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  • VICTORIA (formerly Northbrook)


A Genealogical Journey

Kenneth Joyce Robertson

Joyce Sancho Samuels Robertson

Copyright © 2010 by Kenneth Joyce Robertson. Library of Congress Control Number: ISBN: Hardcover Softcover Ebook 2010914844 978-1-4535-9196-3 978-1-4535-9195-6 978-1-4535-9197-0

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. This book was printed in the United States of America.

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This book flowed from the realization that it would have been a waste not to employ the fruits of my extensive research in some way that would benefit and interest those that would follow. For me, the word legacy has a new meaning. I therefore dedicate this book to my grandson, Roman Alexander Phillips.

1 Official map of Guyana, South America, with authentic, internationally recognized boundaries clearly demarcated.

Courabana: Historically referenced, the East Sea Coast of Demerara

The anticolonial bombast.A Land Grabber’s Map: Boundary claims by Venezuela (and Suriname) are cause for concern for Guyana. the eight thousand miles did not matter as Argentina was put in its place. Just give the UK an interest and a reason! . of the politicians over the years has caused some missed opportunities to conclude defense pacts with the United Kingdom. WWI and WWII found them in naval theaters in the Falklands. and rhetoric. More recently.


published in the Illustrated London News on April 23.THE CITY THAT SPRANG UP FROM THE MUD FLATS: Perpetually Threatened by the Floods An engraving of Water Street—Georgetown by Milton Prior. . 1888.


Grateful and heartfelt thanks and acknowledgments: Verlena Assannah Winston Austin (dec’d) Bright & Judy Chama Daphne Lane Chapman Pheona Cosbert Rickford “Frank” Edmundson Edris English Roxanne Arthur Fraser Frances Yvonne Jackson Gweneth King The Lennox Lancaster Family Harold Lutchman Carmen Sancho Lee Peter Linebaugh Eunice Monroe Lorette Marious Oden Ian Robertson James Robertson Marjorie Sares Paul & Joyce Shultz Donald Trotman Then there are my “Thick an’ Thinners” (the ones that would bleed for me): Janette Arthur Robertson Chioma Robertson Phillips Wayne Phillips Emeka Robertson Francine “Toni” Robertson .

Zambia . OH Somerset Archive & Record Service.We have been everywhere. UK Merseyside Maritime Museum. University of London. Georgetown. Surrey. Lusaka. UK Institute of Commonwealth Studies. UK General Register Office. Ghana The Public Archives of Zambia. London. Taunton. Liverpool. UK University of Ghana—The Library of Ghana W E B Dubois Library—Accra. UK National Archives. Toledo. man! To: Guyana National Archive Walter Rodney Archive. UK Family Records Centre. Kew. London. Guyana Barbados Museum & Historical Society Department of Archives—Barbados Latin American Collection—University of Florida Toledo-Lucas County Public Library—Local History & Genealogical Department.

.............................................................................................131 — After the Sanchos Came ...............................32 — Recollections and Beyond .............. and Martyrs.............................23 — The Journey...............39 — More Recollections and Beyond ........17 — Four Pillars ...............108 — The Hulk Men from the West Indies .64 — The Purging of the Guyanese Vernacular ..................................................................................................... the Odyssey......................................................................70 — From Kandahar to Nabaclis! .........Links and sequential layout: A Literary GPS PAGE — Preface ........................................................................................................ the Quest...........54 — A Name Is a Name: Especially when Father chooses it! ..........................................................................................................................................................................................97 — Hulks: Bermuda ....................89 — The Abolition Act at Work.......................................................................................................................................................................................84 — Of Crime and Punishment ..................................................... Heroes.......... the Great Experiment ..............................................47 — Sierra Leone: The Grand Design.................................................................................................................................................................................122 — A Man Called Bentinck ...........29 — The Land of Our Ancestors ....62 — Slaves—Names and Plantations .................................................135 — A Short History of Golden Grove.................. 114 — Ten Days in August 1834 ............................................141 — Golden Grove Recollections ........76 — Don’t Know Much about Genometry! ...............................................160 .....79 — Before the Sanchos Came..............................................................................................................................120 — Freedom Fighter....................................................147 — When “Kiddie” Came Marching Home! .........144 — One Hundred and Fifty Short Years! ........................49 — A Name Is Not a Name Is Not a Name ...................................68 — Land of Six Peoples...............................................................158 — Fissures of Men ........................................................... ECD....... the Magnificent Obsession .

....................................................................................193 — Daddy Gone to Cove and John ......................................................... Princess Doris ....................................209 — Victoria ..— It Took a Village...................................................................245 — The Gladstones of British Guiana: A Legacy .................................................258 — Najaso ..................240 — Where There Is a Will..... or Two ...................................231 — Where There Is a Will..............................222 — The Robertsons of Ithaca............................................203 — Victoria’s Secret ............................................303 — Buxton—The First Proprietors of New Orange Nassau ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 — Daddy Could Swear! ........................................................................................255 — Coming to America ..............184 — Batman and Gobin ................................................275 APPENDIX — Book Ends and Fillers ........ WC Berbice ..................................... Founding Fathers and Mothers ......................................................................................162 — Aunt Jo and Me .263 — Five (5) Gallons More ......................................................171 — The Father I Hardly Knew..............................................................................................................................218 — Victoria (formerly Northbrook) ...226 — Ancestors........229 — Inconvenient Truths ...............270 — “Talk Half and Lef Half!”......................................................................................................315 — When Sugar Was King! ....................................................................167 — Her Royal Highness...............................................................................................................................................................247 — Uncle Willie’s War...............................................................252 — The United Kingdom Years ....................................................................................................337 .........

supported by and standing on four massive indestructible pillars. I had conjured up this mental structure starting from the ground up. imposed. severally. Sancho. great-great-grandparents . and of slave and slave masters. . all situated on the East Sea Coast 17 . and Samuels are the surnames of my four grandparents. and Nabaclis. The sites. Then proceed to serve up the “mishmash. Theophilus “T” Joyce. I was in for a shock and a rude awakening. Victoria. everyone has a book within them just waiting to spill out. I have used the surnames Joyce and Robertson jointly. if allowed. Doris Robertson. Robertson. grandparents.PREFACE I could write a book! It has been said many times and in many ways: by those venting the frustrations and disappointments in their lives. later villages. and interchangeably at different junctures in my life in respect to my father. of Cove & John. scenes. one is forced to research and document the stories of the perpetrators while gleaning peripheral tidbits and afterthoughts from the masters’ point of view. and even by those who seemingly could not have much to say. take it to the grave! Even the slavers. It was as if those who went before never expected to. Whether acquired. cannot be expected to be conscious and meticulous chroniclers of their devilish and dehumanizing past. and colonialists selectively chose what to remember to forget. The sons and daughters of slaves. by the perpetual daydreamer. a quest. the slave owners. great-grandparents. . and backgrounds must necessarily be the plantations. Better still. wishing to impress others with their vast knowledge. Golden Grove. they have remained “bookless”! This writer started out on a genealogical journey. To tell the story of the wretched and downtrodden. Joyce. to find out who my grandparents and even my great-grandparents were. here are the starting points and the beginnings of my genealogical meanderings. by those seeking. as the stories of our parents. or preferred not to. be followed and emulated into posterity.” the crumbs. or borrowed. much less to write. Not knowing how and unable to summon up the gumption to make a start. and to honor and memorialize my mother. Then again. and also what to forget to remember.

especially Sierra Leone. Leslie Robertson. has given so much impetus to my laborious efforts. Then came the t-crossing and the i-dotting trip to the homeland—Guyana. to turn back the hands of time and rewind the genealogical clock. Even though the compilations were the result of administrative colonialist endeavors. there are seas and oceans to be crossed and crisscrossed. plantation owners. with their compatriots. and Nabaclis have all been impacted by the presence and outstanding civic participation and contribution of the Sanchos since 1835. and Belfield. my grandchildren. and all those who may have participated in the wholesale degradation and subjugation. liberated African. Frederick. The Robertson patriarch. and William.—of the slavers. They are hereby being challenged and exhorted to acquire more than a passing but rather a working and in-depth acquaintance with the languages—Dutch. Kew. formerly British Guiana. West Bank. and apprentice. UK. broaden my knowledge and beef up and . the accessibility to the vast resources of the National Archives. The intent then is to. Spanish. Essequibo. Tuckness Sancho. These destinations are to be found in the Islands of the Caribbean. The hope is that this book will be referenced in the field of education and history. Cove & John. The Joyce family has had a long association with. Damon and Bob. The birth of the Sancho legend! Within the pages of this narrative. Golden Grove. To continue the push backward. The leading roles played by Bentinck Sancho. and equally a presence in. Then there are the shores of West Africa.18 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N of Demerara. Portuguese. especially Barbados. and others will find some knowledge gleaned from the past and build something of value—that which this and previous generations were denied. Victoria. where possible. indentured laborer. Paradise. and John Sancho exemplify their profiles in courage when they stood shoulder to shoulder in Trinity Churchyard. which they were eventually forced by adverse circumstances to relinquish and finally abandon. Guyana. their blood relatives. goes back to Ithaca. Berbice. Enmore. a protracted and relentless reconstruction has yielded satisfactory grounds for some safe conclusions pertaining to “the lives and times” of slave. then carrying the names Fothergill. etc. Among the original purchasers of that village in 1850 are to be found Billy Robertson and Present Robertson. It is they who are expected and are obligated to zealously pursue research into those archival places that have been out of reach because of language barriers—seeing is believing! Thankfully.

and the like that were passed down through the family grapevines over the ages but largely unconfirmed. historian—those are the ones who convey ideas and mold opinions—by the clever juxtaposition of words? The words become phrases and sentences. They are really pressing me and want it like yesterday. that become paragraphs. A brown paper shopping bag or a cardboard box—a virtual rat’s nest of paper—lands on your desk. But are they really. care and circumspection became paramount in not willy-nilly discarding stories. According to the DEA. there are the things that can. Like a miracle. realistically finished? . must surmise that they are done. There are elements that draw prodigal sons and daughters at times of their choosing.THE FOUR PILLARS 19 add credibility to the burgeoning manuscript. become a writer. Guyana is now a full-fledged drug shipment point to the USA and parts of Europe. part sprint. the perversion of the system of justice in which the small man is just a minnow and the well-to-do and the well connected is the killer whale. The desolation of legacies based upon land and other real estate were continually being added through the tedious perusal of the Royal Gazette of British Guiana where and when battered and ragged copies could be located. which in turn blossom into pages of script that when compiled and compressed are sophisticatedly referred to as manuscripts. No special underlying reasons exist or are ever apparent for a visit to the land of one’s birth. the endemic inability of the law agencies to deliver on law and order to bolster the tenets of freedom and justice for all. repel—the continual maelstrom lingering in the body politic. soon to become books. The deliverer or messenger has a request. I am looking for a loan. without formalized training. novelist. Certainly. and do. Where. the painter of a portrait harbors some doubts as to whether he is really finished. even when they insert the last period. the lingering cancer of corruption at every level and in high places. is now on. Take the loneliness of the long-distance runner. The oneness with one’s people and the hospitality that beckoned are givens. I will always settle for the wrenching solitude of having a financial statement as my goal. why. three sheets of paper accompanied by a covering letter have materialized: a transformation from incomplete and unfinished records. or when does a numbers-crunching accountant get the notion that he can. Writers of books. folklore. Alternatively. While the painter of a fence knows when the job is done. the inefficiencies in the management of the affairs of government that are manifested in the waste of the taxpayers money and resources. There is at least one thing that the numbers cruncher and the literary wordsmith have in common—solitude. “I would like a financial statement for the bank.” The marathon.

the word legacy has a new meaning. there were a lot more t’s and i’s that did not get crossed and dotted. I managed to submerge my true responses to some of her conclusions. had come so close to being a “failed state” and virtually overrun by drug cartels. “Why are the people so mean to each other?” I had to find out! This book flowed from the realization that it would have been a waste not to employ the fruits of my extensive research in some way that would benefit and interest those that would follow. For me. I therefore dedicate this book to my grandson.20 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N As it turned out. More faults and self-doubt continued to ebb and flow. intoned that I “was not getting any younger” and should seriously consider “putting this thing to bed. Toward the end of her adventure. . Judge Donald Trotman. The pervading dissatisfaction would not depart. the country of my birth. The one that stayed with me came in the form of a question.” I chose to seek solace in the fact that there was so little I knew about and could not understand how Guyana. without being given an opportunity to preview and read the script. A respected friend. When my granddaughter first indicated her choice of Guyana for a class project. Roman Alexander Phillips. I pointed her to the Internet.



flattering thought back then. Not a solitary word.FOUR PILLARS Just as it is with a miner or a pork knocker. discolored. he is driven and pushed almost to exhaustion. or on the other hand. That their honesty and integrity would be later challenged never for a moment became a factor or a matter for concern. Perhaps that next pan of gravel would do the trick by bringing salvation and deliverance in the shape and form of that elusive nugget. The writers and recorders perhaps never planned or envisaged for that particular material to have become a quotable source for generations to follow. Every day. The miner rises with the sun. He swishes some water inside the cup and laces his belt through the handle so that it can be reached easily at a moment’s notice and with hardly any trouble. eats his hastily prepared breakfast. shredded. so it is with a researcher or forensic genealogist. the cycle is repeated. then wash some more sand and gravel. For so to do may be a disconnect that could cause one to miss a vital link back to the future! Locating a possible source of useful information and then systematically “bleeding” that source often entails hours upon hours of in-depth reading. With that eternal faraway glint in his eyes and a hope in that heaving fast-beating chest. sentence or paragraph. Dates and datelines are segmented boxes which oftentimes seduce and keep the septic skeptic entrapped and believing that there must be something of value worth chasing after a battered. or page must be overlooked. 23 . He smothers the fire and heads down the trail that leads to that overworked pit that he stubbornly refuses to abandon. Dig some more. They had rightly believed that all they were doing was just to chronicle the events of the day and times. enamored by generations to come. shovel some more. Little did they know or even realize how harshly they will be judged. and drinks his coffee down to the dregs. from sunup to sunset. They were categorically not writing for posterity. How could they have known that plagiarists would use their work for their own ends and never stop to acknowledge their debt? That parts of their narratives would be quoted alike by kings and vagabonds was never a fleeting. old manuscript. The genealogical researcher yearns and learns.

for its trip across the Atlantic. at some point inevitably there will be blockages and stonewalls. By some similar manifestation. British Guiana. Sierra Leone.24 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N As the genealogical enthusiast assiduously attempts to push back the hands of time. was indeed supplanted. as its destination. Sierra Leone. Certainly the Scottish name Robertson could not have been in their family for any length of time. Joyce and also Samuel(s) could well have become attached and took the journey into perpetuity. The Sancho name we now know has a history that is more romantic. It was the universal practice for liberated Africans to be baptized as soon as possible after getting to the land of deliverance. It is more than likely that their ancestral single name. and with Berbice. left behind somewhere in Africa and in the keeping of their siblings and extended families. There is no way anyone will ever with confidence trace his ancestry back to Adam and Eve! It is very doubtful that Billy and Bright Robertson of Ithaca actually did wave good-bye to a mother and father Robertson and siblings as they boarded the boat at Freetown. .

Ancestors of Bentick SANCHO Prepared August 4. 1994 .

and what seemed like “a cast of thousands” that included other relatives. Friends and relatives all but ceased to inquire about my health and about how was I doing. words can be arranged to form sentences—the most vital way to communicate. impress upon you that you have inherited the genealogical legacies of two families that are proud of their heritage with a common source—Africa—but with a divergence that has placed one in North . I am anxious to stick around for a little while longer to experience some of the many anniversaries and mile posts that lay ahead of you. cousin Chris. aunty Sharon. It was you who. grandma. As your second birthday approached. It would be a pleasure and a privilege to be able to answer your many questions while looking you straight into your eyes.” Welcome. You figured out that chosen selectively.” For a while there. friends. decided to call me Papa instead of Grandpa. They were asking instead. be revealed to you in due time by your two wonderful loving parents. no doubt. Of this I am sure we would not love each other any less. you started to hang on to words. You know what? I am thrilled with and revel in your choice. all our lives have changed. without help and prodding. Nana started on a mission to inform the whole world that Roman Alexander was here. “How is your grandbaby?” It was as if the primary source of all health and happiness now flowed from becoming a grandparent. and well-wishers—were all concerned about some seemingly prenatal problems that had manifested a few months before the expected delivery date. however. 2005. Roman Alexander! A friend remarked that “with a name like that. There had been wild anticipation and preparation to welcome you. mom. The true and full story of how Wayne Phillips and Chioma Robertson met will. Your Nana was what I teasingly call “giddy. the welcoming party—your dad.” Almost immediately. which was October 3. The magnificent medical team in attendance lessened the anxiety and produced a textbook “landing. he should conquer the world. I was quick to point out to Nana that I would have to stick around a good while longer if I had plans to attend your graduation ceremonies. and/or refer to me as Grandpa.26 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N To Roman: From “Grandpa” You came into this world just thirteen days after my seventieth birthday. Our immediate family all expected you to call me. I must.

and some parts of the English-speaking Caribbean. born of slave parentage on a slave ship in the Spanish Main and raised in London. England. There is no way I can conclusively predict how old you would be when you shall have read this letter for the first time. you will surely find that each of these family trees to be laden with some of the finest fruits—Mother Africa could well be proud. Bentick. and we may surmise. and some other vital life instruments have not been calibrated. So much of the story has become somewhat complicated as we try to follow the semen trail. “Sancholore” tell us that John seemed to have embarked on a mission to multiply and replenish. When we are children. With no malice. and with the best of good intentions. we think and act like children. My mother. Here is a prediction with which I am comfortable. had left home early one morning for the family farming plots. Repetition does not turn fiction into facts. our data bank is limited. Equally. British Guiana. It started to .” The three brothers. and you will read it more than once. So here we are trying to fit this jigsaw puzzle together and to clear away the never-ending lingering doubts. it would be criminal and unforgivable to fill these young vessels with secondhand. All subsequent Sanchos of British Guiana. unsubstantiated word of mouth. settled on the plantation Enmore owned by the Porter family. Each Guyana Sancho. and John. migrated to Demerara. and my brother. situated some miles from where we lived and which villagers referred to as the Back Dam. our “geiger counter. Here is the Sancho story that had unfolded. stories have been told and retold. we are told. we proceed to his only son. to seek their fortunes. going way back. “the English man of letters. As your interest shall have peaked. Tuckness. are now being regarded as emanating from the loins of Ignatius Sancho.” our moral compass.THE FOUR PILLARS 27 America and the other in South America. intent on finding a better life. Starting with Ignatius Sancho. You see. You will not quite get it all. your great-uncle Buds. no doubt believed he or she was making a valuable contribution each time in repeating something heard from a particular source. Three sons of the said William. We must go through that “mind of a child” transition. Here are a couple of “mind of a child” experiences. not right away. You will cherish it. It is noble to pass on to the younger generation all available knowledge and information about their own genealogy. William. your great-grandma Doris.

The plots were usually divided into smaller plots called beds. Taking a cue from the grown-ups. and kill the intruder. My three-year-old mind conjured up a scene of two people who meant the world to me. this lizardlike pest being called an earthquake! So. were being attacked by wild animals. She just could not understand why Daddy Ramsay did not just get up. . There was one of those rare happenings for our part of the world. South America. there was concern but no panic. The other experience is not mine but rather one told me to me by your great-grandma Doris. Trust a child. and the two of them still had not come home. safe and sound. then act like a man. Roman. it had apparently gotten into the cabinet as wineglasses and tumblers were clinking and banging together. Guyana. Chase and acquire the resources that would effectively aid you in thinking like a man. Whatever an earthquake was. go to the cabinet. The house and everything in it started to shake this particular evening. This agony would linger for what seemed like forever until they finally showed up. I think I did. cherish your “mind like a child” moments and fantasies when they would have come and gone. while being sound asleep in those beds at the farm.28 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N get dark later that day.

Struggling fledging though it was—no match to the ones in Toronto.” “uncles. After a sumptuous plate of Cook-up-Rice. The convergence on the great cosmopolitan city. watered by the St. in Canada. the soaring eagles Leebert Sancho. did we ever reminisce! Before long it became clear to Leebert and me that we were seriously deficient in the area of Sancho genealogy. We were to discover that so many of the “aunts. were spirited and animated. had commenced days before our arrival late that Friday evening. full of “remember-when’s” and. It was not long. THE QUEST.THE JOURNEY. we were ready to let all of Montreal know that we were in town. even after such a long day. especially when it is secondhand. just after one o’clock. As the “eagles” gathered. a little knowledge could be dangerous. While all this was going on. Lawrence basin. oh. Winston “Cassa” Cosbert was in his element and proceeded to deliver a virtual seminar which could aptly be called genealogy 101. the telephone rang to announce the arrival of our dear cousin Cassa. or even Boston. The conversations. Christopher Sancho. Ohio. Florida. In almost every phase of life. The first weekend in July. there seemed to have been a notable abstention. and Georgiana Sancho. The trip by auto from Toledo. in the province of Quebec. Later that weekend attempts were made at some documentation of a little of that newfound knowledge. had always been a time of joy. or Brooklyn.” and “cousins” upon whom we showered these terms of respectful endearment actually had the Sancho DNA in their bodies. had consumed just over twelve hours. a sheet of paper and a pen was nowhere in sight. New York. The only people stirring were to be found in the basement. and Kenneth Joyce Robertson. Massachusetts—the West Indian Carnival was the place to be. reunion. or Miami. Those three happened to be the grandsons of the Sancho siblings: Alexander Sancho. The rest of the house soon retreated to the bedrooms. THE ODYSSEY. In about half an hour he was retrieved from the bus station. and merriment. 29 . THE MAGNIFICENT OBSESSION It was well past two o’clock that Saturday morning. Winston Cosbert. in Montreal.

There were some contradictions and a few others that needed further research. and with him went so much useful data which had never been put on paper or recorded on tape. in 1989. That positive and possible collaborative effort at documenting links and linkages was dealt a serious blow. they were fortunate to become acquainted with many relatives of the Sanchos. Canada. He went even further with announcements and pronouncements to the effect that a book was in the works with the title of “Anyway Sancho Want Um.30 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Bar none. Marietta had set down on a writing tablet. Cassa died in Toronto. I had never even heard the name of Ignatius Sancho. There followed a flurry of visits to London primarily to test the possible authenticity of the offerings of those who have previously researched the life and times of this black Brit. There followed a series of repetitions and the rehashing of things already known—“known knowns” and “known unknowns. Some things simply did not add up. One would think that there would have been others of that generation capable and able to fill the many voids. How does “Constable” Cosbert sound? It was a great loss when Willie died in Chicago in 1987. and they always welcomed him. Growing up in the house of his grandfather. and no one set out to deliberately deceive. Cassa had consistently demonstrated that he knew and appreciated the branches of the Sancho Family Tree more than anyone else. It was impressive in that it confirmed some of the known things. William Stuart and Oswald Sancho. I refuse to take a stance of outright rejection as to .” There was no malice intended. in her hand. daughter of Muriel Sancho Ross and granddaughter of Alexander Sancho. An inordinate amount of my research time has gone into giving life to the Ignatius Sancho factor. The first extensive writings dealing with the Sancho Family came my way through the hands of Marietta Ross. Some tried. Cassa took every opportunity to visit these two young policemen wherever they may be. memories and recollections of her mother. The shortest pencil has always been shown to be better than the longest memory. Christopher “Daddy Christie” Sancho surely did empower him in things related to the Sanchos of Golden Grove and Nabaclis. he became somewhat of a griot of the family and proceeded to demonstrate his skills at every possible opportunity.” It may have been a precipitate action on his part for no one seems to be aware of any incomplete manuscript left behind at the time of his death. As Willie Stuart and Ossie Sancho traversed and crisscrossed the land of Guyana and were stationed at the many police outposts. As he matured and followed in the footsteps of his older cousins. Prior to the revelations of cousin Muriel.

and whatever was for the convenience of the owner/plantation manager that reigned supreme. wishes. It is highly probable that his surviving father would have participated in the naming of his son. What about the theory that has been expounded for generations? About the mid-1830s. the padre was not actually bestowing upon this motherless child his rightful family name preceded by the chosen Christian name of Ignatius. but it also found its way to the British Isles. The fact he would have already been baptized could account for none of the myriad of researchers reporting a baptism of Ignatius Sancho as he is taken into the home of the sisters in Greenwich. It is quite clear the name Sancho has been in use in Europe for centuries—as far north as Germany and far south as Spain and Portugal.THE FOUR PILLARS 31 whether descendants of Ignatius Sancho did migrate to British Guiana or any of the West Indian Islands. It is doubtful that they would have welcomed a “heathen” as they did the young Ignatius into their home without some “holy water” being formally administered. In those years. One is thus left to inquire whether. it was the will. Down the length of the coast of West Africa can be found the name of Sancho and Sanko. on the east sea coast of Demerara. apprentice. In these matters. The name may not be as popular as Smith and Jones. and Tuckness arrived as apprenticed laborers at plantation Enmore. for reasons best known to themselves. John. at the baptism of Ignatius Sancho on the Spanish Main. three brothers named Bentick. Sancho’s mother expired soon after he was born. black men—slave. There is still a lot of research to be done. or free—could not just drop one name and pick up another at will. . At some point. they shed their surname(s) by choice and assumed the name of Sancho.

” There are still to some others. and when? So despite fact-finding missions. From the perspective of a black man who was born outside the Continent. traveling diplomats have a hard and long road to tread. gie we back we lion and we tigah. one must get past “Alkebulan. come tek you flu. that Edgar Rice Burroughs land of Tarzan and the apes. The more casual. One must also resist the temptation to lapse into comparative analyses: vis-à-vis Zambia. Throw Guyana—the land of my birth and where I spent the first twenty-six years of my life. there is the monolithic generic place where geographic boundaries do not matter. eight years in the UK. Senegal. whirlwind tours and the like. and become more focused and specific. less so. less discerning. five dinners and six 32 . you AIDS and you jiggah!” —just to paraphrase the lamentations of the reggae artiste To hear the word or to read the word “Africa” more often than not registers different meanings to the speaker or the writer of the word. Kenya. Assuming that the context is equally and clearly conveyed. same difference to some. For those of the African Diaspora. Even with briefings. .” Afrocentricity and the generic. just the mention of the name evokes tremors and triggers an emotional and mental “roller-coaster ride back to the future!” For some. or Comoros. Chad. and seeking to connect to his ancestral roots and origin. where. Ghana. secretaries of state. so much could be missed as rapid-fire deadline reports become due. and super intelligence to back them up. then the USA where I have resided for the last thirty-six years—into the mix. . Africa conjures up a country and at the same time every country on that continent. but seasoned visitor could factor in gut feeling and reaction.THE LAND OF OUR ANCESTORS “ . For others. the more realistic question then becomes. a darkest Africa. are all “Africa. and now a more updated place of blood diamonds and sweet crude. The consciousness and awareness of the particular individual could well dictate his or her understanding of the word Africa. dossiers. compared to what. the conclusions could still be similarly diverse. come. and South Africa. After at least five successive nights sleep in the same bed.

At this trip we will experience many different things. I was told in halting English. They are going to use this money building a city for poor children in Livingstone. She had a horrible cough. I reached up. when the plane on which I was traveling made a refueling stop in . folded it then tore it in half. and I live in Bergen. Then because the flight was headed to southern Africa. see the Victoria Falls. When we arrive tomorrow we will stay first in Lusaka for 3 days.” After I got to the end. Her response written on “Your Side” took a shorter time than I had anticipated. I looked at her and she looked at me. such as: safari.” On “My Side” I proceeded to provide some general purpose info: name. “Your Side. 1999. I came up with this idea. I took a sheet out of my largest writing pad. Norwegian. My original delight at having a vacant seat to my right soon faded. I smiled and nodded. Then we are going to Livingstone to visit the area where the SOS village is being built. I thought. briefly. living in a SOS village. Zambia. At first. one has only just begun to feel and connect with a hosting country and its people. She smiled and nodded. which is the next biggest city in Norway. was apparently held at the gates just a little longer. Yes. including their final destination: Livingstone. Here is what it said: “This is my second trip to Africa. Across the top of one I wrote “My Side” and on the other. I’ve been in Tunisia a couple years ago. As we all settled in I ventured to ask my neighbor to the right. We are 23 people traveling from FBK VOSS. I pushed the back of my seat further back and closed my eyes. Being able to spread out one’s papers over two airline tray tables instead of being confined to one tray could be a distinct perk of sorts. which is the name of my soccer team. I thought Africaans. I am from Norway.” It was signed “Trine.000 USD for SOS (Village) barre-byer (Norwegian word). pressing the switch that put my reading lamp out. Whilst I drew my first breath on the South American mainland. vertically. The overnight British Airways flight from London to Lusaka. As she became more relaxed. it would take just over sixty years before Mother Africa will bear my weight. There was a flurry of activity as a group from a connecting flight boarded and took their seats. German. Zambia. I gave some fatherly advice to her about getting some cough syrup soon. The effervescent chatter of these young people all around was delightful. rank (but no serial number). It happened on July 4. My soccer team won this trip because we collected 7. where I was going. and the purpose of my visit.THE FOUR PILLARS 33 leisurely breakfasts at the same dining table. 18 players and 5 leaders. living in a SOS Village and so on.

should visit their homeland. presented the challenge of negotiating a forty-five-degree gradient on both banks. and all the people of the surrounding areas to join him and members of the royal clan in merrymaking. the Chitentamo. and who considers himself to be part and parcel of the African Diaspora. the first time I had landed in Ghana. Zambia. by pontoon. That situation turned out to be a minor inconvenience when the day is taken as a whole. thirty-three miles down the road. Take away the snares. and the other percussion add-ons of Max Roach or Art Blakey. For others it could be optional: for no reason at all. Personally. It could well have been the equivalent of being summoned to a command performance. Once the program was started in the compound. seemed like a long wait. The significance of that moment was not lost even though there was another three and a half hours wait before reaching Kotoko Airport. While I did touch the tarmac with the palm of my left hand. After passing the equally famed city of Luanshya. the palace at Mpongwe. this brother who had been lost. Chief Machiya had most graciously invited his subjects. the river crossing. Getting through immigration and customs. the terrain changed markedly the closer we approached our destination. It turned out to be a universal invitation to the very unfamiliar but elegant and traditional Nsengele Kununka Ceremony being held to celebrate victory in tribal war—the Lima people have performed this ceremony for time immemorial after conquering other regional tribes. Africa. cymbals. I really became concerned about the effects the continual head bobbing would have on my neck! . Chief Machiya’s palace announced the bold headline. this personal gesture of homecoming did not seem warranted on this particular occasion. I firmly believe that every living soul born outside of Africa. that was some homecoming! The trip from Ndola by car did not seem to portend well. had then been found! The incessant rhythmic drumming would cling and just would not let go. dignitaries. Ghana. about to insert and immerse my unworthy self into the bosom of Mother Africa! My landing at Lusaka. With the prolonged dry season and the resultant low water mark. This visitor from the USA was indeed honored to accept the invitation. Coming off an all-night flight could surely put some pressure on the tolerance level. the most exquisite and explosive drum solos were to reach these ears. Here I was. some seven years later. what with my host family having to get out of bed as early as they had.34 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Guinea. and when I could become utterly emotionally unhinged. was much less emotional and somewhat routine. The word Nsengele means to celebrate while Kununka is a reference to the smell of gun powder and swirling smoke that permeated the battlefield. there on that day.

the crowd seemed to swell. the official language of Zambia. The national anthem was followed by traditional dances. It was stated that.com. The people of the Lamba tribe are just one of the seventy-three tribes that inhabit Zambia. I became determined that on my outward journey through Lusaka. and are found predominantly in the Copperbelt Province. were in English. As the day’s activities proceeded. . was quite a spoon-feeding lesson in culture unknown to this inquiring. Several speeches were delivered by dignitaries in the language(s) about which I could not distinguish or tell the difference. Their two tribal areas in that province are Mpongwe (Chief Machiya) and Masaiti (Senior Chief Mushili). Machiya IX. Chikuma. was to be found the limited seating for dignitaries and invited guests. prodigal son of the Diaspora.zambiatourism. I was fortunate to enjoy the honor and privilege to be seated in this area because of the apparent political contacts of my host and hostess. To the left. the decline of traditional customs and culture has been brought about by the infiltration of the west and western ways and the melting pot (effect) of various tribes living in the areas. the latter is called Chabalankata. I had to spend some of my limited time at the National Archives. Lukwase. and eternally grateful.THE FOUR PILLARS 35 In the center of the arenalike. rituals. the capital city. The jollity and entertainment was interrupted with the arrival of the guest of honor: the vice president of Zambia. Kansonkomona Twebo.” As an outsider and just a visitor. Mwanabakansa. pomp and circumstance combined with age-old African traditions. one of the twenty-three languages. “there are more than twenty annual traditional ceremonies in Zambia. They speak Lima. A few speeches. More than ever.S. entered in procession. This combination of inherited protocol. I was gorged. There has recently been a realization of the value of traditions and a conscious effort is being made to preserve them. a search on the Internet brought me to the pages of www. material and spiritual culture . Katemene Mwiulu. Lyembe. the thought emerged as to whether such ceremonial and celebratory exercises were not likely to cause friction among the . which I should have visited before my travels.” there was erected an elevated seat especially for the present reigning chief. including that of the vice president of the nation. oral history. While they hold their ceremonies in the same month of November. sandy. Emblazoned were the names of prior leaders of the Lima people in the following sequence: Chempesha. the former is called Nsengele. Bright and Judith Chama.. Dressed in special attire—a western suit and tie with colorful African regal accoutrements—Chief Machiya. social life. and grassless “compound. . as one enters the arena. sated. manifesting customs. accompanied by members of the royal clan. Several months after returning home to the U.

think about emigrations out of Europe. think about the occasional dip in the African gene pool. Bright Chama drove me to the bus terminal and took pains to introduce me to an acquaintance of his who was also travelling. Verlie Assanah. as spoken in the copper belt. Two weeks after my attendance at the ceremony in Mpongwe. A place was reserved for me at a table in the reading room for the following morning. There was no way to determine the ethnic makeup of the celebrants. On an earlier visit to the UK. I was fortunate to attend the passing-out parade of this much more mature soldier in Her Majesty’s army.” their hopes and dreams. through the auspices and goodwill of my hostess. This fact my hosts were soon to confirm. and loving it! . conversations together. I did have the opportunity and privilege to meet and make the acquaintance of a fourth generation of that family: Nicolas Shultz. He was very apologetic when he had to yield to the pressure that was impeding the blood flow to his extremities. On my arrival at the bus terminal. Shultz quickly offered some choices of places that would merit a visit. this towering man had to sit in a very uncomfortable position with his knees almost touching his chin. was not being spoken in Lusaka. He was definitely on his way. There was no need for me to impersonate Mr. the Chamas. With space at a premium. I became convinced that the same language. There were several dialects being spoken all around me. It was after the fact. Mrs. to the victors go the spoils. Shultz. that some interesting insights emerged relative to the Lamba and their origin. but I ignored them all and opted for the archives. He was forced to exchange seats. I was very delighted at this gesture and had hoped to engage this gentleman in conversation. I reluctantly bid farewell to my gracious host and hostess. The journey on a packed bus from Ndola back to Lusaka was uneventful. At our first contact. Paul and Joyce Shultz. and also after more research. realizing that he spoke English. On my next visit in the following summer. his lady fair presented her credentials then assured the person at the desk that I was indeed a guest in the Shultz household. “Papa” Shultz actually married his full-blooded African ladylove some two to three generations before. To the reader who may be wondering about the name Shultz in Central Africa. My hopes were dashed very early into our journey. How thrilled then would those not of the Lamba family be with all this triumphal carry-on. Seems my years were beginning to become attuned to detect variations and differences in languages without being able to identify which was which. It is always a joy to listen if and when the young would share some of that “innocence.36 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N tribes. as I waited to be picked up by my new host and hostess. we had some interesting. Indeed.

Lawrence. I wish that my ragged itinerary had been switched around—visit the archives first with the Ndola trip to follow afterward. H. more so the special sort of knowledge that the National Archives of Zambia seeks to secure . It was never my objective to find some linkage between the slave trade to the Americas and Zambia. Cholmeley. slaves were marched across the countryside often chained to prevent escape.THE FOUR PILLARS 37 Early in my search. R (Kandondo). Miss F. though there is no stated date for my individual ascension. (Lupondo).W. I came across this gem: “Knowledge is rightly said to be the only instrument of production that is not subject to diminishing returns. in colonial times. I would have learned beforehand that in the district of Ndola. Miss O. Stern. as many as eighty thousand to one hundred thousand Africans per year were killed or solid into slavery. African Studies African Peoples by Countries Ghana Adangme Akan Anufo Avatime Bassari Bimoba Birifor Bisa Cangborong Chacali Cherepon Dagari Dagomba Denkyira Dormaa Effutu Ewe Farefare Ga Gonja Hausa Kasena Koma Konkomba Kposo Kulango Kusasi Lobi Mamprusi Manding Mossi Narumba Nawuri Sisala Tallensi Temperature . A. (Lukaki). Doke. Young (Mandala). Under Anthropology could be found a descent chart of Mushiri. E. 1895-1940. (Kabulu). many were forced to carry ivory to trade.” Foreword to The Guide of Public Archives of Zambia. F. . (Chambule). one of the busiest slave routes was from Zambia and Malawi to the coast of Mozambique. The possible answers to so many more of my questions could possibly have been found in the copper belt. . not really expecting to make any spectacular finds. native names had been fashioned for sixty-three European settlers. Lamba chief (still no dates). C. Examples: Allen. The archival material made available to me yielded these facts: the height of the slave trade came in the nineteenth century. Then there is a history with chart for the descendants of Mushiri.

38 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N South Africa Afrikaans Fanakal Nama Nothern Soto Sotho Swazi Zambia Ambo Aushi Bamba Bisa Chikunda Cishinga Cokwe Gova Ila Inamwanga Iwa Kabende Kaonde Kosa Kunda Kwandi Kwandu Kwangwa Lala Lamba Lenje Leya Lima Liyuwa Lozi Luano Lucazi Lumbu Lunda Lundwe Luvale Makoma Mambwe Mashasha Mashi Mbowe Mbukusha Mbumi Mbunda Mbwele Mukulu Mulonga Ndembu Ng’umbu Nkoya Yombe Nsenga Nyanja Nyengo Nyiha Sala Seba Senga Shanjo Shila Simaa Soli Subiya Swaka Tabua Tambo Toka Tonga Totela Tumbuka Twa Unga Wandya Tsonga Tswani Venda Xhosa Zulu Source: African Studies Center. Leiden. African Thesaurus .

especially when the particular needle was not known to be there in that selfsame stack in the first place. New Jersey. Having to retrieve our baggage then get on a bus to Kennedy Airport did not go down well. there was a convergence in the centre of the room—like a bunch of high school kids full of anticipation and excitement—seeking and receiving last-minute instructions and information which would inevitably have to be repeated as the trip progressed. Dr. Here am I struggling to pick up and trying to reconnect the genealogical threads of my African family. The triumphal euphoria on finding a “needle in a hay stack” is doubly gratifying. put some space between us. With the arrival of the leaders of the group. We might have been scheduled as the first flight out of that terminal that particular morning. Where have all our griots gone? The shortest pencil will always trump the longest memory.” am faced with a virtual archival wasteland.RECOLLECTIONS AND BEYOND It was quite a revelation when a professional colleague informed me that her family has been able to trace their lineage back to eleventh and twelfth-century Scotland. Even though most of us had met at a couple of pretour meetings. and American histories. there was no coalescing in the waiting room. a breeze. Cheryl Dove. I. It was late afternoon when the boarding of the DC 10 of Ghana Airways was started. and Dr. The number of seemingly “wrong” places where I have looked—never being sure or confident about what I was looking for—does make an interesting list. The people of the group kept arriving at Detroit Metro for this historic trip to Ghana and South Africa by the ones and twos. Hutchful. The five thirty flight left Detroit on time. Ms. Why not spread out. It turned into quite a spectacle to observe as returning Ghanians clash with the airline staff as they attempted to draw the line between regular 39 . I am left to forage and scavenge on the periphery of British. a child of the flotsam and jetsam of the more recent “middle passage. Our oral traditions could have brought us only a short distance while the cultural assaults were relentless. European. Holman. which made the connecting flight through and onward to La Guardia. which were not originally recorded with the “sons and daughters of the African Diaspora” in mind. seeing that the waiting room was nearly empty.

The “shock and awe” administered through the guided tour of the slave castle at Elmina seeps into one’s very soul while the sight of the sea through iron bars of “The Gate of No Return” causes the body to shiver. As the member of a group of fellow travelers. deftly reminded the gathering that a group of African dignitaries. That youth just refused to be consoled. and the questions. we were airborne to Accra. the next morning. and the National Archives that initially had my focus. we were polite and thankful. Ghanian born. Whatever the degree of remorse or the level of apology then we were not aware. They have the slave castles and the memorabilia. the longing. Professor Eboe Hutchful. while on a visit to Atlanta. never once asking why or how we became separated. with some civil rights leaders earlier. The best I could manage was to ask whether they had missed us. it all started to look like a normal flight. In Accra. E.m. Dakar. one has some restrictions and inevitably must surrender some freedom and flexibility. It was clear that just about every item including the kitchen sink were being taken back to Ghana. A young student from Detroit. that an all-black African crew indeed had the right stuff! After a refueling stop at Leopold Senghor Airport. Nathan Fuller. Our Ghanian brothers and sisters will never grasp the reasons why we of the African Diaspora would exit that miserable. The leader of the visiting group. Senegal. Georgia. the Library of the University of Ghana. not only for the two groups of black teenaged vacationers on the flight. A great lesson was there for all. We have the shame. B. Ghana.m. More than that. which did not make it less annoying especially because the decibels were excessively high. It was there and then that I saw the largest cooler that looked more like a full-sized fridge or casket all buckled up and ready to go for a flight! Most of the verbal sparring was done in other than English. DuBois Library. but also for the rest of passengers that included a few whites. silent. it was the W. Being welcomed “home” to Africa went down very well. As visitors.40 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N and carry-on luggage and also what constitutes overweight. the capital city. England. Being afforded the opportunity to visit with the chief of Akrapong and his elders was a very rewarding experience. the Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park. ghoulish place teary-eyed. had effectively dealt with that matter. weeps uncontrollably as we got back to the tour bus. at 3:00 a. and visibly shaken. Everyone seemed satisfied! It became clear to me that the most likely place to find some relevant answers had to be in the archives of our former colonial masters in London. Once airborne. . arriving at Kotoka Airport at 6:35 a. it was a treat to be in the hands and care of a fine professional crew who spared no pains to assure that our flight was satisfying and enjoyable. No apologies or regrets for slavery were forthcoming.

his failures. As a youth being raised in colonial British Guiana. One must wonder. “More. the sources of my readings. this writer had visions of the possibilities that our own independence could portend. about Ghana and its then leader. or even something metaphysical. Ever grateful. (v) Marriage and the Family Structure in Ghana.S. (vii) the Economy and Economic Development in Ghana. It could well be some sort of spiritual healing balm. were to be found in the reading rooms of the USIS located on the lower floor of the American Embassy. Equally.” after driving its full length and seeing only seven other vehicles on the way. These activities were capped off with a final lecture: Traditional and Modern African Religion. even Ebony! I still recall a correspondent referring to a major highway that had just been completed as “Nkrumah’s Folly. Kwame Nkrumah. two full days in each of two weeks. if the occasional annual professional continuing education seminar is discounted. For someone who had not been in a classroom in ages. Spread over four days. To have two field trips—to Korle Bu Hospital in Accra and to the Herbal Medicine Research Centre and Clinic at Nsawan—made the following lecture (viii) particularly sensible and useful. A visit by a black person who was born outside the African continent is indeed a voyage of discovery. (iv) Women and Changing Gender Roles in Ghana. U. News & World Report . . I was academically gorged! Still. With the time constraints imbedded in a whirlwind . (iii) Ghanian Traditional Festivals. Oh the hours on end that were spent devouring Time. that universal feeling of pride and euphoria that was felt by Africans and their brothers and sisters outside the borders of the motherland as the Gold Coast became Ghana. I would avail myself of every opportunity to read articles. (vi) Education and Social Policy in Ghana. the subjects/topics covered a wide range: (i) Precolonial Civilization and the Slave Trade in Ghana. One could never be sure what one was looking for but surely will know how and when to lock onto that something as it is revealed and experienced. news reports and documentaries. Life. . how far is a visionary allowed or permitted to see? It does seem to me that visions and horizons are incompatible. . His meteoric rise and success was my joy. . feed me ’til I want no more . good or bad. (ii) Signs and Symbols in Akan Culture. So there I was being driven along the very highway to visit the vital sea ports at Tema. (viii) Health Care in Ghana—Modern and Traditional. It seemed like that inner being kept screaming. stumbles. and ultimate disastrous downfall were my pain. ” It is unforgettable.THE FOUR PILLARS 41 Full advantage was taken of the daily lectures in the classrooms of the University of Ghana. I was genealogically on empty.

or even a third. A few brief stops were made just to say “hi and bye” to the local . Our group had arrived early that Saturday morning not really knowing what to expect on a day spent cruising on the Volta Lake. or whatever. The Dodi Princess. Becoming wise after the event(s) has inevitably been a theme and a strain running through so many of the conclusions and summations about my first trip to Africa. they were fined and had cameras seized for unlawfully snapping pictures—nothing short of a shakedown and a hustle. They were to relate being treated badly by the Togolese border guards. It was here that our group would rendezvous with the subgroup from Bermuda.140 square miles that make up the park could be regarded as a remnant of what was once a massive forest that stretched along the Atlantic shores of Ghana and connecting with its neighbors to the north and to the south. of A. There we were. Kakum National Park was a welcome inclusion in the itinerary. the magnificent view from the verandahs of the Volta Hotel where we stopped for refreshments was an early indicator. and the material. and of course.42 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N visit. and had summarily dismissed them from our psyche. We had reasons to be thankful that we had been separated earlier to facilitate that group’s trip across the border into neighboring Togo. led by Mrs. Under the management of the Volta River Authority. Many more things would have been unfolded in a satisfactory and meaningful way with a little more preparation and homework prior to leaving the U. The seventh day in Ghana was never intended as a day of rest from our labors. sightseeing and entertainment. free from so many of our cares as we know them. Several people were overheard to express regrets at not having the person or persons they loved and cared the most about to be present there and then. The Wayne State U group was very appreciative at being able to stop there for a leisurely tour on the way to the Cape Coast. This is an area within which there is a rain forest. would be our succor and refuge for the day as we sailed to the farthest end of the lake and back.S. Hutchful. one is forced to settle for and deal with the fleeting. one is more than likely to take a second. There were two bands on board. Ghanian cuisine and the local brews. these activities were indeed designed for maximum pleasure. Reaching Akosombo. one-size-fits-all tour. As it turned out. ours was not a generic. To a large extent. the physical. one local and the other from Togo. That too will soon disappear! Our vessel for the day.S. The 135. back in the Midwest of the U. to take an inquiring look at the face of a complete stranger and drift off into a fanciful recognition—the face of someone that is known back in the Americas. In the teeming steamy crowds of the market and the city street.

a time when most towns the world over have that lethargic. and a smaller group from the Institute of African Studies and a sprinkling of locals had the run of the decks of the Dodi Princess.6 percent of the existing land space in Ghana.” It was a story of engineering projections that were shattered by a combination of seasonal adverse conditions—bountiful rainfall and the extremes of drought and the irrigation needs of populations along the banks of the Three Voltas. There were so many useful facts that a tour guide. A comment to a Ghanian brother about the lush green vegetation on the banks of the lake as being conducive to raising different herds of animals evoked the response that there were environmental considerations that have gotten in the way of most types of farming on those banks. or makes a landing on the coast and the shores off the Gulf of Benin. and festivity. . the visible varying water marks on the giant gates of the Volta Dam were actually telling a story that so many failed to “hear. an event that produced the world’s largest man-made lake. Togo. At the time we boarded the Dodi Princess for the lake cruise. one would need to overnight in Kumasi. I personally vowed to return to Kumasi in the future. As the volume and level of water fluctuated. By the time we arrived it was after lunch. Whether one crosses the border from Birkina Faso. Construction continued from 1961 to its completion in 1965. It was indeed a bad choice to squeeze this leg of the tour into the itinerary. could have imparted. Neither were there any brochures and such. The plans hit the drawing boards in 1940 but had gained momentum by the time of Ghana’s independence from Great Britain in 1957. The conception of this gigantic hydroelectric project goes back to the colonial days of 1915. Their smiles and laughter soon deflected from the obvious signs of the grinding.THE FOUR PILLARS 43 villages. Some four hours from Accra. there was so much we were not aware of relating to the history and significance of the Volta Lake and the Volta Dam at Akosombo. frolic. It warmed the heart to see the children running. sleepy haze hanging over them. all-pervading poverty and hardships in which they were being raised. The lower deck was empty. to make the journey useful and meaningful. Cote d’Ivoire. the Bermuda group. It was estimated to have covered some 3. and the upper deck where we were had lots of space. The Detroit group. The capacity of the Princess was apparently being underutilized. so did the capacity to generate the needed voltage of electricity resulting in load shedding and interruptions of services. if there was one. some from a distance. just to wave. During our fun. he would not have really visited Ghana should he fail to travel inland and set his feet on the lands of the Ashanti.

In short. All but two of the young mavericks among the group who ventured beyond the lobby of the hotel. South Africa. Detroit. guitar in a case slung over his shoulder. Ghana. on a South African Airlines flight from Accra.” Even those who had not over the years kept abreast. Tutu.44 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N On landing in Johannesburg. ready to board our bus. it never occurred to our sleep-deprived group that if were we to line up in a planned sequence—immigration. currency exchange—we would save time plus end up together. Lady Smith Black Mombazo. or even “Mother Africa” herself. as reported by the newspapers of that day. One would have heard Bishop Desmond Tutu some years prior as he expounded upon the struggles against Apartheid as he intimately and personally knew it to be. as they each would one by one fall into a welcomed stupor which ought to make the world go away! We were also informed about the body count. a barrage of warnings was issued as to the laxity and ineffectiveness of police security in that city. it was discernable that this was an African country with some remarkable ethnic differences. that appalling activity is likely to continue all day and well into the night. to me. but none of the above. and only for a short spell. any likely difference between him and I would not be generational. sniffing glue from the telltale plastic bag. I find that my presentation is tending to take on the appearance of a travelogue. other names were mentioned who were less known. became beneficiaries . as we were being bussed from the Jan Smuts Airport. His audience. like the small groups of youths. pointed out certain signs. Miriam Makeba? In reply. As we waited. went to bed early in anticipation of the conducted tours that had been laid out for ensuing days. repeatedly interrupting his astounding speech with standing ovations and with shouts of “Tutu. mere children. At every stage. With the Holiday Inn Express as our beachhead. or slovenly lagged behind concerning the day-to-day activities and developments in South Africa. my impressions lack some of its feeling and its empathetic impact. we were ready to launch forays into the J-burg metropolis. do not venture into the streets. With so few opportunities to meet and interact with people. customs. It was keen on taking in some “local” music. I stopped him and inquired who might be in town—Lucky Dube. a packed and overflowing Cobo Hall. or so we thought. Disappointingly. As a more matured fellow sauntered by. I thought that whatever musical genre I may choose to pigeonhole him into. would have been taken to newer heights. resulting from the violent and drug-related assaults. As we understood it. Tutu. Hugh Masakela. Our driver/tour guide.

echoing the lyrics of our dear brother Marvin Gaye. That before Apartheid history was to feature prominently in some of the classroom lectures and discussions. He set about the business of enlightenment. the travelling Wayne State group became immersed in and participated zealously. fences were eventually mended. Apartheid and its Impact. “Brother. and New Zealand who were their “kith and kin. The atmosphere was electric as Modebo proceeded to deliver a magnificent speech for the ages. and ironworking network mostly to the east. Around AD 400 and onward. Between 1867 and 1910. The trilogy of lectures was complete with the “Making of the Modern State.” Even though South Africa had fought a war—the Boer War—against the UK. the latter was to engineer and facilitate the establishment of the Gold Standard in the Western World. It sometimes gets lost that this massive chunk of southern Africa was actually a colony of Great Britain (UK) in another life.” but the impact of this European insertion became a primary and monolithic agent of change. On that journey we were to meet and distinguish “gatherers” and “hunters. As a charter member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Australia. The big lie that the Dutch hardly saw anybody when they first came was exposed and laid bare. In a sensibly linked and useful series of lectures. So much of the history of South Africa in the last century has been overshadowed by or seen through the prism of Apartheid. the former had not yet become “a girl’s best friend” but was a very popular facilitator and helped to bring about a transformation. Canada. and empowerment for those who would again fill Cobo to capacity. farming. and they together joined the “rest of the world” as allies to defeat common enemies during WWI and WWII. We know for sure that there were no “pilgrim fathers.” The early nations were the San (Bushmen) and the Khoe (Hottentots). Soon it was Nelson Mandela’s turn to weave the same patterns with a slightly more intricate and bolder nuance.THE FOUR PILLARS 45 of a masterful speech appropriate for the times. there was a history-making mineral revolution—diamonds and gold. . education. it had ranked with and had been highly regarded by the UK. the Cautious Revolution: A Balance Sheet of South Africa under Mandela.000 BC to 1867. there is an emergence of a Bantu-speaking. 18. we were exposed to the antiquity of southern Africa and its peoples before and after the Portuguese landings. Starting with archaeological references.” within which the following were encapsulated: Slavery in the Western Cape. brother.” “sister. the Peopling of South Africa gave more breadth than depth by covering an unimagined period. sister” he would greet the Motor City.

Most of the journey was just a drive-by tour intended to fill up the itinerary. Indians. some sixty thousand people from district 6 were removed principally to the Flatts. Our tour guide. This simple and unpretentious effort at preserving the Mandela legacy was already bursting at the seams. As was stated elsewhere. and also Mitchell’s Plain. Khayelitsha. lead us from facility to facility and from building to building. a concession and a privilege. the group had already had a related tour of Cape Town that included the Universities of Cape Town and the Western Cape. While in J-burg. By the time we arrived at the prison. it was noticeable how the youngsters had ceased their frolicking and most people had started to lower their voices measurably. in the Livernois-Puritan intersection. This area had originally been an area with a solid middle-class population that had grown “naturally. The Cape Flatts was next in line. which happened to be blocks from where I worked. The overspill was absorbed into an attachment—a converted shipping container—that also accommodated a little gift shop and “office. everyone was relieved and ready to be “on the road again. an earlier inmate. Their new designated area of residence became Athlone (Colereds). He was very pleased to make my acquaintance. providing us with more and more details than we cared for and was very unlikely to remember. Our initial stop was district 6. I will always remember his shortwave radio. There was no particular one thing that distinguished Mandela’s cell from that of the others. As conscious efforts of the government to separate the races kicked in.” It was comprised of coloreds. it had sustained him somewhat—the twice-daily BBC World News had been one of the highlights of his day. it was decided to stick with the itinerary as originally laid out. . Security concerns returned and featured prominently before a final decision was made about this particular outing. Philippi.” Between classes. and Crossroads (of “human necklace” fame). a seemingly somber demeanor would descend upon the group.” The manager/ curator was a graduate of the University of Detroit.46 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N With the minimum classroom presence having been satisfied. The rather simple cottage had been transformed into a museum. two non-Detroiters trying to outdo each other about reminiscences of the Motor City! As the ferry docked at Robben Island. the bus driver reluctantly agreed to undertake his assignment. Rylands (Indians). nestling between his meager belongings. our tour of Soweto had included a visit to President Mandela’s house where he had lived with his family before his incarceration. Just imagine. With an “expert” riding along. and blacks. Guguletta (Xhosa). Even though we were anxious to get to Robben Island.

Soshangane is one of a number of outstanding figures that rose to prominence during the Mfecane. . the free encyclopedia: “Soshangane was a General of the Zulu King Shaka who broke away from Shaka’s hegemony and carved out a Nguni empire of conquest (Gasa or Gaza) in what is now modern-day Mozambique. and he extracted tribute from the Europeans. This “brother from across the water” is convinced that some of our Zulu brethren were caught up in the shipments of slaves to the Americas.MORE RECOLLECTIONS AND BEYOND The following passage is lifted from the writings of Madeba. The slave marches from the hinterland of the neighboring and contiguous states of Mozambique are legendary and have been documented. A punitive expedition sent Shaka to liquidate his former rival was seen off in 1828. Zambia—I was not fully prepared. during which the Zulu warrior sought to conquer and then unite all the tribes under military rule. while visiting Zambia in 2006. Allied with the rival Ndwandwe in 1819. It was only after some reflection at a later stage that I really grasped the significance of each visit. was introduced to one of two Zulu representatives in that country’s parliament by way of a warm and friendly handshake and the exchange of appropriate greetings. On the two occasions when my hosts. the Zulu presence has been established even farther north of their ancestral homeland than had been believed before. . To be told that Zulu is a Bantu language and that Swahili is also a Bantu language does not categorically support or clarify any underlying ethnic or geographic position. through the ports of Mozambique. especially to Brazil. Nelson Mandela. Inhambane and Sena. He moved north into Mozambique. the great wave of battles and migrations between 1820 and 1840 set in motion by the rise of Shaka and the Zulu state. Soshagane fled after defeat by Shaka. Bright and Judy Chama. His army overran the Portuguese settlements at Delagoa Bay.” With the above in mind. absorbing or conquering numerous followers.” And now from Wikipedia. This researcher. and Soshangane consolidated his empire . Rather than fussing with my camera and seeking 47 . took me to see a “slave tree” at two separate locations—one outside the limits and the other within the corporate boundaries of the City of Ndola. page 14 of Long Walk to Freedom: “AMaMfenge arrived on the eastern Cape after fleeing from Shaka Zulu’s armies in a period known as the iMfecane.

to face the elements. A quick moment of silence with head bowed did not quite do it. I ought to have been more composed. it is possible to be able to retrieve that spiritual calling card that tells you that they did pass that way. There must be thousands of others on this side of the Atlantic who are irretrievably linked by DNA and history to the proud warriors of Zululand. So Oprah is not Zulu. yearning for definitive. Zulu leader of South Africa. but she is sorely mistaken. west. Mandinka. Sometime in 2005. Oprah Winfrey endearingly.48 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N to find the best angle. Popo. The quest must be extended and expanded. Find them we must! . True. In actuality. but with eyes closed and by taking the deepest breath.” What about us lesser mortals spread across the expanse of the African Diaspora. north. these two trees look like other trees. but prematurely embraced Zulu genealogy. answers to our myriad of questions? Ashanti. and south to be corralled. there were commemorative plaques and signs with appropriate words and phrases in evidence. As the DNA “evidence” emerged and was presented with lots of fanfare and buildup—on TV of course—her Kpelli antecedents welcomed her with open arms. enthusiastically. some eyebrows were raised. and derisive criticism were hurled in her direction. Akan. It is left to the individual to summon up that connection with the thousands that would have come from the east. had earlier disdainfully dismissed Oprah’s announcement with this: “I hate to tell Oprah this. In just about every way. we were standing on holy ground and each tree was not just a tourist attraction but more of a shrine. if not definite. Prince Mangosuthue Buthelezi. Zulu. then to be force marched to the eastern coast to the waiting ships.

With the passage of the Anti-Slave-Trading Acts in 1807. They would then have the “bush” purged out of them. the Friendly Society of Sierra Leone. Kru. their respective governments were disposed to abrogate to themselves the right ways to deal with these questions of the day 49 . Helena was part of the “seasoning” and preparation for apprenticeship in the English-speaking colonies. THE GREAT EXPERIMENT In an 1830 dispatch. and a sprinkling of Europeans were soon joined by immigrant settlers.” The temporary residency in Sierra Leone and St. Zachary Macauley and other philanthropic merchants and bankers of the Clapham Sect founded the colony of Sierra Leone as a place of refuge for liberated Africans. and all other encumbrances of slavery. and taught how to “stand up for Jesus. With the formation of the U. the first sanctioned migration of African Americans from the United States to Africa. the African-American presence manifested itself with the arrival of a small contingent who had responded to an invitation from England’s Royal African Society.S. By 1811. a colony especially formed for the suppression of the slave trade” indeed had a special mission. the lieutenant governor of Sierra Leone reiterated and emphasized that “this colony. Spanish. Mandingo. Fulani.SIERRA LEONE: THE GRAND DESIGN. just as the English Society and the American Society developed philosophical and other differences toward the treatment of Africa and the Africans. the British Crown assumed full responsibility for Sierra Leone and its destiny. real or imagined. the Sierra Leone Company would administer the colony until 1808. “Recaptives” or “liberated Africans” were thrown into the mix that soon developed into Freetown. missionized. another thirty-eight emigrants arrived in Sierra Leone in 1815. Over the ensuing years. First. counterpart. Black Loyalists from Nova Scotia came about 1792 while Jamaica’s Maroons made their home in 1800. Correspondence found in the archives of the Addington family specifically cites the importance of wood imported from Sierra Leone as being vital to the shipbuilding industry. the captives had to be set free from Portuguese. Founded by humanitarians in England. French.” and destitute men and women coming from England about 1787. A diverse population which included Bulom. the “black poor. Temne.

it is well known that the state of apprenticeship has been altogether abolished in the West Indies. . citizen. It must be obvious that.” The attempts at seeking to claim and hold the ever-shifting moral high ground thus continue unabated. is now. No Negro who has been captured. . if not impossible. All this. He is perfectly free when he lands. while these large interests are enlisted in favor of its continuance. The men were stolen from their homes. the British Government is not acting up to its professions. It is taken for granted that on this point their wishes are not consulted.S. . Here follows a report in the New York Times of April 12.S. If they are captured on the coast of Africa. “From Trinidad we learn of the arrival at Port-of-Spain of the American bark Ceres. and is entitled to all the rights of freedom. and send the Africans they captured from slavers back to their native country.50 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N as they affected recaptives and liberated Africans. as the Echo’s cargo were sent back in the frigate Niagara. president Tyler was read in the British House of Commons in April 1845: “The slaves. but if they are sent to the West Indies. Helena. and there they are perfectly at liberty to determine for themselves whether they will go or not to the West Indian colonies . (by the British) instead of being returned to their homes. and sent there. They are described to be fine healthy men and women.” . they cannot be said to be ‘liberated’ if they are sent against their will to a British island. taken to Sierra Leone. or ever has been. and though it is something to save them from Cuban Slavery. they are subject to no compulsion. they are. “As to the passage quoted. In bringing these captured Africans to their colonies. with 228 Africans. just three years after the U. it will be difficult. there is no apprenticeship whatever. and liberated. to suppress the nefarious traffic. . and although they may voluntarily enter into contracts.” The British government’s response was swift and immediate. generally speaking. when captured. made to serve for a time as apprentice.S. It is true that individual slaves may not always be sent to Africa as it is quite impossible at all times to provide means of sending them thither. rescued from a slaver and taken to St. and made the means of swelling the amount of their products by a system of apprenticeship for a term of years. in the Dred Scott case (1857) that no black—slave or free—could ever become a U. A message addressed by U. are transferred to her colonial possessions in the West Indies. 1860. Supreme Court had decided. If Government desires to give proof of a practical philanthropy it should imitate the American example. and that its results would be in effect but a continuance of the slave trade in another and more cruel form .

