'd their axles with no vulgar gore. On Troy's whole force with boundless fury flies.

Euripides. In the first folly of a youthful knight. that slew Achilles. with joy possess'd. To vaunt his swiftness wheels around the plain. Thus sadly slain the unhappy Polydore. And shook his javelin like a waving flame. A cloud of sorrow overcast his sight. His soul no longer brook'd the distant fight: Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came. The man. The rushing entrails pour'd upon the ground His hands collect. And on his knees with piercing shrieks he fell. being the youngest of Priam's sons.610 The Iliad of Homer [371] The victim bull. When Hector view'd. "And. the dearest. with all his swiftness slain: Struck where the crossing belts unite behind. Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage. and others. And golden rings the double back-plate join'd Forth through the navel burst the thrilling steel. the rocks re-bellow round. lo! the man on whom black fates attend. for protection. . Virgil. His heart high-bounding in his rising breast.268 The youngest hope of Priam's stooping age: (Whose feet for swiftness in the race surpass'd:) Of all his sons."— Then with revengeful eyes he scann'd him o'er: "Come. and that he was treacherously murdered by his host for the sake of the treasure sent with him. relate that Polydore was sent into Thrace. But vaunts not long. And ocean listens to the grateful sound. To the forbidden field he takes his flight. and receive thy fate!" He spake no more. to the house of Polymestor. all ghastly in his gore. 268 —On Polydore. and the last. and darkness wraps him round. is his friend! No more shall Hector's and Pelides' spear Turn from each other in the walks of war. The son of Peleus sees.

BOOK XX. And give it entrance in a braver heart. If any power assist Achilles' hand. once more thy flight Has saved thee. and exclaims aloud: "Wretch! thou hast 'scaped again. Fly then inglorious! but thy flight this day Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. Hector. Apollo shrouds The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds. thus: "Such words employ To one that dreads thee. the gods may guide my dart." [372] . Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart. He foams with fury. The spear a fourth time buried in the cloud. undaunted. Achilles closes with his hated foe. But long thou shalt not thy just fate withstand. defying and defied." 611 Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heavenly breath Far from Achilles wafts the winged death: The bidden dart again to Hector flies. Mean intercourse of obloquy and pride! I know thy force to mine superior far. But heaven alone confers success in war: Mean as I am. some unwarlike boy: Such we could give. His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow: But present to his aid. And at the feet of its great master lies. and the partial god of light. Thrice in impassive air he plunged the dart.

And for the soul an ample passage made. Echeclus! next the sword bereaves. Both in one instant from the chariot hurl'd. In vain he begs thee. The valiant sons of an unhappy sire. in vain his beauty pleads. Pierced through the neck: he left him panting there. In vain his youth. Gigantic chief! deep gash'd the enormous blade. Sunk in one instant to the nether world: This difference only their sad fates afford That one the spear destroy'd. inexorable heart! While yet he trembled at his knees. The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes. Thy life.612 The Iliad of Homer With that. Through Mulius' head then drove the impetuous spear: The warrior falls. Deep though the front the ponderous falchion cleaves. He dropp'd his arm. Nor less unpitied. E'er bent that fierce. an age so like thy own! Unhappy boy! no prayer. Then brave Deucalion died: the dart was flung Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow strung. To spare a form. Laoganus and Dardanus expire. an unassisting weight. no moving art. The panting liver pours a flood of gore That drowns his bosom till he pants no more. young Alastor bleeds. And stood all impotent. he gluts his rage on numbers slain: Then Dryops tumbled to the ensanguined plain. expecting fate: . transfix'd from ear to ear. The ruthless falchion oped his tender side. and one the sword. great Philetor's heir. And stopp'd Demuchus. Warm'd in the brain the smoking weapon lies. with a suppliant's moan. and cried.

the corpse extended lies. still with rage on flame. the spreading torrent roars: So sweeps the hero through the wasted shores. sunk in dust. The trampling steers beat out the unnumber'd grain: So the fierce coursers. and blazes to the skies. bloody drops the smoking chariot dye: The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. Black. and crush out heroes' souls. And stretch'd the servant o'er his dying lord. Then o'er the stubble up the mountain flies. (The son of Pierus. And thick bestrewn. who saw expiring on the ground His prostrate master. As when a flame the winding valley fills. This way and that. whose race from fruitful Thracia came. All grim with dust. all horrible in blood: Yet still insatiate. with never-wearied pain.) Succeeds to fate: the spear his belly rends. Such is the lust of never-dying fame! 613 [373] . And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore. Around him wide. rein'd the steeds around. Rhigmas. Prone from his car the thundering chief descends. And runs on crackling shrubs between the hills. Tread down whole ranks. as the chariot rolls. His back. Full on his neck the falling falchion sped. When round and round. High o'er the scene of death Achilles stood. Fires the high woods. The squire.BOOK XX. immense destruction pours And earth is deluged with the sanguine showers As with autumnal harvests cover'd o'er. an illustrious name. From his broad shoulders hew'd his crested head: Forth from the bone the spinal marrow flies. lies Ceres' sacred floor. scarce turn'd. the Pelian javelin gored. And. Dash'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly.

614 The Iliad of Homer CENTAUR. .

vol. almost dries up the river. 480. The rescue of Achilles by the fiery arms of Vulcan scarcely admits of the same ready explanation from physical causes. the other gods engage each other."—Mure. and while he pursues him in that disguise. But a thunder-shower in the mountains. others to the river Scamander: he falls upon the latter with great slaughter: takes twelve captives alive. Scamander attacks him with all his waves: Neptune and Pallas assist the hero: Simois joins Scamander: at length Vulcan. Yet the subsiding of the flood at the critical moment when the hero's destruction appeared imminent. THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER. The overwhelming fury of the stream finds the natural interpretation in the character of the mountain torrents of Greece and Asia Minor. and is conveyed away in a cloud by Apollo. ARGUMENT. may suddenly immerse him in the flood of a mighty river. p. shingly beds are in summer comparatively dry. and afterwards with Vulcan. gives the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city.269 The Trojans fly before Achilles. to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus. and kills Lycaon and Asteropeus. some towards the town. when summoned by Juno to the hero's aid. 269 . he has brought the river god Scamander. sq. "Perhaps the boldest excursion of Homer into this region of poetical fancy is the collision into which. Their wide. drives the rest into Troy: Agenor only makes a stand. in the twenty-first of the Iliad.[374] BOOK XXI. by the instigation of Juno. unobserved perhaps by the traveller on the plain. This Combat ended. i. by a slight extension of the figurative parallel. who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agenor's shape. so as to be easily forded by the foot passenger. be ascribed to a god symbolic of the influences opposed to all atmospheric moisture. might. first with Achilles. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter.

