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PCS Mobile Commu

PCS Mobile Commu

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What is PCS?

Personal Communication Services

September 30, 2005

Girish Kumar Patnaik


What is PCS
• Personal Communication Services
– A wide variety of network services that includes wireless access and personal mobility services – Provided through a small terminal – Enables communication at any time, at any place, and in any terminal form.

September 30, 2005

Girish Kumar Patnaik


Several PCS systems
• High-tier Systems
– Widespread vehicular and pedestrian services
• GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications
– The mobile telephony system that we are using

• IS-136
– USA digital cellular mobile telephony system – TDMA based multiple access

• Personal Digital Cellular • IS-95 cdmaOne System
– CDMA based multiple access

September 30, 2005

Girish Kumar Patnaik


Several PCS systems
• Low-tier systems
– Residential, business and public cordless access applications and systems
• • • • Cordless Telephone 2 (CT2) Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone (DECT) Personal Access Communication Systems (PACS) Personal Handy Telephone System (PHS)

September 30, 2005

Girish Kumar Patnaik


Several PCS systems • Wideband wireless systems – For Internet access and multimedia transfer • Cdma2000. proposed by Chine/Europe September 30. proposed by Europe • SCDMA. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 5 . evolved from cdmaOne • W-CDMA.

11. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 6 . 802. Scientific and Medical) band systems: Bluetooth.Several PCS systems • Other PCS Systems – Special data systems • CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data • RAM Mobile Data • Advanced Radio Data Information System (ARDIS) – Paging Systems – Mobile Satellite Systems • LEO. September 30. etc. MEO. GEO satellites for data/voice – ISM (Industrial.

PCS Problems • How to integrate mobile and wireless users to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) (Voice Network) • Cellular mobile telephony system • How to integrate mobile and wireless users to the Internet (Data Network) • Mobile IP. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 7 . Cellular IP • How to integrate all of them together and also add multimedia services (3G Systems) September 30. DHCP.

2005 Data Networking People View 8 Girish Kumar Patnaik . DHCP enabled computers Telecom People View September 30.Looking to PCS from different Angles PSTN (Telephone Network) Wireless Access Internet Mobile Users -Cell phone users -Cordless phone users Mobile Users -Laptop users -Pocket PC users -Mobile IP.

Voice Transmission . 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 9 . CDMA. Cordless Phones.Error Control -Data Transmission -Mobile IP (integrating mobile hosts to internet) -Ad-hoc Networks -TCP over Wireless -Service Discovery September 30.Telecom and Data Networking Telecom Interest Data Networking Interest .Handoff Management -Location Tracking -Roaming -QoS -GSM. EDGE -Radio Propagation -Link Characteristics -Error Models -Wireless Medium Access (MAC) .Frequency Reuse . -GPRS.

Very Basic Cellular/PCS Architecture Public Switched Telephone Network Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Mobility Database Base Station Controller Radio Network Base Station (BS) September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik Mobile Station 10 .

September 30. Base stations are located at the center or edge of a coverage region. They can be either hand-held personal units (portables) or installed on vehicles (mobiles) – Base station – A fixed station in a mobile radio system used for radio communication with the mobile stations. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 11 .Wireless System Definitions – Mobile Station – A station in the cellular radio service intended for use while in motion at unspecified locations. They consists of radio channels and transmitter and receiver antennas mounted on top of a tower.

Wireless System Definitions – Mobile Switching Center – Switching center which coordinates the routing of calls in a large service area. the MSC connects the cellular base stations and the mobiles to the PSTN (telephone network). 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 12 . In a cellular radio system. It is also called Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) – Subscriber – A user who pays subscription charges for using a mobile communication system – Transceiver – A device capable of simultaneously transmitting and receiving radio signals September 30.

call request. call initiation and other beacon and control purposes. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 13 . – Forward Channel – Radio channel used for transmission of information from the base station to the mobile – Reverse Channel – Radio channel used for transmission of information from mobile to base station September 30.Wireless System Definitions – Control Channel – Radio channel used for transmission of call setup.