Bannah . according to the 1822 census. .” With names like Pootoo. There were still a few skilled artisans. Citing a Parliamentary Paper. West Indians and Americans 85. After the boarding of a slaver by the Royal Navy. liberated Africans between 7. . another miserable band of wide-eyed wanderers is now facing “the first day of the rest of their lives. .400. . work on getting used to this appendage.” Yes! In time they too could be blessed with one new or possibly two names. Bandah. in line with the Creole thing. both of which were more than likely not African. and Maria Piquiena.504. Previous censuses had included “disbanded soldiers” among the farmers. One can start with Mary.THE FOUR PILLARS 51 Every effort was made to nurture and bring out the “Englishness” of the liberated Africans while at the same time separating them from their ethnicity and culture. With names like Juliana da Praca. these Portuguese sea nymphs would reluctantly be parted from their “recaptives. Mason. Prince Edinborough .103. Cabbah. In time. William Coker. one can look forward to being fitted with the impressive George Weatherspoon. Dos Amigos. Magdalena. as 15. . the “prize” was then escorted to Freetown and its human cargo disgorged.300 to 7. A census of 1831 show them living in villages with quaint English names. this elite group was invariably listed with a name and a surname. with little more than one third belonging to Freetown. Here is an example: Name of Area Charlotte Gloucester Leicester Wilberforce Congo Town Lumley Murphy Point Inhabitants 361 263 51 692 144 301 71 Name of Area Leopold Old Bathurst Regent Aberdeen Land Beach Murray Inhabitants 259 79 513 432 100 411 It is interesting to note that by this time there is an apparent seepage of class in describing the occupants. Diana. etc. natives 3. carpenters and the like. discharged soldiers 1.081. Asoonah. masons. an 1825 edition of the Edinburgh Adviser gives the grand total of the population of Sierra Leone. . This phenomenon was an ever-growing element. Cabannah. . and Toby . now this mixed category is being referred to as agriculturists. and the migratory Kroomen 947.

the Spanish Brigantine Empressa.S. 2. The Times of London of Saturday. There were seldom any reports on the ones that got away and succeeded in landing their cargo of misery on the other side of the Atlantic. announces that HBM ship of war Vestal. was manifested. which arrived on Friday in New York from Bermuda. of June 8. quotes a sister paper. The brig Flight was captured by HMS Falcon with a cargo of 504 captive slaves. 434 slaves. All the captures took place within eight days. The Star and Republic Banner. forever valiant. boarded.157 Africans on board. The squadron on this station is now reduced in strength.” Her Majesty’s navy. that navel blockade continues to be porous as late as 1859. reports as follows: “The Medina arrived on Monday from the coast of Africa. New York. Many of the poor Negroes had died on the passage. no intention being entertained of sending out other vessels to replace the Athol and Medina. has since been ordered to England. 1831. . . 1859. 237 slaves.52 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N It would have been quite commendable were there enough adequate naval resources arrayed at all times along the trade routes of the oceans.000 in number. . however. Gettysburg. By June 1861. that it has been ascertained that some liberated Africans from our settlements up the Sierra Leone River had been kidnapped and sent on board two French slave vessels . They landed their cargoes of Africans. The Royal Navy landed its first prize in November 1808 when the HMS Daren’t knocked the wind out of the sails of the French vessel Maria Paul who was carrying sixty Africans. on the Eastern part of the island. the Portuguese Brigantine Phoenix. She left the Dryad and the Athol at Prince’s Island. in the neighborhood of Grenada. as recorded by the Liberated African Department. with 1. which brought the grand . U. and escorted to the port(s) of Sierra Leone would equally matched those that escaped the gauntlet. 486 slaves and the Negranha. the latter. . (November 28. Probably the number of slavers that stopped. the last big group of liberated Africans. Indeed. June 25. We are sorry to learn that the slave trade is carried on to an extent greater than ever . to such a degree of effrontery is the detestable traffic persevered in. there were reports that the second line of defense had snared a slaver in Caribbean waters.” the Banner of Liberty. 1836) reported thus: “Capture of three slave ships. “The Charleston Courier says that the two steamers reported by the Spanish bark Nueva Apollo as being American filibusters have proved to be French slavers. The Schooner Watchman. . So the elusive slavers won some and lost some. . both of which were on the point of proceeding to cruise in the Bights of Benin and Biafra.” Apparently. threw its all-pervasive net that was riddled with holes. Every once in a while. . had captured no less than three slave ships.

By the 1860s. including British Guiana. There is a report of the British vessel HMS Griffin capturing a Portuguese slaver. some 13. the emigration by recruitment of Africans to British Guiana had come to a mere trickle.** * The Waukesha Freeman newspaper (September 12. off the coast of Martinique.THE FOUR PILLARS 53 total from 1808 to date to 94. from the banks of the Congo and were to be sold to planters in Cuba. It was from this pool of captives that the “beasts of burden. Slavery was abolished in Cuba in 1886 and Brazil in 1888. Recruitment was extended even into North America. Don Francisco. per day. While the focus was primarily from the West Indies. . two months previously. Columbian currency. 1896) Scorecard: 94.355 laborers were contracted and made the trip to British Guiana. the planters had formed a Voluntary Subscription Immigration Society in an attempt to alleviate the shortage of labor. 1878) ** The San Antonio Daily Light quotes the Ecuador News. By 1839.329 Africans were liberated from slave ships and passed through Sierra Leone. New York (November 12.* In 1896 we find about one hundred Africans laborers from Sierra Leone on the steamer Castle Edna on their way to the Canal Zone. through the activities of agents between 1838 and 1865. were subsequently and continuously drawn.329 Africans who were liberated from slave ships and landed at the Sierra Leone hub. Their pay was expected to be eighty cents. The living freight of 437 human beings had been forced on board. Still there were other places where they were prized.” who would later toil in the plantations of the West Indies.

I greeted him in English. French. and Dominga. coupled with a measure of linguistic dexterity. Samba. there were always more than enough names for the African whose own name was never good enough.” Here is an example of the names elicited from and were recorded for them. to sensibly determine the ethnicity of these brothers and sisters based solely upon their names. despite being financially strapped. Soso. The captive Africans. Carafa. January 1823 is a smaller group numbered 17012 to 17044 consisting of one girl called Maria. Foulah.A NAME IS NOT A NAME IS NOT A NAME Nearing the end of my third year in college in London. The vice admiralty court in March 1814 had the responsibility for the distribution of 241 men. Balla. He walked over to the open window. There was this seemingly young African man waiting on the adjoining parallel platform for the train to travel in the opposite direction. Dabbo. The “icing on the cake. Depending on which colonizer arrived first. and girls who had been “seized by the Rio Pongas Expedition. We have become Dutch. Off the Portuguese schooner Magdalena Da Praca. Colafang. Germany. The overnight train made a short stop at Brussels South (Belgium) early the next morning. Coomba. No doubt he was genuinely happy to see me as I was to see him. Mousa. Was that Negritude or Africanism? Just about every European name and surname has been passed to the people of the African Diaspora. boys. Caesar. Pala. Portuguese. It would require expansive knowledge and training. Hannah.” Irish. Slave number 4666 off the brig Pheonix became Jack Pheonix. Jara. six years old. et al. England. Brama. women. and the Welsh. Spanish. “inherited” the names and surnames of the English. Ali. I accompanied a few friends to visit a mutual friend and a countryman who was studying in Hamburg. Tarro Sara. 54 . Fatima. English. and Tamba. Males: Cariboo. Females: Sally. who became the Liberated Africans of Sierra Leone. Mamadoo. Maria. Dawa. John Yandal (number 4667) and Thompson Newman (number 4668) were liberated by HMS Favorite. came later on the other side of the Atlantic. Ben. and he greeted me in French (Belgian French?). Scottish. Our eyes met. and I raised my hand in a motioning gesture. There was no more attempt at a conversation as this linguistic barrier was raised. Damba.

aged twenty-three). Amadou. Iohn. William Miller. Boy. John Francis Blagrove. Edward Morris. Kong. Thomas White. William Best. and Garignak. women. Examples of female names: Fayboo. Nearpa. Hannah Samwell. Robert Henry Gittens. and Mosee. Akay. Banso Clark. Nanchay. John Robertson. and Farsang (number 14788. George Barrett. Wesay. Mary Easmon. aged twenty-two). John Skinner. The disposal recorded for the 129 Africans of the Spanish schooner Nuova Isabelita (October 22. Iongo. William Small. Jacob Edward. Duncan Earl. William Bell. Gura. Nankaray. Amah. Barteway. William Thomas Beckles. Bear. Opay. Meney. Dumbo. James . Obawah. John Miller Cummins. William Hungerford.N.THE FOUR PILLARS 55 and boys ages 9 to 16 with names like Awollo. Charles Wallace. for very long. and Jane Chamber. someone would make it his or her business to perform a “naming”! The list of names that follows merits some observation concerning the perpetual transformation: Hackett. John Providence. their given names. Some were apprenticed to James Bran. John Richards. James Wm Jemmott. colony of Sierra Leone. boys. Wm Christian Snell. Somewhere somehow. The latter list of English names is representative of prior captives now established in the fabric of the citizenry of Freetown. R. Cardie (number 14786. 1830) indicated “no brand marks. King Gill. Phil Hart. John William Herbert. and girls. Wm Edward Parris. Christopher Williams.” Just another example of male names: Banoi. John Obonnor. Omoh. It can be safely assumed that these young men would not have borne these. J. Rachel Campbell. Ioorie (number 14787. From the Netherlands schooner Fanny. Iuah. Among. Alipamwap. May Edmond. and Maytong.” Several were sent to Lumley. Effem. Thomas Mills. There were other methods of “disposal” of liberated Africans once they were landed. Simon Phillips. Coming off the Portuguese slaver Aurelia. Humbo. Assah. and Pasetwa. about March 1837. Robert John Poyer. Adong. aged twenty-two). aged twenty-three) became enlistees in the second West Indian Regiment. Henry Borne. Herbert Phillips. Akahmen. Poi. Odoh. Sangar. Examples of male names as recorded: Enang. Songo. Ben James Lawrence. Jyah. Monkoo. and several “ran away. Mahmadoo (number 14785. Samuel Barrett. John Edward Simmons. Etoc. Jonathan Padmore. Samuel Leer. 253 liberated Africans were landed made up of men. P.

reached the newspapers in Barbados. Name & Rank Private William Brookes “ James Henry “ John Francis “ Frederick John “ Francis Hartle “ Thomas John “ Joseph Selwin Lodge “ Richard Davis “ Alfred Rush Age 25 22 25 21 27 23 28 19 26 Where Born Jamaica Antigua Africa Antigua Africa Sierra Leone Jamaica Antigua Africa . In the very early days of slavery in Barbados. It is 1840. among other places. which was signed by the laborers. we have arrived at a list purged of African names. It is now March 1854. A perusal of the 1817-1832 Returns of Slaves compiled by plantation owners for the county of Berbice. west Demerara. it is found that among the thousands of Anglo-Saxon names given to slaves. After three or more generations of transformations by renaming. The list that follows is a record of sixteen deserters from the second West India Regiment confined at Head Quarters. the English were way ahead of the other colonies in giving their names to their slaves. Some unfavorable news had been circulating in Barbados relative to the working conditions on plantation Blankenburg. recruitment returned to normal. Once the statement refuting the allegations. some African names still survived: Accra Adjeba Adjuba Ageba Amubia Amba Amimba Amnida Araminda Bacchus Boba Bona Cato Cobus Cudjoe x 4 Damon x 6 Dedo Dido x 7 Elias Hecuba Juba Mafuta Mimba Minge Momas Momus Panna Phiffa Quaco x 4 Quamina x 4 Quammy x 6 Quasheba x 4 Quashey x 4 Sancho x 2 Sukey x 8 We are not finished yet. Demerara.56 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N The above list is compiled of a group of indentured laborers whose names are affixed to promote a public relations effort by employers.

great-great-grandparents. appurtenance. Numbering just over forty. After all. A notice placed in several issues of the Royal Gazette in January 1843 above the signature of the registrar included a group of indentured laborers due to make the return journey to India. they were the issue of somebody who. procreated also. special effort becomes necessary. nameless masses at every turn. a fact not reflected in their Anglophonic names. and on and on. While regarded then as someone’s chattel. they comprise the following: Becoe Bondoo Boyna Buscoo Chara Debee Deboo Domooda Doyodee Gam Goolie Groy Haroodan Jaddo Ram Seetaw Gam Jagat Jaggeroo Pal Jorny Joysing Kando Khato (1) Khato (2) Koyla Manill Martadee Martadhee Brama Modoo Ruda Ram Tetinga Mongoe Monkhawn Jeban Nawn Neil Molan Odjoon Ram Ramporsad Ranjeet Reejwa Ruda Ram Sadunce (1) Sadunce (2) Samna Samna Chara Toro Matadeen It is further noted that this particular group are residents at plantation Belvue situated on the west bank of the Demerara River. the ongoing search is intended to locate and identify parents. Persons departing the colony were required to give adequate and timely advance notice to the populace through the Office of the Colonial Registrar. The researcher within is saying that with some backtracking. Restrained speculation and intense study must be the approach. It is the sum total presentations of these groups as faceless. captive and liberated Africans. or personal property individually. There is a pervasive reality which confronts researchers of slavery. and the aftermath of apprenticeship. It means that whenever and wherever a name or surname is manifested. in collaboration with another individual. grandparents. whom else they travelled with. and perhaps even what other . great-grandparents.THE FOUR PILLARS 57 It is interesting that almost 50 percent of this small group is African born. the larger immigration list could yield data about when they arrived.

while keeping score of the lost vessels that it actually insured. there are those who now raise doubts. Attempts to track down and account for them would well be a futile archival pursuit were this particular list not to have come to his attention—they actually exercised their right of return to India. Still. Butts even . Is the figure six million plus or minus a few thousands? Give us facts and figures. It is doubtful that Lloyds of London would have. about the Holocaust. Butts. Pennsylvania. Would more credence have been accorded to the unedited scribbled notes of Mr. His main concern would have been the fixation that they as a member of their group of emigrants actually were landed at a designated port. October 3. they whose lives and existence never really mattered. informs and educates subsequent readers. could have come to a dead end after finding the names and destinations of the individuals listed above. and wiles of the genealogical researcher! The meticulous works of Jewish researchers and scholars are world renowned. Like so many researchers who have gone before. . The expectations and realities are that the case for reparations will be challenged viciously and on every conceivable ground. it is clear that there will be detractors and doubters as the tally continues to mount as this most atrocious of crimes against humanity is laid bare. immigration agent. The Indian researcher. woes. It would be a rather ghoulish exercise to seek to compile a list of the ships that never made it to their planned destinations. statistical and otherwise. foundering with all hands and three hundred coolie emigrants” (The Wellsboro Agitator. sought to document the names of the unfortunate wretched human cargo that would have sunk below the waves and to have their bones entombed in Davy Jones’s Locker. In a most comprehensive report to Governor Light dated August 7. It is this realization of need and necessity that has caused this writer to proliferate these ongoing texts and manuscripts with names. and lists of names—a representative sampling of the faceless but not nameless.58 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N plantation(s) they were allocated to. this cynicism in the air. armed with a list of passengers who departed India as indentured laborers destined for the plantations of the West Indies. I come to this subject with some built-in prejudices and some skepticism. the limited efforts being exerted pertaining to the African Slave Trade and its effects. 1876). more recently. G. So much for the ways. “The British ship Larnermoor. 1844. . The pages are printed. bound from Calcutta to Demerara. they continually ask! With this backdrop. Every available and newly researched and authenticated list of names in all the languages would ultimately be included in the burgeoning databases around the world. is posted by Lloyds as missing . R.

he would have been baptized and given his Christian name about 1810 just before being placed on a ship to British Guiana. free and without hindrance. Were he one of those rebellious ones. Born in 1796. and the last two as “Headman” filled him with pride. Essequibo. and Frederick stared down and stood up to Charles Bean and his henchmen in Trinity Churchyard at La Belle Alliance. So here he is. Fothergill. He had always longed to make this trip. landed in Sierra Leone at the age of fourteen. Those few lines of personal data could never quite convey the life that he lived both as a slave and later possibly as someone who had been manumitted earlier. help me to get this right! In 1844. having risen to become a “boat captain. presentation was important then as the report was intended for Westminster—the governor was only a conduit. The attached enclosure should be of particular interest to Afro-Guyanese being the descendants of Africans—slave. was born in Essequibo about 1829. apprentice. Clarisa travels to Sierra Leone with her two sons. He will figure out later how . has given him the comfort and assurances he needed as he starts a new life. Clarisa Nainson (number 10) at forty-eight years was born in Demerara around 1804 and more than likely the wife of Billy. The three years spent in the plantations of Berbice has been satisfying. the year in which Damon. He fully realizes that there are many more miles to be traveled before he reaches the village of his birth. fifteen years old.THE FOUR PILLARS 59 though the reading might have been with some difficulty? Still. one that has been on hold for these many years. though born a Creole.” he was apparently able to comfortably return to the motherland. On this “Ship of Dreamers” we also find John Francis who was born thirty years before in Mozambique. Billy Nainson (number 9). The schooling he received in the mission classes and baptism in Sierra Leone has stood him in good stead. the necessary amount of brutalizing coercion would have been applied. or indentured laborers. Billy and Josiah—all three are first-time passengers crossing “the Big Water” that the senior Billy Nainson would have traversed in the opposite direction some forty-four years ago as a youth of fourteen years old. or maybe freed. The other Billy Nainson (number 11). to become an apprenticed laborer under the Emancipation Act. Lord. This son of a Kroo must have been diligent and hardworking after having grown up in the system. His two sons will be raised in the ways of his people! His beloved Clarissa. Josiah Nainson (number 12) at ten years was also born in Essequibo in 1834. now fifty-eight years old.

to and in favor of William Africa. East Coast. if it is assumed that his intended and final destination is to reunite with his family. Then there are the seven “delegates”—touts. and Jack Shepherd. Harry James. John Davis. In 1848. including the building thereon. John Porter. if you will: Will Gray. transported his 1/83 share. he would still be a long way from home. he has a Portuguese imprint and connection. an original proprietor of the said village. number 29 William Laing and number 30 Jack Sheppherd. Another interesting passenger is number 28. Antonio Hoe. He subsequently settled in the village of Victoria. William Africa.60 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N to get there once he reaches Freetown. William Africa was a product of the schools of the missionaries in Sierra Leone. He could even take his two countrymen. Note that they are of different ethnic backgrounds. With a Benguela (Angola) origin. there to use his vast knowledge as an effective and much-respected school teacher with a wide following. Sierra Leone. acting in the capacity of a delegate. home too! * An appropriate designation seems to fit: “The Ship of Dreamers” . Thomas Fowler. Peter Willis. He was to make several trips to and fro. This is vitally important as each delegate is expected to aid in the recruitment of indentured laborers from their particular group or nationality as are to be found in the “yards” located around Freetown. Demerara. When this ship would have docked in Freetown.

THE FOUR PILLARS 61 The Ship of Dreamers .

Ekow. Kwadwo. Youfie Kofi. Thursday Friday Saturday If it’s a Girl Quasheba Juba Baneba Couba Abba Phibba Mimba 62 Born on this Day of the Week Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday . Esi. Quarshie. Bena. Fiifi. Quashieba. Cuffie. Ekua Wednesday Yaa Afua. Efua. Ebo Kwabena. Emma.A NAME IS A NAME: ESPECIALLY WHEN FATHER CHOOSES IT! Feminine Kwasibea. Cubbenah Kwaku. Kwarmina But if it’s a Boy Quashie Cudjoe (Kojo) Cubbenah Quaco Quao Cuffee (Kofi) Quamin Abena. Sisi. Kobena. Kosi Monday Kojo. Effe Amma. Kuku. Cudjoe. Kweku. Abba. Yaw. Adjo Day Sunday Musculine Kwasi. Kobe. Tuesday Akua. Quarmi. Effie. Quarcoo. Akosua Akos. Kwame. Asi Adwoa.

THE FOUR PILLARS 63 We shall go beyond the spellings and pronunciations. We shall not even contemplate first names. . In most cases the parameter of a name choice extends no further than the seven days of the week as a constant. A child is born and must be named as soon as humanly possible. or surnames. The one variant then would extend to the sex of the child: male or female. second names. keeping in mind that these are African names. We shall stick with culture.

.................... was warned by smith not to sell meat on Sundays Richard...... Chateau Margot -father Cambridge and brother Dick at Kitty Coffe ..... Deacon of Church—Le Resounenir Banson “ “ “ —Better Hope London “ “ “ —Better Hope Bulken “ “ “ —Success Quamina—head Carpenter-Success Emmanuel Chateau Margot ........ ........ or Joe Packwood........ the butcher............ ........... betrayed the conspiracy Cato.SLAVES—NAMES AND PLANTATIONS (Extracted from Crowns of Glory ........ near Success Gracy. the salve... “a European nose.. a free black..... ..... the Boy of Alexander Simpson....... New Orange Nassau 148 156 173 176 177 178 179 180 180 181 182 64 ...... an African who lived in G/T..................... Bristol............ belonged to a gang—Poter’s Hope Romeo. belonged to a carpenter Hyndman Damon ........... hired someone to work for him belonging to Van Couten—Vryheid’s Lust Jack Ward.. also called Taddy. Non Pariel Scipio ...” lived with Suzanne before she became Hamilton’s mistress Jack (Gladstone) lived with his father Quamina at Success Tully. Triumph Isaac Joe Simpson. Success Azor....... one of the drivers—Success Sanday ..... Jack Stewart’s woman Jack Gladstone................. an old Woman lewis............. Page 54 54 65 145 NAME Victorie.... a female slave from Le Retraite Asia......

. Jack’s brother-in-law Mary Chisholm. had wife at Northbrook Bob Murray. a Coromantie like Dumfries.. who was under 12... belonged to Peter McClure a free black living in Georgetown Bristol........ Chateau Margo David .THE FOUR PILLARS 65 184 185 186 186 186 186 190 190 190 191 192 195 196 197 Providence ........... lived in town but “kept a girl” at Plaisance Attila was a slave at Plaisance Colin a slave at Le Retraite Louis who belonged to Friendship Primo lived at Chateau Margo Telemachus. Jack’s half-brother... ..... West Coast......... went along. a mulatto woman........ Batchelor’s Adventure Isaura ...... a cooper who worked with Jack Gladstone.. carpenter—Le Resouvenir . a slave who worked at the powder Magazine Dumfires.. wrote one of the letters Jack sent to Jacky of Douchfour Henry a boy.. a runaway who hid at Success for 11/2 years Jacky... a boy of 9..... did jobs from Pln to Pln his children were at Endraght and his “girl” at Cumming’s Lodge Paris. a Muslim Quamina of Nabaclis Peter Hood... a slave belonging to Johanna Hopkinson. .......... Quamina had lived with his Mother.. sent to Rome 9600 slaves) to recruit support Smar.... wrote letters for Jack and Quamina Isaac. from Brothers..... who also helped with the writing.. Susanna’s son..... the butcher....... a driver......... Success Alfred....... ..... “Papa Negroes”—Peters Hall Goodluck....... New Orange Nassau Gilles.. Friendship Joseph. prop of John & Cove Edward..... mother of John H Hopkinson............ sent word to the “Maroons” to join in Quashie and Quamina contacts from Rome Fuar and Namita.. from Chateau Margo........ La Bonne Intention Luke .. a woman belonging to Enterprise Bob... a free black woman .......... was Jack’s apprentice... La Bonne Intention Amba......... from Batchelor’s Adventure Active belonged to Success Seaton who was a “teacher” at Success William ......

schooner captain—Clonbrook Jack Adams—black overseer Allick—Golden Grove. a black woman living on Le Souvenir Kitty Cuming-Success. boy from Dochfour 4 “important” figures Ankey. non-participant Brutus.66 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 209 210 211 212 Caleb of Paradise Smith from Friendship Billy (house) Boy—Walrand Ned. head boiler. Northbrook. Free Black Elizabeth. the manager Cuffy and Ned—Chateau Margo Quaco. Windsor Guildfod. lives in town Reed betrayed the plot 226 227 228 235 236 237 . surname exception Kitty Cummings. black—Success Mary Chisholm. Paradise. Nabaclis— “Our Prince”—Forbes the overseer Kinsale—Hugh Rogers Thomas. Primo and Jack Jacky Reed. head carpenter-Non Pariel [Francis Alexander Walrand] Joseph. Smith Maid January. Bee Hive Duke from Clonbrook. driver. reluctant Barson. leader Edwin. driver. free—Success Jenny Grant. Beffany. “forced” Nero. saved Gainsport. Anadale Austin & Allick—Pin Cove Natty-Enterprise Scipio—Non Pariel Hans—Elizabeth Hall Paul—Friendship Pter—Hope Ralph. of Friendship Sandy.

Louis of Plaisance. Picle of LBI Beffaney—Success Tom—Chateau Marg Paul—Friendship Quamina—Noot en z HUNG IN CHAINS-ECD: Telemanchus Jemmy Lindor Paul BY THE PUBLIC ROAD . Paris.THE FOUR PILLARS 67 238 242 86* 87* 88* Atilla. Joseph. & Jemmy of B/Advent Lindor. Scipio. Attila of Plaisance France of Porter’s Hope Billy of Ann’s Grove Harry of Triumph Quintus of Beter Ver/W Sep 12: Telemanchus. Daniel and Philip of Foulis Harry and Evan of Good Hope Damas of Plaisance Sep 6: Ellick of Coldingen. Sandy. executed same day The next day (Aug 28)-Murphy. Telemanchus—leaders Natty of Enterprise.

. Koo-Koo. Gang-Gang. Obeah. . Nyam. Maljo. Tabij. Madinki. surnames. . Mabembeh. . Krenke.” 68 . Tweh-Tweh. . . . maggah dog rejoice . Names. Kreketeh. Freh-Freh. Yanga(walk) . . . Brabah. Gambi. Matti. “false names”: Ageda Accra Anan Baba Benabah Bengeh-Soo (Cudjo(kojo) Cush Dookoo-Kwendeh Gam Gang—Kitsie (King) Jah-Jah Kwakoo-Ajah Koonoo-Moonoo Makmeh Metembeh Momus Nan Nana NehNen Pootoo Quamina Quashy Quashiba Sarrabo Senseh Swah Swahta Tantah Tittih Yaw . Bittle.” (Tiger get old. Metemgee. Wah na quendeh sah quendelleh . Eye Pass. Fu-Fu. Kuh-Kuh. . . Do fuh do nah obeah . . . . Goobie. If fish come from trench bottom and tell you dat plimpla ded-deh. Catchman Creole: Cutty-Cutty (Soup). . . . you must believe . Deh. Qwayta-Quash. Queh-Queh. . . Yah.” (To sweep the ground so monkey could dance ’pon it!) “ .THE PURGING OF THE GUYANESE VERNACULAR Things and words they (grannies and grandpas) used to say: Baccra. anyway!) “ . Pashooma. .” (Missy loss she gold ring!) “ . PokeKnacka. dog lie down . . Pem-Pem. Lempetteh. . . Yawah . Naarah.” (You can’t suck cane and whistle!) “ . .” (One finger can’t kill lice!) “ . Kaho-Kaha. Ganga-Sacka. Yah-Yah. Pallawalla. Bassa-Bassa. Plimplah. . . Labah. . . Teh-The. he lose he yanga walk!) “ .” (Anyway Sancho want um. Whatever happened to these gems? “ . . Hint to Banebah make Quasheba take notice . Lebeh-Lebeh. . . Deh-Deh Eh-Eh. . dead like Miss Willis Goat . Ashes cold. Dinner table fall down. . Creole. .

God pounds the one-armed person’s fufu for him. The right arm washes the left arm and the left arm washes the right arm.e. he gave each person a name. If the lizard is a blacksmith. to place it on your head). you will be helped to carry it (i. the monitor does not lack a cutlass. we leave in the hands of God. One finger cannot lift up a thing. Because God does not like evil. The poor kinsman does not lack a resting place. If you get your bundle ready. One does not fan (the hot food) that another may eat it.THE FOUR PILLARS 69 Some African proverbs: The lizard does not eat pepper for the frog to sweat. . God drives away the insects from the tailless animal. Those whom we cannot catch.

WaiWai. and Indians—turn out to be to be imports and transplants. another continent was inhabited! This seems a good and appropriate place to make reference to another “bridge” in connection with our East Indian brethren. that their country was indeed a “land of six peoples. The Amerindian. eastward and southward. It was not long before he realized that these visitors were not planning to leave and had started to invite more of their people to set up house. Shebayo. Carib. Africans. To avoid unwanted complications. now intruder.” A reality check now indicates it was never such. Five of those six peoples—Europeans. neither will the Indians be categorized as Hindu and Muslim. To hear the Dutch romantics tell it. Asiatic. the Amerindian women really fell for that red hair and beard! The African slaves that were brought along started to yearn for the “forbidden fruit” and 70 . Macushi. Arawak. Mapidian Mawakwa. and Warao. the ethnic scientists tell the world the Indian migratory trek started from the continent of Africa. the British will not be split between English. Trading was no longer being done on mutually agreed rules. the people of the “Dear Land of Guyana” were told. did welcome all comers. Some ten thousand years ago. A closer look at the native Amerindians presents a diverse ethnic population of Akawaio.LAND OF SIX PEOPLES For some reason best known to their colonial masters. It was now too late to yank the carpet from under the feet of the visitor. Chinese. the earliest inhabitant of South America. It was to follow the shores of the Arabian seas onto the shores of the Indian Ocean southward. Pemon. following the great rivers of the subcontinent and toward the mountain ranges. In the Guianas the welcome mat was rolled out first to the Dutch. Later migrations went east. like his North American cousin. and Welsh. Wapishana. and they really believed. They have told us about the “land bridge” from Asia to the Americas that existed thousands of years ago. Scottish. British and Portuguese. then north and northwest. Archaeologists and anthropologists have expounded upon the presence and origins of the native peoples of both North and South America. Migration after migration over the centuries. especially when they were armed with the “thunder stick” with some awful killing power and belched fire like lightening.

THE FOUR PILLARS 71 would also start dipping in the newfound and different gene pool. or Mozambique. albeit with the blessings and sanction of the Holy Father in Rome. Indian and Black—Dougla. Recruited by the Dutch to hunt down the African who would escape into the jungles. Other ethnic mixes and permutations were also at work: African and White—Mulatto. as they were not the only offender.” a half-breed race descended from the intermarriage of the old Dutch settlers with the aboriginal women. . and behold. in reporting on his experiences in the Times Democrat of Lima. six times five! So twenty-first-century Guyana has among its inhabitants many individuals whose genetic makeup reflects the evolutionary inevitability of “out of many. Chinese and African—Chinese Dougla(?). Ever persistent. exposes some fractures already evident in the six-nation belief. “rice-’n—peas” and “peas-’n-rice” are not the same. black was the color of money. two more “peoples” were added to the ethnic mosaic of Guiana. An American traveler to then British Guiana. . . the Amerindian male would recapture some of his manhood as he put his all into that activity. and still survived. surely we can conclude that whatever little comeuppance Portugal may have endured. A statistical possibility approaching something like .” While no particular attention was being paid. and colonizers. who are descended from the admixture of Indians with the runaway Negroes who fled to the wilderness in the days of slavery. ever dogged in their trading activities and enterprises. sailors and soldiers. Ohio (September 24. . These are the “Boveianders. Goa. they probably spent the longest number of years in the slave trade and possibly transported the greatest . There are also black Boveianders. They surely knew how to turn a buck (cruziero)! Whether it was in Angola. It was they who perfected the art of the commercialization of misery and injustice the world over. and our brethren from the islands will agree. fell justifiably on its slavers. nature took its course. Portuguese and Black—SanTanTone. the coffers in Lisbon were constantly being primed as the ships continued to return to port with bulging hulks for nearly three centuries. one!” Just as Custer and his ilk died for the sins of America. Brazil. Each of the “three peoples” played a part in the colony-building effort as “aboviandering” they did go! Most Guyanese will tell you. “There is in Guiana a class of inhabitants who dwell along the central and lower reaches of the great rivers . 1897). the Portuguese ditched and sacrificed their humanity as they plied the seas with cargo of every kind but especially African slaves. Not just to single them out.

000 30. . to the African. is a mzungu is a . There would been no lovefest on a slave ship.000 TOTAL 7.S. It was done slowly and gradually on the basis of trial and error as to suitability for the rigors of the tropics. the conclusions reached are that the number of slaves in the countries mentioned in the body of the named article was as follows: United States 3. Amer Republics 140.500.095. . Without any reported figures from Portugal’s possessions in the eastern coast of Africa and in Asia. .72 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N number. There were a few niceties to welcome the captive aboard. Every attempt at any type of uprising had been successfully put down by far-superior military might.000 85. still they persisted as there were other sociopolitical considerations. a tubob is a tubob .250. census. The Portuguese indentured laborer and immigrant was meant to be a tool of direct marginalization and humiliation of the African and the Creole. and primarily on the Atlantic coasts of Africa. Just as the European concluded that all Africans looked alike. apparently culled from antislavery sources some ten years after the 1840 U. . Still there was definitely more comfort in numbers. the eastern shores were virtually left open. . The experiment did not go very well.000 Brazil Dutch Colonies African Setlmnts 3. tells a story. such as the red-hot branding iron to establish ownership of each investor’s ownership of his proportion of the total cargo. lamely tried to thwart the slaving by the rest of Europe. The introduction of the Portuguese (“puttagee”) to planter-controlled colonial British Guiana was a deliberate act of diabolic cynical proportion. is a baccrah is a mundellah . Yet another buffer was being created between the politically challenged and besieged colonist and the perceived wrathful nonwhite populace of that colony.000 So. The reproduction from an article by the Royal Gazette. after 1808. . . While the British.000 Spanish Colonies 900.000 Initial contact with a European by so many Africans would have been in the personage of an ethnic Portuguese. The lessons of what transpired in Haiti had for long stayed with the planters and the colonial administrators everywhere in the West Indians islands and the South American mainland.

His goes from the lowest class to the highest class as the amount of African blood declines from term to term: . people of African descent are always. Blockson has a full interesting chapter on miscegenation. Where then does class end and racism begin? As the world turned. He comes up with a list resembling our “melting pot. one could believe and feel his references as being so close to Guyana’s. Helena or Sierra Leone. expected to be overflowing with “the milk of human kindness” and brotherhood to all comers. Demands. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dispassionately defines the word as “a mixture of races. and sometimes to his recapture and subsequent landing at St. Meanwhile. and notices in Portuguese begin to proliferate. he is located at plantations closer to the city. dreaded “puttagee” who now arrives under separate and preferential dispensations and is even privileged. and the various ethnics in the Land of Six Peoples went about their business. some of the same forces at work down below were spawning multiple and complex changes in the gene pools in North America. nature continued to take its course. Not many people would be inclined to turn their back or refuse the advantages that flow from being privileged. even in the presence of the discriminatory circumstances. His struggles with English soon melt away as columns in the newspapers.THE FOUR PILLARS 73 It did not take any type of linguistic sophistication for the African to distinguish a member from that group of his initial and earlier tormentors from his voyages of discovery prior to his capture. having travelled with his family. As he lays out the nineteenth-century New Orleans example.” Many examples and impact are cited by Blockson of such a subject that is fraught with explosive feelings on both sides of the color line. Through it all. for concessions and better living conditions are constantly made on his behalf.” with a few ingredients left out or added. His government in Lisbon has even provided him with consular presence and representation in Georgetown. The liberated African and the indentured laborer of African origin is now pitted against the now-hated. The inclination then would be to work it for all it is worth. On landing. One is then on a higher social plain and can thus afford to be benevolent if one chooses. sometimes superseding the original terms of his contract. In his book Black-Genealogy. especially: marriage or cohabitation between a white person and a member of another race. signs. Charles L. even today. Before long he is granted mortgages and loans to start his own independent business and is thus launched on the road to wealth building. or look down one’s nose and rise with the elitists who have set the standards.

landed their human cargo on the shores of what is now Guyana.” We must look at my grandson. The European has always had a difficult time with acknowledging the humanity of the African. some 289. He had made. Gladstone became the driving force and the leader of the movement to ship Indian indentured labor and Indian rice to these new destinations. the first two ships. that opportunity. European. He expended as much political capital as was available to him to bring this idea to fruition. British Guiana. the intelligence network of the British businessman investor served him well.” In 1830. and literally arrange the timing and marshal the financial resources.e. he boldly set out to link his interests on the Indian subcontinent with the hoped-for maximization of returns from his investments in the West Indian islands and the mainland of South America. The “fourth people” joined the Amerindian. While the American planter class gave with one hand. From the very beginning. one of the youngest branches on our family tree. and also lost. With all eight grandparents having African blood. they proceeded to take back with the other—Jim Crow in place of full freedom and equality. he could sniff out that location. The British resorted to gradualism—slavery . He would reluctantly take the road to emancipation but still have a score to settle and a point to prove. He has four great-grandparents from South America with at least one confirmed as having European and Aboriginal Indian blood. i. Wherever and whenever there was a pound to be made. we cannot wait for the results from his DNA test. Blockson does not specifically mention the Native American and thus conclude that everyone else is nonwhite except the White man who can be “constant” or “variable. and African on a great but challenging journey. Between 1838 and 1917.000 indentured laborers from India were landed in British Guiana.74 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Parents Black & White Mulatto & White Quadroon & Whit Mulatto & Mulatto Child Mulatto Quadroon Octoroon Cascos Parents Mulatto & Black Sambo & Black Octoroon & White Mustifie and White Child Sambo Mango Mustifie Mustifino We note that Mr. money on just about every continent. John Gladstone was on the cutting edge of British commercial and trading enterprise. In 1838. He also has four great-grandparents born in North America with at least one confirmed as having European and Native American blood. Hesperus and Whitby. He was very perceptive and acquainted with the synergies of the “triangular trade.

class. commerce. the African’s every effort was thwarted and blunted. . in his Cane Reapers: Chinese Indentured Immigrants in Guyana. .541 indentured laborers arrived in British Guiana from China . tells us that “between 1853 and 1879. and race. Trevor Sue-A-Quan. while the sixth people had been admixing and “miscegenating”—shaken and stirred—as the world was turning! The triple manifestations of the “blessings” of human and ethnic diversity. have become the curses of color.” So the fifth of our six peoples is accounted for. not only for Guyana. They failed to see the possibilities that lay in educating the African and in granting him entrance and participation into the existing institutions of trade. and industry followed by the concomitant political trappings. Instead. .THE FOUR PILLARS 75 to apprenticeship. a total of 13. The way to stop the “niggrah” was to bring the Asian “coolie”—Chinese and Indian and some Portuguese thrown in for good measure.

but the importation of slaves had been made illegal. the Trotmans to inhabit British Guiana were born on Barbados. With the marriage of Winston Cosbert.” Now we are forced to pursue some avenues of the Trotman genealogy. Slavery had not been abolished. some interesting family dynamics were brought into play. This was also the exact replica of a petition by a Mrs. the census of 1861 gives her birthplace as Demerara. The 1809 will of James Critchlow Trotman lists plantation Nebaclis (Nabaclis?) in Demerara among his holdings outside of Barbados. Ann Trotman has her name among the list of passengers “quitting” the colony in the Royal Gazette of January 30. 76 .FROM KANDAHAR TO NABACLIS! Throughout this genealogical meandering. At first. While the English census of 1851 lists Ann Trotman as born in Barbados. It was as if half of our two villages became “cousins” to the other half. daughter of Rashleigh Trotman. even without considering the inevitable dead ends. Gloucestershire. It was after there was a confluence of the semen banks—the merging of the DNA of the Sanchos and the Trotmans. petitioning the governor in 1825 to be allowed to bring his two domestic servants into the country. then to Guyana (formerly British Guiana) in more recent times. 1843. the Trotmans were deliberately ignored even though they did appear with a frequency outside our twin villages of Golden Grove and Nabaclis. We find that the earliest Demerara birth to that family came in the person of a daughter. Here is a family with an extensive and rich history that goes back centuries to England and then Barbados. this tedious quest. there were more than enough linkages to pursue. Coxall. in 1776. Indications are that the Trotmans were not owners of land in British Guiana during slavery. son of Fanny Sancho whose father is Christopher Sancho. As was required by law. Ann Trotman. to his bride May Trotman. two of the most prominent and well-known families—that some historical perusal became a must. on behalf of her eight servants. so many “generations removed. We find Henry Trotman. a recent expatriate. The many names and surnames that did beckon could not all be bypassed. For most of the next century. purportedly a companion of Trotman. The 1874 death index of Clifton. reports her death at the age of ninety-eight.

like everyone else. Following emancipation. the family in England was to continue their exemplary services for their king and country. It was managed by Robert Trotman who owned a small contingent of slaves which he hired out as day laborers. Meanwhile. District Warrior. 1848. born in Demerara) and William F. Of this family. George’s Regiment of militia—George Hewitt Trotman in the sixtieth rifles who took part in Roberts’ March from Kandahar to Kabul. born in Barbados). There was at least one Trotman—a colonel in the St. their ethnicity runs the gamut—the blackest coal to the snowiest white—a virtual rainbow of colors with some others thrown in. One Aspect of the Trotman Presence in Barbados Date/Year 1790 1800 1803 1811 1830 1835 1839 1846 1846 1846 1914 Estate Bulkeley Wakefield Fizer’s Bulkely Clifton Forster Rowan’s Jordan’s Carmichael Bulkeley Warren’s Owner Henry Trotman Robert Trotman James C Trotman Thomas C Trotman Henry Trotman Joseph Trotman Joseph Trotman Thomas Trotman Thomas C Trotman Thomas Trotman Ellen & Sisters Trotman Parish St George St John St Joseph St George St Thomas St George Lodge St George St George St George St George St Michael . are found two ensigns (1871 Census): William Trotman (twenty years old.” In the process. On the same naval vessel. Afganistan.THE FOUR PILLARS 77 Broomhall plantation (Mahaica) was actually owned by Josias Booker. and later his brother William Booker. a nation of the united. Trotman filed for compensation in 1835 for the loss of the services of his eight slaves while Mary Trotman did the same for her four slaves. through a process of miscegenation that spans more than two centuries. In July 1. Trotman (twenty-three years old. 1842. it could very well be asked “if they had served their God as they had served their king and country. the Royal Gazette records the transfer by William and Robert Thompson Brand of part of plantation Haslington to Robert and Mary Trotman.

attorney-at-law. His father. Trotman and his son. Three generations of primary education emanated from their caring and mentorship.78 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N It was in the third quarter of the 1900s that the Trotmans did put down permanent and stouter roots in the twin villages of Golden Grove and Nabaclis. would easily qualify for the village Hall/Wall of Fame. Donald A. leader of the AFC. one arm of the political opposition in the legislative body of the Guyana Parliament. were actively involved in the administration of the village council. Joseph T. Great-grandson and grandson Raphael Trotman. They both had been schoolmaster of the Golden Grove Methodist School. each holding membership and sometimes the chairmanship. a jurist with some impressive international qualifications. As it turned out. Would the day ever come when there is a Trotman family reunion? . both of these villages have been good to this remarkable family. is of no lesser caliber. and in turn they were indeed good for their new and adoptive community. Judge Donald Trotman.

genetic mutations took place. it became quite clear that DNA. genome mapping. a test that traces your personal lineage to the early origins of civilization. being pushed and pulled along. etc. the results and the possibilities flowing from those bodies of work seemed to proportionately capture and hold my attention. DNA sequencing. would play a major part in understanding who I might be and where I came from! Even after laying to rest the existence or otherwise of Santa Claus. Research shows that all people. The written information that accompanied the requested DNA kit assured me that “you are about to make a discovery about your heritage that goes beyond surnames and birthdates—beyond recorded history itself . I learned that by taking the test. my genetic history was to become “part of an ancestral library” that would link me to individuals who share similar genetics. not 79 . there was still the matter of from whence did babies come seemingly uninvited but ready to disrupt and to demand more than their fair share of attention. the geographic area where my earliest ancestors called home will be revealed.DON’T KNOW MUCH ABOUT GENOMETRY! From the very beginning. Once I became resigned to the fact that biology. I have passed up the opportunities to delve into the massive literature now available and growing by leaps and bounds and will just nibble at the very edges where lay the now genealogically acceptable. At the same time. and new questions would arise. As these ancestors began to migrate around the globe. . It’s these unique genetic patterns you carry with you today.” Additionally. can follow their genetic roots back to a group of common ancestors. the answers gradually present themselves. regardless of race or ethnicity. DNA testing was summarily dismissed as some machination or ruse that could work to the future detriment of us. As one grows. had no special interest for me. as the first steps were taken on the road on the journey that would lead to genealogical enlightenment. Just then was to come the recollection that one of my cousins had earlier sounded the alarm and issued a warning that such a course should not be followed or encouraged by family members. whether understood or not. the intricacies of the human genome. like why are humans of different colors. .

my father Theophilus Joyce. They’ll also tell you fascinating facts about your ancient family history and the regions of the world your ancestors once called home. Not much progress has been made so far. She was not aware of the Joyce portrait.” It went on to ask. Apparently there was even a portrait of this person which remained a relic in the Georgetown office long after the colonial times. but even as a race. with the sparsest of knowledge about the matter. and his father. Yes. in times past. she had been designated to write the history of the firm. is ethnically linked to me. Being relatively new but wanting to be helpful and to show some courtesy. The next young lady I faced proceeded to speak to me at the receptionist’s cage. Being from a generation that followed me. and his father .” even though we became aware of some more branches. Time was factored into my next trip so that a visit could be made to the building that still housed those fine legal minds and possibly that portrait with some history. our conversations did not produce much that would advance the knowledge of either of us as it pertained to the “roots of the tree. our receptionist encouraged me to be patient. . Seem like whatever happened in Africa so long ago will just have to stay there. Back then this writer. The first gentleman that was tagged by the receptionist. Seems one has to be prepared for surprises once the cheeks have been swabbed and the kit is returned for the test. No. An e-mail of October 25. had interjected that this particular test had nothing to do with paternity! An earlier trip to Guyana. . first informed me that “DNA results are now available. . his father . An earlier phone call did not elicit the name of a possible person who might be helpful. or any other white male mutant. a senior partner surnamed Joyce with the iconic prestigious law firm of Cameron & Shepherd. There was indeed a serious fire there in the past which could have consumed the same. Without an appointment. my grandfather Filbert Joyce. I was prepared to wait while observing the comings and goings in a professional legal setting. According to an Associated Press . with my quest being given high priority. . “What can you do with your results?” They answered the question for me thus: “Your results will connect you with a secure Ancestry DNA database that will help you find genetic cousins who you can contact privately online to compare family trees and share facts about ancestors. even with his years there.80 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N only to our family. feigned ignorance about the firm. 2008. I was informed that there was. I was introduced to a cousin that hailed from the Joyce branch of my family. this DNA test gave no indications that Attorney Joyce of Cameron & Shepherd.” More than anything else. they did not have any literature on the history of Cameron and Shepherd.

we are looking at a much different gene pool or population that comprises an all-African base. Now to look at the DNA testing conducted through African Ancestry. He was not as black as he had thought and surely not as white as he had been led to believe: his genetic makeup. I went about my daily routine after laying that special envelope down with the rest of the mail—the largest piece at the bottom of the pile! By the end of the day I would return to the pile. smallest to the largest. I am much more enlightened and informed but find that there still were more questions than answers. and the Central African Republic(s). In this environ. microbiologist and molecular geneticist. per the scientific evidence. On the day the package containing the results of the DNA test done by African Ancestry was delivered. found out more than his research had indicated. opening from top to bottom. Niger. Art Thomas of Springfield. I must be mindful that there are Akans across the borders in Ivory Coast. Yes! So I am Akan. restraining myself even though my excitement was boundless.THE FOUR PILLARS 81 story reported in the Toledo Blade on April 4. was 49 percent European origin.” Even so. 2006. and 3 percent Native American. I just acted super cool. through his dedicated work and research has accumulated a virtual genome bank of samples gleaned from in excess of seventy-five West African ethnic groups spread from Angola to Senegal and further inland to Mali. . Ohio. It is true that the results of the analytical exercises have identified my paternal genetic ancestry as being shared and identified “with the Akan people in Ghana today. Professor Rick Kittles. 48 percent African American. and also Togo.


Kenneth Joyce Robertson Y Chromosome Polymorphisms MARKER DYS3 DYS38 DYS389 DYS3 DYS3 DYS3 DYS3 DYS3 YAP 88 91 11 90 91 92 93 94 ALLELE SIZE 12 13 30 21 10 12 15 16 + Sequence similarity measure: 100% This means that your sequence is 100% the same as sequences from the Akan people in Ghana today. .

Sugar production almost tripled. but the expansion continued. Mary whose western boundary was plantation Nooten Zuil. While a few had less than one hundred slaves. the east sea coast of Demerara with some 160 estates stretching from Kitty to Abary accommodated only four “grinding” sugar factories: Kitty. sugar was looked at as the main source of the planters’ wealth. and Elizabeth Hall had 694 slaves. To be exact. For both colonial administrative and parochial Church of England efficacy. While the costs of production increased. while coffee and cotton production had decreased by about half between the years 1807 and 1832. There was also a concentration of land and also the labor force. about 86 percent had between one hundred to three hundred. Plantation Kitty led the way with the changeover to sugar production. By 1813. and Triumph merged and had 383 slaves. The frontrunners were Dochfour (376). Bel Air. in the English country of Somerset. Success (John Gladstone’s Plantation) now had 481 slaves producing sugar as against 186 when it cultivated only cotton. and Chateau Margot. Beginning in the early nineteenth century. Cumming’s Lodge. 84 . was owned by the Porter family. Two Friends. Ann’s Grove.BEFORE THE SANCHOS CAME Situated on the East Sea Coast of Demerara. A greater investment in buildings and machinery became absolutely necessary. Preliminary research indicates that the name of the plantation originates from Enmore. with Haslington to the East and Foulis to the West. the Enmore plantation. As the price for sugar continued to rise and that of cotton and coffee declined. and Le Ressouvenir (396). Enterprise. Enmore was located among the other plantations that comprised the parish of St. It became much more common to observe a gradual shift to the production of sugar and rum. In the intervening years. the die was cast. The planting of cotton and coffee predominated in the early days on the east sea coast of Demerara up to about 1800. The surname Porter predominated in that part of England and goes back for centuries. there were some slippages in the price of sugar. Batchelor’s Adventure. 8 percent of the plantations had more than three hundred slaves. the slave population declined and the price of slaves rose. Paul. Good Hope (433). plantation Enmore was primarily a producer of cotton. To the east was the parish of St. Up to 1813.

chattels. Some of the plantations were now owned by corporate entities sited in Britain. Bristol. Enmore had become a thriving sugar plantation inhabited by some 718 slaves. time had stood still! Surely one or other of them could have been my direct ancestor. Something must have attracted the attention of the archive attendant. By 1832. so familiar: Ben. I must have been caressing those pages. according to the estimates submitted to the colonial authorities of the day. During that emotional interlude. not even knowing it was thus. the rest being creoles (those born in the colony). ceremoniously touching each name. there were thirty-nine jobbers (praedials) who presumably were semiskilled. The pervasive atmosphere of the environment takes some getting used to. Mulattos were just eleven children and one adult of twenty-four years old. Then there is the one-legged tailor with and to whom a bond and affinity has developed and now consumes this researcher. boat captain. Still. My research was being conducted in a separate secluded room with no archive personnel present. Braveboy. thirty-one years old. . part of the personal property of one Henry Porter. thirty-five years old.THE FOUR PILLARS 85 Windmills and ox-driven mills were replaced by steam mills. and some were even skilled. Chester. Nancy. thirty-three years old. The security is oppressive and somewhat smothering. “building. Just when I was at my most vulnerable.” I was handed a clean pair of white gloves. the attendant came up from behind. lingering . there were some children among them. sick nurse. . even though listed as “invalids” are Margaret. Not to be left out. They are possible “child minders” for the women in the fields. Toney. Broken down into 375 males and 343 females. African-born slaves numbered 235 (almost 33 percent). sir. While the overwhelming majority of these slaves carried the designation of field laborers (nonpraedials). forty-two years old. These seemed to have come to life. fifty-three years old. Some tissues would have been even more welcome. intrusive.” fifty-three years old. Just about every descendant of slaves would have become emotional to sit there and read those names: faceless but not nameless! Every last one a single name. Mary Ann. forty-seven years old. They would have been valued in respect to their contribution to the effective and efficient operation of the factory and the manufacture of sugar. “I think you had better use these. forty-eight years. My people. In a hushed tone he announced his presence. . At no point did I ever give a thought to the peering lenses. the overhead wide-angled cameras were there. mason. carpenter.

beg. Their demeanor mattered very little where the Porters were concerned as they had gone out of their way to steal. they still had the rights vested in the land and other personal property on the sugar plantations. and John Sancho.86 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Those souls.” During the period of apprenticeship and beyond. While the “bounty” paid for slave compensation was salted away in the banks in England and Scotland. the different and unfamiliar environment surrounded by hundreds of whites must have induced some mood changes. Once Fothergill. when filed by his attorney D. until the time when the Porters would gradually retreated to the county of Devon. that interplay of their lives did impact their future in a myriad of ways. Over a span of over thirty years. Porter was able to “eat his cake and still have it. Throughout the colony of British Guiana. Even though the time spent in the hulks by these men is just under a year. Through a series of fortuitous circumstances. Tuckness Sancho. Like the many plantation owners. Essequibo—had settled into life at plantation Enmore. To boot they were now endowed with a surname—the same surname—a sure sign of their past shared common trials and tribulations. the paths of the Sanchos (who happen to be black) and that of the Porters (who happen to be white) would cross at a pivotal moment. Frederick. McArthur in 1834. The planter-dominated Court of Policy and their cohorts knew things about slaves and the institution of slavery that remained foreign to the abolitionists. Even though they were of separate bloodlines. The change of name from slave to indentured laborer in the eyes of the colonial office did not translate into the identical connotation where the plantocracy were concerned. the effects of the passing into law of the Emancipation Act by the British Parliament failed to bring about the desired and expected changes in the lives and conditions of the indentured laborers. they were a band of brothers—Mattie! . An operation tantamount to the workings of a witness protection program could not be taken as lightly as donning new coats emblazoned with the new names Bentinck Sancho.334 pounds sterling. the planters continued to have the upper hand as there were hardly any changes in the master-slave working relationship. were to add significant value to the estate of Henry Porter. if not behavioral modification also. Four years of “apprenticeship” still lay ahead. invested in railways and manufacturing. The claim for compensation for losing his slaves through emancipation. or borrow some high-flown names borne by some Englishmen of class. and William—them of the hulk Justitia and the Trinity Churchyard. England. the psychological and temperamental transformation would no doubt be ongoing. was for 37. sons and daughters of Africa.

Thomas Porter.” With Thomas Jr. which included plantation Paradise back in Demerara. together with all and every Negro slave. plantations and lands in the colonies of Demerara and Tobago . why not enjoy some of the 27. and buildings of every description with appurtenances . . he sets up his residence at the contiguous plantation Paradise where Thomas Porter II also resides. and also his young son William. Thomas Porter the younger and his brother. needed a good man. What family? Between the remaining Sanchos. were left to run the expansive holdings of the family. found invaluable workers in the sugar factories they owned. talent. Demerara-born Henry Porter and his Calcutta-born wife Rose Aylmer Porter head a household of four sons. Tobago. and the extended family of the plantation (village). The Porter plantations in Bloody Bay. Tuckness. Seems that a bond that was based upon mutual respect soon developed between these two men. my estates. my Brother. subject to the payment of my debts. Being the skilled tradesmen they were before being banished from the colony. . stock. . Tuckness would regularly attend the same church. which included those interests in the island of Tobago. . John Sancho was made an offer which he did not refuse. Rose Aylmer Porter is now “head” of the household. 9. . . As a devoted member. on into the 1850s. the beginning and ending of the 1840s. So off he went. Tuckness.THE FOUR PILLARS 87 Bentinck. Henry Porter. .500 pounds sterling received as compensation for his emancipated slaves? By 1861. . and leadership. is listed with the said household as “land proprietor” and a “visitor. . Henry Porter is excluded from the enumeration of the census. the ten months spent in the Warren on the Thames greatly increased the skills of Bentinck. They both attended the Anglican Church at Enmore. also Demerara-born. It was much healthier to not only know one’s place but to stay in it! Before long. Thomas and Henry. or was sent.” A codicil dated 1820 gives “unto . taking care of the family’s interests. their welfare would be assured. Even though Bentinck works in the factory at Enmore. “ . edifices.” The British census of 1851 (HO 107/1866) lists the Henry Porter family as residing in the parish of Clyst St. Devon—the spacious secluded location being called Winslade. a man of demonstrated skills. .000 pounds. The Porters. and ten servants. his heirs and assigns . Mary. for the use and benefit of my Brother Henry. and John. which now . one niece. four daughters. the Porters. and John would actually fill a void left by the earlier deaths of Thomas Porter. Brother Thomas Porter. the elder. He sat in his segregated pew—no kumbayah. where as expected they each sat in their segregated pews. Time passes—the end of the 1830s.

Henry’s. Paul and St. While not mentioned in the father’s will. 1871 brings more changes. has retreated from the sumptuous Winslade to live in the parish of Dawlish. By the 1881 census. the junior Thomas Porter. The advocates of reparations for slavery have their work cut out. By 1859 and 1860. Thomas Jr. a three-year old son. the now forty-four-year-old Ludovic is the head of his own household comprised of a wife. Mary. increasingly more and more lots of the lands of plantation Paradise are being sold and transported to individuals. He served in the Court of Policy. the two beneficiaries with the most clout became Henry Aylmer Porter. his absence from the 1861 and 1871 censuses of England generated a trace that leads us to find his presence in Demerara. Not much has changed in his civic life by 1901. . Ludovic has been actively involved. Devon. Leonard. in 1851 and his brother Henry soon after. It is now ten years later. He heads a reduced household with wife Maria and two servants.88 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N numbers twenty-two—twelve servants are included. While Henry Aylmer Porter continued in the role of absentee landed proprietor. who had originally been a trustee of the will of his father. He is living a comfortable and prominent life as a justice of the peace in the county of Devon. another son of Henry Porter. Then there is Ludovic Porter.” with two daughters still on board. Rose Aylmer Porter. British censuses between 1861-1881 locate and identify Henry Aylmer Porter as a land owner and head of a household of fourteen occupants (including five servants) and eighteen occupants (including ten servants) respectively. with sister Katherine (Porter) Russell and two servants. and six servants. Henry’s son. and Thomas Jr. as a beneficiary of his father’s will loyally stayed with the Porter tradition of hands-on management of the plantation(s) in British Guiana. Over these years. son of Thomas Sr. together with his cousin. was solidly involved in the Demerara Railway Co. in the management of the remaining Porter holdings still in the colony. The matriarch is no longer on the scene to be enumerated for the 1881 census. There is enough room for four visitors (“boarders”?).. With the passing of Thomas Porter Sr. The downsized household seems to be getting along handsomely with just six servants. “gentlewoman” and “annuitant. Thomas Porter (the elder).” To just rely upon who got the money and not how the heirs and assigns disposed of the money could be a self-defeating exercise. if they would only decide to “follow the money. Spinster daughter Caroline Porter is making a last stand as head of household at Exeter St. and his uncle Thomas’s wills. and was significantly a mover and a shaker in the civic life and destiny of both the neighboring parishes of St.. Devon. He was a beneficiary of both his father.

Admonitions to “go by order. The addition of chasing and recapture of prisoners to tracking and returning of runaways entailed a more than proportionate use of scarce manpower. and the inherent Reports and Punishments Returns.OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT Punishment of a wide variety was the primary coercive force of the slave society. command and wages” went a long way to curbing indiscipline and to inculcate good order. real or imagined. By 1849. 89 . Raw. the recalcitrant and the recidivist. Then there was the stock and the wheel for the more hardcore and the serious offender. were forever bent on keeping their guards up. we can summon up the picture of the feeble. and the efforts of the abolishionists were given new life. the severity and savagery for various criminal offences would still linger. Stipendiary Magistrates. Subsequent reforms were to include the institution of Protectors of Slaves. brutal. it was always on call. especially at harvest time. plus the loss of service. England. and enforcer were all rolled into one. savage whipping for wrongdoing. They continued to let the ex-slaves. When the news of the brutality with which the 1823 Demerara Slave Rebellion was put down. was more of a restraining element in determining the type. It was used to deter outlandish behavior and to keep the slave “in his place. Though seemingly forgotten. The outrage expressed by the antislavery advocates in England could hardly faze or deter the excesses of the plantocracy on the firing line. the planters and those who controlled the justice system. severity. went a long way as a disciplinary alternative. They did shoot a horse that had been maimed. last-minute pleading: “Ow massah. but be sure to get us some paperwork for review! Some eight to ten years after apprenticeship had ended. jury. didn’t they? The folklore from our era of slavery is replete with the cruel morbidity of being buried alive. the administrators of the colonies. While the hulks were still anchored at Bermuda.” The threat of a swift. Transportation to the hulks of Bermuda and also to the colonies of Australia had to suffice for the extreme cases. Damage to the stock of slaves. Judge. and possible escalation of the punishment. Punish if you must. it gradually filtered up to London. and unadulterated. the shipping of convicts from the West Indies to England thence to New South Wales and Van Damen’s Land had long since ceased. me nah deddy yet!” Penal servitude within the colony never did take hold.

is indeed for serious felonies.* numbering thirty. was found on a list of two hundred indentured laborers from Sierra Leone off the Superior in May 1841. which in itself is tantamount to a life sentence of a different kind. convicted of stealing from a person. Demerara. Twenty of these (67 percent) have been sentenced to be transported out of the colony to serve their time. By the same token. I have benefitted from and will continue to do so as I stay on course. . also served a political purpose: removal of troublemakers and those with militant tendencies from the society while at the same time quelling and cowing possible upstarts. and indentured laborers know who was in charge. is likely to recognize and associate a particular name with another name/place/time based on their findings sooner or later. not necessarily with the same goal and objective. just like in the past. A closer look of the other list (1847-1849)** shows that it is comprised of 167 convictions and sentences of all types. it is closer to 44 percent for the longer period. Example here: Thomas Koker (Coker). Extracting the seventy-two sentences of transportation only. It is still a revelation. Where did they go after serving those sentences? No evidence has been located that there were provisions made for their repatriation to their country of origin. Accusations and the punishment for crimes. The November 1849 list of convictions at the Supreme Court of Justice. His designated destination among a shorter list of thirty new arrivals back then was Enmore. This researcher has become a firm believer of the value of lists of names. Someone following the same path.90 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N apprentices.

alias Quaco Wells Larceny Apollo James (Apollo Smith) Housebreaking Belinda.THE FOUR PILLARS 91 PERSONS CONVICTED—SUPREME COURT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE COUNTIES OF DEMERARY & ESSEQUIBO Sessions—November. aka Belinda Ben Arson Cook Jupiter Arson Watlin Bishop Rape Francis Pickett Maiming a Cow Philister Glowdon Larceny Samuel Martin Manslaughter George Frederick Assault with Intent to Ravish Daniel David Rape Barnwell Hanover Larceny Malvina Bob Larceny Daniel Elias (Daniel Gollah) Larceny Jacob Fleming Assault with Intent to Ravish Henry Bruce Cutting & Wounding John Fernandes Comacho Larceny . 1849 NAME Prince Johnstone Joe Edwards John Thomas Moore Paul Austin James Longford Pembroke Welcome OFFENCE SENTENCE Imprisonment for 15 months Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 7 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 7 years Imprisonment for 18 months Transportation for 15 years Imprisonment for 1 month Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 10 years Transportation for 7 years Transportation for 10 years Imprisonment for 3 years Transportation for 15 years Transportation for life Imprisonment for 2 years Transportation for 10 years Imprisonment for 4 years Imprisonment for years Transportation for life Transportation for 7 years Imprisonment for 1 year Imprisonment for 7 years Imprisonment for 2 years Transportation for 15 years Transportation for 7 years Larceny Burglary Burglary Burglary Larceny Larceny & Former Conviction John Herbert Larceny & Former Conviction Jeffrey Joseph Housebreaking & Larceny John Africa Larceny Isaac Blackett Cutting & Wounding John Rock Cutting & Wounding Golaub Assault Dick Featherstone Housebreaking Kingston Housebreaking Quaco.