And close in rocks or winding caverns lie: So the huge dolphin tempesting the main. plunged in Xanthus by Achilles' force. high brandish'd o'er the waves: Now down he plunges. And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds:) Part plunge into the stream: old Xanthus roars. And here. immortal progeny of Jove. Repeated wounds the reddening river dyed. The river here divides the flying train. His bloody lance the hero casts aside. Deep groan'd the waters with the dying sound. now he whirls it round. like a god. in eddies whirling round. Swift through the foamy flood the Trojans fly. Roars the resounding surge with men and horse. Arm'd with his sword. Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight. Part to the town fly diverse o'er the plain. The scene is on the banks and in the stream of Scamander. While fast behind them runs the blaze of fire. (Which spreading tamarisks on the margin hide. In shoals before him fly the scaly train. The clustering legions rush into the flood: So.616 The Iliad of Homer The same day continues. The flashing billows beat the whiten'd shores: With cries promiscuous all the banks resound. Now chased. the rapid billows braves. and there. Xanthus. The flouncing steeds and shrieking warriors drown'd. and trembling in ignoble flight: (These with a gathered mist Saturnia shrouds. And the warm purple circled on the tide. And now to Xanthus' gliding stream they drove. Confusedly heap'd they seek their inmost caves.) Then. [375] . Driven from the land before the smoky cloud. As the scorch'd locusts from their fields retire.

(The helm and visor he had cast aside With wild affright. tired with slaughter. and dropp'd upon the field His useless lance and unavailing shield. Then. the hero said. The next. panting. Where Jason's son the price demanded gave.BOOK XXI. 617 [376] . Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves. as once more he plunged amid the flood. but now their chains). His well-known face when great Achilles eyed. And knock'd his faltering knees. from the Trojan band Twelve chosen youths he drags alive to land. Now. his sounding steel Lopp'd the green arms to spoke a chariot wheel) To Lemnos' isle he sold the royal slave. touching on the shore. The ransom'd prince to fair Arisbe bore. With their rich belts their captive arms restrains (Late their proud ornaments. since in his father's reign He felt the sweets of liberty again.) As trembling. from the stream he fled. Sad victims destined to Patroclus' shade. The young Lycaon in his passage stood. These his attendants to the ships convey'd. that god whom men in vain withstand Gives the same youth to the same conquering hand Now never to return! and doom'd to go A sadder journey to the shades below. whom the hero's hand But late made captive in his father's land (As from a sycamore. But kind Eetion. Ten days were past. "Ye mighty gods! what wonders strike my view! Is it in vain our conquering arms subdue? Sure I shall see yon heaps of Trojans kill'd Rise from the shades. The son of Priam. and brave me on the field.

If earth. A hundred oxen were his price that day. and Laothoe fair. the Trojan pale with fears Approach'd. Lo! Jove again submits me to thy hands. then. at length this active prince can seize. While thus these melting words attempt his heart: "Thy well-known captive. And scarce twelve morning suns have seen me here. That bar such numbers from their native plain. my flying spear! Try. Achilles raised the spear. And his soul shivering at the approach of death. Try.618 The Iliad of Homer As now the captive. He kiss'd his feet. Longing to dip its thirsty point in blood. whose strong grasp has held down Hercules. one stopp'd the dart. and Lelegia's heir. the spear suspended stood. Scarce respited from woes I yet appear. her victim cruel Fate demands! I sprang from Priam. Again. stalks on Trojan ground! Not him the sea's unmeasured deeps detain. extended on the ground: And while. friends." Thus while he spoke. Earth. . prepared to wound. above. Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. great Achilles! see. whom so late I bound And sold to Lemnos. Some pity to a suppliant's name afford. Who shared the gifts of Ceres at thy board. and sought his knees with suppliant tears Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath. and native shore. (Old Altes' daughter. Whom late thy conquering arm to Lemnos bore. One hand embraced them close. Now sums immense thy mercy shall repay. Far from his father. Lo! he returns. if the grave can hold the wanderer.

Achilles his broad sword display'd. While all his trembling frame confess'd his fear: Sudden. dost thou bewail mortality? Seest thou not me. and as the word he spoke. or day. attended with a shower of tears. Sprung from a hero. With his. the good Patroclus is no more! He. The youth address'd to unrelenting ears: "Talk not of life. my friend! what boots it to deplore? The great. and left the spear. Who held in Pedasus his famed abode. The fainting stripling sank before the stroke: His hand forgot its grasp. 619 [377] . the sons of Priam's hateful race. And thou. How from that arm of terror shall I fly? Some demon urges! 'tis my doom to die! If ever yet soft pity touch'd thy mind. Impending death and certain fate are mine! Die then. by force. dies: In vain a single Trojan sues for grace."—He said.) Two sons (alas! unhappy sons) she bore.BOOK XXI. And I succeed to slaughter'd Polydore. By night. who wrought thy loved Patroclus' death. from a goddess born? The day shall come (which nothing can avert) When by the spear." These words. whom nature's gifts adorn. Ah! think not me too much of Hector's kind! Not the same mother gave thy suppliant breath. And ruled the fields where silver Satnio flow'd. And buried in his neck the reeking blade. For ah! one spear shall drink each brother's gore. whoever meets me. or the dart. far thy better. the arrow. or by design. But least. Die then. was foredoom'd to die. or ransom (he replies): Patroclus dead.

What means divine may yet the power employ To check Achilles. But swift Scamander roll thee to the deep. The victor to the stream the carcase gave. to dare The great Asteropeus to mortal war. So perish Troy. And shook two spears. And thus insults him. Whose every wave some watery monster brings. advancing from the flood. and panting on the land." These boastful words provoked the raging god. with this bitter fate. floating on the wave: "Lie there. Lycaon! let the fish surround Thy bloated corpse. and all the Trojan line! Such ruin theirs. Thus. His earthly honours. To feast unpunish'd on the fat of kings. and immortal name? In vain your immolated bulls are slain. With fury swells the violated flood. stream divine! (Fair Peribaea's love the god had crown'd. and to rescue Troy? Meanwhile the hero springs in arms. Your living coursers glut his gulfs in vain! Thus he rewards you.620 The Iliad of Homer Prone fell the youth. till the Grecian vengeance is complete: Thus is atoned Patroclus' honour'd shade. and such compassion mine. And the short absence of Achilles paid. The gushing purple dyed the thirsty sand. What boots ye now Scamander's worshipp'd stream. whose lofty line Flows from the source of Axius. he fearless stood. The son of Pelagon. and suck thy gory wound: There no sad mother shall thy funerals weep. With all his refluent waters circled round:) On him Achilles rush'd. [378] .

