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iI1MnpeCCI>10HL-1CTbI, S03MO)KHO, TaK 6bl VI OCTaJlI-ICb Ha 060LJVlHe MCTOPMVlIo1CKYCCTBa, ecna 6bl OHM 0AHY sa APyro~ He ycrpaasan» CBOVI BblCTaSKVI (80ceMb 8 O,QHOM ronsko 8 napJ.1)Ke C 1874 no 1886 ron), eCJlI>1 6bl I>1X He nOAJWP)KVlBaJlM CBOMMI-1 CTaTbRMM ,qpY3b51-eAI-1HOMbIWneHHJ.1KVI (30ml, WeCHO, ,QlOpaHTlil, KaCTaHbRpM) 1-1 ecnn 5bl He nonb ,QlOpaH-PI03Jlb (1831-1922). iI1MeHHo 3TOT JlereHAapHbl~ napL-1)KCKMCi MapwaH onpenenan HOBYIO crparer-no pacapyrxu XYAO)l(H\IIKOB, KOropaa C TeMM lilnM MHb\MVI KoppeKTHBaMVI 3cj:Jcj:JeKTHBHO paeoraer 101 no ce~ AeHb. ,QlOpaH-PI03nb, 6YAYLJ\II Y)I(e npocj:JeccHoHanbHblM apr-nunepou - e-ra-ana OH paeoran y csoero orua, 3aTeM B 1862 ro,qy Hacne,qoBan era neno M BeCbMa ycnaun-o nponaaran Ha pb\HKe Kyp6e VI XYAO)l(HMKOB 6ap6M30HCKOiii WKOJlbl, - nepBblM peun-ncs nenars cTaBKY Ha HViKeM euie He O'-1eHeHHbIX XYAO)KHVlKOB. B 1870 rony B Jlounoae OH 3HaKOMVlTCA C MOHe 1-1 nl-lccappo - VI TYT)I(e BKnIOLJaeT HX paoon, B 3KCn031-11.1MIO cBoe~ nOHAOHcKO~ ranepea. '{spea ,QBa rona OH BbICTaBJ1SleT MaHe, ,Qera, PeHyapa VI C\-1CneA. B TOM )Ke rOAY noxynacr y Mane uensrx 23 patiorsr, KOTopble nerIlM B OCHOBY era KOJ1neKWl-1lil HMnpeccliloHMCTOB .. 111 XOTA nOTOM 1-13-3a cj:JHHaHcoBbIX TPYAHocTeVi OH nponasr 60nbwylO ee '1aCTb, C 1880 roAa, KaK TOJlbKO ziena lil,qYT Ha nonpasxy, BHOBb HaLJHHaeT noxynars VlMnpeCCVlOHI-1CTOB, HO reneps euia \II 3aKnlOLJaH C HHMH 3KCKJlI03\-1BHble KOHTpaKTbl, LJTO TO)Ke 6blJlO noeonsso-raxa He06blLJHbiM \1\ CMeJlhlM warOM B OTHoweHMH K euie He npl-13HaHHbiM XYAO)KHMKaM, YT06bl aars CBOI>1M XYAO)KHI-1KaM craryc MHTepHaWHOHanbHblX 3Be3A, npeAnpL-1V1MLJI-1Bbl~ MapwaH OTKpbIBaeT CBOM Q:J\IIIlManhl H aa rpaHVll.le~ - B nOH,qOHe, Bp-occena, POTTepAaMe, a 3aTeM VI B HhlO-li!opKe. TaM B 1886 roAY ,QlOpaH-PI03nb oprasvayer cua-rana BblcTaBKY CBOVIX XYAO)KHI-1KOB, a nocne Y)I(e orxpsraaer M ranepeio. A sure ,QlOpaH-PI03nb pa3BOpaLJ\-1- saer 1-13AaTenbcKYlO ,qeHTenbHOCTb - asrnycxaer lKypHanbl La Revue internationale de I'art et de la curiosite (1869) VI L'art dans les deux man des (1890-1891). Ecrecrae-n-o, rnasaan resia TaM - see ra lKe VlMnpeCCHOHMCTbl.

HOBbl~ MexaHM3M paCKPYTKYI 6blJl sanyuiea, VI Y)Ke cne,qYIOLLll-1e sa ,QlOpaH-PI03JleM He MeHee nere-mapusre MapwaHbl AM6pya3 Bonnap, KaHBe~nep VI APyrHe I-1X xonnera pa60TalOT co CBOI-1MH xy,qO)KHVlKaM\I\ no Y)Ke HaJla)KeHHOM cxeve: KOHTpaKTbl, BbICTaBKlil, CTaTbl-1 B npecce, 1-13Aarenscxaa ,qe51TenbHOCTb.

enesa: MapwaH AlOpaHPt03/lb noxynaer l<apn·1HY Y xaranoacxoro XYAO)KH~Ka >KoaKIIIMa )l(YHbe. Kap •• arypa naOno n"Kaceo. 1904. II""Drpa¢~"

Cnpasa: rlOcTa6 Kyp6e -acio GTaHOBVlIlCs:! r epoeu CKaHAanoB • Kap.Karyp. Kap"KaTypa AHApe )K.nR • raaere L'Eclipse. 1870

BH.3Y: nonb i=jlOpaHPiC3nb nep6blM CpeA" nap~CK~)I, MapwaHoe acep6e3 3a1.1HTepeCOBaJlC~ ell.\e HI.1KeM He np~3HaHHbIMlr1 I1MnpeCCIo10HI.1CraMYI

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Kneryc lllKOHCOH, KeiiT COHbe. CHAAT cnesa uanpaso: 3HI1" vopxon, Po6epT PayweHoepr, Ileo KaeTennH, 31leapA Pywa, A>t<eiiMe P03eHKS"CT, Po6epT 6app"

21 aarycra 1999 rona see Ml.1pOBble cpencrsa I.1HcpopMal\J,11.1 cooouraior B nepssrx CTpOYKaX HOBocTeCi 0 KOH<..JI.1He B HblO-ViopKe B aospacre 91 rona Jlso Kacrennu. HI.1 AO HI.1 nocne HI.1 0AJ,1H ranepncr He YAOCTOl.1flCR TaKOLil yeCTI.1. Bce, KTO MaflO-ManbCKI.1 I.1HTepeCOBanCR COBpeMeHHblM I.1C· KYCCTBOM, 3HanJ,1: Kacrennn - 3TO TOT, KTO paCKPYTl.1n 3HAI.1 Yopxona J,1 non-apr. Ho aacnyr kaerennu nepen I.1CKYCCTBOM XX aexa ropaaao eonsuie, '1eM oAHa pacxpyrxa non-apra 1.1 lIelloC\ nne- 51Abl ero 3Be3A nepaoa BenJ,1'1I.1HbJ. 3TOMY AO M03ra KOCTeLil esooneauy YAanOCb caMOMY CTaTb OAHOCi J,13 I.1KOH aMepl.1KaHCKOro nOCneBOeHHOrO I.1CKYCCTBa.