Wireless System Definitions – Simplex Systems – Communication systems which provide only one-way communication – Half Duplex Systems – Communication Systems which allow two-way communication by using the same radio channel for both transmission and reception. – Full Duplex Systems – Communication systems which allow simultaneous twoway communication. Transmission and reception is typically on two different channels (FDD). 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 14 . the user can either transmit or receive information. September 30. At any given time.

– Roaming – A mobile station which operates in a service area (market) other than that from which service has been subscribed. – Page – A brief message which is broadcast over the entire service area.Wireless System Definitions – Handoff – The process of transferring a mobile station from one channel or base station to an other. usually in simulcast fashion by many base stations at the same time. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 15 . September 30.

PCS Architecture September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 16 .

September 30.PCS Architecture • Each PCS technology has similar architectures which consists two parts – Radio Network • MS (Mobile Station) • BS (Base Station) System – Wireline Transport Network • MSC (Mobile Switching Center) • The Mobility Database connected to MSC is used to track the locations of mobile station. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 17 .

PCS Systems Classification • Cellular Telephony (High-tier) • Cordless Telephony and Low-Tier PCS • 3G Wireless Systems September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 18 .

Cellular Telephony • Characterized by – – – – – High mobility provision Wide-range Two-way tether less voice communication Handoff and roaming support Integrated with sophisticated public switched telephone network (PSTN) – High transmit power requires at the handsets (~2W) September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 19 .

Architecture Radio tower PSTN Telephone Network Mobile Switching Center September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 20 .Cellular Telephony .

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 21 .Cellular Telephony Systems • Mobile users and handsets – Very complex circuitry and design • Base stations – Provides gateway functionality between wireless and wireline links • Mobile switching centers – Connect cellular system to the terrestrial telephone network September 30.

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 22 . mostly FM AMPS Voice Traffic FDMA/FDD multiple access Digital Systems Digital Modulation Voice Traffic TDMA/FDD and CDMA/FDD multiple access • Second Generation (2G) • 2.Cellular Networks • First Generation • • • • • • • • • Analog Systems Analog Modulation.5G • Digital Systems • Voice + Low-datarate Data • Third Generation • Digital • Voice + High-datarate Data • Multimedia Transmission also September 30.

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 23 .Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) • • • • • Analog FM radio for voice transmission FSK modulation for signal channels FDMA FDD Total 50 MHz=824-849 MHz(down-link) + 869-894 MHz(up-link) – 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies – Downlink: from base station to handset – Uplink: from handset to base station • 30 KHz spacing September 30.

Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) • Frequency reuse scheme for radio communication – Cells are grouped into clusters – Cells within a cluster must use different frequencies – Frequencies may be reused by cells in different clusters • In AMPS – 12-cell cluster using omni-directional antennas – 7-cell cluster using three sectors per BS • EIA/TIA IS-41 standard for roaming management. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 24 . September 30.

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) • • • • • • Digital cellular system TDMA/FDD 935-960 MHz for Downlink 890-915 MHz for Uplink 200 kHz for RF channel spacing Speech coding rate 13 Kbps September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 25 .

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 26 . • GSM Mobile Application Part (MAP) for roaming management • Digital switch can provide many applications: – Example: point-to-point short messaging. group addressing. multiparty services September 30.Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) • Frequency carrier is divided into 8 time slots – Every pair of radio transceiver-receiver supports 8 voice channels. call waiting.

95Kbps • The same spectrum used by AMPS – 3 times of capacity of AMPS • 30 KHz frequency spacing September 30. IS136 • The successor to IS-54 • TDMA/FDD • Every frequency carrier supports three voice channels • Speech coding rate is 7.EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System • Digital AMPS (DAMPS). 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 27 . American Digital Cellular (ADC). or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA).