Frederick. . had already served the parts of their sentences of transportation as were required. Still transportation remained an essential part of the battery of the punishment available to the administrators of the justice system in then British Guiana. Fothergill. His four “lieutenants. and William.” Bob.92 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N It was some fifteen years since Damon was hanged.

1849 SENTENCE—TRANSPORTATION TRIAL DATE 1847 Apr 23 “ 23 “ 23 “ 24 “ 24 “ 26 “ 26 “ 27 “ 27 “ 28 “ 28 “ 29 “ 29 “ 29 Jul 21 “ 21 “ 22 “ 22 “ 23 Nov 9 “ 10 1848 May 1 Apr 26 Apr 27 “ 27 “ 28 “ 28 May 1 Jul 19 NAME Sam Moore Thos New Year Adam Quinless aka Adam Quintess Ned Brandes Roger Peir Manoel Rodrigues Marques Antonio dos Reis Warren Abraham Thomas Poole Thomas Koker Castello Crispin Sam Henry aka Cuffy Chance Samuel Welch Gardner Abel Simon Neptune Cupido Heyliger Joseph Dunbar Joe Matis George Sealy John Tull Croydon Liverpool Sir Alton aka Sir Alton Hector Caesar Thompson Jacob Frederick Victor Sunday James Andrews LaFleur November John Thomas Henry Holder Charles Harrison Robert Brandes OFFENCE Rape-Infant under 10 Manslaughter Rape Burglary Cutting & Wounding Manslaughter Manslaughter Larceny Larceny Stealing from person Larceny Larceny Larceny Larceny Rape Burglary & Larceny Highway Robbery High Robbery Obtaining Money under False Pretences Cutting & Wounding Highway Robbery SENTENCE Trsp for Life “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 10 yrs “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ Life 10 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs 7 yrs 7 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 7 yrs 7 yrs 7 yrs 10 yrs 7 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs “ 7 yrs “ 15 yrs “ 10 yrs Arson “ Rape “ Rape “ Rape “ Rape “ Housebreaking “ Killing Sheep with intent to steal “ Killing Sheep. etc “ Stealing a Sheep “ Larceny “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 15 yrs Life Life Life Life 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 7 yrs .THE FOUR PILLARS 93 PERSONS CONVICTED—SUPREME COURT DEMERARA & ESSEQUIBO January 26. 1847-April 17.

Pilgrim aka Kit Pilgrim “ 18 Edward Turrell Apr 19 Pierce Solomon “ 19 John Pool “ 19 Thomas Archer Apr 20 James Bruce aka Jas Bruce Bristol Apr 23 George Butter “ 24 Sam Austin “ 24 John Vallet Cutting & Wounding “ Cutting & Wounding “ Larceny “ Housebreaking & Larcny “ Larceny Cutting & Wounding Cutting & Wounding Stealing a Cow Burglary & Larceny Larceny Larceny Breaking into Shop Highway Robbery Highway Robbery Highway Robbery Cutting & Wounding Burglary & Larceny Burglary & Larceny Arson Burglary & Larceny Stealing a Lamb Stealing a Lamb Burglary & Larceny Burglary & Larceny Burglary & Larceny Stealing a Heifer Rape Burglary & Larceny Arson Receiving stolen goods Assault & Robbery Assault & Robbery “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 7 yrs “ 15 yrs “ 15 yrs “ 10 yrs “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 10 yrs 7 yrs 7 yrs 15 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs “ 15 yrs “ 15 yrs “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 15 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs 10 yrs Life 7 yrs 15 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs .94 “ 27 “ 28 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Antonio Rodriguez Quintal Henry Wakkow Manslaughter Shooting with intent to disable Larceny “ “ “ “ 7 yrs “ 15 yrs “ 7 yrs “ “ “ “ 15 yrs 15 yrs 7 yrs 15 yrs Nov 15 Benjamin Daw Nov 15 Johanna Hislopaka Johana Isroap Nov 15 Abraham Cox Nov 16 Peter Hodge Nov 17 Scheffers Wilson “ 17 Francisco Codeiro ak Franc Alphonso “ 18 Cuffy Thomas aka Trotman Nov 20 Joseph Maloney aka Jos Thos Miller Nov 21 David Cush 1849 Jan 24 Sambo aka Wellington Brutus Jan 24 Alexander King Jan 25 Francis Warton “ 26 Dorsett Glasgow “ 28 Damon Gravesane “ 30 Bonaparte Richard “ 30 John Williams “ 31 Lowe Feb 1 Christy Bull aka Goliath August “ 1 Joseph Chisolm “ 9 Friday Smith aka Friday Gordon Apr 17 Adam Lightburn Apr 18 Bishop Tom “ 18 James Manuel Apr 18 William Daly “ 18 Chris.

Rachel Powell. 23 23 42 48 23 25 26 5 23 22 23 7 23 3 8 30 11 34 21 30 40 12 22 27 27 32 25 25 27 24 7 25 24 34 13 Baker Labourer Infirm House Work Waiter & Groom Sewing Brickmaker Labourer Labourer Brickmaker Labourer (years) House (years) (years) Labourer (mos) Turner & Cooper Brickmaker Blacksmith Carpenter Labourer House Labourer House Blacksmith Shoemaker Labourer Shoemaker House (mos) Shoemaker House Painter Painter Hall. George W Hall. Jacob Phillips. Charlotte Phillips. John Thomas Chew. Edward Chew. R. G. Thomas Freeman. John C. Garraway Powell. Eleanor Hall. Eliza Todd. W. Douglas Butler. Mary Jones. George Crew. Hannibal Conway.W. Dennis Vandike.C Hilliard. Freeman. U. William Woods. Francis A Crick. Lucretia Freeman. Sarah Gibbs. Carter. Richard B. Levi Hall. Susan Halley. Susan Eddichs. Eliza Halley. Sarah A Powell. W.V. Lewis Phillips. Jacob R Gibbs.THE FOUR PILLARS “ 24 “ 26 “ 26 May 1 “ 1 Nov 14 “ 14 Francis Mains Marian Lucas Moses Major Abel Bovel Robert Fraser Sarah Ann Phillips Frances Cumings Breaking into Shop Cutting & Wounding Larceny Larceny in Dwllg House Stealing a Heifer Arson Arson “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 95 7 yrs 15 yrs 7 yrs 7 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs 15 yrs VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTION IMMIGRATION SOCIETY American Immigrants From Baltimore. Solomon Dowden. P Phillips. William Vincent. Hanna Pennington Richd Peter. Dowden. James Cooper. Sarah C Ramsay. Mary Ann Freeman. Letitia Conway. G. Don Carlos Hall. Eliza Ann Cooper. Hall. W Cooper.H.—June 1840 The Brig Porpoise Bennett. Frances C Hall. Hosiah Folk. John Dowden. William Dowden. G. Thomas Butler. Jane R 35 25 2 26 1 26 23 26 26 23 22 20 42 25 32 23 19 27 28 25 42 6 13 4 15 29 26 8 33 21 30 22 22 23 Barbers (years) Barber (years) Butcher House Seamstress Laborer Dray Man House House Laborer Brickmaker Laborer Blksmth Domstic Hse Work Brickmkr Agricltr Wash&Sew (years) Waiter (years) Chambr Laborer House (years) Laborer House Tanner Waiter Brickmkr Hsework . Rhosa Chew. Mary Frances Corbone. Eliza Lawrence. Geo Leonard. Thomas Franklin.H. Jeremiah Howard. Margaret Dowden. Letitia Carter.S. James Mills. G. Josiah Chew. Charles Reynolds. William Carpenter. Conway. Isaiah Pearse. Mary Pennington. John Lenderberger. Freeman. Hannibal Conway. Daniel Phillips.

all of Baltimore. we are constantly on the lookout for any sign of persons with those names. Richard Pennington. was at its greatest. from the Indian subcontinent. there may have been some who returned to America. As our research continues. There may have been other immigrants from the U. age. primarily for the sugar plantations. Where in the colony these newcomers from the Porpoise would have settled is still unknown to us. though we are unable to satisfactorily document such. A search of the 1850 U. under contract. the following were located: Douglass Bennett.S. Maryland.96 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Our brethren from the North arrived at a time when the need for workers.S. . Census has yielded some clues. Dennis Todd. This was just two years after the Whitby and the Hesperus had landed the first batch of indentured laborers. By concentrating on the name. They had been actively recruited by the above-named society. and trade. Over a protracted period.

the individual craft would be “under an obligation to enter solely such ports on the Coast of Africa where the slave trade is permitted” and would also “authorize any number of slaves not exceeding three hundred. and become a “prize. the morsel would be dislodged and become airborne. the offender would be escorted to St. There is a definite and discernable parallel to the “cat and mouse” games that the British navy played with the offending slavers as they sailed the coasts of Africa with their bountiful human cargos bound for the shores of the Americas and the islands of the Caribbean. Exuding with good intentions. it did also “regulate the conveyance of slaves from the Coast of Africa to the Dominions of Brazil. It must be made clear: the abolition of slavery was never the intent. crisscrossing and making 97 . The vessel with a “passport” issued by the country whose flag it bore did not have much to worry about. British altruism could be seen with every slave ship that was boarded. Under prior diplomatic and treaty arrangements. With the impact. There is some intrigue and captivation in the scene that follows—it is one that this researcher had observed as a boy growing up near the foreshores of the sea coast of East Demerara. hits or pecks a smaller bird cruising along with a fish in its beak. being five heads per two tons.THE ABOLITION ACT AT WORK The abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807 outlawed the slave trade throughout the British Empire.” Where and when the paperwork turned out to be inadequate. the attacker would effortlessly accelerate into overdrive to chase and scoop up the prize in midair just before it touches the water.” In the case of Portugal. At first we assumed that a “ball catcher” was of a tiny bird species. It became illegal for British ships to be involved in the trade. These stipulations may well have been the beginning of the end for the transatlantic shipment of slaves. captured.” On the occasions when the naval presence produced a “boarding. The institution of slavery would still have to run its course while the rest of the world continued to replenish and build up their slave holdings.” the captain would have to make his ship’s logs available for inspection and could not avoid the inevitable search. Helena or Sierra Leone. With momentum and purposeful intent on its side. A larger sea bird would swoop like a dive-bombing attack plane. With the fading light of dusk we were amazed at its speed.

615 slaves reached Brazil in the years 1840-1851. Slave Imports. British cruisers were allowed to search ships (for signs of slave trading) in Brazilian waters. 1840-51 Year 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 TOTAL Number 30. These tropical fruit-eating birds. catching the same in its beak before it hits the ground. By 1826.435 19.000 16. Tiny objects would be thrown aloft and be bumped on its way up or on its way down. A version of this game was constantly being played between the British navy and the ships of the Portuguese slave trader. With maximum acceleration. Portugal had agreed to cooperate with the UK in the abolishment of the slave trade gradually when they signed the 1815 Congress of Vienna.453 Year 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 Number 50.172 60. Its seriousness was emphasized by equating slavery to acts of piracy leading up to 1830. After slipping through the porous net in the open Atlantic.000 23. the bumper would dart after the food. another protocol. or bats.98 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N patterns but never colliding with one another.000 17. The British were finally able to pressure Brazil into outlawing the legal slave trade by 1851. Offenders were prosecuted by joint British-Brazilian admiralty courts as pirates under the Aberdeen Act. the Convention. It is still a revelation that some 371. sporadic interceptions and searches did materialize in . Some slavers developed strategies based on gathered naval intelligence to run the British gauntlet and thereby breach impending blockades. was intended to end the slave trade on the African coast.000 3. The aggressive bump of an attacker was designed to cause the “bumpee” to let fly whatever morsel he may have been carrying home for dinner.095 22.324 56. They tended not to be evenhanded in their enforcement as there were some favored nations with which they had special and separate treaties.000 54.849 19.287 371. had a game of their own which had more to do with their habits and survival rather than putting on aerial shows for inquisitive country children.615 The diligence and the persistence of the Royal Navy were measured by both the resources and the will that was thrown into the operations.

HMS Griffin. 1878).THE FOUR PILLARS 99 the Caribbean. LIBERATED AFRICANS THE ABOLITION ACT(S) AT WORK: 1808-1840 DATE/ YEAR VESSEL FLAG/NATION NO. captured a Portuguese slaver Don Francisco with a living freight of 437 human beings. A few successes of the Royal Navy: H M Schooner Bermuda intercepted the Brazilian brig Clementino off Cuba with 250 slaves on board in 1850—the captive was escorted to a port in Jamaica. OF HMS CAPTIVES 35 25 14 3 3 110 18 129 58 186 91 Derwent Derwent Derwent Derwent 11/10/1808 Maria Paul 11/24/1808 San Joaquim Sam Domingo 11/25/1808 Two Cousins African 11/11/1809 Cuba Marianna 12/12/1809 04/09/1810 07/17/1810 02/05/1810 03/14/1810 05/28/181 Pennel La Lucia Doris Maria Anna Esperanza French Not Stated Not Stated England Dutch American (illegal Spanish papers) English on Spanish Papers Spanish Spanish Portuguese Property of British Subjects Merchant resides in London Portuguese Portuguese Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Minerva Crocodile Crocodile Crocodile Vice Admiralty Court Vice Admiralty Court Vice Admiralty Court Nossa Senhorr da Victoria 07/07/1814 Gertrudis de Graciosa 07/21/1814 Maria Joseffa 08/30/1814 10/03/1814 10/24/1814 11/26/1814 09/12/1814 01/12/1815 01/15/1815 01/12/1815 03/29/1815 04/07/1815 Born Successo Delores Rio Nunez Princess Charlotte Colondrina Resurraction S Joge Vanganza General Silveira Deligente 433 480 62 251 35 55 59 144 59 65 41 238 22 . off the coast of Martinique. who about two months previously had been forced from their homes on the banks of the Congo to be sold in Cuba—reported in the Waukesha Freeman (September 12.

100 06/26/1815 08/25/1815 09/04/1815 07/24/1815 08/01/1815 08/19/1815 09/17/1815 12/03/1815 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 18 327 245 120 57 42 39 76 49 94 234 388 504 249 17 39 11 149 400 97 160 32 17 64 52 407 27 269 432 364 70 25 39 121 69 9 31 2 81 27 90 15 Triumpho African Dido Entrepida Carmen Bon Sorte Estrilla San Joaquim Eugenia Juan Los Dos Hermanoes 01/29/1816 Rosa 04/23/1816 Neuva Amable Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated French-fictitious Spanish papers 04/17/1816 St Antonio Milagroso Not Stated 05/13/1816 Delores Not Stated 05/08/1816 Temerario Not Stated 06/19/1816 La Neuva Pez Not Stated Caveira Not Stated 06/16/1816 Dos Amegos Not Stated 11/25/1816 Triumphante Not Stated 04/01/1817 Carmin Not Stated Teresa Not Stated Rodear Not Stated 03/15/1817 Caroline Not Stated San Journa Not Stated 04/02/1817 Geresa Not Stated 04/24/1817 Esperanza Not Stated 05/01/1817 Labirinto Not Stated 12/15/1817 San Juan Nepomecena Not Stated No date Descubridor Not Stated 02/13/1819 Sylph Not Stated No date Novo Felicidad Portuguese 11/02/1819 Centra Not Stated 12/27/1819 Esperanza Not Stated 01/03/1820 Neustra Senora Spanish de La Neuves 02/02/1820 Francisca Spanish Julietta Spanish Virginia Dutch 02/15/1820 Maria Dutch 03/18/1820 Gazetta Spanish Not stated Invincible (Privateer) 02/19/1820 La Marie French 09/20/1820 Two Sisters English .

THE FOUR PILLARS 11/01/1820 11/05/1820 05/16/1821 05/19/1821 05/23/1821 09/17/1821 11/11/1821 11/07/1821 01/31/1822 03/13/1822 05/24/1822 06/18/1822 05/24/1822 07/27/1822 06/22/1822 06/06/1822 06/18/1822 7/04/1822 06/08/1822 08/28/1822 10/05/1822 11/29/1822 12/02/1822 11/16/1822 12/03/1822 12/12/1822 12/24/1822 01/01/1823 01/23/1823 02/06/1823 03/17/1823 10/23/1823 05/15/1824 05/30/1824 06/14/1824 11/15/1824 La Monserrat Anna Maria Dona Eugenia Constantia Adelaide La Caridad (El) Neuva Virgen Rosalia El Conde De Villa Flor Le Ursule Dichosa Estrella Le Vivilent Le Petit Betszy Dies De Feverio Esperanza Vecva Esperanza Felis Defencion De Patria Estrella Nymfa Del Mar San Jose Sallacan Josefa Aurora Commerciante S Raphael St Antonio De Lieboa Juliana De Praca Caroline Conceicao Magdalena Da Praca Nova Sorte Sincerridade Fabiana Bom Cominho Alex Grant El Vencedor Diana Los Amigos (Brazilerreros) Aviso Bella Eliza Le Deux Soeurs Espanola Bom Fim Spanish/British Vessel Ran Aground Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese French Spanish French French Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Dutch Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese French Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese “packet” Brazillian Brazillian Brazillian Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese 84 45 325 78 147 208 136 106 58 166 201 29 300 230 10 147 217 84 80 292 2 17 182 178 166 125 316 98 85 191 33 122 120 118 327 14 12 16 255 452 369 131 270 126 Mixed Con Pheasant 101 Thistle Myroridan Myroridan Iphegenia Iphegenia Snapper Owen Glendov Bann Victor Maidstone Bann Atholl Swinger 01/31/1825 01/29/1825 03/21/1825 03/19/1825 .

102 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N French Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Dutch Dutch Spanish Brazilian 128 266 123 274 36 249 228 130 5 385 34 243 411 185 49 163 84 172 134 579 224 238 23 45 189 161 250 175 95 188 308 198 289 209 58 545 84 155 235 62 624 37 Swinger Elk 07/21/1825 S Eleonore 09/10/1825 Bom Jesus Dos Navigantes 10/18/1825 Siezed by Governor 11/23/1825 Segunda da Gallega Clarita 11/04/1825 Uniad 12/17/1825 Ninfa Habana 03/01/1826 Ana Teresa 11/01/1826 Parquita 02/06/1826 I’Amable Claudine 03/15/1826 Charles 03/21/1826 Iberia San Joao Segunda Rosalia Siezed by Governor 11/30/1826 Activo 06/08/1826 Netuno 07/01/1826 Necarno 07/17/1826 La Fortuno 09/26/1826 Principe De Guinea Intripeda 06/07/1826 Perpetuo Defensor 11/16/1826 Shelhend 12/04/1826 03/16/1827 Paulauta 02/21/1827 Lynx 03/03/1827 Invencible 03/10/1827 Emelia 03/16/1827 Fame 04/09/1827 Veivus 04/09/1827 Dos Amegos 05/15/1827 Conceiao de Maria 06/071827 Creola 06/19/1827 Silverhina 07/01/1827 Tonenha 09/29/1827 Henriquita 12/12/1827 Diana 01/25/1828 Gertrudis 03/15/1828 Fanny 05/24/1828 Vandora 06/16/1828 Vingator 06/241828 Feliz Victoria Maidstone Brazen Atholl Brazen Red Wing Saved from W Swinger Atholl Conflict Brazen Esk Brazilian Brazilian Spanish Dutch Brazilian Portuguese Brazilian Dutch Spanish Dutch Brazilian Spanish Spanish Brazilian Brazilian No Name Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese Brazilian Brazilian Spanish Dutch Brazilian Atholl Brazen Maidstone Maidstone VAC Maidstone Elk Elk North Star North Star Elk Elk North Star Maidstone Sybille Sybille Sybille Eden Sybille Eden .

THE FOUR PILLARS 07/17/1828 08?22/1828 09/18/1828 10/03/1828 10/26/1828 11/30/1828 12/19/1828 12/19/1828 Josephine Nova Virgen Clementina Henrietta Santa Effigenia Zepherina Campeadore Arcenia Minerva De Conceicao Penha De Franca El Juan Triumpho La Coquetta Bella Eliza Vingader Aurelia Jules Jenne Eugenia Uniao El Almirante Donna Barbara Carolina Mensageria Hirondell La Panchita Hossio Ceres Clarita Emelia Santa Jago Laure Octavio Christina Tentadora Emelia Noalendia Menzenares Maria de la Conception Altimara Nov Resoluto Premeira Rosalia Umbelino Nossa Senhora da Tina Loreta al Coruneria Portuguese Brazilian Brazilian Dutch Brazilian Brazilian Spanish Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Spanish Brazilian Dutch Brazilian Portuguese Brazilian Dutch Dutch Brazilian Spanish Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Dutch Spanish Portuguese Brazilian Spanish Brazilian Brazilian French Spanish Spanish Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Spanish Spanish Spanish Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian 77 331 163 304 218 158 212 269 82 169 378 122 183 397 220 29 675 46 365 416 351 396 112 49 258 165 128 201 434 148 245 335 216 319 148 158 348 79 199 39 242 163 238 184 103 Clinker Eden Mix Comm 12/30/1828 01/26/1829 02/27/1829 03/03/1829 04/03/1829 03/03/1829 03/10/1829 03/03/1829 03/20/1829 04/13/1829 05/30/1829 06/24/1829 Sybille Sybille Black Joke Sybille Eden Eden Sybille Plumber Medina Sybille Medina Clinker Black Joke Clinker Medina Blackstone 09/13/1829 09/14/1829 09/13/1829 09/24/1829 11/19/1829 11/27/1829 01/01/1830 01/14/1830 05/01/1830 05/17/1830 07/14/1830 04/26/1830 04/13/1830 03/15/1830 03/16/1830 05/13/1830 05/27/1830 Medina Sybille Sybille .

104 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Active Santiago Velos Passagera Nuova Isabelita Pasirito Maria Nymphia Maria Primaira La Virginie Marinerito Potosi Seisure by Gov Regulo Rapido Seizure by Gov Seizure by Gov Fasquito alias Contella Segunda Teresa Prueva Seizure by Governor Carolina Dasanguna Mariana Indie Josefa Segundo Socorro Caridad Virtude El Primo Minerva Iberia Manuel Bienvenida Ligitimo Africano Numero Dos Volador Simeramis Argos Conde De Los Andes Theresa Norma Yberia 163 134 530 139 230 35 167 496 310 91 375 183 54 162 2 16 15 228 445 274 17 369 209 265 107 193 307 107 314 335 34 305 375 367 186 141 428 426 366 269 202 224 238 08/251830 11/16/1830 11/22/1830 11/27/1830 11/20/1830 12/09/1830 01/01/1831 03/04/1831 04/13/1831 05/24/1831 08/08/1831 09/24/1831 10/13/1831 11/07/1831 09/24/1831 12/01/1831 03/20/1832 04/14/1832 06/05/1832 09/11/1832 04/12/1832 05/23/1833 06/14/1833 07/10/1833 10/02/1833 11/14/1833 12/03/1833 02/28/1835 03/11/1835 03/24/1835 04/23/1835 05/09/1835 07/20/1835 08/26/1835 10/14/1835 11/24/1835 11/30/1835 12/31/1835 01/01/1836 02/03/1836 Brazilian Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Spanish French Spanish Spanish 8 Canoes Spanish Spanish Atholl Primrose VAC Black Joke VAC Black Joke Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Spanish Peluens Brisk Favorite Charybolis Curlen Henry Favorite Pluto luncula(?) Trincula(? Brisk Isis Pelorus Buzzard Forester Buzzard Forester Forester Fair Rosamoi Buzzard Charypdis Britomart Britomart Buzzard Fair Rosamon .

THE FOUR PILLARS Isabella Gazetta Ligeria Vandolero Seis Hermanos Mandillo Felicia Joven Carolina Felix Esperanza Atalaya Esperanza II Victoria Quatro De Abril Olympia Veloz Seria Achugino Gala Incomprehencidal Cabo Verde Temerario Esperanca Josephina Latonia Delores Capo De Africa Providencia La Fayette Amelia Primaroza Vibora De Cabo Verde Felicidade l Ligeria Princenza Africano Doixa Falar Gratidas Felicidades Dous Irmaos Prova (i) Pasquita Felix Prova (ii) Dulcinea Liberal Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese 331 223 192 343 171 257 355 383 481 417 88 396 316 458 252 459 21 48 101 586 452 236 89 346 320 279 101 192 411 367 136 215 281 280 222 186 370 404 240 194 187 295 249 589 Pincut Pylades Buzzard Lynx Thalia Buzzard Buzzard Buzzard Thalia Pylades 105 03/09/1836 03/12/1836 06/151836 08/02/1836 )8/13/1836 10/22/1836 No date No date No date No date No date No date No date 01/13/1837 01/17/1837 No date No date 03/17/1837 03/05/1837 03/23/1837 06/—/1837 06/06/1837 07/10/1837 09/15/1837 10/28/1837 11/22/1837 12/09/1837 12/20/1837 01/10/1838 01/19/1838 04/17/1838 05/19/1838 07/03/1838 08/09/1838 11/30/1838 Portuguese Spanish Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese .

106 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 319 126 191 302 199 221 39 30 323 358 88 196 21 120 333 414 50 7 29 01/25/1839 Imprendidor 01/10/1839 Gertrudis Violente 01/17/1839 Magdalene Ontario 04/13/1839 Labradora 05/11/1839 Liberal Passos 05/30/1839 Felucia 06/—/1839 SI 07/16/1839 Cazolidade 07/19/1839 Jacay 07/25/1839 Sedoantarde Pomba De Africa )08/15/1839 Constitucao 10/30/1839 Sete de Abril 12/12/1839 Vincedora 12/24/1839 Andoriner 12/03/1839 Destimeda 04/08/1840 Novo Abismo 04/18/1840 Eliza Davidson 05/02/1840 St Antonio Victoroso No date Olympia No date Raimond Primiers 09/18/1840 Claudine Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Spanish Spanish Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Spanish Portuguese Portuguese VAC VAC 369 19 43 59185 Liberated Africans This topic has been researched and written about no end. longtime pioneering researcher associated with the Cambridge libraries. At the Fourah Bay University College archives. and also Christopher Fyfe. “the conditions . Our dreams would be shattered by the report coming from Peter Kup. anywhere in the world. so many more people would take the high seas hoping to find their forbears from generations past. Then all one would need to do is to locate and make a find in whatever archive. This neophyte now approaches it cautiously. If it were that simple. someone has been able to compile a comprehensive register of the names of these people as they were loaded into the ships that took them to the English-speaking islands of the West Indies and especially mainland British Guiana. My interest takes the simplistic belief that somewhere. and access an indexed treasure trove.

food. Letter Books.THE FOUR PILLARS 107 of storage are very bad . and Register of Escaped Slaves. . Statements of Disposals. there is a list of the contents of the archives. Originating from the Liberated African Department would be Registers of Liberated Africans (folios). Great stuff if “someone” could really sort them out! The Liberated African Department was. . . (though) . up to August 15. Miscellaneous Letter Books. Hardly any attempt was made to record their place of origin.420 slaves from 1808-1860. 1822. no staff is available. named Captured Negroes Office. the collection is not classified and catalogued. Parallel registers were used in 1966 to obtain a tabulation that accounted for some 84. and clothing for these unfortunates while sorting and recording how they were disposed. .” This all indicate that one would be better off rolling the dice and go rummaging among the equally disappointing neglect of records at the various island destinations across the Atlantic. . It was an administrative agency which from 1808 was responsible for slaves brought to Freetown on board the vessels seized by the Vice Admiralty Court. The department provided lodgings. A census of 1830 had shown that 33.595 captive Africans had landed in Sierra Leone. Duplicated Registers.

convicts were to spend months. In the next eighty years. In 1835. The First Fleet was made up of eleven vessels which sailed in 1787. alias “Black Jack. personal servant to Lt.HULKS: BERMUDA With the end of the War of American Independence in 1776. thousands were to be confined on these floating dungeons to await shipment and transportation to Australia and Bermuda. With names like Daniel Gordon and John William. In some instances. chaplain. Thus was born the penal system of prison hulks: old and unseaworthy ships and naval vessels which were converted and remodeled to become floating prisons. there were hulks anchored in the bays and the coast of Bermuda. there was a burgeoning black population at this time to be found in the British Isles. Richard Johnson. there was William. Besides these two convicts. personal servant to Rev. and even years. Ralph Clark. This solution was seized upon by the overcrowded prison system. Over the years the “census” at any one time was reflected thus: FROM-TO NAME OF HULK Antelope Dromedary Weymouth Coromandel Thames Tenedos Medway CONVICT POPULATION 300 300 230 275 150 300 100 1824-1854 1825-1855 1829-1836 1829-1854 1840-1846 1846-1862 1850-1862 108 . Nowhere is it designated whether they were Africans or West Indians.100 convicts. the four ships anchored in the waters of Bermuda were reported to house 1. until they would have embarked for that long and gruesome voyage to New South Wales or Botany Bay.” one is left to wonder. Among the 1.350 crew and convicts that made this cargo of misery were to be found four Blacks. The overseers of these had to report to the colonial governor and not to the home office. Besides the prison hulks that dotted the river estuaries and the coast of Britain. Mind you. and Sam Barnes. Britain lost not only its sovereignty over the American colonies but also a place to ship convicts.

number 996. By the muster of September 30. 1938. By the June 30. At one report. and Bronte were transferred to the hulk Antelope to continue their miserable existence as convicts number 370. Sixteen of them who were regarded as leaders were put on trial. Teague.THE FOUR PILLARS 109 The Bermuda hulk stations were to continue some five years after the system ended in Britain in 1857. 1837. Henry. John Lester and John McDougall. a thirteen-year-old boy. John Dickinson. Cork. one from Bermuda. but that strategy failed. The quarterly muster of December 31. Five were deported to Bermuda while the others were ordered to receive between twenty-four to one hundred lashes. They continued their prison life together on the same ship until the muster of June 30. had been “discharged to America. and fifteen from Barbados. number 371. had been sentenced to transportation for fifteen years for sheep stealing. not Bermuda. Juvenile convicts had work assignments on board while the healthy adults went ashore each weekday for five or six hours of labor in the quarries or the dockyards. Teague. ten from Barbados. number 995. 1834. Henry is alone on the . Ophthalmia struck from time to time due to the convicts being given insufficient relief from the glare of the sun on the sea and the limestone. a slave. twenty-two years old. number 994. twenty-four years old. By the muster of March 31. number 997. Force was used to get the slaves to return to work. Bronte. twenty years old. Their acts of sedition arose over a strike precipitated in defiance of the 1834 imposition of apprenticeship. It was at these rat-infested hell holes that prisoners convicted by the colonial courts and sentenced to transportation were incarcerated. forty years old. sixty-eight of these were under sixteen. twenty-two years old. Christopher (St. both of Demerara. Christopher: number 993. It is Gibralter that carries the dubious distinction of having the last prison hulk in the British Empire. and the St. John Dickinson.” The hulk Coromandel was the destination of the seditious group of five from St. There were a large number of juveniles who were convicted in the Irish courts whose crime was really being poor and hungry. on the Weymouth turned up seven from Jamaica. 1835. and one. Many of these prisoners were serious criminals. five from Jamaica. In addition there came one from Antigua. two convicts from Demerara had been added: forty-year-old John Lester sentenced to seven years for cutting and maiming. and number 372 respectively. sentenced to seven years for assaulting and maiming. three from Tobago. and twenty-seven-year-old John McDougall. Kitts) Five who had been convicted for sedition and sentenced to transportation for life in 1832. considered to be too intractable even for the tender mercies of the Australian outpost. 1835.

to be exact. This was a sure sign that his next destination could be Australia. His time on the Leviathan was short. the batch of convicts sent off to Van Damen’s Land would include the name John Dickinson. Teague. 4758. he was assigned a new number. John Dickinson would be on his way to take residence on the hulks of the river Thames. May 20. and Bronte. England. Within a year. 1838.110 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Coromandel. There must have been a very good reason for giving Dickinson his freedom. 1839. The census of New South Wales 1841 lists him as a “regular” inhabitant with no designation or inferences that he may still be serving time. Further research is needed to determine what became of Henry. Cork having died on May 3. On his arrival. . by September 16. A record from the ship Henry Wellesley showing a rare occasion of women from the West Indies being transported to Australia to serve prison terms. 1839.

Such a move was not well received by both the colonial and also the home offices. 1834 12 December. though not a model prisoner. 1834 25 June.. 1835 12 June. Ann’s It was under a year since the “Essequibo Four” had been shipped out from Demerara and had arrived in England in the fall of 1834. 1835 Person’s Name Ben Walrond Offence Attempt to Murder Sheep Stealing Burglary Burglary Burglary Attempt to Kill Felony Felony Sheep Stealing Felony Burglary False Pretences Sheep Stealing Felony Mutinous Conduct Desertion Sentence Death commuted to Transportation for Life Transp for Life Transp for Life Transp for Life Transp for Life Transp for Life Transp for 7 Yrs Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Transp for 14 Yrs Transp for 14 Yrs Date December. 1834 12 December. 1830 Escaped Aug. 1835 5 November. Fothergill. Birkett. Frederick. 1834 11 June. 1834 11 June. With a Walrond on board. Ben Walrond had by this time become a star prisoner. 1835 12 June. What is now clear is that the paths of this motley bunch from Barbados and that of the recently pardoned three. 1835 Prince William (Hamden) Ptolemy Halifax James Pollard James Curtis Anthony John Williams Toney Cal Ned John Joe Pollard Charles Padmore Joe Hill Matty Beck William Docherty* William Fox* *Tried by a Military Court at St. Interim transfer to the hulks in Bermuda was deemed to be the more appropriate penal protocol. 1834 10 December. 1834 13 June. 1831 Retaken early 1835 11 June. 1835 12 June. .THE FOUR PILLARS 111 A List of Convicts Removed from Barbados On Board the Corsair. They were to be temporarily imprisoned on the hulks in preparation for their trip to New South Wales as was ordered by the Supreme Court. When the Corsair sailed there was no clear indication as to whether its destination would be Bermuda or London. Master July 25. 1835 10 December. 1835 12 June. 1835 11 June. so many influences would have come into play.

(1583) Ned John. 1835. (1585) Charles Padmore. 1835. (1580) John Williams. The other five. Prince William (Hamden). lifers—Ben Waldron. (1578) William Doherty. Matty Beck had much earlier found herself in a more amiable setting with a bevy of ladies who together sailed away on the Henry Wellesley on September 23. (1584) Joe Pollard. Prince William. (1577) James Pollard. Ptolemy and Halifax. When a group of 183 convicts were shipped out to New South Wales. . (1581) Anthony. (1582) Toney Cal. and Ptolemy to Australia. they were (1576) James Curtis. (1579) William Fox. Almost unseen. never did cross. 1835.112 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N and William. Australia. and (1586) Joe Hill. from England on September 25. taking Halifax. The ship Susan sailed with another batch on October 6. along with Matty Beck. the only woman—had to wait for a day in the future. for whom preparation was being made to ship back to British Guiana. eleven of the above Barbados “band of brothers” were also included. With convict ID numbers newly attached.

Christopher (St.THE FOUR PILLARS 113 “Boxed in” together! The St. Bermuda. Kitts) Five mustered on the hulk Weymouth. . December 31. 1834.

He died March 22. By H. Fothergill and William. Russell. forty years old. 1835 . They were to appear in the muster for the quarter ending June 30. convicted for murder in Jamaica since April 1833. could be arranged. just twenty years old. a Black. it was noted that while three of the Demerara convicts were healthy. Others. 1835. As it turned out. He was also waiting for a “slow boat” to NSW. and William. Frederick. Australia. (865) William. At fifty-five years old. right there. a Black. 1833. It was addressed as follows: To Our Trustee. Command. a Black. Seems Pierre. There they were on page number 26. was sick. their first muster. There were actually four of these “freedom fighters” who had been tried. (864) Bob. to grant them our Free Pardon for said crime. British Guiana. . There was still some delay in implementing the orders pursuant to the free pardon granted to Frederick. on page 154 of the home office prison register of correspondence: “Whereas. convicted. Of Convicts. Our wish and pleasure therefore is that you cause them the said Frederick. William. 1835. . extend our grace and hereby unto them. and shipped off to England to be held there until their time for transportation to New South Wales. to be discharged out of custody and for so doing by 23 June. now under sentence of Transportation on the Justitia Hulk were convicted of felony at a Court of Criminal Justice of British Guiana on the 23 Sept last—We. It was Bob instead of William who did not make it. At the time of this. His crime was listed as “felony” and a conviction date of December 23. . March 31. Supt.M. The muster for the quarter that ended December 1834 included the newly arrived convicts from Demerara. a Black. John Henry. had been granted a “vacation” that was to last twenty-eight years. (Signed). While 114 . . (863) Fothergill. there was only one other Black among the “welcoming party” of more than three hundred wretched souls. Fothergill. the fourth. It means that Pierre had already spent almost a year on the Justitia. Then came their second muster. and William. 1835. transportation for life. along with (number 1120) John Thorpe. in consideration of some circumstances . from Grenada. J. the English winter may have proved to be too much for him. each name preceded by a number: (862) Frederick.THE HULK MEN FROM THE WEST INDIES There it was. Fothergill.

transport for seven years. forty-five years old. John Thorpe of Jamaica. additional places were being made available in “hulkhood” for more brothers from the West Indies: (number 1341) Zavier. twenty-five years old. transportation for life. among the convicts from those islands. (number 1367) Saint John. They were to be transported to NSW. These offences for the prisoners listed so far would have been committed between 1831 and 1835. thirty-two years old. twenty-four years old. (number 1397) Anatol Laporte. for larceny. and Bob (now deceased). The surgeon’s report deemed them healthy while it was noted that they were “not mustered having been less than 3 months on the ship” (The Justitia): (number 1396) Lowhill Higbee. and having left on June 27. twenty years old. (number 1401) George Crumb. Things are seldom what they may seem at first glance. transportation for life. That ethnic tint could more than likely be drawn from a brown/ black prisoner transported from the islands of the Caribbean. and seven years respectively. eighteen years old. William. 1835. seven. for larceny. The darker hue of some of today’s Australian does not necessarily mean that the source is likely native (Maori). (number 1399) Harry Corree. It must be remembered that the overwhelming majority of convicts from the West Indies serving sentences of transportation in the periods under study were confined on the hulks of Bermuda: Antelope. to serve fourteen. transportation for ten years. (number 1366) John Phillip. . Dromedary. (number 1342) John. (number 1368) Beno. manslaughter.THE FOUR PILLARS 115 (number 378) Pierre had been shipped out to NSW on June 27. eighteen years old. Medway. transportation for eight years. thirty-two years old. in due course. 1835. burglary and robbery. desertion. thirty years old. (number 1343) Frank. for seven years. Weymouth.” Fortune must have smiled upon Pierre. twenty years old. There were indeed some white hulk men among those from the West Indies. but the search has turned up not a single woman. forty years old. from Grenada were (number 1286) Bob. black or white. The Justitia has become the center of our interest because of Frederick. assault and robbery. Fothergill. Joining his boat to NSW. transport for seven years. burglary and theft. Thames. thirty-five years old. apparently from other hulks. and Charles McAllister from Demerara. In the register. (number 1400) Louis Rodriguez. otherwise Higsby. transport for life for sheep stealing. offence not stated. 1835. thirty-five years old. Couramandel. seven years for assault. a slave. There was a special note attached to another grouping from Trinidad which was appended to the report for the second quarter ended June 30. their offences were listed as “Not Known. There were indeed other hulks anchored around the coasts and rivers of England. transportation for seven Years. transportation for fourteen years. (number 1398) John Warrow. Tenedos.

James Pollard (30). 1836. . mutiny. Joe Pollard (23). Desertion. a Black (20). [this latter four from Demerara]. 14 years. 7 years. entering and stealing. Charles Padmore (18). cutting and maiming. George Crumb (24). It was a revelation to locate eleven (11) of them mixed in with a much larger group who was shipped out to NSW on September 25. for stealing various articles. 7 years. John Williams (23). life. Between the months of August and September 1835. Simon and Harry were to arrive in VDL on the same date. burglary and robbery. 1835. no destination was stated for the sixteen (16) convicts being transported. 1835. William Doherty (22). To Van Damens Land: Lowell Higbee (32). Ned John (24). burglary. to serve life. there has been a much smaller batch sent out to Tasmania. burglary and larceny. Anatole Laporte (40). 8 years. for murder. he had departed from Sheerness. Desertion. John Warrow (25). a Black (22). Toney Cal (50). break and enter and stealing. 1823. cutting and maiming. other groups of transported convicts were continually being sent away to serve their sentences “down under. 7 years. Sentenced to transportation for life by the Berbice Court of Criminal Justice. 7 years. and William. arriving in Van Damen’s Land January 19. Harry Corrie (35). Being sentenced by the Demerara Supreme Court on July 20 and 22. no one. Joe Hill (19). to serve sentences of seven years each. 1824. Fothergill. the following prisoners from the Carribees formed part of the several shiploads of misery extracted from the hulks of England: To New South Wales: James Cockburn (38). life.116 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N While the bureaucratic delays in the prison system conspired to prolong the incarceration of Frederick. 7 years. obtain goods by false pretences. Frank (30). 7 years. on February 21. goat stealing. Despite the ferocity and the brutal aftermath of the Demerara Slave Rebellion of 1823. 7 years. Hamlet. William Fox (24). When the ‘Corsair’ sailed from Barbados on July 25. Sentenced to transportation for life by the Nevis Court of King’s Bench and Common Pleas.” Before this apparent logjam of convicts from the Caribbean in 1835. 7 years. obtain money by false pretences. 7 years. 10 years. England. sheep stealing. Assault and robbery. 7 years. respectively. Anthony (22). The first ever seems to be one Darby from British Guiana. life. culpable homicide. among those brought before the courts for trial had to face the penalty of transportation. Also sharing the same arrival date is Augustus. January 15. break and enter and stealing. 14 years. November 8. 1835. burglary and theft. 1836. he was shipped out from London in August 1823. 14 years. to serve 7 years for Arson. April. Louis Rodriguez (32). 7 years. James Curtis (70).

Fothergill. and alongside it there is a library “with 1. hardly distinguishable from its surroundings. When they reach the docks. and there was activity in the galley. Muster and breakfast is at six o’clock—the men are all ranged at their tables with a tin cup full of cocoa and a piece of dry bread. this was the dreariest place upon which they had ever laid their eyes.” That is the gist of the cover letter written by George Baillie. The trio of black convicts is waved on after the accompanying warder discloses the nature of their business. in line with the routine. Being black no doubt added some additional pressures to their miserable lives. now three. and William back to the custody of the colonial authorities in British Guiana. were to fall in with the routine of hulk life. and William walked to a slightly overgrown low mound. Our three convicts. carpenters. Frederick. The convicts who remain on the ship. would have had to participate and attend classes. Prisoners are roused at half past five o’clock. and addressed to the admiralty who has been given the full responsibility for delivering Frederick.099 volumes on the shelves. As it turned out. ply their skills and handicraft—tailors.THE FOUR PILLARS 117 The Essequibo Four.—for the benefit of the hulk community. the warder stops and drops back respectfully. They stood closely and silently with their thoughts until . Fothergill. could they have become acquainted with the letters of Ignatius Sancho? “I have succeeded in obtaining a passage for them on board the Odessa which is expected to sail for Demerara from the River in the course of the next few days. Passing through the gate that lead to the marshes. the solitary bookbinder. There was no name or number to mark the spot. A warder takes charge of a single work party. On board there is a chapel. had been laid to rest in this godforsaken place. The warders would open hatchways to reveal men in hammocks. Classes begin with two psalms and a prayer. number 864. then they crossed the humped canal bridge. They approached the small black wooden lodge with its sentry. in the deck cabins. shoemakers. Whatever else they may have read and have been taught. acting as agent for the home office. etc. The price which I have agreed to pay is ten guineas. There is some puzzlement—no one knows of any visitors ever to this convicts burial ground. The three men walked at a somewhat slow and hesitant pace skirting the arsenal. Bob. After breakfast they follow single file to the gangways and into the boats. Their day started very early. The cooks would have been up.” The school is divided into nine divisions. they clamber up and head to the parade ground. The “convicts” were due to have taken the first leg of their homeward journey traveling by steamer from Woolwich to Falmouth.



interrupted by the warder clearing his throat to indicate that it was time to go. In single file, they left the marshes of Essex heavyhearted. With the heavy fog, the opposite bank of the Thames was not visible, still one could hear the toll of a church bell in the distance. Could this kindred spirit have made its way back to Africa even as the marshes devoured his flesh? Almost Dickensian! Three sinister characters that had cheated destiny by a stroke of luck have popped phantomlike off the turning pages of Great Expectations. After all, the locale is the same—the fog-shrouded moors of Kent in the southeast of England. Only the gravestones of the churchyard are replaced by the uneven mounds of the graves of convicts and paupers. Besides, this separation from the hulks at Woolwich would not be followed by the brutal, debilitating journey to the convict colony of New South Wales, Australia, but the rather bittersweet return to the more familiar land of British Guiana to join the other apprenticed laborers with just over three years to serve before their full emancipation. There is no way to tell without further research what dates they departed from England and arrived in Barbados. The Arrivals and Departures column of the Daily Chronicle does report the arrival of the mail boat Manchester, an interisland boat, as November 23, 1835. The Royal Gazette of November 24, reporting the same event of the exact arrival date, goes on: “Passengers Arrived: Miss Reid, Miss Marten, three servants, and three Convicts returned from England.” While Damon was hanged just over a year ago, to set a deterrent example, these three who just escaped the hangman’s rope, and also escaped being shipped as convicts to Australia, are now standing on the land of their birth. What manner of men are these? They are actually former prisoners: number 862, number 863, and number 865 from the prison ship, the hulk Justitia. Their fates and futures, ultimately, will be decided by the colonial administration of the colony. There was no way that these returning convicts would ever to be allowed to set foot back on the coast of the Essequibo from whence they had been forcibly removed in August 1834. They were to be given new names and confined on a plantation in Demerara. The additional skills which they had acquired while incarcerated on the hulks and by being put to work daily on the docks at Woolwich made them praedials of the highest order. Why not plantation Enmore?

The not-so-discreet report that appeared in the Royal Gazette’s Shipping News Section, November 24, 1835, “three convicts returned from England.” Fothergill, Frederick, and William have landed!

Hugh “Tommy” Payne

(An Unsolicited Review with a Purpose)
It took, no doubt, gallons upon gallons of midnight oil—nay, the consumption of hundreds of kilowatts of electricity—to get Tommy Payne to the end his of book. He who feels it, knows it. Research into history and genealogy gobbles up large chunks of time. The cost effectiveness of research pursuits could not be assessed with any degree of relevance, certainty, and usefulness. The accountant in this writer is bursting out and spilling over. Should one embarking on such pursuits at least document the actual hours sunk into the endeavor? Each author/writer and researcher should keep a time sheet of some sort. Even the most prolific of that ilk could hardly ever be able to attach some “weighting” mechanism based on time spent on each piece of work produced and completed. Payne’s sources and references must have, at times, led him down some paths which he never intended to travel. Perhaps he tarried, not “dillydallied,” in some parts and places. In the end, the wheat was winnowed from the chaff. One is left to wonder what percentage of the documents and manuscripts perused made it into the final product. Following Payne’s path into the mass of possible documents seemed quite daunting. It goes without saying that the field was narrowed greatly because of the reading and rereading of “ten days.” Genealogical research forces one into the inevitable situation of “minding other people’s business.” If no man (or woman) is an island, then no family line is an archipelago. Just as individuals make up a family and just as families make up a village or community, we must acknowledge the makeup and existence of the human race and the worldwide family. “Don’t even go there!” This phrase of admonishment is now embedded in our vernacular and also our psyche. It is a sort of boundary very tempting to cross,



but one which could produce some unimagined and damning social surprises and consequences. Many are the times that this researcher have had to resort to some self-imposed mental admonishments. On the occasions when the lines were crossed, the results turned out to be seemingly the loss of quality research time and the collection of data and information that did not advance the quest. Finding out a little more, or less, about the Trotmans, the Austins, the Davids, or some other recognizable name did hardly anything to push or enhance the efforts of nurturing the Sancho family tree. Even in situations where there has been intermarriage, crossbreeding, or cohabiting, the pull of finding out a little more and pushing back the familial boundary just a little more has lead down arteries where the bloodline disappears. It is as if a roaring stream ends up in a desert and becomes a subterranean entity. In September 2004, ten days of research at the National Archives in Kew, neighboring Richmond, Surrey, had yielded a pile of notes and photocopies. The thinking that there could be a little piece that could be retrieved from that pile and at some point find a place somewhere in an ever enlarging jigsaw puzzle continued to reign supreme. The possibility of narrowing the field through a process of delicate forensic selection and exclusion was at a feverish pitch. It was never the expectation that somewhere along the way and at sometime one would hit a genealogical gold mine that would produce pieces of nuggets with convenient labels attached and clearly marked with surnames like Sancho, Joyce, Robertson, and Samuels, not to mention place names like Golden Grove, Nabaclis, Enmore, Haslington, and Victoria.

It has forever been that one man’s freedom fighter is another man’s terrorist. By the same token, the winners of wars continually write the epics and uplift the heroes. The culture and history of a people, in its simplest of terms, denotes the things they have done and the ways in which the said things were done. Not having a Walter Kronkite to tell the world “that’s the way it was” could well be an impediment, though not necessarily so. The honesty, fairness, and integrity of the recorder become the most vital ingredients. Given half a chance, there are those who would tell the world that some of the more noble qualities of the human spirit reached the shores of then British Guiana with the arrival of the Whitby and the Hesperus. There are many more stories and historical perspectives that merit being presented to the young of Guyana, if for no other reason but in the name of Truth. The weapon of nonviolence employed in the pursuance of freedom and justice has been used longer than so many would dare believe. The stand taken by Damon and his followers in Trinity Churchyard, La Belle Alliance, Essequibo, on that fateful Sunday, August 10, 1834, is worth lifting up. Proclamation: By His Excellency Major-General Sir James Carmichael Smyth. It is prominently emblazoned on the pages of the Royal Gazette, October 11, 1834. It continues: WHEREAS the Supreme Court of Criminal Justice, as assembled, in obedience to my Proclamation of the Second of September last, in a Special Session at the Court-House in Georgetown, have concluded their labours: And whereas, after a patient and impartial Trial (in which they had the benefit of being assisted and defended by able Counsel), the following Prisoners have been found Guilty of the Crimes with which they were severally charged, and have been sentenced as follows, namely— DAMON—of plantation Richmond, an Apprenticed Labourer—convicted of Seditious Riots and Disturbances, against the Public Peace, has been condemned to be taken to the place of execution and there to be Hanged by the neck, on the Thirteenth instant, until dead.



FREDERICK—of plantation Devonshire Castle, an Apprenticed Labourer—has been convicted of the same crimes, and has been condemned to be transported to His Majesty’s Colony of New South Wales, and to be kept there to Hard Labour for the term of his Natural Life. FOTHERGILL—of plantation La Belle Alliance, an Apprenticed Labourer, have been convicted of the same crimes, and has been condemned to be transported to His Majesty’s Colony of New South Wales, and to be there kept at Hard Labour for the term of Fourteen Years. BOB—of plantation Lima, an Apprenticed Labourer—has been convicted of the same crimes (with the exception of the words sticks and staves, in the third count of the Indictment), and has been condemned to be Transported to His Majesty’s Colony of New South Wales, and to be there kept to Hard Labour for the term of Fourteen Years. WILLIAM—an Apprenticed Labourer in the employ of Theobald Featherstone, Esquire—has been convicted of exciting others to sedition, and has been condemned to be transported to His Majesty’s Colony of New South Wales, and to be there kept to Hard Labour for the term of Fourteen Years. The documentary and other resources are sparse in matters dealing with slaves and apprenticed labourers. From the Slave Registry of several plantations, we can garner some minimal information that is tantamount to “name, rank, and serial number.” Damon, about twenty-eight years old, colored (mulatto?) is a domestic servant in the service of Charles Bean, plantation Richmond. He is a Creole, i.e. born in the colony. Frederick is listed among the 484 apprentices of the plantation and is a field worker. Fothergill, about twenty-six years old, is a skilled and able Cooper. “Born in Berbice,” there is nothing to tell how and when he ended up in Essequibo. The Slave Return of plantation Kendall, Berbice, dated December 29, 1817, lists a Fothergill, an eleven-year-old stockkeeper amongst the 181 slaves—men, women, and children. According to the Kendall records, he saw the light of day in the Mahaica river lands, east sea coast of Demerara. Bob, the oldest of the group, is about fifty-nine years old. Born in Africa, he is a field worker.



William, colored and a Creole, is about thirty-seven years old. Designated as an “engineer,” he is listed among the skilled tradesmen. It is abundantly clear that not much more will ever be known of these men but that they were born, they lived, and they died. Their lives and loves matter not! They are no different to the thousands (no, millions) who were caught up in the slave, and later, the apprenticeship maelstrom. “Yesterday, at noon, the Negro Damon, a leader in the riots at Essequibo, expiated his offences by an ignominious death upon the scaffold erected for the occasion in front of the New Public Building” the Royal Gazette reported, Tuesday, October 14, 1834. “The struggles of the unfortunate man, were neither violent nor of long duration, and when they had ceased, the thirty-two prisoners who had been sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and flogging, for the share they had in the Essequibo riots, (and who had, up to that time, been purposely kept in ignorance of their being pardoned) were addressed by the High Sheriff, and informed that mercy had been extended to them, and that they were free to depart to their respective estates.” The Essequibo Four (Fothergill, Frederick, Bob, and William) were imprisoned on the Justitia. This old Indiaman and the Consor, a frigate, were the first floating prisons established in England and were anchored in the Thames River, just rowing distance from Woolwich. When these men were not working in the Woolwich Warren, they were confined to their cells on the “mother ship.” Bob was soon relieved of that routine. He lasted just three months. The remaining three were lodged in the floating prison for about nine months, pardoned, and then shipped back to “Demerary.” Our prisoners would have fallen into the rigorous daily routine. Being roused at 5:30 a.m., they would have found the cooks already active in the galley. The warders would open the hatchways to reveal half-awake men in hammocks. Muster and breakfast takes place exactly at six o’clock—the men are all ranged at their tables with a tin cup full of cocoa with a piece of dry bread. After breakfast, they move single file to the gangway and into the waiting boats. The prisoners clamber up the docks and to the parade ground. A warder takes charge of a single work party until they are all dispersed. The decks of the ship would now be buzzing with activity as the various tradesmen left on board—tailors, cobblers, carpenters, even the solitary bookbinder—throw in their skills for the benefit of the this wretched hulk community. On board there



is a chapel and alongside a classroom and a library with an inventoried 1,099 volumes on the shelves. This researcher, bias and all, fantasizes that there was a volume among those offered titled, “Sancho’s Letters with Memoirs of his Life” by Joseph Jekyll, Esq. M.P. London. Printed for Wm Sancho. No. 20, Charles Street, Westminster. December 20, 1802. The fact that “our prisoners” would jointly and severally end up carrying the name Sancho indicates that they may have acquired some knowledge, even secondhand, about Ignatius Sancho, the African man of letters.



I.M. Phillipps, Esq Sir,

Downing Street. 13 June, 1835

With reference to Mr. Gladstone’s letter of the 6th January respecting the four convicts who have arrived in this country under sentence of Transportation from British Guiana, I am directed by Lord Glenelg to state to you for the information of Lord John Russell, that although it appears from the Report of the late Attorney Solicitor General, that there is no objection in point of law to the execution of these sentences, it yet appears to Lord Glenelg that there are sufficient reasons why the transportation should not be carried with effect; and I have therefore received his directions to request that you move Lord John Russell to take the necessary measures for procuring HMS free pardon for the convicts Frederick, Fothergill, William and Bob, or for such of them as may still be living. I have— (signed) Geo Gray

Geo Baillie, Esq Sir,

Downing Street, 17th, 1835

I am directed by Lord Glenelg to acquaint you that three convicts named Frederick, Fothergill and William who are at present at the Hulks at Woolwich under sentence of transportation from British Guiana will shortly receive HMS free pardon, and I am to desire that you would make the best and most economical arrangements in your power for procuring a passage for these persons to the colony. You will take the directions of the Secretary of State for the House Department the time and mode in which the convicts should be delivered at Woolwich into the charge of the Master of the vessel on which they will have to proceed to the colony.



Letter to Treasury Sir,

Admiralty, 15th September 1835

With reference to your letter of the 11th instant respecting the conveyance back to Demerara of the Negroes who have been sentenced to transportation but have since received HMS free pardon, I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to acquaint you for the information of Lord Glenelg, that on these Negroes being sent to Falmouth, Captain Clavell, the Superintendent of Packets there has been directed to order them passage in the Packet to Barbadoes to be delivered over to the Governor to be forwarded by him to Demerara and that no expense will be incurred except for their provisions.

The first entry in the home office (HO 8/42) recording the arrival into custody of the “Essequibo Four” on board the hulk Justitia .

Fothergill.A reproduction from archival materiel from the National Archives. Surrey. UK Ref: HO 8 Free pardon of Frederick. and William . Kew.

. Together We Achieve. sad songs. honor and justice always prevails We have heard of the sadness and tears We have heard of the despair and mourning We have heard of the tortures and untimely deaths We have also heard of their singing Mournful songs.130 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N “Poem” by Josephine Patterson-Smith We honor and revere our fore-parents For the atrocities they suffered And the individual martyrdoms that led to our freedoms We can only imagine the sense of purpose That created the determination and strength Enabling them to maintain that dignity and pride Inbred and accorded to a powerful people Plucked from an innocent and simple heritage To dwell in depravity and dishonor But truth. passion and strength and determination These were the tools that brought A simple but great people to their Freedom It is up to us therefore as the heirs of this great Sancho heritage To make a vow to establish a forum whereby our future generations Will be made aware of this great history and absorb the meaning OF FAMILY UNITY Thankfully received and initially inserted into the 11th Sancho Family Reunion Souvenir Booklet. happy songs But most of all we have heard of their pride Dignity. July 2009 Theme: Together We Aspire.

studied. Then there is the second Bentinck Sancho which would deal with things that we do know. It encompasses the “known unknowns. Relentless searches at the FRC (Family Records Center) in London have not produced any birth records for Bentinck. earlier parish records have divulged birth and baptismal records for the children of Ignatius Sancho. For the past seven or more years of unstinting research. which is translated into making all the Sanchos of British Guiana.A MAN CALLED BENTINCK This.” Quintessentially. Everything 131 . and analyzed them yet. Remember now. her pronouncements have left us with more questions than answers. is a reference to Bentinck Sancho. nor cousin Gwen Valentine. There are actually two Bentinck Sanchos! The first Bentinck Sancho is at the center and focus of what can be called the Sancho Folklore. Going even further back. This theory is further presented as a genealogical fact. This body of work would be expected to be historical but factual. they are from that age group. descendants of Ignatius Sancho through his three “grandsons. The answers are there. or had any knowledge of. nor our relative Ms. there are still loads of questions. At the same time. grandsons of the African “man of letters” Charles Ignatius Sancho of England.” Our dear cousin Muriel Sancho Ross has left us with the proposition that there were three brothers Sancho. Despite the stellar scholastic achievements of cousin Muriel and her love for this family. we are looking at a whole series of questions. It will be expected to be substantiated by records—both public and/or private. now Guyana. Neither her sibling. and John. the Ignatius Sancho fatherhood. dear Aunt Inez. and John. Riley could shed light upon. Even in this area of our endeavors. except that we have not located. Tuckness. we have been intrigued by the “Ignatius Sancho Factor.” Bentinck. Tuckness. the record of the marriage of Charles Ignatius Sancho to his beloved Ann Osborne is available. indeed.

of Sancho. and two lots not numbered but adjoining lots 77 and 78 on the north. Paul. Tuckness Sancho was awarded two lots: number 22 and 67 of the front portion. In 1848. Bentinck’s lots were number 7. Bentinck Sancho purchased the abandoned cotton plantation Nabacles in March 1850. Like most landholders. lots number 1. (Victoria had eight like voters. We are still to locate any arriving passengers with the name. when the Royal Gazette carried the names of the final batch of individual allocations of lots to the purchasers of Golden Grove. later to be officially called Golden Grove. Now for the second Bentinck Sancho. in the period of our interest would generally list the names of passengers. 68. the October 8 edition of the Royal Gazette lists Bentinck Sancho (number 270) as one of the few nonwhites—previously slave. These researchers have failed to unearth documentary evidence about the three “Sancho Brothers” to whom we have developed a sentimental attachment and affinity. Let’s indulge in the wildest speculation as to why these three young men would find someone else’s name and surname to be more attractive.) Together with Simon Hanover. In 1849. Perhaps we ought to move on today but firmly pledge to return to this matter. Bentinck spearheaded the purchase of plantation Williamsburg. What were the circumstances. together with Tuckness Sancho and forty-eight others.132 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N that we now know about Ignatius Sancho and his descendants flow from the work of a myriad of dedicated white researchers spanning scores and scores of years. he had land and a house at Paradise. 70.” John and Tuckness. In relation to the back portion. Mary and St. among them the Royal Gazette of British Guiana. and Nabacles zero. He is believed to have arrived on the east sea coast of Demerary about 1835. and 52 were transported . one of the original owners of the lots at Victoria. 15. trials. Notices of ship arrivals appearing in the newspapers. It must have been a glorious and fulfilling day. September 16. valued at $96 by the assessors. The criteria being that. 34. Equally of interest is the special bond that had existed between his two “traveling companions. like the others. Paradise three. all part of the front portion. Transports were already granted to one group in January and another in April of the said year. or surname. then apprentice—qualified to be on the voters list in the parishes of St. Golden Grove zero. and tribulations that had forged that bond? There must be some credence to the story that this “band of brothers” actually did carry different name(s) and surname(s) in an earlier life. From whence he came is still an open question. 1854. 11.