Arm'd with protended spears. Deep in the swelling bank was driven the spear. At once Asteropeus discharged each lance. Now shines the tenth bright morning since I came In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame: Axius. or from whence? Unhappy is the sire Whose son encounters our resistless ire.) One struck. and try that hero's son!" Threatening he said: the hostile chiefs advance. The foe thrice tugg'd. he tries to break the spear in vain. (For both his dexterous hands the lance could wield. The flood impell'd him. And on his foe with double fury flew. and shook the rooted wood. he tumbles to the plain. the Vulcanian shield. Near as they drew. my native band. Begot my sire. who swells with all the neighbouring rills. whose spear much glory won: Now lift thy arm. Then from his side the sword Pelides drew. on Pelides' head To avenge his waters choked with heaps of dead. Repulsive of his might the weapon stood: The fourth. Even to the middle earth. but pierced not. boldest of the race of man? Who. the spouting blood Spun forth. in earth the fasten'd weapon stood.BOOK XXI. Bent as he stands. 621 . Like lightning next the Pelean javelin flies: Its erring fury hiss'd along the skies. Achilles thus began: "What art thou. and quiver'd there. And wide around the floated region fills." "O son of Peleus! what avails to trace (Replied the warrior) our illustrious race? From rich Paeonia's valleys I command. One razed Achilles' hand.

nor wars against his son. roll'd between the banks. And all the roaring billows of the main. and the springs below. and fishes of the flood. The race of these superior far to those." He said: then from the bank his javelin tore. The eternal ocean. it lies the food Of curling eels. and his spirit flies. As he that thunders to the stream that flows. Æacus. All scatter'd round the stream (their mightiest slain) The amazed Paeonians scour along the plain. He vents his fury on the flying crew. Astyplus. The floating tides the bloody carcase lave. from whose fountains flow The seas. And his eye darkens. And in his deep abysses shakes with fear. How durst thou vaunt thy watery progeny? Of Peleus. [379] . Who strive presumptuous with the sons of Jove! Sprung from a river. the rivers. am I. The reeking entrails pour upon the ground. Beneath the hero's feet he panting lies.622 The Iliad of Homer His belly open'd with a ghastly wound. The thundering voice of Jove abhors to hear. and Jove. Even Achelous might contend in vain. Till. And beat against it. wave succeeding wave. and Mnesus slew. What rivers can. Thrasius. His radiant armour tearing from the dead: "So ends thy glory! Such the fate they prove. And left the breathless warrior in his gore. didst thou boast thy line? But great Saturnius is the source of mine. While the proud victor thus triumphing said. Scamander might have shown. But Jove he dreads.

But not till Troy the destined vengeance pay. thy slaughters could amaze a god." In human form. and drove with fury on the foe. the shores return'd the sound. Not till within her towers the perjured train Shall pant. Thersilochus. and in force divine! If Jove have given thee every Trojan head. And numbers more his lance had plunged to hell. and tremble at our arms again. Mydon. till Hyperion's fall In awful darkness hide the face of all?" .BOOK XXI. The river thus. Turn then. See! my choked streams no more their course can keep. that Phoebus should employ His sacred arrows in defence of Troy. But from the bottom of his gulfs profound Scamander spoke. guardian of her wall. Not till proud Hector. and thus the chief replies: "O sacred stream! thy word we shall obey. Nor roll their wonted tribute to the deep." He said. or see Achilles fall. Or stain this lance. confess'd before his eyes. Then to the godhead of the silver bow The yellow flood began: "O son of Jove! Was not the mandate of the sire above Full and express. 623 "O first of mortals! (for the gods are thine) In valour matchless. 'Tis not on me thy rage should heap the dead. impetuous! from our injured flood. And make her conquer. with Ænius. fell. Content.

624 The Iliad of Homer [380] He spoke in vain—The chief without dismay Ploughs through the boiling surge his desperate way. The falling deluge whelms the hero round: His loaded shield bends to the rushing tide. and raised upon his hand. His feet. ambitious to destroy The man whose fury is the fate of Troy. Achilles springs. Sliddering." 270 . that "the circumstance of a falling tree. From all his deep the bellowing river roars. And round the banks the ghastly dead are toss'd. (A watery bulwark. scarce the strong flood divide. Then rising in his rage above the shores. While all before. the billows ranged on high. upborne. his steps to stay. Leap'd from the channel. Wood has observed. Loud flash the waters to the rushing fall Of the thick foliage. At every bound his clanging armour rings: Now here. Huge heaps of slain disgorges on the coast. which is described as reaching from one of its banks to the other. The large trunk display'd Bridged the rough flood across: the hero stay'd On this his weight. He seized a bending bough. and staggering.270 Heaving the bank. Now bursting on his head with thundering sound. Then blacken'd the wild waves: the murmur rose: The god pursues. On the border stood A spreading elm. now there. that overhung the flood. a huger billow throws. he turns on every side. The plant uprooted to his weight gave way. and undermining all. and regain'd the land.) screen the bands who fly. He like the warlike eagle speeds his pace (Swiftest and strongest of the aerial race). affords a very just idea of the breadth of the Scamander. Far as a spear can fly. And bursts the bank.

Beats on his back. So oft the surge. And bravely try if all the powers were foes. Yet dauntless still the adverse flood he braves. And calls the floods from high. but not a match for gods. Oft as he turn'd the torrent to oppose. And winds his course before the following tide. 625 Still flies Achilles. down the hills. And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. in watery mountains spread. Louder and louder purl the falling rills. Wash'd from beneath him slides the slimy soil. but before his eyes Still swift Scamander rolls where'er he flies: Not all his speed escapes the rapid floods. his knees relax with toil. and murmur at his heels. wheresoe'er he wheels. Tired by the tides. or bursts upon his head. And still indignant bounds above the waves. So when a peasant to his garden brings Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs. And feed with pregnant streams the plants and flowers: Soon as he clears whate'er their passage stay'd. to bless his bowers. The waves flow after. Before him scattering. And marks the future current with his spade. The first of men. Swift o'er the rolling pebbles.BOOK XXI. And gather fast. When thus (his eyes on heaven's expansion thrown) Forth bursts the hero with an angry groan: [381] . they prevent his pains.

nor thy sword suspend. O Jove! this ignominious date. By Phoebus' darts she prophesied my fall. by a hero's arm! Might Hector's spear this dauntless bosom rend. thy gods appear! Behold! from Jove descending to thy aid. Oh! had I died in fields of battle warm. and the blue-eyed maid. Of all heaven's oracles believed in vain. as compared with a death in the field of battle. But thou. But most of Thetis must her son complain. Ah no! Achilles meets a shameful fate. attend! Nor breathe from combat. No power to avert his miserable end? Prevent. Stay." Neptune and Pallas haste to his relief.271 And make my future life the sport of fate. Drowning. till all Her routed squadrons pant behind their wall: Hector alone shall stand his fatal chance. And thus in human form address'd the chief: The power of ocean first: "Forbear thy fear. whom on a rainy day. Crossing a ford. Propitious Neptune. Oh how unworthy of the brave and great! Like some vile swain. the counsel heaven suggests. Stretch'd like a hero. And my swift soul o'ertake my slaughter'd friend. —Ignominious.626 The Iliad of Homer "Is there no god Achilles to befriend. Till Troy receive her flying sons. was considered utterly disgraceful. An unregarded carcase to the sea. the torrent sweeps away. In glorious arms before the Trojan wall. and the furious flood shall cease to rave 'Tis not thy fate to glut his angry wave. 271 . And Hector's blood shall smoke upon thy lance. O son of Peleus! Lo.