Jleo Kpaycc (nceBAOHI.1M Kacrennn OH B351n B 1919 rony) pOAJ,1nC5I B ceMbe eapeacxoro 6aHK>1- pa B I.1TanbRHCKOM repone Tpnecre, B Hayane BeKa npl.1Hagne>KaBWeM Aactpo-Besrpaa. nee Y<..Jl.1nCR ua IOpl.1CTa 1.1 anaaen B coaepureacrse HeCKOnbKI.1M1-'I eBponeCicKI.1MI.1 R3b!KaMI.1. B ABaA uars ner OH JKeH1-'InC51 aa AOyepl.1 60raToro 6aHKJ,1pa 1.13 PYMblHl.11.1 Lo1 B 1935 rOAY nepeexan C JKe· HOLII B napl.1JK, YT06bl B03rnaBLo1Tb TaM cpLo1nt.1an 6aHKa csoero TeCT5I. B napLo1JKe Jleo 1.1 aauurepeCOBanC5II.1CKYCCTBOM, C6nJ,13Lo1BWLo1Cb C cioppearuecrov MaKcoM 3PHCTOfoJ 1.1 ero KpyroM XYAO>KH>1KOB. VlCKYCCTBO HaCTOnbKO yanexaer Jleo, YTC B 1939 rOAY BMeCTe C apXI.1TeKTOpoM PeHe ,[IPY3HOM OH orxpusaer ra nepeio, BblCTaSI.1B TaM ooppeanacroa Lo1 a6CTpaKTHyIO JKLo1BOnI.1Cb. OAH8 KO HaYLo1HaeTC~ soCiHa, iii B 1941 rOAY Jleo C ceMbeCi 3M~rpl.1pyeT B AMe PI.1Ky, A06pOBonbHO l.1,qeT cnyJK1-'ITb B aMepl.1KaHCKYIO apMLo1IO, aa 'iTO noc J1e AeM061.11l1.138l\1.1J,1 nony-iaer rp8)J{,qaHCTBO CWA. C 6J.13HeCOM OH pe WLo1n paCCTaTbCR HaBcerA8. Y KaCTeJ1IlI.1 SblBe3eHHaR 1.13 <t>paHl\1-11.1 Hen noxas KonneKUIli51 ooppeanacroa J.1 pa60T KaHAI.1HCKoro. OH HaYI.1Hae- 3aHI.1MaTbC~ apT-A1-'InepCTBOM, 3aB5I3blBaTb KOHTaKTbl C My3eCiLllI.1KaM~ XYA0>KHI.1KaMM J.1 KOnneKl\1.10HepaM~, nO-BsponeCicKI.1 anera-rruoro, 6nec T5ILlle 06pa30BaHHoro Kacrenna OXOTHO npJ.1HI.1MaIOT B BblCW1-'IX xpyra: aMepl.1KaHCKOro oouiecraa - nO~Bn5leTC5I 1.1 06Wl.1pHeCiwa51 60raTBl KIll.1eHTypa. TaK 'iTO xorna B 1957 ro,qy B aoapacre 50 ner Kacrenna Ha KOHel\ orxpuaaer CBOIO ranepeio, OH YJKe 3aMBTHa~ cj:JLo1rypa Ha HblO LIIOPKCKOCi apr-cueae.

Kacrenna B APYJKeCKI.1X OTHOWeHl.1l'1X C YJKe MOAHblMI.1 a6cTpaKTHblMLo1 3KcnpeccHoHHcTaMI.1, HO AenaeT crasxy Ha auie He pacKpyYBHHblX XYAOJK.HI.1KOB, BblCTaBI.1B nepBblMI.1 B csoea HOBOi1 ranepse ,[IJKacnepa ,[IJKOHCa 1.1 P06epTa Payursaoepra, 3aTeM PO~ nI.1XTeHWTeLIIHa, 3HAH Yopxona, P03eHKBI.1CTa, LJeM6epneHa 1.1 Knaca OnbAeH6ypra. OH nOAAepJKLo1SaeT CBOI-1X XYAOJKHI.1KOB MaTepl.1anbHO, nnara I.1M cTHnBHAHIO, nnaTI-1T aa CTaTb~ 0 HIliX B raaerax 1.1 xypuanax, c03AaeT ueny-o cers ranepei1 C pa60TaMLo1 CBOI.1X nporexe B Espone, napannensao opraauays TaM BbICTaSKI.1. 0 nenosux T8J1aHTaX Kacrennu XOAI'IT nereHAbl. 3HaMeHI.1TOC\ crana rppaaa 0 HeM XYAOJKHMKa BLo1nJ1eMa Ae KYHMHra: "Bbl MOJKere AaTb 3TOMY CYKI.1HOMY CblHY ABe 6aHKif! nwsa - ~ OH ryr >Ke nponacr 1-'IX". npl.1 3TOM OH epone 6bl Hl.1yero raxoro 1.1 He AenaeT A!151 eroro. ,,51 acero nl.1Wb orxpuaaio BbICTaBKI.1, AaBa51 ° HI.1X I.1Hcj:JOPMal.ll.1lO B npecce, a He BI.1Wy ua renerpoae B nOI-1CKaX KIlJ.1eHTOB - He B MOI.1X npaBJ.1n8X oerars aa KeM-TO", - roaopar Kacrennu, OTBeLJaR ua aonpoc, KaK eMY y,qaeTc5I nponasars ace.