Asonsathahum (East Indian). Henry Smith. Bacchus (East Indian)—fine upstanding men of Enmore recruited and sworn in as rural constables by the colonial authorities. he could have found succor among those of “his station. Bentinck Sancho was elevated to the Jurors List of October 1855.—became traversable with time. 1857. while not being able to “rub shoulders” and never allowed into the same pews in the Anglican Church at Enmore. the Jurors List still carries Bentinck Sancho. Peter McClure. so they may have agreed amongst themselves that there were to be prior agreement and restrictions pertaining to the sale and transfers of their existing plots. owned by Henry Porter. and William in 1835.” His civic star was soaring as he came to be recognized as a leader of men on the east Demerara. Despite the “free pardon” granted by the Westminster government to Fothergill. now “freed men. as one of the limited number of former apprentices. Morrison Dick (Seaforth porter). Job Timmany. practice. Wellington Bager. and patience. Bentinck was sure to enjoy “hat tipping” privileges at least on Sundays. and John Thomas. Parkinsons. etc.” There were the likes of Francis Wright. owner of plantation Paradise where Sancho was a tenant. were indeed valuable resources at his (Sancho’s) disposal. Paul. because of his comparatively larger landholding. Here is the shocker. real or imagined. Bentinck was to transfer lots number 7 and 15 to Portuguese immigrant John De Freitas. Frederick. Additionally. but especially in the neighboring parishes of St. No doubt. by 1861 to 1862. Lena Hercules had earlier exercised her right and prerogative in transporting part (three rods by five rods) of her lot number 3 to immigrants Francisco De France and Francisco da Silva. His overall skills as a tradesman in the sugar factory at plantation Enmore. We are unable to locate any evidence that the early Golden Grove landowners did follow the example of their pioneering Victoria Village counterparts—nothing tells us. They may have been saved from being transported to Australia to serve their respective sentences. The social tightrope of how best to approach the mulattos—the Storeys. On the occasions when he would have been “put in his place” or had become the object of some sleight. half of lot number 2 and half of lot number 27 went to Tuckness Sancho. Two years later. sibling of Thomas Porter. October 1. but their records were not expunged in the eyes of the colonial planter administration.THE FOUR PILLARS 133 to Bentinck Sancho. a quite different interpretation was placed on that event by the colonial government once the prisoners were repatriated back to British Guiana. Mary and St. There lies the explanation as to why neither of . Shebby Barry. planter. We are here forced to take a rather speculative view.

During a particular troubled time.” They would have become respectful. His civic leadership was unsurpassed. malleable. they were under “serious manners. was tried. Porter. to turn out. Guyana. The village was so quiet on Tuesday night that Mr. the following report surfaced about him. he always maintained that close tie with Golden Grove where he held on to his property holdings. dependable. was pardoned and had made the return journey to Demerara. not to destroy. Their very existence and survival were completely in the hands of others—like my Jamaican brethren would aptly have phrased it. and John Sancho. “The village in which I reside was perfectly quiet. despite their exemplary lives as Bentinck Sancho. With his fellow freedom fighters. Perhaps the three never tried to find Damon’s grave.134 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N the three. The Portuguese shop was untouched and kept open during the whole excitement. convicted and was shipped across the Atlantic to spend almost a year confined on the hulks in the Thames. they had made a stand on the Essequibo coast for justice and self-respect. Tuckness Sancho. and have great pleasure in reporting that the 100 members we have here were all prepared and ready under the leader Mr. well known to the honorable Mr. Bentick Sancho who has considerable influence with the people of Victoria went with his minister to that village to aid him in allaying the excitement. and knew their places. Bentick Sancho. They knew what was expected of them and they did it! While Bentinck continued to live at plantation Paradise. but to protect the Portuguese shop had the rioters from the other villages attempted to come here on Monday night. was ever named as rural constables—they were still regarded as convicted felons! We must still wonder about this man Bentinck (Fothergill).” .

and it was recommended. John Thomas. hastened to record the names of the new arrivals in the register. wrote thus: 135 . 1842. or monthly work. Plantation Land of Plenty—20. make their own bargains for daily. William King & Samuel George. Plantation Greenfield—15. the Sanchos are entrenched at plantation Enmore. The proprietor of plantation Enmore. Peggy.AFTER THE SANCHOS CAME By 1841. William Thomas. William Coker. What with names like: The Pratt Family—Andrew. All situated on the East Sea Coast of Demerara. John Davis. John Williams. Plantation Le Resouvenir—15 Plantation Helena—20.” The Emigration Committee advised. They were to remain nonindentured. A mere 20 laborers went to the West Sea Coast of Demerara. Helena with 402 liberated Africans. Plantation Enmore got the leavening effect of new residents with two names instead of one. Thomas Coker. dated April 21. A dispatch from Governor Light to Lord Stanley. Andrew. the Superior arrived with some two hundred laborers. Plantation Annandale—20. that the Africans locate themselves on the following estates: Plantation Enmore—20. Samuel Hibbets. weekly. Plantation Dochfour—10. William and Leigh. Helena. Plantation Reliance—20 Plantation Hoffman—10. there would be the freedom to move on to “greener pastures. which included Enmore. Allocations were made to twenty plantations. informs of the arrival of the Lady Rowena from St. Elizabeth & Thomas. 1841. This was the year when there was a welcomed infusion of additional freedmen from Sierra Leone and St. Plantation Turkeyen—10. On May 24. Henry Porter. in journalizing his wide-roaming trip through Demerara in 1842. Mary. which was replenished by twenty more fresh laborers. After giving the estates a fair trial period. the Clarke Family—John. The governor of the colony. Plantation Aberdeen—10. Plantation Hatton Hall—10.

which could inject prejudices and possible skewing therein. . Enmore was allotted thirty-four out of the 439 men who arrived on the General Wyndham on May 13 from Hong Kong. There is a well-attended Church of England Chapel and a long-established School where nearly 100 laborers’ children are admitted to receive daily instruction.” In his report on allotments of immigrants for 1859. . Some of these reports are worth a review rather than attempting to compile narratives. It was never the “done thing” to place the colonial secretary in an embarrassing situation at question time before the houses of Parliament. Still. the colonial legislature. thus “By Attorney in the colony of Henry Porter. When the Ellenborough disgorged its 349 immigrants from Calcutta on June 13 of said year. It may not be here amiss to remark. There were reports on punishments. another thirty-four was added to Enmore’s . 1860. England. favor of the Lord Bishop of the Diocese. who in turn had to stay informed so as to be able to channel the best possible and relevant data to the British cabinet of the day.713. Mark’s Church is reported in the Royal Gazette of January 6. and even arrivals and departures into and out of the colony. Berbice had become united with Essequibo and Demerara.136 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N “After leaving Lowlands I proceeded on to Enmore where I found 2 allotments of Africans. he was expected to periodically get out of his office and look around the colony. they are earning the same wages as the other labourers of the Estate. . From the stipendiary special justices came epitomes of monthly reports on slaves soon to become apprenticed labourers. cultivating their provision grounds to the same extent and in point of personal appearance there is no distinction.” Governor Carmichael Smyth had to answer to a higher authority—the Colonial Office in London. statements of quantity of produce. which always sought to play a dominant role in the governance of the colony. 1844. . immigration agent-general James Crosby informs the general public through the Royal Gazette of January 7. Recorded by the colonial registrar dated December 16. Devon. the other from St Helena. as a proof of the comfortable pecuniary independence of the labourers. the first from Sierra Leone. a significant event as regards St. and his successors . The governor relied heavily upon his colonial civil servants. Then there was the Court of Policy. By now. that the grand total arriving for the year was 4. transport of the front lands of plantation Enmore . 1843.

and beyond.” compiled from the originals residing at the National Archives. East Coast Demerara. At least one such group arrived by ship from Baltimore. on the basis of the findings from the then available but limited archival documents. this collection comprises . China.S. Kew. It is worth noting that only ten were allotted (to Vryheid’s Lust). we find the example of the parents of Daniel Thomas Adolphus Jones. Just being able. spread over the entire year. During 1840 to 1841. and everywhere else. and children. The overwhelming cases of this phenomenon became a proliferation with the arrival of liberated Africans and the indentured from Sierra Leone primarily in the 1840s.900 laborers to be apportioned among members of the society who by this time had extended its reach to the U. The ex-slave. The greatest eye-opener now comes from the more recently available “Colonial Dependencies Slave Register Collection. England. A Voluntary Subscription Immigration Society saw life through the efforts of the planters. to draw conclusions about the Sanchos of Enmore and Paradise was too good to be true—too easy and comfortable. None was allotted to Enmore out of the 588 who had arrived on twelve separate vessels.” Also. The planters were constantly changing and adopting new and different strategies to meet the perpetual shortages of labor they faced after emancipation. Barbados was the main target and yielded some 2. Reportedly. With emancipation. the other 578 remained “not allotted. There is a universal thinking that the surnames that is carried by ex-slaves must have originated from the owner/planter of individual estates. At every turn the planter would brazenly manipulate and raid the colonial treasury in order to recruit bodies from at first Portugal and the islands of the West Indies. the gravitation from a single name to having a surname tagged on was a slow and gradual process. Indentured from Africa to plantation Hope. For one to be able to carry the owner’s surname was indeed a privilege that was selectively bestowed. each of the twelve groups from Madeira was comprised of men. and ultimately the apprenticed laborer. The grand total of immigrants as reported by the agent-general does not include any liberated Africans. 1812-1834. Closer to home. 1850s. from Madeira. were determined to be fairly compensated for the work they were expected to perform. noted press representative of the Daily Chronicle from about 1881. Thomas and Juliet were allowed to take the name of the proprietor. More than five thousand recruits would arrive in the colony of British Guiana from the islands between 1835 and 1838.THE FOUR PILLARS 137 muster. women. Later the sources would become India.

attorney Lusignan Lowlands John Jones. Mackay. along with the plantations to which they were sent.” The Demerara distribution came out thus: Plantation Owner/Agent Plantation Owner/Agent Thomas Porter Thomas Porter David Baillee Spencer Mackay R. esq James Glen Cummings Lodge Abraham Garnett. Berbice 35. 1842. Kilgore La Bonne Mere R.7 million slaves spread among 280. Governor Light’s dispatch to Lord Stanley. “The Africans arrived in good health and spirits and were consigned to 20 estates in Essequibo and Demerara whose owners or attorneys have repudiated the ‘rules and regulations’ in squads of 20 each. Esq Le Resouvenir Paradise Thomas Porter Enmore Non Pariel James Kirkwood Baillee’s Hope & J. Research to this point gives their name (and surnames).000 slave owners. The twenty from the Lady Rowena have not been ascertained. dated April 21. Bahamas 25. Dominica 1. . Esq. Retemeyer. the Lady Rowena arrived in Demerara. Jamaica 398. French. St Vincent 44. British Guiana. Grenada 44. While there are more than 720 slaves with the name Sancho. the narrower breakdown for the West Indies are as follows: Antigua 23. classed according to family or other ties. Their names can now be identified. St Christopher 35. esq Greenfield Herstelling Heemakuk. we know that 260 of those Africans stayed in Demerara. and where the existence of proper accommodation has been certified by the stipendiary magistrates of the districts. of Amsterdam. From Governor Light’s minute.” Light went further by also including a copy of his minute to the agent-general as to the most advantageous allocation of the “captured Africans.138 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N the registers of some twenty-three colonies and dependencies and contains the names of more than 2. After its twenty-seven days voyage from St. Tobago 39. Helena. Barbados 62. attorney The allocation of liberated Africans from the Superior in May 1841 sent twenty newcomers to Enmore. is assuring. with 402 liberated Africans on board. atty La Jalousie Blankenburg R. Rudder. The other 142 were sent to seven Essequibo plantations.

. and ten servants. Sarah Porter. lately the property of Henry Forte of Barbados. To his Sister Eliza Harris Porter—an Annuity of Five hundred (500) pounds sterling.. By the 1861 census. The spacious secluded location is called Winslade. is included as a visitor (no doubt from Paradise. and buildings of every description with appurtenances . . Out of his undivided half of Manor Lands. Thomas Porter. together with all and every Negro slave. his brother. 9. plantations and lands in the colony of Demerara and Tobago . British Guiana).THE FOUR PILLARS 139 Proven in London. Henry is absent and Rose Aylmer Porter is enumerated as the “head of household.. Henry Porter.” There are now a total of twenty-two individuals with twelve being servants. clarifies the extent of the Porter family estate. one niece. son of Thomas Porter Sr. subject to the payment of my debts. his heirs and assigns . would be allocated a three-hundred-pound ring. Adventure. Devon. . . Thomas Porter. Hope. brother of both Henry Porter and Thomas Porter Jr. With two daughters . . The 1871 household is still headed by Rose Aylmer Porter. Demerara-born Henry Porter and Calcutta-born Rose Aylmer Porter. Somerset. Mary. stock. “ .000 pounds. and his brother Thomas Porter 1. To his brother. all of his one-third part or share of estate and plantations in the Island of Tobago. the will of William Porter. four daughters. North Bloody Bay. Good Faith. Additionally. edifices. .” The British census of 1851 (HO 107/1866) lists the Henry Porter family as residing in the Parish of Clyst St. my estates.” A codicil dated 1820 gives “unto my Brother. 1821. . for the use and benefit of my Brother Henry. landed proprietor also born in Demerara. formerly Parrywood. To his Sister Christiana Porter—an Annuity of Five hundred (500) pounds sterling. all of his undivided third. In summary He leaves:To his Sister Sarah Porter—an Annuity of Five hundred (500) pounds sterling. and Enmore—also. gentlewoman with annuity. his wife. Devon. There has been a retreat from the ostentatious Winslade to the parish of Dawlish. or part or share in all these estates and plantations—Paradise.000 pounds. . his good friend Spencer Mackay and Joseph Jeffery were to head a trust from which his mother. is the head of household with four sons.

St. Spinster daughter Caroline Porter is making the last stand as head of household at Exeter. . They are getting by handsomely with six servants. there is apparently room for four visitors (boarders?). Leonard. in Devon with her sister Katherine (Porter) Russell and two servants.140 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N still on board.

sales. made by the attorneys on behalf of the owners of Golden Grove. Additionally. was proved in London in January 1828. Golden Grove escaped relatively unscathed from the 1823 Slave Uprising while under the management of G. Those who swore include Joseph Mays. and David Baillie. engendered by the Acts on Abolition. slaves. the Bristol powerhouse. By 1832. owners of plantations were required to maintain adequate records and report to the colonial government on their slave holdings. Gainsport. with some five codicils added over the years. we would have to return to him later. While the familial relation of James Evan Baillie. manumissions.A SHORT HISTORY OF GOLDEN GROVE. and political “kingmaker. Other lands. was specifically composed or compiled primarily with the slave or apprenticed laborer as the focus. there were interests in plantations and estates lying and being in the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. and Non Pariel. live and dead stocks were all part of the personal property included in the total estate. 141 . resident planter of the colony and hailing from the English county of Middlesex.” has not been clearly established. were for 285 slaves (136 males and 149 females). and the like. ECD Once again we are forced to tell the story of the slave owners in order to give the slave some semblance of exposure. To the extent that records were kept that actually reflected plantation life and living. Adjustments were then made annually to reflect additions by births and purchases with deductions for deaths. Golden Grove. Unlike her neighbor Nabaclis. Not a written note. the Claim for Compensation for Slaves. James Evan Baillie. The 1813 last will and testament of James Baillie. By 1828. son. all pervading intent was to quantify and account for the personal estate of the owner: the chattels and appurtenances which would include the slaves in the mix. not a single record. power broker. There have been instances where the size and the value of the slave population of a particular plantation may turn out to be the largest and predominant proportion of total value. These three were also executors of the said will that gave and bequeathed three plantations in Demerary: (Baillie’s) Hope. G.

in and to the double depth of said estate already granted or hereby to be granted—to and in favor of Charles William Cleeve. the ground breakers. now called and known as plantation Golden Grove. Not only were they compensated handsomely for their slaves. heading a household of seventeen that included four teenage sons and twelve servants. the founding fathers of Golden Grove. informed the populace thus: By Robert Straker Turton. the retreat of the planters back to England and Scotland had been accelerating. deceased. transport of the plantation Williamsburg cum annexis. to and in favour of James Forbes. Like so many of the slave-owning landowners. title. through the columns of the Royal Gazette April 20. For whatever reasons.” Thus ended the connection between the Baillie family and Golden Grove. 100 roods of façade by 750 roods in depth. The viability and economic sustainability of these fragmented plots in the hands of the new owners were in doubt from the beginning. now called Golden Grove. Kent. David Baillie soon retreated to a life of comfort at Hill Park. together with all the right.142 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N The following appeared in the Royal Gazette in March 1845: “By the Attorney in the Colony for David Baillie of London. the list was whittled down to just forty-eight names of the pioneers. The sale of abandoned and the least productive of land holdings to the freed slaves were becoming more prevalent. 1848. Westerham. a pastor of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. situated on the west sea coast of Mahaica. between plantation Haslington and Nabacles. cum annexis. once known as Williamsburg. The Colonial Registrar’s Office. transport of the plantation Williamsburg. The land had originally come under the control of the senior Baillie through a grant from the colonial government. east sea coast of the county of Demerary. and interest of the said Robert Straker Turton. one hundred roods façade by seven hundred and fifty roods in depth. would be the facilitator in the effective transporting of the titles to the fifty-five or more individual owners. emancipation presented the Baillie family with a windfall. heir to the estate of James Baillie. they proceeded to sell the land on which the plantation stood. Apropos. the reverend Charles William Cleeve. The number of absentee plantation owners continued to grow in deference to resident managers and the beginning of more corporate ownership. our ancestral lands. The 1851 England Census lists him as a sixty-four-year-old landed proprietor. lying between plantations Haslington and Nabaclis. The inability and unwillingness of plot holders to fully meet their responsibilities . During and following the emancipation of the slaves.

Franklin David Collins Edward Kingston William Hope Jacob Clarke Billy Billison Est. of Duke Cato Baptise Timmany . McKinney Est Anthony Assanah Robertson Jack Samuel Dick Lammy Sancho Est. The largest ever list of defaulters was given notices of execution sales to cure the existing delinquencies. of Isaac Sarrabo Simon R. Simon Lucrecia Morrison Ophelia Chester Beckles Graham Sampson Collins Trim Summer Jack D. of B.THE FOUR PILLARS 143 would present endless problems culminated in a crises in 1886. Included were Samuel Sambo Sophia Portsmouth Simon Morrison James Roderick Clarence Bacchus Est.

Williamsburg became Golden Grove on May 5. It showcased the richness of talent in the community and ended on May 30. Melbourne. Fernandes. Its sister village is Nabaclis. Eusi Kwayana. Kendall. health and environment day. the former cotton plantation Williamsburg. H. C. Golden Grove Village on the east coast of Demerara was commencing its 150th anniversary observances with a thanksgiving sunrise service at the church. 144 . and T. T. A physical and spiritual landmark in the community. youth symposium. Fraser. community concert. R. got and are yet getting their early education. John. S. by Emerson Samuels. M. P. Veteran village father. “Bush tea” and other refreshments were served after the service. L. and fifty-five others.GOLDEN GROVE RECOLLECTIONS by Lennox Lancaster The Golden Grove Methodist Church bell sounded early in the morning of Tuesday. a community service day. the Methodist church stands just next to the Golden Grove Primary School where many persons. Well-known past members of the Village Council were H. Sarabo. A. The 150th anniversary activities included sports. including Justice Donald Trotman. Jeune. Trotman. by former slaves Sancho. a senior citizens morning. Simon. 1848. May 15. 1848. and a family fun-day among others. community projects. Groups from Victoria and Buxton went to show solidarity. was bought on January 5. On the evening of Saturday. An arts and crafts competition was declared open on Friday. Hughes. Benn. a man of Golden Grove-Nabaclis vintage. 1998. education day. McDonald. A. there was a torchlight parade through the streets of Golden Grove-Nabaclis. urged residents to make efforts to ensure that village renewal succeeds. Persaud. A. Golden Grove. AA. According to the tradition. A. D. May 5. about twenty kilometers east of Georgetown. they had pooled their resources in gold coins to purchase the plantation from its owner. May 9.

Parkee. Present chairman of the Grove-Haslington Democratic Council Godfrey Henry was a serious policeman in his days. entrepreneurs. Dolphus Hoyte. Names such as Hydar Ali. and Rialto. The police station at Cove and John helped maintain law and order. whose father. Merle Douglas. and grandfather. “Uncle Yolande” Sandy were popular village musicians. were both Golden Grove Methodist schoolmasters. Local boy Remil English finished the grueling seventy-nine-mile cycle road race which was won by Englishman Eric Thompson in the early 1960s. St. Oselmo Gardner. Machado. In the field of sports. Mundel. and others were good players like Godyn Smith and Kelly Benjamin were national middle-distance runners. Scratch Am. McLean Roberts. Joy Cole. John John and others were successful pig rearers and coconut oil manufacturers. recalls that grandfather Trotman used to go off early in the morning to the back dam and return in time to go to work at school. and Soloman. Kitts. Rampersaud. Casareep and cassava bread were in abundance. fisherman. Trotman. Trotman. De Castro. Eldon Woolford. Ossie Vados. Donald Jakman. It has had its share of farmers. A. Trotman Sr. Ivan Haggeday known as Money Rackee. A.THE FOUR PILLARS 145 Golden Grove-Nabaclis has a rich and progressive history. Lil Bud Williams. “Uncle Joe” Williams had a lemonade factory when a large lemonade cost a penny and small lemonade was sold for a cent. artisans. Rackler. Bunny Elphage. Reverend Brother Andrews was a respected “man of the cloth” in the spiritual life of the area. Boogie De Frietas. Mayjean Bobb. . there was a time when Golden Grove had about five cricket clubs with names such as All Stars. Glamorgan. DeSantos. DeSilva. Scouting also had its place in the community under the leadership of scoutmasters Harper. D. A. and hardworking people. The Boys Brigade was there also. Woolford. and Cleothild Roberts were good sprinters. Curly Harry. Nabaclis boy Kenny Bristol was a world-rated Commonwealth boxing champion. Justice D. J. Tommy Harry. Aunt Jo and Merle were businesswomen who were just as able as their male counterparts.. and others on many a Sunday afternoon at the playground. and Collins have been well-known business names in the area. James Hoyte. Williams. People were studious and industrious at Golden Grove. Golden Grove hosted such national racing cyclists as George “Boy Blue” Cumberbatch.

Golden Grove-Nabaclis. and a few faithists “white clothes” groups Singer. Stanley Solomon. and poets. and Rev. which once had a cinema.146 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Teachers played an important role in the life of the community. Sasie Benn. and now permanent secretary in the Ministry of Sport and Culture. . Ismay Wilson. Wesleyan. “Leleh” De Souza. have been produced by this community. and two famous dance halls. Sidnauth Singh. the National. The churches are Methodist. the gravedigger.” “Uncle” Gussie Franklyn. Assemblies of God. “Teacher” Bernard De Souza. Donald Paris. Trotman. So were “Passah. Lieutenant colonel. Cyril Solomon. Joe Hughes. Baptist. and Prince “Mexie” Peters. the man known for his “big words. now has a number of Christian churches and a Muslim Masjid. Compton English. and Uncle Bertie Charles. P. Roy Ward. expressed the hope that the 150th anniversary celebrations will stimulate the community to recapture some of the glory which it had in the past. and Teacher Barnwell. including D. Oswald Bland. Barton Scotland. Mimmy Morrison. writers. Lily Ramotar. Ismay Baird. A. Dr. Committee member Neville Ward said he sensed that the celebrations had raised enthusiasm and morale among residents. artists. Melbourne and his wife Stella Melbourne. Seventh Day Adventist.” were interesting community characters. all of whom were members of the 4H Club run by C. Keith Booker MS. Some well-known teachers were Teacher Maudie Jenkins. Lam’s and Chester’s. Distinguished residents include Dr.

critical. It is still a matter of doubt. and in-depth research in order to establish reliable timelines within which meaningful and relevant facts can be confidently slotted. prolonged. 1948. visitors. locals and invitees. While celebrating the 150th birthday of our village. including the colonial governor. The history of Golden Grove (and Nabaclis) has still not been satisfactorily told. Some 164 years after emancipation and some thirty-two years after becoming an independent country. a large gathering of inhabitants. were somewhat dampened and low-key when compared to that of May 5. 1834.” Then again. or 147 . Bits and pieces handed down from generation to generation could never get the job done. bring out the best in the Guyanese populace by way of pomp and pageantry. congratulatory speeches were delivered by dignitaries. In the morning. even to this day. True. It is as if we are trying to sing our songs in a strange land in spite of our more than two-hundred-year presence in Guyana. is obviously a necessary exercise. was universal and jubilantly infectious. The celebrations of May 5. 1948. The colonial masters have always been able to. it seems. it was colonial times and it was also just three years after the end of World War II. and well-wishers from neighboring communities were assembled in the Methodist Church where an impressive service was held and a fitting sermon was preached. It needs substantive. the date of the passage of the Act by the British Parliament. 1848. there are political and economic realities to be faced. some deep contemplation of what transpired also on the 100th milestone on May 5. Other fun activities were indulged in throughout the rest of the day. 1998. Musical renderings were offered by the militia band. whether August 1. The pride emanating from the villagers. we do know how to party but not how to celebrate with conviction.ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY SHORT YEARS! One is forced to look back to the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the village of Golden Grove (formerly plantation Williamsburg) by a group of ex-slaves and indentured labourers around May 5. We seem to choke and are unable to sing lustily that “this land is my land too. but more so from those who could authentically trace their lineage back to the fifty pioneers (the village fathers).

now called Golden Grove. Citing sources. John Pollard. the list of legitimate and bona fide owners. should be regarded as Emancipation Day. 1838. In 1828. had grown to some fifty-nine proud landowners. 1948. the date of implementation of the law. was just a new beginning for the village of Golden Grove. deceased. By the time the individual allocations of parcels manifested into “transports” or title. between plantations Haslington and Nabacles. 100 roods façade by 750 roods in depth. L. he presented a complete list of the names of the original purchasers of the village of Golden Grove. or hereafter to be granted. Emilia Viotti daCosta in her much-heralded Crowns of Glory. heir to the estate of Joseph Baillie. in and to the double depth of said estate already granted. May 5. states: “By Robert Straker Turton. etc.” Still another issue of the Royal Gazette. 1848. a descendant of one of the founding fathers and also a retired overseer of the twin villages. situate on the west sea coast of Mahaica. together with all the right. James Baillie bequeathed Golden Grove to his son David Baillie. located between plantations Haslington and Nabaclis. to and in favor of Charles William Cleeve. John is rather obscure. Much to his credit.148 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N the August 1. Sarrabo. east sea coast of the country of Demerary. Who are the “55 others”? During the centennial celebrations of May 5. To date. . to and in favor of James Forbes. In May 1832. attorney for David Baillie. Kendall. research has turned up some indications of previous ownership of Golden Grove (formerly called Williamsburg) but nothing to determine the possible date(s) of the change in name. Tears of Blood. together with plantations Hope and Non Pariel. played a prominent role. The following appears in the Royal Gazette in March 1845: “By the Attorney in the Colony. were destined to become synonymous with the future and fortunes of the village. title and interest of the said Robert Straker Turton. taking into consideration additions and deletions from the original list. Sarrabo. filed claim number 1137 with the Office of Commissioners of Compensation for 285 slaves (136 males and 149 females) domiciled at Golden Grove. transport of the plantation Williamsburg cum annexis. three years later in April. The names Sancho. reports on events as taking place at Golden Grove during the Demerara Slave Rebellion of 1823. totaling just forty-eight. of David Baillie of London. 100 roods of façade by 750 roods in depth now called and known as plantation Golden Grove.” There is some inference that Williamsburg and Golden Grove were continually used interchangeably with the former name still enshrined in official documents reminiscent of the Dutch colonial presence. transport of the plantation Williamsburg. D. cum annexis.

Leah Giles. seventy-two (72). for and on behalf of the Wesleyan Missionary Committee in England.” They just did not do the right thing. George Jack. these two villages soon morphed into a Siamese-twin existence—a socio-political fusion and civic joining of hip bones. The village of Victoria had years ago shown the way by erecting a memorial that paid tribute and included all seventy-three names of their original proprietors. and Persaud. these patriots—the first of our village fathers to demonstrate the meaning of civic pride—did not receive title to their individual lots until some six years later in 1854. Wesleyan Minister. Benjamin Solomon. Benn. It was inevitable. To have our forty-eight pioneers chiseled on a stone the same size as theirs would have caused each individual name to stand out the more! Even though Golden Grove and Nabaclis were birthed separately and have a parallel history. James Smith. Fraser. Sam Sarrabo. now absent. John Summer. Grenville Green. and historically appropriate. Two years later. There were never forty-eight streets to go around! One is left to wonder. that the Wesleyan Church would play such an important part in the centenary celebrations for the village of Golden Grove in 1948. A great opportunity was missed to honor the most deserving. Trotman. McDonald.THE FOUR PILLARS 149 Charles William Cleeve was a clergyman of the Wesleyan Methodist Church who was acting on the behalf of the original purchasers of Golden Grove in 1848. In the prime of their lives. James Simon. in favour of the Rev James Bickford. 1850. fifty-nine (59). were the following: Diamond Chester. of the entire village. and George Timmany. It would be erroneous to assume that the ownership of these plots would have been forfeited. Charles Christmas. Quammy David. with the buildings thereon. chose to enshrine their names on the face of that memorial surnames of virtual newcomers: Hughes. Names from the 1848 list. Sambo Sumner.” For reasons not yet made clear by ongoing research. Rather. The then members of the village council. Prince Grant. they seemed to be in a hurry to be immortalized—a diabolical selfish act of civic “whorishness. the church in Golden Grove became the recipient by way of free and clear title of lots previously earmarked by the new proprietors: “Lots five (5). True. and no doubt in the best interests. The churchyard became the repository of the memorial designed to mark the occasion. streets were named after some of the original purchasers. Blackwell Simon. Frederick Hope. Fernandes. on April 18. Whatever . Melbourne. what were these men thinking? or maybe they did not even think at all. Jeune. their estates would have inherited the same title being granted to their heirs. acting on behalf.

Ten Days in August. Using Nabaclis as his address. Thomas Daniel of the city of Bristol and John Daniel of London. wife of Francis Alexander Walrond. The official trials of “the slaves” had already started in Georgetown on the twenty-fifth. the labor force of Nabaclis managed to produce 44. carrying on business as merchants and copartners for Thomas Daniel & Sons. By 1840. Any other produce would inevitably have been for the subsistence of the inhabitants of that plantation destined to face some future hard times. “Whereas I am seized in fee simple and possessed of and in one fourth part of a certain plantation called Nabaclis situate on the east coast of the said colony of Demerara and also of and one fourth of the slaves and appurtenances there belonging . is drawn upon. but summary executions on the plantations continued for several days. a significant amount of the slaves was removed from Nabaclis to Dochfour by John Reed. Strong later moved on to wield his influence and connections in things more temporal and to the benefit of himself and his family. The prisoners were shot and then decapitated by Joseph. Dochfour—was part owner of Nabaclis.150 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N would hail the one puts the other to bed! Unashamedly. sealed. Their heads were affixed to poles on the road in front of the estate. 1824. Rev. 1834. the fortune of the plantation was not so promising and was being offered for sale or rental as pasturage. Booker was to travel to his native England and on his return to lay the foundation of that massive industrial and commercial empire that was to influence the development of British Guiana for the next hundred years and beyond. With a slave population of 287. the same detachment that had been executing slaves on other estates arrested Caleb and Sloane. . transported the abandoned plantation Nabaclis to the pioneering. The Reed family. .700 pounds of cotton in 1814. It was here that some of the most unforgettable atrocities of the 1823 Demerara Slave Rebellion took place. head driver of the plantation (who had also been arrested). signed. Mary’s Parish. one for the murder of an overseer and the other for the “maltreatment” of Mary Walrond. 1827. With the wave of land sale to former slaves and indentured laborers.” was written on the will and testament of Richard Reed. and published in and from the safety of Barbados. . the work of Tommy Payne. with interests in other plantations in Demerara—Danzig. then manager of plantation Broomhall. part owner of Nabaclis. At Nabaclis. Leonard Strong. dated May 3. was to pen a notably powerful testimonial on behalf of Josias Booker. Shortly before the events of 1823. officiating minister of St.

The Central Board of Villages continued to exercise authority over these eighteen villages while about two hundred local authorities were overseen by the Central Board of Health upon which the planters were represented by an inspector of villages. Division into lots would follow over a protracted period reflecting the path already followed by sister-village Golden Grove. the villages were not qualified to deal with these matters in an effective and efficient manner. the emphasis was placed on rural sanitation and public health. the trailblazing Victoria. that of 1873. provided for the administration of some eighteen villages which had been partitioned. Seemingly. and the others who would comprise the overall local authority under the Village Ordinance of 1892. a central board of health was instituted. The very first Village Ordinance appeared in 1866. 1850. By 1878. March 2. . in the form of a Central Board of Villages. with power to bring settlements under its authority and to exercise the rights to levy taxes.THE FOUR PILLARS 151 forward-looking duo of Bentinck Sancho of plantation Paradise and Simon Hanover of Victoria. The next ordinance.

The renaming of these lands had been already done by the previous owner(s) who chose Golden Grove. The one exception was the lots allocated gratuitously by the new proprietors. had just as remarkable a history. 1848. Below left: Installed to commemorate the lives and the sacrifices of the original purchasers of Golden Grove in 1848. While the business transactions—recognition of the boundaries.RIGHT: Erected on the grounds of the Golden Grove Methodist Church. BELOW: Nabaclis. This memorial stone was erected to mark the 150th anniversary of the purchase of these lands under different circumstances. by Bentinck Sancho and Simon Hanover. and the exchange of money—took place on May 3. as early as was convenient. it would be acquired from the Bristol partnership of Thomas Daniel & Sons. to the Methodist body for the building of their church. signing of papers. absentee landlords. regarded as pasture. A long-abandoned cotton and coffee plantation. this memorial commemorates the passing of the 100th year of the purchase of the lands of the plantation originally called Williamsburg by ex-slaves and apprentices. the first transport (title) was not granted until January 1854. . the sister village of Golden Grove. No such ceremonial and distinguishable activities marked her centennial.

a few deaths had caused the removal of names from the original list. Whatever the reason(s) for the omission. By the time individual titles were granted in 1854. the financial commitments were not met. May 7. title would have been granted to the estate or next of kin wherever it was warranted. . New and replacement names were thus added as is reflected by the 1854 list of lots allocated. In still a few other cases. cited the presentation of Leopold Sarrabo that included the list of names. *These names are absent from the 1854 list. 1948. reporting on the Centennial Celebrations.THE FOUR PILLARS 153 Golden Grove (Formerly Williamsburg) Names of Original Proprietors—1848 Prince ASAN Joseph BEARD Billy BILLIESON Duke CATO Diamond CHESTER Rowland CHESTER Charles CHRISTMAS* Sampson COLLINS Ben CONWRIGHT Philip DANIEL Sophy DAVID Quammy DAVID* Sam DICK Robert EUROPE Billy GEORGE Leah GILES Prince GRANT* Grenville GREEN Douglas HECTOR Lina HERCULES Frederick HOPE* Filbert HORATIO George JACK* Cheesewright JOSIAH Andrew LEXEY Quashey LUKE Margaret MCARTHUR Bristol NEWPORT Jack NEWPORT Luke PHILIP Jupiter QUASHY Sam RICHARD Wellington ROGERS Bentinck SANCHO Tuckness SANCHO Sam SARRABO* Frank SEAFORTH Blackwell SIMON* James SIMON* James SMITH Stewart SMITH Benjamin SOLOMON* Gotina STOUT John SUMNER* Sambo SUMNER* George TIMMANY* Job TIMMANY Daniel VIRGIL SOURCE: Daily Argosy.

1854 NAME (Official Record) FRONTPORTION Lot # Lot # (1/2)60 75. (1/2)20 12. (1/2)40 13. 95. (1/2)77 (1/2)61 East West East East East West West East West West West East East West West East East East BACKPORTION Lot # (1/4)6 (1/2)10 (1/4)21 (1/4)23 (1/2)19 (1/2)3 (1/4)16 (1/2)7 (1/4)8 (1/2)10 (1/4)15 (1/2)14 (1/4)23 (1/2)4 (1/2)25 (1/2)22 (1/2)5 (1/2)3 (1/2)5 (1/4)8 (1/4)6 (1/4)13 (1/2)19 (1/4)15 (1/4)13 West East West West West East East West East East East West West East East West West West Lot # (1/4)30 (1/2)36 (1/4)47 (1/4)48 (1/2)45 (1/2)28 (1/4)42 (1/2)31 (1/4)33 (1/2)36 (1/4)41 (1/2)40 (1/4)48 (1/2)29 (1/2)51 (1/2)50 (1/2)32 (1/2)28 (1/2)32 (1/4)33 (1/4)30 (1/4)39 (1/2)45 (1/4)41 (1/4)39 Prince ASANNAH Joseph BEARD Billy BILLIESON Duke CATO Diamond CHESTER Rowland CHESTER Charles CHRISTMAS Sampson COLLINS Ben CONWRIGHT Philip DANIEL Sophy DAVID Quamy DAVID Sam DICK Robert EUROPE Billy GEORGE Leah GILES Prince GRANT Grenville GREEN Douglas HECTOR Lena HERCULES Frederick HOPE Filbert HORATIO George JACK Cheesewright JOSIAH Andrew LEXEY Quashey LUKE Margaret MCARTHUR Bristol NEWPORT Jack NEWPORT Luke PHILIP (1/2)23 34.154 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N GOLDEN GROVE (Formerly PLANTAION WILLIAMSBURG) ALLOCATION OF LOTS—Royal Gazettes. 66. 8. 9. 63. 56. 55. 96. 16. 3. (1/2)94 78. (1/2)32 (1/2)18 . (1/2)90 57. (1/2)77 103. (1/2)52 (1/2)48 43. (1/2)85 (1/2)93 82. 50. (1/2)30 (1/2)23 (1/2)6 19. (1/2)65 (1/2)60 (1/2)58 74. (1/2)32 25. (1/2)88 53. 51. (1/2)31 10.

(1/2)62 (1/2)92 (1/2)92 (1/2)101 (1/2)62 69. (1/2)28 (1/2)26 (1/2)40 (1/2)20 (1/2)30 (1/2)26 81. 70. (1/2)58 (1/2)85 (1/2)93 86. 44. 1854 NAME (Official Record) Jupiter QUASHY Sammy RICHARD Bentinck SANCHO Tuckness SANCHO Sam Sarabo Frank Seaforth Blackwell SIMON James SIMON James SMITH Stewart SMITH Benjamin SOLOMON Gotina STOUT John SUMNER Sambo SUMNER George TIMMANY Job TIMMANY Daniel VIRGIL Harry BACCHUS Peggy C. (1/2)90 7. 1850 5. (1/2)101 (1/2)99 (1/2)88 (1/2)94 (1/2065 (1/2)99 East (1/2)7 (1/4)13 (1/4)21 (1/4)23 (1/2)12 (1/4)20 (1/4)14 (1/4)14 (1/4)16 (1/4)20 (1/2)27 (1/4)16 (1/4)11 (1/4)23 (1/4)8 (1/4)8 (1/4)11 West (1/2)31 (1/4)39 (1/4)47 (1/4)48 (1/2)33 (1/4)46 (1/4)40 (1/4)40 (1/4)42 (1/4)46 (1/2)2 (1/4)42 (1/4)37 (1/4)48 (1/4)33 (1/4)33 (1/4)37 West West ??? East West East West East West East METHODIST CHURCH On the 4th May. (1/2)41 (1/2)29 (1/2)29 (1/2)28 (1/2)41 21. 67.— (1/2)27 (1/4)37 34. (1/2)6 (1/2)52 (1/2)48 35. (1/2)31 Lot # 87. East (1/2)71 East BACKPORTION Lot # (1/2)9 (1/4)16 1. 73. 59 & 72 . (1/2)18 54.THE FOUR PILLARS 155 ALLOCATION OF LOTS—Royal Gazettes. widow Mary Ann STAFFORD Anthony THOMAS & & Betsey THOMAS. 11. Gilbert DANIEL Nelly DIAMOND Beccles GRAHAM Edward KINGSTON Laughlin MCKENNY Antoinette MUNRO Gooding PORTER Rodney RALPH Wellington ROGERS Molly SAM. widow William WHITLOCK FRONTPORTION Lot # 2. (1/2)61 East East East (1/2)4 (1/2(20 (1/4)13 West West West (1/2)29 (1/2)46 (1/4)39 17. (1/2)2 (1/4)11 Lot # (1/2)35 (1/4)42 52. 15. West West 22. 68. (1/2)42 14.

—Leopold Sarrabo. SYDNEY Sway SYDNEY Arnold THOMAS Augustus TONEY Lionel WATERMAN George WILSON Of this number. Lionel Waterman. Jimmy Hercules and Arnold Thomas. made the supreme sacrifice. five of them.156 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N GOLDEN GROVE-NABACLIS WW II VETERANS FOR KING Bertie Alexander William DeAbreu Victor Douglas Thomas Eversley AND COUNTRY: Oswald Hodge Harold Johnson Eustace Lewis Fitzroy Sumner LEST WE FORGET! Siegfred Wilson GOLDEN GROVE-NABACLIS WW I VETERANS Samuel CHALRES John DeSOUZA Thomas EVERSLEY Willie FRANKLIN Jephtah GLASGOW John GRAHAM Matthias HARDING Jimmy HERCULES Tommy KENDALL Thomas LEWIS Iris LOPES Joseph LOPES Arthur POMPEY Arthur RODNEY Reggie RODNEY B. Corporal Arthur Pompey. historian . Privates Matthias Harding.

Br West Indies Regiment: Corporal John Graham and Private Arthur Pompey of Golden Grove.THE FOUR PILLARS 157 Records of two awardees of the Victory Medal. ECD WW I. 1914-1918 .

What glorious days were to lie ahead as families would be reunited as soldiers and military personnel. Then there is the matter of those who may volunteer to right these wrongs and find that unknowingly they may have accidentally distorted history. there was joy and celebration throughout the colony.—Anon. is we see a half-baked commemoration and salute to our WWI veterans in the form of reading their names out aloud while our WWII veterans are completely overlooked. and hamlets. apprentices. The public road was lined to several depths with everyone seemingly in a frolicking mood. as well as in other colonies. Recent research has brought out this one example. and indentured laborers. those close to him called him Kiddie. The soldiering experiences had made him into a man—Private Bertie Alexander. affection. some who left home as mere boys. Small and diminutive as he was. What stands out. were in for the largest parade that could be mustered! It would seem like every last person came out that day. counties. the entire British Commonwealth. Wish that it could be discerned that the way a society treats those that have sacrificed on its behalf definitely affects the level and enhancement of its civic pride. to our perpetual shame. he was singled for a special cheer. It was just three years after D day! No remedial actions have been undertaken even to this day.) When WWII ended. Three years have passed. are welcomed as heroes and smothered with love. It would take several months before the West Indies Regiments would be returned to the islands. and gratitude. British Honduras and British Guiana. The comparatively small contingent of the brave sons of the twin villages. sporting his ribbons and medals and shouldering his rifle like his buddies. and all the allied countries.WHEN “KIDDIE” CAME MARCHING HOME! (It is by those who have suffered that the world is most advanced. A report on the presentation 158 . and the villages of GG-Nabaclis had arrived at another very important milestone—the 100th anniversary of the acquisition of the village of Golden Grove by a group of ex-slaves. towns. then to their various villages. In his crisp uniform. Golden Grove-Nabaclis.

every last warrior has long since been deceased. now eighty-nine years old. L. . At the same time. for the entire country of Guyana.THE FOUR PILLARS 159 of the names of WWI veterans at the time of 100th anniversary celebrations had omitted the rank of John Graham as being that of corporal.” In both references he was wrong and did a disservice to each of these veterans. is indeed the sole surviving veteran of WWII from the twin villages of Golden Grove-Nabaclis still blessed to be walking this good earth. Last man standing: The last veteran from Golden Grove-Nabaclis who served in WWI has been dead for a long while now. For that matter. G. Sarrabo said of Arthur Pompey that he “rose to be corporal. number 5828. Private Victor Douglas.

Golden Grove and Nabaclis. Our villages have always been fire beds of land disputes by way of shifting and removal of official markers left by land surveyors. woman. approval. in a grand conspiracy. bad. tear. Still. The source and alleged initiators. and the outright ugly that inevitably became part and parcel of the daily existence and order of individual lives. sentenced. Samuels got his hand caught in the moving parts of the coconut husk shredder. role models were everywhere. There were so many of the good. Equally. they flow from the natural order of things. seldom as pairs or twins. whether they knew and acknowledged themselves as such. For me. he raised the bloody stump heavenward with this exclamatory supplication.FISSURES OF MEN There are ties that bind. Their timely return and misuse were added bones of contention. and child went through an individual process of being molded to become that self. we rend. were never conclusively identified. Being neighborly has its limits! 160 . Several of these “life forces” are constantly at work for good or evil. were to set fire to the pumping station in the wee small hours of one wretched unforgettable morning. For each one. “Must Jesus bear the cross alone?” An agriculturally based community like ours was sorely in need of a reliable drainage and irrigation system. four men of our twin villages. there are so many forces at work that divide man from man. the managers of the sugar estate and factory at neighboring Enmore. Every man. When Mr. the tenets of good and evil were enshrined deep within. High on the list of originators of disputes stood the lending and borrowing of tools and farm implements. Just being is not enough. There is no one reason why cracks and fissures develop among men (and women). More likely than not. companionship. in the lives of the people of my two beloved villages. Just from the sheer inertia and overlapping into one another’s space. Claims and counterclaims over the ownership of straying animals and livestock permeated our rural community and were constantly sources of friction. and separate. and respect. They were tried. and served time. Everywhere and all the time. So much of it is societal: man’s need for love. these opposing results manifested themselves.

Sarrabo so ably made his historical presentation at the time of the hundred years celebration of the birth of the village of Golden Grove. it must be understood that “Uncle Alex” Simon. Not to be discounted are affairs of the heart—pursuit of the same love interests. After the incident in which he had hacked off the arm of a Mr.” It is believed that his death may have been hastened by the shame and isolation that followed. personal or familial. Simon. were altered or misrepresented.THE FOUR PILLARS 161 When remembering Aunt Jo and the episode at the Wesleyan Church. the loss of his good name proved too much as some disrespectfully referred to him as “Big Sin. and the like. by this time. like the Hughes versus Weatherspoon. that have been legendary and generational. must have dissipated. Any lingering glory and respect that may have been accrued to him through his military. It was after the firestorm erupted and the reaction of the people—church members and nonmembers alike—were so adverse that his “partners in crime” dissociated themselves from the whole affair. breaches of promise. and distasteful series of events that brought about the fissure between McGarrel and Graham shall remain hidden and untold! . sordid. With no apparent malice. For Mr. did not take the decision to sell that church building all by himself. Whatever the reasons or sources. Far from this writer to infer some sort of malicious intent on the part of Mr. D. though he may have acted precipitously. McGarrel with a cutlass in a dispute. When L. the resultant consequences have been very unpleasant. Sarrabo with the purpose to hurt and denigrate Corporal Graham. he served his prison sentence but was forever feared and shunned—a pariah. Quite a few more have been spillovers from the schoolyards. There have been a few family feuds. Was Sarrabo setting up himself as a second judge? The murky. two errors were made. Arthur Pompey and John Graham. The former was made a corporal while the latter was “stripped” of his rank. the service records of two WWII veterans.

My knowledge about the history of black people could have been expanded had Mr. boy!” Coming from Mr. Was there something I might have done yesterday or even the week before? As I got close enough for him to be able to snatch me by the shoulder or any other part. OR TWO A missed opportunity for Boaz Herod and for me too. Most schools were under the auspices of one or other of the religious denominations. Nothing to indicate that I may have had a licking coming. the day when slavery was abolished. No doubt he realized that I was afraid. “Thursday. apprenticeship. “Do you know what day is today?” he asked. there was still that leather belt on his waist. The schools were not equipped and never intended to be teachers of the history of slavery. Even so. black sage. Herod imparted a little more of what he knew on the subject. What did I do? I approached him with trepidation. Still my heart pounded incessantly. 1834. Herod. “Thursday!” he bellowed. Mr. there was indeed an urgency in his tone of voice. “Today is the day the baccra-man take the whip off your foreparents’ backsides. I was about to be taught another lesson. or tamarind switch in his hand. He had apparently run afoul of the establishment. He could have seen it in my eyes and in my demeanor. There was no bellyache. somehow he did not. It is clear that the people responsible for my upbringing knew even less. I am sure he never told me that he was referring to August 1. Even now I wonder how much he really knew.” he informed me triumphantly. Boaz Herod had been a schoolteacher as a younger man. “Come here. and indentureship. Still not being able to distinguish between the day of the week and its relationship to a date in any month.IT TOOK A VILLAGE. and therefore he would have been expected to lead an exemplary life by the attendance at church services on a regular basis 162 . Herod. barely audible for him to hear. The change that came over his face was a signal that my ordeal was about to come to an end. I could have learned something that may have well sparked my interest and forced some sort of effort to search and seek to augment that smattering of history lessons.” I responded.

Mr. who was a gold and diamond mining partner of Wesley Gardner.” I blurted out with confidence and without hesitation.” He recited poetry and quoted Shakespeare.” and “Mabel of the River. always hoping to make a “big strike” in the gold and diamond fields. how long will it take for all the eggs to boil?” “Twelve minutes. In almost a whisper. “Twelve minutes. Francis Gardner was a lifelong friend of my mother. Then there was “Uncle Rooney” who took up residence in the Gardner household for a short while. The galling poverty faced by my mother as a single parent at various times caused her to place one or other of her children under the care of a relative or trusted friend. he saw the pain in my face and came to the rescue. He asked this question: “If it takes three minutes for one egg to boil.” Rooney was unable to reunite with his own family as they happen to be far away on one of the islands of the Caribbean. “Where is your common sense?” Mercifully. Herod was always drilling and testing me on the tables. Herod must have transgressed in some way and fallen short. Mr. Herod. Fanny’s husband. which accounted for his separation from the teaching profession. Mr. Mr. and Mabel—were to be embellished with “Florence Nightingale. He had this look on his face that caused me to hesitate and reconsider. as he was referred to by the adults. It became clear that he was a cultured man with some education and not quite cut out to be a prospector or “pork knocker.” The Gardner young ladies—the sisters.” Those names playfully floated around the Gardner homestead for a long while after “Uncle Rooney” had departed with his crew for one more search for those elusive stones . just happened to follow these village men home from the hinterlands as they periodically would escape from the rigors of the “bush. He proceeded to explain why the answer had to be three minutes.” “Mae Agnes Flemings. Herod. He asked the question once again. It was while I lived with “Aunt Fanny” for about two years that I had this tutorial contact with Boaz Herod. This man was one of the many adults whose life of example would help to fashion the way that I would grow and learn more and more of life’s lessons. and if I put four eggs in the same pot. How well I recall one of his sneak attacks.THE FOUR PILLARS 163 and being available to serve as Sunday school teacher and so forth.” A smile came over his face. Agnes. He insisted on renaming me “Craig Kennedy. I responded. Florence. Rooney. Complete obedience to church doctrine and being an effective and efficient teacher was the ultimate expectation. I soon figured out that he had been a member of one of the many crews that “Uncle” Wesley would have assembled over the years.

” The younger ones did wonder about such things but had to refrain from asking any of the adults who ought to know and thus invoke some perils. Despite the best efforts of the village “midwives. Mr. Such topics back then would not have been in the realm of “lil pickney business. There were the big tubs of fresh water laced with lime juice and sage leaves mixed in to make the “cleaned” really clean but especially to rid it of that overwhelming fishy smell. Aunt Ruth Peters.164 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N and nuggets. would have delivered from his catch of the day or night. Jarvis.” knives and cutlasses flashing. the older women—some of them veteran baby makers—would advise the newcomers to motherhood on what to do and what not to do during pregnancy. to birth and raise a baby. I recently found out about “Craig Kennedy”—an equivalent to Sherlock Holmes with more of a scientific bent created by writer Arthur B. which was more than likely the survivor of a difficult birth. and the resultant residue drunk and ingested at certain times and regularity. The progeny and logistics did not matter. primarily a blood relative. Aunt Hilda Wood. He never came back to our village! Thanks to Google. it did take a village. and more. Some of the women of the twin village. sold some of the fish that he. Aunt Kate Dodson. just like their mothers would have done for generations even going back to Africa. and bushes to be boiled. that child was sure to find solace there. It was never revealed whether Auntie Til ever did bring a child of her own into this world and could have lost in the stark and rending cycle of high infant mortality. Yes. drawing upon that knowledge of old. would step forward to be the sustainer—no lesser breed: someone like Auntie Minnette. Irene “Motherene” Hall. There were varieties of herbs.” “boning. The absence of vital prenatal care was pervasive. To lose a newborn baby or a mother under those trying circumstances was sometimes regarded as a “blessing” when compared to the loss of both mother and baby! Mind you. “Godmother” Poole. barks. . Auntie “Til” Jarvis. Then there was the other matter.” there was always an unacceptable level of death among birthing babies and infantile mortality. the long-term project: the nurturing of that child. On sunny days. Reeve. “scaling. She.” Just about every one of the girls and young ladies would have been raised by Auntie Til from a tender age. The home that opens a door to a young motherless child could well be a prior childless home or one accustomed to the patter of many pairs of feet. Auntie Til. There was an endless cleaning of that part of the catch that was not sold—an army of young ladies surrounding piles of fish. well salted. in her role of fish vendor. that fish was set out to dry and became “stinkah.

to be able to put her out as a bride from under her roof. would over the years become the big sister that I never had. the curtain would have come down on the bird’s last act of the day as she became engulfed in total darkness. She had repeated this warning so often as to make it seem redundant. it was twilight and that country blanket would have long since descended. That parrot must have been endowed with a sense of hearing unlike any that was granted to humans. was a beacon and a fortress. she may have reasoned that she was indeed earning her keep whenever she raised the alarm. but that pesky parrot became convinced and would decide that there was indeed a cause for alarm. Auntie Minnette. . “Demon Dick” Jarvis relished the few occasions in which he was able to squeeze his huge frame into a suit that seemed a few sizes too small to be transformed to “fathergiver” for one of his “daughters. It is more a certainty that his buddies would have the full story as to how he got that handle. fatherly and a strict disciplinarian. with knitting needles flailing as he turned some more twine into seine nets. Mind you. That “bird dog” would be indoors but could with confidence place a boy or some boys in the dunks tree. Laura would close down her radar and pump up her audio detector to meet the occasion. The household. Equally. Enid. The alarmist refrain would cease only after the cover was placed over that cage. As a long-standing member of the household. It is very unlikely the name Demon Dick was spawned in his household. Mr. was a sight to behold. Jarvis. Two of the young ladies living there. a part of the family. try as they may. after raising each one of her girls with a tender and motherly attention. What a man! “Auntie Minnette. Pearl Blair (Frank) and Enid Blair (Harper). could never pick up the sounds. kept an eye on me and my sister. He spent so much time fishing in the salty waters of the Atlantic his skin took on the appearance of sandpaper or some kind of not-so-refined leather. de boys in de yard pickin’ de dunks. To watch the smoke billowing from his pipe and to hear that guttural laughter bellowing from his massive diaphragm.” Living just two streets from the Jarvis household. The latter. There were several “stagehands” Auntie Minnette could deploy for the job. even though Auntie Til always called him Demon. that yard would become a some-time shortcut for my sister Maple and I to and from school and other places.THE FOUR PILLARS 165 It was a distinctly joyous and proud occasion.” Laura the precocious parrot squawked.

The story is told of Auntie M passing up the opportunity to get married to a Mr. and occasionally wine.166 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Just as Auntie Til seemed to be at ease with her houseful of girls. in deference to her boys. There were always boys in the dunks tree! There was a distinct advantage to be allowed into the tree by Auntie Minnette. her beloved indicated that he was ready to get married. Three of them just happened to be siblings and also her blood relatives. At the same time. and the ripest. It would be daylight. she slipped the engagement ring off her finger and returned it. She may have suspected that his warmth toward her boys was not really genuine—something she could not put to the test. As they picked they received immediate gratification by popping one here and there into their salivating mouths. After a lengthy engagement and courtship. Auntie Minnette loved her brood of boys just as well. K indicated his annoyance and issued his final ultimatum. . Kingston. just right for making jam. Auntie M’s calabash needed to be filled with some of the choicest rosy dunks from the furthest branches. there were also those who lived nearby. but she kept putting him off. Besides the boys in the household. juiciest morsels could be seen. jelly. When Mr.

feasts. Bill and Lloyd. It was alongside Patrick that I learned to “finger” the dough while it was in the mixing trough. that these lessons had indeed taken root. Every operation and chore in that bakery was done manually. as one grew into adulthood. That was only for the bread. The type of person whom we do become is to a large extent determined by the environment. Straddling two generations. had laid dormant only to sprout budlike under specific circumstances and frontal situations. would at various times provide and supply “the willing hands that made the dough rise” in Aunt Jo’s bakery. Cornelia. 167 . and niece Ismay.” In those tender years. Grace.AUNT JO AND ME While it may take a village to raise a child. and holy days. Alvin. they did not sink in and were more of a repetitive annoyance. Courtney. the prevailing comparative strength of these influences combined with the age of the child the length of that exposure are also factors which cannot be ignored. it would fall to the woman step up and assume a more prominent role in the process. and the people whose influences would impact our lives. once it was closed. Winston. True. who augmented the small paid staff of bakers. our surroundings. and Byron—children of her dear sister Maude and husband Charles Phillips. were Patrick. Romeo. I have been fed ample doses of the truisms of the ages: “An idle brain is the devil’s workshop. Enid. had no children of her own. there were also the several varieties of cakes to be mixed. Then again.” “A stitch in time saves nine. we are all born with our own individual personalities. From my generation came Churchill. There were others before her two nephews. Even though Josephine Leander. Vincent. inevitably. especially in the formative years. Paul. Wesley. Eunice. who were joined and followed by Willie and Malvena. her house was always full. and the closest to being Aunt Jo’s own family. It was amazing to find. short and long term. which meant every available pair of hands had to be pressed into service at critical phases. especially with the approach of weekends holidays. Those who worked in the grocery. and how to “elbow” it when it was placed on the working table.” “Time and tide waits for no man. Daphne. Ashley. who lived and worked in the Dutch island of Aruba. and myself. Aunt Jo. Together this motley crew. had to take their places and turns in that hectic environment.” “Bend the tree early the way it should grow.

Still my stellar performance. she could hurt people’s feelings—somewhat tactless. comfortably and effortlessly reading that “script. and had married his beloved Ruth. Whatever past wars in which she may have been involved could have had no relation to this singular battle that I now relate but in which she fearlessly inserted herself. my caliber tested in a myriad of ways: trustworthiness. singlehandedly . As a kind of a meddler. even after extensive presoak. she was a slasher and burner. a Muslim of Indian origin. Living just two lots from my house. had been accustomed to spending most of his waking hours in the waters of his river environment. was not any picnic. She must have had her share of wars while still having her own demons to slay. while attending college in the United Kingdom. reliability. Seems both his people and the British establishment were not pleased. A small but gathering crowd became the first sign that the church building had indeed been sold. As more people began to gather to watch the spectacle. because of his earlier living space. Without any realization on my part I was being observed. she knew how to choose the battles worth her participation. and work ethic. I had to start some place. I soon caught the eyes of Aunt Jo. It was the story about Seretse Khama. Seemingly my new friend. and after enduring the dimpled fingertips resulting from the immersion in water. Ishmael the butcher. had crossed the color line. leaving behind the Pomeroon district near the Venezuelan border where he was born. the African heir to a chieftaincy in Bechuanaland who.168 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Norbert Hart had just moved with his family into our village. She detested slackers and delivered some sharp rebukes to the guilty ones. From that day she called me by the name “Khama” as a sign of her approval and at other times when she was pleased with the results of my efforts on assignments allotted to me. Washing baking pans on which sugar and grease had been singed in an oven. School did not feature much into Norbie’s daily activities but soon started to work in Aunt Jo’s bakery after school and on Saturdays. Then came the day I was given a newspaper article to read out loud. With that sharp tongue. However it was. A woman of very strong opinions and beliefs who was never shy or restrained in expressing herself. we quickly became friends as we wandered down to the swimming hole widely known as Sand Reef. The mere thought of being able to eat endless cakes was the magnet that drew me to the bakery mimicking the motions of Norbie’s assistant. I got through the reading without much understanding of the story line. fell in love.” worked to enhance my standing in the eyes of Aunt Jo. Aunt Jo was quick to point out the faults of others—fellow adults were no exceptions.

m. Aunt Jo let out an agonizing wailing sound. when from the vantage point of her grocery entrance. I would collect one or two of those boxes and go door to door selling those “sticks” by the twos. Here it was. a small group of men had usurped and had ignored the rights of the majority. plus other extensive renovations. With the removal of the deteriorating. he hurried down and left the scene. Eva Pilgrim. It must have been agonizing for those grown-ups. which were then fashioned and shaped into the best chocolate logs. Putting her survival skills to work. My brother. so she quickened her step to get a closer look. original spire and bell tower. I had already been introduced to the rudiments as to . It was just after 11:00 a. The finished product would then be packed in cigar boxes. Buds. seemed to have outgrown that “chocolate route” to which he had been assigned by Miss Eva. sister of the highly respected nurse/midwife Hilda Jupiter. She followed that with a shout to the defiler that he desist and get down that very minute. It is hard to believe that some members of that congregation actually showed up and held services the next morning. Aunt Jo’s lesson to me that day was that there are battles worth fighting even when they are actually a part of a war in which one does not believe or even subscribe to. When I came to Aunt Jo’s establishment. My first lessons in things commercial came not from Aunt Jo but rather Ms. She quickly concluded that there had been some terrible mistake. She could not believe what she was hearing. then grinding cocoa beans. As she caught sight of Ishmael. On Saturdays.THE FOUR PILLARS 169 dismantled a Christian church built by African ex-slaves just after emancipation and on land granted with full transportation even though not a single deed had been received by any of the original purchasers. Aunt Jo would see the swirling crowd and left the demanding chores of the day to investigate. or a half dozen which was a big sale. she had in the more recent years joined another congregation—a small group of British evangelistic missionaries. crowbar in hand and pieces of the roof coverings on the ground. childless woman spent hours roasting. which she lined with paper. For reasons unknown. That then had to be a day of infamy. this single. that building survived the misguided assault and is being used by the congregation to this very day. fours. Aunt Jo had actually saved that historic church where she had been received into membership and worshipped for years. confusion and consternation was in the air. Recognizing the fury in her voice. which was Sunday. they somehow settled the matter. There was not a single soul from the hierarchy of the Wesleyan Methodist congregants to offer any explanation. imposing.