Immersed remain this terror of the world. While Pallas fills him with immortal force. And Ilion tumble from her towery height. And boldly bids the warring gods be foes! But nor that force. Not a whole river stops the hero's course. Our bravest heroes else shall quit the fight. Shall aught avail him. and with a load of dead. by leaps and bounds. Heaved on the bounding billows danced the dead. Stung with new ardour. while casques of gold And turn'd-up bucklers glitter'd as they roll'd. He wades. He springs impetuous. indignant Xanthus roars." Thus spake the gods: Then swift ascended to the bright abodes. And deep beneath a sandy mountain hurl'd.BOOK XXI. That blaze so dreadful in each Trojan eye. . Floating 'midst scatter'd arms. No Greeks shall e'er his perish'd relics grace. 627 [382] Then thus to Simois! "Haste. And lifts his billows. With equal rage. From all thy fountains swell thy watery store. and bid them roar. nor form divine to sight. Such ponderous ruin shall confound the place. and mounts. if our rage unite: Whelm'd under our dark gulfs those arms shall lie. the parted wave resounds. and invades the field: O'er all the expanded plain the waters spread. thus by heaven impell'd. High o'er the surging tide. Call then thy subject streams. And check this mortal that controls a god. Mark how resistless through the floods he goes. With broken rocks. and o'erwhelms his shores. and pour it on his head. Charge the black surge. Thine is the glory doom'd. my brother flood.

he raves. and this his watery tomb. Then. Increased with gore. and on the chief descends amain." ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. and swelling with the slain. . he boils. And a foam whitens on the purple waves: At every step. and deluged him with blood. and summon'd Vulcan's aid. or inhume. These his cold rites. She call'd aloud. murmuring from his beds. before Achilles stood The crimson surge.628 The Iliad of Homer No hand his bones shall gather. Fear touch'd the queen of heaven: she saw dismay'd. He said.

And hissing rivers to their bottoms burn. and dries the soil And the shrunk waters in their channel boil. At once consumes the dead. As when autumnal Boreas sweeps the sky. the crackling trees devour. Go. and cypress rising in a spire. Now glow the waves. turn their bellies to the sky. so whiten'd was the ground. And thus. Drink the whole flood. Scorch all the banks! and (till our voice reclaim) Exert the unwearied furies of the flame!" The power ignipotent her word obeys: Wide o'er the plain he pours the boundless blaze. And instant blows the water'd gardens dry: So look'd the field. Along the margin winds the running blaze: The trees in flaming rows to ashes turn. Rush the swift eastern and the western wind: These from old ocean at my word shall blow. Or. now dive the scaly fry. The eels lie twisting in the pangs of death: Now flounce aloft. While Vulcan breathed the fiery blast around. mighty in thy rage! display thy power. to the god he said: . Swift on the sedgy reeds the ruin preys. the fishes pant for breath. The flowering lotos and the tamarisk burn. At length the river rear'd his languid head.BOOK XXI. The watery willows hiss before the fire. Broad elm. Pour the red torrent on the watery foe. 629 "Rise to the war! the insulting flood requires Thy wasteful arm! assemble all thy fires! While to their aid. short-panting. by our command enjoin'd. gasping. Corses and arms to one bright ruin turn.

Above the brims they force their fiery way. when with crackling flames a caldron fries. I sink. with all his wasteful rage? On other gods his dreadful arm employ. To Juno then. But ah! withdraw this all-destroying hand." 272 [384] —Beneath a caldron. "So. The bubbling waters from the bottom rise. unequal to the fight— I yield—Let Ilion fall. 644. And in one ruin sink the Trojan name. and cloud the day. For mightier gods assert the cause of Troy.272 To melt the fat of some rich sacrifice. the heavy smoke aspires: So boils the imprison'd flood. And choked with vapours feels his bottom glow. and her destined state. Submissive I desist." Dryden's Virgil. forbid to flow. Black vapours climb aloft. As when the flames beneath a cauldron rise. if fate decree— Ah—bend no more thy fiery arms on me!" He ceased. The bubbling waters yield a hissing sound. to yield to fate Unaided Ilion.630 The Iliad of Homer "Oh Vulcan! oh! what power resists thy might? I faint. The burning river sends his earnest prayer: "Ah why. Hear then my solemn oath. only me. wide conflagration blazing round. . Amid the fierce embrace of circling fires The waters foam. Saturnia. imperial queen of air. Till Greece shall gird her with destructive flame. must thy son engage Me. if thou command. vii.

Jove. when in thy frantic mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a god? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore. And first assaults the radiant queen of war: "What moved thy madness. as his sport. and smote the long-resounding shield. Which bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful field: The adamantine aegis of her sire.BOOK XXI. That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. And soft remurmur in their wonted bed. The warring gods in fierce contention join: Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms: With horrid clangour shock the ethereal arms: Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound. nor in a mortal cause Infest a god: the obedient flame withdraws: Again the branching streams begin to spread." He spoke. The power of battles lifts his brazen spear. and mix all heaven in fight? What wonder this. the dreadful scene descries. Recall the flame. His warm entreaty touch'd Saturnia's ear: She bade the ignipotent his rage forbear. 631 While these by Juno's will the strife resign. And madly bathed it in celestial gore. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. And views contending gods with careless eyes. .

diffused celestial day. a mass of monstrous size: And seven broad acres covers as he lies. Jove's Cyprian daughter. propp'd on her fair arm." The goddess spoke. There fix'd from eldest times. black.632 The Iliad of Homer Then heaved the goddess in her mighty hand A stone. And. and turn'd her eyes away. in open view. craggy. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. the limit of the neighbouring land. She moves: let Pallas. stooping on the land. insatiate fury! known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own? Juno. if she dares. That. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand. Lent to the wounded god her tender hand: Slowly he rises. The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound: Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound: The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles. And. Thundering he falls. forsakes the plain. This at the heavenly homicide she cast. Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. beaming round. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. thus to war's victorious maid: "Lo! what an aid on Mars's side is seen! The smiles' and loves' unconquerable queen! Mark with what insolence. glorying. scoffing. vast. thus the prostrate god reviles: [385] "Hast thou not yet. pursue. And. This the bright empress of the heavens survey'd." . scarcely breathes with pain.

unresisting. 633 Meantime. as Venus is to me. Minerva smiling heard. fell (her spirits fled). The god of ocean dares the god of light.) And guard the race of proud Laomedon! Hast thou forgot. how. Suits not my greatness. "And like these heroes be the fate of all (Minerva cries) who guard the Trojan wall! To Grecian gods such let the Phrygian be. we with shame retire. and heaven returns the sound: Shall. But when the circling seasons in their train Brought back the grateful day that crown'd our pain. And slightly on her breast the wanton strook: She.BOOK XXI. With menace stern the fraudful king defied Our latent godhead. And yon proud bulwarks grew beneath my hands: Thy task it was to feed the bellowing droves Along fair Ida's vales and pendant groves. when the fields around Ring with conflicting powers. . (Forgetful of my wrongs. so fierce. and Juno with a smile approved. We shared the lengthen'd labours of a year? Troy walls I raised (for such were Jove's commands). at the monarch's prayer. ignominious. prove thy arm! for first the war to wage. No deed perform'd. "What sloth has seized us. he threaten'd servile bands. or superior age: Rash as thou art to prop the Trojan throne. and of thy own. to mix in more than mortal fight. So dread. to our Olympian sire? Come. and the prize denied: Mad as he was. the pair o'ertook." Thus she. On earth together lay the lovers spread. Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved.