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 28 . group addressing. broadcast messaging.EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System • 2 types of channel usage: – Full-rate: use 2 timeslot for a voice channel – Half-rate: use 1 timeslot for a voice channel • Digital switch can provide many applications: – Example: point-to-point short messaging. private user groups • IS-41 standard for mobility management September 30.

– – – – A shared 1. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 29 . and 10 times of AMPS. • IS-41 for core network • Advanced Radio Resource Management September 30.25 MHz channel bandwidth User signals distinguished with different codes MSs links to many BSs during phone calls. GPS for synchronization of BSs • Interference-based capacity (soft capacity) – The capacity of IS-95 is 3-6 times of IS-136 system.EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System • CDMA/DSSS for the air interface.

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 30 .Cordless Telephones PSTN Telephone Network Cordless Phone Base unit September 30.

small form factor and long talktime – No handoffs between base units • Appeared as analog devices • Digital devices appeared later with CT2.Cordless Telephones • Characterized by – – – – – Low mobility (in terms of range and speed) Low power consumption Two-way tetherless (wireless) voice communication High circuit quality Low cost equipment. DECT standards in Europe and ISM band technologies in USA September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 31 .

40 FDMA channels 32-Kbps speech coding rate TDD The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW • No handoff in CT2 • No call delivery in CT2 • In CT2+. available since 1989. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 32 . September 30. Second Generation (CT2) • • • • • Developed in Europe. both handoff and call delivery are OK.Cordless Telephone.

Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) • • • • • • • • • • Published in 1992 TDMA/TDD 12 voice channels per frequency carrier Sleep mode is employed in DECT to conserve the power of handsets. Dynamic channel allocation Time slot transfer Seamless handoff Dual mode: DECT + GSM September 30. 32 Kbps speech coding rate DECT is typically implemented as a wireless.PBX (Private Branch Exchange) connected to the PSTN. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 33 .

1 MHz = 300 KHz × 40 channels (public system) • 32 Kbps speech speech coding rate September 30. offices. and outdoor environment • TDMA/TDD • 4 multiplexed channels/frequency carrier • 1895-1906.1 MHz = 300 KHz × 37 channels (home/office) • 1906.1-1918. Japan 1993 • Offers telecommunication services for homes. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 34 .Low-Tier PCS: Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) • Developed by Research and Development • Center (RCR).

September 30. U.Low-Tier PCS: Personal Access Communications System (PACS) • Developed at Telcordia. • PACS is designed for wireless local loop and Personal Communications Services. • The highly effective and reliable mobile controlled handoff (MCHO) completes in less than 20 msec. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 35 .S.A. • TDMA • 8 voice channels/frequency carrier • Both TDD and FDD are accommodated.

3G Systems • Goals – Voice and Data Transmission • Simultanous voice and data access – Multi-megabit Internet access • Interactive web sessions – Voice-activated calls – Multimedia Content • Live music September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 36 .

and low-tier systems – Digital speech with low-bit-rate data services • Third-Generation: – Better system capacity – High-speed and wireless Internet access (to 2Mbps) – Wireless multimedia services (audio and video) September 30. IS-136. IS-95. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 37 .Third-Generation Wireless Systems • First Generation System: AMPS – Analog voice calls • Second Generation Systems: GSM.

Bit rates dependent on distance – Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) backbone – Wideband CDMA (DS-CDMA FDD). QoS.5G: GPRS and EDGE – Bridge 2G into 3G • The new features for 3G includes – High bit rates.Third-Generation Wireless Systems • 2. SCDMA and cdma2000 (multi-carrier FDD) for air interface September 30. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 38 .

2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 39 .GSM and CDMA Coverage Map Worldwide September 30.

Gerald Q. September 30.Phone Lin • Slides obtained from home page of Prof. Maguire Jr. 2005 Girish Kumar Patnaik 40 .Acknowledgement • Slides obtained from home page of Prof.

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