170 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N how to “make a shilling or two. and above all. . It was from Aunt Jo that I would learn that each person had God-given talents which could be used to provide goods or services to others for ample rewards in return. keeping your capital intact.” especially the avoidance of “trussin” (selling on credit).

carried in the womb. I surmised that the story about my mother. the care he would have received—at the end of an uncomfortable ride in a horse-drawn police wagon—would just about match that which an extended family environment could render. with its limited resources in those days. How then could you tell whether she had been crying when you never actually saw the telltale signs of a teardrop? After all that. and perpetually pleading. Oh woman nah cry. “Oh woman nah cry. especially as I had been constantly making mental notes. The day of reckoning has now arrived.” must inevitably be my opening. but never in front of her children. then delivered a baby. the victim of a stroke. 1908. daughters lavished their attention on that young husband and father even as it became much clearer 171 . at any time. Then there are additional mixed thoughts as one attempts to memorialize and honor one’s mother on the 100th year of her birth. Though very young at that time. Demerara. Doris Robertson. My mother had those eyes reminiscent of the proverbial doe caught in the headlights. As this journey to learn more about my ancestors progressed. now teenaged. one is expected to feel an emotional surge when expounding on the qualities of the woman who conceived. she was the last of six children born to the union of Leslie Robertson of Ithaca. my mother would vividly recall the day when a group of police constables brought her father home. and Rebecca Samuels Robertson of Victoria. should pose no literary problems.HER ROYAL HIGHNESS. “Nana” Robertson and her two older. moist. The public hospital was seventeen miles away. Besides. Bob Marley’s maternal exhortation. Berbice. Of course. PRINCESS DORIS At any age. Her five siblings included four females and one male. my mother did cry. East Coast. the home that he shared with his young wife and children happened to be just two miles down the road from the police station at Belfield. the words will just flow. care must be taken not to diminish her supremely noble strengths. Born on April 8. They were soft. Hell! Single mothers just about cornered the market in the tears department.

and kind can and does work to one’s detriment at times. that scenario is more than likely the exception rather the rule. Nana was to find some solace in the companionship of a Mr. Being good-natured. my mother. There is no doubt that my mother would have lived a life of torment living in the same household with my aunts Mabel and Rachel. calling it box. whom my grandfather Leslie had specifically requested should go to his sister-in-law. The next and only time he left the house was in a hearse. The separation of siblings should at all costs be avoided. Rachel. In Jamaica it is called pardner. Leslie Robertson. Others in the various Caribbean Islands and some in Central and South America. these two enjoyed making their younger sister. Olive. Louisa Samuels Ramsay. my mother found it ever so difficult to stand up for. From observation. There were indeed situations where brothers and sisters have grown up together in the same home and environment only to inculcate the vilest and most distant personal relationships. To our Trinidadian brethren it is sou-sou. How do I know? Even as grown women with their own household and families.000 payout. Alexander Ramsay. and by herself. at Nabaclis. Her faults were not many. had been regarded as a rising star among his ranks. My people from Guyana had embraced the same economic and financial activity. with two princes of privilege in the form of Oscar Ramsay and Bromley Ramsay thrown in. and Uncle George stayed with Nana. EC Demerara. my mother. “Farmed out” were aunts Muriel. To be regarded as a “softy” and a pushover could be dangerous and inimical to one’s well-being. As her children grew. still the biggest one was the lack of the necessary assertiveness. all nine of . some kind of laughing stock seemingly at every and all occasions. police constable in the police forces of British Guiana.172 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N that the severity of his paralysis portended a shortened life. Thorne for whom she bore two children. It was indeed a daunting prospect for this Robertson family despite the probable goodwill of the extended Samuels connection seemingly available there in the village of Victoria. peaceful. and Doris. when and where it was warranted. Here is how it worked. To leave her own home at the age of nine. have preserved this one self-help element of their African origin. Aunts Mabel. ten persons decided to start a box with a $1. Say. landed her into a Cinderella-like existence and environment—Gertie Ramsay and Vera Ramsay were the sisters. and her husband. calling it by another name. Annie and Philip. Mother Ramsay was the witch. while it provided some escape from the barbs of Mabel and Rachel. Spread over ten pay periods.

closer to the crane that would hoist and tilt the massive iron container to disgorge their contents.” There was a mock wonderment by some that my eldest brother. It was through this process that she was able to accumulate the funds to build a small house. regular pace for close to half an hour. This would be repeated each period with another person in turn getting $1. did not kick out some of the boards in his sleep. worn path upon which the mules would normally be driven as they pulled the punts loaded with sugarcane. will have a pot of $1. It rang only once. it was our house. standing at six three. Striding purposely. My mother would be constantly in a box. It never came! That was when the panic and despondency settled upon her at the realization that she had actually gotten out of bed around midnight.THE FOUR PILLARS 173 them will hand over $100 to the tenth individual who. or so she thought.000 until the tenth person is rewarded. it was regarded as a form of compulsory savings. she was unable to confirm the hour of any day or night. The decision would then likely be made to either do another round. She now treaded the narrow. harness. The crane operator slams on the brakes. maybe because of the moonlight being so bright. seemed to be several decibels greater than normal. His next move tilts the punt right side up.000. cutting cane for her family. In the past she had been right about the most . and with a sweeping. the empty punt is lowered bottom first into the darkened waters of the punt trench. with his $100. —Harry Belafonte She had been walking at an even. The diminutive one is still on her way. It was the smallest house that there ever was! I was constantly being teased about living in a “bird cage. Still. and chains straining and clanging. Still she waited for the second and any subsequent clangs. Just then her thought process was interrupted by the sound of the factory timekeeper’s bell which. She has now crossed the high-level wooden bridge which was designed to allow free access to the punts as they are pulled to and fro in the waters of the canal. She had skirted the rear fences of the ever-so-familiar towering sugar factory and kept on going. With no banks around. Without the presence of a clock in her house. a sudden jolting exercise meant to dislodge every last bit of cane. I see woman on bended knees. swinging motion. she has now picked up the pace with nothing else but what awaits her at the farthest end of those expansive acres of cane fields that stretched for miles on end.

to go to the farmlands of the village and tend her . I may now be able to give the number of occasions my mother was on a picket line. She had been operating without a partner and was paying the dire consequences. Just this once. She walked back home. Demerara. These were the few and the fearless female cane cutters of plantation Enmore who were chauvinistically referred to by some of their male counterparts as “having balls. Why then. solidarity or not. unemployment. my mother was not expecting to receive strike.” “Cousin” Louisa Graham.” There were other jobs that were generally reserved for women within the work force of the sugar estates. and did collect a full week’s pay. did the sleep she would have lost not affecting her in any noticeable way? To avoid the embarrassment and humoring that was sure to follow. she decided that the whole incident must be kept quiet. With mouths to feed. None of them held any interest for those pioneering women who were also at the vanguard of the trade union movement. she had concluded that she would be better off. make that second full trip. on this brightest of moonlit nights when the expectation was that moonlight would seamlessly merge into daylight. She definitely was not present when the five sugar workers (memorialized as the “Enmore Martyrs”) were killed! She definitely was not present on June 16. Being on strike. Peters. If I had paid enough attention. when the five sugar workers—Dookie. finish her work. That is why the initial thought of seeking refuge in the safety and seclusion of the sugar factory was summarily dismissed. and Rambarran—were shot dead by the riot police while fourteen others were wounded at Enmore. got a few more hours of much-needed sleep. she is some four hours off. or any other pay. “Sylvie. If there ever was anyone headed to the cane fields on a Saturday morning. Credit must be given to some of her partners who met and sometimes exceeded her every expectation: Ms. My mother admired and respected the then general secretary of the Guiana Industrial Workers Union. or someone who because of some mishap failed to complete his/her share of work allotment for the week. and the indomitable faithful “Auntie” Baba Blair who ran the course. It was always her objective to find a cane-cutting partner who worked as hard as she did and complained even less. Subsequently she would rise. That was one of those rare occasions when my dear mother found herself facing that dilemma. Pooran. Harri. she thought.174 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N convenient time to leave her bed in the early hours of the working day. 1948. it had to be a laggard. Jane Phillips-Gay. Lallabhagi.

widow of Leslie Robertson. she was affectionately known as Nana Robbie. she would reach out like her colleagues. To the village at large. to her family she was just Nana. and the work force of the entire country would express sympathy and condolences to the grieving families. She would later surmise that had she been an active participant on the picket line that day. While being full of remorse and some guilt. was born Rebecca Samuels.THE FOUR PILLARS 175 small plot of vegetables that she had so laboriously tended over many months. I just could not pass on this reproduction of this Gullah woman as a stand-in for the lack of a picture no member of my family could locate! . she could possibly have stopped a stray bullet! Doris Robertson—My Mother 1908-1977 Respected and revered in the community of Victoria Village (“Over-the-Line”). My pipe-smoking maternal grandmother.

. my father’s mother. Fruit from the backyard She packed in a basket And brought them for me at the train stop. Her frock was made of African cloth. . Carried us to Brethren church For Sunday school and church worship She was a Sunday school teacher A village farmer A fifth generation from slavery Her favorite rocking chair Stood by the door Where she watched Passersby . She wore a hat. . The village matriarch. cared for others as she cared for Herself .176 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 1969: Memories of Auntie Bella Auntie Bella. In blocks of squares. . . Or a head wrap. . . Bowed in front. Victoria Village . . Auntie Bella. My grandmother. everyone called her Auntie Bella . a custom of village matriarchs. As the ancestors did . Thus. . Her mingled gray She combed and plaited. My grandmother. a likeable soul. . .

In the house that massa built Parasites that bite her foot. Sun that bun she back. Water that wet she clothes.Xlibris. 49. Something “generic” emerged as to the women of Victoria Village—in truth. daughters. . Jackson. the women of Demerara. whether grandmothers. Daughta disliked sugarcane wuk. . .THE FOUR PILLARS 177 Sugarcane Wuk Mo Hard Sugarcane wuk mo hard Than domestic wuk She complained. . Load and fetch. 46. Yvonne. www. . Thanks.com. Daughta rowwin . Under the sun . pages 41. These verses struck a nerve. mothers. year 2010. for capturing some of the spirit that seemed to have declined over time. All day long field hands Cut and drop. Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Francis Yvonne Jackson for allowing the excerpts and use of the above verses recently published from her book. Francis Yvonne: Come Walk with Me—From Guyana to North America—A Book of Verses. A shilling a day.

were continually subject to the whims of the mighty muddy waters of the Orinoco River. He is married to Elizabeth Williams. But then everyone addressed him as such: Uncle T. There is no doubt my ole man felt good about himself. never Mr. son of a farmer. The flat. even for a man as tall as my father. this task of broadening and deepening this man’s existence. In his forty-plus years. where we lived. and he plays cricket for recreation. 1945-48. and his wife Mary Sancho.THE FATHER I HARDLY KNEW (“I see man at the waterside. neither did I ever see it in print. There would be more than enough fish for the family. the phases of the moon. It was quite a welcoming sight to see the men. burdened with the night’s catch. I never heard it said by anyone. billowing and raging tides were reserved mostly for our Caribbean island neighbors. He would never enter any building. and thus the movements of the tides which determined what types of fish would be “running. he attended the Victoria Missionary School. He acted it out by the way he carried himself. Whenever “mister” was used. He is listed as a farmer. He has two sons and a daughter. Born September 14. a short bio of him would appear in Who is Who in British Guiana. . To cast nets in our seas entailed wading in water up to the knees which. some to share with neighbors. All of it had to be parceled out as there was no cold storage—refrigerator or freezer. The men would cast their nets in the seas depending upon the seasons. and even some to be bartered or sold. in Georgetown. private or public. without first removing his hat. if for no other reason than for the benefit of his grandchildren and those that will follow.” The men of the villages had better alternatives to cast on solid ground into the drainage canals and fresh water streams that crisscrossed the extensive agricultural terrain. returning home to their families who would just be rising with the sun. constantly presenting his best self to the world. Cousin T. T. casting net at the raging tide . ”) My mother called him T. it would always be followed by Joyce. As the second of the two sons. low coastlands of Demerara. Why wrestle with a name like Theophilus? If he had a middle name. Filbert Joyce. With the absence of rocky coastlines. 178 . 1902. . it has now fallen on me. was quite challenging.

Cecil Joyce. You had this special thing about a woman with two bastards on her hands. he may well have volunteered some salving explanations on his own. By the time you were finished with her. was the second of the two children of Filbert and Mary “Georgiana” Joyce. Though not mentioned in the bio. T must have been one of the few and one of the earliest from the coastal area to be born at the Public Hospital. just waiting for you to come along!” I could never have asked you. and son number 2. his intended became seriously ill and never recovered. same as Eldora Jack. They buried her in the dress that she was to wear on her wedding day—her bridal dress became a burial shroud! That was some after-dinner conversation. Cleland Simpson and Albert De Souza. flat on his stomach on the wooden floor. who were fathered by someone else. Rufus. when he married Ms. In response to my query as to whether Miss Babe might be a blood relative. whom he had courted and had concrete plans to marry. Eldora Jack of Victoria. was birthed by Doris Robertson. Were you blind? What the hell were you thinking?” “Seems like you had some race to run. His first love. Ms. son number 1. That watershed would turn out to have forestalled all the questions I was planning to ask this now seemingly vulnerable man if and when the opportunity should arise and I could summon up the courage: “You did not marry Eldora Jack. did the fact that she had two children before she met you have anything to do with your decision or lack thereof?” “My mother was next. Williams who never bore him any children. he divulged the following. my dad was just about ready to speak to me as such. and whom he treated with ultimate motherly affection and respect. was birthed by Ms. His two arms were folded to form a cushion for his head. Georgetown. Had we not been separated for the many years by immigration. There was this older woman whom he called Miss Babe that he seemed intractably attached to. With all the bridal pieces irretrievably in place. Williams had been left with two. any of these questions. She also had two bastards. His only brother. her list of bastards would number four. My mother had the sterling qualities that would make a great wife.THE FOUR PILLARS 179 Both sons of T Joyce were born before he married Elizabeth Potter Williams. We sat there across the table from each other just looking into the other’s eyes for what seemed like forever. There he lay. It was more like the picture of a newly . my father. Kenneth Aubrey. the mother of your firstborn son Cecil. my dad inherited two stepsons. Sensing that I was indeed becoming a man. was indeed Miss Babe’s daughter. What went wrong? Man of reason as you are. and daughter Leila who died as an infant.

if not by choice rather than by necessity. With one determined swipe of the point of the pin. this time a winded. our twin villages. this was a good indication that I had hit the right spot. I was instructed to press hard on the spot. It could well have been that the concern and the caring touch of a son—the only time I ever had a reason to touch my father—turned out to be a soothing balm and a tranquilizer! Adulthood. and remove the offending thorn. These episodes apparently recede over time only to surface when and where current events and circumstances act like triggers. He yelled in pain. Golden Grove and Nabaclis. Some methyl alcohol was applied. it would appear. in any emergency or upheaval. Each allotted residential plot of land was paired with a plot that was reserved for farming. some flesh from the sole of his foot. Like so many other villages that would follow. thin layer after thin layer. Momentarily. It was the story of Androcles and the Lion. does not quite separate one from long-past “mind-of-a-child” experiences. He had been seen limping for days having stepped barefooted on some dried thorny vegetation that apparently became more imbedded as he continued to walk on it. for farming purposes. As I carefully sliced into that “crepe sole” that had built up mightily and sumptuously over the years.180 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N felled log—his elbows would be two shorn-off limbs and his pair of legs would be the two pieces that the log splintered into as that other end slammed into the compact. That relief and a brief moment to be still sent my dad off to sleep. hard ground! My father was putting me to the test. he would have been able to lay his hand on his hammer and his grass knife or cutlass or whatever. Two neighbors sited in the front lands (residential) could well have found their farms at the opposite ends of the seven-mile depth . He guided me all the way with the caution to be careful to not draw blood as this would hinder a visual location. My task was to use a razor blade to pare. My father hated confusion and constantly strived for orderliness. Even with the different and unusual ending. He believed that “everything must have a place” and that “everything must be in its place. As I write of the thorn-removal incident involving my father. there is something that is analogous despite not having ever recalling either story over so many years. a story I came across in my earliest reading years just popped into my head. followed the layout of the English manorial system. crumpled heap—a different time and place with he and I the only players and characters.” It meant that in the darkest night. the brown color of that pimple stood out against the pink second layer of his dermal structure. There he lay. but they were not adjacent. probe the location with a straight pin. the intruder was gone.

rope taut. or lack thereof. His anger and frustration seemed to dissipate and subside with each heaping shovelful of dirt . my father and I were heading homeward—he on the towpath with a length of rope tied to our produce-laden boat and the other end draped across his shoulder. while I was the “boatswain” tasked with the job of steering and keeping a true course. picked his hat off the ground and headed toward me and the boat! He examined the damage. Sensing that all was well. I lost control of the boat. my father followed the example and lead of his two uncles. and looked at me. Rufus was designated to assist the gravedigger in the preparation of the grave site. As his only sibling. He proceeded to drink his fill and also to ply the gravedigger with more than his share of hard liquor. he set out to restrain his brother’s every excess. He rolled up his pant legs as high as they will go. a squadron of dive-bombing mosquitoes. Christopher Sancho and Alexander Sancho. alighted upon me. He said not a word as he draped the rope across his shoulder as we resumed our homeward journey. He took off his funeral garb of jacket.THE FOUR PILLARS 181 of the back lands—the “back dam. probably disturbed by the pulling rope banging against the low brush growing along the path. He ordered Rufus to leave. my dad accelerated into overdrive as the white sprays rose higher from both sides of the bow. grabbed a shovel. The bow slammed into the earthen grassy embankment. then he stood up. My dad thought that by providing Uncle Rufus with a place in his home. He respected both of them immensely. Without warning. pole held firmly under one armpit and close to the body with the end positioned at the right rudderlike depth and angle in the water—the bow was maintaining a reasonable and consistent distance from the parapet of the canal. I was doing a darn good job from my designated position at the rear of the boat. With the time for burial fast approaching. He laid still for a while. my dad paid an inspection visit to the cemetery and found the resultant chaos and disarray to his dismay. My dad was pulled upright by the sudden stop and fell backward with an awful earth-shaking thud. and jumped into the unfinished grave. but it seemed like a generation. especially his fight against alcoholism. He never spoke of that incident. after a full day at the farm. My uncle Rufus Joyce was forever a test case where my father was concerned. Losing his dad at an early age. When Uncle Alex died. and shoes.” The connectors were a series of canals which were designed to be not only a means of drainage and irrigation but also arteries vital to the two-way transportation of supplies and produce. he would be contributing something to make him a real man and a useful member of society. Finally he sat up. tie. On this particular afternoon. As I desperately tried to ward off these tormentors.

there was already some talk that my brother Cecil was a high flyer and could be destined for great things in the police force. retrieve his personal belongings. Cecil would have been married to Phyllis. but nearly every time I would be carrying a bag full of vegetables. There was no doubt that he was using that credit account at Majeed’s clothing store to the fullest. which was an indicator and yardstick as to the possibilities that lay ahead. Cecil had stayed in school. but rather the pickup of the court imposed monetary child support.182 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N that he tossed out of that hole as he exhaled audibly. had not very much room for opportunities of brotherly interactions. Living apart. I would leave my dad without the two shillings coin my mother was expecting. and later bury him. My occasional visit did not have as its purpose much fatherly directions. was my dad ever more proud! Little did I realize then that these happenings would have invited some pressure on me to succeed at something and do even better or equally as well. Seemingly in a hurry to build a family. . Boy. He demonstrated. Soon he was off the beat. Courtney would arrive followed in equally quick succession by three siblings—Pam. In his civvies. that he was a man of action. I was not there when my dad had to go to the mortuary to ID the body of his son. and Marlene. a son. on that day. Lennox. “Tee. which meant that the silver badge (5384) would not be visible anymore. had passed the school-leaving examinations. A special attachment and relationship had by then developed between these two men—father and son with a boundless love and respect for one another.” When I departed Guyana almost three years earlier. He had received full fatherly support and advice when he opted for a future as a policeman after passing the entrance exams. out of uniform. the only two sons of my dad. Also gone would be that stone-crushing. but with separate birth mothers. Even though she tried to mask her disappointment. On occasions. Within those short few years. she never once said anything disparaging about my father. he exuded that air of someone who was going places. and had entered an apprenticeship-training program that would have made him a skilled foundry machinist. Gone would be that colonial imposition of serge worn in that sweltering oppressive heat. many years my senior. And now for the brother I knew even less—my father’s first son. crunching black leather boot always with that mirrorlike reflective shine.

and of course the sad news. to be the conveyor of that pen.THE FOUR PILLARS 183 The symbolism of receiving my brother’s fountain pen from my dad was moving. . a photo of Cecil in civvies with the pen clipped to his shirt pocket. He chose Outon (Meldon) Kendall. There had been a family blending of the Sanchos and the Kendalls by marriage. who had visited Guyana that Christmas after a long stay in London. He would never play his customary role of Santa Claus—the presents were scattered all over. Cecil was struck by a hit-and-run motorist as he rode his motorcycle homeward on Christmas Eve.

Maurice. There was Daddy Ramsay the storyteller.” was Daddy’s reply. Leslie Robertson. and we would bombard him with questions. your great-grandmother. Daddy Ramsay was to have a distinct and lasting impact upon all our lives. she would allow her firstborn. Oscar. that was to be the story of her life with the constant reminders that she was not a Ramsay. He was a one-man panel that could not be stumped! Many are the nights when the six children of the household—Pats. died. leaving behind a wife (Rebecca “Nana” Robertson) and six children. He was a teacher. died long before I was born. my mother. You see. He was a policeman and suffered a crippling stroke some months before his demise. As it turned out. This move and growing up in the Ramsay household was to have a far-reaching impact and influence on the rest of her life. He would tell stories. wife of Alexander “Daddy” Ramsay. One of my two older brothers.DADDY COULD SWEAR! Both of my granddads. He knows. I must tell you that there was a “grand old man” in my life who filled in wonderfully for both of them. Ranny. Buds. That seemed to suffice. Your great-grandmother went to live with her aunt Louisa “Aunt Mit” Ramsay (who was also called Mother Ramsay). and role model. Kenneth. It seemed that there was never a question he could not answer. That was the end of that matter. storyteller supreme. It was daddy to whom she would have to run for rescue and alleviation in her times of torment. the question was never asked again. Doris Robertson. His name was Alexander Ramsay. Whether large or small. Leslie Robertson and Filbert Joyce. It did not take very long before it would become clear to Doris that a secure home does not necessarily translate into a nurturing and loving home. and everyone called him Daddy Ramsay. philosopher. 184 . While mother kept the disciplinary screws real tight on Doris. was quite an inquisitor. and Maple—would surround Daddy on the steps of the homestead. It was he who would ask the ultimate question of Daddy. He had acquired this knack of attracting an audience. “Who is God’s father?” “Go ask your father. to become a monster of sorts. Buds. was only eight years old when her dad. He just stood out among all the granddads that I ever knew.

every setback in the campaign. the entire colony would be euphoric. Montgomery. An avid reader of the newspapers of the day. failed to provide the variety and did nothing to help reconcile and alleviate the colonial palpitations lingering in our taste buds and stomachs. the monotony of the constant diet of local vegetables and greens. Whether it had to do with Montgomery routing Rommel in the deserts of North Africa. With hindsight. Mussolini. the exploits of the RAF and allied bomb-busting operations. warships. and Eisenhower all rolled into one. and other basic foods. Together they will be spewing disdain upon Rommel. though not intended.THE FOUR PILLARS 185 or whether his hearers were young or old. I can appreciate how he was able to weave the daily combination of news cum propaganda from the newspapers into lucid and entertaining lessons that educated and informed the young. when reported. no doubt more nutritionally enhancing. was not very popular. He was the supreme commander and strategist—Churchill. the progress and prosecution of the war. As children we would constantly worry that the Germans would one day show up at our doorsteps. Daddy was generally surrounded by the grown men of the neighborhood on any particular day. Throughout the war years there were many questions that not only the children of the Ramsay household but children all around sought answers to: about war and warfare. while locally bolstering the supply of tropical foods. the fear lingered. Some of us were terrified about possible bombings by aircraft. every successfully mission had within it the hope and possibility of ending the war. As ships continued to be sunk by German U-boats in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. “You follow?” When WWII ended. the sinking of the Graft Spey. Daddy became a general. and inevitably. flour. By the same token. he would interject with his signature question. I would have been almost ten years old. we were all affected by the shortages of potatoes. planes and bombs. The “Grow More Food” campaign. When the allies were doing well in any particular theater of the war. sometimes admiral and warlord. and their ilk. he managed to weave the “life is just like a game of cricket” analogy into some descriptive tale to make a point. scare one Sunday morning. . For us. the beaches assaulted. To be sure he was understood. submarines and torpedoes. Despite assurances from Daddy and other adults that we were out of range by thousands of miles. became our pain also. Roosevelt. It was this man who had been our rock all along who was to give the family and the neighborhood the biggest. Hitler. While we did not starve.

There were always some vegetables and greens. and a weak fence to boot. Lewis.” responded Mr. Mr. turkeys. Blimps were deployed to aid in the search and surveillance for German submarines in Caribbean waters. Lewis’s pride and joy. It was hard to tell if it was the biting question or the laughter of those around that sent Mr. went for much less livestock. Daddy was outside. He did not see the animal(s) during the ensuing rampage but located what were undoubtedly cow droppings. Seems a cow. Lewis.” I barely was able to see the rear half of a “big silvery thing” cruising at sea level as it disappeared behind a clump trees that blocked our view. ducks.” Daddy was not known to panic. Mr. the authorities had failed to alert the populace about the maiden flight of what was to become a common sight thenceforth.” He was saying (in the creole vernacular of the day) that he was going to swear before a magistrate and have Daddy summoned to appear to answer the complaints of Mr. “Come and see the shit they left behind. “So you can tell it is my cow by the shit? My cow shit has raisins and currants in it?” Daddy asked sarcastically. How was it possible that Daddy Ramsay. The legend of the . was not able to discern and elucidate on such an important matter? As far as I know. planted in a fenced-off section. and would it return? By sundown the word had filtered down through the communities that the big thing was actually a blimp! For security or whatever reasons. Lewis. as a “kitchen” garden designated for the needs of the family. or a herd. Lewis into a wilder rage. The neighborhood was a buzz for the rest of the day. All of a sudden he let out a shout inviting everyone to come outside and see “a big thing in the sky. It escapes me why we never called the plank “the bench.186 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N The family was having breakfast. A neighbor. He turned and walked away seething with these parting words. Here is a Daddy Ramsay gem. The exchange continued like this. he still would spend some time in agricultural pursuits. “How did you know they were my cows?” asked Daddy of Mr. neither was it a plane! Was it German or was it allied? Did it have offensive capacity. the source and keeper of all knowledge. In our yard could be found chickens.” which was indeed a length of plank supported at both ends by two stacks of shorter lengths of wood and raised about three feet off the ground. his reputation remained intact. a larger garden. Even though he was a blacksmith by trade. charged that weak fence and laid to waste that garden which was Mr. sitting on what the family would always refer to as “the plank. “Meh go tek law. Nothing was ever heard of such action having taken place. It was not a bird. Lewis. hogs. and a few milking cows. Lewis showed up in our front yard to take Daddy Ramsay to task for allowing his cows to roam about and wreak such havoc to other people’s property.

almost like a controlled lava-belching volcano. Uncle Alex to my mom. let us go home. It seemed to spring to life like a phoenix at each stroke of the bellows. the raisins and currants. barreling down at full throttle. not even for safety. there were never any compelling reasons to run fences. Sometimes there will be a “small crop” of mangoes depending upon the juxtaposition of the May-June and the December-January rains—one being early and the other being late. His lamentation was that he thought he had made the best selection. being paid at an agreed rate per one hundred coconuts picked and peeled. paid special attention to his acreage of coconuts and mango trees. Peeled coconuts would be hidden under the growth of bushes and even in the shallow drainage canals. An age-old game of cat and mouse would be played between the coconut pickers and the owners. the coconut picker. In disgust he said to my older brother who had accompanied him. I grew up seeing and was always enthralled by that glowing red coal fire in the forge.THE FOUR PILLARS 187 cow. At those times. major purchases of consumables were undertaken. and the rates (real estate taxes) would be settled at the village office. “Come. made a mangled bloody mess of one of Daddy’s milking cows. the one o’clock express. Daddy soon came upon the scene. The peeling process entails the removal of the outer husk down to the kernel. Coconuts were a vital cornerstone to the family’s economic well-being and survival and were sold to the manufacturers of coconut oil. Daddy was hot as hell! He railed and called everyone in sight names that were not theirs. Coconut pickers were usually hired on a day-contract basis. While coconuts were commercially picked twice a year. One more Daddy Ramsay classic! As the railroads were constructed. It was common for animals to stray onto the tracks with dire consequences. yes. placed his team strategically on the field. shadowing each picker and making sure there were extra pairs of eyes on the case. On this particular Sunday. still Bernard. It did not take long for a crowd to gather with the intention of hacking off choice pieces of the carcass. He would later use terms from the game of cricket to assess his dilemma and disappointment. Then there was the rhythmic “cling-cling-cling” and the . There was the one time when there was pandemonium after a season’s tally fell grievously short of the norm. Daddy would be ever so vigilant. still live on. The pickers would return later and retrieve the booty for themselves. mangoes were reaped once a year. but really bent on insulting the human vultures. Leave it all to the crows!” Daddy Ramsay. scored! Daddy Ramsay was most known for his work as a blacksmith and for the magnificent works of art that he produced from iron.

while ditch diggers. Oscar Ramsay. hoes. That was my daddy. He shed his leather apron. earthmovers. I realize that those were the times when I admired him most. and then he leisurely wipes the rest of his face. malleable iron being coaxed into shape. and machetes flailing away from sunup to sundown. He dunks the newly shaped piece of iron into the water. and wheelbarrows. It hisses explosively. Looking back. The animate has conquered the inanimate. wagon and cart wheels to be replaced. He whips out his face rag and pats his brow. and molded. He takes a long lingering look at it from several angles and nods approvingly. he was actually a little offensive to the nostrils. He half turns and disgorges a mouthful of tobacco-laced spit into the center of the still-glowing coals in the forge perhaps eight to ten feet beyond where he is standing. to whom he had . With him there and then. and steam billows to the ceiling. and donkeys to be shod. for he was ready to call it a day. Hissss is the sound that emanates from that cauldron cum spittoon.188 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N occasional “cling-cling-cling” as the lighter hammers pounded the fiery. much to my delight. who needs a father? He stood tall. and loggers were manifested by antlike colonies of black and brown bodies sweltering in the tropical sun—axes. Rolling stock meant carts. horses. By the time I came along. and even the dominant sugar cane and rice mills. All in all. but it is not writhing anymore and its color has darkened somewhat. red-hot. it would appear that Daddy Ramsay had a dream of building up an integrated business that would have served the varied needs of the rice and cane farmers. and not to mention the varied harnesses worn by and essentially needed by these beasts of burden. With the sweat running down his face and his clothes clinging to his body from the sauna effect of the heat around and about him. What a show! Bravo! It is almost operatic to see a piece of iron transformed. That was a good sign. shovels. just for me. the coconut oil manufacturers. and we were off to Mrs. Just Daddy and me. Richmond’s cake shop. buggies. bovine. It was still the era of backbreaking agricultural labor when power was a mix of equine. One more trip is made to get the piece of iron out of the cooling barrel. His eldest son. Daddy spins around and heads for the water-filled barrel. Oh! The fireworks as multicolored sparks flew helter-skelter in all directions and lighted up the interior of the blacksmith shop even on the sunniest of days. Daddy is still holding the hot serpent with the pair tongs. There were always mules. and mankind. Just a few more taps from the two pounder and my favorite moment has arrived. shaped. Wait a minute! He is getting ready to put on another show. Daddy had already ditched his dream.

but equally skilled. and most of them were left with nothing much to do.THE FOUR PILLARS 189 tried to impart the rudiments of blacksmithing. Oscar was ultimately to follow the lure of a higher-paying job at the newly built U. blacksmith named Harry Mason who had his own shop about a mile away on the public road in Victoria. one of the sugar or rice mills. who successfully and with great satisfaction had been grooming his son. Blacksmith Tanner. boilers. Oscar never looked at another forge! One is left to surmise that Alexander Ramsay. and the anvil was stilled. an immigrant from the island of Barbados. blacksmithing is a solitary occupation that pitted man against iron and steel.S. Daddy became frustrated at not being able to pass on the legacy and the inherent possibilities of a trade that could present so fine and noble a way to make a living. Then again. He had also distinguished himself in the foundry and shops of the Enmore sugar factory under yet another master of the craft. While self-employed. Daddy would be summoned to join the maintenance efforts to keep the steam engines. Daddy Ramsay’s resume would have included his many years of service as blacksmith in the foundry of the Demerara Railway Co. Most things mechanical were shipped to British Guiana from the British Isles. bellows and a raging fire. or sometimes a local government authority. anvil and hammer as his allies. had long ago indicated his lack of interest in becoming a worthy and interested “heir apparent. On an as-needed basis. was a free spirit who preferred to work alone. tongs. Like so many young men in the colony. and other aged equipment at the rice mills at Cove & John from near death. he was an invincible force with which to reckon. tinsmith. The situation was dire during . No doubt. as employed at plantation Enmore—more than likely the “Bajan” transplant who had earlier arrived as a “Decker” on one of the many schooners plying the waters of the Caribbean. With forge. he would occasionally subcontract for a younger. It is worth noting that a British Guiana directory dated 1904 lists a Joseph Ramsay. His metallurgical foes just had to shape up! The trade was taught to him by his father. blacksmith. Leonard Tanner. air base during WWII. to take his place as foreman. Spare parts were not readily available and could take months on end to reach the colony. the forge stopped being fired up. blacksmith. In a short space of time. Their collaborative efforts came together whenever either of them would happen to land a “big job” which would more than likely come from the colonial government.” Father and son were to go through a strained and rocky relationship. and sometimes cooper. the tools started to rust. The war ended. in Georgetown. the capital city.

there has and always will . Mother sent someone upstairs to bring the “smelling salts. Always the man who blossomed and bloomed before his time and was not allowed to be a boy long enough. Among the multitude of “blessings” received by that young hapless assistant were included the reportable and repeatable “sore-ass disciple. the next minute he was keeling over to one side. It was later determined that he had suffered a stroke. I will hold you. Going back for centuries. if but briefly. the choice was made to return. had gathered around. One minute Daddy Ramsay was sitting upright on the plank. With both arms under Daddy’s armpits. I will help you. not sure what was happening and feeling rather helpless. to the family homestead. and no doubt to be projected into the distant future. It was a strange and eerie feeling to watch as this seemingly invincible man. In many of these situations Daddy would shine. Daddy. “my hero. saying softly something like.” Yes. He surely could impart a “blessing.” On one of his exploits at the same rice mill. Daddy. The hammer ricocheted off the errant piece of steel and delivered a glancing blow to Daddy’s skull.” By this time more members of the family. Buds was there like a shot. I was to stay for the remaining time that Daddy had left on this earth. I shouted to Buds. He continued to struggle to right himself without success. jerked his head backward. my older brother. even to the point of improving on the original.” which she promptly waved in a lingering motion under Daddy’s nostrils.” was lifted and carried like a child up those stairs into his bedroom and laid on his bed upon which he had not slept for years. “Sit up. he received a serious head injury.190 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N WWII. he gently lifted him into the upright sitting position.” It was just another Sunday morning and the plank is about to be the stage for a major scary upheaval in the life of the family. but never said a word—something very uncharacteristic. One of his “partners in crime” was instructed to hit a stubborn part with a hammer. Seems he was involved with a team in the removal and replacement of a component part. he suffered quite a gash. It fell to tradesmen of differing background and training to attempt duplications and to repair the seemingly unrepairable and the irreplaceable. Even though he was wearing his signature baggy cloth cap. all the while playing the role of “engineer. What an event: Daddy Ramsay speechless! Buds slowly unclasped his hands from across Daddy’s chest. including Mother Ramsay. We all looked from one to the other as Daddy just as slowly started to keel over sideways. He continued to let the expletives fly even as his head was being crudely bandaged. He recoiled. Daddy could swear. Don’t worry. to come quickly as “something was wrong” with Daddy. At sixteen now.

now called Guyana. the belated but limited medical intervention prevented more and further crippling of my limb(s). scenarios. When the news of my adverse condition reached Mother Ramsay—on one of her extended stays living in. The world had experienced a polio epidemic in the decade of my birth. and that sick child had better be in the hospital when I arrive. that Daddy and Mother Ramsay must have had marital problems for a long time. No doubt. British Guiana. the land of my birth. Buds. in later years. No more standing. to disassociate or remove oneself. deformed trophy of a right leg to show for it.” On that day. supporting. and more. cooking. These constables were actually auxiliary . welcomed me home with a piggyback ride past the “big house” and “the plank” to Daddy’s “little house. This remained a mystery until quite recently. without being told and without knowing the reasons why. expatriates from the British Isles—she hastily dispatched a message to my mother: “I am coming home. and holding on to the household furniture.” These are situations. In every sense of the word. the 1930s. I was there! I have this emaciated. it was Daddy’s haven and refuge. Seems I just lost the “bubblies” and became overly sluggish. “Estrangement” was a word that was unknown to me then. doubted my cherished recollections of that day. according to the dictionary.” The delay did prove to be not in my best interest—the muscles had already begun to atrophy. and happenings that the generations who have not lived through them are not entitled to know and learn about. At less than two years old. It must have been the happiest day of my young life on the day I was discharged from the hospital.” I enjoyed tummy-bursting gulps of coconut water and the thick slices of homemade bread plastered with butter served up by Daddy. it became clear to me. How could I ever forget? That little house at the back was to become my haven from that day. baking. “to arouse hatred or indifference where there had been love and caring. I was not supposed to remember anything! Even my dear mother. There seems to be no end in sight! Maybe the generation before would have known why and how Daddy Ramsay became to be known as Jailer. Some of the older men of the village would not call him by any other name. sneaky attack on my young body. and otherwise displaying her culinary exploits in the kitchen of the Cornish family.THE FOUR PILLARS 191 be those family matters with the label “grown-up people’s business. Listed among the names of rural constables appearing in the government notices placed in the Royal Gazettes of 1938/1939 is that of Alexander Ramsay of Nabaclis. was ravaged by infantile death and physical deformities. it must have been a creepy. My older brother. As told by the adults. The verb with which it is associated means.

It was while working in the Nicholson household. who had special needs. Her one regret would be that she never was asked to work in the governor’s mansion. Kenneth. Returning to Demerara in later years. Scottish expatriates. The children in the Ramsay household had a regret of their own. Us of the third generation growing up in the Ramsay household could never omit and must recount the influence of the presence of Mother Ramsay in our lives.192 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N peace officers with limited powers of arrest. with a firm hand on the belt and the other hand with a viselike grip on the “scruff-of-the-neck. It was the compassion and the special bond that developed between young Louisa and Eve that would cause her to travel to Scotland with the Nicholsons. which entailed her having to “live in” and be at their beck and call. In truth. At the end of it all. she had spent some of her time attending schools that trained her in the perfection of the domestic and culinary arts. Eve. Louisa Samuels had worked as a domestic servant. and Maple. bail may be granted. and the four children of her niece. Those were the months when she would have been summoned to take over the duties in one of the white people’s kitchen. they would each have been able to say with conviction that it was a truism: the governor had a white salt jar! . there were short spells of respite from her sergeant-majorly regimentation. that she became inextricably attached to one of the children. There were her two grandchildren. From an early age as a young woman.” the offender would be marched off to the police lockup to sleep it off and await the weekly arrival of the district magistrate. Had Mother gotten that coveted assignment. In the not-so-serious cases. We suspect that “Daddy” was a leading and unrelenting advocate of law and order. one girl and five boys. Hubert (“Buds”). named in order of their birth: Leslie (“Pats”). Randolph and Maurice. These six. were to experience the wrath and strictest upbringing as practiced by Mother Ramsay. Their authority would more than likely be activated to deal with domestic disturbances and to quell drunken brawls. she was in great demand and actually worked with some of the most prominent white families. Doris. While abroad.

Batman arrived on October 3 and Gobin followed on October 4 in the same year. Added to that. They seem not to aspire to much. respect. Their parents were delighted. were at work on their own special friendship. Batman’s grandparents are a combination of African slaves and creoles. Their cricketing exploits did not quite manifest themselves nor were they duplicated in the classrooms. The sustained rivalry between these two for scholastic excellence and the leadership of their class would blossom and grow into a lasting healthy respect and admiration that was mutual. born in British Guiana (now Guyana) and a Creole. Batman stayed 193 .BATMAN AND GOBIN While Gobin’s antecedents are traceable to a trip on a ship crammed full of indentured laborers that included his father from India. They both loved the game of cricket with a passion. and camaraderie would be built. They both became child brides. Esme. Neither of these young ladies excelled in school. The knowledge by Batman and Gobin that one of their parents in each case did perform with distinction and that their laurels were enshrined in the same school they now were students in forged a bond between them also. Batman’s mother. and Lela. sister of the former. sister of the latter. The moniker stuck! Two classes (grades) behind Batman and Robin in the same school. called Gobin’s dad Daddy Jeet (his name was Ramjeet). Neither of them was aware—or if either of them had been aware. they never did share or care—of each other’s genealogical profile in those early years of their lives. Gobin would keep his own name while he renamed his buddy “The Batman” to recognize his prowess with the cricket bat. they were born a day apart. This turned out to be the common ground upon which their friendship. A further sign of the neighborly warmth between these two families. became classmates at the only school in the village. and Gobin’s father. Gobin struggled some but remained determined. Batman and Gobin were to work through the grades side by side. Gobin and his siblings called the head of Batman’s family Daddy Sidney while Batman and his siblings. Batman was a fourth-generation while Gobin was a second-generation-born British Guianese. born in India and traveled to this far away land at nine years old. in turn.

Gobin’s older brother would be included in the starting lineup. They continued to look out for each other as they played intercollegiate cricket on the same team as teenagers and later as young men. The years came and went. Gobin.” What was missing. Ethnic and religious differences abounded and were part of the fabric. Respect for the beliefs of others: put this principle into practice as being vital and uplifting to and for the common good. Gobin was in his element. Gobin. but most notably in the area of education. All-Indian teams were constantly trying to entice this star player. and took a prayerful stance and demeanor. touched their palms together. turned out to be the integrators of one or other cricket team. The school that Batman and Gobin attended was a Christian school under the control and jurisdiction of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. Once he took his first run-up to the wicket and delivered the first ball of his first over. The colonial governments of Guyana failed its citizens in many ways. and used as bases and foundations upon which to build something of value. prayers at the break for lunch. multiracial village the one place that gave their lives a structure with which they were comfortable but not satisfied. without realizing it. . The students of the Hindu and Muslim faiths were not catered for during the daily activities of the school. in this “land of six peoples. They virtually played the game together on every single cricket pitch on the east coast of Demerara. every commonality ought to have been stressed. Equally. these two young friends were to mature and did continue to make the same multicultural. He never budged. the very life and existence. The non-Christians simply followed the rest. cricket was their coming-of-age and their primary bonding element. There were prayers to start the day. Whether they repeated the words of the prayer or just stood mute is still an open question. and finally prayers to close the day. was the foresight to formally channel and explain the sources and reasons for these differing beliefs—elementary anthropology and comparative religion. did have some moments of discomfiture when that team of black players would show up with this solitary Indian in the midst to play an all-colored team in another village. surely. These two young men of different ethnicities. and on several occasions. Looking back. On occasions. They were born there but were not sure that it was the place where they ought to spend the rest of their lives. to join their squad.194 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N on course and was an above-average student. highlighted. Batman and Gobin continued through the same school and finally took the school-leaving examinations at the same sitting. a brilliant medium-paced bowler. closed their eyes.

It turned out. Not so with Gobin. Batman could not stand being treated as if he was invisible. Indian. his brothers and their peers. Could their friendship survive the erosions that lay ahead? Without notice or warning. Gobin’s little sister. or “rainbow. Gobin. not to mention his peers—to acquire. Lela was soon married to an older man a few months shy of her sixteenth birthday and left the village. The financial burden of high school attendance now loomed. For the next two years.” Somewhere along the way. The few Indian female classmates would simply drop out of school and go into a secluded lifestyle in which they were seldom seen in public. Gobin was never keen on singing in his classes at the “regular” Methodist school. Gobin had all along been attending these after-school classes where Hindi was being taught. and consciously inculcate. He never seemed to have much time for or hardly any interest in games of cricket. Gobin failed the examinations. cosmopolitan. Proceeding with caution and following the lead and example of his buddy. He smoked and became a serious drinker of alcohol. just stop speaking to him? He would soon surmise that it had something to do with her parents and not Gobin. Still. not unlike so many young men in the village.THE FOUR PILLARS 195 Gobin failed and Batman passed. the ways and bearing of the Englishman. the forces of that divergence had already been at work. Gobin entered a school steeped in Hinduism while Batman enrolled in a private nondenominational school. adopt. Soon he was to become a “party animal. here he . Divergences in the lives of these two friends had already been in motion for some time now. in an attempt to learn what would cause his dear friend to drop the one activity he always cared so much about. while their separation continued to congeal. gradually but irretrievably. There was also some singing going on there. which offered him a partial scholarship. even more than food it sometimes appeared. they were being rigorously prepared for the junior Cambridge examinations. sponsored and supervised by the University of Cambridge. who treaded gingerly on the periphery. Batmen was puzzled and decided to follow at a safe distance. How could Lela. England. Batman squeaked by with a pass in the lower quartiles. Once again. as they perceived. Gobin started to leave the schoolyard in a hurry as soon as classes let out at the end of the day. The ways and culture of Gobin’s people were laid bare before Batman’s eyes in just one more lesson among many. and without being too obvious. whether African. Batman had already begun—as his father and uncles before him. to appreciate “english music.” much to the consternation and embarrassment of his parents.” had been taught some rudimentary dance steps by a few Afro-Guyanese young ladies.



was singing at the top of his lungs. Batman would proceed to tease his friend mercilessly. There was obviously no malice intended, so Gobin accepted the from-the-heart apologies. It was then explained that the song that was being practiced had been the brand-new national anthem of India. It was news to Batman that there will be merriment and celebrations on that special day that meant so much to our Indian friends and neighbors. Not only Batman but also some other Afro-Guyanese schoolmates would occasionally linger uninvited around the periphery of that Indian training classes. It did not take very long for them to pick up a few words of Hindi. As for the national anthem, they all joined in at every opportunity. There was this one tutor/teacher who voiced his displeasure and soon became vocally hostile, saying he did not want “none blackman” around. His parting shot was that the few noninvitees should “find dem own people fo teach dem deh own African language.” That man surely missed a great opportunity to aid and advance multiculturism in a forever multiethnic Guyana. What could have been so bad or so wrong for them to have expanded not only that class but also their narrow minds? These youngsters were already classmates getting their education, which was being taught in English. The irony of all ironies was the fact they would end up in high school together, there to wrestle with Latin and the linguistic intricacies of the French language. Some of the destructive behavior among the young is traceable to a pervasive idleness induced by high unemployment and a lack of training facilities. Applying for and chasing after job openings and vacancies for some was indeed a full-time activity. Scores of youngsters would converge on an establishment that had advertised a single vacancy. Batman led the way in the composition of cover letters and also in completing application forms. He had also accumulated a fine collection of testimonials and letters of recommendation. His percentage of interviews to job applications submitted was above average. Still, he remained among the ranks of the unemployed who now had some stories to tell and pointers to offer to other job hunters. To find one’s self amongst the last five candidates at times could be regarded as quite a remarkable achievement under those trying circumstances. Batman arrived rather early—to travel from the country to the capital city at the best of times could be problematic because of inadequate and unreliable means of transport, so arrangements were made to sleep over at relatives the night before—at the offices of the Telephone Company (Telecoms). In short spells,



four other interviewees for the same job had arrived also. Soon they were comparing notes, an exercise which revealed that three were not Cambridge certified while Batman and one other were thus qualified. A consensus emerged that a job was in the offing for one or other of the two diplomats. All five were duly interviewed. Batman could not understand how it was that there was never a response from the people at Telecoms. The months had rolled into nearly a year when Batman, still pounding the pavement and unemployed, met his purported rival from that earlier interview in Georgetown dressed in the uniform of a messenger. Batman was surprised to learn that he had not landed that job either. It was even more galling and frustrating when Batman was told by his main rival that the job was given to one of the other three—Wilkinson was his name and his father worked in the machine shop at Telecoms. Besides, he was of the right color. Their school years did occasionally put them into some sticky situations, and they tended to fight some of the same battles. None of the fights they were ever in had anything to do with race rivalries. While in the lower grades, Cowboys and Indians was one of the games they would play between and after classes. There were no special criteria for being one or the other, for being an Indian or a Cowboy. Being on one side or the other the last time out could very well determine whether one was now on “Cochise side” or on “Custer side.” Lessons in class about Columbus and his voyages to the new world—the various attempts to find a northwest passage by sailing through the polar ice of the North Pole were to come much later—had made it clear that there were differences between Indians and Indians of North America. There was this Indian student in the same class who fancied himself as Cochise and Sitting Bull all rolled into one. He always wanted to be an “Indian” whenever the game was played. Krishna was his name. In hand-to-hand scenes he was transformed into this lethal avenging warrior of the prairies, punching, kicking, applying side-head headlocks and sleeper holds. One day he lifted Batman bodily off the ground and slammed him to the grassy playground with a deafening thud. All the action stopped; there was a hush in the air as Batman laid still and not breathing. It seemed like forever as a small crowd started to gather. It was common knowledge that near-drowning victims need to be “rolled” to revive them. Turned face down and on his stomach, intermittent pressure was applied to the back where the lungs were likely to be—the rolling worked for the limp body that was Batman. There was this gasping, bellowing sound as he inhaled and exhaled followed by the deepest breath with more to follow in quick succession.



Brought together by whatever reason or purpose—boys will always be boys—they will tend to be a departure from being of the “best behavior.” With nothing better to do, a group would just decide spontaneously to pick upon and harass some old man for no reason at all. It took the form of hiding and shouting names at the victim. Bhoopsingh, dressed in Indian garb of dhoti and turban, became a favorite target. With his bag over one shoulder to carry his alms for the day and a bamboo staff—just barely thinner than this seer of a man—principally to ward off the dogs, he was strikingly different. In his disgust and annoyance, Bhoopsingh would issue his usual vexatious curse of “nine days” in which his tormentors would all be dead. On the many occasions when confronted by a dilettante triumphantly calling attention that it was the ninth day of his survival, Bhoopsingh would confidently remind him that “Day nah done”—the day was still not over! Just about every village on the coast seemingly had one of those swimming holes—a stream or man-made trench where boys would gravitate and assemble in order to cleanse the body and try to stay cool from the tropical heat. Nudity was the rule; self-imposed prudery was absent and unknown. One other rule was bent or broken on this particular day—some sort of comparison was made between the testicular endowments of Norbert (a little fellow) and “Flood” (a bigger fellow)—when a fight started. Flood got in a hard right for starters. Norbert got in close and in an unbelievable feat hoisted his opponent above his head. Before Flood could counter, Norbert in a flash spun around twice and slammed this larger quarry to the ground, “padkay” style—a body slam. One look told the story; Flood’s arm was bent out of shape in two unusual places—fractures, it was learned, when he was conveyed and received the attention of the hospital staff. In a matter of days, this motley crew was back together with Flood’s arm in plaster and supported by a sling. Batman eventually was forced to submerge his growing bourgeoisie pride and tendencies. His godfather was a successful and respectable builder/contractor who confronted him about “the dignity of labor” and the rewards of getting one’s hands dirty. This newfound mentor knew what he was talking about, having had to leave school too early to aid in his family’s survival and never having been involved in any sort of paper chase. At the insistence of his mother—she most prophetically reasoned that if an “office job” was in his future, he did not have to sit idle in the meantime—Batman would leave home for the first time and travel several hundred miles to join his godfather on a drainage and irrigation project. Returning to the village some six months thereafter, he went in search



of his friend Gobin who he learned was staying in the city to be near his new job, only returning to his home in the village on weekends. Batman would have preferred, and was anxious, to get the full story from Gobin himself. Village rumor had it that Gobin’s father “Uncle Jeet,” through some “connections,” had paid handsomely by way of a bribe for the job his son had landed. Batman went into a deep contemplation. The unfairness of having been denied a job at Telecoms, for which he was qualified, because of someone else being more “connected,” was his buddy Gobin—and his father was now possibly inflicting the same on an unknown job candidate. “Uncle Jeet” had always been regarded as a grown-up who always seemed to set good examples—what does stand out was his reputation as the only milk vendor who did not dilute his product with water or other extraneous liquids. Gobin was greeted at the railway station by Batman who had decided that a surprise would be in order. Dressed appropriately for his office job, Gobin looked the part. They both laughed uproariously as Batman mockingly pulled on Gobin’s necktie. There was so much to talk about. Batman had already decided to stay clear of conversations pertaining to the circumstances and conditions of his friend’s recruitment and appointment. There was some puzzlement as to how and why a “buddy” who would share his food, even part with the shirt off his back, would lapse into amnesiac silence when it was time to share vital information and knowledge about a potential employer that had vacancies. It was a given, his hard work in construction was paying more than that of most entry-level office work, including Gobin’s. Being more “qualified” could never be a reason why he would not go out of his way to be congratulatory and let his friend know that he shared his happiness. Batman was full of stories relative to his experiences working outdoors among older and hardened workmen. He had learned so much. He was not quite ready to share with Gobin his plans to leave the country in order to further his education in London, England. The rot had already set in—oh, the fissures of men. Devoid of the daily and ongoing interactions, whether they realized or cared to acknowledge it, their friendship could never be the same. As young men—not boys with their boyish ways and outlook—they were now being confronted with life issues of monumental proportions. These would take the forms of racial and ethnic, social and political—the hardcore issues that no game, cricket or what have you, or the good, happy, and carefree times spent together in the past would be enough to resolve. A notable visitor to the colony from India leaves the advice



and admonition to the effect of “Do not even consider to exercise the right and option to come back to Mother India. Put down your bucket where you are. Who owns the land, owns the country!” Equally, Garveyite sentiments were passed down and among Afro-Guyanese. Later, pride in one’s race and African heritage would be advocated, thus the visit of Eze through the auspices and sponsorship of the LCP (League of Colored Peoples). Further, ethnic and race posturing were inculcated with the independence of India and Pakistan, and later Ghana, from British colonial rule and domination. By 1947, the minions and underlings of the colonial administration were marshalling their forces. After having consolidated the years of control exercised through the Court of Policy, this force underpinned by the planter class, local and metropolitan, saw themselves as the logical inheritors and rulers. These sons and daughters of a combination of local whites, mulattos, quadroons, octoroons, and other interlopers elevated by class and position were poised to lord it over the unrepresented proletariat. The results of elections held for the first time under universal adult suffrage indicated where the future battle lines would be drawn, zigzagging along race, class, and to a lesser extent, religion. The monolithic nature and character of the Indo-Guyanese voting pattern had started to gel and harden. Set against this phenomenon was arrayed the cracked and splintered tendencies of the Afro-Guyanese “conscience” vote. Then came the only opportunity ever presented to the Guyanese electorate to vote ideology instead of ethnicity. The seemingly united front of the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) won the 1953 elections convincingly. Within a matter of months, the British government sent in troops and suspended the constitution. A series of events and happenings transpired over the ensuing years that would lay bare the flaws in the original thinking that the Indians and the Africans have somehow found some common political ground. The cracks and fissures in the body politic were made manifestly open along racial lines when the elections came along in August 1961. The predominantly Indian support for the PPP was enough to give it the majority. Batman became convinced that the country he loved was never going to be the same. He had to run a gauntlet of PPP supporters as he left the polling station at Vigilance, where he worked in an official capacity, and was informed that from now on he would be sweeping the streets.



What up Sanshow! Now you have pissed me off! You asked for it. Apparently u just awoke like Rip Van Winkle. Look how long I sent that post after you spat on the Burnham’s name! He is not here to reply so I did, you should have left it at that! I believe in the Israeli principles, I work for one! If one slaps me, I will destroy their family, house, dogs, grandchildren etc.! You love the past don’t u! Ranting, comic relief? So what! We are laughing all the way to the bank. Go get a life or a well paying job! Medication is cheap, take it, all welfare persons get it free. I do not care for the people from Africa, I am a Guyanese with Black, Chinese, Indian and Carib genes. You honestly think one can find their way back to Africa. The welcome will be false! I know nothing of their customs, of what I see they are barbaric, just look what they do to their women! Just check back how our cowardly wimpy “ancestors came here! They were sold into slavery! They were weak! Slaves are weak! I rather die fighting that be a slave, I despise them! I hate cowards and wimps! They do not deserve to breath the same air I breathe! I do not care what you think of me. I know I am hardworking and will speak my mind, regardless of the consequences! So you and your tribe of misfits can have a reunion and bullshit one another. My life and happiness is my immediate family. I do not care for cousins, aunts and uncles. I made me by my hard work! So get a life and leave me alone, I like it that way! Harold E. Hopkinson, the name on my birth certificate!

undefined, February 12, 2006, America Online

So many emigrants to the United States, while citing the many freedoms that come with living in their adoptive land, are tempted, when it suits their purpose, to abuse the freedom of speech. This anomaly is more prevalent on the Internet. It is as if an e-mail address and a Web site with the semblance of concomitant anonymity endow them with some sort of shield and also a license. How else do we explain the barb slinging and character assassination? Impervious to the fact that millions of decent inquiring people take the Internet highway on a regular basis, they disgorge their trash with reckless abandon. While surfing the net, one is apt to run into some appalling wrecks. Stopping or slowing down when one sees any signs reading “Guyana” can cause some serious “rear-ending” and a myriad of cyber mishaps. There are so many other generic links that one is loathe to pay attention to while surfing the net as the consequences are likely to be the same. Dem people dah can propah cuss mattie! As to the chat rooms, stay out of those. It would be a gross degradation of the character of the lowest fisherwoman, cart man, or pork knocker to equate them with the likes of those “cyberlimers.” They did get out of the bush; still, there is a lot of bush in them. We know our people, don’t we? Now, when this writer takes to the super cyber highway, there are certain exits that are bypassed in a flash. Still have not quite recovered from this chat room gem: “Name one Black man that has done anything good for Guyana.” This effrontery is better dealt with elsewhere and in another context. Now for the big, the bold, and the bad. Harold is his name. Harold E. Hopkinson is the name on his birth certificate, he tells the millions on the internet. Using the e-mail address topgun357@msn, this despicable, uninformed, deprecating excuse for a man chose to take the Sancho name in vain. Not satisfied, he launches a diatribe against all of Africa, our ethnicity, and by inference, the Diaspora. Since launching that attack, he has apparently slithered into his same or another convenient cyber silo. Wither art thou, noble defender of the dead? Through diligent research, a virtual genealogical resurrection is hereby prepared, with no ghoulish intent, for your edification and soul purging. Of course, “[your] life and happiness is [your] immediate family.” Show them your love. Step aside as we offer them an anticipatory serving of genealogical soul



food. Your cousins, aunts, and uncles are welcome to sup and find deliverance. All are welcome! Whatever is the matter? Why are you so hard on yourself? Being “a Guyanese with Black, Chinese, Indian, and Carib genes” can only be a life sentence if you choose to make it so. One of the richest “black” men in North America, Jamaican by birth, is reportedly an ethnic mixture with at least two, if not three, of the four “genes” that you so laboriously and shamefully carry. Then again, black is as black as, given the history of Guyana’s white master-slave mistress liaison, some milk may have gotten into the coffee. Got my drift? No! Then maybe the tar brush may have been stored in the whitewash tub. There is always an explanation! So, Harold, cool you tempah, bwoy! As it was on other plantations, Cove would constantly receive replenishments to its field worker base. At various times, these allocations of indentured laborers would be made. The General Wyndham arrived on May 13, 1859, from Hong Kong with 450 men; twenty-two were allotted to Cove and John. Just the other day, someone with the e-mail address potarogirl04 seems to be spearheading the search, on behalf of mutual friends, to locate three brothers (Terrance Hopkinson, Errol Hopkinson, and Herman Hopkinson). Their father was either an inspector or sergeant in the Guyana police force, and his name was Herman Hopkinson. I can only hope you are contacted by someone else. This book will not be out soon! PCC Catalogue Reference: PROB/11/1360 is the National Archives depositary of the last will and testament of Benjamin Hopkinson, formerly of Demerary, South America, but now of Bath. An excerpt, compressed for our purpose, follows: I give and bequeath to the poor of the Colony of Demerary, sum of twenty (20) guilders of Holland currency . . . unto my Dear Wife Jane, all my household goods, furniture, plate, china, linen, etc . . . . that I may possess in England, and her jewelry, paraphernalia, my coaches and chariot . . . for her own absolute use and benefit exclusive of any other provision I have already made for her . . . I give and bequeath unto my two Nieces, Caroline Hogg and Elizabeth Hogg, daughters of my Sister, Elizabeth Hogg the sum of six hundred pounds to be paid to them when they shall severally attain the age of twenty-one . . . In such manner as my two Trustees, John Hopkinson and Thomas Cumming.