their present. with beauty crown'd." "This tale of the temporary servitude of particular gods. Dost thou. Smile on the sun. as a punishment for misbehaviour. and dreadful show Of pointed arrows and the silver bow! Now boast no more in yon celestial bower. future sons destroy. that now. And from its deep foundations heave their Troy?" Apollo thus: "To combat for mankind Ill suits the wisdom of celestial mind.273 Incensed. 156. we heavenward fled with swiftest wing. Artemis upbraids. vol. recurs not unfrequently among the incidents of the Mythical world. And destined vengeance on the perjured king." Then turns his face. To their own hands commit the frantic scene. The quiver'd huntress of the sylvan shades: "And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies. For what is man? Calamitous by birth. Nor mix immortals in a cause so mean. Like yearly leaves. now. Thy force can match the great earth-shaking power. 273 . And not. for this. They owe their life and nourishment to earth. And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize? How vain that martial pomp. far-beaming heavenly fires.634 [386] The Iliad of Homer And doom'd us exiles far in barbarous lands. by order of Jove. afford proud Ilion grace."—Grote. i. wither on the ground. like us. And from the senior power submiss retires: Him thus retreating. infest the faithless race. Like us. p.

and idly mark the dusty place. now there. or match thy force with mine? Learn hence. matchless goddess! triumph in the skies. who gives delight To him whose thunders blacken heaven with night? Go. when the falcon wings her way above. And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes: So. she winds her from the blow. thus declines the war: "How shall I face the dame. The scattering arrows. no more unequal war to wage—" She said. (Not fated yet to die.BOOK XXI. Silent he heard the queen of woods upbraid: Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid: But furious thus: "What insolence has driven Thy pride to face the majesty of heaven? What though by Jove the female plague design'd. Now here. the quiver. rattling from the case. These in her left hand lock'd. Swift from the field the baffled huntress flies.) there safe retreats. Fierce to the feeble race of womankind. while I yield the prize. Thy sex's tyrant. with a tiger's heart? What though tremendous in the woodland chase Thy certain arrows pierce the savage race? How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove. Drop round. and its plumy pride. To her Latona hastes with tender care. Whom Hermes viewing. The wretched matron feels thy piercing dart. and seized her wrists with eager rage. About her temples flies the busy bow. her right untied The bow. And boast my conquest." 635 [387] . Yet still her heart against the marble beats.

and panted on her breast. though fate forbade her fall. O'er slaughter'd heroes. Where. The pale inhabitants. and bade her show What heavenly hand had caused his daughter's woe? Abash'd. Thus they above: while. some fall. And toils. And the red vapours purple all the sky: So raged Achilles: death and dire dismay. she grasp'd his knees: the ambrosial vest Shook with her sighs.636 The Iliad of Homer He spoke. . she names his own imperial spouse. Through blood. and o'er rolling steeds. glittering on the dust. And take their thrones around the ethereal sire. and terrors. And the pale crescent fades upon her brows. lay here and there Dishonour'd relics of Diana's war: Then swift pursued her to her blest abode. Return the shining bands of gods in arms. That. As when avenging flames with fury driven On guilty towns exert the wrath of heaven. she sought the sovereign god. And fear'd the Greeks. all confused. The guardian-god now trembled for her wall. some fly. stooping low. from the war's alarms. Some proud in triumph. Achilles still proceeds. Collects the scatter'd shafts and fallen bow. through death. fill'd the dreadful day. The sire superior smiled. Back to Olympus. swiftly gliding down. some with rage on fire. Apollo enters Ilion's sacred town. and pass'd: Latona. Weeping.

BOOK XXI. bold. all parch'd with thirst. panting. and shut out death. Shot down to save her. Wild with revenge. He comes. (Antenor's offspring. the flying bands to meet. on the guards he calls: "You to whose care our city-gates belong. and desolation marks his way! But when within the walls our troops take breath. Set wide your portals to the flying throng: For lo! he comes. with unresisted sway. Thither. they beat the hollow plain: And gasping. Lock fast the brazen bars.) 637 [388] . Struck slaughter back. and redeem her fame: To young Agenor force divine he gave. and cover'd the retreat." Thus charged the reverend monarch: wide were flung The opening folds. haughty. the Trojans' scatter'd flight. And thus descending. and brave. that lengthen toward the town. the god who darts ethereal flame. Then had the Greeks eternal praise acquired. Fast as he could. And marks the waste of his destructive hands. insatiable of war. the sounding hinges rung. Phoebus rush'd forth. On heaps the Trojans crowd to gain the gate. But he. fainting. And the near hero rising on his sight! No stop. Views. Enraged Achilles follows with his spear. he sighing quits the walls. from his arm. no aid! With feeble pace. And gladsome see their last escape from fate. And settled sorrow on his aged face. no check. High on a turret hoary Priam stands. And Troy inglorious to her walls retired. a heartless train. labour on With heavier strides. Hoary with dust.

that who stands must die. What if?—But wherefore all this vain debate? Stand I to doubt. that leads To Ida's forests and surrounding shades? So may I reach. One only soul informs that dreadful frame: And Jove's sole favour gives him all his fame. conceal'd. The fierce Achilles sees me. (So. the troubled motions rise. restrain'd the hand of fate. and I fall: Such is his swiftness. Return in safety to my Trojan friends. And wrapt in clouds. and be like others slain? Vain hope! to shun him by the self-same road Yon line of slaughter'd Trojans lately trod. Yet sure he too is mortal. and questions thus his mighty soul. When now the generous youth Achilles spies. ere yet I turn the wall. No: with the common heap I scorn to fall— What if they pass'd me to the Trojan wall. "What. Here. And such his valour. From my tired body wash the dirt and blood. 'tis in vain to fly.) He stops. the waters heave and roll. Howe'er 'tis better. While I decline to yonder path. Thick beats his heart. to meet my fate. beside the beech he sate. he may feel (Like all the sons of earth) the force of steel. As soon as night her dusky veil extends. and in public view. the cooling flood. fighting for the state. within the reach of fate? Even now perhaps. shall I fly this terror of the plain! Like others fly.638 The Iliad of Homer In aid of him. ere a storm." .