,[IaJKe nocraruya no-rreauoro B03paCTa, Ha nl.1Ke csoea cnasu KaK «YenOBeKa, KOTOPblLII packPYTLo1n non-apr», KaCTenIlJ.1 He nOLJI.1BaeT Ha naspax. OH 30PKO cneAI.1T aa TeM, YTO nenaior MonoAble XYAOJKHI.1KJ.1, nepBblM SbICTaBn5l~ MI.1HHManl.1CTOB ,[IOHanAa ,[IJKaMa, P06epTa Moppl.1ca. KOHuerrryanncra 1II03ecpa Kouryra, He 3a6blBaeT OH ~ 0 nOAAepJKaHl.111 caoero I.1MLo1AJKa, nenas WLo1pO' Kl.1e JKeCTbl Ha ny6JlI.1KY. Hanpuraep. 3HaMeHLo1TYIO «Kpoaars» Payuieuoepra (1956), B csoe Bpew'! KynneHHYIO aa 6eCl\eHOK, a reneps, B 1988-M, CTORLllYIO $10 MnH, OH napnr MoMA. ,[10 BOLIIHbl rny- 60KO npOBI.1Hl.Il.1anbHaR B KynbTypHoM OTHOWeHl.11.1 AMepl.1Ka reneps Ml.1pOSa51 CTOJ1Lo1l\a He TOIlbKO

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npocpeCCI15'1 BPT-KPIIITVlKB ponwnacs so <l>paHLji'lVi B cepe,qI.1He XIX aexa, xorna B MHOrOTl>1pa)KHbIX rasarax (.1 xypaanax nO!1BIIIJlVlCb peryJl!1pHble KOJlOHKVI, OnepaTI.1BHO I.1HCPOpMl1pOBaBWl.1e 0 C06blTJ.15'1X xy,qO)KeCTBeHHOC1 >KJ.13HI.1. Ho 3TO He 6blJla Kpl.1TI1KB B COBpeMeHHOM CMblCJle CJlOBa. ABTOPOB, nl.1CaBWVlX 06 I.1CKyccTBe, VlHTepeCOBaJlW ABe BeUJ,11 - sapaeorars HeMHoro ,qeHer VI nonnepxars CBOI-1X ,qPY3eC1-xy,q0)KHI1KOB, KaK B cnvxae 3011!1, 8 n03>Ke - Anonnauepa.

Ho Y>Ke B aa-rane XX sexa, xorna asaarapa cran rIlaBHb'M I.1rpOKOM Ha Me>KAYHapOAHOC1 aprcueae, nOTpe6HOCTb B npocpeccnoaansaosi Kpl.1TI1Ke KaK HeOTbeMJlBMOM 3BBHB B CKJla,qbIBalOw,eC1cp. VlHcppacrpYKType J.1CKYCCTBa crana Heo6xOAItIMOCTblO. nepBble npodieccaoaanu-ue KPJ.1- TI1KI.1 nOflBI1JlVlCb ace B TOC1 xe Eapons: B repMaHlII1-1 113AaTeJlb nesoro xypuana «WTYPM" Xepsapr BaJlb,qeH, B AHrJll.1111 KnaC1B 6eJlJl, a n03)Ke rep6epT PIII,q, BO <l>paHL\IIIIII AHApe CBllbMOH, MoPIilC PeJliHan 11 Banb,qeMap >Kop>K. Ho I-1X CTaTb(.1 60JlbWe 06b5'lCHI111(.1 VI KOMMeHTVlpOBBllJ.1, LfeM Bm15'1nlll Ha xYAO)KeCTBeHHblC1 npouecc. III .JlIIIWb B nOCJleBOeHHblC1 nepnon, B 1940-1960-e rOAbl, aerop-rrar Kpl-"1n1Ka He06blLfaL.iHo aoapaoraer. Teneps OH He npOCTO KOMMeHTaTOp VI I>1HTepnpeTaTOP Tara I1JlI1 IIIHora C06blTIiI5'I TeKYl1.(eC1 xy,qO)KeCTBeHHOC1 )KVl3HIII - see '-Iaw,e ycnex BbICTaBKJ.1, 6y,qb TO B ranepee I111Vl MY3ee, 1>13SeCTHOCTb xy,qO)KHI.1Ka 3aSIllC5'lT OT roro, CKOJlbKO 0 HI.1X aannca- 1l1>1, KTO uanncan III KaK i-anwcan.

OAHI>1M 1>13 caMblX (eCJlIII He caMblM) BJll.1flTeJlbHblX apT-KpIiITIiIKOB XX aexa 6blll, HeCOMHeHHO, KlleMeHT rpIiIH6epr (1909-1994). Era I.1M5'I Hepa3pblBHO CB5'l3aHO c a6cTpaKTHbiM 3KCnpeCCI10HIII3- MOM. CLfIiiTaeTCfl, LfTO 6Jlaro.Qap5'I CTaTb5lM rp(.1H6epra 3TO HanpaBJleHVle crana C411TaTb caMblM 3HaLflllMbiM B nOCJleBOeHHOM uckyccrae. TaK IlI>1 6blllO Ha caMOM Aene?