I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Ann Hopkinson, the daughter of Johanna Hopkinson, a Mulatto woman of Demerary, sum of three thousand pounds lawful money of Great Britain when she shall attain the age of twenty-one years but not otherwise . . . until such a time . . . yearly sum of one hundred fifty pounds . . . my Brother, John Hopkinson and Thomas Cumming, Trustees shall dispose for the maintenance and education of the said Elizabeth Ann Hopkinson as they shall think fit. And before she becomes twenty-one the said 3,000 pounds shall sink into my residuary estate. I give and bequeath unto my niece and Godchild Maria Edith Jane Lang and unto my Goddaughter Jane Hopkinson Smith daughter of James Smith . . . 100 pounds apiece. I give, devise and bequeath unto and for the use of My Said Wife Jane Hopkinson, my Brother, the said John Hopkinson, Thomas Cumming, James Smith, Thomas Rogers and Benjamin James Hopkinson, the son of the said Johanna Hopkinson, all my plantations and real estate whatsoever situated in the Colony of Demerary or elsewhere in South America . . . also all my goods, chattels, personal estate and effects . . . In Trust by and out of the annual rents, profits and interest of such of the said several Trust estates . . . pay the following annuities: (1) to my said dear Wife Jane Hopkinson and her assigns annual sum of 350 pounds (2) to my Sister Grace Hopkinson and her assigns . . . annuity of 30 pounds for her life (3) to my Sister Eleanor Hopkinson and her assigns . . . annuity of 30 pounds for her life (4) to my Sister Martha Hopkinson and her assigns . . . annuity of 30 pounds for her life (5) to my Brother Joseph Hopkinson and his assigns . . . annuity of 30 pounds for her life (6) to my Sister Ann Hopkinson and her assigns . . . annuity of 30 pounds for her life . . . several legacies and annual sums and all my Debts. I owe . . . charges on the house I now live in . . . be payable . . . I do hereby charge the same to the amounts arising from my said Trust personal estate and effects and on my plantations in Demerary . . .

. the estate of John Hopkinson. then . . . . 1795 . to the use of John Thomas Hopkinson another son of the said Johanna Hopkinson if he shall attain the age of 21 years. . do hereby give. . . articles. . . Except that the minority of plantation Drill shall be subject to the payment .). . the brother of Benjamin (Sr. . on attaining 21 years . .470 pounds sterling as compensation . . administrators and assigns forever to and for his own use and benefit but in case the said Benjamin James Hopkinson shall happen to die before 21 years . his heirs executors. owing to John Clay . . his heirs executors administrators and assigns forever . . . . . . . . received 95. . (that) to all that plantation Cove with the several Negro slaves and cattle. . of the debt to John Clay. . attaining age 21 years severally . shall be totally exonerated from all such debts . I give and bequeath plantation Cove to the use and benefit of all and every child and children begotten or to be begotten by said Wife Jane Hopkinson . (and) if he dies before 21 years . devise and bequeath the same unto . . . In case I shall have no children by my wife who shall live to be 21 years .206 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N (except on my plantation Cove and on my minority of plantation Drill . . On August 1. and as to my part (1/2) of plantation Drill (subject to debt) . . . . 1834. to and for his and their use and benefit and I direct that the produce of plantation Cove in the mean time during the minority of the said Benjamin James Hopkinson may be applied by my said Trustees for the use and benefit of the said Benjamin James Hopkinson for his maintenance and education and in case of his death before 21 years . . . implements. In case neither Benjamin James Hopkinson nor John Thomas Hopkinson shall live to attain 21 years . Worthy of note is this fact. I give the said plantation Cove unto such and the same person and as hereinafter give my plantation called Orange Nassau and Teighmouth Manor in the event the said Benjamin James Hopkinson and John Thomas Hopkinson . . . for the use and benefit of the said John Thomas Hopkinson in his maintenance and education. It is my will and direction that my plantation called Rotterdam (WCD) remain subservient to the settlement made under my marriage with said Jane Hopkinson date on or about 17 January. Benjamin James Hopkinson. improvements and appurtenances belonging in Trust . . . . . bequeath the same to said John Thomas Hopkinson . . to Benjamin James Hopkinson. . the son of the said Johanna Hopkinson if he shall attain the age of twenty years. and divided equally.

Cambridge. In addition. Jonathan and John Thomas. 1871. and 1881 enumerate Jonathan Hopkinson and his family. a separate claim (number 576) made for 413 slaves on plantations Ann’s Grove and Two Friends in the names of Benjamin James Hopkinson and his mulatto buddy Hugh Rogers brought in jointly 55. Somerset. Jonathan. at age seventeen. Elizabeth Ann. For our purpose.THE FOUR PILLARS 207 for the 713 slaves for which he had claimed compensation. 1845. it must be assumed that Benjamin made provisions for his Demerara-born children to join him in England. The October 6. For the various plantations in Demerara in which they had an interest. Cove & Craig Milne. He married Jane once back in Bath. He died in the county of Kent in 1882. Until all the pieces are in place. where his will was finally proved in 1806. the Hopkinson family and their heirs would have collected some 203. In 1802. executor of B. J. it would have been interesting to conjure up a time warp in which our Harold Hopkinson is the central character in a couple of situations. he graduated in 1804 at age nineteen and is listed as a Cambridge University Alumni for the period 1206-1900. it is enough to link him to Demerara by noting that he was appointed a member of the British Guiana Court of Policy in 1835. Benjamin Hopkinson had already made a good start in Tobago before going to Demerara.880 pounds sterling as compensation for “the loss of the services” of the slaves over which they had some control. Hopkinson had retreated to England. at some point. Sarcasm aside. B. Hopkinson. concerning the exorbitant fees being charged by judicial officers in the colony. his vast estate as documented is an indicator of his meteoric rise as a plantation owner. The England Censuses of 1851.830 pounds sterling. 1861. and John . secretly. On top of that. There is mention in the governor’s dispatch of having received a complaint from a Mr. The “one drop of African blood” did not blind this man to assuming his responsibilities to the four children—Benjamin James. property holdings in “Tobago and elsewhere in South America and the Republic of Holland” were placed in trust. That she actually used his surname while she continued to live at plantation Success could indicate that he may have married her. he is one of the trustees who must decide the time and make the arrangements to send the younger Hopkinsons—Elizabeth. By 1842. First. White. Oxford. Benjamin James Hopkinson matriculated from Oriel College. Entering Trinity College. quatroons all—borne him by the mulatto woman Johanna Hopkinson. Royal Gazette reports on a pending execution sale of plantations John. J. From his will of 1801.

The plantation is apparently still viable as it received an allotment of thirty-one East Indian emigrants. February 27. “You will have to shoot me first!” While still unable to determine when the Hopkinsons finally relinquished all of their interests in British Guiana. Leahy orders him to step aside or face the consequences. we find that by 1904. The same newspaper reports on May 18 that “grinding has started on plantations Hope and Cove & John this week. They were dropped off at said station by the midday train as per report of the Daily Chronicle. would he have voted to keep the “not white enough” one in Demerara? Take two! It is 1823.208 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Thomas—off to England. newly arrived and indentured to plantation Cove & John. it is mopping up time. Colonel Leahy and a band of men enter the gates of plantation Cove and confront the resident Mr. 1904. Would our Harold have defiantly said. Hopkinson who feebly denies that his slaves were ever a part of the rebellion. the militias have all but put the slaves to rout.” Ignorance never settles a question. Cove & John ranks high enough to have its own train station. Saturday. . as was the practice.

It is inconceivable, unbelievable, and really boggles the mind that this, the premier and pioneering village steeped in tradition and welling with pride, could have fallen so low. At its zenith, the village of Victoria (formerly plantation Northbrook) was showered with accolades and held up as an emulative example of progress to which other and younger newly formed villages in the local government sphere could and should aspire. This trailblazer of the will to govern (or misgovern), free from the tutelage and interference of the plantation owners, had with great confidence took the first faltering, shaky “baby steps” which could lead to the desired ends—viability and self-sufficiency. Whether it was an exercise in congratulatory self-aggrandizement by the colonial administrators, the local newspapers, notably the Daily Chronicle, reported regularly upon the civic and political strivings of Victoria—the good, the bad, and the ugly. The levels of copycat sophistication by way of language, dress and couture, and posturing became part of the District News section. There were outgrowths of civic and social organizations that would reflect this state of affairs: The Victoria-Belfield Agricultural Society, the Victoria Burial Society, the Victoria Institute, the Victoria Young People’s Bible Union, the Victoria Young People’s Athletic Club, the Victoria Wesley Guild, the Victoria Working Women’s Society, and the Victoria Loan Bank Association. It would seem all aspects of the village’s life were covered. The various activities stretched and spanned the gamut of debates on subjects of the day to athletic sports (including cricket) and an amalgam of participatory offerings which were expected to build and strengthen body and soul. Additionally, Victoria had gradually become a desirable destination for the colonial administrators and the upper crust whenever they chose to leave the confines of the capital city, Georgetown. The ground had already been prepared when the horse-racing tracks, the railway station of the Demerara Railway Company, the hotel and guest houses and other supporting facilities were strategically sited on the lands of the neighboring plantation Belfield. Any spillover was effectively accommodated by the resident “big houses” just on the eastern boundary of Victoria, most notably the D’Aguiar residential home and guest house.



One must still wonder and question why the Belfield-Victoria corridor never did become a combined local authority and colonial administrative hub of consequence. The magistrate’s court and police compound previously located in Belfield would soon take a westward move to plantation Cove & John (Victoria’s neighbor, to its west) which continued to prosper as a grinding estate—a sugar producer. It is perfectly clear that besides tapping the labor force of the fledgling villages, the land-owning classes were not prepared or predisposed to participate or aid in the development and future success of the contiguous villages and their new neighbors—ex-slaves, apprenticed laborers, and the indentured. Seems a cemetery, its own village offices and some six churches, for Victoria were to become just “the stuff that dreams were made of.” Almost missed are the three rum shops, two of which are owned by and licensed to Portuguese expatriate newcomers. Following the 1838 completion of the transfer of title (en block) to the eighty-three original purchasers of plantation Northbrook, which they renamed Victoria, almost immediately sales of individual rights to plots and parts thereof would commence. A perusal of Allocation 1840 partially indicates the granting of transports but does not fully reveal the inherent gaps between date of sale and actual official transfer. It is indeed a revelation as the inferences of transfers are manifested into titles/transports on August 26, 1854, per the Royal Gazette. There are now some 103 individuals entitled to lots and parts of lots—ranging from 1/8 (of 1/83) to full allocations of 1/83. Chairman Stephen Henry Goodman and his commissioners somehow apparently were able to dispense with an allocation exercise straight from hell—the belated and oft-delayed partitioning of plantation Victoria under Ordinances No.4 (1851) and No.1 (1852). In order to identify the allocation(s) to Scipio Samuels and Primus Samuels, forbears of this researcher, a tedious exercise which transformed the narrative presentations of the Royal Gazette into the columnar offering of Allocation ’54 is now followed. The troubles of the owners of land in the village and the village council were only just beginning. The accumulations of sales of lots by those with doubtful transports/titles and also those delinquent in the payment of taxes together exacerbated a bad situation. In so many instances, the owner of a minute portion could and did jeopardize the bona fides of the majority owners. The resultant execution sale of the offending property resulted in a loss of revenue for the village administration and disposition of the land of other owners through no fault of their own. The matter of the fragmentation of individual lots of land had always been of concern to the village council who did everything within its power to discourage the practice. A ratepayers meeting of June 14, 1909, had “the subdivision of



lots” high on its agenda. Reference was made to a 1866 newspaper notice, by one Samuel Burke, warning persons not to purchase any portions of land less than a quarter as title would not be given. This “law” was not a new one, nor had it been framed by council. The matter was then scheduled to be raised at the next annual conference of village chairmen with a view of obtaining sanction to define the “fifths” as lots. There was some reluctance on the part of council in those situations where they had to commence and follow through with the legal processes that would ultimately lead to an execution sale. For year after year, this nagging question became an agenda item at annual conferences of the village elders. From reports of council meetings, as reported in the District News section of the Daily Chronicle, it can be surmised that they wrestled with their problems resolutely. The soft and unreliable tax base was and has always been a restrictive element. An agrarian community constantly plagued by a less-than-adequate superstructure had to tackle drainage and irrigation challenges of enormous proportions. One must still try to separate incompetence from lack of experience and training—a small group with minimal management skills, loftily steeped in eloquence and their understandings of parliamentary procedures. Still, it was the quality of performance of the village overseer, the paid executive arm of the administration, which counted the most. A report of note appearing in the Chronicle, April 7, 1909, tells of a Victoria village-council meeting chaired by H. D. Dolphin: A letter from a Jason Dover comes before council. He is asking that Lot 70, Section A be assessed as his property. It is then revealed that this lot had never been put on the assessment books and that no rates and taxes had been collected on same. The village charts describes it as the property of one Michael, heirs of Luiz Fernandes, and in their possession for thirty-two years and had paid no rates/taxes. Whatever may have transpired—acts of omission or commission—in the intervening years, title had been originally granted to one Philip Robson in the August 1854 allocations appearing in the registrar’s listings. To their credit, council did get some things done, much to the benefit of the village: overseers and rangers were hired and fired, tenders for structural maintenance were put out and contractors hired accordingly, and sea defenses were strengthened and irrigation kokers and canals kept up to standards. Outside of their control were the seething, simmering hostilities of the sugar planters: Why would slaves want to be anything but, and why would they not respond with gratitude to the benevolence extended to them? Devoid of any semblance of a manufacturing sector within the boundaries of the village, it was still in the power of the sugar planters to exert much, or little, economic and political



pressure depending upon the prevailing conditions of the day. Like other villages, forays into peasant cane farming were launched. The Daily Chronicle, dated February 23, 1904, was the purveyor of the following dissemination from the West Indian Committee circular indicating that “some substantial progress has been made during the past three years”: Peasant Cane Farming in British Guiana Acres in Cultivation 1903 Essequibo (incl Wakenaam) Demerara Berbice 580 308 130 — 1,018 1900 45 36 — — 71

In his History of Victoria Village, William N. Arno, a native son of the village, presents a shining example of an attempt to bring some semblance of order to the administration of that beloved place. After a protracted period of meetings and consultations, a commendable “charter” came into being in 1845. It was designated as an “agreement entered into by the following persons in the name and behalf of themselves and the other proprietors of Victoria village for the good regulation and general benefit of said estate.” With its rules numbered from the first to the twentieth, the length of the title more than made up for any apparent deficiency as regard the unforeseen. Whatever legitimacy and prestige it may have garnered was added by the signature of Thomas Porter Jr., owner of plantation Enmore, to acknowledge his tutelage and his civic interest in the parish. While rules 12 and 13 were quite clear on the matter of the disposal of land to strangers “without the consent of the president and committee,” they failed to tackle the already looming division into smaller and smaller portions of existing parcels (e.g. one half of a half lot, etc.). Every one of the economic avenues that were traversed with hopes of leading to viability based on agriculture had its own obstacle. Peasant cane farming was based upon the whims and fancies of neighboring sugar manufacturers who would drive some hard and onerous bargains at harvest time. Like cane farmers everywhere, those at Victoria soon found that they were just as vulnerable as the sugar workers who toiled directly for the plantation proprietors. During slavery,



through the short period of apprenticeship and thenceforth, the versatility of the coconut and its palm tree would be a godsend for the African in British Guiana. The manufacture of coconut oil was embraced and for a time heavily pursued and became a source of employment and garnered substantial human and capital resources. It was soon realized that there were limitations to the yield of the existing coconut palm trees and replenishment took years. There were also the widespread plagues of disease that appeared from time to time. Even more devastating was the decision of the nearby coconut estate owners to stop selling their coconuts but rather to produce oil themselves using the alternative manufacturing method going the copra route. A chance reading of the papers dated January 4, 1809, carries as the first publication emanating out of the Demerara County through the High Court of Supreme Judicature a declaration of title granted to Shelon Ashby, namely, sublot S, known as the West 1/2 of East 1/2 of Lot 37, Section B Victoria Village, East Coast, Demerara, Guyana, measuring 0.1304 of an acre. The notice further states that there was a plan attached, which could be inspected at the Registry of the Court. All this legal pomp over a minute piece of land! The age-old anomaly still lives on. A perusal of the 1854 allocations of title tells us that lot 37, section B, in its entirety was the property of Newton Poole back then.



Victoria (formerly plantation Northbrook)

Quaminie ADAM Tom ANDREW Benjamin ALLEN Samuel BURKE Smith GLASGOW Newton POOLE Thomas BAILLIE Quashey BEARD Thomas COLLIN Caesar HANNAH Sampson COOPER Mark TRIM Dick TOMPIPES Colin TALBOT Charles TALBOT Wakefield ROGERS Hamlet CATO Tulis CUMMINGS Isaac CHAPMAN Cain COCKFIELD Aron DUKE Dublin DAVID Tobago LAURENCE Neil CAMPBELL Thomas MCCRAE Rodney NED John FIDDELL Maria GRANT Adam GRANT Toney BRISTOL Rose Ann JEFFREY Bristol BEN ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1/8) 1/8) 2/8) 1/8) 2/8) 1/8)

48 60 61 31 43 67 24 27 71

31 23 45 51 81 37 44 33 58

62 45 1 46 71 74 83 66 26

62 45 1 46 71 74 83 66 26

62 45 1 46 71 74 83 66 26

29 54 22 17 78 67 2 76 15







64 23 38 87 13 41

65 74 50 82 18 60

40 59 11 75 35 30

40 59 11 75 35 30

40 59 11 75 35 30

8 65 27 19 83 72

66 2 75 76

14 21 61 62

24 41 32 33

24 41 32 33

24 41 32 33

81 7 35 52







Daniel MOSES Robin HENDRICK James HAND Cupido HOPKINSON Cicero HERCULES Colin MACRAE Cape CAPTAIN John DUBLIN William NAGEDDY Cornwall PORTER Michael GORING Hannah PORTER Vankillop Rosetta PORTER Jupiter FRANCIS Cuffy HOPKINSON Melville PORTER Yammy MELVILLE John WHEELER Hall PORTER John BURTON Joe JERRY Stephen PORTER Quashey RODNEY John ROBINSON Wm Jamel REAVE Rose AFRICA Philip ROBSON John SERTEMA Primus SAMUEL Caesar SOLOMON Marborough SAM John SHAKESPEARE Scipio SAMUEL William SMART William AUSTIN 2/3) 1/3) 84 64 38 38 38 55 2/3) 1/3) 33 70 26 17;22 3 68 54 78 19 69 40 34 12 76 13 52 37 49 78 70 23 63 25 15 37 49 78 70 23 63 25 15 37 49 78 70 23 63 25 15 77 5;6 4 — 34 26 62 24 1/4) 2/4) 1/4) 28 18 — 34 79 68 16 69 47 16 69 47 16 69 47 73 60 32;33 Lot C 30 60 60 60 74 ) ) 35 83 29 16 58 31 58 31 58 31 66 63 ) ) 3/4) 10 4 39 14 34 53 38 80 32 28 17 76 73 64 56 17 76 73 64 56 17 76 73 64 56 50 79 61 12 11 ) ) 3/4) 1/4) ) ) 1 1 2 2 2 82 ) ) 6 7 73 88;62 2 26 75 15 4 52 61 29 4 52 61 29 4 52 61 29 69 70 18 —



Jacob Dickson MARKS )

Lewis HOPKINSON Cross SUMNER Spencer SIMON Simon TATE John TIMMERMAN Bill WILLIAM Nat WILLIAMS Sex PETER Bristol POLLARD Nancy BACCHUS Lucy Ann BURKE Rosetta CLEAVE Moses HOPKINSON Robert ISAAC Thomas HERCULES Charles HAMILTON Quaco HAMILTON Simon HANOVER Richard THOMAS Michael JAMES Dorset ROBERT Michael GORING Granby JAMES Solomon CHARLES Nelson JACKSON Daniel ISAAC Romeo ISAAC Martin INVERARA Kenneth JARRICK William AFRICA Mark BAPTISTE Jonas TOBY Jupiter QUASHIE france JONAS John BAPTISTE Dorset EUROPE ) ) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 3/5) 3/4) 1/4) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 3/5) 1/5) )



85 58 17 56 80 29 35

11 6 8 71 4 41 22

22 12 16 53 8 79 43

22 12 16 53 8 79 43

22 12 16 53 8 79 43

23 38 47 43 37 45 68







86 12 55 23 57 81 59 37 72 11 32 82 21 20

27 73 70 10 83 55 17 36 48 57 56 59 78 5

54 57 51 20 82 21 34 72 7 27 13 28 67 10

54 57 51 20 82 21 34 72 7 27 13 28 67 10

54 57 51 20 82 21 34 72 7 27 13 28 67 10

71 57 56 42 49 64 25 80 51 14 13 3 58 10

Benjamin GLASGOW 1/5)






James EUROPE Michael PORTER Peter HOPE Simon KING Sammy KNIGHT William LEWIS Rice LEWIS Blackwell LANCASTER Nixon NATHAN Frank LAURENCE John Lion JOSIAH John LONGHAND alias LONGHORNE Jack MITCHELL Ned MACKIE Richmond MACKIE Daniel MACKIE Pat MURPHY Titus MACKIE ) ) ) 4/5) 1/5) 9 54 19 19 19 30 74 63 36 36 36 53 53 8 47 24 5 48 5 48 5 48 1 16 1/5) 1/5) 50 49 42 52;63 16 51 40 5 Lot 4 67 20 77 46 9 39 49 3 7 44 39 65 3 18 77 9 6 14 44 39 65 3 18 77 9 6 14 44 39 65 3 18 77 9 6 14 31 28 59 — 40 44 41 36 39 30 42 81 80 80 48


Bought by the black people, it had nothing of any value on it except two or three tumbledown houses. The purchase price was thirty thousand guilders. Two thirds of this was paid down in hard cash—“Spanish” dollars, guilders, two bits, bits, and half bits “thrown-up” by the purchasers, the coins, some of them black with the mud in which they had been buried. Transport was passed on January 4, 1841. In a petition to Governor Light, the purchasers ask that they be allowed to “name our plantation after our good and gracious young queen, Victoria”—a request granted by Her Majesty. Plantation Northbrook therefore became plantation Victoria, and later Victoria Village.*
* The transport of Pln. Northbrook is a curiously interesting document. It is one of the records lodged in the vault of the Registrar’s Office, Georgetown, and is typical of some other transports about that date. It is signed (on behalf of the estate of Hugh Rogers, deed.) by (Mrs.) Catharine Rogers, James Gordon and Alex. Wishart, as executors, and on behalf of the new proprietors by Samuel Burk, one of themselves. An authority to receive the transport is attached from his co-partners, all of whom sign in the presence of Mr. Sholto Douglas, J.P., by “mark.” Opportunity may be taken to record the names of those fore-fathers of the (British Guiana) hamlet. They were:—William Lewis, John Sistenard, Cornwall Porter, Quamina Adam, Michael James, Simon King, Quashie Rodney, Rice Lewis, Hannah Porter, Welcome James, Ben Benjamin, Prince Edinborough, John Robson, Wm. Gammell Renvy, James Handy, John Fiddell. Cupidors Hopkinson, Jack Mitchell, Primus Samuel, Bill Williams, Peter Hope, Wm. Negelly, Cesar Solomon, Bristow Barrett, Marlboro Sam, Cicero Hercules, Gamby James, Blackwall Lancaster, Belinda Hopkinson, Tom Andrew, Aaron Duke, Nat Williams, Nelson Jackson, John Lewis, Daniel Isaac, Dublin David, Thos. Colin, John Shakspear, John Wheeler, Romeo Isaac, Martin Invarara, Maria Grant, Adam Grant, Scipio Samuel, Ned Mackie, Moses Hopkinson, Pat Murphy, Simon Tate, Samuel Cooper, Thos. Hercules, Hamlet Cato, Quashy Porter, Alex. Porter, Melville Porter, Sammy Knight, Hall Porter, Valentine Glen, Wm. Smart, Thos. Baillie, Frank Laurence, John Allen, Charles Hamilton, Colin MacRae, James Mercury, Simon Hanover, Willis Cummings, Simon Scott, John Lion, Cross Summer, John Longham, Kenrie Jarrick, Harry James, Catherine Tom, Dorset Europe, Toby Jonas, Spencer Simon, Stephen Porter, Quashy Beard, Polidore Hutt, Isaac Chapman, Abel Cockfield, Philip Robson, and Samuel Burk, It is noteworthy that the purchasers include six women.


Hercules and Mercury suggest the emancipated slave who had only recently found a “Christian” name or a “title” and put it before or after his one-name of the slave-days. a manager and overseer’s dwelling houses.000-$28. This changed bands in April 1840. Transport was passed on January 2. Annandale. The price paid was $50. Holmes. Demerara. Evidence of late African descent—perhaps the purchasers were Africans or African. James A. Creoles—is to be found in such names as Quashie (Kwasi)—there are three “Quashies—” and Quamina (Kwamina). In addition. because he alone among the purchasers could sign his name.” The signature—“Samuel Burk”—is written painfully. the purchasers being a hundred and twenty-eight Negroes (labourers?). 1841. Europe and Lancaster. obviously. and is evidently the work of one who was better with the shovel. also on the East Coast. This page is a partial reproduction from Timeheri. He wrote it in the presence of the Judge.000 at once and the remainder before the end of the year. an eighteen-ton schooner was taken over with the estate. etc. a hospital. supplying an iron tank holding ten thousand gallons of water. Cato. as an adult scholar might try from memory to follow the copy-book. Lusignan. It is recognized as official as it was registered in the Office of the Registrar.THE FOUR PILLARS 219 The next estate to be bought outright was plantation New Orange Nassau (about 380 acres). a periodical of the time. and the names Cornwall. plane or trowel than with the pen—and may not have been seriously the worse on that account! . the property of Mr. and three ranges of Negro houses with accommodation for forty to fifty people. “Thomas Norton. Nonpareil. J. a stable. Samuel Burk was deputed to go to town and receive the transport. The estate had a few good buildings on it: a new logie (sixty-two by twenty-two) with a slate roof.

later named Victoria. November 14.The Royal Gazette of British Guiana. . 1840. carried this notice of the transportation of Northbrook.

. Victoria. They pooled their resources to buy Plantation Northbrook. contrasts with the original list of names of the 83 proprietors of 1838.The names on this Memorial to be found in the Wilberforce Congregational Church.

with all Land. to and in favour of Hugh Rogers” (Guiana Chronicle). “any day after Saturday the First of January 1848”: April 1848 (p. September 12. 1845—“By Bristol Barrett. Plantation Northbrook.” “ . a minor. now called Victoria. to and in favour of John Sertima and William Lewis” (Royal Gazette and the Guiana Chronicle).” Colonial Registrar’s Office. 1840—“Transport of Plantation Northbrook.449)—“By Polidore Huto alias Polidore Otto. as purchased by him from James Macrae in the year 1845—to and in favour of Cope Captain and John Dublin. his one undivided eighty-third part or share of Plantation Northwood now called Victoria. Estate of Hugh Rogers. transport of his eighty-third undivided 222 . Item #11—“By James Forbes. any time after the Second of December. to and in favor of Richard Thomas. on the West Plantation Craig Milne. title and interest in. cum annexis.VICTORIA (formerly Northbrook) Transport Paper Trail January 18. on the East Plantation Belfield. 1848—By Ben Benjamin. . and to the Plantation Northbrook. . Extracted from the Royal Gazette: passed before the Supreme Court. 1836—“By the Attorneys of Spencer MacKay. transport of all his right. deceased. Counties of Demerara and Essequibo. . cum annexis. transport of Dublin Dunball’s eighty-third undivided share in and to plantation Northbrook now Victoria. . to and in favor of Newton Poole” (Royal Gazette). Buildings and Cultivations. February 15. passed before the Supreme Court .

subject to the keeping up of the public road. Samuel Burke. section C. . transport of lot number 44 (forty-four). to and in favour of Smith Glasgow” (Royal Gazette). February 4. 1860—“By Smith Glasgow. of lot 43 (forty-three). section A. section F. Mitchell Collins. dam and trenches to the extent of the façade of said lot—to and in favour of Luis Fernandes” (Royal Gazette). 69 (sixty-nine). April 14. the north half of lot . on the sixth of September. . section I. 1859—“By Samuel Burke. 1858—to and in favour of John Monish. proprietor of the remainder of said lot. Louis McKoy. Frank Gainsford. and by John Sumner. . . section E.THE FOUR PILLARS 223 share of plantation Northbrook. section A. ten roods in depth from the middle walk. now called Victoria . section A. 79 (seventy-nine). 1860—“By Quashey Rodney. . and Gabriel Samuel. October 15. King Williams. . known as lot number 51 (fifty-one). Perth Murphy. and their successors. August 20. Hamlet Cato. save and except that part of said lot to the extent of three and a half roods in depth by twelve roods in breadth transported to John Monish. part of that part of plantation Northbrook. . transport of a piece of land. 69 (sixty-nine). being part and parcel of the lands plantation Northbrook. 1860—“By Prince Assonah and Cudjoe Caleb. and known as Mount Zion Chapel” (Royal Gazette). being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. William Cummings. to and favour of Henry Collier” (Royal Gazette). now called Victoria . section B. . . . section A. and 60 (sixty). section B—to and in favour of Thomas Collins. to and in favour of John Ellick. now called Victoria . transport of lot number 58 (fifty-eight). as trustees for and in behalf of the Church of Congregational Dissenters. alias Peter Jack. now called Victoria . with the buildings thereon. 1859—“By Cain Cockfield. and five roods in breadth. transport of lots numbers 18 (eighteen). Fortune Scipio. deceased. now Victoria . . now called Victoria . section B. 1860—“By Peter Hope. being parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook.” August 4. being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. Jacob Isaac. 69 (sixty-nine). transport of lot 87. .” June 9. as executors under and to the last will and testament of Cross Sumner.

paid $1. 1861—“By Caesar Solomon. 1904) EXECUTION SALE: George Glasgow v Q. to and in favour of Matilda Irene Lord. Edward Aldolphus Brutus Lord. 1904. Maria Delina Lord. 1904) March 12. on the west by the side line dam.75 for the lot. to and in favour of John Sumner” (Royal Gazette). on lot number 23 (twenty-three). deceased. 33 (thirty-three) Sec B. the east half of lot number 12 (twelve). transport of the south half of lot number 6 (six). The Daily Chronicle. Sobers—Lot 53 (fifty-three) Sec B. deceased. transport of lots 50 (fifty) and 51 (fifty-one) Sec A. (The Daily Chronicle. 10 rods south of Lot 4 (four) Sec B. EXECUTION SALE: Benjamin Edison v David Dover and James Dover—Lots 50 (fifty) Sec A. and the north half of section 12 (twelve).” March 5. 1908—“By William Josiah Lord. Dolphin June 12. section E. section D. section B. parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook. . Lot 50 (fifty) Sec A. . part of Victoria . 68 (sixty-eight) Sec C. 1904]. May 8. undivided interest in Lot 68 (sixty-eight) Sec D. bounded on the east by the middle-walk of plantation Victoria. May 1. Bristol v P. on the North by lot number 22 (twenty-two) and on the south by the remaining part of lot number 23 (twenty-three). 1860—“By Prince Assonah and Cudjoe Caleb. to and in favour of the estate of Cross Sumner.D. being parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook. now called Victoria to and in favour of Jacob Clarke” (Royal Gazette). Iris Euphasia Lord. Victoria. section E. now called Victoria . and the south half of lot number 12 (twelve). Austin—south ½ Lot 60 (sixty) Sec B. section D. . August 4. section D. transported same to H. transport of a bed of land measuring fifty roods in Length by four and a half roods in breadth. the west half of lot number 12 (twelve). ( The Daily Chronicle. . . being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. section B. as executors under and to the Last will and testament of Cross Sumner. May 1.S. [Glasgow prevailed. and by John Sumner. the north half of lot number 12 (twelve). Thelma Minerva Lord. . section C. Lot 30 (thirty) Sec F with undivided portion west. part of Victoria. now called Victoria . EXECUTION SALE: H. . section C.224 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N number 6 (six). the south half of lot number 12 (twelve).

Hinds—Lot 18. Lot 57. Sec A. Mahaica” (The Daily Chronicle). Sec B. Sec D. minor children of Edward Stanley Lord.Richard Thomas—Lot 83. Sec D .E. Heirs of Thomas Hercules—Lot 12. Lot 73. Lot 57. .THE FOUR PILLARS 225 William Alexander Lord. EXECUTION SALE: Victoria Council vs (Attached List):. Sec C. Lot 56. Sec C and Lot 18. Sept 6. George Williams—Lot 3. 1908) . John Hamer—Lot 30. Sec F. Sec D. Jemima Talbot—Lot 28. W. Sec B. Lot 56. Sec B. Sec C. . Sec B. Sarah Elizabeth Lord and Edwin Stanley Lord. (The Daily Chronicle.

England. the name carried by “Massa” Robertson. Surrey. Surely. and to a lesser extent. had thrust upon them. 226 . An extension of the same line of “reasoning” could well give a surname of Blair. etc. and cul-de-sacs before we would come upon the report in the Royal Gazette of British Guiana of the 1846 arrival of the Louisa Baillie depositing its cargo of 114 souls. It was this batch of indentured immigrants that would later substantially increase and aid in the population of Ithaca. directly to a Berbice port. then one of the more prosperous estates. county of Berbice. they must have acquired. how then would a budding genealogical researcher fare any better employing the very same mix? For one thing.THE ROBERTSONS OF ITHACA. It was surmised that since our foreparents must have been slaves. It is further learned that plantation Kitty. luck. The mistaken belief would persist that the next most important objective was then to locate and delve into some sort of slave census. There were also the names compiled on the claims for compensation for slaves lost through emancipation. did not set off any bells! Finding a great-grandfather on a Demerara list always seemed to hold greater possibilities. Demerara. Logic. the knowledge that our grandfather Leslie Robertson was born in Ithaca. dead ends. to our Berbice grandmother or great-grandmother. heir to plantation Uitvlugt. public or private. from Sierra Leone. Berbice. West Coast. It would take many more research mileage. where there will reside that hoped-for revelation just waiting. the will of George Robertson was located among the PCC wills at the National Archives in Kew. was owned by that family.. there must be a Kitty list and also a Uitvlugt list—the infantile meanderings of an early introduction to research in the world of genealogy. number 21. After extensive efforts. WC BERBICE It was thought that locating and identifying the land and slave owners among the Scottish family Robertson would launch our genealogical research into high orbit. McCalmon. These Robertsons had earlier established themselves in the West Indian islands before venturing onto the South American mainland. Demerara. and inexperience do not aid the cook. Then there were references to George’s uncle James Robertson and also a junior James Robertson.

Sam Wilson. undivided 1/2 of piece of land at Ithaca Village. were thrown into the waters of the Courantyne River when their boat capsized. The spirited pioneer was then ready to go lumbering and to use his skills to fashion the end products of roof shingles. these men invariably put their lives in danger. Then there were those who had reasoned and concluded that there must be greener pastures further afield. Thomas Emanuel. to never return to the sugar plantations for any reason. This new and fledgling village was to receive three licenses for the operation of stores on August 17. Darrell. Berbice. The young men of Ithaca were no different. John Edwards. So on we go. certain that the ownership of land was indeed the foundation. Then there was the matter of obtaining a woodcutting license. and floating the larger logs downriver to the sawmills. it became clearer to these pioneers the enormity of the daunting task of building and maintaining roads. Gazette reports the following transport of property: “By Manoel Faustura Texiera. John Felix. The boat had to be licensed in either case.THE FOUR PILLARS 227 Ithaca was hardly different from the kindred villages that had their roots in the movement—ex-slaves/apprentices and indentured laborers with their first taste of freedom bent on charting a course for themselves and taking the faltering steps and facing the bewildering uncertainties—that would propel them forward. The March 25. In December 1908. wood for the kitchen stove. Rolleston Brighton. One did not just launch a boat and just paddle or sail to the upper reaches of the rivers to fell the trees of the virgin forests or fish where and when one pleases. and Richard Allen—balata bleeders. 1888. and Manuel Gomes. Whatever the greener pasture that may have been chosen. tragic news reached the village of Ithaca. with an un-divided 1/2 in and to all the buildings and . fencing. What had been an emerging pattern countrywide had started to manifest itself even in Ithaca. There were also trees to be bled for the milky substance that was condensed into the rubbery balata. 1850. Thomas Hope. Whatever successes or failures that would ultimately be theirs had very little to do with planning for development but rather laboriously and hopefully combining the limited human and other resources for the common good. deepening and widening drainage and irrigation canals. and the myriad of public works projects that would never become manageable propositions. There were the few proud ones who had initially sworn. These were granted to Lafleur Caesar. presumably a Portuguese immigrant. Before long. The sole survivor was Richard Allen. if not on their mother’s then on the grave of someone dear to their hearts. Houston Melville. Benjamin Morris. Patrick Ferdinand. charcoal burning. Ten men—Luanas.

We are not aware of any stories emanating from the folklore of the Robertsons that would give any vivid pictures of men having near misses from a falling tree or swimming to a river bank as a boat laden to the gunwale with finished materials. The slave census of just eighty-three does not reveal anyone among them as carrying the name Robertson. thirteen were “considered”. owner. my grandfather. nine of those “supported” went to three Chinese and six Portuguese. includes one slave named Robertson. Doris was her name. page 150. give a return made by Hugh and Menno Robertson on behalf of Gilbert Robertson. an 1822 filing by one John Downer.” Following the Annual License Meeting.S. sinks to the river bed. one must be careful not to overreach or make false claims. to and in favor of Ho-a-Hee. and she was my mother. from Barbados. Leslie Robertson. a Chinese man. Filings under the Slave Registers of Berbice 1818. #2698 ex Red Riding Hood. immigration records tell us that Fitz Robertson. all forty-four of the liquor licenses renewed in the city of Georgetown were granted to Portuguese.228 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N erections thereon. Of the twenty-two new applications. grandfather of Allan Robertson and his siblings. we now know that his destination had been Lincoln University. the labor of several weeks and destined for market. 1862. U. One is still lost in wonderment as to whether one or other of the men involved in that gut-wrenching mishap on the Courantyne could have been part of our family tree. Later. a shoemaker. Coast of Courantyne. had arrived there in 1904 at the young age of twenty-four. as reported by the Gazette. And still there is no clear convincing answer to the question: Who do you think you are? As the digging continues. owner of plantation Kiltearn. had already left Ithaca and had welcomed his sixth and last Demerara-born child in April of that very year (1908). . Through the family.

Rustor JACKSON.ANCESTORS. Pitt MCCAMMON. Huntley JAMES. DRIDON. John JAMES. Bone MAGNUS. Oscar MCCAMMON. Hendrick WILLIAM. Moses EDWARD. transport of part of the northern half of plantation ITHACA . Jamie JAMES. David CHISHOLM. Cyrus LEWIS. Ovidius FELIX. Dick MARTIN. Jacob ANDERSON. Present ROBERTSON. Cornelius FREDERICK. Low ABRAM. Abel SAUL. representatives of the estate and heirs of GARLICK PRASS. Will MCCAMMON. . Benjamin THOMPSON. Lema HECTOR. Primo Van BATENBURG. Parrah MCCREE. Monroe ISAAC. Cupido GOODLUCK. Pitt JOHNSON. Peloris FREDERICK. Friday MCCAMMON. Titus DICKSON. deceased . Harry BLAIR. 229 . Billy ROBERTSON. Wellington NED. Hope PRESTO. Daniel PHARAOH. Nancy DAVID. Harry LAING. Abram HANSPARK. Wally D. Juno RICHARDSON. to and in favor of: Eve LEWIS. Richard JAMES. Herbert BACCHUS. Azor JOHN. Hanspark PLATO. Simon SICERON. Queen THOMAS. Friday CAMERON. Philip JOE. Eve COLLIN. Louis BENTIC. La Rose JOHNSON. FOUNDING FATHERS AND MOTHERS By the . Fanny VIGO. Briton HENERY. Smart BLAIR. William EDWARD. George HECTOR. Jack WELCOME. . William WELCOME. Britain HOWE. ANDERSON. Sam WILSON. . Aurora PIPER. Nelson DAVID. Goodluck NEWTON. William PRINCE. Anthony MCCAMMON. . Sam WILSON. Simpson PLOWE. Mark PETER. Tom MCCAMMON. Belona BILLY. Mars WILLIAM. William DOVER. transport of part of plantation ITHACA . Jim GEORGE. Frederick APRIL. MCCAMMON. Cain SAUL. Liverpool MCLEOD. Nero EDWARD. . Hero ENNIS. Colin JOE. Lewis HOW. Lewis MIDAS. Diana JONAS. Mammy HENRY. W. Lydia GABRIEL. King MCCAMMON. . Mornas LAURENCE. Blair EDWARD. . Mary HERO. Watson LEWIS. Philip JAMES. January PRASS. . to and in favor of: Paul ANTHONY. Walter MARS. Maria CHISHOLM. Venus DAVIDSON. Joseph CORNUS. Flora HOW. Jackson JAMES. Billy TONY. Monday SAUL. Toby SAUL. Noah HOW. Will DOVER. Hartman BACCHUS. . Charles BRISTOL. Chance HENERY. Monday VIGO. Jr. By the same parties . .. Adjuba TOM. Mary CUDJOE. Sam DAVID. Dundas MARRAT. Prince CAESAR.

Salmom NELSON. John Lewis PRASS. for her sons. Charles HECKLER. Sam HAMBURG and Maria LEWIS. Briganticus HART. Francois SIMON. Dick MAY. SOURCE: The Royal Gazette of Berbice February 8. William MATTHYS. one was scooped up by Manuel Gomes. Fortune WELCOME. Cashmere SIM. 1844 It is worth noting that while these individual owners of plots of land were regarded as freedmen. Hope FRANS. Klass LEANDER. Salmon NELSON. Coredon HANS. transport of part of plantation ITHACA . Ferdinand FELIX. John L’ESPERANCE. . to and in favor of: La Fleur CAESAR. Piper L’ESPERANCE. Appollo ANTHONY. Hugh HARRY. Of the four store licenses issued in 1850 for commercial activity within the boundaries of Ithaca. Frederick CHARLES. Hannibal RENAUD. Rudolph AMSTERDAM. Leander KIP. Ithaca would have its first and only elector by November 1849 in the person of Apollo Anthony. He qualified on the basis of having a freehold house that could generate $96 annually. April KREEGER. Blucher AMSTERDAM. Philander Amsterdam. Cupido LEWIS. and Balo BLAIR. Caesar LEWIS. Tony DICKSON. Nicolas HERMANES. none of them were entitled to vote as they did not meet the property qualifications. . Harry HELMERS. John CAESAR. Jacob FLORIS. Berentje MULDER. Manus HANNIBAL. Samuel Welcome and Alick Charles. Edward BLAIR. Nellie Vigilance KIP. Robin APRIL. for her sons Ferdinand Klaas and Grease Klaas. Jonas MAY. newly arrived Portuguese immigrant. Nieuw Jaar PARYS. Welcome WILLIAM. Hercules THOMAS. David HENRY. . Fritz CAESAR. Amsterdam HECTOR. Blucher MIDAS. . Phillip CLASS. Lovewyck HANNIBAL. Carel CAESAR. Arnold PRINCE and wife. . Jan BART. Hagar KLASS. Floris NEIDAS. Bronty ANTHONY. Ludolf ROWLAND. John THOMAS.230 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N William JANE. Jeannette Cornelis. Mary Ann APRIL. Sandy COTTON. By the parties . John FRANK.

Hoop is the youngest and Demerary born. Sworn Clerk and Notary Public. Mary—were sold to the town council.050 guilders each. Mary of which thirteen are Africans. Included in this list were: Adam Apollo Sally Inglis September Petronella Glasgow Robinson Hector Eliza Saturday Mary Lewis While Apollo is the oldest at fifty-seven. also from the parish of St. 1837 The Register of Apprenticed Laborers places this motley bunch in the Parish of St. The transaction was attested and signed by Gordon C Reid. at fifty-seven. Sally is just eleven years old. Once again. James Stuart represented the estate of Donald Grant. James Stuart sold twenty-two male apprenticed laborers to the town council for the sum of 36. 231 . payable in six equal half-yearly payments of 6.INCONVENIENT TRUTHS In his capacity of attorney for William McKeand.300 guilders each. July 22. is the oldest. Lewis is the lone Dominican. a smaller group of twelve—made up of eight males and four females. The list included: Allick Sam Adam Big Bob Joy Hoop DeGroot Anthony Little Bob Cornwallis Fein Jem Dick Mingo Lewis McKenzie Ned Creole Ben Harry Quintus Cummings Congo Ben Congo Ben. The terms were 19. On the same date. Registrar of Demerary & Essequibo.800 guilders payable in six half-yearly installments of 3.300 guilders. deceased.

Back in 1823. Archdeacon Austin was an active and full participant in the activities. 60. Land of Plenty. Wiltshire Staunton Austin had angered the planters. He would die peacefully in Essequibo and was buried in St. just for appearing and testifying favorably at the trial of John Smith. Seems the archdeacon was more at home on the plantation than at the archdiocese in the capital. town council. listed its ownership of slaves at 190. Thomas Bader Austin had returned to Demerara from Barbados where he grew up. In 1817. He became a manager and part owner of plantation Bathsheba’s Lust in Essequibo. The colony had not seen the last of the Austins. owned by William and John Austin. The venerable archdeacon. The hostility forced the end of his tenure in British Guiana.232 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Slave owners were not exclusively British Islanders. Leonard Strong shepherded a flock in St. Bodies like the diocese. and for Land of Plenty. Why bark if one has dogs to do it! The civil government of Demerara and Essequibo at June 21. Berbice.314 pounds. Like every other planter. Then came the “higher calling”—that of running the sugar . Georgetown. the Austin family and their heirs received as compensation. for Bathsheba’s Lust. about 1837.591 pounds. he removed his personal property. then proceeded to sell the land at inflated prices. the Rev. clergy and lay! Eight Austins did subsequently serve the Anglican church across the length and breadth of British Guiana. claimed and received compensation of 23. to plantation Kleinhoop. William Piercy Austin. “the Demerara Martyr” the Rev. Neither was slave owning restricted to individuals. Anglican and non-Anglican. For several years. It must be mentioned that the Lutheran church and community. in 1834. it leaves one to wonder about the motives and whether these slaves/apprenticed laborers fared any better. 1817. So strong was he against emancipation of the slaves. not only of Bathsheba’s Lust but also of plantation Land of Plenty. Mary’s Parish on the east coast of Demerara. they claimed and collected payment for the loss of the services slaves. slaves and all. and the military did the same if only out of necessity. He had officiated at the weddings of many slaves in that parish. stands out in the annals of plantation ownership in then British Guiana.560 pounds sterling for 175 slaves on plantation Augsburg. 17. Even if these acts of benevolent slave owning were not all pervasive. had 426 slaves (250 males and 176 females). Suriname. As to the loss of the services of the slaves. Peters Churchyard in 1884. which they had under their control before 1819.

Several issues of the Royal Gazette in 1848 and beyond were to report the transportation of pieces and sections of plantation Arcadia to various individuals. five servants. was apparently a frequent visitor to the “vicarage. while he managed plantation Broom Hall. 1859. transport in trust “to and for the uses. born Dundas. Rev.” Among the letters of introduction and testimonials. March 29. . a fifty-three-year-old “landedproprietor in the West Indies. east bank. The plantations Arcadia and Craig are irretrievably linked to his name. Leonard Strong heads the list of six trustees designated to act on behalf of the Congregation of Christians. Burchell and three other servants to take care of a household now down to eleven people. Strong is enumerated as the head of a household of twelve individuals: wife Matilda. After his service at the St. and himself. With his death in England in 1874. the 1861 Census includes Ms. Mary parish. situated in the Cummingsburg district.” One servant. Mathews. apprentices. was one from the Rev. ultimately selling these holdings in individual parcels. He was to acquire additional land at canal number 3. with which Booker armed himself as he planned his 1827 trip back to England intent on seeking grants of crown land. ex-slaves. Lots number 192 and number 193. reports the transport of property formerly owned by James Hill Albouy in the city of Georgetown. commonly known as Christian Brethren. interest and purposes set forth in a certain agreement of trust. Demerara. Ten years later. Leonard Strong. .” By the 1851 England Census. Strong was highly respected while he resided at Nabaclis on the east coast of Demerara. . sister Emma.” It is clear that Leonard Strong became separated from and was no longer affiliated with the Church of England in any capacity whatever. and immigrants “by Leonard Strong and Matilda Strong. The Royal Gazette. the separation from the Anglican church had long since become final. four children. he was the shepherd at St. Strong no doubt having reconciled with his Maker. Christian Burchell (forty-three years old) and three of the four children are listed as born in Demerara. Josias Booker. dated the ninth day of March 1859 and recorded in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequibo .THE FOUR PILLARS 233 plantation Arcadia located on the east bank of the Demerara River.

. 1828 Inclusive MALE Jem Joe David Bristol Cooley Davey Tom Davy Boatswain Leander Terry Bristol Alfred Ben Duncan Mark FEMALE Pheobe Di Rachel Bella Susey Amelia Fanny Hanna Ruby Sarah Sue Venus Mercy Agnes Flora Harriet PLACE Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster Ann’s Grove Ann’s Grove Cove John & Cove John & Cove John & Cove John & Cove John & Cove OFFICIANT Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong Leonard Strong According to this report dated May 1. Mary’s.234 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N REPORTS OF PROTECTORS OF SLAVES MARRIAGES SOLEMNIZED IN THE COLONY OF DEMERARA July 1. 1828-December 31. Leonard Strong of St. The newlyweds were to migrate to the United States in the year that followed. when he married Elvira Reed. Ten of these twenty-four were Catholic and performed in Ruimvelt. so much is missing concerning his assignment to the east bank of Demerara. Mahaica. in the same period. 1829. Strong’s time spent on the east sea coast of Demerara. Thomas Austin. 1837. He did officiate at the wedding of his cousin. While some evidence is available to follow Rev. but not by Rev. there were twenty-four other marriages solemnized in the county.

both attached to Plantation Dochfour July 26 —Arthur & Kate.THE FOUR PILLARS 235 BANNS OF MARRIAGE BETWEEN SLAVES/INDENTURED LABORERS The Royal Gazette of 1835: July 18 —Ben & Fatima. Should this pattern be repeated in other Anglican parishes. a Free Woman. both of Plantation Dochfour August 9 —Liverpool & Abigail of Plantation Non Pariel —Camperdown & Kate of Plantation Non Pariel —Carlisle & Margaret of Plantation Non Pariel —Moses & Ann of PlantationParadise —Kent & Jenny of Plantation Paradise —Weakness & Sally of Plantation Enmore —Lang & Potina of Plantation Enmore August 12 —Monday & Pheobe of Plantation Foulis —William & Peggy also of Plantation Foulis —Frederick & Amba. and also in the colony as a whole. It must be noted that these nuptials are representative of only part of the year and confined to the parish of St. The forces at work that would suddenly and unceremoniously split families . Plantation Enfield August 16 —Heraclius & Kitty of Plantation Plaisance August 23 —Yerubella of Plantation Prosperity & June of Plantation Mocha Adonis of Plantation Paradise & Hannah of Non Pariel —Smith & Grace of Plantation Paradise —Peter of Plantation Enmore & Lydia of Plantation Non Pariel —Martin & Latona of Plantation Enmore —Stoway & Sue of Plantation Enmore Sept 13 —Campbell & Matilda of Plantation Non Pariel —Sandy & Kitty of Plantation Non Pariel —Madden & Venus of Plantation Non Pariel —Baillie & Franky of Plantation Non Pariel —Peter & Cathy of Plantation Non Pariel —Dundas & Annie of Plantation Non Pariel Sep 20 —Thomas & Judy of Plantation Non Pariel —Will of Plantation Enmore & Maria of Plantation Paradise Oct 18 —Adonis & Juliana both of Plantation Vryhied Yorkshire Dunkin & Elizabeth Matthews with consent of their employers. Mary. it would invite a rethink of the myth that Africans had hardly any interest in the institution of marriage.

” With a few names we would have been able to identify the first “dougla” to be born in British Guiana! It is so important to strive for a measure of balance in these matters. The man just could not quit. Guyanese and of African descent. can push even a PhD over the line. Why marry when the possibility exists that there could be separations just to satisfy the whims and fancies of massah and missy? Added to this is the carte blanche assertion and belief relative to the shiftless lazy slave. the African was present at the birth of “king sugar” in the colony of British Guiana. There was one common aspect to their existence: they sought to preserve the residual pride and dignity that they could muster.” It also included references to cohabitation “with the Negresses. apprentice. India. bent on leaving (running away) the plantation so that he did not have to work. in a dispatch to Lord Glenelg in 1839. the harshness and indignities meted out were just as egregious. Just as the former group would abscond and use every subterfuge at his disposal to strike back at the establishment. Basdeo Mangru. writing about The Gladstone Experiment: The First East Indians in British Guiana 1838-1843. or China. the Dutch. PhD. In one single sentence he has subscribed to this very notion of an “industrial and personal collapse”—no saving grace for the African. later apprentice laborer. and attentive. One may well ask. Being adoptive. They were there with the original colonizers.236 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N asunder were always at work. in his dissertation makes the comparison to that of the near-nomadic life of the Amerindian to which Africans had inculcated soon after slavery was abolished. may have been too “syrupy. liberated African. As it was with the slave and the apprenticed laborer. so it was with the indentured laborer. he just had to pile on “Indians had saved the sugar industry from collapse. The governor in despatches to the colonial office did report his concerns over “the clandestine emigration of coolies to Venezuela” (CO 714/76). Even our Rawle Farley. makes reference to Farley’s conclusions. he thus acquired and honed his skills to be equal to that of any white import of that day or of . the latter was also very much the deviant as he sought to survive and blunt the heinous and degrading conditions.” This penchant for making the fellow Indian look even better. or apprenticed laborer. At the earliest of times. Whether he spoke Dutch or English. pliable. coupled with a predilection to stop him from appearing as bad. and their presence was forevermore enshrined with the British who followed. He would have labored from sunup to sunset in both field and mill.” Mangru informs us that it was highly exaggerated and that only “two cases were reported. whether from Africa. how well did he do in Integrity 101? The glowing report on the newly arrived Indian indentured laborers by Governor Light. whether slave.

that primal knowledge of working with wood and mortar that he brought with him across the Atlantic became an asset. An insignificant minority of these artisans would barely rise to a level of material existence above the common laborer. The hurdles which the new landowners would face were numerous as the sugar barons counterattacked. industrious. and paid.THE FOUR PILLARS 237 any other immigrant to follow. then colonial secretary.000 pounds sterling to emancipated slaves. active. This all ran counter to the plans and aspirations of the planters who were irretrievably wedded to the production of sugar and its by-products. and persisted in manufacturing sugar for the next twenty years. originally a cotton and plantain estate. Pharaoh Chase of Nabaclis who was able to set up a wind-activated sugar mill. James of Golden Grove. was purchased not many years ago for 5. In a despatch from Governor Light to Lord Stanley. for the sum of 80.000 dollars . plantation Friendship. . What would later be termed the “Village Movement” had commenced and had been accelerated. and James W. soon followed. When emancipation came. and independent freeholders. who was described as a wealthy and respectable farmer of Victoria. The purchase of long-abandoned cotton. became a primary goal. In addition. it now has been sold 16. three years ago it was sold for 10. took control in 1870. coffee. “Another estate. plus the onerous terms to settle the transactions. His centuries-old knowledge of rice cultivation must be remembered into the future. a “self-made” man . which were gradually being introduced into the sugarcane mills.” He continues. who must in the course of a very short time assume that middle position on society which till slave was abolished could not exist in the West Indies. financing the entire project by himself in 1880. a middle-class Creole by the name of Alexander Ross who.000 pounds sterling. has been purchased by certain labourers . Freedmen would stand upright and seek to reclaim their dignity. . the African wisely and inevitably saw an opportunity to seize control of his life and the use of his labor. It started with exorbitant sale prices that were being asked. a trailblazing few would persist against some tremendous odds hoping to salvage some semblance of dignity and economic viability for the African. That handful of pioneers included John Allick. Mastering the mechanical wonders emanating from the industrial revolution. it is stated that “a large and powerful addition is daily made to anew race of. His agricultural skills and knowledge would make fields bloom. and in some cases. while unable to raise the initial capital for such an enterprise. . entered into a long-term lease on plantation Foulis. sugar plantations. for the lands.000 or 6. .” Through the decades that followed. It became a bitterly contested divorce.000 pounds sterling.

denials will be added that there is a justification for giving adequate rewards to those making the greatest contribution to the growth of the GNP. Responses flooded the editor’s desk. should find it necessary to seek and employ props and present reminders. To the other. Why the flaunting stances and perpetual triumphalism? One additional response to charges and accusations of discrimination. It is suspected that only a few of the milder ones could have been printed! It is amazing that anyone would make such a comparison. and to each according to their needs” was secreted . The prevalence of such happenings more often than not bubbles to the surface just around (Indian) Arrival Day. Some heated and sometimes scurrilous accusations would emerge as to who is rewriting history. There certainly are no apparent and conceivable reasons why anyone. the annual conflagration and firestorm was ignited by a letter sent to the newspapers by a pseudointellectual based in New York by the name of Vishnu Bisram. on behalf of himself or his brethren. marginalization. the Portuguese. and the Indians go all out in recalling the eventful journey on which they started and have taken everyone along with them. Guyana becomes embroiled in some controversy of an historical bent. May 5 is rightly celebrated in remembrance of the first landings of Indians as the first indentured laborers into the colony. in more recent times. By what measure or yardstick may a thinking person put forth such a conclusion? Was some sort of “misery index” or the relative intrinsic valuation of a human life fashioned and factored into this exercise? One wonders to what useful purpose and to what extent would such pursuits be engendered. His position is that in the case of the former colony British Guiana.238 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N who never had the good fortune of an inheritance and prospered for a time as a small sugar manufacturer using a windmill he had designed and built himself. and the unending tolerance of mediocrity and criminality is being prepared. especially coming more from the descendants of African slaves. Present indications are that the remnants of the Jaganite mantra of “from each according to their means. It would not be far off to regard our Indian fellow citizen as the historically sequential fifth of the six peoples of the dear land of Guyana. Prior immigrants who would have joined the Amerindian include the Europeans—Dutch and English—Africans. Justifiably. the whole country takes a holiday. For 2009. Their laudable ascendancy and achievements are quite visible for all to see. At least once every year. African slaves of that era were on par with the Indian indentured laborer as having suffered equally at the hands of the plantation owners. with the Chinese being sixth. admixtures of all the above.

and all will be well. The oligarchs have risen. there will be rhetorical speeches. the whole world will be blamed. . and they are on the march in Guyana.THE FOUR PILLARS 239 somewhere on their funeral pyre and is no more! Yet the annual pilgrimages to Babu John will continue.

Many were tailored to keep control over property in the hands of males. In general. Some wills are simple and can be laid out in one or two pages. to be granted manumission. Then there is always room for surprises. management. including codicils. Joyces. Many clues may be found within the paragraphs of a will. there were some other complicating dynamics at work. obtain some insight into the life and times of particular ancestors. Wills have been proven to provide valuable and important information. either as a beneficiary. blood relatives. siblings. It was rare to have females. Robertsons. many of whom were absentees. Principal among them was how to effectively and equitably leave an inheritance to the children born through a liaison with a black or mulatto woman.WHERE THERE IS A WILL There ought to be a way by which the genealogist could. even when they were spouses. William Affleck spelled it out exactly. or even the eccentricity of the testator. We are left to wonder if. the Sanchos. fifteen. There was also the gender question in respect to passing down the family legacy to a female only to have it gravitate to another family through marriage. or Samuels were mentioned in the will of a slave owner. The planters of the late 240 . no child not born of a white mother could ever receive an inheritance from his estate. and whether. or both. There are some who seem bent on control. A will is a formal document intended to set out what a person wants to happen with his or her worldly possessions after they shall have been deceased. in conjunction with other material sources and resources. Then there are those which are somewhat complicated and thus run into ten. there may be found the names of spouses. twenty. The resultant complexity in the majority of cases signifies the size of the estate. and even in-laws. and manipulation from the grave. grandchildren. appointed as executors. For colonial plantation owners. The emphasis and goal was to keep property and the legacy from passing to another family through marriage. and thus an important resource for family historians. children. or even more pages. Clarifications could be gleaned from the document in cases where there are several beneficiaries with the same name. Place of interment and other burial instructions and wishes sometimes find a place in a will.

. . his sons William. . . . a coloured natural daughter of my Father. name Eliza Hamer. . a free woman. his daughters Susan Maria Hamer. unto Henrietta Hamer and Mary Hamer.THE FOUR PILLARS 241 eighteenth and early nineteenth century. to be paid to them respectively on the day of marriage or on attaining the age of twenty-one. also give and devise the sum of three thousand pounds sterling unto the child of which the said Marianne is at present . After meticulously listing his bequests to his wife Mary Hamer. her heirs and assigns . . . . . (bearing). Following the trend of the day. in some cases. he turned his attention to his other family and heirs: I give and bequeath unto Samuel Blair Hamer. full acknowledgement is made and responsibility is taken for the nonwhite Hamers: colored siblings and “bastard” children. THE HAMERS The following excerpts are lifted from the will of Joseph Hamer. the sum of five thousand pounds sterling. as Executors . with the dwelling house and other buildings thereon at present occupied by the said Elizabeth Hamer and Mary Hamer. natural coloured children of my Father. and also Guardians of the Children of Marianne . . I give and bequeath unto the said Marianne. and Caroline Hamer. out of my seven lots in Cummingsburgh. as a reward for her faithful service for many years. and Richard Hamer. son of Marianne. I also give divise and bequeath unto the said Marianne. and I also give and devise the sum of three thousand pounds sterling unto each of three daughters of the said Marianne. Marianne Hamer and Louisa Hamer . . I hereby nominate and appoint . Henrietta Hamer. . an annuity of one thousand pounds sterling for and during the term of her natural life. I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Hamer. any two lots . . not only gave their name to their mixed-race children but seemed to have been more liberal and accommodating in making beneficiaries of them. In this instance. . . . . It will take . Affleck filed a Scottish will with the required inventory that listed only his personal property at the date of death. . an annuity of three hundred pounds sterling for and during her natural life. . . my lots of land in Stabroek . . towards the maintenance and education of the said children . . . . . Henry. .

he led a group of marauding. By 1807. . he was all set and eager for a reprise at plantation Richmond. annuity of fifty pounds sterling for her natural life. to give effect to said freedom and manumissions and pay the expenses attending . 1834. In 1806. her freedom and manumission from the day of my death. just over sixty hogs belonging to the apprenticed laborers living on that particular plantation lay dead in the morning sun. On that Sunday morning. Surrey. John Gladstone loaned substantial sums on the estate. CHARLES BEAN He hailed from Richmond. This single act initiated by Bean was intended to be multipurpose. notably plantation Industry. a Negro woman. Thus began a gradual reduction of the Hamer estates in Demerara. Gladstone was to become agents for the large plantation interests of Hamer’s heirs in Demerara and in 1810 provided his first mortgage on these estates. and her daughter Nanny— manumission at my death. “baddest” planter ever. Margaret. Some slaves received bequests: Belinda. son of Belinda—manumission from day of my death. on the morning of August 3. it would weaken the economic base and ruin the livelihood of these ex-slaves. Initially. a Negro man. William Attwick Hamer.242 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N extensive research to determine whether they each actually received their full inheritance after the will was proved in London in 1805. “I request my Executors . Venus. first son. There had been tensions induced primarily by rumors that the Emancipation Act 1834 had granted much more concessions to slaves than the recalcitrant planters were willing or prepared to yield. Essequibo.” Here was a family destined for probate problems that were never even anticipated. . The ten-day standoff in Trinity Churchyard . a Mulatto woman. He turned out to be the biggest. a Negro woman. (through) the Court of Policy. They would then be expected to be more malleable regarding the ongoing disputes regarding the conditions of labor and its rewards. took the oath. . William. When the rampage was all over. crazed planters on a shooting spree. Having distinguished himself during the Demerara Slave Uprising in 1823. .