the savage flies. Roused from his thicket by a storm of darts: Untaught to fear or fly. Apollo shrouds The god-like Trojan in a veil of clouds. the hollow cuishes rung Beneath the pointed steel. in act to throw The lifted javelin. Antenor's valiant heir Confronts Achilles. Not less resolved. Then fiercely rushing on the daring foe. Then graceful as he stood." He said: with matchless force the javelin flung Smote on his knee. jealous of his fame. scarce perceives the pain. and press a foreign shore. and awaits the war. Though struck. untamed. thus bespoke the foe: "How proud Achilles glories in his fame! And hopes this day to sink the Trojan name Beneath her ruins! Know. in his might. a thousand toils remain. And tears his hunter. even thou may'st stain with gore These Phrygian fields. Parents and children our just arms employ. And all his beating bosom claim'd the fight. he hears the sounds Of shouting hunters. And the barb'd javelin stings his breast in vain: On their whole war. that hope is vain. and of clamorous hounds. [389] . A thousand woes. His lifted arm prepares the fatal blow: But. Disdainful of retreat: high held before. or beneath him dies. collected. 639 He said. His shield (a broad circumference) he bore. Great as thou art. So from some deep-grown wood a panther starts. And strong and many are the sons of Troy. though wounded.BOOK XXI. but safe from harms He stands impassive in the ethereal arms. and stood.

and violence of flight. The furious chief still follows where he flies. now distant scarce a stride before. and wheels about the shore. Assumes Agenor's habit. or tell. Flies from the furious chief in this disguise. . deliver'd from their fate.640 The Iliad of Homer Safe from pursuit. Pale Troy against Achilles shuts her gate: And nations breathe. And sudden joy confused. While all the flying troops their speed employ. no stay. Now urge the course where swift Scamander glides: The god. voice and shape. Now o'er the fields they stretch with lengthen'd strides. And pour on heaps into the walls of Troy: No stop. or who by battle fell. to cover their escape. Who 'scaped by flight. Meanwhile the god. and mix'd affright. 'Twas tumult all. and shut from mortal view. Dismiss'd with fame. no thought to ask. Tempts his pursuit. the favoured youth withdrew.

The Trojans being safe within the walls. but in vain. Achilles drags the dead body at his chariot in the sight of Priam and Hecuba. And drown in bowls the labours of the day. Priam is struck at his approach. She swoons at the spectacle. March. Hector consults within himself what measures to take. and he flies. and tries to persuade his son to re-enter the town. She deludes Hector in the shape of Deiphobus. at length Minerva descends to the aid of Achilles. but at the advance of Achilles. THE DEATH OF HECTOR. Close to the walls. ARGUMENT. his resolution fails him. smit with panic fear. Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. Thus to their bulwarks. Hector only stays to oppose Achilles. and beholds her dead husband. Their lamentations. bending on. Hecuba joins her entreaties. tears. The thirtieth day still continues. and is slain. Their cries reach the ears of Andromache. ignorant of this. Her excess of grief and lamentation. The scene lies under the walls. and despair. he stands the combat. advancing o'er the fields Beneath one roof of well-compacted shields. and on the battlements of Troy. was retired into the inner part of the palace: she mounts up to the walls. the Greeks' embodied powers. The gods debate concerning the fate of Hector.[390] BOOK XXII. The herded Ilians rush like driven deer: There safe they wipe the briny drops away. . who.

and thy present vain: Safe in their walls are now her troops bestow'd." . alas! for one of heavenly strain. Still his bold arms determined to employ. and of fraud divine: Mean fame. that Troy forsook the plain? Vain thy past labour. The guardian still of long-defended Troy. To cheat a mortal who repines in vain." The chief incensed—"Too partial god of day! To check my conquests in the middle way: How few in Ilion else had refuge found! What gasping numbers now had bit the ground! Thou robb'st me of a glory justly mine. What boots thee now. Powerful of godhead. Unskill'd to trace the latent marks of heaven. [391] Apollo now to tired Achilles turns: (The power confess'd in all his glory burns:) "And what (he cries) has Peleus' son in view.642 The Iliad of Homer Far stretching in the shade of Trojan towers. Great Hector singly stay'd: chain'd down by fate There fix'd he stood before the Scaean gate. While here thy frantic rage attacks a god. With mortal speed a godhead to pursue? For not to thee to know the gods is given.

That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. And thus adjures him with extended hands: "Ah stay not. With high and haughty steps he tower'd along. So flamed his fiery mail. Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fevers. So the proud courser. victor of the prize. Him. Satan stood Unterrified. Incensed with indignation. He calls his much-loved son with feeble cries: The son. plagues. Not half so dreadful rises to the sight." —Paradise Lost. 708. terrible and strong. and like a comet burn'd. Orion's dog (the year when autumn weighs). The careful eyes of Priam first beheld. And o'er the feebler stars exerts his rays. and death. stay not! guardless and alone. Hector! my loved. He lifts his wither'd arms. While the sad father on the rampart stands. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Then wept the sage: He strikes his reverend head." xi. .BOOK XXII. Then to the city. bravest son! Methinks already I behold thee slain. now white with age. "On the other side. obtests the skies. resolved Achilles' force to dare. as he blazing shot across the field. And stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. To the near goal with double ardour flies. Implacable Achilles! might'st thou be 274 643 —Not half so dreadful. my dearest. Full at the Scaean gates expects the war.274 Through the thick gloom of some tempestuous night.

Two from one mother sprung. thy dearer glory save.644 The Iliad of Homer [392] To all the gods no dearer than to me! Thee. spare us all! Save thy dear life. All pale they wander on the Stygian coast. And spare thyself. and my city burn'd. what treasures would I give! (Their grandsire's wealth. While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. Valiant in vain! by thy cursed arm destroy'd: Or. Pity. What sorrows then must their sad mother know. and unworthy toils. sold in distant isles To shameful bondage. vultures wild should scatter round the shore. less to her. thy father. these silver hairs. worse than slaughtered. Two. And number all his days by miseries! My heroes slain. What heaps of gold. My daughters ravish'd. or. Consign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne:) But if (which Heaven forbid) already lost. Less to all Troy. And loved Lycaon. What anguish I? unutterable woe! Yet less that anguish. by right of birth their own. my eyes in vain explore. now perhaps no more! Oh! if in yonder hostile camp they live. sad spectacle of pain! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain: To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes. to me. And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore. How many valiant sons I late enjoy'd. if not deprived of thee. Yet shun Achilles! enter yet the wall. while yet I live. . Yet cursed with sense! a wretch. whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) Great Jove has placed. my bridal bed o'erturn'd. while I speak. my Polydore. if a soul so brave Neglect that thought.

Or still'd thy infant clamours at this breast. this is misery! the last. With him the mournful mother bears a part. late guardians of my door. dies the best. Ah do not thus our helpless years forego. Who dies in youth and vigour. The zone unbraced. for in fight they fell. Struck through with wounds. The last sad relic of my ruin'd state. (but Heaven avert it!) should'st thou bleed. perhaps yet more! Perhaps even I. These I have yet to see. Spurn the hoar head of unresisting age. Should'st thou. Well have they perish'd. attend a parent's prayer! If ever thee in these fond arms I press'd. My bleeding infants dash'd against the floor. her bosom she display'd. Yet all her sorrows turn not Hector's heart. [393] . repel the foe. gods! 'tis well. fast-falling the salt tears. fated to be cursed!" He said.BOOK XXII. And thus. And pour to dogs the life-blood scarcely warm: This. That man can feel! man. all honest on the breast. But. the worse. Where famish'd dogs. and acting what no words could say. O my son! revere The words of age. she said: 645 "Have mercy on me. Yet for my sons I thank ye. by our walls secured. And stain the pavement of my regal hall. (Dire pomp of sovereign wretchedness!) must fall. in fulness of their rage. In dust the reverend lineaments deform. reserved by angry fate. Against his rage if singly thou proceed. But when the fates. Rent from his head the silver locks away. Shall lick their mangled master's spatter'd gore.

