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12

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13

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14

8 CSAbMOM KJ18cce WKOIIbI MBHR MKTepecOa8fl )KYPHan «Botcpyr ce8T8». HS'4BnO KaASHM1t KOToporo BOCXQ,[tMIlO K ce~He AeBRTHBAl-'8Toro BeKS. >KypHBn XO,QW1 no pyKBM C~ pe6AT Hewero «re0$13MI.f8CKorO roPOAKB» B nOAMOCKOBHOM 6btkOBe. 8 TO nero MbI ApOCTHO 06Cy)f(,Q8l1MpaCCK~3 flOA KHTJl"'rylOU.&MM'. H838BHM8M «B3PbIBlt. '-13 py6pMKM cp&HTBCTMKM' MbI 38TeM nepeMecTMIlMCb B MMp OTKpbfll4A 101 MCKanM OTBeTbl H8 aonpoc; B Mor nM 3TOT «Kopa6nb» 6bfTb nocnSHHbtM APyrMM MMPOM Vl3 rny6MH ~CJIiII?

VlMeHHO B CBff3M CO cnopaMM (H8 TBMY» M f101lbrrKO~ 03HBKOMKTbCR co BCeM, 'fTO CBRSBHO C pacCKS30M. B Moe C03HBHMe Bnepsble aouino cnoaocO"f8T8Hl.48 «TYHryCCKI.4~ MeT80p~T». Bowno. Koe-KaK08 BpeMR nOMHII'Inoes 1.4 He Ha O.QlllH rog ywno KYAa-TO. HO He 1.43 nBMATI.4.

nocne.Qy/O~",e nsn~AecRTb,e rO,Qbl AIls:! MeHR. napHR 1113 ceMbVl reonora 11'1 Y'"fIl'lTenbHHl.(bI. 6bUWI npenensao nnorso HaCblll.(eHbl pa3HblMVI YBne'-1eHVlRMII'I VI orpeuneHMRMM M3MeHMTb }l(MSHb nocne ceMMneTKLr1 M 3aTeM nocne necaroro xnacca,

nepBop8SPRAHMK no Ilbl>K8M B IOHowecKo~ cnoprasHOLl! urxone, y'iIlBT 8SpOKny08 - nMnOT xeraeproro Knacca no nerKoMOTOPHblM eaMoneT8M, HeCOCTOs:lBWL.1~CR BoeHHblLl! n8T"'IVlK VI Ha mnb ner KypcaHT BoeHHO-MOPcxoro y"'lMnVlll.(8 VlH>KeHepOB OpY)l(L.1R B cnaBHOM, 60raTOM IItCTOpL.1eLl! repone Ha Heae,

nOCIle)tH",e Tplll rona nRTMA8cRTbiX MeHR cTpeMIIIrensao HOClllno no p83HbiM pYM6aM >Ka.t3HM BO dmore M roc6eson8CHOCTL.1: BblnycKHMK Y"IMnM~B B ,QonJKHOcTa.t ocplAl.(epa - MH>KeHepa SPTL.1MSpa.tIitCKorO opY)I(I.4f1. KOpOTKlI1e Kypcbl BoeHHblX KOHTppa3Be,Q~lIIKOB B T6MIll.4c1.4 ... cnY)I(OS B Oco6oM ornene CeBepHoro cpnara B 3HSMeHIf1- TO~ If1cTpe6MTenbHo~ ae ... BAIf1SI.431.4 .... CTaHOanetM8 KOTOpo~ npll1WflOCb Ha rOAbI SOIitHbi nOA KOMatIAOB8HII18M 60-

15

P83Be.QWKona, rAe n~ JKap«.M8 cnopbI o ICOCMM~ecKOM ltopa6ne.

paca CB€POHOSB. ABIDKAbl repost Cosercxnrn COI038. tli1'faKOHett WKona pa3BeAKM roroeaonSCHOCnt.

VlMeHHO B 3TOIi'I WKOne - Ky3H~LtB KanpOB p83BBAK~ C AOBOeHtiOrO epeMeHM - cny\4W1OCb MHe n03HBKOMKTbCR CO crarsea ~3 lKypHana «CMeHS». CraTbR 836YAOpa>KWl8 ronoBbi MO~X KOnner-cnyW8Tenel1l. nOTOMY 'iTO pe'ib B Hell! coosa wna 0 ranoreae: T ymycCK8R KaT8CTporpa - 3TO aeapas KOCMWieCKoro KOpa6I1R npYlWenbL1eB 1-13 KOCMoca!

CPBA1-1 HeMHor1-1X 38 3T'j ranoreay R 6101I1CR co acea 3HeprHelii HY.lK,Q8lOlltelilcR B OCTpblX oUly~eH1-1AX MOIlO,QoliI H8-ryPbl. A cnopuia« 51 DbUl OTMeHHbttlt euie C my6oKoro ,QeTCTB8 - RPOCTHbtl.1, C 6blCTpolii pea~elil, MHO>KeCTBOM apryMeHToB 101 C HenOKone61-1MOIii aepoa 8 CBOIO npseory, 3To AaneKO He ny'iwee K8\4eCTBO Moero xapax-

16

,/

HV1KonA TEenA V1 3Ar Ap,KA TYHrvCCKorO METEOPVITA

Tepa, HO ece >l<e flBneHlIJe a Moelit >K\I13HH coaaaaano MHe He paa a8TpYAHeHHfI ennors ao caMolit crapocra.

WKona paaae.QKlI1. «a npOCTOHapOAbe» WKonB 101, paenonaranacs aAalUlt OT MOCKBbl B "IYAecHoM COCHOBOenOBOM MaCClltae: )f(l't1U1 Mbl, 6y.nYl.l4Ke paaBe.n"l':1KII1, B 6rm$l9Hq~ Aayx8fB)!(wMc·· AOMMK3X ~<Ao~i:wt nocrpoaxa, YyeGHblS KJ18CCbl pa3Mell.la1WlCb a TaKlllX )l(e AepeBfltmbtX J:.IOMax. OAII1H \113 KOTOpblX - TlI1nS censcxoa WKonbl - np~Ha<.fanCR AIls:! fl3bIKOB0lt1 no,QroTOBK\I1.

rnaBHblM, M\iC:rOM AMCKYCCH!it «Ha TeMY» CTanH ABa nOMeu.teHHR - B JKMflOM ACMe YIOTHoe xpoxorane cpoAe C KOBPOBblMH ADPO)I(KaM\It H Kap'fl'IHaMH Ha creaax, APYroe - CTonOBSJ:I.

8 3HMHHe AHtil Mbi nepeeerana H3 aABHHR B 3ABHllte MeJIt,Qy cyrpo6aMlit no paC"IHuteHHblM. HaWHMH PYKSMH W .... pOK\I1M ,qopmKKaM, noxa B KOHLte Y<.fe6Horo AHfI He OKS3blBam4Cb B CTonOBOIi'l.

3TO YA"BHTenbHO xopouio 06ycrpoBHHoe MeCTO - 3a6OTa ,Qo6pbfX >KeHClOO< PYK - pacnonarano K 6ece,qaM «no AYW8M», yeu Mbt ill nonb30Bal1~b, a8ClII)t(lIIsaMCb Ha yac-APyrolit B ylOTHbIX CTeHaX Hawaro crons np1<1HTHoro «06t.Uenma».

B cnopax YLi8cmoaanlo4 rpal(TM<.feCK&o1 see MOH xonnerH no KypCy \11 ,qa)l(e uixone. OHH YCltOaHO pa3,qenHnHCb Ha TpIl1 HepaBHble «napn1H»: re, KTO \I1cnOaeAoB8Il sepy B KOCMIIt'ieCKIltX npuuiensues (Y>I< T8K XOTenOCb, <.fToGbl 3TO fiblnO npasnoat), - Hac 6bUlO MeHbwe acero: 'rex, KTO KaTeroplilyeCKIil orpauan TaKYIO B03MO)t(HOCTb, - \I1X 6blno 6onbWHHCTBO, H fiblfla He6onbwas:. rpynna, B aaA81.jY KOTOpO~ sxonano: CBO\l1Mlo1 CKen1l1<.fecKlltM nOAHa'"lK8MIIt 8 anpec TO~ lit .tIPyro'1 CTOPOHbl npOBOIl~POB8Tb crpacra. P8BHOAYWHblX He 6bU10 ...

17

• • •

CnOpbl - cnopSMIo4. 8 MHTepec K npo6neMe M npo'iMM aar8,t1K8M «MMpOBoro ypOBHR» Y MeHR T8K M He nponan. OH npowen ... epea AeCRTWleTMR, M K BOCb~eCRTbIM roAaM npoumoro CTDneTMR Y MeHA c;OCTOAAOCb 06wMpHoe AOCbe: .... HetRonbKO ToncTeHHb~ n;t,MOB no T~KOMY Co6bm41O M no APYrMM Hffil - HeOe'bRCHMMbIM HaneHMRM nplAp0,Qbl. cpeAK KOTOPbIX - ATnaHntAB. 6epMYACKlA~ TpeyronbHIAK IA. KOHeYHO, Hno. ..

rAe-TO S nepBOH nOnOBIAHe BOCbMMAeCRTbm rOADS ace M8Teplllanbi «no TeMe), co6paHHble MHO~!lt3 OTKPblTbl}( IACTO'-lHIAKOB, oxaaanace B O,tlHOM MeeTe nepenneTeHHblMIII B He6onbWYlO KHIII)I(liJ~y. TaM cocpe,QOTO"MIlMCb cse,QeHIiIfI 0 copoxa ranoreaax 1113 nOliTlA COTHM, npOB03- rnaweHHblX K TO My apeMeHIA, Bee :310 6oraTCTSO lIIMeHOsenocs «TYHryccKafi «eracrporpa». lifm" B pa60YlIIx aam.CRX - npOCTO «TK».

IIlHTepecHo? ,Qa. 3aHIIIMaTet1bHO? ,[la. Ho noxa non Cl4creMY ,QOKa38TeJlbCTB HliJ O,QHa 1113 runcrea He nonnaaana - 3TO TalOKe 6blf1 HeOcnOpL4MblH cjJaKT! Ho «Co6blTlIIe» npo-iao nepxano ~enKOLi! PYKOJir nplIIBep)I(eHHOCTlII K BonHYtOlJ.4eLi1 TaIilHe •..

"IEPE3 55 nET

npf;1IE TYHrVCCKoro C06bITMR-

.. Tyneyccxoe meso 6wo «'U!pfwii iJbIpou», mo ecms xonnancupoeamueii xoeiia-mo do pa3MepOB nsaunta: 36e300u, 06J1aoDrQU4eu eueanmcxoii

MDCCOU. Dna RT«J6W npolllUito 3I!MHOii lIIap HDCK603b •••

A. jJJKeKCOH, D. PeuN. tP/I.3UJUI, Hncmumym meopuu omnocumessnocmu.

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WTA&-KBAPTMPA PA3BEAKM - llIMnOK HA nABEnELlKol7I.

AHBAPb-IDEBPAnb 1983 rOAA

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801itTI-1 B Hero MO)l<.HO fiblllO sepes uecxonexo nOAbe3AOB, HO «MOIit» nOAbe3A pacnonarancs Ha yrny LII 6blfl mlTblM. OH BblXOALiln Ha ynOYKY, coeALIIHRBWYIO ymll.~bl KI-1pOBa LII A3ep)l<.VlHCKoro. a nanee - BHM3. nepexo,QH B Ky3He~Kl!liit MOCT.

19

C aTMM MeCTOM - KY3HeUKMM MOCTOM - 6bU10 CBA- 3aHO OJ1HO co6bJTMe. KOTopo8 Cepbe3HO npo,QBMHyno Moe n~8BneHMe 0 CTeneHM 38rBAP~HOCTM TYHrycCKO~ KBT8C~.

Ky3He~M" MOCT - sro cers HYlKHbIX '4SJlOBeKY MeeT.

V1 cpe,QM' HMX: KH"")KHbIe MBr83M'HbJ. BblCTaBO"tHbIA aan CotOa8 XY,QO)l(HIilKOB (3TO Am:! ,qyum) M 06u..cemfT. B 06e,qeHHbIIi1 nepepblB Mbl. COTPYAHMKlII CBHYWmertbHOrO 3AaHM~». CTapanMCb npO~TMCb no npKner8KKUMM ynlllUBM, M:IDeraR C8MOft nnO~M - ee wyM lit repb OT MHOlKeCTBB BBTOM8WIIIH Hac «omyrlllBBn •.

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3,Qecb HB HBWlIIX rnassx roroeanacs BKYcHIOI..I.IlIIe nLllpmKKlII C MRCOM. xanycroa, BSTPYWKliI, Ko¢e LIl. rnasaoe. 6ynboH. B OOuteM, HS 50-60 xoneex O¢!liIllep psaseAKLtI Mor cnaSHO LIl BKYCHO nepeKycliITb a8 AeCRTb-nRTHBAI..ISTb MHHYT. a OCT8BweeCR BpeMR nposecru B KHLtI)I(HblX M8ra 3L1l HSX.

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TPH APyr""x MaraSMHa KHltfr pacnonersnacs Ha ca-

20

MOM Ky3He~oM Mocry: H8 yrny ynHltb' >KASHOB8 - 3TO MHO}f{BCTBO KHHr no .nAA8rQfW<B. Y"ie6HMK&.1. CnelVlHTepa-rypa no' paaHblM npcxpeCCWlM .•. E~ OAlM! Mar83MH. ro-iaee KHl!1)1(HaR naSKa, - 6YKIIIHHCTH'ieCKHH, HO C HaWHMIII AOXOAaMlIt-- TaM HaM AenaTb 6bUlO He'ierO, paase '119, ~pf.l~;ri-1R KaKo't7-~p~Ab .CTapHHHbIA pap~T,eT. ~.'

rn8sHbilit IIIHTepec 6bIn B HeDonbwoM. ylOTHOM Mara- 3HH'iIllK8 nOAOHCHO~ nlilTepSTYpbl C PO~'iH~ npo~a)l(ew. C HI!1M-TO lit 6bl110 CBRaaHO Moe HOBoe yrny6neHHe «B T8MY» lit ,Q8>K8 uiape - B TeMy «npHwenb~eB.».

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- CnywaVt. CTapl!1K, - HeCKOIlbKO .Bo36Y>K,QeHHO 06- panmcR OH KO MHe, -TBoeMY nonKY. HaBR3'-lIllBoli\ "'Aee no TYHryCCKOMY MeTeopvrry, npIIIDblllo ... 6ent B M81leHbKllliit KHI!1)1(Hbl~ lit fjepl!1 ToncTeHHYIO KHl!1ry ••• Toponacs, «npliIWenbLtbl» "'AYT Hapacxa8T ...

~ HeCKonbKO oD8I1,Qeno CMOTpeJl H8 APyr8, KOTOPbl1it B pa3BeJ\wKone B sonpoce «no TeMe» 6bUl KO MHe B RpOcraoa onn03H~IIIH. Ho HY>KHO 6btno AelitcTBOB8Tb, M, cnpocas Konnery Q H83B8HHVl, ecne,q ce6e yc.nblwan:

-~TO-TO BPOA8 - «npHwen~11II3 KOCMOca»! ~epe3 ,QBCRTOK MHHyr A sneren B a8aeTHbiM Mara- 3HH'iIilK III cpaay 6POClllnCR K IOHOIit npO,QaB~~e.

- .Qo6pbllit AeHb, rne Y sec «nPMW811bUbJ H3 KOCMDcas? - 3BnbIXaBW~Cb CnpOCIMlR, He HaAeRCb ycneTb npll106pecTH KHMry.

- B03bMeTe OAHY? nOA H83BBHHeM «rOCTIo4 1113 KocMoca»? - MpOHM"'IeCKM cnpOCMlTO IOHOB C03AaHIo1e. - 111 "'ITO aTO see Ha6poCMflHCb Ha 3TY «TDIlCTYIO cpSHTB- 31111O»? Y Hac 3TO He nepBaR ~HTaCTHK8 ...

21

AH8TOI1~ MaKCMMOB

111 BOT B MOIIIX pYKaX KHHr8 8 WeCTbCOT CTp8HH~, 6ea HB3BatU4R H8 -cepoLII 06nO*1(8 (TOJlbKO KaKot\-TO pMCYHOK CKa~aHaPa!), HO C Tl1l)InOM H8 Toptle: «A. K8a8HLteB. rOCTH H3 KOCMoca».

BHAR MO~ paAOCTHbM B""A, IOH8R npOA8Bl1.l.""",,8 nonp0GWl8 nORCHiIITb, '-ITO 3TO TaK- BOJ1MyeT MBHR Kat( oenaA8TBnR KHJ,II1l.1.

- 8 aroa KHlltre, nO-BHAHMOMY, nonbITK8 oraerwrs Ha SOMPOC: OAHHOKVI nlil Mbl BO BceneHHoliI? - ynbl6HyncR R A8sywKe loll nowyntn: - nOAapHTe KHHry )l(eH"'xy, ill OH 6YAeT HOCIiITb sac Ha PYK8X!

Bbloeras:! 1013 Mara3Ii1Hl.iVlKB, sonen R ycnblwan: - A Y MeHfl eiue HeT >KeHHX8 ...

Y)I(e Ha xop,y XOTen npocvorpers COnllt,QHbll7l TOM, HO nanan CHe>KOK, H MHe crane >Kanb nOpTHTb CTpaHli1l.fKIiI l4eHHOrO npillo6peTeHHR

B Ka6wHeTe Gerno npOCMOTpen CO,Qep>K8HHe (;'f nOHHJl. 'iTO KaK pas aTO R XOTen aanonYl.fl1tTb B Kon",nK'I MOIIIX VlHrepeoos 0 Hepa3r8A8HHblX TBWiax 1.l1.1E1WILl'3~. 111 He o~Ha CTpaHHl4a, K8K R nOHRn, 6blfla·nOCBR~Ha «A811Y 0 TK».

H noeeTVln Ks6iIIHeT Moero APyra M e 6narOAapHOCTblO nan eMY nonepxars Moe npHa6peTeHlII8 B pyKBX.

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- naAHO, CTapiIIK, FI nOHM, '-ITO, noxa Tbl ee He 384Lotrseurs AO ,QblP, HLotKTO ee He nony"lVlT?! - BOCKJlIIIKHyn MOIi! «finaroA8Tenb».

A (CCTapLotKoM» MeHR npo3Bam, ""a-3a OAHoro COOblTIIIR i113 Moe'" nH4HOIII oneperasaoa npaKTIIIK\4. CnyLtLotnOCb, '"ITO npillUJeJ1 aanpoc Ha OAHOro IIIHOCTpaH48. nonaauiero B none 3peHHR MOLotX Konner 38 py6e)J(OM. Flposepxa era

22

no 'f'"teT8M nOK8381lS. 'iTO OH B 30-e rD,QbJ 6bI11 CBA38H C «,QB.nOM CraPMKS». BOT .... XOAMfl It C 3TIltM cCraplIIKOMlt, paccnpawlllBaA acex; KTO 6bI 3TO MOr 6bfTb, BMeCTO TOrO "iT06b1 CnyCTMTbCf:! B apxaa III BCB npoBepHTb. A MHe OT,se"tanlll: CTapMK - aTO ncesAOHHM neHMHa. APyrlllB - 3TO Tal( HB3~anlll "teKIIICT8 6eP3MHA, a TpeTbH - T6K rtOAfJlIICblBan CTBTbM T pO&.4KHA. ,QeIitCTB,,",eIlbHO, «A8f1O» OK83anoes CBfl38HHblM C T P0&.4KHM. Lr1 HeKOTOpOe speMfi MeHR npMBBTCTBOB8J1H S03rnBCOM, HSW8fl nlll R «CrapIIIKS»! T 13K III Clan R OTK11MKBTbCR HB np03BH~e «CTapIIIK».

Lr1"lepe3 COPOK ner A OTKnMKBlOCb H8 3TO 06pal1.l8HMB MOMX CTSPblX Kanner!

Y)I(e AOMB MHe crane RCHblM, "fT0 q,8HT8C'TMKB - q,BHTaCTMKOIit. S OT QlaKTOB HIIIKYAB He AeHeWbCfI: B cepeAHHB KHllln~ 6b1flB 6onbl.1.l8s:l BKn8AK8 C HnIllOCTp84MRMill - «cneAbI npHwe.nb&.4eS 1113 APyntX Mlotpoe»' Tyr lot cne.q or «60TlolJHKB 3Se3,QHOrO KOCMOHaBTa». sepena 1110- Aeli't III BblMepWIotX )l{I>1BOTHbIX C ~nyJ1eBblMM OTBepCntRMH». 3BrBAO"fHble rMraHTCKHe 3HBKH B nycTblHe HB IOJKHOBMepHKBHCKOM KOHTHHeHTe. HSCKBnbHble pocnHCIII 8 nyCTbfHe Caxapa H8 TeMY IkOCMOH8BToa» - see 3TO 1>13 rny60Ke»'f\ .QpeBHOCTM.

111. H8KOHe~ no MoeR fl106IIIMOA TaMe - q,OTorpaq,MH c HBAnMCflMH: «MepTBbI~ nee B 3nlot~HTPe TytiryCCKorO B3pbtBa». «nOsaneHHBA B3PblBOM TyHryccKaR TaaJIra». «Cpe3 nHCTBSHHIot~bI. «OMOnOAJIIBWeAcR» nocne TyHrycCKorO B3pblB8IL

CraTbA e )KypHane ««:MeHal, nOPQ,QIIIBwaR CTOflbKO cnopoa B paaB8AwKone, fibUlB Taro )l(S SBTOpa - AneKcaHApa KaaaHLlesa. 06 310M aaMe"faTenbHOM 'iBnoaeKe - MH)KSHepe, Y"f8HOM, nMCaren8-cpBHTBCTe - CTOIIIT CKB38Tb HeCKOIlbKO enos.

AneKCSHAP neTpoSM"i KS38H&.4eB PO,QH11Cff B HSlfane BUB. B 1906 roAY. B CpeAH~ A3IotM, WtCony 38JC:OH'fMll 8

23

AHaTonHiiI MaKCMMOB

OMCKe, T8xHonorW .. teCKMIi'I ~HC1l1l"fT - B T OMCKe .. C 1930 rQAa pa6aran maeHbIM 14tUteHepOM 38BOA8 HS Ypene, 38TeM - a pa3J1M"4HbIX H&t1YJ B MOCKBe.

~Rn y~acTMe B 060PYAQB8HM~ COSeTCKOrO n~ BHnbOHa HS HblO-l11oPKCkolil Me>KAYHSPOAHOIiI BblCT8BKe

[1939)" , :;.t-

So Bpe~ BenMKoH OTe~eCT8eHHOIiI BoliI~ Dbm B apMl4~, PYKOBOAWI C03AaHHeM' KpynHoro HII1I11 060POHHaro 3Hal.feHM~ .. HarpaJKAeH 60eBbIM oPAeHoM KpacHoH 3se3Abi.

BnepBble KBK nMCBTenb BblCrynlMl np!.1 nonroruaxe C~eHapMR Ha KOHKYpC HayI.fHo-nonyf1ApHblX Q>HnbMoB (1936), H8 OCHOBe xoroporo Han~can H M3ABn KHHry «nblI18lO~HIiI ocrpoas (1941) ..

Ilocne 80HHbl Kaaaauee U€nKKOM nOCB~u!.tBeT ce6R nl4TeparypHoMY rsopxecrey .. Era eropan KHHra «ApKT~"'I9CKHIiI MOCT» (1946) 5b1fl8 H8"4aTa euie AO B014Hbl ..

MHOro nyreurecrsoean, B I.fBCTHOCTIoo1. B ApKTIi\Ke - B pe3ynbTBTe oepas paccxaaoa (1950--1958) .. OH )l(ypHanHCT,Ol.fepKHCT, 6enneTpHcT, C~HapIi\CT.

B CBOIi\X HaYl.fHo-~aHrBcrHI.fecKli\x npOli\3BeAeHIi\RX nIi\CBrenb-II\H)f(eHep-Y'-IeHblli1 BblABII\Hyn PRA nmore3 0 noceU4eHHM 3eMllM «6paTbAMIi\ no paaYMY». Ero apryMeHTbI no TYHryCCKOIiI KBTacrpa¢Je 6YAopa)KaT YMbl COTHIi\ Y'-IeHbIX. M ma6IATenelft .....

TaK ~TO)Ke 3B KHMrB nenana B MOIi\ pyKli\?

no,Q 06lJ.1MM Ha3BaH~M «rOCTM 11\3 KOCMOCB» npeacraeneHbI ABa C60PH"'KB - «06bl'-lHbltit peac» (nonRpHble HOBennbl) 11\ «lOCTb ~3 KOCMOCa» (HaY'iHO-Q>BHTacrwieCKVle paCCKB3bJ VI nOBeCUt).

CTpaCTHbl~ nponaraanacr KCCMM'-IeCKOIii TeMbi B }KH3HM 3eMnRH, Ka3aH~eB 8 nepsoa "faCTH KHHfM, B HOBenne «HOBorOAH~1iI rocrs, B03ABeT ,Q8Hb Me"lT8M 0 \4e-

24

HLt1KOnA TEenA Lt1 3Ar A[jKA TYHrYCCKDrO METEOPWT A

1l0Beke 6YAYUlero. KOTOPblM nocne kOCMOH8BTOS r erapMHB. THTOBB. tiw<'ooaeB8. ~ uierser ,Q8J1bUJe «B "fepHytO 6ecnpe.qenbHOCTb KOCMOCa». OH paccY>KA8eT 0 rOpmKaHaX (COTpeT~Sl q,HaM"'I8CKaA rpattb Me>KAY ropo,QOM M ,QepesHeMl. 0 60raTbIpe 3HSHIItM ...

Era 3a)I(MFaTBnbHaA YBJle4eHHOCTb «TeMOM» MMnOM~ POBMS MHe, M60 BepMlltlCb - TaK K 6YAeT: «eTymH He HeseAOMYIO nnaHeTY 4Y>KOrO ase3,QH[)f"'O M"'pa rOCTb "'3 KOCMoca - YenoaeK 3eMnH!»

)f(8J1en A ronexo 06 OAHOM. HesocnOnHIr1MOM. Mbl. 6onbW8S1 rpynna 1013 MOCKBbi Ir1 nO.QMOCKOSbR. exana noCTYnaTb s soeHHO-MopCKoe YI.JHnlr1U.le BMeCTe C CblHOM caMoro ... Anexcaunpa Kaaasueea - Onerov, s:I noc-rynan H8 apn1flnepIr1MCKlt1~ 41aKYflbTeT. a OH - H8 paxerHblLII. Mbl 3HanM APyr APyra, HO OH HM pasy He «nporosopHnCR», 'iTO necarens-diasracr - 3TO ero OTeIl! KOHe"lHO, >Kanb ...