HeCOMHeHHO, rpI>1H6epr 6blll OAHIilM 1.13 Hal160nee 5'lPKI.1X 1.1 KOJlOPI1THblX nepcoaaxea Ha aMeplIIKaHcKoili apr-cueke. OH pO,qlllllC!1 B HblO-ViopKe B 06eCne'-leHH0C1 eBpeC1cKOI4 cevse. Ero OTel.1 nepxan He60JlbWoC1 Mara3111H oAe)t(Abl, HO MeLfTan 06 VlHTeJlJleKTyanbHoC1 xapsepe AJlI1 csoero ceraa, nOClle YHlllsepcmeTa IOHowa KaKoe-TO BpeM5'I noreoran OTLjY, HO OLfBHb CKOPO 6poc(.1Jl ceMeiliHblC1 61>13HeC III cran, 3HaA HeCKOJlbKO A3b!KOB, 3aHI>1MaTbCSl nepeeonavn. BHaLfane xYAo)t(ecTBeHHoC1 KplIITVlKe OH npennosen nareparvpayio, ny611I>1KY5I C 1930-x rOAOB CBOVI crarsa a TPOllKI1CTCKOM )t()'pHane Partisan Review. nlllWb n03>Ke, C 1941 rona, OH cran SeCTI1 nOCTOp.HHYIO KOllOHKY apT-Kp(.1TI.1Ka B raaere Nation, napannensuo cOTpYAHI.14aA B 3TOM «a-scree (.1 C i=lpymMI1 1i13AaHl>1flM(.1. Bnepsste a rpl.1H6epre KaK a cepbe3HoM apT-KpVlTI1Ke aaroaopnna nOCJl8 era crarsv «Asaarapn 1.1 KVlTLf" (1939), B KOTOpoC1 OH yraepxnan, LfTO MOAepHIII3M - 3TO e,qIilHcTSeHHa!1 ansrepaaruea MaccosoC1 KYllbType 3nOX(.1 aceoouiero nOTpe6JleHIIIS1. Ka>Kt1YIO CJleAYIOw,ylO CTaTblO rpVlH6epra B apr-cpene CLflilTaJll>1 '-lyrb JlI1 He PYKOSOACTBOM K ,qeIilCTBJ.1IO. XOT$l caM aBTOP He npl>1AaBan CJlI.1WKOM y* oonsuroro 3HaLfeHI.1$l TOMY, LfTO nJ.1CaJl, CLfI.1Tafl, '-ITO apT-Kpl.1TI.1Ka - «caraoe He6JlarOAapHoe 3aHflTlile AJlSl nVlwyutero -renoaexa, nOTOMY 4TO Mano KOMY OHa nasanacs HaCTOllbKO XOpOWO, Lf106bl 3anOMHI.1TbC5'I". K HeMY 3TO He OTHOCIiIJlOCb. Te peAK>1e, HO MeTKI18 ny6JlIIIKal.\VlI>1, xorcpsre nOflBI1S111I-1Cb B ne-iaru (rp>1H6epr npennoLf(.1TaJl clIIAeHlll10 sa nlllCbMeHHblM CTOJlOM xopouiyo BblnVlBKY, carapu VI

Cripaaa: <D"""HC XoP<!lHIlbA nOPTpeT HblO· liop!<cmro apr"xp"TI1K8 /(mlM9HTB rp"H6epra. 1990. ,!lepe.o, Moeno

Cne sa :BwmeM

,Il8 KYH"Hr. !lBe >KeHUj"H., C HllT1OpMcJprOM. 1952. fillC·AHIJ,lKBneC,

COIlpeH"e Ba"CMaHaS

KneMeHT rp~H6epr

ranepe~HOv. BblcraBKe y ImpmHbl oAHara

H3 ce01-1X npOT8)1(e

KeHHeTa Honanna. 1960-e

7/2006 APTXPOHVlKA 53

06ll.1SH.,S C XYAO)f(HIIIKaM.,), nonananu B uens, nO,QBO,Qll Cepbe3HYIO TeOpSTWieCKYIO 6a3y nor; .,CKyCCTBO ., XY,QO>KH.,KOB, KOTOPblX rp.,H6epr C'-I\'UM e,Ql1HCTBSHHO 3aCnY>K.l1BalOll.I.,Ml1 BH.,MaH.,ll. OH He ronsso n.,CM 0 CBOJ-lX ,QPY3bllX Ilonnoxe, ,Qe KYH.,Hre, Xauce XOcPMaHe, Sapaet e HblOMeHe, Kn"cPcP0p,Qe Crvnne, HO ., novoran .,M B OpraHI'I3al\"I-'t BbICTaBOK. rpJ-lH6epr C'-IHTM, '-ITO a6CTpaKTHbie 3KcnpeCCHOHHCTbl, paooraiouu-e HCKnI04Y1TenbHO C nnOCKOCTblO, cPOPMOIl1 H l\BeTOM, TO ecrs 3aHHMalOll.IYleCSl «'H1CTbIM I1CKYCCTSOM», 11 SCTb npOTI1BOSSC nOBceMeCTHO TOP)f(BCTBYlOll.IeMy KIIITYy. He cnY'-lall1Ho H S 1960-e rO,Qbl OH nO,QAep)f(l1san 111 60nee n03,QHI1X HblO-1I10PKCKHX a6cTpaK'-IHoHI'ICTOS, pacoraouiax C 60nbwIIIMH nnOCKOCTSlMIII H '-II1CTbIM '-IBeTOM - MOPPHca nblO.,ca, KeHHeTa Honanaa, <Dp3HKa Cranny. rpl1H6spr C'iIHM, 'iTO OHI1 npOAOn>KalOT TO, YTO Ha4M a6CTpaKTHblll1 3KCnpeCCI'IOHI13M. Be,Qb no noneee ero TeOpHI'I, 113nolKeHHoi1 S crarse «Asaarapn ., KIiIT'i", MaCCOSall xynsrypa nOCTOllHHO MyTI-'tpyeT. MIIIMI1KPl1pyll non asaarapn, n03ToMY aecrpaKTHblL.1 3KCnpeCCI10H.,3M, nepaxna paC'-IBeT, reneps Sblpo,Ql1nCS'I B canes 11 ,QonlKeH ycryrurn, MecTO HOBblM 3KCnep.,MeHTaropaM B nuue nccraocrpacn-ux 3KCnpeCC.,OHHCTOB.