"—"Paradise Lost. and question'd thus his mighty mind:275 "Where lies my way? to enter in the wall? Honour and shame the ungenerous thought recall: Shall proud Polydamas before the gate Proclaim. So. And blame those virtues which they cannot share. He stood. When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins Have gather'd half the poisons of the plains. Beneath a turret. ." vi. return I must Glorious. I feel my folly in my people slain. on his shield reclined. his counsels are obey'd too late. He burns. my country's terror laid in dust: Or if I perish.646 The Iliad of Homer Nor must thy corse lie honour'd on the bier. Nor spouse. let her see me fall 275 "And thus his own undaunted mind explores. What numbers had been saved by Hector's flight? That wise advice rejected with disdain. No—if I e'er return. while down their cheeks the torrents roll. Methinks my suffering country's voice I hear. the swelling snake Beholds the traveller approach the brake. roll'd up in his den. And his red eyeballs glare with living fire. grace thee with a tear! Far from our pious rites those dear remains Must feast the vultures on the naked plains. he stiffens with collected ire. But fix'd remains the purpose of his soul. nor mother. Resolved he stands. Which timely follow'd but the former night. On my rash courage charge the chance of war." So they. 113. But most her worthless sons insult my ear. and with a fiery glance Expects the hero's terrible advance.

sworn. Like youths and maidens in an evening walk: War is our business. and fighting for her wall. 647 [394] . the helm. as man conversing man. determine Heaven!" Thus pondering. like a god the Greek drew nigh. As Hector sees. in his better hand. Met at an oak. or triumph. Which Troy shall. produce. In field at least. and parley with the foe. and flies. but to whom is given To die. lay down. He leaves the gates. the treasure ill-detain'd (Cause of the war. recedes. And on his breast the beamy splendour shone. Just when he holds. and grievance of the land) With honourable justice to restore: And add half Ilion's yet remaining store. And treat on terms of peace to save the town: The wife withheld. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The swiftest racer of the liquid skies). Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land. But woman-like to fall. that injured Greece May share our wealth. and fall without a blow? We greet not here. Approach unarm'd. And yet suppose these measures I forego. Struck by some god. or journeying o'er a plain. But why this thought? Unarm'd if I should go.BOOK XXII. or the rising sun. The Pelian javelin. or thinks he holds his prey. he fears. What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe. Like Jove's own lightning. that. No season now for calm familiar talk. and leave our walls in peace. unusual terrors rise. he leaves the wall behind: Achilles follows like the winged wind. and lance. His dreadful plumage nodded from on high. The warrior-shield.

With open beak and shrilling cries he springs. one by fear impell'd: Now circling round the walls their course maintain. That the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows. no vulgar prize they play. (A wider compass. Now where the fig-trees spread their umbrage broad. Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece) Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace. in the heroic times.276 By these they pass'd.) smoke along the road. Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain. and cold as winter snows: Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills. As when some hero's funerals are decreed In grateful honour of the mighty dead. and shoots upon his wings: No less fore-right the rapid chase they held. one in flight: (The mighty fled. And aims his claws.648 The Iliad of Homer [395] Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. 276 . even from the dignity of a princess. pursued by stronger might:) Swift was the course. Like crystal clear. This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise. Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground. or some lovely dame) The panting coursers swiftly turn the goal. Next by Scamander's double source they bound. Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills. Where high rewards the vigorous youth inflame (Some golden tripod. One urged by fury. No vulgar victim must reward the day: (Such as in races crown the speedy strife:) The prize contended was great Hector's life. one chasing. in the Odyssey. With exhalations steaming to the skies. And with them turns the raised spectator's soul: The example of Nausicaa. proves that the duties of the laundry were not thought derogatory.

And stoops impetuous from the cleaving skies. Hector. To whom. pre-ordain'd to death! And will no murmurs fill the courts above? No gods indignant blame their partial Jove?" "Go then (return'd the sire) without delay. by stern Pelides slain. Whose grateful fumes the gods received with joy. And fate. . Or let him bear. and fierce Achilles. while eager on the chase they look. (Good as he is) the lot imposed on man. Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly. to his fears resign'd. Swift at the mandate pleased Tritonia flies. and the towers of Troy: Now see him flying. From Ida's summits. Behold. Exert thy will: I give the Fates their way. a mortal. The sire of mortals and immortals spoke: 649 "Unworthy sight! the man beloved of heaven. ye powers! ('tis worthy your debate) Whether to snatch him from impending fate. and blackens heaven with storms." Then Pallas thus: "Shall he whose vengeance forms The forky bolt. close behind. Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath? A man. The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. Consult.BOOK XXII. inglorious round yon city driven! My heart partakes the generous Hector's pain. whose zeal whole hecatombs has slain.

and this pursues in vain. O muse. The certain hound his various maze pursues. where'er the Trojan wheel'd. And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. There swift Achilles compass'd round the field. Thus step by step. The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn. What god. as he coursed below. As men in slumbers seem with speedy pace. And hopes the assistance of his pitying friends. o'er the vale and lawn. From the high turrets might oppress the foe. Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews. his nerves with power: And great Achilles. in his latest hour. who. Endued his knees with strength.) So oft Achilles turns him to the plain: He eyes the city.650 The Iliad of Homer [396] As through the forest. lest some Greek's advance Should snatch the glory from his lifted lance. One to pursue. . Their sinking limbs the fancied course forsake. and one to lead the chase. In vain he tries the covert of the brakes. Sign'd to the troops to yield his foe the way. but he eyes in vain. (Whose showering arrows. Or deep beneath the trembling thicket shakes. assisted Hector's force With fate itself so long to hold the course? Phoebus it was. Nor this can fly. nor that can overtake: No less the labouring heroes pant and strain: While that but flies. Oft as to reach the Dardan gates he bends.

Shall more avail him. Jove lifts the golden balances. 651 Then Phoebus left him. their destinies. And here. and greets him thus with voice belied: "Too long. equal fates partake. nor his god of light. with equal hand. nor flight." Her voice divine the chief with joyful mind Obey'd. And weighs. and her arms the same). and things below: Here each contending hero's lot he tries. Fierce Minerva flies To stern Pelides. on his lance reclined While like Deiphobus the martial dame (Her face. and rested. See. Roll'd at the feet of unrelenting Jove. as brothers. O Hector! have I borne the sight Of this distress. Heavy with death it sinks. insatiable of war. In show an aid. and hell receives the weight." . Low sinks the scale surcharged with Hector's fate. Great Hector falls. where in vain he supplicates above. and triumphing. Rest here: myself will lead the Trojan on. by hapless Hector's side Approach'd. cries: "O loved of Jove! this day our labours cease. that Hector famed so far. And conquest blazes with full beams on Greece. and sorrow'd in thy flight: It fits us now a noble stand to make. and mine! nor force.BOOK XXII. Drunk with renown. that show The fates of mortal men. Falls by thy hand. her gesture. And urge to meet the fate he cannot shun.