* • *

Haxoro He YAHsnAer. B neSRrHaAL48TOM VI AS8ALl8TOM BeK8X )f(tonb BepH. 3TOT KyMlr1p pe6RT Moero AeTCTB8, .npencxeaan MHOro H3 roro, 'iTO n03AHee npc-u-o BOwnO s peanbHYIO )l(H3Hb. n03TOMY Moe o6pauteHVle K Ka38HLtesy c ero 8H,QeHlr1eM rHnore3bl-npo6neMbl no TYHryc-

CKO~ «arecrpodie snonHe onpaS,QaHHO. .

Lt1T8K, cfJespanb 1963 rona. B 3V1MHtOlO c-ry>Ky s npoXI18AHOM nonynoAsane IOTRTCA TpM cyuiecraa - nO"4TH TpeXI1eTHRR AO'ib. )l(eH8 ocpHlIepa H caM CcrrpYAHVlK roc- 6eaonacHocrn. 3TO - ~noK C ,QOMaMVI eL1.4e npownoro sexa aaCTpO~Kt1. Ho, CHHM8R 3ty «Ksapnlpy» C BOAoH, OTonneHHeM VI TennblM -ryaneToM, HO 6e3 .r.IYW8. A CTOIO 8 CBoeM cepbe3HOM BeAOMCTse Oyepe,QHHKOM Ha coecrB8HHOe >KHnbe OK0I10 rOA8.

Or roro, KaK 6bICTPO nony'iy R KOMHary, 38BMClIIT McWI

25.

Bble3A Ha paoory 38 py6e>K. nplr1"teM C ceMbeR. TSKOBbl npSSWl8. yraep>KAeHHblB Ha CSMOM sepxy HaWero napnMtiorO"1I1 npaBMTenbCTBeHHoro PYKOBOACTBa. Xopounse npaBMna - lit KOMHSTy Mbl narty"twtlll.

B ps3SeAWKone R 1.43y\ian AHrnHlO B Ka"fBCTee Moaro npe,nnonaraeMOro MeCTS pa60Tbf no nll1H1rG1 pa3SeAK1-1. npllt,qR B pS3seAYOpaBJ1eHlI1e roc6e3onacHocrn. cran roT08&ifTbCR K Bble3AY B 1I13paWlb. Ho AVlnnOMaTWf8CKlr1e OTHOweHIr1R C 3T(W1 CTpaHOH npepeanYlCb. H R BbleXan 8 ... SlnOHlitlO. Cny"tll1l10Cb 3TO B MapTe.

AnoKa 3HMHHMIr1 Be"tepaMH H B eocxpecease, rorna euie cy660Ta 6b111a paflO"lHM AHeM. MHe )(OPOWO pa60- renccs c «6H6nHe~ 0 npMWenbL4ax». TaK OKpeCTHn R MOIO Hoeyto «HaxOAKY». S1 ~HTan MBAOeHHO. BbBAIlI.4BO paa6wpaR H CMaKYR CKPOMHbfe no.qpo6HOClM - nonyAOxeaarenecrea "'"1It nOllYHaMSKM 0 S03MO>KHblX «npll1- wenbuax». 3TO 6btnlr1 )IOfIBmenbHblB rnoTKIo1 «CB8JK~ aoAMLlbl» no ~HTepecylO14eMy M8HR npeAMeTy. 3a ct>aHepHO£lI neperoponxoa cnsr caMble Onltt3Klr1e MHe CYL1.IeCTBa. 38 OKHOM KpY>KaTCA KpynHble CHB>K14HKM lit MenbKBIOT ... HorM npOXO>KMX - TO MY)I(CKHe. TO >KeHCKMe. Bce-TaKM )l(I4BeM noxa B nonynO,Q88l1e.

KaaBH,-,ea Bblopan 1It3YMII1TBJlbHblR CIO)I(eTH~ XOA= nacarens, y .... eHble lit CneLtlot8llMCTbi B COCTase 3KcnBAJ.1- '-'J.11r1 «nY1"eweCTBYIOT» no ApKTIr1Ke Ha xopasne «reopnU1 CeAos». KaIOT-KOMnaHIr1A - 3TO 6eceAbl. paccseaa. BOCnOMJ.1HaHIIIR, AIIICKYCCIr1Ir1._ 8peMR OT epBMeHIlt npMCyrcT8ylO~e nepeHOcRTCSI t.13 peensaoro Mlr1pa 38 npeAenbl Hawe" nnaHen~'.

Ha 6apry «Ce~OBB» B COCTaBe B~COKOWt.1pOTHOH 3KCn~J.1'41r1'" - reorpadi, nane0HT0J10r. 60T8HJ.1K. aGTpOHOM, Lt6flblO KOTOPblX RBIJReTCR YCT8HOBneHJ.1e «cyuteCTayeT nJ.1 >KH3Hb HS Mapce?~ (8CTpOWOMI4~KaR sxcne-

26

HViKonA TEenA III 3M AJlKA TYHrvCCKoro METEOPtIITA

A""Lt~fI cpaBH~BaeT ycnoB~A )KM3H~ HB 3eMne B nonspHblX WMp(jTax C MSpCMaHCKIltMi4). .

ACTPOHOM KHl'8POOeH yw.e TaM, 'fT0 p8AWlCR'B" saeHK~~CKOM YYMe 8 rOA. Kor,qs D Take ynan TYHrycCKVI~ MeTeop~T. PaCCK~3 00 3TOM co6b1~~ OH MHOroKp8THo

.CJlII4WaD--C .,q&'iCTB8Jl ;,,:., . 3,' ; ]l;:

BOT 4TO OH nOBeA8f1 ~aCTHL4KaM 6eceA B K8IOT-KOMnaHM~ «CeAoaa».

3ro PbtnO He06blKHoseHHoe RBneHMe ... TblCRYM 04e- 8~ALteB HaOIlIOAaIlVl, KBK HBA TaAro"'-&03HVlk orHeHHbIIit WBP. no RPKOCTl1 aaTMVlBWVI" COJ1HLtB. OrHeHHbI" CTOno ynepcR B oe306na~Hoe HeOo. Pa3A8I1CR HVI c '"IeM He cpaBHIIIMb11.1 no cane YAap ...

3rOT YAaP npOKSTlo1nCR no sce'" 3eMIle ~ Ot;.t11 cnuuie» aa Tt:>ICR'iy KMOMerpOS OT MeCTa KaTaCTpocpbl: 38- peracrpepoeaae OCTaHOBKB noesna I5nL43 KaHCKa, '"ITO B BOCbMVlCTax KWlOMeTpax OT MeGTa. C06bITIllR. MaWWHKCT)' noxaeanocs, ... TO Y Hero B noeaae "'TO-TO 830peBnoes. He6blaanbl~ yparaH. npOJ<aTVlnCR no 3eMne. He paCCTORHL4Lof ... eTblpexcoT KVlIlOMeTpos or MecTa 'B3pblsa Y AOMOS caocuno KPbIWLof. aanano aa60pbl. E'Llte AaIlbwe - B ,£lOMaX aaeaena nocY,Qa, ocreaaanaeanacs '-IaCbl. KaK npL4 3eMneTpRceH~~ ...

Ton40K 6hlI1 aacplo1KCVlpOBaH MHorVlMIil CeI.1CMIII4eCKIIIMill CT8HLtVlRML4: TaWKeHTcKol1l, e IIJeHe. aa OKeaH8ML4, a 1I1pKyrcKaR ceAcMoc'raHLtIilA nepsaa col5pana nOKa3aHIIIR 04eBIIIALteB ...

. ECTecTseHHo. y COOpaSWVlXOA B KalOT-KOMflaHVIVI B03HVlK sonpoc: 3TO Dbln TOn"lOK OT yp,apa MeTeoplo1Ta 0 aeMllIO? 410 Mor CK83BTb ACTPOHOM rTO 3TOMy noeOAY - aeransa fibtna VI ocrsaenacs eio Ltepea MHoroo ~eCS:!TIIIneTIIIR, OAH8KO caos MHeHMe OH BbICKB3an:

- Boa,QYWHaR BonH8. BbI3BaHHBs:! K8TacrpOqJm1, ABa pasa o6owna aeMHolii wap. OHa 6blna OTMeLteHB fiapo-

27

BblB8I1 neca B pa"OHe TyHryCCKoro B3pbIB8.

rpacpSM14 B nOHAOHe, HblO-VtopKe VI APyrVlx MeCTax. CrpaHHble 51B1leHIltSi HallnJOAanlltCb ao BceM Ml4pe a TeL.teHIItEl "ieTblpex CyTOK nocne co6b1Tl1151 a raare. 8 3anBAHO'" CVl611tpllt lit no scea EBpone HO'iblO Dbl110 ceerno, cnOBHO B neHWirpBACKllte 68I1b18, HOI.fM ...

ACTpOHOM nosenan co6paBwMMcSl ° ABflbHelf\weM pa3B~1It c06blTMIf\ - 0 nocne.QCTBVlRX KBTBCTPO'flbl:

- 3a weCTbAeCflT KWlOM8Tpoa, B ¢laKTOplltlit BaHaSBpa, nJOAII1 TSpMVI C03HBH148, 4YBCTBOBBI10Cb, "iTO Ha HViX aaropaerca OAe>K,Qa. B03AYWHOIIJ BOnHOIIJ oneHBIIJ nOA-

28

6pacwaano B B03,QyX ••. B MOIIQAOCTl4 R caM Y't8C'fBOBBIl B noMGKax Mf1feOPMTS: BC8 A8P88bA B p&AMyCe ·TpM,ql.iSTM KMnOMeTpOB 8b1pS8t1bt C KUpI .... 8 • .pBAMyCe UJeCtMAeCRl14 KWlOMeTPOB OHM nosaneHbl H8 8CeX B03BblWetlHoCTRX.

too- PaeoK83-Acip.~;~ TaM,' ~ ~ If3 3Tl4X MeCT K CMOI" yorH..U&HHOe B A8TCTBe M MlHOC1'M coflOCT8BMTh CO CBOMMM HaY"IHbtMM B3rnA,QaMM, nony'feHHbIM~ no~ B MocKOSCKOM ytfMBepCMTeTB •

... He6btBanoe OnycToweHMe npoM3B8I1 yparaH. :3eeHK~ 6POCMnMCb B nosaneHHYIO TaRry MCKBTb C80MX oneH8~. na6a3bl C MMYU4BCTBOM. Ho HaXO,QWU1 TDnbKO o6yrneHHble TYWM.

ACTPOHOM nOB8.Q8I1 0 caoeM orue:

-fope nocerano TorA8 M 'iYM Moero AeAB. MO&i1 oreu, xo,qHawM&i1 B nOBaneHHYIO Taf1ry. BHAeJl T~M orpouHblH CTon6 BOAb'. 6HBWH&i1 .,3 38M1lM~ Oreu yMep sepea aecxonsxo AHaH B CTpaWHbDC. MY"IeHHs:!X, cnOBHO era oeoxrno ... Ho H8 KO.lKe y Hero He ObllJO HHK8KWC oxoroe.

V1cnyranMcb CTaJ»'\KM. OHlJI aanperana 38BHK8M xoAlJITb B nOBaneHHYIO TBlilry. H838an~ ee npOI(nHTbtM MeCTOM. K ,IlellY nO.QK11IO"iIMWICb W8MBHbl: TaM Ha 3eMnlO cnYCKaeTCSl oor orus ~ rpova - DrAbl. OH, AeCKBTb. 101 )l()KeT HeSVlAVlMblM orHeM acex, KTO TYAa nonaaaer.

o xaracrporpe ACTPOHOM-3eeHK oKa3811CR BeCbM8 OCBe,qOMneHHbIM, III He ronsxo no cnyxaM:

- B KOHl.Ie 20-x roAOB 8 ~8KTOplit!O Baaaaapa noaexan PYCCKIitH Y4eHbl9! neOHIitA AneKceeStA4 KyntAK. OH XOTen HsliITlil MeTeopHT. 3eeHKH OTK83anHCb conpOBQ)KA8Tb era. Torna OH Hawen Aayx OXOTH\ltKOB c AHrapbl. a R nptACaSAlIIHHnCR K HIilM. nO'ieMy? 6bln MonOA. xopouro SHan PYCCKIllIiI s:!3bIK, Koe-~eMY HaY~WlCfI &013 OXOTHHl.fbera 6brra B rpSKTOpIIIIII III ... H~l.1ero HB CBeTe tie 6OMCfI.

SMeCTe c KYflHKOM Mbl npouma xepes n,raHTCKIllIiI

29

~ M 06Hep.~. ~'K9PHM soex 6e~~~ HblX:~8r~ C1)$OI'I08 ~-'.qANO MtlQl'A.~"!':"' B ~HTp KSTaCTp~~. Kor..qa }Ke Mbl yl!l~BClM 3r1Ml.t9HrJ), TO 6bU'lH nOpa)f(8HbI: TaM. r:"Ae pa3pyWe~R OT ynae~eto MeTeOpHTa AOfl)KHbJ 6bl1lH ObITb HaH6onbWMMM~oM. .. Ha KopHK)~"( '~ ,~-;,,~, --~-~-_w ,. J)! ....

- 31'0 6b1f1o Heo6bRCHHMO He :roflbKO AnR MaHR, HO Ai'iUk6 AIlR PYCC xoro Y'ieHoro. - f"OBOp\IIn AcTPOHOM, - R altfA8JT aTO no ero mu.(y... Ilec CTORn Ha KDpHIO. HO aTO 6bIIl MepTBblVi nec - OOa cy%eB. OH noxoAWl H8 BpblTble B 38Mt11O CTonObi.

nocpe,QMHe neea BVI,QHenaCb BOAa - oaepo-eonoro.

KynMK npeanonoxan, '-ITO aTO BOpoHK8 OT ynaewer-o Mereopara.

6YAY~"'H aCTpOHOM npOHHKCSJ AYWcM K PYCCKOMY Y'ieHOMY. BHIltMaR era nORCHeHIltRM:

- npOCTOAYWHblH, OOutViTenbHbl~. OH 06bRCHs:!n HaM, OXOTHHKaM, cnOBHO Mbl Oblflllt era Y"'IeHblMIil nOMOutHIIIKaMilt. '-ITO rAe-TO B AMeplltKe. B nYCTblHe Ap1ll30Ha. ecrs orpOMHblVi xparep - TbICR ... a ,QBeCTIit M8Tpoe a ,QlltaMeTpe, CTO BoceMbAeCRT MeTp08 r"y6V1Ho~. Kparep oopasoBanCR TblCR41A ner HaS8,Q OT na,QeHII'IR rara-rrceoro H8- 6eCHoro rene, MeTeoplIITa. KynlAK saMeTr.t", "ITO TaM ISbill . T8KOH )f(e MeTeopr.tT, KSK B H8UJeH raare ... 111 ero, «Haw» MeTeopm. HenpeMeHHO H8J:IO H8~Tllt.

- TorAS-TO 51 11'1 asropenca >KenaHliteM nOMO% npocPeecopy. - C ropR'iHOCTbIQ CKaaaI1 AcrPOHOM.

Ha cne,QYIOLlIVlH rCA KynVlK eepnyncs 8 Ta~ry C 6onbwolil SKcne,QHI...IHeLii. OH HaHRn pa6041Ax. IA 51 nepBblM OK8- aanca cpeAIit HlIIX. Mbl lIICl(anlit OCKOflKH MeTeOplllT8. HO HHK8KIIIX cne,QOB He TonbKO MeTeOp1l'lT8. 8 caMolii OCTaBneHHoliI HM BOPOHKH He HaUJflH. ,QeCRTb ner exeroaao aoaapauiencs KYnlltK B Talilry. A6CHTb ner 6YAYutHlii ac-

30

t-MKOIlA TECIlA VI 3ArA,QKA TYHrvCCKoro METEC::A4T A

em-m flIllCTBeHHIo1I.U>I. nepe)l(IIIBUle~ KaraCTp0¢lY, . c rO.QW-IHblMIll cnORIIA..,.

TPOHOM conpOSO)K,Q8J1 yyeHOrO B ern 6ecnno,qHbfX nOHCxax MeTeopHT ~ct.te3.

KYfTLi'K npennonaran, '"ITO OH npoaanenca B DonOTO, a DonoTO sarsuvno BOpOHKy. npOBOAIi1JlOCb DypeH~e no ... - Bbl, ~ Kyn~K HaTKHynCs:l H8 HenOBpe)KAeHHbltll CJlOVI Be'"lHOY! MepanOTbl TOnLLlLilHOYI ,Q88A~aTb nmb MerpOB. nocne 6ypeHLilfi no CKBa>KIi1He nO,QHRnaCb BOAa. Ecnllt 6b1 MeTeopHT npoean 111 pacnnasan STOT C1100 Mep3J10TbI. cnOYI He Mor fibl BOCCT8HOBVlTbCR - aeMflR 8 3T1r1X M6cTax 3111MOYI AO 111 nocne «Co6bIlllJA» He npossepaana rny6>Ke yeM Ha nea Merpa.

nocne eroporo rona paOOTbf 3KCne.qHllMIi1 6YAYUlMIo1 acrpouou yexan a MOCKay BMeCTe c Kym1KoM 111 cran YlimbCA B yHMBepCMT9Te. Ho K8>K,QOe nero OH BMeCTe C Y"feHbiM B03apB~anCSl B pOAHble MeeT8 HB nOMOK'" MB-

31

AHsTonllllil MaKCHMOB

TeoPMTa. PaOOTbI npOADnlK8IMCb, HO CtyA8HTa-3BeHK8 H8't8I1M O,qonesaTb COMH8HMR. 0 KOTOpbIX OH C KynMKOM He ,QBJ'M11CR.

- fl SHan, C KSKOA CTPSCTHO" YBepeHHOCTbIO l4CKan neOHIA,Q AneKceeBWi CB091 MBTeOplAT, ,QS)Ke CTIAXH MeTe0p&4TY nOOBRlLIan ... KBK Mor 51 CK8a8Tb, aMY, g pa£..'IYrll.leM ao MHe y6e}l(AeHlAVI, 'iTO MeTeopMT8 HVlKor.QS He 6bUlO?

A~CTB"'TenbHO, KaT8CTpoc:pa 5blna - cneAbl ee, noBaneHHb11it nec, pB,QVlyC pB3pyweHM~ ... Y ACTPOHOM8 B TO speMR nORBWlSCb M~lcnb: KBK MOr OCTBTbCR nee B ueHrpe KBTacTPOq,bl? YaM 8bl3b1B8eTCA B3pblB npllt ~eHVlM MeTeOpIltT8? DH 3H8n, 'iTO M8TeoPVlT 8n8TaeT B 3eMHytO aTMoc~epy C KOCMwiecKo9t CKOPOCTbfO - or TP~8nt AO WeCTHAeCHm KWlOMeTpOB B ceKYHAY.

- ,Qanee. - pacCY)K,q8J1 AC1pOHOM nepeA C06P8BWIItMMCR, - OfinBA8R 3HB'iIitTenbHo9t M8CcoA IA rnr8HTCKoA CKOPOCTblO, MeTeopHT HeceT orpoMHYIO aHepn1l0 ABII1- )l(eHHR. B MOMeHT QCTBH08KM MeTeOpMTa npllt y,Qape 0 3eMn1O BCR ara 3HepntR nepexOAHT B renno. VI 3TO BbI- 3blBaeT S3pblB 'fYAOBVlUlHm1 CI4J1bI. Ho B cny ... ae c TYHrycCKIAM «MeTeOpmOM» ecrpe'ilA C aBMfJel'l He npoM30W- - no, a BapblS 6b1fl!

3HB'iIltT, AYMan ACTpotiOM, B3pbIB npoasouien B B03- Ayxe He BblCOTe, B03MO)KHO, TpII1-ns:rrb KMnOMerpOB, lit K8K paa HB,Q 3TVlM necoM, craonsr xoroporo He 6bUllit noaaneHbr.

VI ACTPOHOM yaepeHHo nOAblrO)l(~1J1:

- BapblBHBR BonH8 plilHynacb BO ece CTOpOHbl. B TOM MeCTe, rne nepeees CTDR/WI nepneH,QHKynRpHD K ee CPPOHry, TO ecrs nOA MeCTOM B3pblB8, OHa nepeass He nosanana. BonH8 cpeaana CY%R, ace AD OAHoro - caM BVI,qen ... TaM xe, rne Y,Qap sonHbl npVlUJencR nOA yrnoM, nepeess B paA~yce 30-60 KIAflOMeTPOS OKa3an&.1Cb noBaneHHbIMII1.

32

HVlKonA. TEenA VI 3Ar A,QKA TYHrVCCKOro METEOPVlTA

B3P~IB Mor npoaaoara Tom~KO B B03Ayxe! Ho 'iTO aaopaanocs? - caM C8DR cnpocan ACTpOHOM.

PaDoTbl U&1OIlKoecKoro HaBenVi AcrpOHOMa H8 MblGnb, "ITO Morna B30pBaTb.CR paxera C aanaC8MVI TonnVlsa ilia )l(J.1,QKoro KIIIGnopO,Qa VI SOAOpOA8. Ho e KynVlKoM OH sroa MblCIlblO TaK III He nOAeIlIilIlCR. Y4eHbl'" AODPOBOIlblleM ywen Ha CPPOHT III TaM narlilD.

OAHSKO ACTPOHOM, 6YAY'iVi H8 cppoHTe, Ha6rnoASIl BapblBbl KpynHblX CHapRAoB 8 s03Ayxe VI IIIX 3¢cpeKT Ha nepeess, CTOR~L-1e K8K paa nOA 83pbIBOM. 3TO euie DOIlbwe y6e)I(,Q8l1o era B «B03AYWHO'" ranorese B3PblBS». 3H8"1V1T, ace }Ke cYU4ecTByeT aepoaraocn, B3PblS8 ronnaae H8 MB}KKOCMIII"IeCKOM KopaOIl8?! OH nblT8flCR cnycTHTbCR H8 3eMIllO, AYManocb AeTpOHOMY-¢POHTOBVlKy.

50Ilee roro, ACTPOHOM cran nOAYMblSaTb, a He Dbln nlll .:ITO nocnaseu c ... Mapea, 0 KOTOPOM ace 'iaLL4e r080- pVlIlIil KaK 0 nnaHeTe C )l(1II3HblO, B03MO)l(HO, paaYMHblx cyuiecrs.

ACTPOHOM .q008Slo1fl 3arsAoLfHoCTVI K CBOIilM .qSyM rL-1- noreaav.

- ATOMHbfe 83pbIBbi 8 flnOH1lt1il y6eAIilIlIil' MeHR, K8KOro POAS TonnlllBO DblflO Ha Me)l(nIlBH8THOM xopafine ... - KOHCT8-rnpOB8n AcrpoHoM.

II1TaK, rpu ranoreasi, BblT8K81OlLllil8 OAH8 1113 APyroLi!, - «B3PbIB B B03Ayxe», «rVl6enb KOCMlIIyecKOro KOp86nR». ({8TOMHOe rOplO"I88 H8 ero OOPTY})?! Teneps OOcY>K,Q8Hlile ({TyHryCCKOOl TeMbl» aoumo 8 pycno aTOMHoLi! npooneuaT\IIKIII. l/I K8IOT-KOMnaHIIIs;t 388011HOB8118Cb.

ECIlI11 8 TYHryCCKOLii raare B30PB8110Cb «"ITO-TO 8TOMHOe», TO 3TOMY MOryr 6blTb AOK83aTenbCTBa. CXOAHble co B3pblBaMill aTOMHblX aapRAOB, «oropue '-IellOBe'ieCTBO, K HeCyaCTblO. H8Y4V1110Cb nenars.

33

AHaTon~ MSKCIilMOB

Eiblno OTMe<teHO. "fTO nocne TYHryCCKO~ KaT8CTpOtPbI CTORJUI CBeTf1~ HO..,III, H8finlOABflocb npOHIIIKHOaeHl.1e A8~e CKBOab TVLfIil aeneaoearsu 1.1 poaoesa nYl.feH - CSe~eHlite B03I\yxS.

B MOMBHT 83pblBa KOpaOnR ace ero TonnlllBHoe eeuiecrso npeBpBTlllIIOCb B nap III yM'ianOCb aaepx, rAe OCTaTD! p~oaKT(.1SHOro Bel..l..4eCTS8 npOAOn>KMnl.1 pecnan, 38CT8B1lRfI caerarsos B03AYx. 111 rn6eI1b OTLt8, CI.f(.1TBn ACTpOHOM. C~3aHa c p8,q1.10aKTI.1BHbIM nocnencraasu. xoropoe IIIMeI10 MeCTO B re-reuae onpeneneuaoro apeMeHIII nocne 6TOMHoro B3pblBa.

ACTPOHOM8 cnpocana: nOl.feMY OH AYMaeT 0 xopstine C Mapcs? Ho 38 Hero OTBeTIiln ACTpOCPIll3I11K:

- 3TO OWIII6K8. npOTl1IBOCTOflHl.1e Mapca, TO eCTb caMoe 6nl.131(08 peccrosaae. KOAa nn8HeT8 Mapc nploi5nlll)Ka8TCl=! K 3eMne. 6blBaeT K8>KAbie nRTH8ALtaTb ner. Anfl Kopa6nfl e Mapea 3TO Oblno 6bl «YA06HO» nlllWb B 1909 rOAY. A BOT AfJR Kopa6m:1 C BeHepbl ron 1908 anonae nO.QX°AiIIT.

8KJ11O'iIilBUJIII~CfI B oOcY>KAeHl.1e rlllnOT83bl C «npaUJBnbLt8MIII» ACTpOCPlll3111K pa3BIIIn npeAnOnO)l(,eHIIIR ,qanbwe. OH 8blASlIIH)'n ¢l8HT8cTlIIl.fecKYIO aBpCtltIO: B nOlllCK8X HY.>KHOI?I nn8HeTe BOAbl MapCI.18He BHa'iBne noceTt.tnl.1 BeHepy. 3aTeM, He HaHAR T8M BOAbl (Ha 3TO~ nnaHeTe Cnl.1WKOM MHoro yrneKI.1COOTbI). OTnpBBWlMcb H8 3eMl1IO. Crspr c BeHepbI, nOflCHIiln ACTpexpIll3HK. 6bUl ASH 20 MaR 1908 ro,Qa ...