rpIiIH6epr crone npenau CBoeM l-1,qee ., xy,qO)f(HI-1KaM, '-ITO «orna ua aMepl1KaHCKOIl1 apr-cueue B HaYMe 1960-x nOS'lBnRIOTCR non-apr n KOHl\emyan.,3M, OH OyeHb pe3KO eucrvnaer npOTI1B HVlX. nOn-apT OH He np.,HI1MaeT, nOTOMY '-ITO TOT acrerwanpyer MaccosylO KynbTYPY, KOH'-IenryanH3Msa nwreparypaocrs, KOTopaR, no ero MHeHHIO, npencraanser naxe 60nbWYIO yrpoay ,Qnfl VlCKyCcraa, '-ISM KHT'-I. rpHH6epr He ncoosncs naxa ncocnsrn, perporpanora H 3aSlBHn so sceycnsuuaHHe, '-ITO Y)f(e npH3HaHHbie 3Be3,Qbl 3HAH Yopxon H ~03eQ:l 50ll1c nnoxne XY,QO)f(HIIIKl.-l. PeaKl\.,eL.1 Ha 3TO CTMI-'t 06SI1HeH.,Sl KpMT.,Ka BO ecex rpexax: OH ., peaK'-II-'tOHBP, I-'t mpaH Xy,QO)f(HIIIKOB, H MaH.,nynsrop apr-psuuca, 11 ,Qa)l(e are-rr l..(PY. rpl-'tH6epr C.,nbHO nepexasan CSOIO 11130nSl'-lHIO. OYeHb HY)l(,QaRCb B KOH1W )f(.,3HH, OH He npO,QM H3 CBOell1 KonneK'-I.,L-1 HI-'t O,QHOC'i KapT.,Hbl nOnnOKa, CTOL-1BWell1 yxe 6aCHocnOBHbiX ,Q8Her, '-n06bl He ssraaars HOBOi1 BonHbl cnnerea.

Jlaspst KpHTL-1Ka-,QBM"ypra KneMeHTa rpL-1H6epra He ,QaSML-1 noxon ero MonO,QblM xonnerav.

B 1960-e rO,Qbl Y)I(e cppaH'-IY3CKHM apT-KpI-1THK nbep PeCTaH., 06bllBllln 0 nOfiSneH.,L-1 Ha esponeli1cKOIl1 apT-CIl8H8 XY,QO)l(H.,KOS, KOTopble B COBpSMeHHblX ycnOB\.1SlX B03pOAHnL-1 3CTeTL-1YBCKYIO KOHl\enlj"l0 AaAa.,3Ma C ero HpOHMelll ., npOSOKaTL-1BHOcTblO. 06 L-1X cYll.\eCTSoBaH"1II ,QO 'roro MOMeHTa HL-1KTO He nonoapesan, HO B O'-leHb CKOPOM BpeMeHIII Y3HMI1 ace 6naro,Qapfi 3HeprL-1., IIIX SAOXHOBJ.1- rena. Bce HaYMOCb S 1955 rony, «orna Kp.,TIIIK Ha Se'-leplIIHKe B Kny6e n03HaKOML-1nCSl C MonoAblM

XY,QO)l(HL-1KOM VlBOM KnSlIl1HOM ., opraaaaosan ero nepsyro nepcoaarn.ayio sucrasxy. KnflL.1H B C8010 ovepens csen PecTaHH co CBOL-1M ,QpyroM ,QeTcTBa cKYl1bnrOpOM ApMaHoM, 3aTeM - wsell1ljapl1eM T3HrJWI J.1 APyr.,MIII XY,QO)l(HJ.1KaMIII, COCTaBHBWIIIM\.1 KOCT51K 6Y,QYll.leCi rpynnu. B 1960 ro,QY PecT8HW OpraHL-13yeT nepcoaansuyo asrcraaxy ApMaHa, a 3aTeM B TOM )f(e rOAY B MlllnaH8 - nepBYIO rpyn· noey-o BblCTaBKY CBO.,X XY,QO)l(HIIIKOB. Bo sCTynL-1TBIlbHOIl1 crarse P8CTaH;1 nOSlBIlSleTCSl J.1 Ha3BaH~e HanpaBneHL-1fl, «orcpce npencraanssor XY,QOlKHHKH, - "HOSblll1 peML-13M». B 1961 rOAY Pecraa orxpsiaaer S nap")f(e ranepero (Galerie J), KOTOpaR CTaHOS\.1TCll nOCT051HHbIM M8CTOM 3Kcn031A4I1~ rpynnu. B Hnuue PecTaHH opraHH3Y8T nepsblM diecraaans «Hosoro peanuaraa-. rne nOMIiIMO BblO TaBKL-1 ycrpaaeaicrca ny6n"'-IHble aKl\III", '-ITeHL-1e <poHeTlII4ecKHx n03M -ineaa rpynnu MJ.1MMO P ranna. npOT8)1(e PeCTaH., 6naro,QapSl ero YCllln.,SlM Y'-lacTsYIOT B TOM )l(e rony S KpynHoll1 SblCT8B ,·VlCKYCCTBO accaM6nSl)f(a" S MoMA, a B 1962 rony L-1X y)l(e npencraenssr npecraxaas Hb L.10pKCKafi ranepes Sidney Janis. Broposi cpecraeans «HOSbIX peanL-1CTOS" npoxornrr B MIOHxeHB J.1 K rpynne np.,coeAL-1H51eTCll KPJ.1CTO. B1963-M Ha 6.,eHHane S CaH-MapIIIHo rpynna BMeCTe Bble TaBJ1S'IeTCll nocne,QHJ.1L.1 paa. nL-1Wb B 1970-M B MHnaHe OHH SCTp8yalOTCR Ha 106.,I1eIl1HOVi psrpoc nexruee -Hoesie peML-1CTbl, 1960-1970" ell.l8 pas, '-IT06bl paccrarsca Y)I(8 i-ascema.

~OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

<l>paH~Y3CK"~ Kplm<K

" xyoarop nbep PeCTaH"

54 APTXPOHIilKA 7/2006

MVjMMO Porenna. 3KcTpasepTHoe. 1958

Ha npOTI1BOnOnO"'Ho~ CTpaH"4e: Ceaap (Csaap 6""118"""HIII). nan.~. 1976. ranepe~ Claude Bernard, napIII'"

Cnpaaa caepxy 6H"3: )I("H T3Hen". Baluba N, 3, 1959. My3e~ Wallraf· Rictlartz. KOnneKI..lI-1~ nlO.QBli1ra. KenbH

KPIllCTO (Kp"Cl"o ApaweB). naKer B Mani3uliHoti tenexse. 1 964. ranepe~ Richard Feigen, HblO·1I10P< ~ ,",1II"aro