Yet on the verge of battle let us stay. Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield. And much my mother's. and her chief pursued. or I die. Let Heaven's high powers be call'd to arbitrate The just conditions of this stern debate. but honoured more! Since you. No vile dishonour shall thy corse pursue. But now some god within me bids me try Thine. if." Fraudful she said. And for a moment's space suspend the day. press'd me to forbear: My friends embraced my knees. Sternly they met. Let the steel sparkle." Again the goddess: "Much my father's prayer.652 The Iliad of Homer Then he: "O prince! allied in blood and fame. The silence Hector broke: His dreadful plumage nodded as he spoke: "Enough. Long tried. Jove by these hands shall shed thy noble life. adjured my stay. And faithful guardians of the treasured vow!) To them I swear. Of all that Hecuba to Priam bore. and I obey. regardless of your own. or my fate: I kill thee. and the javelin fly. Dearer than all that own a brother's name. Come then. (Eternal witnesses of all below. But stronger love impell'd. the glorious conflict let us try. then swiftly march'd before: The Dardan hero shuns his foe no more. victor in the strife. of all our numerous race alone Defend my life. Stripp'd of its arms alone (the conqueror's due) [397] . Or let us stretch Achilles on the field. O son of Peleus! Troy has view'd Her walls thrice circled. long loved: much loved.

BOOK XXII. Rouse then thy forces this important hour. Till death extinguish rage. No further subterfuge. I ask no more. and call forth all thy power. by thee deprived of breath. and ought to be. Then drew. The rest to Greece uninjured I'll restore: Now plight thy mutual oath. who. elate with joy. Pallas gives thee to my lance. Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee: Such pacts as lambs and rabid wolves combine. and calls thee to thy death. Unseen of Hector. while o'er his head the flying spear Sang innocent. and never-ceasing strife. and thought. no further chance. and braves the dread of Troy. Now shakes his lance. 'Tis Pallas. . Such leagues as men and furious lions join. and gave to great Achilles' hand. and life." He spoke. and launch'd his javelin at the foe. To such I call the gods! one constant state Of lasting rancour and eternal hate: No thought but rage. Minerva watch'd it falling on the land. and spent its force in air. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes). Each Grecian ghost. Collect thy soul. Now hovers round. Detested as thou art. But Hector shunn'd the meditated blow: He stoop'd." 653 "Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies.

By no dishonest wound shall Hector die. with a sigh. no succour from above.654 The Iliad of Homer "The life you boasted to that javelin given. unknown. Pallas. resulting with a bound From off the ringing orb. Or what must prove my fortune. Propitious once. Death and black fate approach! 'tis I must bleed. presumptuous as thou art. our fears to blind. And with false terrors sink another's mind. He calls Deiphobus. "'Tis so—Heaven wills it. But first." The weapon flew. 'twas thy deed. and admire!" [398] . demands a spear— In vain. All comfortless he stands: then. its course unerring held. but the heavenly shield repell'd The mortal dart. deep buried in thy heart. I shall not fall a fugitive at least. and my hour is nigh! I deem'd Deiphobus had heard my call. yet I perish great: Yet in a mighty deed I shall expire. Unerring. To thee. and kind! Then welcome fate! 'Tis true I perish. But know. nor other hope remain. Nor other lance. But he secure lies guarded in the wall. Let future ages hear it. and may this dart End all my country's woes. for no Deiphobus was there. My soul shall bravely issue from my breast. Prince! you have miss'd. Great Jove deserts me. whatever fate I am to try. try thou my arm. Boasting is but an art. Hector beheld his javelin fall in vain. or thy own. A god deceived me. and the son of Jove. My fate depends on Heaven. it struck the ground. No refuge now.

prince! you should have fear'd. . stern Achilles cries: "At last is Hector stretch'd upon the plain. 277 655 [399] —Hesper shines with keener light. nor took the power Of speech. One space at length he spies. While.BOOK XXII. But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore Securely cased the warrior's body o'er." v.277 Far-beaming o'er the silver host of night. and meditates the wound. As radiant Hesper shines with keener light. at the word. all collected. thus triumphing. on Achilles flew. what now you feel. unhappy! from thy dying hour. Refulgent orb! above his fourfold cone The gilded horse-hair sparkled in the sun. Eyes the whole man. And. When all the starry train emblaze the sphere: So shone the point of great Achilles' spear. Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus slain: Then. 166. Nodding at every step: (Vulcanian frame!) And as he moved. Stoops from the clouds to truss the quivering hare." "Paradise Lost. high balanced in the air. last in the train of night. Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate Gave entrance: through that penetrable part Furious he drove the well-directed dart: Nor pierced the windpipe yet. If better thou belong not to the dawn. So Jove's bold bird. In his right hand he waves the weapon round. his weighty sword he drew. Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies. "Fairest of stars. to let in fate. his figure seem'd on flame. Nor less Achilles his fierce soul prepares: Before his breast the flaming shield he bears. Fierce.

Nor all the sacred prevalence of prayer. and for ever mourn'd: While cast to all the rage of hostile power. To soothe a father's and a mother's woe: Let their large gifts procure an urn at least. And giving thousands. Should Dardan Priam. Ah.) Not those who gave me breath should bid me spare. Could I myself the bloody banquet join! No—to the dogs that carcase I resign. For ever honour'd. Thee birds shall mangle. and the gods devour. shot flashing from his eyes. offer thousands more. bring forth all her store. and his weeping dame. to bribe me. And Hector's ashes in his country rest. wretch accursed! relentless he replies. as he spoke. Should Troy.656 The Iliad of Homer Achilles absent was Achilles still: Yet a short space the great avenger stayed. with all our rites adorn'd. (Flames. Nor rob the vultures of one limb of thee. fainting at the approach of death: "By thy own soul! by those who gave thee breath! By all the sacred prevalence of prayer. Drain their whole realm to buy one funeral flame: Their Hector on the pile they should not see. Peaceful he sleeps. leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear! The common rites of sepulture bestow. Then low in dust thy strength and glory laid." "No." Then Hector." .

A naked. and stripp'd the slain. Thetis stole away the body. melancholy ghost! Achilles. And cursed thee with a heart that cannot yield. just as the Greeks were about to burn it with funeral honours. (The manly body left a load of clay. After chasing the Trojans into the town. Then thus the chief his dying accents drew: "Thy rage. a day will come. 278 . Phoebus and Paris shall avenge my fate. or with taunts disgrace: Such was his fate. replie