MO)l(,HO npe,QnonO)l(,IiITb. 'iTO IIIHonnaHeTRHe norl.1OnH B nyrlll or acrpesa C MeTeoplllTOM nlll60 OT KOCMH'ieCK"'X ny'ie~. VI K 3eMIle y'#..e npl.10nlll)l(,anCR HeynpaBflReMbta.'\ KOpa6nb. He YMetibwaR CKOPOClM. OH Bowell B BTMOC¢>epy 3eMnM, OT TpeHIIIR 0 B03AYX ero xopnyc paCK8I1t.1J1CR 1.1 8TOMHoe Tonl111180 oxaaanocs B ycnOBWJX, KorA8 crane

34

HIiIKOfiA TEenA'" 3ArA.QKA TYHrYCCKoro METEOP1I1TA

B03MO~Ha ~enHaft peaKl.I~R B Boa,qyxe npoaaowen aToMHbIIII B3pblB.

TO~Hble pacseru MaPwpyra BeHepa - '3eM1lR rOBopRT 0 TOM. '-ITO ~HOnnaaernae nCJn1(jm1 lIIMeHHO B TOT AeHb. KorAS Aon~Hbl 6bil1l11 AOCTlII4b 3eMIU4. - 30 IitIOHA 1908 rona,

CyuteCTBytOT KOCBeHHble AOKaa8TeflbCTB8: B 1909 ITJIW BO BpeMSI 8En1- KDfO r1pon.1BQCT{]S:IHI-1A Mapea 1II 3eMn~ MHorlile ae-

TPOHOMbI M~pa' 6bll1~ B3BonHOBaHbi CBeT8SblMVI acneauKaMI,II. Ha6.nIOAaBwVlM~cH Ha Mapce. KpoMe 'roro ..... epes nRTHaAWlTb ner. B 1924 rOAY, H8 3eMJ1e pa6OTBnlt1 pa.Q~onpliteMH"'KH. KOTOPble SOCnplitHRnIit CTpaHHble, HanpaBm=teMble C Mapea CHrHSnbl. ClllrHanbl pacwlllcflposare He YAarl0Cb B CBR31it C reM, -rro pa,QllloBonHa C Mapca Obma 300 TblCR .... MeTpOB. Ha KOTOpO~ aeMHble CTaH~1II111 He pa6or8l1V1.

ArieKCSHNI r1e-rpoo .... Ka38HLleB (1 Q06.-2CX)2l. nlolCaTeI1OIPaHT8CT, BeTepaH BemlKolll Ore'leC1'8eHHol1l BOAHbI.

B cneAYlOuteM '-Iepe3 nRTHaMaTb ner rOAY. 1939-M, HI/IKaKIIIX ClIIrHanOB C Mapca y'JKe He 6b1IlO. He roeopar nlll 3TO 0 TOM. '-ITO Mapc I,IICKan CBR3b CO CBOI/IMt.1 nyreweCTseHHlIIKaMIII 111. He YCTaHOBIilB ee B 1909 111 1924 rcaex, nepecran ee IitCKaTb. Mapc noc-urren CBOlllX MapClIIaH norVl6wlllMIit.

He npasna 11111, 3BMel.{BTenbHBs:I ntnQTe3a - K HaM npanerana t.1HOnnaHeTRHe. HO. KaK III Ha 3eMl1e, He see Cpa60T8l1o. 111 BOT - B3pbIB ...

2'

35

• • •

Hy. 8 'fTO )l(e caM SBTOp KHMrM «rOCTIII 1113 KOCMOca» - nMCBTenb-MH)I(eHep-Y4eHbllill AneKCaHAP KS38HQea?

Oticy~eH\II1O rlIInOTe3b1 0 83pblBe KOCMlIIyeCKOrO KOpa6nR npe.tjIWeCTBoaano om1CBHllle CTpBHHblX RBneHt.1Ii1, KOTOpbte MMeJ1M MBCTO He 3eMne III He nOAABBanMCb noHMMSHMIO C nOSII4LtMM ceroAHAWHerO AHA.

Pe"fb wna 0 HeB8AOMOM CJ1eAe HB neC"f8HIiIKe B nycTbIHe ro61i1 MW1111i10HOneTHelii ABBHOCTH Icnea «IiIHonnaHeTHoro CBnora» 1; 06 o6pa6oTaHHbix «no-cblPoMy» MeTSruWI'ieCKIIIM MHcTPYMeHToM KOCTRX APeBHlIIX >KIiIBOTHbIX. HSIiIAeHHblX B OAeCCKMx. KBTaKOM6BX; 0 sepene Hea,qepTBnOMAB 1113 BHrnlilloitcKoro 6pOKeH-XlotMa C «nyneBblMIiI paHeHIIIRMIo1»; a MBCCIiIBHOM 4epene APeBHero 61i130HB C «nyneBblMM OTBepCnIRMM»; 0 aarBA04HbIX CTpoeHIiIRX HB oaepe TlltlVlKBKB B AHAax 1II 0 BOPOTBX ConHl..!a C «He- 3eMHblM KaneHAspeM» 6blBwero ropoae HspO.QHOCTei1l MaAR. A TyT e~e 3araAO"fHble 3HaKIII-~ryPbl rMraHTCKIItX pa3MepoB B na""HoaMepIIIKBHcKO~ nycTbtfe HacKB M 6aanb6eKCKBR BepsHAs c TbICR'teTOHHbtMM CTlIIJ1061i1THblMK MOHDnIllTBMM B CesepHoliI AtPPMKe •••

KOe-'iTO B nonb3Y nplilWenbl.lBa rOBOpMnM HBCKanbHb!e PMCYHKM B nycTblHe Caxapa - ApeBHMIiI PIIICYHOK «8enMKoro cora MapcIIIBH». «KpyrnoronOBble», «¢>lItryPbl B WJ1eMax C aHTeHH8MIII» III CTpBHHBR tPMryp8 M Kopa6nb Ha 3TPYCCKMX KBMeRX. B nOllb3Y rMnOTe3bl 0 npe6blsaHMM npliIWenbl.lBB HB 3eMllB CBlilAeTenbCTBOBana Hep)l(BBelOl..LIBR )l(eneaHBR KOllOHHB B ):lenM ...

MHoroe roeopano ' sa TO, 'fTO aaneK8R VlCTOPMR 3eMnlit ABeT AOK8a8TenbCTB8 CMenbiM ntnOTea8M. Ho C 1908 rOAB MMeeT MeCTO cOBpeMeHHoe s:teneHMe - TYHryCCKIIIH $eHoMeH. HSy"lHBR pa3rSAKB xoroporo MO)KeT CTaTb KI11O'iOM KO Bcelill l.Ienl.1 3Br8AOK, CSRaBHHblX C B03-

36

HlItKOnA TEenA lit 3Ar NJKA TYHrvCCKorO METEOPIt1TA

MO)KHblM noce14eH~eM 3eMl1~ npHwenb~8MVI ~3 HHblX MHpOB.

B 6eceAA HS Kops6ne «Ce.tl0B» Ka38H~ea. K8aanOCb. nowen aa-OaHK csoea K8Teropw"HOCTblO B nOCTaHOBKe ~ oOCY)I(JleH~~ rVlIJOTeabl 00 HHOnIl8HeTHOM xopatine, norHlSweM B HeISe 3eMl1~.

- KnIOY K paarSAKe - 3TO TalitHa TYHryCCKOH KaTaCTPO¢bl 1908 rona, Bbl sseere MOH AaaHHH «rpex» no yaCTM TYHryccKoro «MeTeOpHTa» ~ MOIO npIIIBep)KeHHOCTb ranoreae, yrsepXA8lOlLlBH: H8,Q ryHrycCKOH TaHrOH asopaanca Me)l(nnaHeTHblH Kopa6nb, npoH3Be,QA HslSblaanere p8apyweHIiIR VI B03,QelltCTBll'le Ha BCIO Hawy nnaHery.

KOHe"'lHO, KaaaH~B 5pan H8 celSA MHoroe, ~60 OH He Mor 6brTb lSecnpHCTpaCTHblM - CIlHWKOM nonro OH aoesan 38 3ry fHnoTeay. Ho TO, 'iTO OH noaenan MHe B TOnCTOM TOMe caoea KHHrll'l, no era crtoeav, - «3TO ro'iHO YCTaHoaneHHoe, oe3ycnoBHO ,QOCTOBepHoe».

VI BOT, a npOXIla.QHOI.1. HO YIOTHOH KOMH8rywKe, ,QeIlO PYK Moeii'! }f(eHbl. KOTOpaR 6blna paaneneaa H8 ABe Hep8sHbie 1.j8~. R CH,QBfl aa KpOXOTHblM nO,QolSHeM crenaK8, BpeMfI OT BpeMR npll'lcnYW~BaRcb K ,QbIX8HHID C8MblX noporex MHe cYU4eCTB - )l(eHbl iii .QO'iypK~. Hac OT.Q~flMa npOCTaR cpaHepHaA nepercponxa, H nOTOMY Mbl ISblJ1H ace aMeCTe Ha MHorlilB "'I8Cb! MoeH YBneyeHHOCTIiI ereMOill».

BOT QISU4~e CBeABHIIt~, 0606UleHHbie K83aH~eBbiM B nOATBep)I(,QeHllte caoea nmOTe3bl: «Kopa6nb KOCMW-IeCKIltX npHweJlblles».

OH KOHCTfHlilpoaan: nepaOH8Y8flbHO npw"'~HO~ TYHryCCKOH K8T8CTPOCPbl C~II'ITanOCb n8.QeH~e r~raHTCKoro MBTeopIiITa. A T8K KaK 3TO He 06bflCHRno HeKoTopble ct:>8KTbl, TO OHVI 6blJlL4 06bRaneHbI 8HOMBIlHRMIiI. VlT8K ...

M WlH HET rHnOTeae «TYHryCCKHYI MeTeOpliIT»?

37

AHaTOm11i1 MSKClII,."OB

r~raHTCKIilIiI MeTeOpt.1T, fleTfiLlIIiILII C KOCMWieCKOLil CKOpOCTblO. npa y,Qape 0 aeMIlIO repser CKOPOCTb, 8 KLIIHeTlill.fecK8f1 era 3HeprHfI nepeXO,QIiIT B TennOBYIO _ npoHCXO,QLilT B3pb1B. o6pasyeTcfI xparep, reno MeTeopHT8 YXOAVIT B aeMnlO. aoxpyr pacceaaajorca OCKonKIII.

B TYHryCCKOLil raare aroro He npoaaoumo. Kparepa He OKa3anOCb, HIilKaKHX OCKonKOB HaLII,QeHO He 6blno. 8 ue-rrpe KBTBCTpOQ:lbl croan MepTBb11ll nec C AepeBbflMIII 6e3 cy'ibes. HeOObflCHVlMbl Dbll1Li1 III caemue HOLt"" nocne aapsiaa, xoropste HaOI1IO,QanIo1Cb a ClllfillfPIII III Espone (€flaKT 1 J.

rlllnoTe3a 0 flAepHoM aapsiae B soanyxe a peaynsrare rVifieIlIil Me)KnnaHeTHoro Kopa6nfl fibma orseprayra Cnel..llA8I1111CT8MIo1 no MeTeOplAT8M KaK aHTHHBYLtHaR AKB- _ A8MLilK sr. ct>eceHKos H Y"'leHbILil cexperaps KOMIIICClitlll no MeTeopLilTBM E.n KPLilHOB B 1951 roAY nucana; YTaepxnenae 0 aapsiae B B03Ayxe Heneno, aara,QKIit B TYHryCCKOLil xaracrpodie HHKaKO~ HeT, see flCHO _ MeTeopHT DbUl. ynan 1/1 yroHyn B DOflOTe, KpaTep a8TflHyno DOIlDTHOLil >KLiI>Kelfi. Ho '"ITO HOBoro fibUlO B «xonanxe» cneuaanacros no MeTeopIIIT8M'- aeAb nocne 3KcneAHl..I~~ KynLilKB B tyHryCCKOIII Ta~re HIilKTO He no6blBan (¢aKT 2).

Ho MeTeOplllT He n8J:IBn s DOflOTO, nOTOMY 'iTO non ,QHOM DonOTa, KaK yCTBH08111Il euie KYnlllK, coxpeuanca MHorOMeTpOBblllt cnoa ae"'lHoliI MepanOTbl.

T OflbKO npe,QnOIlO)l(eHllle 0 B3pblBe B B03,[1yxe MO>KeT ODb5ICHIIITb cy~ecTBoBaHlite MepTBoro neca B 3m14eHrpe, KorAB CTBOnbl nepessea YCTOflfllll nOA 06pywlitBwelilCR H8 HIIIX BonHoL1l, norepas IlLilWb CY'"lbR.

Eonlit sapus npoaaouien B B03nyxe. TO KBKIiIM o6pa- 30M 3HeprlitR, paSH8R OAHOBpeMeHHOMY B3PblBY nRTLilCOT 8TOMHbIX pOM6 [paC"'IeTbl H8LtanB SO-x rO,QOB), MO)f{eT BblAenlllTbC~ B B03Ayxe ... 6e3 y,Qapa 0 3eMflto? Be,Qb

38

HII1KOnA TEenA III 3Ar A.QKA TYHrvCCKoro METEOPvrr A

3HeprlllSl 83pblsa paBHRnaCb ABCRTIII MlilMHOH8M TOHH B TP0TlotnOBOM 3KBHsaneHTe (cpaKT 3).

MO)KeT 6b1Tb, 3TO obln paAHoaKwlBHbl~ Mereopm-?

Ho B30PB8TbCR 8 R,QepHOM B3pbl8e MO>KBT nlllWb aeuieCTBO, XIIIMH'feCKM HA9anbHO '-Il-1CToe III penxoe, HanplilMep, ypaH-235 L-iJUt He CYll.leCTBYIOl..4",1iI Ha 3eMne 3I1eMeHT nnyroHIo1~. npWieM B30paaTbCR 3TO eeuiacrso MO>KeT nLIIWb B TOM cny4ae, ecna ero Macca npeeocxonar KPIo1- Tl-1'-1e~Kyto (cnocoOHYIO K B3pbJSY). ECl1lt1 no Kanplo13Y npnPO,Qbl rAe-TO B KOCMOce iaKo~ MeTeop~1T oopa30B811CR ObI, TO OH AOI1>KeH ObU1 830PB8TbCR 8 nepaoe MrHOBeHlt1e ceoero CYll.leCTBOe8Hl-1R (¢laKT 4).

nplo13HBTb B3PblS MepHblM - sro 3Ha'-llotT nPK3HaTb B3pblB eeuiecrse, nonY'-IeHHoro VlcKYCCTseHHblM nyreM. 111 KOHe4HO, He B 3eMHbiX YCJlOBHRX. B 1908 rop.y Hlt1 ypoaeHb 3H8HHIiI, HIo1 ypOBeHb TeXHIo1KIo1 He MornH sro oOecne"fm-tJ. 8 H8 APyrolil nnsHeTe ... Y'-IeHble M3 KOMJ,fTere no MeTOOpHT8M eOrnaCHTbCR e aTlilM He XOT8nM. Ho BeAb TBKoe npeAfl0110)KettKe Morno Obi OObRCHHTb Bee. '"ITO npoM3OWIlO B Talilre a TO paHee YJPO ($In 5).

TorAS B npoTMBOBec rurreparyptfblM npolll3BeASHMSlM. rAe BblCKB3b1B8Il8Cb ranoreas 0 KOCMW1eCKOM Kopaone, nonmWBM 8 TYHf-yCCKOA rasre. B 1957 ro.QY KOMWTeT no MeTeopMTBM BblCTynM C yrBep}K,QeHMeM: «TyHryCCK..,1iI MeTeopt.rr H8I.\QeH!»

Ho «HBIiIAeH» OH Oblll He B TyHryCCKOH rasre, a Ha nonsax KOMIATera no MeTeOpHT8M, rAe XpaHHI1~Cb np06bl nO'"lBbl. ADCT8eneHHble Kym4KoM '"IeTBepTb aexa HaaaA. B 3THX npo6ax 6bll1H 06HaPy~eHbi MeTBnnWiecKMe BKpanneHMR. wapMKM B COTbIe Aon.., MMTUlHMEnpa. COABP>KBl1.tMe HMKeJ1fI 7 npOUBHTOB. K06anb ra 0.7 H CfleAbl MBAH .., repMBHH~. nOCKOl1bKy TBKOIiI cocras xepexrepea ,QJ1R MeTeop .. 1THoro Be~eCTBa. TO OblilO BCeHapOAHO OObRBneao: «3TO .., ecrs OCTaHK.., TYHryccKoro MeTeOp~a».

39

AHa:tan~ MaKCII1MOB

KYAa )Ke nenscs OCHOBHaSi Macca MeTeop~THoro rena, on~enRawerocA B COTHM Tb'CA'i WIM A8JKe B MMI1IU4OH TOHH. OCTaBallOCb HenOHATHbIM. He OObRCHeH Obm MeXSHM3M B3pbtBa. OCTaBMBWM~. B 'iaCTaccra, B an""Llempe MepTBblIiI nec (q:,aKT 6).

BbIOan nees B paOHe TYHrycCKoro B3pb18a.

111 TOllbKO B 1958 ro,qy, B CBA3I!1 C 50-llen1eM TyHryCCKOH KaTaCTpoQ>bl, HaKOH~- TO B Talilry ObUla HanpaBnesa 3KCneAMI.4MR nOA PYKOBO,QCTBOM Kf], 4>nopeHCKoro. BblBOAbl 3KcneAMLtMI.iI 3HaMeHaTenbHbl: HaHAeHHbie B npo6ax no'"lBbl MeTanllW-IeCKMe BKpanneHMfI Y)I(e He npanMCbIB8flMCb TYHrycCKOMY «MeTeopIllTy». TaKMe wapMKM OblIlM OOHaPY>KeHbI ... nOA MOCKBOH, B fleHI-tHrpa,qe VI AH-

40

HVlKonA TEenA Lit 3AfNlKA TYHrYCCKorO METEOPVlTA

T8pKTIiIAe. A8>Ke HB AHe OKeaHOB. 3TO 6bU18 06bl'-lH8f1 KOCMMl.feCK8f1 nblJ1b. oceASBW8S!. H8 3eMflIO nocne npoIiICXO~lUHX B aepxHlilx cnOAX BTMocQ:Jepbl HenpepbtBHbiX MeTeop~bIX npOllBCCOB. BTOpm1 BbiBOA. K KOTOPOMY nplilWIl&o1 HeJ(OTOPbIe l.fIleHbl 3KCneA"LPllIiI. - B03MO}t(HOCTb B3pbBB HBA MepTBbM necoM B 8Os,qyxe (4JaKr 7).

T8K&o1M 06pasOM, c1l8KT8MIiI 1-7 nO,QTBep)K,QanaCb lit nplil3H88anaCb nepess 'i8CTb «t:PaHTacTIiI'ieCKO~» flilnoTeSbi - B3pblB B B03AYXe.

AA IiIIM HET ranoreae «S3pblB neMHOfO RAPB KOMeTbl,?

Cne~811MCTbI no MeTeopMTBM He XOTeJlliI npH3HaB8Tb ~epHb6&l xapaKTep BapblB8, a HMK8KIiIX IiIC~8aH~ a Tawe, KOTOpbte MQrnlil 6bl nOATBepAIiITb IiInloll cnposeprHYTb RA8pt:tytO npwUtHY TyHryCCKO~ KBT8C1pO(j>bI, B 1908 roAY OHM He npOBO,QHl1Ii1.

nOMOrfllil poMaHn1XM C >K8)1(,qOJIt IiICcne,q088H1i1J7t,lI'I OTKpblTliI~ TSWf. MonoAble ~etfble tltS MOCKBbI, JleHIiIHrp&A8, HOBocIll6MpCKa. 1113 6aWKIilPIiIIiI &01, KOHe'iHO. H3,:rOMC1C8 C03Aam1 ~8MetMToe BnOC1le.QCTBliIM ABM>K8HlIIe H8y'fttOro TVp1il3Ma. 8~Opy)l(,IiIBWIiICb HaYI.fHblMM npMfiopaMM iii AHeBtMlt8hU4. ,QecATKIiI MOno,QbpC C~&o1aIlMCTOB:-aHTY- 31i18CTOB nOTRHY1lMCb B tyHfYCCKYIO TaAry! ' . .:.., ,~.

T8K, IIICClleAoaBH1<IeM TyHryCCKOIi'I K8TBCTPocPbI 3aHRnaCb KOMnneKCHBR CBMOAeATenbHBR 3KCn8AIII~R nOA PYKOBO,QCTBOM cneuaanacra 1i13 TOMCK8 E.~. nneXBHOB8 iii 3Kcne~LtIilR re0cPlilat.1KOB Bonrn-Ypanscxoro cPliII1li1ana BHlI1V1 reOcPIiI31i1KIiI BO rnaae c A.B. 30noToBblM.

KB)t(,QBs:. 3KCneA'-1Lt'-1R wna CSOIiIM nYTeM III "'Mena caoo pB60l.tylO runoreay: 3KCneAt.1u.IiIR TOMIiIl.te~ cooapana MaTeplIIanbl AnR 06beKTIiIBHOro 8HaIl1il3B. 3KcneAIiILt~ 30noToeB IiIccneAoaan8 TYHryccKoe RsneHlile C TOl.tKlII 3peHIiIR B03MO>KHbtX AABpHblX npOLteCCOB, a 3KCneAIiILtlilR K.n cDnopeHcKoro (1961) IIICKana Cne,QbI MeTeoplilTB.

41

AHBTMHIiI MakCHMOB

--_.

BblBOAbl rp)'nnbl y~eHblx, CTOPOHHIIIKOB «MeTeOpIIITHOt. BepCIIIIII»: B TYHryCCKO~ Ts'1re ynan He MeTeOpIIIT. Sro 6blflO npIII3H8HO HB KOHcpepeH~~1II no MeTeoplIITBM III 06bABneHO aK8,n8MV1KOM Br. Cl>eceHKoBblM B raaere «np8BAa».

rl-mOTe3Y 0 MeTeoplIITe aaMeHIIIJlB ranoresa a B3PblBe B B03.Qyxe neARHom fI,Qp8 KOMeTbI (cpaKT 8).

O,QH8KO 06CTOfITenbCTBa TyHryccKoro B3pblB8 3TVlM o6bflCHeHbi He 6blIllII. 8e,Qb HY)KHO 6blno 060CHOB8Tb, '-ITO B3pblB C Bbl,QeneHllleM orpOMH~ 3Heprllllll MO)KeT npo- 11130~TVI Ha BblCOTe He MeHee mrrlll KlllnOMeTpOB. C 3TIIIM cnoPAl.I.ILtte cornacanacs ace.

nORs~m8Cb TedplIIR rennosoro sapuea: ne~RHOe reno RAPS KOMeTbl, K8K crena nonerars, nern H8,Q 3eMne~, AOfl)l(HQ 6btnO nporperscs III IIIcnaplIITbCfI 38 Aon"" ceKYH,QbI. YcnoBllleM aroro MomB 6bITb rlllr8HTCK8R CKOPOCTb nemuiero rena ~o 30 KHnOMeTpOB B ceKYHA~). CKOpaeTb )Ke TyHryccKoro Tena OCT8BBnaCb H81113BeCTHO~ [cpalCT 9).

3KcneAIII~lIIfI K.n. t1>nopeHcKoro o6Hapy)l(IIIJla B nosse TaW-III, B ceMIII,QecATM KlllnoMeTpax OT enaue-rrpa, «CKOnneHM8» MeTannlll"feCKIIIX BKpanneHIIIR KOCMlot'ieCKOfO npoIIICXOJK,QeHlllfI. aro CHOBa Aana noSOA AfJR otlbRBfleHIIIR B nexara: 3sr8,QK8 peuiesa - Bet.l-'eCTBO RApa KOMeTbl 06H8PY.)K8HO, ero orsecno OT 3nlll~eHTPa 83pblBB serpeMill [35 KIIIflOMeTpOB B xac), a YHeceHHb4e B 8TMoct1>epy Menb"laAwllle ... aCTIII~bl Bblnanlll Ha aeMnIO •.• 'iepea ABB '-I8ca.

an. BblBO,llb1 He npH3HanH A8>Ke caMIil y4acTHIIIKH 3KCneAlilLtIIIM K.n. t1>nopeHCKoro. nplilyeM OfibRBlotnlll 0 CBOeM MBcornSCIIIM 'iepe3 >KypHan «CMeHa» {1962). KoHe"fHO, npM npeAflOOO)l(eHIIIH. "'ITO esopeesureroca aeu.&eCTBa 6btnQ COTHH TbICR"f TOHH, 05HspY>KeHHble A011111 rpaMMa KOCMIII'-IeCKOrO Beu..teCTBB BblrnAAenlll HeyfieAH-

42

HII1KOnA TEenA 1I13ArA.QKA TYHrYCCKoro METEOPIIlTA

TeJlbHO. KpOMe roro, KaK ttBHTI/ITe3a» K BepCII1H {(MeTeOPIilTHII!KOB» K 3TOMY epeMeHL1 acrpOHOM CO.to. 31i1reJlb nOAC'-IliIr8Jl, '-ITO '-I8CTIiI'iKI-I MOryr naaers 1!J3 crparocdiePbl He ABa l.t8Ca, a HeCKonbKO CyrOK Ii! A8)t(e MeCflLles.

BbIBOA: CY"'T8Tb «cKonJleHlIIfI» MeTannL1"1eCKO~ nblJlL1 B CeM14AeCflTIalt -KlilnOMeTpax OT 3mll~eHTpa «arecrporpu He OTHOCflllWIMIiICR K «reny» B CBR3111 C TeM. '-lTO HeT OCHOB8HIiI~ (cpaKr 10].

Teneps 0 CKOPOCTH nonera TyHryCCKorO «MereOpIiIT8».

nposeAeHbl Oblnlil rpa AltICKYCClIIH no IIlToraM 1113y ... eHlilfl TYHryCCKOIi! xaracrporpsr - V1HCTHTYTOM IiIMeHIiI WrepHoepr8, ACTpoHoMo-reocpL1311l'-leCKIiIM oo~ecTBoM III MOCKOBCKIiIM AOMOM )KypH8m1cT08 (1961, 1962). B BblBOA8X CTOPOHHHKOS «KOMeTHO~ ranoressn C8MbiM HeyoeAIilTenbHblM oxaaanacs npennonareeuaa CKOPOCTb nersuiero «rena». 8 1961 rOAY S AOKll8A8X AH CCCP Dblna ony6JlL1KOSaH8 CT8TbR aCTpoHoM8 30noTOS8, B KOTOPOH TpeMfi p83nH"IHbIMH M8TO,Q8MIiI OblnO AOK8a8HO:

CKOPOCTb rena COCT8snHIl8 MeH88 'i8Tblpex KlilnOMeTpOB B "I8C.