Korna 3H,QJ.1 Yopxona cnpocana, 'iTO OH ,QYMaeT 0 PeCTaHIII, L-1KOHa non-apra OTBen-1n KaK BOO': na I1aKOH.,YHO: «Flsep PeCTaHJ.1? MI-1Q:1". B03MO)KHO, OH 6bln npaa, Ha crone paaasrx xY,Qo)l(errr BeHHblX n0311l\\.1SlX CT051nL-1 npencraswren» «Hcsoro peanuaua-. OT ua-rana no xouua cpexac poaauuoro yeCTOnlO6111BbiM cjJpaHl.\Y3CKMM KPIiITIIIKOM. 3aTO ace 3TL-1 XY,QO)f(H.,K., non nOKpoa TenbCTBoM PeCTaH., oopena Me)f(~YHapoAHylO 1113BeCTHOCTb, n03S0nlllBWYIO I-'tM 111 no Oj1Ii1HOYKe crpanars OT OTCYTCTBMSl SH.,MaH.,R co CTOPOHbl KOnneKl.\.,OHepOB, MY3eeB iii apr-puaxa. no T lK8 cxsrae ,Q8L.1CTSOBan 111 IIITanbSlHCKHIll KpHT.,K ., xyparop LllKepMaHO -tanaar, ony6nlllKOBaSl1m B 1967 mAY B xypuane Flash Art CSOIO nporpaMMHYIO CTaTblO 0 cospeMeHHOIl1 clIITyal\I-1M B HTaIl SlHCKOM IIICKyccTBe. OH n.,CM, '-ITO non-apr KaK npOAYKT 06ll.\8CTsa norpefineaas Mor nO~BI1T ronsko S cynepeoraroa AM8pI'IKe. B nocneeoeuaoa )l(e VlTan1<1111 C ee 6eAH0ll1 3KOHOMIiIKO~ non-apra HeT nOYBbl. n03TOMY-TO MonO,Qble L-1TaIlbSlHCKllle XY,QO)f(HIIIKL-1 111 sepHynL-1Cb K 3neMeHTa HOIl1 cPopMe L-1 He3CTeT"'-IHbIM npJ.1pO,QHbIM M npOMblwneHHblM MaTeplIIMaM - 3eMne, nepe

.OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

7/2006 APTXPOH~KA 55

Map"o Mep~. Se3 Ha3Bt'JHViR

OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

56 APTXPDH~KA 7/2006

BH\II3y CJ19Ba uanpaso: nyYaHO oaeco.

3rpec. 1986

li103ecIJ 50"c. CTYfI

C ",~poM.1 964. Hessischas Landesmuseum, ,QapMUJt8,[J,T I K.OnJ1eKlI~fI Kapna Wrpexepa

Merallny, nnacrvacce, naTeKCY. B eroa H080(1 acreruxe aCKen13Ma, KOTOPYIO LJenaHT Ha3san arte povera (6e,QHoe I-1CKYCCTBO), HeT HI-1KaKoro nO,QTeKCTa - M8TepI-1an 1-1 ¢OPM8 npeACT8Bn~IOT n~Wb CaMI-1X cees. Haausaar OH 1-1 MonOAbJX XYAO)l(HI-IKOB, pa60T8101l.\I-1X S STOM HanpaSneHl-11-1 1-1 BbICTaBIlS'IIOIl.\I-1X CBOI-1 06beKTbl, 1-1 HCTanJlS'IL,\1-1 1-1 , ¢OTOrpa¢l<1l-1, cxyru.rrrypu S ranepesx Vl Ha OTKblTbiX npOCTp8HCTBax, - I-IX 14, AD aroro np8KH1"1eCKVI HViKOMY He 1113BeCTHble a)l{OBaHHI-1 AH-

cenbMo, JlY"IaHO cDa6po, ~HHVlC KYHennVlc, MapVlo VI Mapuaa Mepu, a)l{ynVlo naonVlHVI, MVlKen8-

eno Fluc'ronarro 1-1 APyrVle, 06beAVlHI-1S VlX nOA OAHO(1 nporpavvoji, nanee LJenaHT, KaK VI PecraHVI, opraauayer BblcTaBKY sa sblcTaBKo(1. Cua-iana B caMo(1 IIlTanVi VI , 8 saTeM VI no sceMY MMPY - «Kosuerrrvansuoe VlCKYCCTSO, apre-nosepa, non-apr» B Mysee ropoaa TYPVlHa (1970), CpeAa-lIlcKycCTBO" Ha BeHellVlaHcKo(1 6V1eHHane (1976), "IIlTanbflHcKafi VI,QeHTVl'-lHoCTb" B na~)I(CKOM LleHTpe >Kop)l{a nOMnVlAY (1981), The Knot Arte Povera S HblO-(10PKCKOM PS1 Museum

(1965). K8)I{,Qafl HOBafi BblCTaBKa cOnpOBO)l(,QaeTC5'I xaranorora co BCTynVlTenbHblM TeKCTOM ocosarena «6eAHoro VlCKyccTBa", 06bflcHfllOllIero, B "IeM aoearopcreo VI xY,QO)l{eCTBeHHafl uei+ ~OCTb XYAO>KHVlKoB-«noBepVlcToB", KaK VI 8 cny-ae C «HOBbIMJ.1 peanacrarau» PecT8HVI, nocne acnana rpynnu +enairra B ua-ane 1980-x ero XYAO)l{HVlKVI crana BocTpe60BaHHblMVl Ha Mf'lpOOM puaxe COBpeMBHHoro f'lCKYCCTBa, a caM KPf'lH1K - 3KcnepTOM Me>K,QYHapO,QHoro YPOBHfI, axe npf'lrJlaWeHHblM ua nOCT xY,QO)l(eCTSeHHoro ,Qf'lpeKTOpa HblO-(10PKCKOro ryrreHxa~Ma - peAKa~ yeCTb Afl~ esponeaua.