La Belle Alliance. Vandor Scobie(?). This excludes real and personal estates (including slaves). Here are some excerpts and extracts from the last will and testament of Charles Bean. Elizabeth Grace Parkinson. Samuel and Eliza. By the time Charles Bean retreated from British Guiana in July 1835 on the ship Thomas King. daughter of John Austin.900 pounds sterling. Mary Ann. L5000 sterling. Enterprise. Richmond. Children. Children of my first wife. and William were sentenced and transported out of the colony. To the four Children of my present wife. Henrietta. most were owned outright while a few were with partners. To my present beloved wife. Eliza. and buildings and appurtenances still waiting to be sold at a later stage to the highest bidder. the stealers of our legacy must be identified as the beneficiaries. we must relentlessly continue to “follow the money. there was still some unfinished business to be settled. had been set in motion with the 1832 filings for slave compensation. Sarah.” Like Woodard of Watergate fame advocates. and Sparta. L100. son of the mulatto woman. Fothergill. and a similar sum to Letitia and my dear Sisters. neither have I owned a slave” must be confronted and confounded. The end result: Damon was hanged. and named Martha. Of the following seven plantations Doornberg. Essequibo. Sarah. Bob.” Reparations or not.THE FOUR PILLARS 243 did not garner any benefits for the cause. He “gives and bequeaths” to Second wife. The long process of untangling his life. James. Sarah Jane and John Bean. scores of the followers were brutally whipped and had to return to their “half-a-loaf. Madeline. also a sum of L200 to the coloured young man. The combined claims for the loss of slaves border on 228. Judith (?) Bollers. Charles Bollers. Mary. Their baseless rhetoric that “I never knew a slave. Charles. personal and business affairs. who lived with me in Demerara in the year 1803. Frederick. Eliza Bean and Joan White. . L2000 for life & L250 Annuity and the silver Waiter presented by Trinity Parish. equally among them. Endeavour. L5000 sterling. Also L50 to my Godchildren.

Mary Ann . . . some of personal property set aside . . . [List] To buy mourning rings [ . Madeline Harp and Stool—Daughter.244 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N The sum of 20 guineas to each of my following dear relatives and friends . ] One of Silver Waiters—Trinity Church—Daughter Sword awarded for 1823 exploits—Son. . Samuel Grand Piano and Stool—Daughter. .

The descendants of slaves attempting to trace and identify their family are forced up against some daunting dynamics. The rest of his estate. To make sure that these things came to pass. Most times the mention of slaves in a will could be ominous. the way was indeed tortuous and very unpredictable. Reed nominated and appointed his relation. was signed and witnessed in Barbados in 1824. the ancestors are not considered as individuals but rather regarded as chattels and are therefore accounted for by head counts and thus a part of the personal property of a particular estate: divisible if need be but invisible and convenient at times and under varying circumstances. a relative. His Negro man slave named Louis was to become the property of Edward Brace Terrill. There have been cases where some favorite slave would be set free or manumitted when the master dies. were to be distributed amongst his family and relatives according to the dictates of his last will and testament. residents of the colony of Demerara. and they were to act jointly and severally. that a series of things were to come to pass when he shall have deceased. real and personal. It may indicate that one will be sold or bequeathed to a family member. These situations could be tenuous as the slave 245 . then owner of a 25 percent interest in plantation Nabaclis on the east coast of Demerara. to be the executors of his will. his brother-in-law James Fergus and Reed’s friend Thomas Patten were to function in the same capacity as regards property located there. In Newfoundland. What was good for “massa” had to be good for those over whom he had complete control. It was always the master or slave owner who would make the call and had the last word. John Groscort Reid and his friend Creswell Spencer. Invariably.WHERE THERE IS A WILL A will to be free and to take control of one’s life and future.” all the slave was expected to do was to obey and to “go by orders. and wages. his last will and testament. Besides being full of the milk of human kindness.” It was in the will of Richard Reed. command. being ever so benevolent and having to carry the “White man’s burden. does not translate into finding a way. For the slave and the indentured laborer of British Guiana. inevitably because of the prevailing circumstances. This.

have to wait upon a pronouncement of the Court of Policy. worked to the detriment of the rights that slaves and indentured laborers inherited from these wills. Keep in mind that executors and administrators of wills. There have been instances where authority to use the master’s surname has been granted through a clause inserted in a will.246 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N would. there were some who were errant. Still. Even though they were legally expected to put the interest of the estate and its beneficiaries first. why give a slave freedom to withdraw his labor and the further encouragement to ask for more concessions? . Bestowal of such surnames usually is a sign that the paternity of a mulatto offspring is being acknowledged. wielded immense power and authority. and trustees of trusts. and the fact that some of the beneficiaries and other interested parties were more often than not resident in the colony. the recipients must have felt a measure of exhilaration and humanness. in addition. While individual acts of manumission or setting a slave free may have been feel-good exercises. The universal practice of proving wills in England and Scotland.

Jack certainly played a Scarlet Pimpernel role. No doubt the adults had an abiding interest in such matters. how could my neighbor. if he was not an agent for the colonial administration. One is forced to ponder. He had been tried and convicted in a court-martial of colonial accusers in what was regarded in some quarters as an unjust and rigged trial. With time and age. playmate. Lucia? The intervention on his behalf by John Gladstone did weigh heavily in his favor.” With a mother as black as they come.THE GLADSTONES OF BRITISH GUIANA: A LEGACY Orville Gladstone: With those European-looking eyes. Were those apparent efforts at coordination for the cause. the quest to make these connections have taken hold and just would not let go. But then only by those of his schoolmates who were willing and prepared for a fight to the death. Because of his “copper-topped. and schoolmate have become so burdened? We never saw. or was he actually an undercover spoiler collecting intelligence on behalf of the colonial administration? Following the debates in the House of Commons as reported in the supplement of the Times of London. as it later turned 247 . how is it he escaped with such a light sentence as banishment to St. knew. or cared who Mr. that yellowish copper brown pigmentation and the color hair to match. but more recently with this newfound interest in things genealogical. For reasons best known to them only. using the unbridled freedom of travel—without the necessity of a slave pass—to constantly stay in touch with other cadres leading up to the impending uprising. some adults would derisively refer to him as “baccra man pickney. John Smith. dated June 12. He was the only one among all the defendants who had legal counsel. there was definitely something different about him. villainous counterrevolutionary to others. Much emphasis was placed upon evidential procedures in an attempt to determine whether his was a fair trial. Then there is Jack Gladstone. he was called Sticka-Red head. 1824. hero to some. Perhaps there should not have been a trial in the first place! One very contentious piece of evidence. Gladstone might have been.” unruly curled-up head of hair. some of the sentiments seem to have coalesced around attempts to rehabilitate the name and standing of the Rev.

later Sir John Gladstone of Fasque and Balfour. Her brilliant and scholarly end product.” It is an unbelievable damnation that this letter would have ended up in the hands of John Smith. the paternity question did not factor into the cause and effects or consequences of the Demerara Slave Rebellion of 1823. violent. Hasty. I’m ignorant of the affair you allude to and your note is too late for me to make any inquiry. . and I trust they will. I learnt yesterday that some scheme was in agitation. Matthews was ably supervised by David Richardson.248 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N out. or concerted measures are quite contrary to the religion we profess: and I hope you will have nothing to do with them. neither does he burn the letter after he had penned the following response: “To Jacky Reed. Was this act intended to garner support. and extensive research for her well-received book. I begged them to be quiet. I hope you will do according to your promise. Crowns of Glory. was never intended to address such mundane matters. and all the rest of the brothers are ready. It is quite possible she resisted the diversion or inclination to delve into the mounds of paper that were piled up about the “life and times” of the Gladstones. I hope you are well. The rumor syndrome that swept through the slave populations in the British West India colonies by the late eighteenth century and also the first three decades of the nineteenth became the center. This letter is written by Jacky Gladstone and the rest of the brethren of Bethel Chapel. dean of the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Hull. was a letter purportedly written to Jacky Reed (a slave with his master’s last name) by Jack Gladstone just before the slave uprising started: “My dear brother Jacky. obtain approval from a spiritual leader. that of John Gladstone. J. Tears of Blood. for Christ’s sake. Emilia Viotta da Costa—seemingly into some unknown archival nooks and crannies—there has been not even the slightest hint or insinuation from her that Jack Gladstone of plantation Success was more than likely fathered by a member of the Gladstone family of England and Scotland. Obviously. expansive. but without asking questions on the subject. Yours.” Despite her meticulous. UK. This weak vessel.S. and I write to you concerning our agreement last Sunday. and also the renowned David Eltis attached to Queens University in Canada. Gelien Matthews. or just for information? The reverend John Smith does not mount his horse and ride like the wind to the military garrison commander or the government house. Ms. focus. but more particularly. and put their trust in you. and thrust of her work. while a doctoral candidate at the University of Hull. it would appear. was able to hit pay dirt on the Jack Gladstone paternity question. given the desired tenacity and purpose.

British Guiana? Did Robert. David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson did affirm that “he never visited the West Indies. has chosen to follow Ms. seemed undeniable by the words of Jack. old chaps. or any one of his other five brothers whom he brought into his many business ventures. Checkland in his milestone biographical sketches of the Gladstones dismissively and confidently tells the world that John Gladstone’s only travel outside the UK was to North America as a young man.THE FOUR PILLARS 249 with much less research experience and hardly any academic credibility.” Still. John Gladstone (1764-1851).” Are researchers now facing the English equivalent of the Thomas Jefferson slave paternity concerning the children of Sally Hemmings? Come on. “Gladstone remains a common name in the West Indies. The guilt of the missionaries. though from 1809 he was chairman of the Liverpool West Indian Association. Matthews: “The planters also used the so-called testimonies of slaves to confirm their suspicions concerning the source from which the rumor gained strength among them. Did he or did he not spend any time in Demerara. a-ferreting we must go! . G. particularly that of Smith’s. according to these two biographers. visit the colony on his or their own behalf? In their 1844 work.” S. and with an ax to grind. the son of Gladstone who was a deacon in Smith’s Chapel at Resouvenir.

Quamina and Jack Gladstone were very close. the notice of a thousand-guilder reward for Jack’s capture after the rebellion described him as “handsome” and “well made” with a “European nose. (Page 244) . He explained that in the case of Jack Gladstone his motives were entirely political . . . Murray knew that executing Jack would only make him a hero. Bristol also mentioned that from time to time his brother-in-law Jack Gladstone and two or three others said that everybody should fight the whites. eventually agreed with Murray. . .250 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Excerpts on Jack Gladstone: “Crowns of Glory” . da Costa (Page 172) When Smith heard that Polidore had been hiding in the house of Jack Gladstone. Quamina was the plantation’s head carpenter. (Page 180) . they would go to the bush. . . . . a skilful artisan—a cooper . for a slave. . Jack lived with his father Quamina at Success. . . . bowing to pressure from important colonists.” (Page 179) Susanna. Jack Gladstone was about thirty years old . He enjoyed a relative degree of freedom to move about and often went to town or to other plantations to visit friends and relatives. . Smith believed him . Jack protested he had not even known that Pollidore had run away. the slave who was living with John Hamilton. . . . . however. Smith reprimanded Jack for harboring a runaway slave. opposed clemency. . . The King. the manager of Le Resouvenir. The Court of Policy. told Jack Gladstone that the slaves were going to be free. and Jack Gladstone was banished to St. It would be better to banish him . . . . . father and son met frequently. . . Jack had a privileged life . Quamina was a man of reason. Perhaps because Jack was Quamina’s son. . he stood a full six feet two inches and made a striking impression on whites. and “if they could do no better. . . . Working on the same plantation. . perhaps because of his European features . The governor requested mercy for Jack Gladstone and fourteen slaves who had been condemned to die. . (Page 182) . Jack a man of passion . . . .” (Page 181) . Lucia. . only about a mile and a half from Le Resouvenir. . a slave who occasionally attended services at Bethel Chapel.

(Page 178) The first of these dispatches arrived in Demerara in the first week of July 1823. (Page 310) No one exemplifies this class better than John Gladstone.THE FOUR PILLARS 251 [CO 111/44 & CO 111/52]. (Additional note—List of Slaves punished.G. followed by a letter signed by John Gladstone and several other plantation owners who resided in Great Britain. . Excerpts on John Gladstone (XIII) . but also warning the colonists to be prepared in case of slave disturbances. 1754-1851 . The rebellion started on plantation Success. had shifted to sugar and had 481 slaves (by 1830). and cultivated only cotton. (Page 48) Success. . which in 1813 had 186 slaves. Checkland. CO 111/45). recommending the implementation of the measures without delay. S. The Gladstones: A Family Biography. which belonged to John Gladstone (father of the future British prime minister).

Then there was Cecil who was apparently becoming accustomed to having his own way. who lived in a faraway place called England. He would stop between rolls.UNCLE WILLIE’S WAR It was the Christmas of 1968. for seven years struggled somewhat to make conversation. and hit his heels on the hardwood floor in a kind of staccato beat as hard as he could. It seems like their horizons had shifted and changed drastically. Time passed as circumstances propelled each of them to their own destiny. Their travels from the West Coast of Demerara to the East Coast of Demerara had started early that morning. lay on his back. his older brother Kenneth. and his vocals were noticeably at the high end of the decibels. talk endlessly about his younger brother. These two brothers who had not seen each other. eldest child of Grandma Doris. as a revelation and a testimony to his goodness. There was much jubilation in the ancestral home at Nabaclis. Leslie (the family called him Pats) was hitting the liquor bottle real hard. he decided to put on a show of defiance by rolling on the floor. After riding two trains and a boat.” If he had the audacious flair that 252 . The uncle remarked that the dad had lost a round and must expect the son to lay the ground rules for the next. His Uncle Aubrey had returned to British Guiana on a visit after a sojourn of seven years in the mother country. after all. was to morph into “Uncle Willie. Cecil had just begun to hear his father. Cecil. the original spirit of the season and the jollity of it all seemed to wane. Leslie. At one point. Cecil. Aubrey. Grandma Doris was besides herself with glee and spared no pains as she let the world know that “God was good” and that he had returned her son to her “after seven long years” while her eyes were still open and she was “still breathing and walking.” Just two years old. England. As the day progressed. and Dad arrived at Grandma’s house to an uproarious family welcome. Uncle Aubrey and his nephew Cecil would never meet again. Uncle Aubrey quietly suggested they ignore him for a while. by a series of events. no one had any place to go. He should not be allowed to win this one! Who can really tell how long a while is? That father soon scooped his son off the floor and laid him over his shoulder like a baby. and had not even corresponded.

leeching on a society with so little and meager resources. In a matter of weeks. he lived.” His date of birth (sunrise) and date of death (sunset) is stated as 05-01-1967 and 10-06-2008 respectively. and when the Joint Services were nowhere to be seen. He would wonder out aloud. It becomes very difficult to understand the adamant and seemingly grasping-at-straws inferences of the government that such a semi-illiterate raggedy bunch was indeed the machinations of the opposition. “Thanks Giving Service for the Life of the Late Simeon Cecil Ramcharran.” On the rare occasions when the heat was off. He would then seize the opportunity to launch a history lesson on the innate ability of runaway slaves in the past. it can be gathered that Cecil was indeed eulogized. Still other opinions just simply deemed them a bunch of rogues and vagabonds. he was born. he died. He would pay respects to the Amerindian “scouts” and trackers who from time to time would ferret out where runaways would be hiding. The front cover of the program reads.THE FOUR PILLARS 253 has been attributed to him in death. the Rawlins Gang. and at other times. Some have attributed to these “rebels without a cause.” these boy “soldiers.S. He hastily surmised that the few “buckmen” to be found in the police force and the army have been so affected by “civilization” that their natural gifts must be lost. how they were successful in eluding the relentless colonial militia and their minions. as to why they were continually able to outmaneuver their inept pursuers. In short. in tones directed primarily at the youths in the group. and he was buried! The undeniable fact that he also loved and was loved seemed to be lost somewhere. From the Order of Service on page 2. It did not take long for one of the “veterans” to upbraid Uncle Willie for being a know-it-all and for continually running his mouth. he could have designed his own “war flag” emblazoned with “Uncle Willie. he would haughtily fly his signature flag as an emblem of defiance. authorities .” some deeply held political convictions that were driving them along to right some unspecified wrongs. the Thin Fellows—“Fineman” and “Skinny. Uncle Willie was joined in the “great beyond” by his cohorts. There have been a myriad of conclusions drawn as to what cause could have brought these young men together and equally what kept them loyal and committed to each other to the very end.” A massive and prolonged manhunt by the combined efforts of the Guyana Police Force and the Guyana Defense Force had finally demolished the remnants of the group of marauders labeled as the Fineman Gang. It is rather befitting that this wanderer has found a place of peace and final rest in the Walk & Rest Cemetery. Despite the ongoing sharing of intelligence by the U.

254 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N on the activities of the international drug cartels in the region. the government or party in power chose the road to disdainful oblivion. that while we to a large extent resisted our capture and enslavement. this time round we are giving ourselves up and surrendering without so much as a whimper. Who the hell did think he was? Whatever he really was. “It is becoming clearer. constantly seeking to monopolize the headline and get some more attention? .” These words from Uncle Willie would set the camp ablaze and for weeks on end leave his colleagues riled up. Untrained as he was. it never would have become a revelation as to what was the underlying genius that would cause such gems to roll off his tongue. in just about any and every aspect of the world’s tumultuous ways. at least to those with a reasonable level discernment. what was he doing in a place like this? Why would he not keep his damn mouth closed.

The immigrants from British Guiana had been flown in by special charters to Trinidad and boarded the liner with those from that island together with other fellow travelers from the Eastern Caribbean. The cultural differences and the language barrier exacerbated some perceived smoldering racism. a small delegation took a plateful to the captain who was informed in no uncertain terms that there were only two ways to cook rice: the Guyanese way and the wrong way! He agreed to give access to a Guyanese for just this specific task. Trinidad. They all were brimming with very high hopes of starting life as new immigrants in the United Kingdom. Along the rails on the main deck—almost like the “all hands on deck” formation of sailors on a naval vessel entering or leaving a port—massed a sea of anticipatory humanity from just about every island territory that made up the British colonies of the West Indies. Within three days of leaving port of Spain—by which time the Ascania had sailed west and had picked up its full complement from other islands. it should not have taken very much attention to details. 255 . That delay would turn into hell for the human cargo aboard. the crew. Devoid of any previous experiences of intercontinental travel. and lasted some three weeks. something which the “Activities Director” of Jamaican origin was not expected to pronounce upon.” the dietary needs of the West Indian passengers were not considered adequately. there were to be found a sprinkling of immigrants from the Dutch colonies of Aruba and Curacao. Because of the tides. Way to go! A very unwelcome and unpleasant farewell still awaited the passengers. the SS Ascania was on the last leg of its nautical journey to the disembarkation port of Southamption after a trip that started in port of Spain.THE UNITED KINGDOM YEARS Sailing past the white cliffs of Dover. including Jamaica—a small group of Guyanese had started to discuss possible action to get the crew’s attention before the course had been charted to cross the Atlantic. The very next time rice was on the menu. in anticipation of making a clear run for shore. to satisfy the minimal needs and expectations of such an unsophisticated bunch. Whether by design or practice. plus other complications at the docks. Added to these possible explosive “points of light. landing would be delayed for what seemed like hours. Not to be left out. had already battened down the hatches and whatever else. on the part of the predominantly Italian crew.

upper deck or lower deck—it mattered not—seeking just about any secluded corner to relieve their various body urges. With some minor arrangements of their living room in their own apartment upstairs. Bertrand was to extend the two-end sleeves of an antiquated voluptuous oak table that might have started its life with some lofty pedigree. The entry-level qualifications stated seem to fit my resume perfectly. a letter of application was submitted. or even I. when the landlord’s fellow Guyanese. there was nothing to discuss. Bertrand Abrams. was there to welcome me. Searching for jobs was approached with some urgency. a lounging chair cum folding bed afforded a greater degree of comfort through the nights that were beginning to feel much colder than was anticipated. Then there was the matter of color. but more than that. I even sought and received a measure of extra coaching. “sing in this strange land.m. southeast London. to which I was invited by return letter. Little did they all know that the fortunes of this newly arrived duo would be greatly enhanced by leaning on each other as they would trek down that long. With Bertrand as coach and adviser. Whether it was a missed letter.256 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N even putting the lavatories under lock and key. I prepared for the interview. There was registration with required state agencies that would authenticate our presence and existence in the country. or whatever.” that hour of the morning? This new situation represented a major change in our individual plan. What a mess! It was after 1:00 a. Hard pressed to accommodate two young men rather than one. I was prepared! . One initial wall was my shell shock! In response to an ad in the papers. He placed some sheets and blankets on that newly created surface and offered two wide-eyed wanderers their first bed in London town. Being new arrivals and not having any work experience in England did help any. my cabinmate and fellow villager Neville (Trotman) Simon was less fortunate. something over which we had no control. acknowledge our unemployment and willingness to work. became aware of our plight. There was no way to even contemplate his abandonment—what song would he. My favorite cousin. long road that stretched ahead of them. Fred and Eletha Clarke. Later. The suffering passengers were to and fro. when the train from Southampton reached Victoria Station in central London. they graciously came to the rescue. As we three piled into a taxi for the trip to New Cross. genuine efforts were constantly being made. No one came to meet him at the train station. interference with a work schedule.

and the doorman summarily dispatched! To this day. .THE FOUR PILLARS 257 Entering the opulent décor and environs of the lobby of the Shell Oil Co.. the prospective interviewer. The uniformed doorman advanced briskly to meet me and inquired as to the nature of my business. I was hit with a deflating feeling of perhaps being in the wrong place. This doorman put the phone down and tersely told me that there would be no interview. the gentleman at the other end of the line had not realized prior to then that I was from another part of the world. He was shown the letter that the company had sent to me and proceeded to steer me toward what seemed like some sort of communications desk. So the doorman duly received. giving the impression he was in contact with the writer of the letter. He then lifted an extension phone. According to him. I wonder whether he actually spoke to anyone on that phone.

the two slices of cheese.COMING TO AMERICA The skies over New York City on this particular summer’s day turned out to be not so friendly. New York. England. endless hours on a regular basis were spent by me in the libraries of the USIS (United 258 . my order was to have “everything on it. the double cheeseburger. The novelty of the great American staple. I did not pass on. With the encouragement of the young lady at the service counter. pickles. the people designated as our goodwill ambassadors. became history real fast and thus gave impetus to my moving on before my limited personal financial resources would be exposed. lettuce. I opened my mouth the widest it has ever been to take that first bite. I thought.S. which were included with the travel package. and tomato from any unwanted and unexpected movements or slippages and experienced the sharpest.” complete with french fries and a vanilla milkshake. destined for NYC. I never anticipated the ensuing wrestling match with a burger some six or more inches tall. Despite the change. I passed up the opportunity to visit the iconic wonder Niagara Falls on that occasion. It also seemed an original way to celebrate my coming to America and my introduction to authentic “Yankee” cuisine. I had to eat anyway. They did their very best and succeeding in helping to cushion the shock and disappointment that so many felt at not being able to penetrate this great land from an NYC beachhead. Being unschooled. to welcome and orientate this group of exchange students visiting the U. That is where I touched down for the first time on the continent of North America. In the years prior to the seven years I lived in London. With Chicago as my destination. Air-traffic controllers at Kennedy Airport had to deal with a congestion never before experienced and thus were under severe operational pressure. My flight from London.. onions. The decorative item on top was actually the safe end of some sort of sharpened wooden stake. the two burger patties. intended to keep steady the bun. England. stinging pain as the business end of that culinary lance entered my lower gums. a toothpick. at the last minute. the object then was to make the nearest Greyhound bus station. did an exceptional job. The two nights of hotel accommodation. was diverted to Buffalo. That splurge should hold me until I got to Chicago.

I like to tell this one. not intent on sarcasm. had established some close association with some Yankee fellas. did reach out socially to the black U. My godbrother. nothing alerted or prepared to deal with the “scourge of the giant toothpick” on that summer’s day at the lunch counter of Sears. He tried so hard to talk that talk. It was there that I learned so much about the history. Georgetown. South America. The compliments kept coming my way concerning “that accent” as I struggled to effect some lingual transformation hoping to fit into this new environment. he . “That’s the place where Jim Jones killed all dem folks!” I nodded in confirmation.THE FOUR PILLARS 259 States Information Services).” etc. With time. adding that I hoped the dear lady would enjoy the rest of the day. my past and continuing exposure to pax Americana. “Not Ghana.” said she.” “Can you repeat that. and politics of these United States and many other parts of the world. Attached to and located in the same building that housed the U. Roebuck. servicemen who were stationed there. “Honey. the Voice of America broadcasts was like my hors d’oeuvres. Then there was the socio-cultural nonalignment with which new immigrants had to contend. Through it all. Embassy.” “Say that again.” was my terse response. I responded appropriately.” said I. England. “You’ve got an accident. some changes came about. that place was indeed a refuge. “You’ve got an accent. I just could not get enough. she blurted out. culture. which is in Africa. British Guiana (now Guyana). hoping the inquisition was over. but Guyana. and also to stave off the interruptions that came in midsentence: “Pardon me. the more discerning American ears can still pick up “that accent” despite deliberate attempts on my part to smother it. These were to be followed up by a dessert of sumptuous helpings of the cinematography of Hollywood. The cold war was raging.” My very first contact and interaction with an Afro-American brother had been a few years earlier. one can indeed grasp the nuances of the Queen’s English as spoken in London. one Harry “Jaggy” Baynes. New York. “Where you from?” she inquired without missing a beat.” I imparted in a scholarly. After more than thirty-five years of residency and some thirty years after becoming an American citizen. in just one sentence. Being purposeful and deliberate.S. day by day. A colleague in the office where I worked thought she ought to do the right thing and introduce me—“Our accountant”—to a visitor. and with a keen auditory perception. Buffalo. The West Indian immigrant population of the town of Ipswich. Wising up.S. While I gorged at the USIS as a main course. “you got outta there just in time. “Guyana. edifying tone. “You from Ghana?” she continued.” she said.

providing he would have been willing. It also reinforced my earlier impression of a pace of life that was less hurried and much more congenial. Ohio. was “How did you end up in this place?” I would always patiently and painstakingly go back to the beginning! The first time I got on the Lagrange Street bus headed for the downtown.” Initially.260 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N deliberately gave the impression that he was one of Uncle Sam’s nephews. there were some other favorable factors that entered the equation. So many people slowed. that well might have been the clincher. He was willing to talk. He may have fainted and fallen. Many of the tables. mainland really stood out. As it has turned out. One question that would continually surprise and frustrate each time it was asked. I was taken aback and distressingly surprised at this warning from someone: “Don’t touch him. placed me next to a “brother. especially early in my residency in Toledo. I had long before secured reading and promotional reading material on the “Glass City” from the Chamber of Commerce. but not about things that would hold my interest. They did not seem to comprehend why or how come the draw of New York City or Chicago did not stir me. and kept going. and the cell phone had not been invented. facts. Coming from Virginia. being anxious to learn much more about America. Besides. I was beginning to like this midwest city. this first impression had expanded that this deficiency was more widespread than could have been anticipated. the driver/conductor said. England. For someone on whom the nesting instinct had just started to sprout. my two children are not so impressed with today’s stats and the economic prognostics of the city that stole my heart. and he was bleeding profusely. The seating arrangements on the Greyhound bus. my not-so-tuned-in ear thought he sounded like a Bajan.” After living and commuting for nearly eight years in the bustling metropolis of London. Some of the folks inquiring about my coming to Toledo had been suppressing the urge to leave. some forty years later. you don’t know what he’s got!” AIDS had not even been heard of. Much later. on which I traveled from Buffalo to Chicago. walked around him. One that stood out was the commendable percentage of families who owned their homes. His limited knowledge about his black brothers beyond the U. On the steps of the London Underground laid a fellow traveler. “Good morning.S. such a greeting was particularly noticeable. I intended to engage him in conversation. sometimes in terms that were not very complementary. . and figures were very impressive. He seemed to be completely out of it with a nasty gash over one eye. They would say as much. this seemed like a great opportunity.

in 1961. different rules were at play when I migrated to these United States. Guiana. What the planners would label as urban development. the circular band of more concrete around the entire city. the oath was administered and I repeated the pledge and was welcomed to citizenship of this great land. At the earliest possible moment. There are no problems we cannot solve together. elect a black man. coincided with the transformation and upheaval caused by the extension of the interstate system. In contrast. exit and entrance ramps properly laid out. black people would justifiably come to regard as “urban removal. I was particularly grateful to be able to exercise a franchise and casted a vote at every available opportunity. I-75 would be embraced by I-475.THE FOUR PILLARS 261 Arriving in London. And very few that we can solve by ourselves. Residents had to frustratingly learn to live with the new traffic patterns while the noise level escalated. I did. Within a short while. with millions of other like-minded Americans. Toledo would for years become known for the nightmarish traffic tie-ups as the DOT went about the business of completing the master plan. as our first citizen. in the year of 1976. The ditches had already been bulldozed and leveled in anticipation of the steel rods and the pouring of the tons of concrete. —Lyndon B Johnson . There were bridges to be built. My arrival in Toledo. some underpasses tunneled. Barack Obama. the president of the United States. The resultant disruption and displacement of family housing would forever change the “inner city”—the predominantly black community. and coming from a British colony. England.” Some streets had been truncated and dead-ended at the expressways. For nearly six years. politically I was a eunuch. I was proud to vote for the first time in the presidential elections and have not stopped since! And now. I was granted and had exercised most of the rights and privileges of a citizen from day one. Ohio. all in the interest of improving the flow of traffic especially for the interstate travelers. on this my ninth presidential election.

” keep the picture. then we will be on our way.262 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Yes! Hopes were at an all-time high This caricature was to become the centerpiece of A series of posters and billboards designed to sell Caribbean drinks and beverages everywhere That never happened. We do have a book to sell! . The publishers of this book are being encouraged to just remove the words “the juice man. come up with some more appropriate catch phrases.

NAJASO (National Association of Jamaican and Supportive Organizations) Then Jamaican Ambassador. between the many organizations and union of Jamaican nationals that had proliferated in these United States. most of these young men sought to have their temporary immigration status to something more permanent. Marrying native American women became one avenue by which to become a resident and in time a citizen. I had already joined the International Institute with its worldwide outlook and reputation of working on 263 . Alfred Rattray. Membership in that Club seemed to be a desirable and obvious thing to do. culture. the formation and nurturing of The National Association of Jamaican and Supportive Organizations. At the earliest stages. cricket and dominoes would aid in the expanding membership by the inclusion of other islanders of the English-speaking Caribbean. With the shortage of manpower many more would be recruited and contracted as farm workers and other laborers. the intent and goal was to forge a national alliance and unification. Primarily. . . even though loosely. It was his brainchild. When peace came. The intended ‘national’ gap in the name of the new body had to be extended to deal with reality—thus “and Supportive Organizations” . The West Indian American Social Club (of Toledo) had earned a civic reputation over the years of its existence by exposing the culture of the West Indies at every possible opportunity that came its way. . must be singled out as the architect of this grand idea. Other ethnicities have been successful to varying degrees launching such consolidations and channeling their efforts to aid the lands of their birth. The immigrants prior to WW II were soon followed by a much larger wave invited and sucked in as hostilities became more intense. it became clear that there were hardly any organizations that were 100% Jamaican membership. These wives had been a part of that noble history of being the backbone of the black church soon played the same auxiliary role in many a ‘Jamaican’ social and cricket club. The common elements of British colonialism.

use the time avail economically and leave DC with some achievements that we could be justly proud. their friends. (d) To maintain concern about and seek ways and means to assist in improving the lot of the deprived. and the activities of individuals and groups operating against Jamaica’s national interests. To a larger extent. and research where possible and appropriate and where desired. and the world at large about the world economic system. respect for the independence and national integrity of Jamaica. . (e) To promote through educational campaigns. and the socially and economically disadvantaged and to enlist and encourage the involvement of Jamaicans overseas in finding and contributing to solutions. to discourage and oppose the subversion of the Jamaican nation. its friends. expertise. and supporters in membership and in support of the Association as a vehicle for communication and for communication and for cooperation between organizations and individuals committed to patriotic support of Jamaica. and the need for a new world economic order. its economic and social injustices. unemployed. (f) To educate its members.264 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N behalf of newly-arrived immigrants. The opportunity was seized to make sure that we would work as expeditiously as was possible. most of these kindred organizations would have been replicating the programs that emphasized aspects of the culture of the Caribbean. (c) To assist the Jamaican Government and authorities in their plans for national development and in particular to provide advice. (b) To unite Jamaicans. The constitution was ratified with the following Aims and Objectives therein enshrined:(a) To uphold and support the right of the people of Jamaica to freedom in their choice of a socio-political system. There was a close working relationship between other ethnic organizations affiliated with. and under the umbrella of the Institute. With the formation of NAJASO we were indeed seeking to operate on a higher plain. The annual International Festival did get some national attention as it showcased the varied cultural aspects of the nationalities who chose to participate.

Here are some successes:● ● ● Substantial contribution to the Jamaica Adult Literary Learning Program (JAMAL) Millions of dollars worth of medical supplies and equipment to hospitals and other institutions. filled with hope and optimism. In the USA:Participated in the successful lobbying efforts that assured passage of the (CBI) Caribbean Basin Initiative. The road to viability for NAJASO was somewhat a rough one. Black River and Savannah-la-mar hospitals. Outside of Jamaica:Haiti—Shipment of medical supplies and equipment to the Ecole St Vincent Hospital. these individuals had to return to their groups in the respective cities to do a selling job. The NAJASO Education thrust under the Marcus Garvey Scholarship which was awarded in alternate years. it was the ample in-kind donations of educational and medical supplies from various sources in the US that were the driving force to NAJASO’S thrust in Jamaica. Supplies and equipment to furnish the Citizens Advice Bureau. We were on a journey that needed us to garner all the support that could be mustered. Substantial contribution of equipment and supplies to many other schools and institutions. especially the tri-yearly ones held in Jamaica were able to garner encouraging support and also sponsorships from some prominent corporate entities in Jamaica. tools and fishing supplies. Were in the forefront in the approaches that saw the increase in the Jamaican export sugar quota to the US. Assistance at times of natural disasters. with an empty treasury. The annual conventions. serving at Falmouth. NAJASO Medical Team to Jamaica: 28 doctors.THE FOUR PILLARS 265 Without an office. providing clothing. food. medical students and nurses volunteered their services and visited the island nation. Provision of equipment and supplies to Basic Schools. without any staff. Some member organizations had over the years of their existence were able to build sound treasuries while many others were barely getting by. Still. ● ● ● ● ● . hurricanes and tropical storms.

266 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Contributed to the erection of the Marcus Garvey Bust in the Hall of the (OAS) Organization of American States. Prime Minister of Jamaica.S. Even with the help and exhortations from the Embassy. market than that available to Jamaica and other Caribbean countries under the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) . a crusading Michael Manley. .” “I urge you. to discuss these issues which are of critical importance to Jamaica”. D.S. President Bush has announced the completion of the negotiation of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). DC with a poignant message. . they were already within the firing line of the already raging ‘War on Drugs’. those matters needing immediate and robust responses were not always addressed adequately. Senators and your Representatives . Years earlier. (Excerpted from a letter dated 8/27/92 from the Jamaica Embassy) It was clear that the lack of cohesiveness. Established the Committee for Economic Growth of Jamaica (CEGJ). to write to or schedule a meeting with your U. the scourge of illegal drugs was a clear and present danger in the hemisphere. had come to Washington. skills.C. . . He foresaw a crippling of the administrations and governments of the islands of the Caribbean by the money laundering. . . “ . He will be submitting legislation to the Congress next month to bring the agreement into force. political savvy and sophistication necessary for the tasks in Washington DC were not readily found in the ranks of so many of the member organizations of NAJASO. Gave leadership to the drive to pardon/exonerate Marcus Mosiah Garvey. . therefore. Washington. As he saw it. illegal traffic in narcotics and the people who controlled these activities. Whether these governments with their limited resources would be regarded as draftees or volunteers did not matter. . The NAFTA Agreement will provide Mexico with better access to the U.

1832.7. one with an English name: George Davy.800-40. Date of delivery 6.7. Landed from the Brazilian brig PERPETUO DEFENSOR.7. Edward Harris comm.258 men 41.1832.259-41. 32 girls on right breast All brandmarked with an DLA-vol: By HMS Maidstone.487-23. and 6. By HMS brig Brisk. 6. Many men with the names Oloh.1832.599-40. 322. de Pavias death sent onboard HMS Forester 14. Omo or Appan.1832.1826 slaves-no. Landed at Freetown 14.268-41. Spanish brig SEGUNDA TERESA. Landed from the Quarantine vessel Susan being part of the Brazilian brig PERPETUO DEFENSOR’s cargo. On 3 of these are added: On M. Medislo comm. 41.799 men 40.1826.1826. Vessel restored and slaves landed by the Colonial Government by acting govenor Macauly. Spanish schooner PRUEVA. slaves-no. Don Antonio Ferrera master.1834. 13 were almost blind. slaves-no.4. LAR no.267 women 41.317 girls Many brandmarked with an P on right shoulder. Cond.1832. The majority in this group had an Some of the men sent: Appr. to J. 7 persons were total blind. landed 6.311-41. 21.995-41. 23.858 women 40. 23. slaves-no.7. Most of them were like the first group marked with an . Rec. 21.814.725-23. men.320 boys 41. 5.4. 321.de Pavia 21.044-41.994 boys 40.724 Total: 163. 5.THE FOUR PILLARS 267 SELECTIVE PAGES: LIBERATED AFRICAN DEPARTMENT 1808-1840 LAR no. cond. 51 women.4. Ric.859-40.6. 83 boys. These people are included in the preceding disposal. 227.1832. . 40.043 girls on right arm.4. LAR no.6. By HMS Sloop Peluens.

31.705-28. 17 girls = 217 pers.268 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N LAR no. one 3966-4050 boys (brandmarked with an R or an marked with both signs) 4051-4087 women 4088-4143 girls Names and descriptions of 218 liberated Africans landed from the Brazilian schooner SANTA EFFIGENIA 26. 29.11. Don Donato Forgannet master.302 men 31.930 boys 31.210-31. 31. 272. 28.2.470 wom. slaves-no.1829. cond.526 boys 31. LAR no.860 women 31.1828. 20. Names and descriptions of liberated Africans landed from the Brazilian schooner PENHA DE FRANCA. tender to HMS Sybille.+Port.861-31. Cond. 258.991 girls Date of death later added to 22 persons. 3860-3965 men (some with Portuguese names) . LAR no. .1828. Landed 4.782 men 31.575 girls Some brandmarked with signs like: X OO XK B P FF MP S 3 PF The Spanish brig EL ALMIRANTE.3.+Braz.527-31.Court. J. Emancipated 19. comm.+inf. Brit.1828. and distrib.A. By HMS Black Joke. 37 girls = 169 pers.1829.Brit.1829. no date. No brandmarks.Collier Esq. No name. 50 men. Cond.Comm.Comm. Andre Joaquim Ferreira master. Landed 21.931-31. Mix. 32 women.1828.12.642. 25.576-31.3. comm. 55.1828. no date slaves-no.11. 25 boys. slaves-no. 273.11.471-31. LAR no. By HMS Sybille.1828. 16.11. Description very often: Cuts all over. 22.921 DLA-vol: Several are brandmarked on right breast with an Rec. Francis Collier Esq. slaves-no. signs like AA PP H O NV DLA-vol: Rec. 107 men. Mix. LAR no. Brazilian brigantine UNIAO. Cond.1829. 13.29. breast.12. slaves-no. Cond.3. 26. 31.303-31. 61 boys. arm or belly with Many sent to York.783-31.810 Very many brandmarked on shoulder. 57 women. 263.

Cond.1829.342-32.285 boys 32.1829 to be registrated and afterwards returned to that ship.756-850 were boys and girls) . Jah. 276.THE FOUR PILLARS 269 LAR no. . By HMS Sybille’s tender Paul Pry. Brig JULES continued.J.5.5. W. Seized in brig JULES 19. Addoom. Landed 19. Daboo. . 277. Amedoo. an S on the right shoulder.342 girls Several sent to the Bananas.5.1829.Owen.+inf. 32.078-32. . Ex. of names.673-32. 31. cond. On many women are said: Given to her countryman to be married . Collier Esq. 32. And 30.406 men 32. Esq.—was sent ashore at this place on the 19.738 girls + 3 girls died before description was taken. (out of these 32. 13. 275.1829. BY HMS Sybille. slaves-no. Lokoday. Osokee. LAR no. boy.5. comm.992-32.615-32.1829. 32. Bambosee.1829 sent to Aberdeen. Brandmarks: V N I PE Z H P The Brazilian brig CAROLINA. Landed 14.1829. Kahmoo. or 8.1829.740-32. Dosomoo.W.229-32. Ignacco Alvez Martha master. Males: Ogahbee. Odoojai. Attee. Cond. Osokoo.672 boys 32. slaves-no. date . The Brazilian schooner DONNA BARBARRA. Awosay. Landed 6. Oschoe.4.614 wom. Bokoe.6.1829. Thomas Luiz master.4. . 32. 274. comm. Mahloe. 24. This boy was taken out of the JULES and put onboard the “Eden” at Fernando Po. 32. slave-no. many to Bathrust. The Brazilian schooner MENSAGERIA. LAR no. Miquel Minez master. place. LAR no. Females: Okedah.+inf. slaves-no.228 wom. comm. Many men are first placed at Public work in Freetown and then 7. 12 years.407-32. By HMS Eden. Allah.077 men 32.739.286-32.4. Collier Esq.

the first home I entered was that of Mr. a company for which I was then the Chief Executive Officer: “Mr. was going to stand in the way of my seeing this venture through. among other things. had been explored. Those initial inquiries relevant to the advertisement indicated that there might be far too many problems to be surmounted to provide and induce a viable environment for the acquisition and subsequently a successful operation of this perceived dinosaur of the beverage (soft drink) industry. Further investigation was to reveal that it was a reference to the Mohr Brothers Bottling Company. some 22 years ago when I first arrived in the City of Toledo. My host. it may have been some sentimental connection that heightened my curiosity. Sometime in November. Mohr did the neighborly thing by inviting me. into his living room which was indeed a more comfortable place to sit and wait. the so many questions that I had. Dick Mohr contacted me by letter to inform me about new and additional possible sources of financing. and some of which were the very ones you would ask me. He surmised that prevailing conditions may just be much more favorable.‘Bill Bird Trust heself: he Swallow Too-Roo Seed’ . The realization that my personal net worth. my credit and my financial resources may not be adequate to effectively handle the demands of this particular situation failed to dampen my enthusiasm. 1990. FIVE (5) GALLONS MORE What follows this sentence is an outline of a speech which was to be delivered by me to mark the first Annual General Meeting of Doris Enterprises. At first. Mr. it became much clearer that nothing. . but nothing. . Corporate Officers and Stockholders. researched and looked at in their many aspects. That was when I set in motion the process of eliciting and soliciting your 270 . It was then that a dream and some stark economic realities clashed. It was as if! became possessed ! As the Business Plan was worked and reworked. By this time. President. a total stranger. More than a year ago. You see. happened to be out when I arrived. I sat on the porch for a little while. I came across an ad in a trade paper pertaining to the sale of a local beverage manufacturing company. Mohr who happen to live right next door to my intended destination. Wilfred Weatherspoon. Inc.

To date. Inc. If you are unable. in this grandiose project. here and now. They include (1) reconstituting the board of directors. and ultimately your investment. By which time the efforts of the organizers had shifted towards preparation for production and a push to marketing. to help. What I do not understand is your apparent waning of enthusiasm. There is a story to be told and some unfinished business to be taken care of. These funds have all been expended. that every disappointment contains the seed(s) of a greater opportunity. As you gave. my confidence rose in proportion. There may be discouraging words.000. do not hinder. We have been faced with some setbacks in our financing. We were all expected to be ambassadors. failed to produce and honor the commitments when needed the most. (2) approving the code of conduct. even though accepted. more than $78.000 to $80. Never in my wildest dreams did I expect the ensuing frustrations of the last three months especially when we experienced such a promising start. I sincerely understand your caution and reservations as they are being manifested. There was no doubt in my mind that $75. You were called into session today primarily to consider and deliberate on some concrete steps by way of definitive actions which your board of directors will be recommending to you for approval. I say to you. Doris Enterprises. as I do. you must believe in the managers and in the direction and course they have charted for your company. That is to be expected. your company. This speech was never delivered and is only being now looked at and reviewed in light of prevailing conditions in June 2007. Many of the offers to take shares in this new corporation. I am in this for the long haul. by God. You must believe in the product. You must believe.000 of stockholders funds have been accounted for. You must believe in what we are trying to do. not to mention some overdue . Our proposed starting dates for manufacturing have been pushed back somewhat. There may be signs of discouragement. The Company now faces contractual and other commitments to the tune of $93. cheerleaders.000 of initial equity working capital was an attainable goal. overt and covert. and public relations people on behalf of this. and most of all. or even unwilling. and I eagerly accepted your assurances of future participation.THE FOUR PILLARS 271 interest and support. (3) indemnifying and compensating those who have been involved in the organizing and implementing of past decisions taken for and on behalf of your company.

000. highlighting what I considered to be the most important parts of the business plan which some of them had already perused. Neither my daughter nor my son has ever been briefed on these matters. 1991—A big. ever! September 18-20. This had been a short-lived business project invested in by four of my Guyanese countrymen. Besides their common interest in the bakery where we were meeting. and Blair Thompson. They asked questions to which I gave . and his brother. high mountain looms. they individually had other investments. End of the working day. my son Emeka. It was indeed my longest day. Replacement of the roof on 2516 Lagrange is now complete. 1991—Toledo/Milwaukee/Chicago: I was able to make a presentation at each stop. July 18. They did not ask. I had to reflect as I passed the defunct Kaieteur Club. Derek Garraway. I thought. 1991—Traveled to Detroit. This was a group of kindred veteran investors originally from Jamaica. Should their children or grandchildren ask either of them. Several phone calls are made to stockholders exhorting them to meet their commitments with not much success.000 in the bank while the “final” bill due on the original contract is now $26. “Whatever happened to that beverage empire you had set out to build?” they could opt for this answer. Thomas Sertima. and they were not told. made a brief stop to see Ken Cook. a friend and a potential investor. Could this be an omen.” Culling from notes of particular significance in my calendar: July 11. Patrick Smartt. spending time in the offices of Barksdale.” After this. namely Ken Cook. This is being done for my daughter Chioma. I continued on to see Patrick Smartt. I made my presentation. I am actually lifting a burden off the shoulders of the “Coucouret Mafia”: Colin Garraway. another potential investor. and dropped off a copy of the business plan. but quickly expelled it from my mind. “I ran into someone more crooked and despicable than I could ever have been.272 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N grievances to be aired and addressed. none of our families and loved ones would seek to insert in our individual obituary our exploits and prowess as “entrepreneur in the beverage industry. my grandson Roman Alexander. now a church. and any others descendants from my loins who may follow. Chicago was the more interesting. There is less than $1. The truth be told.

with an attitude. Dick himself. Not another omen? Nah! September 23-30. This question will always stay with me: “What is your level of investment in the company and what would you do if you were ousted by the other stockholders?” My response went something like this. I would be the last person to lock horns with other stockholders in a long-drawn-out and dirty corporate fight.. He did come in late on Saturday. It is the big push to complete a short list of imperative tasks in preparation for the impending FDA inspection. He left at the regular time on Friday after promising earlier that he was going to stay much later. Joe Mohr was not officially working but rather “helping out” his dad. Dick’s son. Our “crown prince” had earlier remarked about his unwillingness to break his neck for anyone.” I decided to ask “Rusty” Lynn to take a week off. It was necessary to have the ceiling scraped first. he would be better able decide upon his level of commitment then and into the future. I could go out and start another company or venture wherever I may discern an opportunity for future success. after a misstep had almost dumped him on the concrete floor off an improvised scaffolding of stacked plastic crates.THE FOUR PILLARS 273 what I hoped were my best answers. Could it be that the helping out without any money going his way was being resented? A few unpleasant words were exchanged between dad and son on that very day. he did not do much. 1991—The longest week: Some twelve-hour days at the plant.” my “baby” has matured to the point where I am no longer needed. If and when that shall have happened. He had not been paid for three weeks. I will take solace in the fact that my “brainchild. and myself. He would disappear soon after Dick left at 11:30 a. he was also owed for hardware supplies which he would have picked up on the way in and when needed. While he took over from his dad the assignment of painting the back wall. to get the ceiling of the plant painted. Glen “Skip” Limes. “Control” of the company has its place. my ace. besides. an assistant to the painter Carter. To be able to stand back and reflect on the tight money situation we all were facing. This shoulder-separating task fell to Joe Mohr. stuck with me all week but reneged on his promise to come in on Saturday. the end of his workweek. .m. I will tend to place the interest of the business ahead of egotism and my own personal agenda. I thought that a week away would give him a new perspective. I do climb ladders too! Though considered a highly valuable member of the “team. I had resorted to Al.

except for a few minor exceptions. An inquiry was made at the bank on the status of the checking account balance. slow. and personal contacts? Was something wrong with the message. and ultimately respond favorably? Even though I am exhausted. That vertigo became a stark contrast to the exploding euphoria that would overtake and swamp my whole being on the following Monday. and repainted. my worst suspicions were confirmed. dejected. and lingering look at my plight: the challenge that was facing me. Whatever became of all my efforts: the letters. or was it the messenger? What is it going to take to make the hearers of the message fully understand. get excited about. the phone calls. and let down. We are almost there! It was the most exciting event ever to come about ever since we entered that valley of tears. The system. He happened to be in the area! An in-depth informal tour of inspection turned out to be favorable. somewhat nauseated. 2514-2520 Lagrange. there is that something from deep within that keeps telling me that I could not. I learned that in the interim. We were ecstatic that the metal ceiling. both physically and mentally.274 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N September 26. deliberate. called for stockholders to mail funds directly to Mid-Am Bank. which had been employed from the inception. relate to. the FDA inspector had showed up at the plant unannounced. would not rest this night without taking a long. The reported balance of around $75 caused me to feel very sick. No funds had been received and designated to our account for over ten days. sanded. did not have to be replaced. Verbally and through an interoffice memo from Dick Mohr. Toledo Awaits the Wrecking Ball! . scraped. must be singled out. 1991.

“TALK HALF AND LEF HALF!” . Inc. No liabilities were to be assumed. but look ah top.. “Derek. Extensive research had already been undertaken in this “new frontier” of the beverage industry. which was designated to become the corporate site of the incorporated entity then known as Doris Enterprises. the middle. The amateur but meticulous painting job was being done in the second-floor office. It hovered for a brief second over the window trim that I had been painting. Is there some other place from which to start? Yes. ever-changing end. was accepted and registered by the state of Ohio. plant and equipment. a new ending is in the making and will surely be manifested when I get there. . . the first meeting of this new corporation was called to ratify certain actions already taken. Inc.” Assets to be acquired were to include building. Inc. The findings and conclusions were then incorporated into the always vital and necessary business plan. there is! What about starting at the end. This newly formed Ohio corporation came to life with the following aims and objectives: “For the acquisition and operation of the soft drink bottling company known as Mohr Brothers Bottling Co. The twilight zone from which I had only recently emerged was once again beckoning. Even as I write. my right hand that held the paint brush slowed visibly but did not quite stop. dance ah bottom. including the name Neelie Enterprises. and related operational fixtures and fittings. Perhaps I should start at the beginning. Drawing upon my past and existing professional expertise. choose officers 275 . . At the earliest possible date. . then it resumed its regular up-and-down motion. . what have I ever done to you?” These were the only words that I could muster and which came out as a low whimpering moan. After several failed attempts at name searches in the Secretary of State’s office. or some other sequential place juxtaposed anywhere between the beginning and the ever-shifting. the name of Doris Enterprises. the resultant plan was to be the centerpiece of our endeavors going forward. Favorable commendations were expressed by funding agencies and potential investors alike. losing de ’guana and de cutlass! As if in slow motion.

Following a special appeal to existing shareholders. To Derek Garraway. Roraima Realtors . it was understood that the corrections and substitutions would be undertaken in a timely fashion. The battle was on! My intelligence about the enemy and their nefarious ways was severely lacking. Next came the bottle botch up. Inc. and some other important documents still carried the “working” name of Neelie Enterprises. a check was cut for $7. each which became unwisely comingled with “general fund” money. and movement. How long is a short while. used his years of experience and known contacts to locate some pop bottles in the diminutive quantity and relatively “reasonable” price just right for our operations. I must conclude that I lost “the good doctor” at that very first meeting. defraud. It was only when the web of intrigue got thicker and wider that the purposeful interception of the mail became clear.” presented in such a manner as if I had done something to manipulate that situation for my personal benefit. who I now dub “The Coucouret Mafia.276 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N and managers. and before he ever wrote his first check. dispossess current and future stockholders. four of them came up with $1.. business plan. One potential stockholder. who traveled from Detroit full of nationalistic pride and verve. Richard “Dick” Mohr. raising $7. and in myriad of ways.000 in a good-faith effort. plant manager and so many other things. We were anxious to go for a full and complete trial run of the plant incorporating several flavors of the products. I might have sown the first seeds of the idea of a rival company while opting for speed. Colin Garraway. Being cash starved. and Blair Thompson. Even though the prospectus. motion. These men had months ago formed a corporation. Unwittingly. It is amazing how wise we become with hindsight. and to chart possible courses for the future. Dr.000. These facts were later to become irritants.” these apparent anomalies were indications of sinister and diabolical plots intended to cheat. Cecil Jonas. was all for a company name with a Guyanese flavor. Thus started the rumor of the “conversion of funds.000 and proffered to the bottle supplier with a special request that it be held for a short while. This incident produced the first major dissension. Rather than sending a certified check for $4.000 seemed like climbing Everest. and how many phone calls can it accommodate? I never laid eyes upon that check again even though it was returned and never presented to the bank. The “gang of three” really brought out their swords but had to keep them hilted because they lacked the support.

Thoughts about me. The nature of the beast is exposed in the letter dated June 23. as the intended receptacle for the acquisition of the real estate known as 2516 Lagrange Street. Blair Thompson. threw his full support behind his nephew. and that is why the two of them sneaked into the building early in the morning of the sale to spirit some easily mobile pieces of fixtures and equipment out of sight while piling disposable garbage on top of others. How was it possible that three of my countrymen with less than $2. this young hotshot entrant to the halls of jurisprudence. was chomping at the bits to show his stuff. My first and immediate concerns and anxieties were centered around the likely loss of trust and the investment of others rather about myself. did not matter. Colin Garraway. Being jettisoned and dispossessed was very difficult to bear. under legal arrangements with Mohr Brothers. At the same time. “The business assets” bought were never a part of the earlier sheriff’s sale. who had a lien on these assets and had indicated they may want to do an inspection to be sure they were not surrendering an opportunity to retrieve something of value. As to whether the pending “Offer in Compromise” I did file on behalf of Mohr Brothers in order to abate the liens did serve its purpose was never made clear. and the likely consequences took a longer time to sink in. so proud that in just a generation they were able to leave the coucouret and awaarha palms of Pomeroon behind. even supplying the “mafia” element. Inc. Coming up close and wimpily behind can be found the epitome of Judas.. There was substantial personal property within the building that became subjugated to the rights of Doris Enterprises because of legal contracts entered into with Mohr Brothers. my family. 1992. for all purposes. I surmised that I had exercised an adequate amount of diligence in my dealings.000 among them had invested in a $100. even had the delinquent legal bills to prove it.THE FOUR PILLARS 277 Corp. an entity called Barima Beverages was spawned with the purpose of operating the bottling plant sited at that location and already being operated by Doris Enterprises.000 venture were now muscling in and taking control? I started to take it personal and to regard it as an attack on my manhood. The fact that the principals of these two new entities were actually officers of Doris Enterprises. They never did make that visit. to which they had a fiduciary responsibility. They were hoping to thwart and deceive the IRS. the frothing-at-the-mouth enforcer. The Garraways were fully aware of this fact. Derek Garraway. His uncle. It is blatantly deceptive and laced with legal errors. These guys must have concluded that man to man there was never any imminent physical danger coming from me . the predicament. He was.

was given short shrift and therefore not regarded as “my people. Charles Anderson.” He never could understand how and why “your three countrymen” acted the way they did. Because of my error in judgment and a misplaced sentiment about wanting to “work with my people. I had bypassed the offer of having the largest shareholder. The more I looked at the situation in that light. the more I seethed with anger and frustration. We’d be so successful.278 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N that any of them had to worry. to buy the building in his name and then leasing it to our company.” I had to face a raging storm. We’d sit behind a desk. We’d scare Wall Street to death! . Dr. Jamaica born. Buffalo-based Dr. Anderson. Doris Enterprises.” It is regrettable and ironic that in the latter days of my trials he stood with me and turned out to be “my kind of people. He did exact from me the assurance that he was not being singled out for a fleecing based on his national origin and that I was not in cahoots with my Guyanese buddies. If we were businessmen.



. 1834.The opening and initial lines of the proclamation relevant to the abolition of slavery—emancipation—which became effective August 1.

117 10s 61/2d . allotted to this colony—ff4.297. 1835. . Proportion of the Compensation Fund of ff20. Daily Chronicle. .Release: Office of the Assistant Commissioners of Compensation. .000 pounds sterling.000.

A copy of the “generic” claim form/blank used by slave owners claiming compensation for freeing slaves in their possession. (Culled from the Royal Gazette of British Guiana) .