Y ... eHbll71 OOpaTIiIJl BHIIIMaHlile HB TOT rpaKT, '-ITO neresuiee reno BH.QeJlIII iii CnblW8JlH O,QHoepeMeHHO, 8 3TO H8- B03MO)KHO nplll CKOPOCTfiX B AeCflTKIiI KL1flOMeTpOB B ceKyHAY·

KpOMe roro. B raare Obtnlil H81i1AeHbi AepeSbR, H8 KOropue aoaneacracaana 8 ,Qsyx nnOCKOCTRX B3PbISH8f1 BOflH8 lit BOJlHa OaflflIllCTL1'i8CKaR. 3aBIIICRU,t8R OT CKOPOCTIil nponeraaurero rena. OK83anOCb, "lTO B3PblSH8R BonH8 [no eepTIilKanH) opeaana C nepeasee ace CY'-IbR, a 6annIllCTW-IeCKaR OCT88~fla lAX H8TPOHyrbIMIA. BbIBOA: 3TO Morna np0L130~1A nlllWb B TOM cny"lae. eCfllll CKOPOCTb rena Oblfl8 He60nbwolil. Crane O'i8BIA,QHbIM: ManaR CKOpocrs rena onpoaepraer npe.QnOflmKeHL1e 0 TennoeoM aspsiae RApa KOMeThI B 803.QYX8 (¢8KT 11 J.

43

AH8TOJ1Iot~ M8I{CillMOB

IPSKTBMH 8-11 nO",TBBp)l(,Q8l18Cb ManaR CKOPOCTb Tens .. onpoaepranacs rHnOTeaa 0 TennOBOM B3pblse B B03AYXB RAPa ICOMeThI.

npeAnOnO)l(eHHe 0 TennoBOt~ B3pblBe oraepraeros caMO~ KSPTMHOM paapylliBHIiIR, O'"!BHb TU¥!TBllbHO IiICCIleAOBBHHOA 3KCneAH~liIe~ IPnopeHCKoro. OKa3anOCb, '"ITO ace AepeBbR B Ta~re nOaBneHbI crporo paAHanbHo. 3KCne,Q,IiI~!.1R npoeena nRTb,Q,eCAT TbICR'"! .38MepoB, n0380- nlilBWI.1X HBHeCnt HS KSPT)' CTper1KM, Ka)I(,Q8H 1i13 KOTOPblX COOTBeTCTBOBana CTa noaaneHHblM CTaOIl8M. npOAOIl)l(eHIiIR 3TIiIX CTpenOK CXO,Q,IiIIlIiICb crporo a 3nHl4BHTpe - OKPY)I(HOCTIiI C AliIaMerpOM nlAWb B COTHIi1 MeTpoa. BblBOA: BapblB 6blI1 TO'"le'"lHblM, IiICKflIO'"IaeTCR npennonoxeHli1e 0 npoTH>KeHHOM rennosov aapsiee.

OAHaKO Cne~li1aIlIiICTbI-«MeTeOpIilTHliIKIiI» TaK iii He OTK8aanlilCb OT caoea HOBOIit nmOTeabl {{B3PbIB neARHOIit KOMeTbl». II1x He y6eAlo'II1 apryMeHTlilpOBaHHbl1it AOKIlBA cneuaanacra no KOMeT8M 3HrenR, C,Q,en8HHbllit HB MeTeOplilTHolit KOHcpepeHLtlillil B neHIiIHrpBAe B 1962 roAY.

Y'"IeHblA ,Q,OKBaan: ryHryCCKBR «KOMeTa» He MomB cyU48CTBOBaTb, 11160 npeAnonarBeMble napaverpu ee ,Q,BIII.lK8MMS' nOKB3bIBBIOT, '"ITO OHB ,Q,OIl>KHB 6bma HaXO,QIiITbCR a. T~X M:eCTax. rue a TV nopy Ha6nIOAaJU1Cb APyrne KOMeTbl. 3rI-1' APyn"e 3Ha'"llilTenbHO yCl)'nanlil no pa3MepaM rHnOTeTIiI'"IeCKolit TYHryCCKOlit, KOTopaR Hli1r,Q,e iii HIilKeM He 6blI1a aaMe'"leH8 (cpaKT 1 2).

AA wnw HET rMnOTE3E .A"EPHblLiI B3PbIB .. ?

KaaaHLtea iii ero CTOPOHHIiIKliI C'"IliIram'l. '"ITO npeanoIlo)t(BHlile 0 H,Q,epHOM B3pblse o6"bSlcHReT ece, HO, no MHeHlil10 H8.KOTOPblX aCTpoHoMOB. CIlIo1WKOM ... npe>KJleBpeMeHHO.

44

HVlKonA TEenA Vl3ArAJlKA TYHrvCCKorO MmoPIt1TA

O,QHaKO cp~3~KaM 3TO He KS)I(eTCR. rpynna 3oTOBa ~3 BHV1111 reOQ>H3~KIo1 oeeorene no 3a,QaHIi1IO lit nporpSMMe O,QHoro 1113 Q>lIt3WfeCKIo1X II1HCnnyTOB AH CCCP. VIM y,QSnOCb nOKaaBTb HeCOCTORTenbHOCTb npe,QnonO)l(eHHR 0 TBIUlOBOM BapblSe B Boa,Qyxe. Tpe6ytOl1.l8M KOflOCC8JlbHOLii CKOPOCTH, KBKoeoLii TyHryCCKOB «T8110», n0-BHAHMOMY. He 06nBABno.

A RAepHblLii sapbls? TaKlItM AOKaa8TenbCTBOM Morna 6b1 EiblTb nOBblweHHaR pa,QHOaKn1BHOCTb B paLilOHB K8- TaCTpOltJbl. Ho BCR KBprnHS 8 Ha"fane BO-x ronoa (BpeMeH~ pRAB C8pbe3HbIX aKCne.QMt.p.1Li1) EiblflB «no,qnOp"feHS» ,QaCRT~neTII1BM RAepHbIX lItCnbITSH~LiI B GOlO3e lit aMeplltKaH48MH Ha OCTpoaax Taxoro OKeaHa.

E~e 3Kcne,QH4l1tR K.n. CllnopeHcKoro B 1958 rOAY oEiHaPY)l(Wl8 S 3n~L4eHTpe B3pblSS y.QHBIi1TeJ1bHbILil c:fJeHOMeH. Y4eneBw~e nocne B3Pblsa AepeBbR Ii1 MOnOAble ,QepesbR, SblpOCWHe nocne BapblBa. pacryr B ,QecRTb paa EiblcTpee HopM8nbHoro! Gp8BHII1BaflOCb nepeso. npo>KHBWee nonropecra ner no KaTaCTpocpbl. H Hosoe nepeso, KOTOpoe BbiPOcnO T8M n03AHse H KOTOPOMY HeT nRTI1,QSCRTM ner, - MonOADa OK8aBflOCb H8MHoro rcruue.

6bIflO-SblCK838HO npennonoxeaae, "fTO 3TO peayllbTaT Ta9)KHOrO noxaoe, ·r.Qe no-rea YAoEipeHa. Ho & paLilOHe SHe noxape nocne S3PblS8 AepeBbR _PSCTyT ace paSHO B AeCRTb paa EiblCTpee. YI.feHble-llecdsO.Qb1 noeanoneraror, -rro H8 POCT ,QspeBbBS BIlMReT K8KOIiI-TO eraMynRTOp. B03MO>KHO. CBR3BHHbilit C npoaaouienurea KBracrpodica (tPaKT 13).

6b1J1o C,QeJ1aHO npe.qn0110>KeHlIte: He pa,Q1I10aKTII1BHOCTb I1H 3TOT cTIi1MynRTOp?

Flepeue nOnblTKH onpeAeJ1eHHR nOSblWeHHoLii panacaKTIi1BHOCTJ,f a rO.QWtHbIX cnoRX Aepesbes 1908 rOA8 He npHHeCnll1 ycnexa. GKaYOK P8AHOSKn1SHoCTM CK83bIB8J1- CR, Ho ronsco S rex cnY'"'8RX. xorna 06pa311bl. C nepees-

45

AHaTDnM" MsKCIIIMOB

as 6pam1Cb B AeCRTKaX KWlOMeTpOS OT 3nLltL4eHTpa S3pblSB.

nOC~a.rranM, '"ITO 3TO snonae eCTBCTSBHHO. 06PB30- SaSWMeCs:I S MOMeHT RAePHOrO B3pblSa paAMOaKTMBHble H3OTOnbl MornH nonacre S fQ,QHYHblB cnoa APBBBClIIHbl B peevnsrare BblnaAeHlIIfI paAMOaKnilBHbIX ocaAKOB. OC8AKM SblnanM B 'rex MBCTBX, KYAB IIIX nocns B3pblBa YHBcno pa.nMoaKTIIIBHoe 06nBKO, III TBM KOpHIil H30Ton YCBOHmt.

rpynna 30TOS8 onpenenana CKB'"IOK paAl"09KTIIIBHOClM B 06pB3L4ax. YA81leHHbIX OT 3nML4eHTpa. npH'"IBM B COOTHOWeHMM B nRTHBJ:luaTM cnyyas:IX 1113 ABaALtaTH. Ho H 3TO xaaanocs HeAoCTaTOYHO y6eAlIITBnbHbIM. TpetioaaflMCb HOBblB nposepxa no M3MeHeHHblM MeTQ,QMK8M.

DAH8 H3 MeTO,QMK no MOrna nony'-l~b Kapn1HY CKB .... KB

. pa,qMOBKTMBHOCTIA B 1908 rOAY. KOTOPbllif, no MHeHlll10 3OT088. Mor 6b1Tb Sbl3SBH MCKYCCTBeHHblMH paAMoaKTMBHblMM 3IIeMBHTaMM. 31"0 CIl'f"IlIIl10Cb S 1962 rOAY. npennonaranocb, YTO A8I1bHB~wHe IIIccneAOSBHHs:I nOATBepAAT TlH60 onpoaeprsvr 310 RsnBHlIIe «no 3oTOSY». TO ecTb BeposrrHOCTb COXpaHeHIItR P8,QIIIOSKlMBHOCTM cnyeTs:! 60nee nonyaexa nocne B3pblsa. SeAb. no MHetMlO MHOrl4X cneUlllanHcTos, OHa MOrna H He COXPSHHTbCA. XOTR sa HaXOlKAeHlIIe - 3TO ,QOK8aBTeI1bCTOO, HO ae OTCyrCTelite - He onposepxeaae sep~M 0 RABPHOM B3PbIBB [~aKT 14).

YTO BIl.IB xapaxrepaayer RAepHbl~ B3pblB - 3TO oxor. Ero npacyrcraue o6R3BTenbHo npM scex cny ... asx flAepHblX RBneHHIiI. 8 3TOIiI CBR3M BcnOMHHalOTCR nOKB- 3BHHfI O"lBSIllAues, KOTOPble paccKB3bISBnH, '"ITO HB PBCCTORHIitIit WeCTb,QBCSH KlilflOMerpOB or MeeTB KBTBCTpO¢bl. B BBHBsape, KPBCTbRHe 8 MOMeHT B3pblBa nosyscrBOB8JlH TaKO~ oxor, «cnOSHO HB HIitX seropenecs OAe>KA8».

111 '"ITO xe cneL4l118IlHCTbl-«MBT80PHTHHKM» - OHIit OTplitL4allH cjlaKT npMCYTCTB~s:J ny-reaoro oxora. Flpaana,

46

HViKonA TEellA VI 3Ar A,!lKA TYHrvCCKoro METEOPVlT A

nocne HeCKonbKMX 3KCne.QMUHA lj>8KT ny ... esoro oxora IiIMM 6blfl npM3HaH (Ha"lanO SO-x ronoal,

C sroro MOMeHTa cnop nowen He 0 «Ka'ieCTBeHHOIl1». a 0 ({KOnWieCTBeHHOliu) OUeHKe o)tcora: K8KYlO nno~aAb np..,3HBTb 060)K~eHH0Il1? Ecm1 OHa senVlK8. TO SI.QepHbl'" xapasrep S3pblBB HeCOMHeHeH? EcnM MeHbwe - ara f111OUl8Ab SlSJlRerCA peaynb TaTOM BblCOKc»:i TBMneparypbl rennosoro B3pb4Sa?

HM 6on101AOM. Hilt TennOBblM B3pbtBOM 06bACHI4Tb o~y~eHllte oxora HS paCCTORHM14 B AeCRTKM KVlnOMeTpOB HeB03MO)l{HO. DCTaeTcR OAHO - RAepHbt'" xacexrep BapbtBB (cpBKT 15).

LIl euie 3araAKa: TYHryccKaR KaTBCTpoq,a Bbl3Bana B reOMarHMTHOM none 3eMnM B03My~eHMe.

3HTY3MaCTbi pacKpblTMA TYHryCCKO'" Ta"'Hbl 143 TOMeKo", rpynnbl nnexaHOB Ii! MOCKOBC~oiil Kr. LIlS8Hoa8 npoaena 06cToRTenbHble o6cneAoaaHMR COCTORHMR reoMarHMTHoro nons 3eMflilt B MOMeHT TYHrYCCKolll KaTaCTPOCPbl M CpaSHMflM MX C reOMarHHTHbiMIit B03MYll.leHMRMill - MCKa}KeHMAMIil MBrHIIITHoro nonR nnaHeTbl B MOMet-iT ... BblCOTHblX RAepHbIX McnbrraHMA. no cxoncrsy peaynbTaTbl OK83anMCb MHOr03HB'iVITenbHbIMIil (cpaKT 16).

KaK BMAHO. fMnOTe3bl, CBAaBHHbJe C eCTeCTBeHHhIM KOCMM ... eCKlitM TBnOM MflM KOMeTO"'. nOBHCBJOT B e03,Qyxe. OTMe'"lanlil OnnOHBHTbI CneUMa/lIilCTOB-«MeTeOpVITHMKOB». OHM He 06bACHRnM PRA cpaKTOB KBT8CTPOCPbl 14 onpoaeprBIOTCR 6eccnopHblMH apryMeHTaMM.

¢>aKTbI 12-16 nO.QTsep}l(,QalOT fMnoTe3Y 0 flAepHoM B3PbIBe. 1460 y6eAl'tTeflbHee ecero 06bRCHAIOT AS)Ke CBeTnble HOYH. BblaSBHHble ~epHblMH npo,-,ecc8MM aBepxHMx cnORX 8TMoc¢lepbl.

Kaaanocs 6bl, rMnOTe3B «RAepHbtVl S3PbIB» MMeeT nHWb OAMH M3bRH: "'TO Morno B30pa8TbCR B AAepHOM B3pblBe?

47

AH8Ton~~ MaKC~MOB

~=-------------

AA MnM HEY rMnoTE3E .83PbIBA AHTMBE&qECTBA.?

ECTb npennonoxeaae, nacan Ka3aHlIeB B 1963 rOAY B csoea KHlllre «rOCTlllllla KOCMOC8», 'iTO HaW Mlilp ConHe'-tHOIiI CIllCTeMbl IItMeeT 8TOMbi c nOllO)l(IIITe.nbHO aaps>KeHHbIMIll R,QpaMIit iii orpeuarensso aapR)I{eHHblMIll enexTPOHHblMIit o60nOlfKaMIll. Ho MOryr CYl1.\eCTBOBaTb III APYrae Mlllpbl, rne Be~eCTBO IIIMeeT npRMo nporaeononoxHble 3eMHbiM a8pR,Qbl s:I,Qep lit oeono-re«.

K H8"1any 60-x rOAOB B naoop8ToPHbiX ycnoBlIIs:lx Y"leHb18 Mlllpa Y)l(e nony'-tanlll aneMeHT8pHbJe "IaCTIII'''11<1II 8HTIIIBe~ecTBa c npoTIIIBOnOIlO>KHbIM aHaKOM anexrpoaHOro aapRAB .. 8T0 - n031i1TpOH, aTO - aHll1He~oH .. B HaWIIIX ycnOBlIIs:lX TaKllt8 LtaCTIII"'IKIlt He MOryl )l{liITb Aonro: conplIIKaCas:lCb C cOOTBeTCTBYIOLlIIIIMIit "IaCTIII'-tKaMIll aeMHoro eeuiecraa, OHIII BHHlltnllnLIIPYIOT, npeapeuiaacs B IPOTOHbl - HOCIiITemt 3Heprllllll.

Flpennonoxeaae 0 eroprureacs B 8TMocq,epy 38MIllil Kyco .... xe aHTlitBel..LleCTB8 He BblAep>KII1BaeT KpIllT1AKIll. TaKOI/1 MeTeoplIIT 1It3 8HTiltBeLl..leCTBa AOIl)l(BH OblIl Obi Ha"'laTb aHHIi1rJtlnlllpOB8Tb y>K8 B caMblX eepXHIIIX CIlORX 8TMOCrflePbl, B .QeCflTK8X KLilIlOMeTpOB OT aeMHO'" nOBepXHOCTII1 .. KapTLIIH8 nonera raxoro rena npencrsensna Obi c060Llt naAeHllte C He6a on-euuorc crones .. Ha6moA8HVlR 3a TVHryCCKLilM <t>eHoMeHoM onpcaepraior T8Koe noenno-

AHTVlBeLl..leCTBO Morno nonerers AD BblCOTbl KliIIlOMeTpOB B nflTb HB,Q aeMHOH noeepXHOCTblO TOIlbKO B OAHOM cny-rae - ecnu HaXOAlI1nOCb B MarHII1THOM xp8HliInlllLl..I8, TO 8CTb 6blno 38KnlOlf8HO B IIICKYCCTB8HHoe MarH1ATHoe none ..

K 1962 raAY cjJIII3111KVI C03AaeaIlVI KOHCTPYKLtIllIll, KOropsie aaKIlIOLJ8J1111 e MarHIltTHYIO IloeywKy Harpe-ry1O AD MlitnIllltOH8 rpaAYCOB nna3My. Ecnlll 6bl e KaKOI/1-TO MO-

48

HIIIKonA TEenA 1113ArAflKA TYHrvccKoro METEOPIIITA

MeHT 1-13-3a BHewHel7l nplll"'llllHbl MBrHMTHoe none xpaHIIInlilllla C aHTHBell..leCTBOM 6blflO HapyweHo, rorna npoH30wen Obi MrH08eHHbilii KOHTaKT 3eMHoro aeuiecrsa C aHTIIIBelJ.leCTBOM III - Helll36e>KHbllfil flAepHbl1fil B3pblB '-iyAOBHll..IHOIfil ClII1lbl [cpaKT 17).

B eeoe BpeM~ nHcaTenb-cpaHTaCT Ka3aHLteB BbICKa- 3Bn Mblcnb: aHTIABeU-leCTBO HBflAeTCA IIIAeanbHblM ronnaBOM Aflfl CPOTOHHblX paxer 0YAYll..Iero. CeroAHR III 3BeCTHO , "'ITO sro anorn-e peansaoe peweHllle npooneMbl «ropioseros AflA Me>KnnaHeTHblX nepeneros.

nO'ieMY aaopaancs? nQljeMY HapYWlIIllOCb MarHIIITHoe none xpaHlilnlillU8 aHll1SelJ.leCTBa. ecnlll 3TO 6b1fl KOCMIII'"IeCKIllIfil Kopa6nb C CPOTOHHblM ,QBlllraTeneM? YCTBHOBlHb 3TO Obino 6bl OeCLtBHHblM cpaKTOM. Ho Koe-LfTO MO>KHO 0603HB'"IWTb ...

Ilene B TOM, YTO ryHryCCKWlIt aapsra npoaaouien B a8CbMa 3HaMeHaTenbHOM MeCTe -·B MeCTe OAHOH W3 "'IeTblpex CBMblX 60llbWIII)( MarHHTHblX aHOManwlfil Ha 38MHOM wape. Cana MarHwTHoro nOIlA 3eMIlill 8 paVroHe TYHryccxoa xaracrporper tionsure. 48M_ B mODOM APyroM MeCTe. He nOBIlWAIlO nlll 310 oecroarenscrec Ha TO'-lHble npliloopbl, ynp8BIlRIOI..L\IIIe M8rHVlTHbiM xpaHlllnVll..L\eM «Tonnasa» diorosaoro KOCMHLfeCKoro xopaona? II1nLlf 3TO npocToe coan8AeHllle? Ho H8CKOllbKO 3TO COBna,QeHllle cavo no ce!Se MHoropeLfIllBo! (cp8KT 18].

npH paccnenoeeuaa 3araAKVI aapsiaa KOCMH'-leCKoro xopatina CTOIIIT ynoMflHyTb 0 TOM, YTO B3pblB !Sblll «H8- npeeneuaoro .QeIi'lCTBIi1R}) laaropv ,q8HHOIiI pYKonVlclII 3TO 3H8KOMO no ero npodieccaa IIIH>KeHep8 MOPCKOri'l aprannepuul, 8TO oaaa-raer: p83pyweHLIf~ B raare OrpaHIiIYI.1- aanacs He OKPY>KHOCTblO. K8K AflIllTenbHoe BpeMR C'-IIIITanlA cneuaanacru ~ K8K 3TO OblBaer npa pacnpocrpeaeHLlfIll OObl'-lHOri'l ccpepli'l4eCKoLii BonHbl.

P83pyweHIIIR B raare HoeRT CPOPMY annanca, KaK 3TO

49

AH8Tonil1i'1 M8KCL-lMOB

CBO~CT8eHHO «B3PbIBY HanpaBneHHOrO ,o,8t1lCTBII1H)}. 8 apTVinnepVlVl OH HOCIIIT H8388HII1e «KYMynflTVlBHoro 3¢¢eKTa)) - 83pblB8 8 3aMKHYTOM npOCTpaHCTB8 onpe,QeneHHOtll cpOPMbl. Hanp8BJ18HHbllil espsia B TYHryCCKOIiI raare Mor np0V130IilTVl nl!1Wb B cnv-iae «aapsraa B 060nO'-lKe», KOTOPOIi1 Mor 6btTb KOCMV1'-1eCKLilLI1 «opaons, ,QBlI1ralOll..\VlIiI·CS'l no rpaexropaa [cpaKT 19).

lIIr8K, nocn8,QHlI18 cpaKTbl 17-19 «nblOT BO,o,y H8 MenbHVllW» B3pblB8 KOCMHyeCKOrO Kopa6nR C 8HTIIIBell..(eCTBOM B xa-recree (<TOnnIi1Ba» ,QflH ero q,OTOHHOro ASVlr8TenR

8ecb dieepsns 1963 rO,Q8, 6YKBanbHO 38 H8CKonbKO AHelil .£10 OT6bITH~ Ha cneparuaayio pa60ry s $lnoHVlIO, R C 6onbwolil OXOTOi1 TPY,QHflCR Ha,Q Moeii1 ({3HllVlKIlone,Qlt1elll- 6V16mleill», ruiareneuo o6pa6aTblB8S1 ace '-IeTblpe runeTe3bl, 1113f10>KeHHble B nODlo6V1SWeLilCs:I MHe KHVlre Ka38H- 4eSB. 111 '-ITo6bl npunars. K8K MHe npencrasnaercs, 60- nee CTpolllHylO KapTIIIHy no K8>K,QOIII 1113 runorea. npH6er K CCblnK8M B BIt1Ae «ijJ8KTOB», BblCTpoeHHblX B nOrHyeCKVlII1 P~A. III aonpoc CT8BVlnCfI KaTerOplllyeCKVI~: ,QA IIInVl HEr?

TaKOBO Cblno nonoxeune c V1ccneAOB8HVI~MIII «npn- 6118Mbl TYHryCCKOro <!l8HoMeH8» K H8Y8ny 1963 mA8 - OYepe,QHOIil I{)OvmeIl1HO~ nare nORBneHIIIR {(COObITVlfl}) H8 3eMne.

CTOPOHHHK8M rVinOTe3bl B3pblB8 IIIHonnaH8THoro KOCMIII'-IeCKoro Kopa6nH O'1eHb 6bl XOTenOCb, '-ITOfibl T8K OHO III CblnO. lIIM separca, YTD ecnu 6bl B3pblB He npo- 11130wen, TO KOHT8KT 3eMHoli1 WVlBHnVl38111ll111 C II1HonnaH8TH0ii1 COCTOs:lnCR fibl. III KTO 3H8er, B03MO)l(HO, IIICTOPHfI YenOS8'-1eCTBa nowna fibl no IIIHOMy nyrlll!

,-I

i

I

"IEPE3 70 nET

nocne TYHrYCCKOrO CD&bITMJI

Bom yxe 60Aee 70 nem ocmaem-

CJl NeHCllbIM, omKydo 011 npunemen U UJ 'IelO COCmOJlA. Iloucmune netiecNblU «KaMeH/»> cman dAR HOYKU xauHeM npemxnoeenus.

H. [;161106, Ie.m.H., leoppecnoHiJeHTn <tJIr •.

"'HCTMTYT PA3BEAKM - rlKEnb. nETO 1978 rOAA

OceHb 1977 rona npll18HeCna B MOIO TpeBO)f(HYIO )l(1iI3Hb pa3seAYIIlKa HeKoTopoe vcnoxoeaae,

K 3TOMY BpeMeHIIl Y>Ke A88AL\aTb nflTb ner HOClilna MeHfI CYAb6a no cBoeil1 crpaHe VI LJy>KIiIM rocYAapCTB8M. B Espone no6blB8n B AHrm"VI, 6enbrllWI, 3an8,QHOIiI repMaHIiIII1, WaelllL4aplllll1, a sa OKeaHOM - B Kanane VI CWA. Ha BOCTOKe 6blna s=lnOHlAfI, 8 K lOry - II1paK, PYMblHlilfI, KJrocnaBlilfi. 8 DAHill CTpaHbl Bt.13V1T 6blBan KOPOTKIiIM, H8 napy H8Aenb, LJa1ll8 - H8 M8CfU..I, IIIHor,Q8 H8 nonroA8 iii

51

AH8TOJ1MA MSKCMMOB

AS8)I(,Qbl AD 'ieTblpex ner, &t1 ace aTO - no AenaM pas- 8BAKlit.