no TDMY >Ke nYTf'I nouien Vl APyro(1 f'lT8nb51HCKf'lM reopera« WCKYCCTB8 f'I KPf'lTVlK - AKVlJlne 50- HI1TO Onuea. KaK 1-1 PeCTaHf'I C '-ienaHToM, OH B HayaJle 1980-x npoeosrnacan HOBYIO TeHAeHllViIO B ~cKyccTBe - soaepauieuae K >KVleonwCHoMY 3KCnpeCCf'lOHJ.1SMY, - Ha3BaB ero «rpaucaeaurapqOM". nO,QBeAI1 nOA Hero CBOVlMVI CTaTb~MJ.1 cepbeSHYIO TeOpeTJ.1'-1BCKYIO 6a3Y C 3KcKypcaMVl B L-1Crop).11O VlCKYCCTB, 50Hf'lTO OIlVlBa npe,QCTaBI-1J1 f'I XY,QO)l(HJ.1KOB - J.1TanbflHlleB Caanpo Kua, cDpaH~eCKO KneMeHTe, 3H40 KYKKf'I, Mf'lMMO nana,QVlHO, aMepf'lKaHlla a>KYJ1Y1aHa WHa6eJlI'I. HeM4a reopra 5a3enJ.1L1a. Ilanee OH cran BblBOgVlTb rpaacaeaarapnacros Ha Me)l(AYHapO,QHYIO apr-cue-ry-e~ef10H 'lepeAo(1 BblCTaBOK no BceMY MVlPY, COnpOBO)l(,Q8eMbIX ero )l(e, 50Hf'lTO OJlJ.1Bbl, CTaTb5lMf'I A MOHorpa¢VlflMJ.1, Ycnex 1-1 Vl38eCTHOCTb TpaHcaB8Hrap,QIo1CTaM 6blJlf'l 06eCneyeHbl, HO OHVI CT8Jlf'l locne,QHJ.1MII1 B p5'l,QY XygO>KHl-1KOB, pacKpyyeHHblX He3aBVlc14MbIM KPJ.1TJ.1KOM.

.OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

KypaTop xapansn 3eMaH

K9PATOP HErO MOllEnb

C 1970-)( rO,QoB B nene paCKpYTKf'I XY,QO)l(Hf'lKa Ha,Q KPVlTJ.1KOM HaYVlHaeT 6paTb aepx xyparcp. Y>Ke gemeJlbHOCTb rex )l(e PecTaHVI, LJeJlaHTa VI ocoee-n-o 50HI1TO OnVlBbl 60Ilbwe HanOMf'lHana xypaTOPCTBO - B npf'lAYMbJBaHVlf'I BblCTaBOK f'I f'lX OCYllIecTBneHVlJ.1 OHf'I npeycnenn ,Qa>Ke 60flbwe, "IeM B nOAseAeHVIVI non HJ.1X reopern-recxoa 6a3bl. OT"IaCTJ.1 3TO OKa3anOCb CB~3aHO C T8M, "ITO oeuieHallf'lOHanbHafi npecca B AMepf'lKe 14 Espone Y>Ke He oenanana TeM pewalOllIf'lM Bnf'll'lHf'leM Ha MHBHJ.1e npo¢eCCVlOHaIlbHOM apr-cpenu J.1 WJ.1POKO(1 ny6n VlK VI , KaK aro 6blJlO B 1940-x J.1 1950-x ronax, BeAb TOT >Ke rpVlH6epr B 1949 rOAY BnepBble npeACTaBJ.1n AMepVlKe a>KeKCOHa nOnJlOKa B nonymJpHe(1weM 8 crpaas >KypHane Life, npeccy nOCT8neHHO asrrecaser TeJleBVI,QeHVle, opae-rrapoBaHHoe Ha MaCCOBoe C03HaHl-1e. A TaM, eCJlJ.1 'lTD-TO VI rOBOp5lT 06 f'lCKyccTse, TO 60JlbWe B ¢opMaTe HOBOCTeH BpO,Q8 "YMep BenVlKJ.1H MaCTep», "OTKPblnacs BbICTaSKa». npVl 3TOM BblCTaBKa, AOCTOHHaR ynoMVlHaHf'lI'I, nonxaa 6b!Tb Me>K,QYHapogHoro Macwra6a. He cnyya(1Ho C 1970-x ronoa rIlaBHOM nnOllla,QKOH AflR npe,QCTaBneHI-1f1 HOBO(1 TeHgeHL1f'1V1 CTaHOB5ITCI'I 6f'1€HHane VI APyrVle npencraawrens-nse ¢OpMbl npeaeirrauaa coepeweuuoro f'lCKyccTBa, gl-1pf'l)l(f'lpyeMble npJ.1rIlaWeHHblM xyparopou, KOTOporo 60JlbWe J.1HTepeCYIOT VlJlnIOCTpJ.1pYIOIl.\J.1e era (xyparopa) KOHLlBnlll-11O 3KCn03111L1V1J.1 npOf'lSBeAeHf'I~, yeM CaMI-1 XY,QO)l(HVlKVI.

npaB,Qa, VI snecs €CTb c-acrnaesre VlCKnIO'leH101f1, OgVlH f'l3 caMblX 3HaMeHf1TbIX xyparopoa wseMLlape4 xapansn 3eMaH (1933-2005) OTllL-1YaIlCI1 pe,QKIiIM xa'leCTBOM Bbl5lBnl1Tb 1-1 aKTyaJlbHYIO TeH,QeHLlf'llO,

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7/2006 APTXPOH~KA 57

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/loHanbl1 glKaM, 6e3 Ha3BaH"., 1968, CllparMeHT, MY3e;; ~CKyCCTB KayHT", Jloc-Asnxenec

Bespxy: AnbcIJpel1 5app - 6eccM8HHblH A~peKTop MoMA c 1929 no 1967 rOA

Cnpasa: 3ABapl1 Pywa, OaF, 1962-1963, MY3e(:; coaperaeuaoro Io1cKyccTaa, HblO-t:'iOPK