Date/ Year 1835 1834 1841 1866 OWNERS ALBOUY, James Hill ALVES, John AFFLECK, William ALLT, John & Marianne ARRINDELL, William ANDERSON, George ATKINSON, John AUSTIN, Gardiner AUSTIN, John AUSTIN, William (The Arch-Deacon) BAGOT, Christopher BAGOT, George BAGOT, Thomas C BAILLIE, Duncan BAILLIE, Jas & David BAILLIE, James Evan BAILLIE, John & Harriet BARNSTEDT, Mittleholzr BARRY, Thomas BEAN, Charles (i) (iii) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (ii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii) (iii) (vii) (i) PLANTATION La Penitence; (ii) Lilliendaal Le Repentir; (iv) Sparta Goldstone Hall; (ii) Highbury RoseHall; (iv) Waterloo Eccles Belfield; (ii) Nooten Zuyl Zeelandia Vereeniging Haslinton Aberdeen (Essequibo) Land of Plenty; (ii) Friendship La Bonne Intention (LBI) Bathsheba’s Lust Land of Plenty Bagotville (new name) Mindenburg New Orange Nassaau Hampton Court Baillie’s Hope; (ii) Non Pariel Golden Grove (East Coast, Dem) Hampton Court; (ii) Henrietta Vevay Everton Vriesland Doornberg; (iv) Henrietta Endeavour; (v) Richmond Enterprise; (vi) Sparta La Belle Alliance; Potosi Doornberg

1857 1841 1836 1850 1842 1860 1845 1836 1839 1813 1839 1839 1834 1841 1841


BEAN, Samuel

THE FOUR PILLARS 1850 1834 1834 1834 1817 1817 1840 1841 1801 1840 1832 1817 1834 1834 1834 1834 1840 1838 1832 1837 1807 1834 1832 1840 1840 1834 1834 1845 1846 1821 1854 1834 BECKWITH, Alfred BEETE, Joseph BENFIELD, Paul BENTINCK, H.I. & C BERBICE Assn, The BETHUNE, John BISHOP, E BLAIR, James BLAIR, Lambert BLAIR, James BLAKE, T. BOND, John BOND, John BOODE, A. C. BOODE, E. G. BOODE, J. F. BOOKER, George BOOKER, Josias BOOKER, William BOVELL, John BRERETON, William BYSTERUS, J. J. BUNBURY, H. M. BUNBURY, Edward BUTTS, Richard G. CAMERON, Lewis CAMERON, D.C. & John CAMERON, Donald CAMPBELL, Colin & Thos CATHREY, Thomas CAVAN BROS & Co CHRISTIANI, E & L (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii) (iii) (vii) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (iii) (v) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)


De Kinderen (1/2) Best; (ii) Pheonix Herstelling La Bonne Intention Sandvoort Limlair Zorg Bath; (iv) Blairmont #5 & #7; (v) #17 & #18 Balthayock; (vi) #19 & #20 Proprietor of the Above! Perseverance; (viii) Waterloo Vive La Force Lancaster (B/ce) Broom Hall; (ii) Huntley Prospect; Fairfield (1839) Uitvlugt; (ii) Groot & Klyne Boode’s Rust; (ii) De Kinderen La Grange Sparta; (ii) Cane Grove Glazer Lust; (ii) Profit Broom Hall (ii) Prospect Cane Grove Belfield; (ii) Haslinton Peter’s Hall; (ii) Westfield Taymouth Manor Herstelling Devonshire Castle Sparta (ii) Evergreen Somerset (iv) Berks Arcadia; (ii) Onderneeming Nouvelle Flanders; (iv) Mocha Relief & Supply Union Lochabar; (ii) Canefield Sandvoort Pln Zeelugt Annandale Zorg Lima Friendship; (ii) Plaisance


K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N CORT, William COX, Nicholas COX, Samuel Brandford COX, Samuel Hinkson CRAIG, M & I CROAL, John CROAL. John CRUICKSHANK, Alex CROSTHWAITE, John CUMING, Lachlan DALY, John DANCKETT, George DANIEL & Sons DAVISON, William DAVIDSON, BARKLY DAWSON, Edward De SAFFRON, P. L. De LONSTEL, Bertrand DE WITT & E. POST DODGSON, J.M.F. DODSON, Robt—Est of DOUGLAS, Hugh DOUGLAS, James DOUGLAS, Robert DOUGAN, Thomas DRYSDALE, R. P. DUNKIN, Henry EARLE, Thomas & William ELZER, Hendrick EVANS, J. EWING, James FALOON, Campbell & F FERNANDES, Luis FILEEN, Jonas FITZGERALD, L FORSYTH, William FRANKLAND, Thomas (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (iv) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) Hampshire Haslington Zeelugt Zeelugt; (ii) Vergenoegen Nismes; (ii) Den Amstel Versailles; (ii) Malgre Tout Reoth doer Zet (v) Good Hope Triangle (Wakenam); (vi) Sparta Hague; (ii) Groenfield Windsor Forest; (iv) Riumzight Vryberg Chateau Margot Nooten Zuyl Beter Verwagting Chateau Margot (ii) Bee Hive Dochfour; (iv) Nabaclis Vigilance Belle Vue; (ii) Lust To Rust Retrieve Le Repentir Goedverwagting Le Ressouvenir Vive La Force; (ii) Prosperity Brighton Good Hope Windsor Forest; (ii) Riumzight Better Hope Middlesex Clonbrook Bank Hall: (ii) Profit Hanover, B/ce Anna Clementia Good Success Better Hope Belfield; (ii) Nooten Zuyl Vreedenhoop Richmond Hill Friends Leguan

1848 1834 1842 1834 1854 1840 1834 1840 1834 1849 1870 1839 1834 1851 1840 1834 1840 1834 1834 1834 1840 1839 1834 1826 1840 1882 1839 1840 1834 1842 1880 1866 1784 1840 1834

THE FOUR PILLARS 1850 1834 1834 1832 1834 1839 1839 1860 1834 1834 1834 FRANKLAND, James FRASER, D FRASER, Simon FRASER, William & Thos FULLERTON, Henry GALLOWAY, A. GARDNER, Robert GARNETT, Thomas GARRETT, Abraham GIBBONS, O GIBBONS, Robert GILGEOUS, John Jacob GLADSTONE, Sir John GLADSTONES, John GLASGOW, Hugh GLEN, James & A GODDARD, J. D. GOODMAN, S.H. GOPPY, G.I. GORDON, Samuel Wells GRAND, C. GRANT, Alpin GRANT, R. F. GRAVESANDE, HALEY, John Daniel HAMER, Wm & Jos HANOVER, Simon HARTMAN, A HENERY, FULLERTON, Co HICKS, Edward HIGGINS, Charlotte Mrs (i) (i) (iii) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) De Kinderen (1/2) Golden Fleece; (ii) Paradise Belladrum; (iv) El Dorado Good Hope; (ii) Reliance; Brighton Helena; (ii) Providence Lonsdale; (ii) La Retraite Providence Sparta (%) Drill Annandale, u/d 1/2 Cummings Lodge Profit Bushy Park Windsor Castle; Windsor Forest Success; (ii) Vreedestein Vreedenhoop; (iv) Wales Belmont Triangle (Wakenaam) Eccles; (ii)Greenfield; (iii) Henry Greenfield Vrouw Anna Henry Mocha Strathhaven Hope; (ii) Experiment Vreedenhoop Soesdyke Anna Catherina Endraught; (ii) Mon Repos Industry Nabaclis Ithaca Everton Busses Lust Blenheim


1813 1803 1840 1835 1840 1834 1834 1832 1867 1834 1833 1805 1850 1834 1834 1840 1837

290 1834 1873 1840 1832 1801 1864 1834 1834 1834 1834 1834 1832 1840 1826 1825 1855 1845 1832

K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N HILHOUSE, Henry HOGG, Quinton HOLMES, James Alex HOPKINS, Robert HOPKINSON. Benjamin J. & Heirs of John Hopkinson HOPKINSON, Benjamin HOPKINSON, Peter Prince HUBBARD, John HUGHES, William HYNDMAN, Hugh HYNDMAN, J. C. IMHOFF, Charles INNES & BOND JACKMAN, E. JACKSON, J. JACKSON, John JOHNSTONE, James JONES, B. Howell JONES, John JONES, Richard M. (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (iv) (vi) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (i) (iii) Golden Fleece; (ii) Bel Air Buxton; (ii) Den Amstel Peters Hall Ann’s Grove; (ii) Enterprise Cove & John; Craig Mine Batchelors Adventure; (v) Drill Rotterdam; (vii) Orange Nassau Plantation Thomas Mainstay Bladen Hall Blankenburgh Houston Prosperity; (ii) Woerden Two Friends Albion Airy Hall La Bonne Mere Vetzerhoofd Cain; (ii) Sage Pond Providence; (iv) Vetzerhoofd Hope Housotn; (ii) Rome; Dochfour Spring Hall; (ii) Broomhall; Fairfield (1839) Cotton Tree; (ii) Philadelphia Groen Hagen; (iv) Vryheid Bel Air; (vi) Gebraeden Adelphi Turkeyen


KATZ, Wolfert

(i) (iii) (v)

1834 1845

KEMLEY, William KING, J. H.

(i) (i)



1816 1834 1834 1834


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii)

Clairmount Mary Hope Pankbarheid Sophia Henrietta The Expectation Augsbury Mainstay Reliance La Bonne Mere Annandale; (ii) Cane Grove Lusignan; (iv) Northbrook Dunrob (Berbice) Turkeyen Kitty; (ii) Meer Zorg Schoon Ord Friendship Hope; (ii) Xperiment Orangestein Good Hope (Esseq) Woodlands; (ii) Brothers Le Resouvenir

1799 1819 1848


1853 1845 1836 1806 1834 1834 1863 1840 1834

MACKAY, Robert MACKAY, Spencer


(i) (i) (i) (iii) (i) (i) (iii)

1839 1834 1841


(i) (i) (i)



MCINTOSH, Donald 1834 1840 MCKENZIE, Alexander MCKENZIE, Kenneth

(i) (i) (i) (iii)

Reliant Cottage Belfield; (ii) Lusignan Neogens (iv) Two Friends Drill (ii) Endeavour Anna Regina Doornhag Felicity; (ii) Montrose Westminster; (ii) Vauxhall Rome Zuiduyk Schepmood Great Diamond Mindenburg Anna Regina Alness Foulis Haags Bosch; (ii) Tydenvlyt Perseverance Bladen Hall; (ii) Strathpey Hoff Van Aurich Cummings Lodge

1839 1832 1842 1832 1832 1817 1834 1849 1834 1822 1842


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii)

1834 1834

MUNRO, William NEILSON, Robert

1834 1841

MURRAY, Thomas Murray, Bros & Co. NEWBURN, Thos & Garnett

(i) (i) (i)



1834 1834 1870 1811


(i) (i) (i) (i) (ii)

Meeten Meer Zorg Enfield Nooten Zuyl Covent Garden; Schepmood L’Amitie (ii) Woodlands Little Courabana Henrietta Doornburg Walton Hall Eccles Mara Enmore Paradise Le Ressouvenir Le Ressouvenir Tuschen; (ii) De Vrieden Leonora; (iv) Edinburgh Sparta Belfield Golden Grove (EDB) Success (EDB)

1820 1859 1840


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii)

1841 1839


1832 1842

PORTER, Henry PORTER, Thomas

1808 1832

POST, Hermanus RAINY, George

(i) (i) (iii) (v)

1840 1845

RANDALL, William RANKIN, William

(i) (i) (ii)

294 1838

K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N REED, John G. (i) (iii) Danzic; (ii) Dochfour Lowlands; (iv) Strathhaven Nabaclis Prospect; (ii) Little Diamond Arcadia Perseverance Kitty L’Amitie(1/2) Kitty; (ii) Uitvlugt Carlton Hall Alness Cummingsburg; Northbrook (ii) Anns Grove Clonbrook Batchelor’s Adventure Letter T; (ii) Clonbrook Lima; (ii) Haarlem Port Mourant Mara Skeldon (ii) Buses Lust Felicity Nabaclis

1831 1834 1834 1848 1843 1799 1839 1834 1840 1834


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii)



(i) (ii)

1834 1837 1834 1852 1840 1816 1850

ROGERS, Thomas ROSE, Peter ROSS, Donald ROSS, Robert McKenzie ROSS, William SAMMS, James SANCHO, Bentinck

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Alexander STEWART. J. John Bogle SMITH. James SMITH. Charles William (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) SIMPSON. (ii) Vreedenstein Caledonia. 1834 1832 1840 SEARLES. SPENCER. (ii) Little Diamond Edinburgh. M. (iv) Ann Catherin Profit Good Intent Marionville Montrose.P. Strathpey Chantilly Annandale Northbrook Craig SANFORD. (ii) Coffee Grove Wales. (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii) Wales. Charles SHAND. Henry R 1851 SANDBACH. (ii) Le Reduit Ogle Beter Verwagting Woodlands Hague Patentia New Forest Annandale. James STRONG. Leonard (Rev) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) .THE FOUR PILLARS 295 SANDBACH. W. Alexander (i) (iii) 1840 1858 1848 1834 1834 1837 1834 1841 1824 1846 SLUYTMAN. SMELLIE. (ii) Bel Air Ogle Montrose. William SELKRIG.B. Wm R 1840 SANDBACH. I. William SMITHSON. Cresswell STEVENSON.R. Samuel SANDBACH. (ii) Vreedenstein Leonora. John. H. STEWART.

Leonard & Matilda TAITT.A. VANDER MENDE. Cornelius VAN GROVESTINS. John A. Louis TINNE. Benjamin (i) (i) (i) (ii) Arcadia Cumberbach Niew Osterbeck Wisselvalleigheid Concordia (Wakenaam) Le Resouvenir Le Resouvenir Haslington Blankenburg De Kinderen Cummingsburg Vryhied’s Lust Sheet Anchor Le Ressouvenir Ruimvelt Beterverwagting De Kinderen Plaisance Nabaclis Industry Industry Union & Alliance 1839 1840 1840 1848 TIMMERMAN. Hendrik (i) (i) 1832 1834 1810 1834 1834 1823 1834 1834 1837 VANDERHAAS. Saml Brandford (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii) 1825 URQUHART. TINNE. William Thomas TROTMAN. Samuel & Mary B TROTMAN. Maria Hawes 9i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) . Robert TEW. L VAN WATERSCHOOD WALROND. Stephen WARE. Walter 1827 VAN COTTON.296 1848 1834 1840 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N STRONG. Joseph WARD. Barons VAN ROSSUM. G. Mary WARD.

WHITLOCK. (ii) William Philadelphia. This researcher feels so strongly about compensation for the descendants of slaves that. (ii) Taymouth La Jalouise. G. Hubert WINTER. Kew. Samuel 1832 1838 1834 1834 WATSON. HACKETT (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) The preceding directory has been compiled from a variety of sources and resources. but primarily the periodic insertions by the Colonial Registrar in the Royal Gazette of British Guiana to record transfers of titles. R. .Robt & McCalmont (i) (i) (iii) Farm. It is heavily weighted against the then county of Berbice. in my biased state of mind. Fellowship Fellowship De Kinderen Deutchon Onderneeming. both to be found at the National Archives. Additional supporting information was garnered from the wills of individuals available through the PCC selections and Claims of Compensation for Slaves (T1). WATERTON. WATERTON. a “dirty dozen” has been painfully extracted and is presented below. There are some instances where more than one name is associated with a particular estate or plantation. Surrey. That is a reflection of joint or ownership at different and overlapping periods of time.THE FOUR PILLARS 297 1832 1834 WARREN. By no means should this list be regarded as complete or all-inclusive. Widow WORTMAN & J.

Paradise. Not to forget.040 145.740 103. Over the decades. Foulis. Reed 128. Fawcett. By the Statement of Awards. Haslington. The sugarcane grown on the “planting” estates would then be transported to where the mills were located.117 pounds sterling. One of the most familiar consolidation of a group of contiguous sugar estates ever is manifested in the sugarcane grown on the lands of Batchelor’s Adventure. etc.” became the nucleus of the movement.297. Enmore itself being processed at one of the most productive and efficient sugar factories in the country. there one can find compressed summaries of shipments of machinery by the trail-blazing behemoth.760 103. these awards would have been made by bank drafts paid into individual accounts in London.880 183. (Baillie’s) Hope. The estates with the mill.900 203. For efficient management.870 105.750 228. the “grinding estates. The resultant amalgamated acreage would more than likely take the name of the dominant unit. Maritime Archives and Library. Ltd. A perusal of the lists that follow recalls the glory days of some British Guiana sugar plantations in the 1840s and the 1850s.210 107. buildings. There were still bounties to be garnered down the road when the land.640 These figures are stated in pounds sterling. England. the total allocated to slave owners of British Guiana was 4. Gleaned from the catalogs of the National Museums Liverpool. and also for logistical reasons.510 141. Enmore. would have been sold. this was a worthwhile goal. the lesser of what used to be regarded as equals became history.298 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Top-of-the-list Recipients of Slave Compensation British Guiana 1835-1839 James Blair Charles Bean John Hopkinson Sir John Gladstone Henry & Thos Porter Wolfert Katz 303. appurtenances. With the passage of time and the lack of usage.890 Henry Fullerton James Johnstone John & Henry Moss David Baillie Nicolas Manget John G. which became part of the intercolonial apportionment as reported in December 1860. Preston Engineering Co. . it was the practice for plantation owners to combine and consolidate sugar estates.487 91. The company is reputed to have “nearly 500 drawings on a database” purportedly from that era..

Materials for Reliance Estate September 30. British Guiana: July 29.P. 1845—Parker. 1846—Penelope. 1845—Sandbach. 1) Repairs to a condensing steam engine of 10 H. 1845—Science.P. British Guiana: April 30. Materials for repairs to cane mill on the Reliance Estate. supplied April 1822 to Tusschen de Vlinden Plantation . Materials for increasing the power of a condensing steam from 12 to 14 H. 1848—Materials for the repairs to a cane mill supplied in 1816 for Rose Hall Estate. 1845—Ben Bruce. materials for the repairs of Horizontal Cane Mill of 6 H. also a brass cane liquor pump on the Highbury Estate March 6. condensing steam engine 3) A double-barreled cane liquor pump 4) All for Plantation Annandale June 30. also materials for the repairs to a Megam Elevator for Plantation Everton September 8.P.P. 2) A horizontal cane mill with machinery to connect o 16 H. 1847—Urania. forf Adelphi October 31. Chronology of shipments destined for Demerara. by railway to London for forward shipment. 4 Steam Clarifiers for Plantation Friends June 2. 1845—Matthew King: materials for the repairs of cane mill for Plantation Highberg. supplied in 1813 for Plantation Providence October 9.THE FOUR PILLARS 299 This is a chronology of shipments destined for Berbice. Materials for repairing a horizontal cane mill. 1847—Clydeside.

and for repairs to cane mill on Plantation Great Diamond August 6. supplied in September 1818 for Plantation Great Diamond March 5. 1847—Mountaineer. 1847—Standard. Cane Mill on Lusignan Estate supplied in March 1829 August 7. noncondensing engine supplied in March 1816 for Plantation Helen December 28. Materials for repairs to cane mill connected to an 8 H. 1847—Isabella. condensing engine. 1847—Mary Ray. for Plantation Zorg May 12.P. Materials for repairs to cane mill supplied in February 1823 connected to a condensing steam engine of 10 H. Materials for repairs to 10 H. 1847—Standard. Materials for increasing the power of condensing steam engine supplied Sept 1818. A forcing pump for Plantation Annandale May 9. 1846—Elizabeth. 1845—Cora. materials for repairs to condensing steam engine supplied 1818 Plantation Kitty July 30. supplied in 1816 Plantation Helena. 1846—Havannah Packet.P.P.P. 1847—Leonora. Materials for repairs to a cane mill connected to a noncondensing steam engine of 10 H. six blow-off valves (no title) May 19. 1846—Materials for repairs to 12 H. Materials . Materials for increasing the power of a condensing steam engine 8 to 10 H.P. on Plantation Amsterdam January 27.300 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N November 13.P.

P. 1848—Lancaster. 1845—Pheonix.THE FOUR PILLARS 301 January 28. 1848—Mary Ray. cane mill on Plantation Bathsheba’s Lust .P. 1847—British Merchant. Materials for the repairs to 8 H. 1848—Mary Ray. for Plantation Henrietta June 2. condensing steam engine and cane mill supplied in 1816 for the Vriesland Estate Chronology of shipments destined for Essequibo. 1849—Leonora. British Guiana: September 5. Materials for repairs to 10 H.P. A mouthpiece for a coker May 28. 1849—Favourite. Headstock and mill bottom for Cullen estate June 30. Material for Spring Hall Estate February 20. Materials for the repairs to condensing steam engine and cane mill supplied in March 1826 for the Belfield estate April 19. Materials for condensing steam engine and for increasing the power from 8 to 10 H.


1840: By James Archibald Holmes.BOOK ENDS AND FILLERS The Royal Gazette. 100 roods façade by 750 roods in depth. The Chronicle. . . The Royal Gazette. . in favour of the Lord Bishop of the Diocese. Josias Booker. March 8. Over Kellet. . estate of Hugh Rogers. cum annexis. front lands of plantation Enmore . as attorney of Kenneth McKenzie. July 1840: By Gordon C. and Septemus Booker of Liverpool. April 22. heir to the estate of James Baillie. (List follows) . 1840: By attorney for John Booker. deceased—to and in favour of John Sertima and William Lewis. transport of the plantation Williamsburg. now residing in Upper Canada. transport of the plantation New Orange Nassau . between plantations Haslington and Nabaclis. . situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary with all the buildings and further appurtenances—to and in favour of William Randall. . 1843: By Henry Porter. to and in favour of James Forbes. cum annexis. formerly of this colony. The Royal Gazette. 1840: Transport of plantation Northbrook. December 16. 1845: By the Attorney in the colony of David Baillie of London. 303 . transport plantation Cane Grove. joint proprietor. deceased. The Royal Gazette. and his successors . June 24. . . 600 acres to and in favour of George Booker. February 15. Reid. now called and known as plantation Golden Grove. Devon. deceased. with all the buildings and further appurtenances. to and in favour of . transport of plantation Belfield. . . The Chronicle. legatee of William Booker. . . .

and to Jane Hope. carrying on business as merchants and copartners. April 1848: By Polidore Huto. (twenty-two). . lot number 28. The Royal Gazette. March 29. in favour of Frederick Bentinck and Quaco Sutton. Thomas Daniel & Sons. his one undivided eighty-third part or share of plantation Northbrook. . Abandoned piece of land known as plantation Haslinton. The Royal Gazette. born Wortman. situate on east sea coast of Demerara with buildings thereon. commonly known as Christian Brethren #192 and #193. all south of the public road. By Thomas Porter. transport of the abandoned plantation Nabaclis. heirs of Henry Wortman. alias Polidore Otto. Trotman and Mary B Trotman. deceased—1 acre part of plantation Werk-en-rust—between plantation Vlissengen and plantation Le Repentir. now called Victoria—to and in favour of Richard Thomas. Tuesday. The Royal Gazette. 1848: By Ben Benjamin. (twenty-eight). situate in Cummingsburg district. July 5. part of plantation Paradise situate on the east coast of Demerary. The Royal Gazette. March 2. 1848: By William Brand and Robert Thompson Brand .304 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N The Royal Gazette. now called Victoria—to and in favour of Smith Glasgow. transported: to Kit Christopher. to Betty February. (forty-nine). Dec 2. 1850: By Thomas Stuart as substituted attorney in this colony for Thomas Daniel of the City of Bristol and John Daniel of London. county of Demerara and colony of British Guiana. in the colony of British Guiana. Henry Wortman and Jacobus Wortman. to and in favour of Samuel B. By Johanna Maria Barkey. deceased. in the city of Georgetown. situate on the sea coast east. his undivided eighty-third part or share of plantation Northbrook. lot number 22. as one of the joint and several executors in the colony to the last will and testament and codicils of James Hill Albouy. to and in favour of Bentinck Sancho and Simon Hanover. lot number 49. 1859: Transported to Leonard Strong and six (6) others as Trustees for and on behalf of the Congregation of Christians in the city of Georgetown. . By James Stuart.

(twelve). The Royal Gazette. The Royal Gazette. being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Orange Nassau. part of that part of plantation Northbrook. (six). August 7. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. now called Victoria. subject to the keeping up of the public roads. and on the north by the sea. October 15. through his attorney in the colony. 1859: By Samuel Burke. section V. (fifty-eight). being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. . (twelve). with the buildings thereon. 1842. (eighty-seven). the north half of number 6. James Stuart. being . By Thomas Porter. 1852—to and in favour of Lewis Wilson. 1853 and deposited with the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequibo on the 25th August. Cain Cockfield. as defined on diagram by James Hackett. The Royal Gazette. and deposited in the Registrar’s office 12th June. dams and trenches to the extent of the façade of the said lot. By Isaac Park. transport of lot number 29. 1859: Transport was granted in favour of Luis Fernandes. .section B. (seventy-eight). now Buxton situate in the east sea coast of Demerary. dated the tenth of February. the east half of lot number 12. on the west by plantation Batchelor’s Adventure. 1860: By Prince Assonah and Cudjoe Caleb. 1842. and five roods in breadth. lot 87. August 23. Newlands March. (twenty-nine). transport of his undivided half of lot number 78. sworn land surveyor. transport of number 58. 1843. transport of a piece of land. 1842 and deposited in the Registrar’s office of the Counties of Demerary and Essequibo. as executors under and to the last will and testament of Cross Sumner. now called Victoria. dated 10th February. dated March. as laid down on the chart by the sworn land surveyor James Hackett. section one. situate in the east sea coast of the county Demerary as laid down on a plan by sworn land surveyor M. section A. section A. south of the public road. deposited 1st March. the north half of number 12 (twelve). ten roods in depth from the middle walk. James Hackett. Tuesday. section C. deceased and John Sumner. section E. laid down and defined on a diagram by the sworn land surveyor.THE FOUR PILLARS 305 bounded on the east by plantation Foulis. 1854. part of plantation Paradise . on the south by the back lands. and north half of lot number 12. grantee.

on the twenty-fifth of August. dated March. Newlands. transport of part of lot number 3 (three). March 5. and deposited in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequebo. bounded on the east by the middlewalk of plantation Victoria.306 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook. being parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook. . as laid down and defined on a plan by the sworn land surveyor Francis Jackson dated January 1850. and the south half lot number 12. by four and a half rods in breadth. transport of a bed of land measuring fifty rods in length. section D. between plantations Haslinton and Nabacles. 1854—to and in favour of John Sumner. Newlands. as laid down on a plan by sworn land surveyor M. as laid down on a plan by the sworn land surveyor M. and on the south by the remaining part of lot number 23 (twenty-three). situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. 1861: By Caesar Solomon. on lot number 23 (twenty-three). (twelve). (six). as executors under and to the last will and testament of Cross Sumner. deceased and John Sumner transport of the south half of lot number 6. being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. on the twelfth day of January. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. By Prince Assonah and Cudjoe Caleb. (twelve). on the west by the sideline dam of plantation Victoria. section D. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. section E. dated March 1853. now called Victoria. and three rods west from the land of Jupiter Quashy. June 1. Newlands. on the north by lot number 22 (twenty-two). deceased. deposited in the Register’s office of the colonies of Demerary and Essequibo on 25th August. part of the front portion of plantation Williamsburg. 1853 and deposited in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequibo. the south half of lot number 12. Tuesday. measuring 5 rods north from the public road. The Royal Gazette. 1854—to and in favour of Jacob Clarke. now called Victoria. now called Victoria. now called Golden Grove. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. The Royal Gazette. 25th August. deposited in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequebo. dated March 1853. 1854—to and in favour of Francisco De France and Francisco da Silva. as laid down on a plan by the sworn land surveyor M. 1854—to and in favour of the estate of Cross Sumner. section D. 1861: By Lena Hercules. widow.

1854. now called Victoria. section E. Newlands. transport of lots numbers 18. 1860: By Peter Hope. Hamlet Cato. deposited in the Registrar’s office of the counties on the 25th August. The Royal Gazette. Samuel Burke. number thirty-two. section B. said piece of land being laid down and defined on a diagram thereof by the sworn land surveyor Matthew Newlands. April 17. King Williams. 1860: By Quashy Rodney. section B. and deposited in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequibo on the twenty-fifth of August. and deposited in said Registrar’s office on the fourteenth October. Saturday. section A. section C. 1860: By Smith Glasgow of lot 43. as laid down on a plan by the sworn land surveyor M. as trustees for and in behalf the Church of Congregational Dissenters who. 1854—to and in favour of Henry Collier. Mitchell Collins. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. and duly recorded in the Registrar’s office of the counties of Demerary and Essequebo. and out stations in the province of British Guiana. and their successors. The Royal Gazette. and Gabriel Samuel. 1840. alias Peter Jack. date the eight August.THE FOUR PILLARS 307 ??? laid down and defined on a plan of the sworn land surveyor Matthew Newlands. and 60 (sixty). Fortune Scipio. Newlands dated March 1853 and deposited in the Registrar’s office on the 25th August. may worship in the building erected thereon. folio one. 69 (sixty-nine). June 16. transport of lot number 44. Louis McKoy. being part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. upon and for the trust and provisos expressed and contained in a certain deed or declarations of trust of Providence New Chapel. section F. dated March 1853. volume two. as laid down on a plan the sworn land surveyor M. and know as Mount Zion Chapel. as laid down . from to time. 69 (sixty-nine). Frank Gainsford. being parts and parcels of the lands of plantation Northbrook. in the Book of Records. section D. Perth Murphy. 69 (sixty-nine). February 11. 1853. William Cummings. part and parcel of the lands of plantation Northbrook. known as lot number 51 (fifty-one). 79 (seventy-nine). dated June. dated March 1853. section B. The Royal Gazette. 1859—to and in favour of Thomas Collins. now called Victoria. situated on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. situate on the east sea coast of the county of Demerary. (forty-three). now called Victoria. (eighteen0. 1854—to and in favour of John Ellick. section A. (forty-four). Jacob Isaac. et sequentibus.

. with the buildings thereon—to and in favour of John De Freitas. proprietor of the remainder of said lot. By Mary Duarte of Golden Grove. situate on the east coast of the county of Demerary. 1858—to and in favour of John Monish. transport of the north 1/2 Lot 10 Sec C. The Daily Chronicle. west half of Lot 41 (forty-one) Sec B. November 1. the north 1/2 Lot 20 Sec E. 1908 By Edward James Joe of Victoria. Lot 19 Sec F. The Daily Chronicle. No 8175 ex Atalanta. transport of east 1/2 and the east 1/2 of west 1/2 of Lot 89 Sec A. The Royal Gazette. Sec F west side and south 1/2 Lot 40 Sec G. December 31. Hewett. 1860: The Royal Gazette. May 22. part of Golden Grove—to and in favour of Isaac St Kitts. south 1/2 lot 22. Sec D east side. to and in favour of James Horne Koo. Lot 49 Sec F. 1854. bachelor of Enmore. dated March. save and except that part of said lot to the extent of three and a half in depth by twelve roods on breadth transported to John Monish. Buxton . the north 1/2 Lot 7. born Josiah. on the 6th of September.308 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N on a plan by the sworn land surveyor M. west side. East 1/2 Lot 25 Sec D. 1874. Village of Nabaclis—to and in favour of Albino Mendonca of Golden Grove. Nabaclis. north 1/2 of Lot 34 (thirty-four) Sec C. north 1/2 Lot 45 (forty-five) Sec E. 1909 By David Collins of Golden Grove transport of an undivided 1/140 part or share in Sec A. east 1/2 of Lot 118 (one hundred and eight) Sec F. . which forms ½ share. . west side. parts of the lands of plantation Golden Grove. May 16. . and 15 (fifteen). 1853 and deposited in the Registrar’s office 25th August. By Jane Fortune. transport of lots number 7 (seven). Sec A. with all the buildings and erections thereon—to and in favour of Ramewater. Newlands. transport of Lot 43. free male East Indian. . . July 17. Lot 47 (forty-seven) Sec D. The Daily Chronicle. east side. widow. with all the buildings and erections on Lot 43 . 1861: By Richard F. west 1/2 of south 1/2 Lot 21 (twenty-one) Sec E. west 1/2 Lot 96 (ninety-six) Sec F and Lot 47 (forty-seven) Sec G. of Nabaclis . 1909. of Golden Grove. .

46. 166. 37. 159. 163. 166. 171. 99. 155. 125. 66. 44. 64. 152. 32. 165. 130. 144. 69. 142. 64. 125. 129. 56. 1854 309 LANDHOLDER Peter ASSAY Elias NATHANIEL Friday ASSAY Bond ALEXANDER Alonzo NELSON Brown FRANK Hercules ABRAHAM Sam GOODING-Decd Cambridge DAVID Christopher APOLLO Ross APOLLO Est of Geo AUSTIN Nero BAILLIE Giles SIMPSON Albinas ROGERS Hamlet GORDON Smith BACCHUS Chester PAUL Morgan CUFFY Paul PAUL Valentine BOSTON or BOATSWAIN Alfred BENNETT Benjamin SHAND Welcome THERNTON Lewis BACCHUS Clement JONES Matilda AFRICAN Wilton MANUEL Bishop BAILEY Ben BENJAMIN Steer GRENADA Harry BACCHUS Charles BACCHUS Est of Maria GRANT 1/4) 2/4) 1/4) 4/8) 1/8) 1/8) 1/8) 1/8) 7/8) 1/8) 4/10) 3/10) 3/10) 3/8) 2/8) 2/8) 1/8) 2/10) 3/10) 3/10) 2/10) 5/8) 2/8) 1/8) ) ) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) ) ) SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION A B C D E F 6. 118. . 119. 121. 54. 112. 83. 73. 25. 140. 168. 122. 64. 87. 132. 107. 68. 34. 91. 76. 47. 30. 55.THE FOUR PILLARS PARTITIONING of PLANTION FRIENDSHIP Per COLONIAL REGISTRAR’S OFFICE Effective Nov 11. 84. 88. 31. 32. 126.

50. 59. . 35. 51. 33. 96. 143. 132. 88. 151. 63. 23. 160. 121. 117. 23. 24. 79. 125. 3. 57. 121. 70. 83. 127. 64. 98. 92. 146. 57. 115. 86. 107. 28. 102. 47. 108. 18. 70. 52.310 Patience WATSON Dryden BRUSH Dallas PORTER Pheobe BRUSH Chloe BRUSH Brutus BOLLERS James HAMILTON Zourman BLAIR Isabella BENTINCK Dundey BENTINCK Peter BRUSH Kinsale WRONG Jupiter BASSET Richard BERNARD James MACBETH Henry GOODLUCK Esculas BARNETT Robin RAMSAY Dick ROBINSON Est of Cork GOLD John BEATHEN Pitt CHRISTMAS Stephen HOSANNA Taffin HOPKINSON Dick AUSTIN Harry CUFFY Morrison DICK Kitty Best RANGER Spencer CRESSWELI Pitt HARROWAY Anthony SPENCER Jacob LEWIS Byron BISHOP Butcher WADDELL Ancilia GREEN George BRADFORD Johnson CASTELLO Trim HEROD Muro GIDDENS Michael SANDY 1/10) 3/10) 3/10) 3/10) 9/20) 3/20) 8/20) 2/8) 1/8) 2/8) 2/8) 1/8) 4/20) 5/20) 11/20) 3/20) 6/20) 5/20) 6/20) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/10) 3/10) 3/10) 3/10) 2/8) 1/8) 2/8) 2/8) 1/8) 1/10) 2/10) 2/10) 2/10) 3/10) 7/12) 5/12) K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 134. 29. 167. 106. 55. 100. 97. 59.

41. 67. 11. 108. 116 134. 80. 42. 87. 85. 27. 102. 82. 167. 112. 40. 16. 107. 106. CRAIGNOUGHT C. 23. 137. 69. 1/4) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 2/4) 109.THE FOUR PILLARS Quamy CAMBRIDGE Sharper CASTELLO Pamelia CHESTER David ANDERSON John CAYENNE Bailey FOWLER Dolly Best DUBLIN Willis RODNEY C. 47. 9. 94. 135. 66. 162. 80. 118. 123. 97. 16. 77. 24. 311 . 156. 137. 169. 27. 47. 58. 18. 138. 93. 112. 135. 73. CRAIGNOUGHT Trim NERO George FRIDAY Abraham POMPEY Douglas SHARPER Alfred SHARPER Allen PORTER Flora DICK Elizabeth AUSTIN Henry PORTER Gilbert DOUGLAS Johnny DIXON Sandy POMPEY Pheobe READ Nero DAVID David REID John DICK Est of Cudjoe DAVID Joe HAMMOTT Quammy DAVID Humphrey DOUGLAS Tinne FRASER Mars FRASER Butcher DORSET Nanny BONE Eliza GUMBS Potex DOUGLAS Prince DOUGLAS Murphy DOUGLAS Kitt ISAAC Moses GRANT 7/16) 4/16) 5/16) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 11/20) 5/20) 4/20) ) ) 3/10) 1/10) 1/10) 78. 63. 75. 126. 164. 10. 68. 136. 168. 18. 7. 152. 101. 82. 167. 132.158 101. 134. 31. 120. 1/10) 4/10) 4/10) ) ) 6/20) 5/20) 5/20) 2/20) 2/20) 12/20) 5/20) 3/20) ) ) 19. 53. 96. 47.

312 Grace DOUGLAS Warren DOUGLAS Charles DOUGLAS Pollard DOUGLAS Abraham FRANK George DOUGLAS Martha DOUGLAS Sancho DOUGLAS Pitt ALEXANDER Philip ENMORE Eliza PORTER John ALLICK Harriet JARVIS Dolly Bess JARVIS Nelson FOWLER Bristol BARRETT Frank FULLERTON Brown McKENZIE Henry McKENZIE Joe McKENZIE Trim MARK Est-Thomas BARTON Jacob FOX Cubis BOATSWAIN Est of David FLORIS Ross SANDY William THOMAS Ned GRIFFITH Gardner PORTER Fortune GRENADA Bob GEORGE William RUMBLE Stepney GLASGOW Anthony GRENIDGE Frederickl STEWART William COGGIN Richard WILSON Austin WILSON Phillis POLLARD James GLASGOW 1/8) 2/8) 1/8) 1/8) 1/8) 2/8) 7/16) 3/10) 2/10) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 6/7) 1/7) 3/4) 1/4) 3/4) 1/4) 5/8) 1/8) 2/8) ) ) 1/4) 1/4 1/4) 1/4) ) ) 7/8) 1/8) 7/10) 2/10) 1/10) ) ) 1/3) 1/3) 1/3) K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 79. 169. 36: 84. 152. 46. 21. 172. 71. 80. 148. 12. 144. 106. 39. 143. 44. 9. 37. 154. 142. 91. 39. 45. 154. 126. 112. 155. 43. 127. 54. 75. 51. 22. 19. 161. 127. 118. 100. 155. . 3. 98. 24. 41. 14. 34. 148. 95. 74. 144. 108. 23. 130. 4. 113. 52.

125. 2/3) 1/3) 159. 115. 51. 3. 313 Desborong McKENZIE 5/11) . 68. 113. 86. 51. 8. 22. 75. 29. 22. 55. 53. 133. 80. 114. 43. 150. ) ) 1/3) 1/3) 1/3) ) ) ) ) ) 147. 56. 97. 153. 14. 48. 12. 17. 56. 81. 44. 49. 1. 111.THE FOUR PILLARS Gabriel WILLIAM Helen GLASGOW Est-Frank GRAHAM Cudjoe GRAHAM Fortune GLASGOW Kate WILSON Daniel GRANT Stephen RODNEY Success GRANT Isaac GRANT Sam GLASGOW David GLASGOW Le Fleur ACHILLE Joe EDWARDS Thomas LEWIS Thomas LAMMOCK Goodluck FORBES Thomas MINGO Sammy MINGO Edward NICHOLSON Kate C Mc KENZIE Arludne BARTON Henrietta BACCHUS Est of Luke MINGO Demerara MINGO William MATHES Trim MARK Duke GRAY Vigilant ADAMS London McKENZIE William NEPTUNE Nixon NATHAN Theophilus WADE Rev William HEATH Est of Dundas PITT Quammy PANJE Simon HOPKINSON 1/4) 1/4) 93. 20. 11. 5. 32. 71. 137. 48. 28. 3/4) 139. 12. 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 6/11) 72. 116. 92. 114. 36. 40. 155. 98. 94. 77. 43. 73. Phillis POSTLEWAITE 1/4) 8/16) 1/16) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 3/12) 4/12) 3/12) 42. 21. 61. 143. 31. 115. 91. 107 168. 99. 151. 19. 35. 13. 120.

74. The possibility loomed that this could well be the forerunner to introducing a different and improved method that could likely end the chaos that has hindered attempts at an historical evaluation of the very ownership and transfers of the so-called ancestral lands. 111. 117. 145. 122.314 John POSTLEWAITE Jacob ABSALOM Constance ROB Wood PORTER Samuel SUMNER Dick PORTER Sullivan PORTER Adam QUAMMY Gilpin HAMER 3/8) 2/8) 2/8) 2/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 1/4) 2/4) K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 161. . In a reading of the narrative layout as presented by the Royal Gazette. 99. Alexnder HOPKINSON 1/8) 164. 164. it was realized that there was room for improvement in order to remove the tedium. 152. 37. 134. other villages would no doubt jump at the opportunity to end a nightmare that has lingered for too long. Should this effort be successful in any one instance.

Dundas Pitt. Valentine Brutus. Howard Thornton. Glasgow Hopkinson. Simon Will. John Scott. Prins McRae. Sandy Duke. Columbus McKay. Ben Hopkinson. with all the Buildings and further Appurtenances—to and in favour of Charles McKenzie. Bonaparte Cato. Granville Green. Donis Cotton. Primo Simon. Quamina Baily.—Robinson. Hannibal Estman. Jack Loustal. Alexander Ross. Bob Quamie. Pero Will. George Sanco. Bob Stuart. Murray Cummings. Alexander Smith. Walter Young. Martin Deal. . David Stuart. Lamb Rogers. Corn Scott. Acckewa Sama. Edward Francis Wilminer. Premo Osana. Present McKenzie. Punch Enterprise. Jacob Gill. Charles Fullerton. Billy Mansell. Glasgow Sarry. France Esperance. Jack Robinson. Christmas Cuffy. Punch Stuart. Charles Battifield. Tom Griffiths. Alexander Sam. . James Jones. By James Archibald Holmes. Glasgow Core. Caesar Moffat. Castello Stuart. situate on the Sea Coast. Duncan Jarres. Trotman Enterprise. Richard McKay. Doctor Macbeth. John Smith. Sammy McKay. Alexander McKenzie. Lubin McRae. Hercules Burgess. Kinsale Golden-Fleece. Saul Hopkinson. Matthews Jones. John William. Dundas Baily. Charles Enterprise. Captain Huntly. John McRae. Charles Massiah. Charles Cuffey. Phiffin. Bat Thornton McDonald.—. Murray Diamond. Mack. Friday Campbell. 1840 . Stephen Morrant. Nero Castello. Joe. Abercrombie. Shappo Glasgow. King Daniels. Corporal McKenzie. David Spencer. Josiah. Transport of the Plantation New Orange Nassau. Colais Quammina. David Oxborough. 315 .BUXTON—THE FIRST PROPRIETORS OF NEW ORANGE NASSAU An extract from the Royal Gazette. East of the County of Demerara. Cudjoe Adams. Bannes Hayman. Duncan Adams. Simon Scott. Kinsale Sifax. Noall James. Corobal McKenzie. Assi Baily. James London. Harry Pollard. Adam Sloan. Colin Baily. Isaac Farley. Hill Enterprise. David London. Hannibal. Howe McKenzie. Simon Thomas. Adam Newton. Alman. Roderic Porter. Perot Jamie. John Castells. Robert Cuffey. Abraham Fox. Robert Baily. Bailly Chester. Nicholas McKenzie. John Vallet. Ben Porter. November 14. Tom Gibson. Simon McKenzie. Thomas Stuart. Nelson Rogers. Providence Stuart. Friendship Peter. James Stuart. Prince Paul. Albert Brutus. Cornet. Cosboat Stuart.

316 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Human Cargo Arriving in British Guiana After Emancipation Act-1834 DATE/YEAR 1835 1835 1838 1838 1840 1841 1842 1842 1842 1842 1842 1843 1843 1843 VESSEL Mars Calypso Whitby Hesperus Porpoise Superior Mart Hartley Lady Rowena Mary Hartley Nove Irmaes Brig Maria Elizabeth Henrietta Arabian Superior Arabian Arabian Roger Stewart Arabian Roger Stewart Success Roger Stewart Louisa Baillie Rufus Nestor WHERE FROM Madeira Madeira Calcutta Calcutta Baltimore.S. U. Sierra Leone St Helena St Helena St Helena Rio Rio St H & S Leone Surinam Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Calcutta Sierra Leone Calcutta Sierra Leone Madeira Sierra Leone Madeira Sierra Leone Madeira Madeira CARGO 236 17 257 158 69 199 140 402 311 130 130 100 24 48 120 244 347 206 352 256 227 179 202 252 112 233 187 1844 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1845 1846 1846 .

Helena Sierra Leone India India India India India 267 278 164 242 244 228 331 114 200 158 145 232 262 309 236 239 365 159 160 319 62 20 129 150 245 97 405 188 78 213 69 52 337 436 249 217 347 254 193 . Helena Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira St.THE FOUR PILLARS 317 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1846 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 Manchester Thetis Isabella Wood Margaret Martin Luther Palmyra Tory John Wickliffe Louisa Baillie Fanny Aguia Ugeni Basporah Merchant Britannia Kennaway Planter Raymond Sir Robert Peel Janet Willis Amizale De Silva Navarino Margaretta Portuguese Schooner Blanche Standard Roger Stewart Felicidad Palmyra Belle Creole Pera Lord Seaton San Jesus Nazareth Eugenia Margaret Growler Martin Luther Timandra Lady McNagton General Palmer Nestor Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Sierra Leone Madras Madeira Madeira Madras Madras Sierra Leone Madeira Madeira Madeira Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Madras Madras Madeira Madeira St. Helena Madeira " " Madeira St.

Helena Madeira Rio De Janiero St Helena St Helena Sierra Leone Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta 373 98 239 151 71 263 240 309 300 248 458 238 109 188 203 379 265 211 240 251 360 272 279 246 200 328 263 240 114 111 281 15 139 293 275 261 268 237 . Helena Sierra Leone St Helena St.318 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1847 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1849 1849 1850 1852 1852 1852 1852 1852 1852 1852 Sea Park Peru & Rio Douro Bellaire Duas Annas John Willis Sophia Candabar Thetis Amelia Eleanor Eugenia Growler Arabia Superior Helena Una Zephyr Emma Eugenia Ethelred Reliance Peterhead Sophia Lord Hungerford Appoline Macdeon Duchess of N/land Zephyr Oristes Lady Nugent Peterhead Duas Annas Challenger Euphrates Dudbrook Julindor Zenobia Dudbrook Travencor Bellaire Lucknow India Madeira India Madeira Madeira India India India Madeira Madeira Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone St. Helena Madras Calcutta St. Helena Calcutta Madras Madras Madras Calcutta St. Helena St.

THE FOUR PILLARS 319 1852 1852 1852 1852 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1854 1854 1854 1854 1854 1854 1854 Francis Ridley Lord G Bentinck Cassiphore Soubadhar Ellenborough Cressy Lord Geo Bentinck St Croix Adelaide Appoline Harkaway Loyal Atalanta Novo Pineria Point Record Sybelle Loyal Princess Alice Protector Flying Fish Iberia Juliana Gran Emanuel Bancher Julindor Loyal Princess Alice Hibernia Mary Anne Elphinstone Gleatanner Lord Elgin S Boddington Mary Harrison Clifton Bucephalus Sandford Shand Loyal Superior Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Sierra Leone China China China Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Madeira 257 288 308 298 338 307 292 234 300 192 358 106 62 150 233 186 184 107 112 181 114 94 6 117 159 114 141 222 198 156 262 85 300 297 307 354 256 348 29 19 .

Adelaide Christina M. Adelaide Latona Madeira Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madras St Helena Madeira Madeira Madeira Cape de Verde Cape de Verde Cape de Verde Cape de Verde Cape de Verde Cape de Verde Madras Madras Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira Calcutta 257 371 362 263 363 327 271 253 173 274 307 319 358 65 34 43 103 140 99 190 137 179 21 522 380 361 335 230 226 263 277 43 13 133 131 22 317 . Emperor Merchantman Burmah Sylph Comet M.320 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 1854 1854 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1856 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1857 1859 Duc De Braganza Henry Moore Southampton Bellaire Assaye Devonshire Royal George Thetis Apolline Cunning Empress Eugene Thomas Hamlin Devonshire Hamilla Mitchel Triump Alegria Dorene Laura Avon William Watson Canada Brokeis Victory Blue Jacket Stamboul Wellesley Bucephalus Sir R Sepping R.

THE FOUR PILLARS 321 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1859 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1860 1861 1861 1861 1861 Marquis Londonderry York Victor Emmanuel Royal George Flor de Funchal Matilda General Wyndham Plantagenet Aurora Coincidencia Ellenborough Simla Flor de Funchal Maria Adelaide Cruz Iro Marian Moore Sir George Seymour Tres Amigos Broughton Hall Canning Kirkham Tartar Schah Jehan Earl of Derby Priam St Croix Colgrain Calliope Thomas Hamlin Gosforth Latona Hanover The Thomas Ritchie Gitana Telegraph Forerunner Ulysses Madras Calcutta Calcutta Hong Kong Madeira Madeira Hong Kong Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Madeira Madeira Calcutta Calcutta Madeira Sierra Leone India India India India India India India India India India India India India Madras* Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta 372 386 359 249 31 39 450 334 234 16 332 367 67 68 45 385 321 10 572 361 373 344 327 266 284 197 270 320 299 316 317 355 406 338 280 325 .

322 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1861 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 1862 Vittoria Mooresfort Ocean Home Jesse Munn Fairlie Henry Moore Sebastopol Red Riding Hood Chapman Sea Park Mystery Paramount Saldanha Montmorency Whirlwind Lancashire Castle Collingwood Collingwood Flure De Funchal Felix Ventura Freita Junior Tres Amigos David Malcolm Hilda Agra Red Riding Hood Ear of Windsor Persia Truro Mariner Statesman Belvedere Prince Consort Utopia Mooresfort Atalanta Prince Royal Collingwood Branham Castle Gipsy Bride Empire of Peace Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Madras Madras Canton Canton Canton Canton Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong St Helena St Helena Madeira Madeira Madeira Madeira St Helena St Helena Canton Canton Hong Kong Hong Kong Madras Madras Madras Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta 321 366 340 329 361 371 329 313 291 263 336 282 490 283 350 433 297 40 15 2 18 29 196 142 287 324 303 527 358 308 357 336 455 349 377 446 464 297 283 416 354 .

** The British Ship Volga. responsibility for any errors or inaccuracies still reside with this researcher. There is nothing complete or conclusive about the sordid history of the transport of humans. was the primary source drawn upon. Unaware of its cargo but destination given as Demerara. 1850. The Royal Gazette of British Guiana. 1893. Report based on ship(s) arriving in Port. Our second list of ships picks up from 1865. for the relevant years referred to above. 1855) and sometimes the quality of source material. What is presented here . Dec 10. not meticulous recordings and presentations could ever tell the “full story” even with the best of intentions. whether for slavery and latterly for indentured labor. thousands of miles across seas and oceans.—Weekly Nevada State Journal of January 6. Not statistics. with 640 Chinese laborers on board from Calcutta to Demerara was lost off the Windward Islands. While there have been omissions based upon the unavailability (1849. *** These names are not legible. 1894.THE FOUR PILLARS 323 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1863 1879 1879 1879 1879 1883 1894** 1902 • Clarence Commodore Perry Sydenham —*** —*** Sevilla —*** Bonanza Reward Louisa Atalanta Ganges Suffolk Dartmouth Howrah North North Volga Main Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta St Helena St Helena St Helena Barbados Barbados Canton Calcutta Hong Kong Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta 420 436 409 401 396 292 195 43 135 30 36 396 506 52 525 518 347 Reported in the New York Times of February 16th. just about the period that ends the immigration of indentured laborers from Africa. 1852.

among its passengers. they had been preceded by the Mars and Calypso from Madeira in 1835. As expected. the arrival of the Elbe in 1901 brought the maternal and paternal grandparents of Dr.324 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N is the chronology of vessels as they make their calls at the ports of British Guiana ending in 1917 with the Ganges. . became a regular caller to British Guyana up to 1881. The Poonah with one of the highest deaths at sea (thirty-seven) by cholera. Cheddi Jagan. That vessel is rivaled and surpassed only by the Sutlej (1908-1916) for the most visits to the colony. a president of Guyana. Of particular repute. there are indeed some “vessels of distinction”: While the Whitby and the Hesperus were the first arrivals from India in 1838. in 1872.

THE FOUR PILLARS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 325 Jason 1865 Apelles 1865-1866 Copenhagen 1865-1866 Clarence 1865-1866 Janet Cowan 1866 Atalanta 1866 India 1866-1867 Clarence 1866-1867 Assaye 1866-1867 Canning 1866-1867 British Trident 1866-1867 Indus 1866-1867 Belvidfra 1866-1867 Tincelles 1866-1867 Lincelles. Racehorse 1866-1867 Oasis 1867 Orient 1867-1868 Harkaway 1867-1868 Ganges 1867-1868 Clarence 1867 -1868 Trevelyan 1867-1868 Jason 1867-1868 Winchester 1868 Bengal 1868-1869 Walmer Castle 1868-1869 India 1868-1869 Ganges 1868-1869 Howrah 1868-1869 Himalaya 1868-1869 Trevelyan 1868-1869 Syria 1868-1869 Salamanea 1868-1869 Adamant 1868-1869 Adamant 1869 Shand 1869 St. Kilda 1869 Sir Robert Sale 1869 Michael Angels 1869 Arima 1869-1870 .

Joaquim 1869-1870 Devonshire 1869-1870 Clive 1869-1870 Medea 1869-1870 Colombo 1869-1870 British Monarch 1869-1870 Shand 1869-1870 India 1869-1870 Ganges 1870 Wellesley 1870 Medea 1870-1871 Philosopher 1870-1871 Clive 1870-1871 Adamant 1871 Trevelyan 1871-1872 Neva 1871-1872 Adamant 1871-1872 Poonah 1871-1872 Medea 1871-1872 St.326 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73A 73A 74 75 76 77 78 79 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Ganges 1869-1870 Far East 1869-1870 Howrah 1869-1870 Arcot 1869-1870 S. Kilda 1871-1872 Golden Fleece 1872 Gainsborough 1872 Neva 1872 Enmore 1872 Sankar 1872 Soukar Kate Kellock 1872-1873 Syria 1872-1873 Trevelyan 1872-1873 North 1872-1873 Gainsborough 1873 Ganges 1873 Rohilla 1873 Poonah 1873 SS Enmore 1873-1874 Clyde 1873-1874 Hereford 1873-1874 Sir Henry Rawrence 1873-1874 Sir Henry Lawrence .

THE FOUR PILLARS 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 327 Pandora 1873-1874 Buckinghamshire 1873-1874 Aisla 1873-1874 Surrey 1873-1874 Mofussilite 1873-1874 Hyderbad 1873-1874 Neva 1873-1874 Sussex 1873-1874 Golden Fleece 1873-1874 Dinapore 1873-1874 India 1873-1874 Rohilla 1873-1874 Atalanta 1874-1875 Clarence 1874-1875 Ailsa 1874-1875 Forfarshire 1874-1875 Rohilla 1874-1875 Artist 1874-1875 Dacca 1874-1875 Syria 1874-1875 Berkshire 1874-1875 Atalanta 1874-1875 Syria 1874-1875 Rohilla 1875-1876 King Arthur 1875-1876 Ailsa 1875-1876 Tinguist 1875-1876 Linguist Botanist 1875-1876 Pandora 1875-1876 Rohilla 1876-1877 Artist 1876-1877 Neva 1876-1877 King Arthur 1876-1877 Tinguist 1876-1877 Linguist Ailsa 1876-1877 Jura 1876-1877 Jura 1877-1878 Hesperides 1877-1878 Pandora 1877-1878 Boyne 1877-1878 Ailsa 1877-1878 .

328 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N King Arthur 1877-1878 Howrah 1877-1878 Naturalist 1877-1878 Sheila 1877-1878 Neva 1877-1878 Senator 1877-1878 Artist 1877-1878 Ballochmyle 1877-1878 Sussex 1877-1878 Philosopher 1877-1878 Pandora 1877-1878 Rohilla 1878-1879 Lightning 1878-1879 Silhet 1878-1879 Suffolk 1878-1879 Tassa 1878-1879 Howrah 1878-1879 Malabar 1878-1879 Newcastle 1878-1879 Poonah 1878-1879 Berar 1878-1879 Ellora 1878-1879 Plassey 1878-1879 North 1878-1879 Berar 1878-1879 Newcastle 1879-1880 Tassa 1879-1880 Howrah 1879-1880 Malabar 1879-1880 North 1879-1880 Plassey 1879-1880 Poonah 1879-1880 Ellora 1879-1880 Rohilla 1880-1881 Poonah 1880-1881 Plassey 1880-1881 Ellora 1880-1881 Berar 1880-1881 Lightning 1880-1881 Newcastle 1880-1881 Bengoliyun 1880-1881 .

THE FOUR PILLARS 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 329 North 1880-1881 Ellora 1881-1882 Newcastle 1881-1882 Howrah 1881-1882 Plassey 1881-1882 North 1881-1882 Bayard 1881-1882 Berar 1882-1883 Plassey 1882-1883 Rohilla 1882-1883 Silhet 1882-1883 North 1882-1883 Ellora 1882-1883 Ganges 1883-1884 Bann 1883-1884 Foyle 1883-1884 British Peer 1883-1884 Bruce 1883-1884 Foyle 1884-1885 John Davie 1884-1885 Newnham 1884-1885 Bruce 1884-1885 Jorawur 1884-1885 Bann 1884-1885 Boyne 1884-1885 British Peer 1884-1885 Grecian 1884-1885 Allanshaw 1884-1885 Foyle 1885-1886 Jorawur 1885-1886 Allanshaw 1885-1886 Hereford 1885-1886 Ganges 1885-1886 Shannon 1885-1886 Main 1885-1886 Bayard 1885-1886 Bann 1885-1886 Hereford 1886-1887 Allanshaw 1886-1887 British Peer 1886-1887 Main 1886-1887 .

330 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Foyle 1886-1887 Bruce 1886-1887 Avoca 1886-1887 Bruce 1887-1888 Allanshaw 1887-1888 Ganges 1887-1888 Rhine 1887-1888 Foyle 1887-1888 Allanshaw 1888-1889 Foyle 1888-1889 Main 1888-1889 Sheila 1888-1889 Volga 1888-1889 Brenda 1889-1890 Sheila 1889-1890 Foyle 1889-1890 The Bruce 1889-1890 Allanshaw 1889-1890 Rhine 1889-1890 Brenda 1889-1890 Brenda 1890 Avoca 1890-1891 Sheila 1890-1891 Bann 1890-1891 Elbe 1890-1891 Rhone 1890-1891 Main 1890-1891 Jura 1890-1891 Foyle 1890-1891 Grecian 1891-1892 Sheila 1891-1892 Jura 1891-1892 Elbe 1891-1892 Ganges 1891-1892 Bann 1891-1892 Brenda 1891-1892 Allanshaw 1891-1892 Foyle 1891-1892 Grecian 1892-1893 Main 1892-1893 Volga 1892-1893 .

THE FOUR PILLARS 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 331 Jura 1892-1893 Brenda 1892-1893 Elbe 1892-1893 Avon 1892-1893 Sheila 1892-1893 Sheila 1893-1894 Avon 1893-1894 Elbe 1893-1894 Brenda 1893-1894 Jura 1893-1894 Ganges 1893-1894 Main 1893-1894 Avoca 1893-1894 Bann 1893-1894 Lena 1893-1894 Lena 1894-1895 Brenda 1894-1895 Grecian 1894-1895 Avoca 1894-1895 Bann 1894-1895 Mercey 1894-1895 Jura 1894-1895 Rhine 1894-1895 Avon 1894-1895 Sheila 1894-1895 Elbe 1894-1895 Jura 1895-1896 Lena 1895-1896 Ems 1895-1896 Lena 1896-1897 Brenda 1896-1897 Ems 1896-1897 Lena 1896-1897 Sheila 1896-1897 Jura 1897-1898 Mercey 1898 Brenda 1898 Jura 1898-1899 Lena 1899-1900 Avon 1899-1900 Eme 1899-1900 .

332 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302A 302B 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 K E N N E T H J O Y C E R O B E RT S O N Forth 1899-1900 Mercey 1899-1900 Moy 1899-1900 Clyde 1899-1900 Forth 1899-1900 Ems 1900 Main 1900 Lena 1900-1901 Forth 1900-1901 Mercey 1900-1901 Elbe 1900-1901 Forth 1901-1902 Ems 1901-1902 SS Fazilka 1901-1902 Rhone 1901-1902 Main 1901-1902 Warda 1901-1902 Arno 1902-1903 Moy 1902-1903 Forth 1902-1903 Moy 1903-1904 Elbe 1903-1904 Mercey 1903-1904 Erne 1903-1904 Clyde 1903-1904 Mercey 1903-1904 Moy 1904-1905 Lena 1904-1905 Clyde 1904-1905 Elbe 1905-1906 Forth 1905-1906 Arno 1905-1906 Rhone 1905-1906 Clyde 1905-1906 Ganges 1906-1907 Eme 1906-1907 Forth 1906-1907 Mercey 1906-1907 Erns 1907-1908 Mercey 1907-1908 SS Ganges 1907-1908 .

THE FOUR PILLARS 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334A 334B 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 333 Mutlah 1908-1909 Ganges 1908-1909 Sutlej 1908-1909 Ems 1908-1909 Sutlej 1909 Ganges 1909-1910 SS Indus 1909-1910 Sutlej 1910-1911 Sutlej 1910-1911 2nd Voyage Indus 1910-1911 SS Ganges 1911 SS Chenab 1911-1912 SS Chenab 1911-1912 2nd Voyage SS Indus 1911-1912 SS Indus 1911-1912 2nd Voyage SS Indus 1911-1912 3rd Voyage SS Sutlej 1911-1912 SS Sutlej 1912-1913 SS Sutlej 1912-1913 Chenab 1912-1913 Mutlah 1912-1913 Indus 1913 Indus 1913 Second Voyage Records Missing SS Mutlah 1913-1914 Dewa 1913-1914 Dewa 1915 Sutlej 1914-1915 SS Chenab 1914-1915 SS Chenab 1915-1916 SS Dewa 1915-1916 Ganges 1915-1916 Sutlej 1915-1916 Mutlah 1916-1917 Chenab 1916-1917 Ganges 1916-1917 Source: National Archives of Guyana. November 2— .

. It was the policy for individual ships to be financed from the colonial treasury and partially by the planters of the colony.Source: The Royal Gazette of British Guiana Just a facsimile of a period report/statement to account for the arrivals of ships from India bringing indentured laborers.

.Source: The Royal Gazette of British Guiana The distribution of immigrants on each ship to plantations at this period. the owners having placed orders and requests as to their needs well in advance of the arrivals. their crop was primarily sugarcane.

the New York Herald. This page is an extract from a third of that sheet (complete statistics) . dealt with the Coolie question: The origin and operation of the system in the British Colonies.Using a “triple-sheet” (full-page) format. 1870. June 23.

” Also when Demerara Rum ingratiated the palates of the Royal Navy and all the other navies—from ensigns to captains and admirals.WHEN SUGAR WAS KING! That was when Demerara sugar was really. Behind had been left. and common “salts”—the residual molasses from processing the and crystallizing genuine sugar from Demerara. really sweeter and much tastier—way above the rest and far ahead of the pack. clothe and feed The darker hued heathen breed. Tots of rum for the naval palate Demerara sugar to enhance each cup and plate To make that extra quid the merchants did not hesitate Beet sugar they surreptitiously colored brown To stop the sacrilege from spreading from town to town To the Courts the West Indian lobby did resort. British Guiana. commodores. When Britain ruled the waves And also knew the real value of well-bred slaves The trade routes they did control And regarded the world as one big colonial whole. 337 . Then. sugar actually meant Demerara Sugar. Long before when brown sugar became “generic. would oft times become the basic ingredient that gave other “rum” and liquor the distinctive flavor they craved. an age of chivalry in days of old When knights were valiantly bold Even though paper had already been invented They cleaned and wiped their flask with razor grass And walked away not so contented! The ways of the world they did cull And sough to make them less dull Sugar from the sugarcane reed Immense bitterness followed as they did proceed To enlighten.




UK . Kew.The National Archives. Surrey.



Neither of the four families produced a “Chicken George”. emancipation and colonialism. ISBN: 978-1-4535-9196-3 ªxHSLEPDy591963zv*:+:!:+:!@ (80530) . Received early primary and secondary education under the prevailing colonial Education systems that emphasized the three “Rs”: reading. Currently. Berbice. Frederick and William stood up in the company of Damon in August. The Joyce Family were inhabitants of plantations Belfield. dignity. 1835.The Four Pillars: A Genealogical Journey traces the genealogical progression of four families-JOYCE. won that ‘battle’. Fothergill. Fothergill. Bob. ROBERTSON and SAMUELS. Obtained the Junior Cambridge Certificate. but finally lost the war! The planters. With the extreme shortage of labor. our larger-than-life ancestral characters performed with courage. by attending the village high school as a paying student. grace and fortitude. Equally. Still. just before WWII. SANCHO. led by Charles Bean. Cove & John and Victoria over the years. Scipio Samuels and Primus Samuels were involved in the purchase and development of the Village of Victoria. semi-retired. pardons were engineered on their behalf. 1834. an indicator of possible future sucesses. Bob had died and was buried in England. It is a revelation and chronicle of their lives-Out of Africa into slavery. Tuckness Sancho and John Sancho. Damon would be hanged while his four deputies were sentenced to transportation to Australia’s penal colonies. They won that round. ‘riting and ‘rithmatic. General Certificate in Education (GCE) at Ordinary and Advanced Levels were granted through the external services of the University of London. It is a story of survival. under one flag in Trinity Church yard. Certifications in commercial education by The London Chamber of Commerce. Almost a year would have elapsed when the return trip from the Hulks on the Thames ended in Demerara on October 13. KENNETH JOYCE ROBERTSON Born at Nabaclis Village. and endurance. especially as to Golden Grove and Nabaclis. Billy Robertson and Present Robertson led the movement in Ithaca. The ultimate goal of BSc(Econ) with an Accounting & Finance major was reached when said degree was granted by the University of London in 1968. stayed away from the city travel – the perceived prestige. East Coast Demerara. were held at bay for the crucial hours pending the arrival of the colonial governor and his militia. Migration to USA in 1969 started a professional acounting life. Guyana (formerly British Guiana). Experienced some of the additional hardships directly traceable to that War. The Sanchos were to play significant roles in the Village Movement. Got through High School with extreme financial difficulties. Frederick and William were to become Bentinck Sancho.

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