T enepb st Ha'ian c.ny)K6y B H8WeM YH~KanbHOM Y"leoHOM 3aSeAeHMM no nonroroeee KSAPOS pa3SBAKM, npltf"IeM Ha OCHOBHmt K8~e,qpe. Hawa anbMB-MaTep - KpaCHo3HaMeHHblH ItfHen-fryr paase.Qkltf - Bblpocna 1tf3 paaaenueconer, B KOTOpoA R nocrvran npeMYAPoCTM npoctleccMH B KOHlIe mmmecRTblX ronoa.

T enepe A - H8CTaBH~K rpynnbl B Asa AecRTKa 4enoBeK, 60nbWltfHCTBO M3 KOTOpblX Y)Ke nmpYAHflOCb Ha nonpauie rocoe30naCHOCTH He O,QHH ron, VlM - nOA TpM,QIIBTb, MHe - COPOK rpa, HOBOMY Ha3HS49HMIO A PeA Itf npOHItfKCR K CaOItfM nO,Qone4HblM AYWOH Itf C9p.QlIeM.

B MoeA ceMbe - AeA, TeTKa, ABolOPoAHaA cecrpa.

MOR MaMa - MeRAa npenonasarenea euie C KOHl.Ia neBRlli8AlI8TOro aexa. III XOTA B cpe,QHe&1 uisone BbiCOKOH HBCTOH"IMBOCTM A He npOABflRn, TPYA Y"IltfTenR BeCbMB yaa>Kan. &t1 no ceA AeHb nOMHIO CBOIO nepBYIO Y'-tItfTenbHlltllY. rpex nareperopui M AeCATOK Y"lItfTeneH HB uieonsHOM nym B roponxe HetllTAHIo1KoB aa KpalitHeM Cesepe, B KOpOTK~U~ CpOK y'ie6bl B KpblMY Y A8Aa a CDeo,Qoclltltf lit 8 KOHlIe WKonbHOro nyrM B nOAMocKOBbe.

o 'iBM A no-xopoweMy CO>Kane.AJ np~ B VlHcnnYT, TaK 3TO no OCTpblM Ol.LtYll.IeHlltRM «6nllt)l(HBro OOfl») B Aenax pa3BeAKItf. CoocTBeHHo. paHHwH OTXOA OT aKTlltBHOH onepanlBHoA pa6oTbl6blIl CBRaaH C 38BepweHM8M MHOronernero npon'BocTOAHIo1A asnB,QHblM cneLlCllY)I(f)aM B ycnoBMAx, xorne. KaK nacenocs B OAHOM 1013 AOKYMeHToB, «HHltfllHaTIIlSa iii nW·IHOB My*ecTBo» Mrpanlil He nocneaHlOfO pons.

6blBSA aa pyfie)l(OM, «0 TeMB» - TYHryCCKOA KBTBCTpOQle - AYMaTb. KOHe'"iHO, npIAXO,QMnOCb Mano. HO R Bee )l(e 3TO y8ne'ieH~e . He 3af)bIBan. KOe-'"iTO co6pan no

52

HV1KonA TECI1A 111 3Ar AAKA TYHrvccxoro METEOPII1T A

Hfln - He06bRcHlIIMbiM fiBlleHMAM nplIIp0.Qbl. 8 SOT no <eTK» - QJ8KTHyeCKH HHyerO He YASllOCb HSSfTH. BMAio1MO. TaM, «38 oyrpOM», 3TO ,QaBHee «C06~e. H8 CTOIlb ~Hrepecoeeno no cpSBHeHl410 C HflO, KOnneKl..\l41O 0 KOTOpblX R Cepbe3HO nononaan, no KPa~H81it MepB, B npacee HWiero 0 «TK» He nonananocs.

8 Lt1HCntTYT8 MeHR )l(,Q8I1 clOpnplll3: BO-nepSb4x, cofll4AHaR 6146nHoTeK8. Co6p8HHe KOToPOIit Ha~anOCb BO BHOBb G03A8BBeMoIiI uixone pB3BeAKH s"1938 ro/W. 80- BTOPblX, coopaHH8 CQJoIHHeHM~ Moaro «3aO'iHoro APyra» AneKcaHp,pa Kaaaaueaa, BbIXOp, KOTOPblX B CBeT COCTOMCA 6YKSBnbHO H8 AHRX - B 1977 rop,y.

KOHe'-lHo. MeHA MHTepeCOB8I10, I.jTO 1r13MeHIr1nOCb BO B3rIlRp,aX Moera «p,pyra» aa nOCIleAHHe nRTH8ALtSTb ner nocne «BCTpe"llr1» aa CTpaHMllBX era «rOel-elit lII3 KOCMOca» B uiecrsnecsr rpersev rop,y.

1/1 SOT BO BTOPOM TOMe HaXO)l(Y rnasv «ilia KOCMOca - a npownoe. Pa3MblWIleH14R cJlaHTaCTa». 0603Ha~eHbl TeMbl:

- KaKOBbl 06CTOATenbCTBB TYHryCCKOIi1 KaTacTpocpbl 1908 rona?

- B03MO>KeH mt B3pblB paAMOBKn1BHorO MBTeopHTa?

- MO)l(HO mot -CBR3aTb rIr10enb KOCMIII"IeCKOrO KopaonR c MapCOM?

- Morna nL1 8aopBBTbCR neARHaR KOMeTa?

- YnopHble nOMCKlr1, Mop,emtpOBaHHe. HOBbie rHno-

reau.

Bne .... amRIOL4e? AB. 3"ro Y)f(e He paCCK8a nucarenaq:,aHracra «B CBo6QAHOM nonera». Tyr scrs Hap, "18M noAYMaTb. a B03MO)l(HO. xoe C yeM COrnaCHTbCR.

53

AHBTOflltlaii MaKCItlMOB

KAKOBbID&CTORTEnbCTBATYHrVCCKoi KATACTPOCDbl 1908 rOllA?

Ha OCHoeaHHH nOKa3aHHLiI Donee TbICfI'-IH O'-leBHA- 4eB - pecnoH,Q8HToa ~PKyrCKOH o6cepBaTopHH YCTaHOBn8HO cnenyiouiee. PaHHYlM yrPOM 30 HIOHfI 1908 rOAa no He6ocBoAY H8A TyHryccKo~ TaLilroH nponeTeno oraeauoe reno lxapaxrepa oonYl,QaJ. ocraensa sa COOOH cnen, KaK n8ABIO~IiIH MeTeOpYIT [peanbHocTb 1 J.

B ceMb '-Iacos YTPa no MeCTHOMY speMeHH HaA neCOM 6m's tPaKTOPVlH Baaaaapa B03HYlK ocnenHTenbHblVl uiap, KaaaBWVlVlCR Rp'-le consua, OH npeaparanca B orHeHHbtVl crone. KOTOPblLil ynepcR B oe306na'-lHOe He60 (peansnocn, 2].

npe>KAe HWiero nonotiaoro npa naAeHLilIit MeTeoplI1- TOB He HaonlOAanocb. He oblno nO,QooHoVl KapTVlHbl lit nocne naAeHLilfI Ha ,QanbHeM Bocroxe CIltXOTe-anIltHcxoro M8TeOpYlTa, pacneeurerocs B B03,Qyxe. Era ocKOnK8MIA 3arpya&.111&.1 HeCKOflbKO aeroaoa. Or TyHryCCKOro MeTeOp&.1T8 He YABflOCb HarKrn HIA OAHOro OCKOflKa [peansaocn, 3).

Cpaay xe nocne n8AeH&.1f1 5blfl cnblweH YAap. MHOroKpaTHO nosTOpHBW&.1If1CR. CIlOBHO rpOM, nepeweAwliI1II B pacxaru. 3aYK Obtn cnsnuea aa TbICR'-IM KlilnOMeTpOB OT MeCTa K8TBcTpmpbl. Bcnen sa 3BYKOM npOHeCCs:I yparaH crpaun-oa Ct.4nbl, cpblsaBwMIII KpblWM AOMOB H eanasWVlVI satiopsr Ha paCCTORHIiIVI COTeH KHnOMeTpOB IpeansHOCTb 4].

B .£lOMaX aseaena CTeKll8, OCTaHBSIlIiIBaIlIiICb '-I8Cbl.

Kone5anlilCb noma Conporasae seMHoiil KOPbl Ob1I10 OTM8"4eHO ceIllCMOnOrH'-IeCKIAML1 CT8H4L11f1MIiI B VIp KyrCKe. TaWKeHTe, tIIeHe (repMBH&.1f1). 8 LlJpKyrcKe (6nH>Ke K KBTBCTp0tPe] OTMernJ1l1t ABa TOIl'-lKa. 8TOpolil 6blfl cnaeee lit. no yTsep>KA8HVlIO ALilpeKTOpa CT8H4HIiI. «Obln Bbl3BBH

54

HvtKonA TECnA 111 gAr AJJ.KA TYHrYCCKDrO METEOPlllT A

Mereop.

B03,QYWHDI.7! BOnHD~, ,Qowe,Qwe~ ,QD Lr1PKYTCKB C On03,QaHMeM scnen aa aeMHoI.7I» (peanbHocTb 5).

B03,QywHaR BOflHB DbI11B aaQ:J~KClI4pOeaHB B nOHAOHe lit oeouma aeMHoli'I wap ,QS8)I(AbI (peanbHocTb 6).

B Te'4eHM8 rpex ,QHeli'! nocne KBT8CTpo4lbi HB reppmop~~ Eeponbl ~ ceeepe AcIlPMK~ B He6e HB BblCOTe 86 KHnOMeTpOB H86mo,QanMcb CeeTJ1LUMBCR oDnsKB, n03BonRew~e HO%IO tlloTorpa¢MpoaBTb Inon MOCKBOI.7I) ~ l.urrBTb rsaersr B eBpone~cKMx CTonlo1LtBX (peanbHOCTb 7).

AKBAeMMK A.A. nonKaHoB. HBXO,llMBWMHCR rorna B C10151o1p~ Y'i8HbIM, YM8SWIo1H HaonlO,QBTb 101 TO'iHO tllI.1KCIo1- poaars yBI.1,Q8HHoe. aanacan B AHeBHMKe:

55

~-
10 KM B3pb18 uena» Ha BbICOTe
6O-8OKM O)l{or ny-teBOI"O ~
500kM BCnblWKA OI"HeHHaR Ha6J1IoAanacb
1200 KM 3BYK OT 83pb1B8 6wn cnbIW8H
400KM PA3PYWEHbl ~KM
45--60 KM BblBAn neca no plW'Iycy
200 1(8. 1<M BbIBAfl ~ neca
2paaa BOflHA cekMM'ieCKSA o6owna 3eMHOtil
wap
100 tXMPOCHMI aHEPf"WI B3pb1Ba uena,
«6ern.Ie HO'4MI It 3Af1A.QY H8 Eapo-A3HSTCKOM
KOHTMHeHTe. CeaepHotl A41PMK8. H8Jl
EeponOlilIo4 ATlI8HTH~
Eionee 100 nMIOTE3 w.tABMHYJO 0 nPMj)OAe B3pbIB8
C 1908 ro,Qa -rro 3TO 6bI11O? -1oW4Y1' OTBeT
100 neT HE PACKPbITA T8~ TYHfYCCKorO
«tleH0MeH8 «He60 nOKpbITO nnOTHbIM cnoeM TV .... nser AO>KAb, 1ft B TO )l(e cauoe BpeMR Heo6bt,+a~HO ceerno. Hacronsxo ceerno. "ITO. Ha OTlqlbITOM MeeTe MO)KHO AOSOIlbHO CSo- 6QAHO npo ... ecrs MenKillIll Wpll$T rasersi. nYHbt He AOn)kHO fiblTb. a TV ..... OCBe~eHbI K8K'-1M-TO )l(,eJlTO-3eneHblM, MHorAB nepe~OAflUUo1M B P030BbIl1. CBeTOM ... »

Ecnl.1 6bt 3TDT aaraAO"ftlblH caer. 3aMe"teHHbIH BK8- AeM~KOM A.A. nonKaHoBblM, 6bUl OTpa)l(eHHblM conaexHbtM caeTOM. OH 6bl ObU1 6enblM. a He )KemO-3eneHblM '-1 P030BbIM Ipeansaocrs 8).

CnycTR AeSRTHaA~aTb neT aKcneA~~~R Kyfl'-1Ka no- 6blsana Ha MeeTe KaTaCTprnpbl. PeaynbT8Tbl MHoroneTH'-1X nOHCK08 3Kcne.QIiI~II11A nepeASHbt B paccxaae «rOCTb 1113 KOCMOCa».

npeAnOnO>KeH~e 0 na.QeHHIiI B TYHryCCKOL1 rsare rpaH,Q10103HOrO MeTeOpMTa XOTR H Donee npHBbl ... HO. HO He 06bROHReT:

56

HLltKOI1A TECIlA 111 3Ar AAKA TYHrYCCKorO METEOPII1TA

- OTcyrCTBHe KaKMX-nM60 OCKOnKOB MeTeOpMTB:

- OTCyrcTBltte BOpOHOK IIU1M KpSTepa;

- cyu.teCTBOBaHMe B palltOHe KBTBCTPO¢Jbl (B 3nM~eH-

rpel CTOR"IerO necs:

- HanW-tM8 nacne B3pb1BB rpyKTOBbIX BOA no,Q A8B1leHMeM;

- q,OHTaH BOAbI. 6MBWHM nepB~e AtM nocne KaTaCTPOtJlbl:

- HeC"IBCTHble CJlY"IBM C aeeHK8M"'. no6blBaBwMMM B MeCTe KaTSCTpo¢}bt B nepBbIe AHM:

- YAMBMTellbH~ cpeHOMeH pocra yt.&BneaWMX M3-3a penbe$i MeCTHOCll1 AepeBbea. KOTOPble pecryr B neCRIb paa 6b1CTpee, "IeM npe>K,Qe, MIlItt TaK JKe 6bICTPO BblpaCTBIOT TaM BHOBb;

- CD,IlepJKStwie B rQAM"IHblX CIlORX cn~eHHbIX B paJiil- 0He KaTacTJXKI>~ AepeBbee PBAI40BKTMBHbIX 3JleMeHTOB. 8HeWHe KapTMHB TYHryCCKO~ KBT8C-rpOCPbl nonsoCTbJO cosnaaaer C KapTMHO~ 8TOMHQrO B3PbJB8 (peensHOCTb 9).

np9AnonOJKeHllle rssoro B3PbIBB B B03Ayxe HBA t8~ roJiil 06bRCHReT 06CTORTenbCTBa KaTacTp~~ cneAYKr ~M 06pB30M.

Jlac e LteHTpe croar HB KopHIO. nOCKonbKY BapblB npOM30WeJl H8 BblCOTe AD AeCRTH KHnOMeTpOB M B03- AYWHaR B011HB, PMHYBWHCb caepxy. aanMlla AepeBbR. KOrna Y.Qap npHxO,QW1CR no,Q yrnoM. a BepTHKanbHblM YABPOM aonaa nHWb cpusana Cy"lbR, OCTaanHR ,QepeBbR HS KOPHIO Ipeansaocre 10).

CBeTR~MeCR oenaxa - 3TO Aeli1CTBllle yneTeBWMX BBblCb OCT8TKOB PS,QHOBKTMBHoro BeU4eCTBa, npoaon>KBBWerO caoa pacnan B eepxHMx CIlOs:lX BTMoccpepbl (peanbHocTb 11).

BblnaBwHe Ha aeMnlO OCB,QKM pa,QHoaKn1BHorO BetUeCTBB BMeCle C COKaMM nonanana B AepesbR.. OTKJ18-

57

,QbIB8flCb B ro,qWiHOM en De, COOTBeTcTBYIOU4eM ·1908 - 1909 rOAaM. 3TH >K.e paAHoaKTMBHbte BeuteCTB8 CI1Y>KaT CTIitMynfiTopoM pOCTa nepeasee, -rro HHKeM He 06bJ.lCHfInoes {peanbHocTb 121.

nplit B03rOHKe - npeepaU{eHIitIit B nap Bcero 830- pS8BwerOCR seuiectsa. \IICKIllOyanaCb B03MO>KHOCTb HaXO>K,QeHlitfl KaKIitX-llIit60 OCTaTKOS saopaaaurernca rena Ipeansaocrs 13].

a03MO>KEH nM B3PI:rlB P~HOAKTMBHOrOMETEOPMTA?

HeT. H8e03MO)((eH.

8 MeTeop~ax BCTpe'"l8IOTCfI ace TB se148CTS8. KOTOpble HSXO,QRTCfI H8 3eMfle. CO,Qep)l(aHlite, CKa>KeM, yp8H8 B MeTeop~8x COCT8BllReT oxono ,QBYXCOTMlitnnIitSPAHOtll ,Qonlit np014eHT8 . .QnR lIenHoOt peaKl4t1flit R,QepHoro B3pblsa Tpe6YBTCR ypaH-235 Iitfllit nnyrOHIit~. He sCTPB'ialOl.L4Iit~CfI B npapone, nplitTOM B IifCKllIOYlitTenbHO '"IIitCTOM BIif,CIe. B3PblB HBIit36e)l(eH. ecna ypaH-235 IitIlIit nnyTOHIit~ 6yfJ.YT e KOnlityeCTBe 6011bweM, 'ieM KplitTlit4eCKaR M8cca, B3PblS8101.1.I8RCR C8MS no ceee, ECllIit 6bl TaKO~ Mereopar, AonycTIitM Ha Mt.1Hyry, no Kanplit3Y np"'poAbl o6pasoaenca rAe-TO BO BceneHHO~. OH AOll)KBH 6bll1 B30- pe8TbCR B nepBblOt Mlitr caoero CYI.1.l8CTBOBSHIitR [pesnbHOCTb 14}.

EcnH npennonoxan, R,CIepHbiOt B3pblB B TYH~CCKOOt raare B 1908 rOAY, nplitXOAHTCR AonyCTlitTb IitCKYCCTBeHHoe npOlllCXO>KAeHllle 830pa8BwerOCR Sel.1.leCTS8 (peanbHOCTb 15), KOTopoe Morno cnY>KIIITb TOfUMBOM KOCMlllyeCKOfO Kope611R C APyroA rlnaHeTbi. norepneeuiero 8sapllllO HSA T'fHryCCKO~ T8Otro~.

58

HVlKonA TEenA Vl3ArA,QKA TYHrYCCKDrO METEOPL-1TA

MO)l(HO nll1 CBR3ATb rM&Ena.

KOCMItt"lECKOrO KOPA6nR C MAPCOM?

I·hoobl nOATsepAl"Tb rasoe npeAnonQ)KeH~e. Hy>KHO He ronsxo npoaaanaaapoaars ace oecrosrenscrea TYHryCCKO~ «aracrporpei, HO ~ 3HaTb 0 Mapes MHOro 60nbwe, 'iBM Mbl 3HaeM.

no nO~C\.feTaM acrpOHBBwraTOpOB, 1 908 ron 6blI1 HeBbfrO,QeH AIls;! npS;!Moro npanera c Mapea Ha 3eMnlO. Ho ecn~ nerers Ha 3eMnIO xepea BeHepy, xcropaa KaK fibl nO,Qse39T Kopa6nb K 3eMne. TO 3TOT rOA, 1908-~, fiblfl caMblM BbfrO.QHbIM.

ECfllll npennonarars nOCel.l48HI.o18 IIIHonnaHeTRH C ,Qpyroa nnaHeTbl. TO lIIX 3893,QoneT He Mor onvcxarscs K 3eMne, OH Aon)l(eH fiblIl OCTaTbCR Ha OKon038MHoIiI opfifltT8. HanpaBlilB Ha noaepxaocre HBW9LiJ nn8HeTbl ~Ccne.QoeBTenbCKYIO«WmonKY») - ManbTLII KOCMVI"IeCKIII~ Kopafinb Ha S'I,QepHOM ronnaae, KOTOPbllll VI norVlfi, TaK 111 He OCYLLleCTBII1B KOHT8KT8 C 3eMJlflHaMIA. 8 TV nopy Y rue,Qe~ He fibtnO annaparoe AJlfl cne>KeHlAfi 38 VlCKYCCTBeHHblMIII cnyrHVlK8MII1 3eMIlVl. HIIIKTO He a8Men-tI1 '-ly)t(ennaHeTHbl1if aseanoner aa aKonoaeMHOVt opfililTe.

KAK &blnA BCTPE"IEHA rll1nOTE3A o rM6EnM KOPA&nA?

Ha nepasix napax nocne ny6mlKaUVlflt pacoxasa-renoreasi «BapbIS)} (19461. a acnsn aa TeM paCCKBa8 «Focrs 1113 Kocsaoca» (1951) Y"IeHble a6PC!AoBam1cb YBem1'ieHVlIO VlHTepeca K MeTeop~TVlKe. K TYHryCCKOMY MeTeOpHTy. Ho naTOM cneuaanacru no MeTeopmVlKe BO rnaee c npenceaarenev KOMVlT9T8 no MeTeopa.tTaM AH CCCP aKBAeM~KOM sr. <l>eeeHKoBblM ill Y<ieHbIM cexperapev E.n KPa.tHOBbIM 06bflB~nll1 TaKYIO rvnoreav

59

AHSTOIlMA MSKCMMOB

aHTHHaY'-IHO~ H noaena MaHOMepHylO oOPb6y C ee CTOpOHHMKaMM.

Ho He TO}1bKO ee CTOpoHHl4KH, HO H npOCTO mo003HaTenbHbla Yl.feHblS, 3aMHTepeCOBBBLUHCb 3araAKoIiI TYHryccxoro s:lBIleHMA, CTanH OprBH1ot30Bbl88Tb 3KCneAJr1lW1H B lYHryCCKylD Talilry. TaKHX 3KCne,QMLtM~ HaCI.fHTblBaeTCR C MOMeHT8 ny6m"K8LtHH paccxaaa HeCKonbKO AeCATKOB ... :3KcneAIo1I..\104H, KTO sa caoa C'-IeT, KTO BOHAR B aarmaaapcBaHHble SKcneAHLtMH nOA PYKOBOACTBOM AOBepeHHblX Y'-IeHbIX. HCKan", B raare onpOBep)I(etM~ \oml!1 nonraep>KAeHHR KpaManbHO., ranoreau.

Oc06eHHO S¢¢eKTHBHbI fibUlH MHorOKpaTHbie excne~"'HH BHIltIll reO¢H3HKH nOA PYKOBOACTBOM A.B. 3onoroaa, eMY aa pa60Tbi no Bbl~CHeHHIO nplllpOAbl TyHryccxoro B3pblBa 6blI1a npaceoeaa creness KaHAHA8T8 ¢lH- 3HKo-M8reMaTH'-IeCKHX HaYK. 30TOB ony6m.1I<OBBn MOHOrpa¢I.'f1D «npooneM8 TYHryCCKOl7l KaTacrpocpbl 1908 rona» , npeAIo1CflOB14e K KOTOpOl7l HanHC8HO BH14e-npe3HAeHTOM AH CCCP 8K8,QeMHKoM 6.n. KOHCT8HTHHOBbIM. B 3TO., paoore 8BTOP npV1xo,QIiIT K BbIBO,QY: lYHryCCKH., B3pblB Mor fiblTb Bbl3B8H J1II1Wb Bbl,QeneHHeM BHyrpeHHetit 3Hepnul BeLUeCTBa.

KaHAHAST ~1iI3Li1KO-MaTeMaTH'ieCKHX HayK S.H. Mexeaoa !lt3 06beAHHeHHoro HHCTHTyr8 R,QepHblX HccneAOa8HHH. Io1Sy"l8R sony B patitOHe TYHryCCKOIll xaracrpodia H8 paAH08KTHBHOCTb. TaK SaKaH"IHB,aeT CBOIO paOory: «JlpYrHMH CflOBaMH. Mbl CHOBa (KaK fibl t,paHTaCTHtteCKH STO HI/\ BblrflR,Qeno) B03BpaU-laeMCR K npeAnonO)!(eHlitlO ° TOM, '-ITO TYHryccKaR xatacrporpa Bbl3BaHa aaapHeL't KOCMH~eCKoro KopafinR. TonnHBOM .QJ1R ABHraTenR KOTOpore cnY)I{lIUlo aHlVlSBweCTBo» lropon .QyfiHa. 1 967).

K BbIBO,qy 0 nOBblWeHlI!lit co,nep>I<aHWl p8.QMOaKTHBHblX SeLtteCTB B rO,QH"IHbIX cnORX 1908-1909 rOAoB Y nepeasea B paaose l)'HryccKoro B3pblBa npHwnH 30TOB

60

HVlKonA TECIlA Lr13ArA,gKA TYHrvca<oro MffiOPlIITA

lit Y'faCTH~KH TOMCKOR 3KCneAVIU~IIt. YCTaHOBHBWHe T8M cpaKT MYTallHH nepeeses (CM. peansaocrs 12).

nOMHMO aroro, ycraHoBlleHo, "fTO 5aporp8MMa, a8:':" nHC8HHaR npH60paMH 30 HIOHR 1908 rO,QB B nOH,QOHe, HHKBK He noxOAMT H8 A'IIBrpaMMy X"'M", ... ecxoro B3PbIB8, a TOYHO BocnpOH3S0J;lHT KapnfHy R,QepHoro B3pblsa (CM. peanbHOCTb 9).

T eM He MeHee cneUHanHCTbI no MeTeOpHTaM npenno..,nH Bbl,QBHHYTb HOeytO rHnOTe3Y 0 TOM, '"ITO 8 s03Ayxe npoasouien rennoaoa 83pblB R.Qpa ne,QRHoPl KOMeTbl.

MornA nM B30PBATbCR nEAJlHAR KOMETA?

Cnop Me'IKAY cpaHT8CT8MH iii Y'"IeHbIMH ,QaBHO y"Jt<e CMeHWlCR cncposs M.e}I(,QY pa3Ilw'iHbIMH rpynnaMl'f y'ieHblX.

30TOB ,QOCKOHanbHO npoaaanaaapoeert B03MO)f(HOCTb B3pblSS ne,QRHoR KOMeTbl, H8 KOTOpoR HSCTalitBan 8Ka,qeMHK S.r. (J)eceHKoB ill APyrHe pa60THiI'IKH KOMmeTa no MeTeOpHTaM. Oxeaenocs, 'iTO rennoaoa B3pblB - MrHOBeHH8R B03r~HK8 KYCK8 nbAS - B03MO)f(Ha 38 cser ynnoTHeHHR B03Ayxa nepen neTRll.IHM neARHblM TenOM nHWb B TOM c.nY"Iae, Kor,Qa CKOPOCTb ero npeasauaer 40 KH110MeTpoa B ceKYH,Qy.

Kasoea xe 6blflS nOAflHHHaR CKOPOCTb TyHryccKoro Tens?

TpeMfl paanW'IHblMH nymMH 6blfla nonyseaa OAHa III ra xe LtHcj:lpa nopRAKa 1-1 ,S KHIlOMeTpa B ceKyHJW. 06 3TOM rOBopHT TO, 'iTO Te110 O,QHOBpeMeHHO BHAem1 III cnsuuana, a 3TO ...,Cl<J1lOyanOCb npH CKOPOCTRX nopR,QKa 40 III 60nee KlllnoMeTpoB B ceKYHAY, KaK C"IHTanOCb npe)!(Ae ..., keK rpeeoeanocs AnR nOATBep)l(,QeHIIIA KOMeTHOH r...,nOTeSbl (peBnbHOCTb 161.

61

AH8Ton~1iI MaKCIIIM08

Xepaxrep BblBana neca nOKBablaBeT. "4TO T8M H8nO)l(WlHCb peaynb T8Tbi BOaAe~CTBHR ,QBy>( eOJ1H: BapblBHOH H 6aMHCTWiecKoilt. 30TOB cyMen onpeAemtTb AMIO 6anmtCTVI"4eCKolit BonHbl OT B3PbIBHOiil, B 3HBR Sen ..... fIo1Hy. xap8KTepH3ylO~ylO S3pb1B. YCT8HOSHn CWly OannHCTH"4ecxoa aOIlHbI H CKOpOCTb nerauiero rena - AO 1.6 KHIlOMeTp8 e ceKYHAY [peansaocre 17).

He38BHcVlMO OT 30TOBB MHoroKp8THO 101 crporo H8- y"4HO nonouien K aonpocy 0 CKOPOCTIA ryHryccKoro rena 1013B9CTHbilii 83poAHHaMHK IA BBHBKOHCTPYKTOP Vl3 rpynnbl cosaarens cepa ... caMoneTOB AHTOHOB8. 8BTOP a8Me48- TenbHblX coeeTCKWX nn8HepoB A.ID. MOHOLtKOB.

OOp8ooTBe nOKaaaHHR orpoMHoro 4V1cnB 04eBVI,Ques - pecnOH,QeHTOB lI1PKyrCKOfoi ODcepeBTopWH, OH nonpoeoean onpenenars CKOPOCTb, C KBKOIii neren npennonaraeMbl1il «MeTeOpVlT» H8.Q pa3HbIMVI paliiOHaMVI CH6HPIA. A.tO. MOHOLtKOB COCTaBWl Kapry, HaHecS! TpaeKTOpt.11O nonera t.1 BpeMSI, B xaxoe «MeTeOpllfT» OblIl 3aMe"teH 04eB~.QLt8MW B pa3nW-IHblX TOLjKaX TpaeKTopHVI.

COCT8aneHHaS! A.Kl MOHOLtKOBblM K8pT8 npVlBOAWlB K HeO)l(VI,QaHHbIM BbIBOAaM: «MeTeopVlT» nponeran HB.Q 3eMHolii noeepxaccrso, TOp M 0 3 R ... OH Bbll.llllCmm CKopOCTb. C xornpoa «MeTeOpVlT» OK83anCR Hall MeCTOM B3PblBB B ryHryCCKoliI raare, VI nonYLjVlJl 0.7 KWlOMeTpa B ceKYHAY (2520 KM B 4ac). a He KaK 110 roro C'iIATanllt- 40-60 KlllflOMeTpoB B ceKYHAY. CKOPOCTb 3Ta nplA6nVl)l(aeTCS! K CKOPOCTIA nOIleTa peaKTIo1BHoro CBMoneTB 101 conOCTBSIIIMB C Bbl'-l1<tcneHWRMIA 3oTOBB (peanbHocTb 1 B).

Ha OCHoeBH£iWI cacea KBpTbl A.tO. M()HOllK08 npauien K BbIBO,QY. "ITO 3eMnS! B nuue TYHryCCKOIiI KBTBCTPOCPbl iI1MeeT neno C «neTaTenbHbJM 8nnapBTOM», TO ecrs c Me}l(nnBHeTHblM KOCMIA'-teCKIAM Kopa6neM.

EcnH Obi MeTeOplitT ynan H8 nOBepXHOCTb 3eMflH C rsxoa Hli1'-1TO)f(HOL1l CKOPOCTblO, TO, t.1CXOA~ 1013 BblBO,Qoe

62

HVlKonA TECJlA VI 3M A,QKA TYHrYCCKorO METEOPIIfT A

aapOAHH8MHKH. nony"laeTc~: 'tT06bl npoaasecrv H86ntOA8eMble pa3pyweHH~ B TaHre. cooTBeTCTsYtOl14l.1e B3PblBy M~MHOHa TOHH fJ3PbIB'iSTOro BeLL.leCTBa, OH AOn)l(eH 6btn Obi 06naAaTb Maccoiit He B MIMlTIHOH. KaK C"'WfT8IlOCb. a B MWUlwapA TOHH ~ no MeHbLUeiit Mepe KIMIOMeTpOM B nonepe-mase, no CBHAeTenbCTSY O'ieBHA~eB. sroro He 6btnO . .oa H AflR 3eMfllli 3TO 6bl.08 Obi KaTacTpolPl.1'ieCKa~ scrpexal

CoBn8.QeHMe pac .... eTOB no CKopOCnt 30T08a H A.IO. MOHOl$08a - 3TO cepses-use apryMeHTbl npOWIB 3a~BnBHlAiit nplABep)l(eH~eB «MeTeoplltTHoiit ranoreasi» C ee KOMeTHoiit COCTaBJ1R~iit. OHI.1)Ke HIAKaKVlX paC'iBTOB no cxopocra He npoBoAWlH.

~ Ka3aH~eB. nMcaTenb-~aHTaCT. p~AaHa ... anbHHK mo60nbITHoiit rIAnOTe3bl 0 nplltWeIlb\.\ax B KOCM\II"teCKOM xopaone. c rape'iblO rOBOpl.1T 0 COBpeMeHHOM 81A,[IeHIAIA npa6neMbl TYHryCCKOiit KaTaCTpOlpbl co CTOPOHbl PRA8 y ... eHbIX: «npVlXOAIiITC~ nopaxersca, "lTO B HaY ... Hb1X lItCcneAOBaHI.1~X y ... eHble. paAH 3aLLtHTbI C80lilX nepaosa- 48JlbHO BblCKa3aHHbiX B3rnRAOB, npeHefiperalOT ,[IOCTOSepHblM104 q,8KTaMIA. lAX onpOBepraIOl.~HM"'».

KaH,QIA,QST Hayt<. Ao~eHT MAL11 qUO. 3wenb. Aa8~iit CTOPOHHIAK rl.1nOTe3b1 0 RAepHOM aapeiae B TyHryCCKOiit raare, nowen nansuie AJO. MOHOLlKoe8 B aaanase KSpTbl nonera ryHryccKoro rena OH y6e.QHTenbHo noxaaan: «reno». nponeraa C lOrA Ha cesep Me>KAY KaHCKOM H IIIPKyrCKOM, Ha,Q Ke>KMOiit pesxo nosepayno Ha BOCTOK (era B~.QenlA s flpeo6pa>KeHCKB, B AByxcrax KH110MeTpax H8 BOCTOKe OT MeeTa B3pblBa). K 88Hasape «Ten 0» nOAnereno C BOCTOka, B30PS8BWlACb B 60 kl.1nOMeTpax K ceeepy OT aee (peanbHocTb 19).

T8KI.1M o6paaoM nony ... eerca, '1TO erenos ABlAranOCb K MBCty csoea rlA6enIA C lOrA, a nOA11BTeJ1O C BOCTOKA.

63

AHaTOIIH~ MaKCHMOB

BbIBOA: nOAo6Hbllll M8HeSp ~ OTMe"teHHOe A.IO. MOHOlIKOBblM TOpMOJKeHll'le cnocoeea npOIl'l3SeCTII'I. KOHe'"lHO, He MeTeOpII'IT. a nll'lWb neTaTenbHbl1i'l ennepar, nIl'lnOTII'IpyeMbl1ll ~II'I TeneynpaBJlR8Mbllil!

vnOPHblE nOIt1CKM.

MOAEnIt1POBAHIt1E. HOBbiE rlt1nOTE3bl

K Bapll'laHTY ranoreast «BOCTO'"lHOrO nOAITeT8» npawnll'l pafiOTHIo1KIo1 KOMLneTB no MeTeoplo1T8M AH CCCP 1I1roPb 30TKII'IH 11'1 Mll'lxall'ln UIo1KynIl'lH.

OHII'! nsrranacs BOCnpOll'l3BeCTII'I paaasn AepesbeB H8 MOAe.nll'l, rAe B3pblB VlMIo1TIl'lPOBBnCR fiIl'lK4>OPAOBbIM WHypOM. nplo1 HeKOTopOM nOnO)KeHII'III'I wHypa H8TblK8HHbie BHll'lay cnWi KII'I , II'IMliffitpylOutll'le AepeBbR T8Y1rlll, paaeanasanlllCb CXO)KlIIM 06pa30M C Aeli'lcTBII'ITenbHOIil KapTII'IHOIii xaracrporpu. Flpasna, yron HaKnOHa wHypa BblOll'lpanCR nooaaeonsao 11'1 Obrn KPyr, '-ITO He COOTBeTCTBOBano H8- 6nlO,Q8HII'IRM O'"l8BII'I,QL4eB. no CBe)K~M nOK83aHIo1RM, CP83Y nocne K8TaCTpOQJbr rpaexropaa olleHIo1S8I1aCb M8Hee AecRTIo1 rpanvcca. TaK K8K KPyrOt.1: yron na,QeHIAR rena II1CKnIO'-Ian B03MO>KHOCTb BlI'IAeTb ero HB 3H8'"1I1'1TenbHOM YA8neHlIIII1 OT MeCTa sapuea. B caoax onbIT8X asropu «CO WHypOM 11'1 Cm1'-1K8MIo1)} 3TII1MlII CeeAeHII'IRMII'I npeaeoperna.

YY8Hbl8 38 OKeaHOM; 8M8PlllK8HL4bl 1113 1I1Hcn1TyT8 TeOp1ll1!1 OTHOCII'ITeI1bHOCTII'I ,Q>KeKCOH VI P8Ii1H. He nOOblB8e B TYHrYCCKoli1 T8Li1re II'! He 03H8KOMIo1BWIo1Cb C AeT8I1RMII'I MHOrO'"lViCneHHbIX IiIccne,QoBaHlIIllI, B3S:In\ll H8 aoopyxeaae onsrrs: {(C 61i1KCPOPAOBbiM WHYPOM». Onapasce, Ha O,QIiIH 1113 BblBOAOB esropoa MOA8I1\11 TYHrYCCKoliI K8TaCTpOQ:lbl1l'l Kpyrolil yrOI1 H8KnOH8 DIiIKCPOPAOS8 WHYP8, BblASII'IHynll'l HOSYIO 3KCTpaS8raHTHYtO runoresv 0 TOM, '-ITO TYHryccxoe reno fibIflO ... «'"IepHOIii AbIPOIiI».

Gyrb ranoreau B TOM, '-ITO ({'iepHaR Abrpa» - 3TO

64

HV1KonA TEenA VI 3Ar A,QKA TYHrvCCKDrO METEOPIt1T A

Kannanc~pOBaBwaR KorAB-To AO pa3MepOB n~~HKIII 3Be3,QB, oonaaeer r",rSHTCKOM MBceo"'. 111 OHB RKOtlbl npOWWla 3eMHoM wap HaCKB03b.

HeYBR3KM ManOO6ocHoB8HHOro BbISO,Q8 BMepHKaHCKIIIX y"'leHblX OlfeI!lHAHbl. B nOlllCK8X nO,qTBep)l(,QeHHfI caoea nmOTB3b1 CHili Hll.IYT cBII1,QeTenbcTB8 co6brr"'~ H8 nnoraaononoxaoa CTOPOHB 3eMfllll. B oxeeae, BBABTCR onpoc CBHABTenBIit Ha DOPT}' K0pa6~ 1.11 3anLIICH 8 cYPPBblX )l(ypHaIl8X - 0 MOMeHTe BbU1era rlbIlJHHKH-« "fepHOH ,QbIPbl) 1.113 oKeBH8.

4TO rOBopLIIT nporas «aMepMK8HcKolit rMnOTe3b1».

OHM, cne~M8n~c~ no TeopLIIM OTHOCIIITenbHOCTM. npeH~6peralOT TeM ¢J8KTOM. "'ITO Aeno He B pa3~epBX m~1- I1l1SHKM. ecna ,QB>Ke .QonYCH1Tb ee cyuiecraoaaaae, a B TOM. 4TO Macca ee ,Qon>KH8 npeesuuare HBMHOro Maccy ... ConH~8. 111 He «npowwra» Obi 3T8 rpaH.QOO3HaR rpaeera~MOHH8fI Macca H8Wy 3eMI1IO. a ... 8crynMB 80 B38HMOAelitcTBHe c 3eMI1eH, {{,Qblpa-nbmMHKa» COIllI1B "Obi ee C OPDMThI BDKpyr C0I1H148. He rosops 0 APyn1x K8T8KIlH3- Max ...

3f&.t 8MepMK8HCKIIIB Y'ieHble He DbIl1L11 nepBblMM B BbI,QBLII}I(eHMM ranorea 0 TyttryCCKOM ¢leHOMeHe. HotieneeCKlile naypeaTbi KOy3H H fl ... 6DIII Ha ,Q8CRTOK 118T paHbwe B~raJlM npe,Qn0I10>KeHHB. -rro TYHryCCKYlt.l B3pblB ObIT} 8HHHnMlfu.tlllelit 3eMHoro Bell.lBCTB8 M KOCMVI"lBCKOro 8HH1BeUlecTBa. He BeAb K TaKHM >KB BbIBO,QBM npHWBI1 Mexenos 1113 .Qy6Hbl. npBB,QB. OTHOCfI 3TO BHTHSetl.leCTBO He K npVlpOAHOMY MeTeopMTY. 8 K Tonl1~By HeBeAoMoro KOCMH4ecKoro KOpaOI1f1.

II1HTepec K 3arBAKe TYHryCCKOro ¢>eHOMeHB. nHcan K838Hltee, He OCl1aOeB8eT. KOHB~HO. TPYAHO np!.13H8Tb. 'iTO Mbi HMeeM ABI10 He npOCTO C flBneHHeM nplilpO,Qbl. a C pe3ynbTaTOM %e"'-TO P83YMHOH AefITBJlbHOCT!.1. OAHaKO B H8W!.1 AHH (1976 rOA), xorna C06I11paIOTcsu~ceM~p-

65

HbIe KOHq:,epeH4"l.t no noSo,qy caRs.. C BHB3eMHblMM U&.tBWlM3a1..4HRMM. OT6pacbtBBTb 683 paC~ TBKtWt Bap~aHT 6bUlO 6b! Hetlayl.fHD. MHeHl.te nlilCaTeJ1R-4JaHT1r era liI erc OAHOAYMuea: OkOH'iaTeJlbH08 peweHlite npo- 6n9Mb1 OCT88TCH as 6ecnplilCTpaCTH~ -H8yKO~!

YTO HOBoro s~CK83an KB38H~ea B CB~ HOB~ KHlitfe 0 TYWYCCKoVI K8T8CTPCKPe? Paaae "JOnbKO: «1pRCn~b non~». "AB8 TOn'"ll(8l, «LiIotT8Tb ra3eTbI B napllt)Ke» ... KOHe'"lHO. He 3TO rna SHoe.

1113 l.feTbipex rlilnorea, paCCM8TpIIm8eMbIX B ro,n 70-nen'R TYHryccKOro ¢>eHOMeHa. omena cPaKTHl.feCIOt fleccnDpHO n'lnOTe38 «YAaP8 0 S8M1llO MeTeopMT8». «MeTeoPlo1THIr1KIit» Bee elite Aep)K8TCR 38 r~noTe3y «B3PbIS R.QP8 neAAHO,", KOMeTbI». pacrar CTOPOHHIitKOB rlitClOTea8 «B3pb1B8 RAepHOfO TOMlitB8 Ha 60PTY KOCMWieCKoro KOpa6nR». nepewarHyna a8 oxeas n'lOOTea8 06 8HTII1Se~CTBe. npas,qa. He B Ka'iecTBe «TOl"lffitsa» AIlR 3se3,Q0- neT8 ...

Cs~eTenbCTB e OOATSepJK.Q6HliIe nmOTe3b1 0 R.QepHOM aapsiae CT8HOBII1TCR B cpene Cepbe3HbIX y~eHblx ece 6onbWe. 3a {(TenD» B3MIitCb cnei..U'18JlL1CTbl no asooAJIIH8t&tKe.

J:lo sere xe y6eAmenbHO. XDTeJ10Cb SeplitTb MHe: 3KcneAlII~litlit. 3KCneplitMeHTbl, .QOK838TsnbcTsa .. , Ho OAH03Ha'iHOCTIf1 ~A8») W\lo1 «HeT» 8 OTHOWeH\.11.1 AByx none>KeHli!1ft 0 RAepHOM acneere B3PblS8 noxa He npOCM8TPlileaercs. VlTaK - RAepHblLil B3pblB K.8K TaKOBO~ Iif RAepHbliiI 83pblB H8 60pry KOCMIII!.feCKoro Kopa6nR npHWeJ1bLteB?

'" '" .

8 4'1TanbHOM sane 6H6nlr1OTeKlil CltHCnnyra AeCftTKH r83eT 6blJ1li1 B MoeM paCnOpR)lceH~H. 04eHb CKOpO xoe- 4TO «no TeMe» CT8J10 nona,qaTb B MOW pyKliI. B STO"; pyKOnt.1CIr1 R 06pau.w BHliIMBHIo1e Ha HBKOTOpbte M3 HMX, ny4-

88

H~Ko.nA TECJlA VI 3Ar AAKA TYHrvCOKOrO METEOPmA

we aoero MMIOCTpMp'f1OU4M8 npMsep)l(8HHOCTb y .. eHbUI nM60 OTJ»1l'8HiI'Ie p83J1WtHbIX fWIOTe3 0 TYHf"YCCKOM 4:leHOMeHe.

CaM )l(e lO6MneAHb,Q! rnA. 1978-A. He np&llHec ceHCB,-,,,,A - B OCHOBHOM Wflil'l nOBTDpb1 III nepenesbi V)I(S H3-

eeCTHb!X,CBBAeHM~. " ".: ')11 ,-'

06cTORTBnbHaH cTaTbH, TO~ee. OI5Wi4PH~ o ... epx «HB TeM\'». OKasancA Y MeHfl B PYK8X B 1979 fOAV npAMCl i113 "'3ABTenbCTB8 «nmep8lypHSR rsseras.

C HeCKonbKMMH ee COTPYAHIIIK8MiII Ha pa3Hbix ypOBHAX MeHR CBR3ana MCTOpil'lA, KOTOpaA 60flbwe ObUl8 noXQ)Ka HS wnMoHcKMt1! ,QeTeKn1B. 8 HB'"Iane npeAbIAYlllero roAS - 1978-r0 - 38KOH'flllflacb MHOroneTHRR KoHTtJpaaBeAblBaTenbHaA onepa'-'MR no npCJn1B060pCTBY C OAHGH H3 aan8AHbIX cne,-,CJ1Y)Ko, B KOTOpoA MHe npHWflocb SblcTYnaTb B penH ... «npeA8TenR» Moera OTe'feCTSa - TItKoe B .lkM3HM paasElJ:l'-fHKa 6b1BBeT. He '-faCTO. HO 6b,saeT.

PeweHo 6btnO npenars rnaCHOCTIll HeKOTopble oco- 6eHHoCTH pa60TbI aanaAHblX cne~ny)l(6 nporaa coserCKIIIX rpB>KA8H 38 py6e)KOM.

B «nr» AOn)l(eH OblJl nORB~bCR 6onbwoJit. Ha ,-,enylO CTPSHHIIY. O'"lepK, «C08BTOPOM» xoroporo oxaaanca R B CWly q,aKTa y ... aCTIIIR B onepauaa «CXBaTK8» B KaYBCTBe OCHOBHoro $-trypaHTS.

O ... epx rOTOBlo1I1 OAIltH 1113 RpKIiIX )f(ypHanIilCTOB til nacaTeneA BoeHHoro til nocneBoeHHoro BpeMeHt.1 ApKaAIIIH CaxHIIIH (HernaCHbiJit «COasTOp» TPWlorlllH caesoro Hawero reacexa neOH~Aa VI"b~'"Ial. 8 06l14eH~1iI c Apk8AHeM ~KoBneBw .. eM )I{~3Hb nonopocane MHe B03MO)l{HOCTb YBIII.QeTb (lit nouiynars) 1113HyTplo1 «KYXHIO» nO,QrOTOBKIII 06beMHoro o-epxe: onpoc y ... acTH~KB C06b1T~R. ortiop M8rept.1ana, ablCTpaltlBBHltle CIO)Kera, peccreaosxa 8K,-,eHrOB, nOAoop Y,Q8YHbIX ¢lpaa 14 cnoe ...

~ noceran APKBAiotR CaXl-lItIH8 HB ynlll,-,e Kpacaoap-

3'

67

MeACKOA, LITO PRAOM C MBTpO «CoKo.n». B era B AOMe euie ,QOBoeHHott, CDnH.QHO". CT8nm-tCKoro BpeMeHIII noCTpOIfllKII1. CynpyrB APKBAHR 51KoaneBH'ia y6bt118 tiS .Qa'iY B «MeKKY rwtcaT~» nep~r

Mbi TPYAIIUlHCb no BoceMb-ASCRTb '-IaCOB B AeHb.

B36a,QplllSSR, ce6R PYCCKIIIM nplileMOM. 1iO He TpaAIIIL4MOHHblU14 «HapKOMOBCKIIIMII1 CTa rpSMM8MIo4», 8 Map0'iHbIM KOHbs:lKOM, nYCTble 6yn~I1lKIII KOTOPorO 6b11l111 CBHJleTeAAMII1 HaWlIIX TBOP'-IeCKHX YClllnlltM HB nonplll~e )l(VPHaIl14- CTlilKlII.

KaK H ObU1 6naroABpeH cYAb6e, KOTopaR npenonsecna MHe aror ({TpelC,llHeBHblIIt ceMIIIHSp no TeXHlIIKe ps60TbI )l(YPHanlllcTB-nIllCBTBnR»!

T8K BOT. Lfepea roA R yB~ ApKaAMR fiKOBfleBIII'-IB B AOMe )KvpHanHcTOB, rAe SI ({06MblBan» 3Be3AOLjKIII KanKT8HB nepsoro pasra. B KOPOTKOM paaroeope R noceTOBan eMy: ynycTWl, Man, 1113 «n~1TepBlYpK14» 601lbWO~ O'-I8pK 0 TyHl)'CCKOM tl>eHOMeHe. TaK B Moell!. «KOMeKLtllllo1» OKB38IlaCb cepseaaea CT8TbR no A"CKyCe&.ilo1 «Ha TeMY».

B 1979 rOAY HB HaY'iHOH cpeae «nlltTeparypHolfl ra- 3eTbI» B Mae sorperanace y'iBHbIe 14 >KYPHBnHCTbI, Cpe.Q1iI KOTOPbtX HenocpeAcTBeHHoe Y'-lBCme np~Rmt C03,QaTenlil TenecpWlbMa «TaMHa» iii }KypHaJlIilCT «nr»,

B MapTe YKB38HHoro rona B nepeaa-e «O"iBSI.\I:IHOeaeaeposraoe» Obl1l nOKS3SH cneuaansao CHRTbIH Qllil.nbM 06 1i13Y"ieHIltIil RenBHIiIR. 1i138BCTHoro B ~pe KaK «TYHryCCKlIIlit 4leHoMeH». S npouie roaopa, «TYHryCCK8A KaTaCTpoma», 310T cpV'lflbM. nocTpOeHHblJ.1 K8k H8y~H8R AIiICKyCCLotfi (8 HeM npLIIHRnIil Y'18CTllle HeCKonbKO yyeHb4X). nocny)l(Lotn n080AOM AJ1R nOfiSneHLotR nYOJ1HKaWIiIIiI 8 BLotAe ALot8- nora Me)I(,QY aK8.QeMIiIKOM r. nerpOBblM (O.QHLIIM 1i13 )"'IaCTHlo1KOB cpHnbMa) 1II KoppeCflOHABHTOM «nr». K8H,QHA8TOM TeXHWieCKl-1X HByK LIl. 6yOHOBbIM.

IIITSK, TeMa A~CKyCCH"': «TYHrvCCKS4" MeTeopm-: ra~H8, aara,QK8. 3BA8'i8 ... ».

68

HLr1KOIlA TEenA Lr1 3Ar A.QKA lYHrYCCKoro METEOPlIIT A

6Y6H08: HBl18HLte, HS3b188eMoe TYHl)'CCKMM MeTeOp~TOM, MHe npBACTaanReTCQ BbI3OBOM HByKe. ):lOCTOBepHOCTb <jlBKT8 He nO,QBepraerCR COMH8HKRM - MeCTO lit epeMA onpe.QeneHbI TO'iHO, opraHM3OB8HO OKono ABBAl\ant 3KcneAJ!tl\M~ K anHLteHTpy B3pbl88, npOBBAeHbl onpocs, MHO)l(ec-ma O'ieBlltAAee, nDCT8BneHbl ~ Hble 3tC'cnepHMeHTbI B nafioparopHA)(, a pesynbT8T - O,QHH ranoresu. V1 3TO - 'iepe3 CBMbAeCm ner nacne 00- Ilbm1R!

Tene¢lItnbM «Ta9lHs», B KOTOPOM HSUJJ18 OTp8}l(8HMe Sawa TO"'lKa 3peHHA, ronseo nogreep,QHna 3TO. Gonee roro, HI4 OAHa TO'iKB apeHI4A B ¢H11bMB He OKa38l1aCb y6eAKTBnbHeB npyfl4X.

nETPOB: He 3H81O, KaKoe Bne'iaTIteH~e B03HMkSeT y Tene3pl4TeneA. HO. H8 Mm"t S3mRA. C 3m .. AaneH~M Bee .QOCTaTOYHO ACHO.

3SpefHCTpMp0BaHHbUi, BblSBn nee a nan B03MO)l(HOCTb OlleHlfTb BblAenMBWYK>C~ npH B:JpWB8 3HepntlO H CKOPOCTb ,QEWI)I(eHMR 6onM,Q8. V1cxOAA 143 roro. '"ITO TenD nOl1HOCTblO 38TOPM03HI1OCb B BTMoccpepe. ycTSHOBHl1H, YTO nnOTHOCTb Be~CTBa Tena 6b~a OyeHb He6onbwo91 - nopA,QKa OAHOII! COTOft rpaMMS HS Kym.,'iecKMIiI CaHTHMB-rp. 3ro 03H8'1SeT. 'iTO reno HMeno PbOO1YIO CTpyKl)'PY, OblIlO nOAOOHblM CHe)l(HOMY KOMY.

O ... eHb HH3KBR nnOTHOCTb 06bRCHAeT. no"teMY Bbl,QeneHlI4e 3HeprHH np01.il30UJno MrHOSeHHO ~ B03HlltKIlO rtpencraaneaae 0 B3pblBe. OrCIOA8 )l(e aerrexaer, 'iTO reno He Morno 6bITb MeTeopHTOM B np~BbI'iHOM nOHHMBHHH.

MeTeop~TbI - 3TO )l(ene3Hble HflH KaMeHH~e rena 6onbwoli! nnOTHOCTH. III nOTOM - rAe aCTaTK~ TYHryCcxcro MeTeop~Ta? rAe xparep? vtx HeT! A pS3 TaK, TO, 6e3 BCRKlltX COMHeHlIffl, 3TO Morna DblTb ronsxo KOMeT8,

89

RAPO KOTOPO~ BOWllO S aTMoc4>epy 3eMflH ~ «SSOPSBflOCb. H8 BbtCOTtl HeCgonbK&.1X KHnOMeTpOB ...

6Y6HOB: Ho ~~am1CTb1 no KOMeTBM CLtHTBIOT, 'iTO RAPO KOMeTbl, COCTORLl..tee H3 3acTblSWlAX ra30S, AOCTaTO'iHO MOnroe - B ,QeCRTb IAnl.1 ,Qa>Ke B CTO paa 6~e ~"''''cneHHoro BaM"'?

~ .t<'j • - _

nETPOB: «r onoBy» KOMeTbI -titlKTO euie B6m13t.1 He

B"'Ael1 .. He H3M&pRll. ~ ysepeH, '-ITO, xorna 3TO YASCTCR C,QeI1STb, npe,QCTaaneHHe 0 npMpo,Qe KOMeT npl.1,QeTCR nepecaorpers. 80 BCRKOM cnY'-Iae, B Co.nHeLtHO~ CHCTSMe HaaepHRKa npMcytCTBytOT He TOl1bKO TBepAble 101 neARHble, HO H Pblxnb18 rena.

6Y6HOB: C Sawe" TQ'-IKOIIt apeHL1R cornauiaorca A8IleKO He ace Y"feHblB. Hexoropue H3 HHX BbICKa3b1BanL1Cb B TenetP~nbMe. He HCKJ1IOLtaeTCR ,Qa>Ke rHnOTe38, cornac-o KOTOpoLil <nyHryc» 6b1Jl lilcKycCTBeHHblM KOCM~'-IeCKlilM Te.nOM, TO ecrs, no CBf"O,QHRwHelit TepMl.1HonontH, HDO.

nETP08: HnO? lI1cKyccTeeHHoe TeIlO? HeT, 3TO npoCTO '-IYWb! ,QOCY)f(BR BbIAYMKa. s:I 3HalO, KBK B03HHKfla, MRrKO roaopa, HeHaYYHBR aepcas 0 KOCMH'-IeCKOM HHOIlJlBHeTHOM xopetine.

Jler ,QS8,Q1..\8Tb HB3B,Q ee B wyTKy BblCKB3Bn OyeHb yea)KaeMbllit MHOIO} HblHe nOKOVlHbl1it npodieccop M. TII1- XOHpBBOB. OHa -ryr xe 6blIlB nOAXBayeHB rtonynapaaaroPOM o. JlRnYHOBblM, B aaTeM nepexoxeaana Ha CTpaHII1- I...\b! npOH3BeAeHL1s:1 nacarena-rbaaracra A. Kaaaaueae.

He, cornacerecs, eCJlIl1 q,aHTBcH1KB Ha3blBBeTCs:I HayLtHoLII, B Helit ,Qon>KeH npacyrcrsoean, K8K MVlHHMyM 3AP8BbiLil CMbICIl.

CnpaBKa. ,qHCKYCCI.1R seAeTCR B 1979 roAY.

M. Taxoapasca nouiyran B 1959-M, a Ka3aHI...\eS nOAHRn TeMY e 1 946-M III npOAOIl>KVln B 1 951-M III TaK .QBJ1EIe?!

70

HLIIKanA TECllA VI 3AfAAKA TYHrYCCKcro METECA1TA

6Y6HOB: Ho 83pb1B no MOtJ.lHOCll1 COOT8eTCTBosan O"leHb KpynHOMY repuoRAePHOMY 3aPAAY. no MO~M nplttKItt.QKaM, > nOIlY"IaeTCs:! nOpR,QKa 25 MeraTOHH.

nETPOB: ,[la. .OAH8KO B3PblB8 He 6bl110 - HH oAHa 3KCneA~UItt~ He 3aperlttCTp~pOBBJ1a nOBblWerlHOrO ~OHa pa~lttaulttltt B6n~31tt anlttueHTp8. >U1MWfBCKIttIii )l(e aapRA T8KOH MOlllHOCTIof B TOM 06beMe np~CTaBIttTb ce6e HBB03MO}I(HO.

II1cKyccTBeHHb11ii oObeKT

IIICKIlIO"teH cTOnp04eHTHo! A AKaA8MMK reopr~ 1Il88HOBM'"I

Bo061.14e roeepa, ntnOTB3Y neTP08.

MO>ICHO Bbl,QSMHYTb mo6ylO.

BOT 8MepHK8H4bI ~OAYMa-

nHCb ,Qa>Ke AO roro. "4TO 6YATO 6bl118 npOCKO"4IttBWaR CKB03b 3BMnIO «"IepHaR Ablpa».

6Y6HOB: ~HorA8 XO'"leTCR, I.fT06bl 6blTla XOTb KaKaAHH6YAb HIIITOLtK8. CBA3bIBalO~ Hac C A8l1eK~MH MMpaM~. n03TOMY HeMHO)l(KO )KBnb, ",TO 3TO He 6bm KOCMWieCKHIiI npauieneu XOTH B ABHHOM cnYl.fae 6bl110 6bl >Kaflb C8MlttX npauiensuee. 6bl110 6bl JlY"fwe, ecna rocnt 3eMnltt He B3pbIBSnIllCb y ee 3eMHOVI nosepXHOCTJ.1 C T8Kolii CHnOIii.

,QonYCTHM, 'iTO 3TO 6b1fl8 KOMeTa. Ho BeAb KOMeT acTPOHOM8M H3BeCTHO ,QOSOflbHO MHoro, oxono weCTHCOT. TeM He MeHee HH OAHS ... 3 Hf,IIX, cornaCHO paC'ieT8M HX Op6111T, HHKor,Q8 He yrpo)l(Bfla CTonKHOBeHHeM C 3eMOe".

HSCKOflbKO yt-IHKaJlbH08 RaneH~ npoasouinc B 1908 roAY? CAseTcR. 'iTO eeposraocre ero CTOJlb M8I18. -rro -

71

KBJ( n.-.can C. neM - era npocro He ObInO. 111 TeM 60nee HeT CMblCJla noSToPRTb ero nOBTOpeHHA.

nETPOB: 3TO Morna Obi OblTb O~eHb ManaR KOMeTa, He Ha6moAaeMaA aCTpOHOMaMlit. Ho C .Qpyrolii CTOPOHbl, OHa AOCTaTO"iHO BenMKa. 'iT06b.1 eepOATHOCTb ee nonaA~!i~A B. ~~Cl(» 3eMnH 6bma BbIW8 onaoro paaa B HeCKonbKO ThlCR'" ner,

BbICIC8>Ky npe.qnOJ1o}t(eHHe. '-ITO 3eMnR aaana 3H8- KOMCTBO He c O.QHOlrl KOMeToM, nOA06Ho~ 3TO~. OTKYAaTO Be,Qb npOH30wnH see 3TYI nereHAbl 06 orHeHHblX 3MeHX. ,qpesHerpe'-leCKHJiI M~¢ 0 Cl:la3TOHe. PyccKaR CK8SKa 0 3Mee rOpblHbl'-le. l.fTO-TO AomKHO 6b1T1o cny'i~bCfI Ha caMOM nene, 'iT06b1 B03H~KflVl 3TH ~CTOp~Vl. l.fenoeBK HWiero He npHAYMbIBaeT "'3 HH"iero, 6e3 roro. ~T06bl 3TOrO He 6bUlO KorA8-HVl6YAb B npVlpoAB.

B nepaOVlCTO'-lHItIKe APesHVlx nereaa 6bU1V1 peccxaasi o"'leS"'MeB. Ecn", «ropeno Mope» - 3H8'-1VlT, 6bUlO '-ITO-TO nO,Qo6Hoe VI B peansaocra. MHe Ka>KeTCR, ecna 38HRTbCA peanbHblM, AeTanbHblM Vl3Y'ieHVleM ,QaBHVlx VlCTOPVlJil, MO>KHO BblRBLilTb HeMano u,eHHblx AIlR HayK'" ,QaHHblX 0 KOMeTax 111 MeTeoplo1Tax.

6Y6H08: MHe nllt'-lHO TpYAHO nceononers cxencac no OTHOWeHlt\1O K ApeSHII1M nereHAaM KaK lI1CTO'-IHVlKY KOHKpeTHblX 3HaHVlIo1 B CerQAHRWHeM eCTeCTB03HaHVlVI.

80-nepSblx, -ienosex ece )l(e cnaco6eH ¢laHTaSlI1pOaars «Vl3 HW·lero», TO ecrs OTTanKVlsaTbCR OT CBOWX 0~YL148eMbIX nOTpe6HoCTe~, KOTopble He HaxOA~T noxa YAOBneTBopeH~R. 8o-BTOPb~, paCCKa3bl OyeBHA~eB. VlMeBw~e pe8flbHYIO OCHOBY, co BpeMeHeM 6eCLfVlcneHHoe Kon~LfeCT80 pas MornVl TPaHc¢op~oaaTbCA, AO~,QA AD HeY3HaeBeMOCTVI. C OW~6KOJil, K8K rOBopRT, Ha ABa nopRAKB. Be,Qb ,Q8>Ke 0 cerOAHs:lWHVlX RBneH~RX HeT ~YX nOXO)KVlX paCCKB30B Vl3 ,[leCRTKB 3an1ltCaHHblX.

He "iTO nonY'iaeTcfI? C e,aHolo1 CTOPOHbl, TYHrycCKllt101

72

HVlKOTlA TEenA Vl3ArA.QKA TYHrvCCKorO METEOPMTA

(MeTeoplIIT» He npencraenset co60t:1 HMKBKOIo1 38rBAKLo1 AJ1R Haykllt, B C APyroili - BOT y'll<8 70 ner OCTaeTCR HeACHblM, OTKYAa OH npaneren 14 1113 'tern COCTOM.

Bar y>K nmtcTIilHe HeoecHblH {(KaMeHb» Clan wm HayKM KaMHeM npeTKHOBeHMR. Be,llb 60nbWaA "4aCTb cnenoa C rex nap npBKTIIt~eCKM Ii1C4eana. 8 T8KOM c.ny4Be, MO>KeT fiblTb. aTO eCe-TaK" 3BrB.QKB? nplll4eM - CTpaWHO CKB- 38Tb - "p8KTIlt4eCKM Hepa3pewHMBR'? !If H83BBHllle «TSHH8» snonae nOAXOAm Tene<fJWlbMY?

nETPOB: B HaYKe 8006\.48 HeT HIIIKBKIIIX 3BraAOK H TaJ.itH. ecrs np06neMbJ III a8Aa"lil1 - peweHHble lit HepeWeHHble. Bce nocnensae, ecna OHIi1 nocreenesu KOppeKTHO, B KOHe4HOM C'-IeTe paapeWBeMbi.

npocpeccop C. KanHLtB npsa, 38ABIiIB B caMOM HB'-IBne cpHnbMB. ecrs ABneHIIIR Hen03H8HHQ.e, HO HeT Heno~ 3H8eaeMblX. LiJ 3Ta npo6neM8 He MCKllfOlleHloIIe. OHa enonHe pa3peWHMB AO KOHLtB.

n04eMY 70 ner? Ilo pesonlO4HIII III B nepsue rOAbl Oosercxoa anacra, nOHATHO, H"'KBKOH B03MO)l(HOCTH HB'-IaTb IIIccne.QOBBHIi1R 8 3TIIIX TPYAHOAocrynHblX MeCT8X He fibtno. flepasie aKcneAIII4111111 n. Kym1KB. <tJBHTBCTW-IeCKIII npeABHHoro C80eMy Aeny III HeyroMLo1Moro II1ccneAOBBTena, YAanOCb CHBPR~Tb ronsxo a KOHLte ,QsBALtaTbiX roAOB. OHH. KaK H nocneAYIO~lIte B AOBoeHHoe BpeMR noXOAbl. Aanll1 0"l8Hb BB>KHble pesynsreru, nOTOM CHOBa BOll1Ha.

B0306HOBHTb 1113y"leH~e np06neMbl CTBno B03MO}KHblM 8 n~THAeCATble rOAbi. CerOAHR, KBK R Y>Ke rosopan, G MexaHMKO~ «np~wenblla» see ACHO.

npSB.QB, HHTepecyer. MHoro n~ S KOCMoce «fionraeTCR» aOT TBK"'X PbfXI\bIX Ten. O"leHb B8>KHO nony'-lHTb Beutecraa. IIIX KOTOPblX OHH COCTORT. HX XIIIMIII'-IeCKH~ COcraa Ho AIlR 310ro He06xo,QIIIMo C KOMeTO~ cfinH3m"bCR.

73

lt1 B 0YAYLl.l8M 3TO B03MO}f(HO. Ort<.YAB npauma KOMeTa? TpYAHO CK838Tb ...

6Y6HOB: A sen ... flOCMOTpeTb H8- npo6neMy C APyro~ CTOpOHbI? BeAb TyHryCCK"'~ ~MeTeopLIIT» ynan A9BHO, nocne.QCTBH~ OT era nBAeHMH ,Qf1S1 rlnaHeTbi npaKTlrt"leCKLII HMlCat".MX.laeft'iac B TalE MeCTBK nee mum npMWen BOOPRAOK}. noLIICf<M MBTepHanbHb,IX cne,qoa HM K LfeMY He npLilBeflH,: BBposmiOCTb nOBTopeHMSI Co6brrLIIR MM3epHaA ... T SK, MO)l{eT 6bITb, HaT oc06o~ HY)KAb1 3THM 38HLIIMaTbCR ABnbwe?

nETPOB: He cornecea. npo6neM8 ara 3KcTpaLIIHTepecaaa. npe)I(Ae BCerD - C TOLfKLII 3peHHR npoacxoxaeHIIIR ConHe"lHof1 C&ilCTaMbI. KOMeTHOe LII MeTeopLilTHoe eel4E'CTBO COAep)I(1IfT L4eHHef1w~ CBeAeH1;\R ,QnR HByKLII.

Mbi Ha6nto,QaeM ConHe"lHYto Ct.1CTeMy TbICRLfeneTt.1!=1, 60nee rpex C nonOBMHoA croneraa LIIccneAyeM ee omLII"fSCKMMM LII npOI.tLIIMM npLll6opaMlit. ABa ,qeCAntneTLIIR Henoc~cTBeHHO «06U(8eMCR» c He~ c nOMOLllbtO KOCMM"I8CKLIIX annapaTOB, HO AO CLIIX nop TaK H He 3HaeM, KaK OHa B03HMKIl8 M K8K 3BOm0L4HOHHpyeT. He cYL4ElCTByeT HM OAHO~ npM3H8HHOA Teop~U4.

6Y6HOB: III 3AeCb HeT H&ilKaKMX 3srClAoK? HaT napaACKca?

nETPOB: 3ro LIIrpa >KypHan\o1CTOB B «TaIilHbl», «napaAOKCbl», <nynMKMJ. «KaMHM npeTKHOBeHMA» ... YTO 81:.1 BKfl8,QblBaere B enOBO «3araAKa»?

6Y6H08: HanpMMep, aaAaLfB HBYKOIit nOCTaBneHB AaBHO. ecrs nOTpe6HOCTb B ee peW8H(II~, AM 3TOrO npaMBHJtIOTCR BOB HOBbie CPBACTBS 101 MeTO,Qbl, a OHO, peweHille, - see ,Qanbwe H A8I1bwe.

6nM3KHiit npMMep - np06neMa npOHCXO}K,QBHMR nyHbl. Ir1nH BOT euie -,QO C~X nap He RCHa np~POA8 "fyeCTaeHHoro, 3M014~OH8nbHoro BOCnp~RTIIIR MHpa "fenOBBKOM. Mano nH 3ar8AOK. ..

74

HII'1KOnA TEenA 11'1 3ArAAKA TYHfYCCKOrO METEOPVITA

nETPOB: Bce, ° "eM 8b! reaopare a.qecb, HMKalaile He aar~KH, otiblKHoeeHHoe HeaHaHMe, COOTBeTCTBYIO~e HopManbHOMY nOCTYnaTenbHOMY XOAY noaHaHHR ,Qe~CTBMTenbHOCTM.

BOT. KCTaTM. ~Ule not.teMY HccneAOBaH~ no TYHrycCKOMY «MeTeopMTy» BHBWHe p83BrdB8I1MCb He. CTOJ1b..6t:wCTpO. CeMLfac ecrs S03MO)l(HOCTb npMBfle'"lb K HIIIM 60nee wVlpOKMe KPYrM Y'ieHblX pa3HbIX CneUlltanbHOCTelll. .

Hanp"'Mep, B OnpBABneHMM aepORTHblX pa3MepOB 1YHf)'CCKOro tion"'Aa MHe oxaaan nOMOUlb t.t11eH-KoppecnOH,QeHT AH CCCP 6. PayweH6ax, CneLtMamtCT no ynpaBnel:Wl1O KOCMWieclaiMM annapaTaMM. OH npMMeHWl .Q11R STOfO paapa6OT8HHbM lo1M MeTOA aH8flM38 npoCTpBHCTseHHblx nocrpoeaaa ... B ApeBHepycCK0I.1 )l(MeOnMCM. A celll'"lac HY>KHO «x"npoYMMe» X&IIMHKOB C MX HOBelllWHM&II MeTOAaM&II.

Heo6xoAMMO AO KOHLt8 nOHATb. 'iTO np0L430WnO c >KlltBOIII npHpOAQ14 B paJi10He na,QeHHR «MeTeop~a».

6Y6HOB: SlitAMMO, Y Ka)KAOIII KpynHOIII npotineMbI AOn)KHa 5b1Tb CBOS'! CTpaTerHR: 1O'"IHOe nOtMMaHllle rnaaHol71l...1emt lit nyreLii se peUJeHHR. Ho CKI1aAblBaeTcR sneLfBTneHHB - &II Teneq,l4nbM cnocoecrever 31OM)I. - 'iTO Y HeKoTopblX KpynHblx npotineM [R Obi cxaasn 3TO He ronsKO 0 TYHryCCKOM «MeTeOplltTe», HO &II eooouie 06 lIt3YLfeH&IIM ConHeLfHo~ ClltCTeMbl) HeT crpareraa, a ecrs n&llWb T8KT"IKa, onpeAsnHeMaR HanW-IHbIM&II cpeAcTsaMM.

fIo ... eMY B 6accelllHe nOAKaMeHHo~ TYHryCKIt1 pa60- T810T CaMOAeRTenbHble rpyn~? PyKOBD,QRT HMH, KDHe'"l-

HO, npoctJeCC&IIOHallbHb.e y 6Hble. Ho B rpynnbl BXOART 1II

mo6"1Tenlil. ECTb MHeHlIIe, TO c8MoAeRTenbHocTb &II rue-

6l11TeI1bCTBO BeAYT K AeBanbB~lII H8Yl.fHOrO peaynsrare?

nETP08: A AYM81O, 3TO HenpaSW1bHO. AnR cepseaHoro Y4eHOrO He B8)!(HO, l(eM npeacraenea peavnsrar, Ba>KHa era CyYb. ECTb BeAb OCTeneHeHHbIe «npoq,eccKo-

75

H8IIbI •• KOTopbIe AS)Ke 8 CBoeM rn8BHOM Aene R8IUDOTCR A .... neTaHT8MM. Ho H3BecTHbi .... ~MneTBHTbI. CAeJl8aWHB OTKpblTMfl B HSYKB ..•

Ba>KHbI 3BllBy.... .... .... ccneAOeSTenbCK .... Lit noAXO,Q. a 3Ha"lMT. peaym:,TaT He MO)I(eT He OKB3STbCR LteHHblM AIlA HayKIIt. Ecm, rOBopwrb 0 CrpSTBI"KM. TO OHS HMeerCA Y KS)I(,qO~ HSyK ..... no KpS"He~ Mape. cYl4eCTByeT 06beKTHBHO.

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80

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r opasAO BB)I(Hee CerO,QHR, H8 80CbMOM ,qecsmtJ1eTM1II nocne co6bmtR, noABeclM MTOfM.

&f1T'aK, 4Ja!CTbI lit np8)1(Jle acero ¢taKTbl. TO"bKO HS HHX lit MOryr CTf)OKTbCR npBB.Qonono6t-tbte fVlnOT~3b1. CneKYJ1HntBHbe ,qoMblCJ1bt, He lIIMet0U.t&4e OTHOWeHlltR K AeilCTBHTElflbHblM c06bFTlmM '" AB)Ke npantBOpe~ MM. Mbi OCTaBIilM 6e3 BHlltMBHMM. Bnpo ... eM, lit caMa IItCTopMA Y)I(e nooaaeena BnMHe eCTeCTBeHtiblA oT6op - 1113 AeCRTKOB pa3Ho06pB3H~ npeA"OnO)l(eHIII~ 0 npM~MHBX TYHryCCKOfO B3pblSB HblHe OCTMIIICb lit KOHKypMPYIOT llMWb ABe nO-HaCTOR~eMY HaY"'Hbe rMflOTe3bl - «KOMeTHaR» lit «R,QepHaRJ. OcTanbHble 0K83811I11Cb nycT04BeraMlil He HiliBe HaylUI1.

no~eMY )l(e TYHrycCKaR np06neMa AO CIIIX nap He peuieaa? KaKHe npllt"lIllHbl npespanV1111 ee S O'tBHb TPYAHbI~ opeweK AJ1H ..,ccneAosaTene~? Orser TOJ1bKO OAIliH - TYHryCCKHIit S3PbIB He ynaeTcR 06bRCHMTb 06b1<.iHblMlIt, TPMSH8I1bHblMM np"''i'''H8MM, XOTA ycePAHble nonblTKIII HMeHHO T8K peWHTb np06neMy AM8IlLIICb paHbwe M 6e3- ycnewHo npOAo.mKatOTCA renepe, He6b1BBnoe. 6bITb MO>KeT, YHLIIKaJ1bHoe. crapaiorca BTIo1CHyrb B npOKpYCTOBO noxe Tp8Alil4HOHHbiX HBY~HblX MOAenelit: MeTeOpKT, wapoaaa MonHIIIA, KOMeTa ... Ho K8)1(,Qb11it pas TYHryccKoe AIIIBO OKBSblB8eTCR KYAa 38raAO~Hee, ~eM HBWIII npenCT8sneHlifR 0 HeM.

3araAKlil Ha"WIHatOTCR C caMoro. KBaBflOCb 6bl, npocToro sonpOCB -- KaK ABMranOCb TYHryccKoe Teno B 3eMHolit BTMOct:Pepe? Jlo 1965 rona 6b1f1o 06~enpMHRTO, ... ro TYHryccKoe reno B 06n14Ke spxoro 50.mlna nORBI4J1OCb K IOrv OT TpaHCCIlt6IifpCKO~ >Kene3HOAopmKHolii M8rMCTpaIM. rAe-TO B paOOHe ropo,Qa KSHCK8 (3ana.QHee LlrpKYTCKa), lit nonereno Ha CEBEP no BeCbMB nonoroa rpaeKTOpKM. 06 aTOM CBM,QeTenbCTBOBan eu&e B 3O-x roABX npocJ>eccop A.B. B03HeceHcKMH • .QlllpeKTOp VfPKyr-

84 .

HL-1KOJlA TEenA ~ 3M AAKA TVHrYCCKOrO ME'fEOPL.1T A

OKO" MarHKTHoA ... MeTeopOllOflt'fBCKQ&4 06cep8BTOpMM. o TOM )1(8 rOBOpMn.., '" n14C8nM ,qpyrwe O~AL4OI.

8 1965 roAY npo4>eccoP V1.C. AcranoBM'"I ony6nMt<oBan pe3ynb TBTbI 06pa6oTKM MHorO'iMcneHHbI)( AaHHhtX 0 nonsre TyHryCCKOro TeJ!B (CM. CnMCOK nMTep81)'pbl).

OM npI«OOA- t( 8b18OAY. I.fI'O OHO nereno 'TQ4-H) m rtpRMO" C iora HB ceBep (nMHMR V1PKYTCK - B8H8~apa). B nOM y6e)I(,Q8I1M He ronsso O'ieBMAl-'bI. rlpM none-re Tena B 8TMoc41epe B03HHKaeT MO~R 6alllMCTM'fecKaR BOflHB. O-ta pO)I(,QSeT 3BYKH M [nplil nonoroa Tp8eKTOpMM) BbI3bIBBe-r ABlKe nerxoe COl'pACBHMB nO'fBbI (TaK HB3btBaBMblB rnnepce~MbfJ. KpOMe roro, TpeHflte neT~ero rena 0 aQ3JW)C npl.1BO,QlitT K 06paaOB8H141O aneKTpocrcrr\4- '"IeCKMX aapRnOB, B !.1X nOCTeneHHoe «paccaCblBBHt.4e» B aTMocfjJepe Ha611IOAaTenb aocnpMHHMBer K8K nOTpeCKMBaHlo1e MnM WopOX (T8K Ha3blsaeMbie aneKTpOqJOHHble RBneHMR].

no BceM .lIBHHblM (BM3yanbHb1M HB611IOAeHMRM. 3ByKaM. r14nepCe~aM, aneKTJlOttloHHblM RBneH..,flM), K8K AOK83811 ACTBnOBW4, nony'f8eTCA BblBOA - TyHryccKoe Teno AB..,r8l10Cb B BTMoc¢lepe c lOrA Ha CEBEP.

He B TOM xe 1965 rOAY OKOHl.faTBnbHO BbIACHWlOCb. '"ITO K MecT)' KBTSCTPOQlbl 3arBA04Hoe reno nonnereno He C lOra, a n04111 TO!-lHO C BOCTOKA! 06 3TOM rOBopWlH MHOro'"lMCI1BHHble O'"lBB"'~, onpoweHHble B SG-x roaax B peaoaax, 6nMane>Ka~X K BOCTOKY OT ceneHliIR BaHasapa - 6nH}I(.~WeMV I( 3n~eHTpv B3pblB8 HaceneHHOMY nyHKry. K TSKOMY xe BbIBO.QY np!l1Ben 14 MareMaTM"IeCKIIt" aH8I1M3 BblB8I1a neca BOKpyr 3m"l(eHrpa. B 3TOM Bb~8ane '"IeTKO npORBWl8Cb OCb CHMMeTpH14 - npoeKI.4HH rpeexTOpHM TYHryccKoro Tens HB aeMHYJO nosepXHOCTb. HanpaeneHMA TpaeKTOpHW, nonyl.fBHHbl6 ABYMR cnoco6aMM (nOKaa8HHR O"leBMAUeB lIS BblBOAbI cnel4"M~OB, 143y-

85

AHprorHJI MaKCMMOB

yaBWMX BblBan neca), OTnWf8lll4Cb ,qpvr OT .QPyra He 60- nee 'ieM H8HeCKOnbKO rpam'CQB.

TaKMM 06PSSOM, Hac acrpesaer HeO}lO'A8HH8R 3araAKB: K8K Morno TyHryccKoe 'reno &o'IMeTb ABe paSHbie TpaeKTOpL1~ - «IO)I(HYIO» L1 «BOCTO'iHYIO»?

flpMBep)l(eHLtbI TJlSAMl..lMOHHorO-MbWJletMR cpaay )l(e M 6e3 BCAKII1X AOKB3BTenbCTB 06bRBWlM «!o>KHylO» rpaeKTOpwo MMcp.t'fecKO~.

O-iH OTKa38l1MCb OT ... ee c T8KOO )l(e nerxocrsio. C KOropoa AO aroro npMHATII,'I ee. V\x nor&o'lK8 ACHa: .... MeTeopHT, L1 R.QPO KOMeTbl, 3TM eCTeCTBBHHble KOCMIo1"1eCKlo1e rena, eropraacs B 3eMHYIO aTMoc$epy, neTAT B ... eLil no 6aI1llL1CTL1"1ecKoL71 TpaeKTOpL1M M B OAHOM HanpaeneHIo1Io1' KaK BpTW1JlepMLilCKL1M CHapR,Q. £lpL13HaTb, 'iTO T YHryccKoe reno coeepurano «MaHeep», pe3KO 101 no KpaLilHeLil Mepe ABa)I(Abi H3MeHRllo HanpaBneHL1e nonera, STO 3Ha'iIllT AonyCT .... Tb ero LelCKYCCTBeHHOCTb. ynpaBn~eMOCTb - BbIBOA. 60m~WLelHCTBY y'-teHblx AS C .... X nop Ka~Y~HcR a6- CYPAHbJM.

He 060wnOCb L1 6e3 kYpbe30a: "ITOGbl cnacr .... nono*.eH .... e HeKOTopblX 1013 CKennlKOB, npennonoxana, '"ITO B 8TMoct:Pepy 3eMn .... O,l:lHOBpeMeHHO, HO C pa3HblX CTOpOH. anerena ABa MeTeOpLelTa. cnY"l8t.11HO CTOllKHysWMeCR B BoaAyxe B paL710He BaH8eapbl! Hw·rrO>KHeVlWaR aepcsrHOCTb TaKOrO C06bITlilfi LeI BblRCHIiIBWLileCfI n03>Ke He- 06blYHbie xapaKTepMCTL1KLiI TYHryccKoro sapeiaa, pasvMeeTeR. II'ICKflIOYIo111Ii1 STy «nmoreay».

B 1968 roAY. npOaHanll'l3Le1poa8a B8Cb M8TepMan no nOK8a8H .... RM O'-leB~,Q~eB, earop 3T~X CTPOK np~wen K BbI80AY. 'iTO TYHryccKoe reno HaA Baaasapoa He nponerano, nOCneAH .... H nYHKT «1O}kHOVl» rpaeeropaa, rne era BIoo1~n""t - ceno K&o'I>KMa. Tyr TYHryccKoe reno Ha6nIOAamt BblCOKO B He6e ~ BHAen~. KBK OHO nonereno Ha BOCTOK. TPYAHo ccaaare, rne ~ KaK OHO noaepHyllo Ha aa-

B6

na,q, HO HBA npe06pa*eHteOil TyHryccKoe T8I1O ~Mranoes y'1l.B He Ha BOCTOK {teate 8 KM)I(Mel, a HB aenea, 80 BCAKOM CJ1Y"f8e, nerns, OrMCaHHaR 14M B 8TMOcrpepe (a MO>KeT 6b1Tb, 38 ae npeAenaMM), AOCTtM"ana B AflYlHy MI10rllte COTH .. KWlOMeTpOB.

)3 ~'979, rOAY .clf1fiMpcOte, i4Ccne.qosaTelDf.,'(rpynna npCNP. H.B. BacHJlbeaa] 3asepw~ cocraenease rBHepans-oro KaTanora cootiu..teHlltli$ O'-l8BI4ALl8B TYHr{CCKoro AMes. Era aH8fM3 He OCTBBlJR8T H ... M8l1eAwlI'IX COMHeHiltA B TOM, 'fTO oObRCHIIrTb 31lt Coo6L48H~ OAHOO -TpaeKTOpMeM Henb3f1. nony"taeTCR clltTYall~R «KOpOTII';Oro O,QeRna»: TO, LfTO BMAenH «BOCTO'-lHble» Ha6mOAaTenM, He Morn", (1It3-3a paCCTORHIt1R lit KpMBM3kb1 3eM11M) 38MeTMTb «IO)I(Hbte», lit Ha06opoT, ,Qa H onYlCBHMATOfO, "ITO OHM 8MAetlH, HenoxOlKYI HS D.QHOBpeMeHHbl8 Ha6nlO,AeHMA O,QHOro RBneHIotSI_ ,QeTanlll, BepORTHO, 8bfRCHm:CA npH 06pa- 60TtcB r BHepaIlbHOro KaTal1()l"'a.

,l::lIM n03H8HlltR np ..... "'H TYHrycCKoro B3pbfBB BBJKHO 3H8Tb, KaKOS 6bII1 HaKnOH BTMOCcPePHOA-l"p8eKTOPHM nonera T yttryCCKOro Tena K MOCKOCTM ropM3OHTa. HecnelI"'8IMCTy STO oecrosrenecrso MO}fCBT nOKB3aTbCR Hecy~eCTBeHHbIM, Ha caMOM xe nene OHO peuiaer MHoroe. '-/To6bl y6e,QMTbCR B 3TOM, nocTapa~ecb pa306paTbCR B nocneAytO~ pacCY*A8HMRX.

a HaKnOHe aTMoccpepHOA TpaeKTopMVI TYHryccKoro I(OCMW~ecKoro rena (TKT) MO)l(HO CYAlIITb no pB3HbiM A8HHbIM. V1aaecTHo. Hanpll1Mep. '-ITO MeTeopVlT II1nH 1(0- MeTHoe RAPO, BTOprWMCb B 8TMocq,epy, HB"t'-'HBIOT caeTilfTbCA C SblCOTbl He 60nee 100 KWlOMBTpOS. BblWe B03AVX CflIltWKOM pa3pRJt<.eH VI snepeAl4 nersusero KOCMH'ieCKOrO Tens e~e He a03HHKaeT fCS03.qywH8R no,QyWKBJ - CwtbHO C)I(BTbIII1 lit CBeTRU,lKAcR CryCTOK B03- Ayxa, YTOI.IHMM - He B~OTe 100 KIIUlOMeTpoB H HlotJ«e B03f"OpatOTCR TonbKO HO"tHb18 6onM,Qbl. jlHesHble 60nMAbl

87

AHSTomi.:\ MSKCI4MOB

Ha6nlOAalOTCR C ropaano MeHbW~ BbICOT - cae"teHL1e «B03AYWHO" nOAywKL1» AHeM sMAHO ropasac xY}I(e, LteM HO~blO. n03TOMY TyttrycC1(oe reno, aropnueecs B 3eMHylO aTMocq:,epy p8HHlItM conHe~HblM yrPOM 30 lItlOH~ 1908 rona, MOrno 6bITb Bnepsbte a8Me'-teHO nL1Wb C SbtCOTbl He 600ee 50-- 7Q KW10Merpoo.

A reneps np0L13SeAeM HeCJlO>KHbte paC"IeTbi. TYHryCcxoe reno Ha6111OAanocb B nonere BO MHOrL1X cene~RX, pacnonO)KeHHbIX Ha pexe neMe (OnOH,-,oBo, TpeOOMlIt, KOHApaWKlitHo. nO.QBOflOWlitHO). OHL1 OTCTOAl OT ue-rrpa KBTBCTPOCPbl H8 490 KlAllOMeTpOB. no CBIo4AeTellbCTBY 04eBL1A~eB, noner «6b1l1 BbICOKIAM» ['1HaLte 6bl DHIII He a8MeTWlL1 nOAPo6HOCTL1 B H8611IOABBweMcR RMeHL1...,). EiYAeM C~IIITaTb. "ITO yrnoeaA BblCOTa HaA ropH30HTOM TKT cocraanana AIlR 3THX MeCT 45 rpaAycoB. nplAHHM8R BblCOTy non era TKT paBHolil 70 KWloMeTpBM (a OHa Morna 6bITb lit Hlit>Ke) lit peWSR COOTSeTCTBYIOLi.llitlit npRMOyronbHbl~ TpeyrOI1bHIltK. nonY4aeM. 4TO HaKllOH rpaexTopHlit K ropH30HTy He npesenuen 8 rpBAYCOB.

TSKYIO )Ke o6pa6oTKY MO>KHO opoeecra lit ,QIlR APyrMx pa~oHoB Ha6mo.QeH",1A K eocroxv OT an",,-,eHTpa. PeaynbTaT 6HanorWieH - Ha.KI10H rpaexropaa He BbIXO,Q"'T 38 1 0 rpaAYCOB.

MO>KHO nplitlitTIll K TeM xe BblBO,QaM lit ,Qpyr"'M n)'TeM.

MHorlr1e Hs6nlOASTenH K BOCTOKY OT 3nH~eHTp8 BlitAenlil nblllesolit cnen TKT, cnblwalWl 3 BYKIiI , nopO>KAeHHble ero nonetoss B 8TMocQlepe. Ho '" nbllleBble CJ1eAbl, lit 3BYK'" B03H"'K8IOT nHWb TorA8, KorAS KOCMIiI4ecKoe reno CHl+- 3W10Cb AO 50 KWlOMeTPOB, - asuue T8Kwe 3¢q,BKTbJ He H80mO,Q8IOTcR. 3Ha'iIiIT, w no 3THM ,Q8HHbIM, 3H8f:! pacCTORHIr1e H80nlO,Q8TenR OT snauearpe, nerxo BblYIifCnlilTb H8KJ1OH Tp8eKTOpHIll. V1 CHOB8 10 rpaAycoB OK83blsalOTcs TeM BepxHHM npenenou, 38 KOTOPblll1 38seAOMO He BbIXO,Ql.lln 3TOT H8KJlOH. KCTaTIif CK838Tb. nplo1MeHstft TV xe

88

Ht.1KOIlA TEenA VI 3Ar A.QKA TYHfYCCKoro METEOPVITA

MBTD,QKKy AnR 06paOOTKIIt «to>KHbIX» HaOrnoAeH\ltH, Mbl nonYLf8eM TaKOO )Ke BbmOA - TKT BCtOAy ABMrSIlOCb no O'"leHb nonoroa TpaeKTop\lt\lt C H8KnOHOM 5-10 rpap,ycos.

Orciona CIle,QytOT_ Ba)!(Hble BblBOAbI: TKT o6na,Qano BbJCOKOIit MeXaH14"16CJ(olit· npO"lHOCTblO, 8 CT8J1O 6b1Tb, M 3H8'4l1tTeflbHOH nnOTHOCTblO.

8 caMOM ,qene - OHO nponereno B HlII)KH\ltX cnosx aTMoc¢lepbl MHOflile COTH\It KliIIloMeTp08 co CKOPOCTblO, 80 MHoro pas npeBblwalOUle~ CKOPOCTb nym'l [Ha'ianbHafi era CKOPOCTb nplil snere B aTMOccpepy Morna Obrrb 11 KM a '"lac). COnpOntBneH~e aTMoccpepbl np\lt 3TOM COCTaBmlno Ha 60nbwoM Y"IaCTKe noners AeCflTKIit \It ,Q8)1(e (HliIxe 15 KWloMerpoB) COTH\It Kr Ha KB. CM.

Anfl cpaBHeHlitR CKa>KeM: neMaa BblAep>K\ltBaeT npeAenbHy1b CTa-rncnl"leCKYIO HarpY3KY B 20 .Kr HB KB. CaHT\ltMeTp, KliIpnvt .... - 60. Ho 3,QeCb pe"lb li\AeT 0 CTaTW·leCK\ltX, «cnOK~HblX» HarpY3KBx. nplil ,Q\ltHaMWieCKMX :lKe HarpY3Kax conporaenaeuocre pa3pyweH\lt1O naneer B ,QBB-Tplt1 paaa. 3HBI.f1IIT, TKT 6b1flo ropeano nposaee (lit nnoraeel Klo1pnlt1"18.

Jlerxo OLteHIo1Tb M\ltHlltM8IlbHYIO nnOTHOCTb TKT, C4\1tras, 'iTO B KOHlle nonera, Henocpe,QcTseHHo nepen S3PblBOM, oao IItMenO CKOPOCTb oxono 2 KM 8 ceKYH,QY - npli'l MeHbWell1 CKOPOCTIII «e03AYWHaR nOAYWKa)} non pocry He CSeT\ltTCR. B TOT MOMeHT ,QBBneH\lte Ha reno coCTaBl1RnO 78 Kr Ha KB. CM, a 3HaY\ltT, nnOTHOCTb rena 6b111a He MeHbwe 2 r Ha Ky6. CM.

Y)Ke no 3TO~ np~'iIitHe [He roeopa y:lKB 0 APyrnx) TKT He Morno 6blTb RAPOM KOMeTbl - 3TJ.II RApa np8.QCTaBAAtOT co6oti1 BeCbMa pblXllbte KOHffloMepaTbl «.nb.QOB» (eoAbI, MeTaHa, aMM~aKa) c nplAMeCblO MenKJ.II>Ii TsepAb1X 'i8CTl411 lit cpe,QHell1 nnOTHOCTblO, 3aaeAOMO MeHbwe~ 1 r HB Ky6. eM (no MHor~ ,QaHHblM, OHa B AeCflTb osa MeHbwe).

as

T eM 60nee He roAHTCft AIlA TKT T90p81W·lecKeA MOAenb orpOMHOi1I «CHe)KMHK~ ~yCOM OKOIlO 300 MeTpoe &II nnOTHOCTbK> MeH8e 0,01 r aa Ky6. OM. TaK8R «CHe>K"'HKa», no MHeH"'1O HeKOTopblX Y'ieHbIX. anerena B aTMocq,epy co CKDpOCTblO 40 (!) KM B C8KYHtlY "'. MrHO~eHHO p~~nnaB""WJi4Cb •. npo"'3B~;tYHryCG~~'i1}~,~R,~:

T yr Bee. HeCKna,QHo. Bo-nepaea, T YHryCCKoe reno He cpaay, «MrHOB8HHO» B30peaJ10Cb, a nponereno B MOTHblX cnoax aTMocclJepbI MHorne COTH'" KWlOMeTpOB. 80- BTOPbIX, aCTpOHOMaM HeM3SeCTHbi rena C nnOTHOCTblO 0.01 r Ha Ky6. CM. til HaKOHe4. B-1peTbi1X, MliIcPMl.feCKaR «CHe)l("'HKa» C T8KOH nnoTHOCTblO He Morna 6bl npanerers B B03Ayxe COTHM KIIIIIOMeTpOB. Y6eAMTbCR B 3TOM cosceu He TPYAHO.

CBelKeBbfnaawvni, nYWlotCTblli'f caer .. MeeT nnOTHOCTb 0.13. A Be,Qb rlotnOTeTII1'ieCKaA «CH~WiKa» .QoruKH8 6brrb B ,qeCJlTb paa MeHea nnOTHmt. 31"0 npe,qnonO)l(eH!lte HMK81( He cornecsercs lot c H8XOAKO~ KMeBCI(MX y ... eHbIX - KPIo1CT8I1IMK8Mlot anM83OB.

II1TaK, TKT np",6nlo13l1U1ocb t( MeCTY caoero B3pb188 no O'ieHb nonoroa TpaeKTop...... C IiSK11OHOM He eonee 10 rpa,qycoB ~ ropM3OHty. 830pa8swHcb B B03.Qyxe HS BbiCOTe 5-7 KlllIloMeTpoB. OHO B3PblBHOli'f BonHoli'f pS3MeT8J10 PSA14anbHO BeKoeylO T8litry He MO~8A1.t. paBHO~ MOCKOBCKO~ 06nacTI.t. B paAManbHOM SblB8ne neCB nO"lT'" HeT cneAOS 6ann"'CT", ... eCK~ B03AYWHO~ BOJlHbI- TOIit caMO"'. KOTOpeR 06pa3yeTCR B B03AYXe npM nonere rena, A 1113 3TOro clJaKTa CfleAYIOT l.18J1eKO ~ BblBOAbI·

Ecn~ np~ "OAJ1eTe K MeCTY B3pblsa TKT !ltMenO 60nbwylO CKOPOCTb nOpA.QK8 30-40 1OO10MeTPoe B ceKYHAY. TO np~ nonorOtil Tpa8KTopMM OHO HeM36e)l(HO npoaaaeno 6b1 BblBan neca nonocoa, '" TaKeR nonoca 1113 noaanes-HbOC AepeBbee SJotAH8I18Cb 6bf He MeCTe KBT8CTJXX1lb1. Ho

90

H&t1KOIlA TECflA 11'1 3M AAKA TYHrYCCKOrO METEOP&t1TA

Be HeT, 8 ecrs paA~anbHbIIiI BblB8Il, HB KOTOpbtlil nl-1Wb cnerxa, Ltyrb- .. yrb Hat<l18Ab1B8IO'fat ene 3aMeTHbfe, cnaOble CfleAbl 6anIMCTIA'ieCKO,,", BonHI». no 3Tl-1M TPYAHGynoB~MblM cne,qaM Kanl-1H~HCKl-1~ IItCCflBAOB8TBnb A.B. 3oTOB nOAc"'~an, 'fTO KOHe'4HaR CKDpOCTb TKT HBnocpeACTBeHHo nepen 83pblBOM He npeab1W8IIB 1-2 KM B CBKYHAY. Ho rorna np~ T8KOIiI CKOPOcrn IG1HeTW-IeCKOM 3Hepnull Tena npOCTO He XBBn1T AI1R 83pblB8 MO~HOCTbIO nOPRAKa 40 MeraTOHH, a TaK~M III 6bm TytfrycclG1l.71 83pblB.

Moryl" aoapaaars: KII1HeTw·teCKaR 3HeprlllR rena, K8K 11138ecTHO, 3aBlilClAT He ronsxo or ero CKOPOCTIA, HO III OT ero M8CCbl. 3TO BepHO. Ho nplA nnoraocra, X8paKTepHO,,", AIlR II13BeCTHblX He6eCHbiX Ten (nplilMepHO OT 1 AD 8 r Ha KYO. CM). ~ «Hy)l(HO~» .Qr1R B3PblS8 MBcce B aTOM cny ... ae pa3Mepbl TKT nony'4~nIllCb 6bl crons orpOMHblMlt'l, '"ITO 3TD npontBope~IItfTO ObI Ha6nlO,q8BW&o1MCR cpaKT8M. Cnenoeareneao, OCTaeTCR caeners BblBO,q: TKT eaopsanocs sa C'"tST caoea BHYTPeHHe'" 3Hepnn.t.

'-lTO xe B30pBanOCb? 8apbIBbi tiblBBIOT p8aHble. Hanp1ltMep, MeXBHIII'ieCKIt'lB. A non 3nIIM n~pMIIIHoM B scrpoHOMIllIA nOHIt'lM81OT B3pbIB Mereopwr8 npa era YAape 0 aeMJ1IO. nplA MrHOBeHHO~ aCT8HOBKe KI.1HeTW-IeCKaR 3HeprlAR MeTeOpl.1T8 P8CXO.QyeTCR H8 PBaPYWeHHe KP\.1- CT8nnH'"IeCKa~ peweTKH raepnoro rena, 8 peaynerare -rero MeTeopHT CTaHOBI.1TCR nOXQ}KHM Ha O'-leHb Cl.1nbHO C)I(8TblIiI raa. TaKoliI raa MrHOBeHHO pecuiapserca - 8 3TO 111 ecrs B3pb1B.

nO,QC'"tIllT8HO, 'iTO nplil CKOPOCTH coy,qapeHIIIR 8 4 KM B cex. MeTeOpliJT 83pblBseTCR TaK )l(e 3Heprll1'"1HO, K8K P8BHoe eMY no Macce KOn"''-IeCTBo Tpl.1HlATpoTonyona (SspbIBl-JaTOrO Be~eCTBa 8pTI.1J1neplotlilCKlotX caapanoel. npH Y8enH'"IeH"'lot cxopocra 3HeprlotR aapblB8 6bICTPO. Hapacraer, Hey,qI.1BKTenbHO, 'iTO nocne naAeH1ltR KpynHbIX

91

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8 1958 rOAY OKOH"I8T8IIbHD BWRCHMnOCb: TKT Ha 3eMllIO He nBA8l10, MeXCM-M1.(6CKoro 83PblBa He fiblnO.

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K co*aneHWO, 1-1 310 06bACHeHllte He rOAMTcR. npM nonere B aTMOcq:,epe rena Mcn~TblBalOT ABBJ1eHMe co CTOPOHW B03AYXB nMWb B n060Bo,", l.(aCT", a He co ecex CTOpoH. 3Ha ... ..rr. peonorwie~ B3PbIB HeB03MOJKett.

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lIITaK, BHeWHHe npHIofMH~ He MOrflM Bbl3aaTb S3pbIB TYHrycCk.Oro rena. 8aopsanocb «"fTO-TO» BHytp1-1 ero.

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92

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Korns npoasouien TYHryCCKHH S3PblB, S It1PKyrcKOii!

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reoMarHwTHble 34llPeKTbI npos:IS11RIOTCR nOTDMY. '-ITO npt.>t RAepHblX B3pblB8X B03HlttK81OT «>KBCTKIltBD HOHllt3111- p'lIO~\o1e 1i13IIY'-leHHR, MeHS!lOU4Me npOBoAlo1MOCTb IiIOHDcQ:>epbl. nplII MeXSHM'-IeCKHX, Tet1nOBbD( M XMMH'-IecKlltX 83pbIBax HW·lero r1()A06Horo He Ha6ntO,Q8eTCR. Ho caMblM y6e,qL1TBnbHbIM BpryMBHTOM B OOflb3y «TepMORAa» 6b1J18

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nepBble paAMOMeTp~'iecKMe ~aMepetfHR B paOOH8 T YHryCCKOro B3pblBS 6blllM npoBe~eHbI ewe B Ii8Y8ne SO-x rOADS. 8b1RCHMJ10Cb, "fTO B an~ueHTpe ecre B CpaSHetMIII C CPOHOM' l1f1eBblWeHH&-'~YMMapHQM pa~ alm'lBHOCTIr4 (B 1 ,5-2 paaa), 'iTO Cny'iaMHbtM COl3naABH~M 06}'ACHmb TpyAHO.

Kaf( nOKBaanL<C MccneAoBSfiMR A.B. 3oT088 M S.H. MexeAoBB. B rOAOBbfX KOJ1bl4BX AepesbeB M3 en .. - ue-rrpa, OTHOCRIl.lHXCA K 1908 rOAY. npMcyrCTByeT npeBbK.UeHHOe KOflWieCTBO paAHOaKTMBHbIX M30mnoa. B '48- CTHOCTM ue3MR-137. x8patcrepttOro Aml «TBpMOH,ll8».

1II3BeCTHO. 'fTO np~ R,QepHbIX B3PblS8X MX npOAYKTb~ pecceaeaorca B 8TMOCcPepe ~ SMeCTe C AOlKAAMM 8btn8,Q8IOT B' pa3SUt'4HbIX pa~Hax Hawei1l rlnsHeTbI. rAe 6bl HH npoasouren S03AYWHbllf A,Qep~ B3pblB, CnyCTA np~pHO ro,q ~M 6YABT 3apIDKBHa BCA 3eMHaA 8TMOc41epa. HeyA~B~enbHO nOSTOMY. '"fTO aMep"KaHCK~e yyeHble V. n~66H. K. KOYSH ~ APYf~e B CI10RX 1908 ro,qa aMepMKaHCKMX nepessee HawnM nOBblweHHoe oonep}l(aHMe paAH081m'1BHOro M3OTona yrnepoA8-14. AaneKHe cneAbl TyHryccKoro B3pb1B8. n03)Ke 8HanorWiHbl8 pe- 3ynbT8Tbl6b1J1~ nonY'ieHbl aK8AeMMKOM A.n. BHHorpa,qoSblM H lIpyr~MIo1 COBeTCKIo1MliI Y'-leHbIMLot.

MO)l{HO nH ~3 CK8a8HHoro cnenars OAH03H8'"4Hbla.1 BbrBOA. "fTO TyHryCCKHVI B3PbIB Oblfl «TepMOll,QOM»? K co>KanaHMIO, HaT.

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94

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A MO>KeT Mb, ecre M IIIHble, euie Helll3BeCTHble H8- YKe cpencrae BblAeneHIltR a .... eprlotVl VI3 aeuiecraa? nonHOCTblO oreepran, T8KYIO aO:3MO)I(HOCTb He cnenyer:

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95

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96

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