58

APTXPOHI<1KA 7/2006

11 gocToCiHO npencraenare XYAO)KHI1KOB, paeorarouiax B ee par-ncax, Ha-nn-an OH C8010 61leCT LljYIO Kapbepy KypaTopa, B03rllaBII16 B 1961 raAY KYHcTxanne B 6epHe, rae, oprauaavs aecxon KO SblCTaSOK B rOA, npesparan 3TOT MY3eCi B 0AHY 1113 caMblX npeCTl1JKHbiX BbICTaBO'-lHbIX nnou; AOK COBpeMeHHora II1CKYCCTBa B MlI1pe. B 1969 roqy BblcTaBKoCi When Attitudes Become Forr Live in Your Head OH anepasie npencrasun S Eapone He ronsso XenneHII1Hr 111 npoueccyansaoe 11 KYCCTBO, npupaenaeaioume AeCicTBVle xWl0JKHVlKa K np0l13SeaeHL-11O Ii1CKYCCTBa, HO 11 era aMep KaHCKI1X npeACTaBI1Tene£1 - 1I103ecjJa 60Cica, Pu-rapna Ceppa 11 Jloypaaca BaVlHepa, Ha clle,qYI LljI1V1 rOA 3eMaH opraunayer B KellbHe Happening and Fluxus C Y'-lacTl1eM Anaaa Ksnpoy, A)Kop, JKa Ma'-lYHaca 11 BeHCKI1X aKL\l'10HI1CTOB P06epTa ¢l1llnoy 11 reopra 6peXTa. CTaB B 1972 rop,y K paropora "AoKYMeHTbl 5" B KellbHe, 3eMaH l1p,eT aa 1-1 SOBGe He06bl4HbiCi war, no ero 3aMblcn BblCTaSKa ):1Ill1TCfl CTO ,QHeCi, 4T06bl nparrtaureuuue Xyp,OJKHI1KI1 (lI103ecjJ DOCic, BI1TO AKKOHY AJKOaH A)KOHaC, Pe6eKKa XOpH) MOrnl1 npeACTaSI-1Tb He TOllbKO CBOI1 JKI1BOnl1Cb VI cxym.nrypy, I 111 neprbopvaacst. B 1980 rony Ha BeHel1i'1aHCKOCi 611eHHane 3eMaH OTKPbl1l naBI11lbOH Apert npeAcTaBllfilOLljI1£1 M0110AblX xyp,O>KHI1KOB, B 6necTfllL\e£1 aepeuaue BblCTaBOK 3eMaHa, K3)KAb pas yp,Ii1BnflIOLljI1X aourenea Opl1rl1HanbHOcTblO 3aMbicna 11 Heo6bl'-lHoVi ero penpeaeirrauaea, x p,O>KHI1K acerna OCTaeTCfl rJlaBHblM AeCicTBYIOLljL<lM nl-lL\OM,

>K9PHAJIbI KAK npOnSCK B KPSr H3BPAHHbIX

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M93EHHbIH npOM091LIEH

III nocnensae, HO caMble KpynHble I.1rpOKI1 B paCKpYTKe Xyp,O)KHI1KOB - MY3el.1 coeoeveuuoro VlCK CCTBa, nl.10Hep cpenn HL<lX - aMcTepp,aMcKI1V1 CTeAeIlI1K, OTKPbIBWI1ii1CI1 eLlje B 1895 roAY, OH ne BblM B My3eViHbix creuax BblCTaBl11l Ky6I-1CTOB, HeMeLlKI1X 3KCnpeCCI10HI1CTOB, a6cTpaKLll<11O KOHCTPYKTL<lBL<l3M, B napl1>Ke My3ei'l COBpeMeHHoro I.1CKyccTBa nOflBl1nl1Cb B KOHL\e 193Q-x ronoaMusee National d'Art Moderne 1.1 Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville, B repMaHI1L<1 B Ha'-la11e 1930 ronoa L\enblVi PflA MY3eeB orxpstna ornenu cOBpeMeHHoro I1CKyccTBa, rp,e 6blnL<l npeqcrasnea I1MnpeCCI10HI.1CTbl, nOCTI1MnpeCCI10HI1CTbi 1.1 HeMeL\Kl.1e 3KCnpeCCI10HI-1CTbL

Ho nansaa rrepseucraa B npOaBL<I>KeHIi1I1 B Wl1pOKl1e MaCCbl cOBpeMeHHoro I.1CKyccTBa npl<1Ha, 11e>KI1T TpeM HblO-£1oPKCKI1M rl1raHTaM - MY3elO cospeMeHHoro I.1CKyccTBa (MoMA), OTKPblSWI MyCf! B1929 rop,y, My3elO YI1THI1 (1930) 11 MY3elO Conoraoaa ryrreHxaiilMa (i939), B 3ToVi TpO~f rnaBHblM nponoyrepov scsro HOBOro cran MaMA, He B nccnea-noio OyepeAb 6narop,apfl 3Heprv 1.1 MeHe,[l>KepCKOMY TanaHTY ceoero 6eCCMeHHoro Ha npOTfI>KeHI1L<1 38 ner p,l1peKTopa Anb¢pe~ Bappa (1902~ 1981), B03rJlaBI1Bwero ero C nepestx >Ke AHeVi 111 OCTaBaBwerOCfI Ha CBoeM noct snncrs AO 1967 rona,

6IleCTf!Llje o6pa30BaHHblVl, BblnycKHIi1K npeCTI.1)KHbIX. YHI-1BepCVlTeToB npli1HCTOH 1.1 fapaap, 6app Hayan CBOIO npocjJeCCI10HallbHYIO nearansuocn, C roro, 'iTO B 1920-e rO,[lbl MHOro nyrewl CTBOBan no Espone, L<l3y'-lafl MY3el1 KnaCCI.1'leCKOrO Ii1CKyccTBa, cOBpeMeHHble ranepeu H 3HaK! MRCb C xyaO)l(HII1KaMI1, Ero 3HaHI11O I1CTOPI1I.1 I1CKyccTBa, ocotieano nepnona, Ha'iI<1Hafl C I-1Mnpel Ci'lOHI1CTOB, Mar 6bl n03aSI1AOSaTb 111060£1 eBponeCicKI1Ci npodieccop. ,QOTOWHbl£1 6app ,Qa)t(s ye! run ans:! ny-uuero nOHIllMaHI1l'l npoueccoa B I1CKyccTBe cnO>KHeCiwl1e Al.1arpaMMbl B3aIo1MOBnf,1S1H~1 yepeaOBaHI1V1 1.1 nepeCe'-leHVlCi paa-rux xyp,O>KeCTBeHHblx HanpaSneHI1Ci_ "np0I13Bep,eHl1e ItICKYI CTBa - 3TO BL<l3yanbHbllli CIf1MB011 -renoee-recxoro nyxa B ero nOI1CKe npaanu, csoconu 1<1 COBe weHCTBa", - C'-II.1Tan 6app L<I ace nsnan ):1Ilfl Taro, -rroou AOHeCTIi1 3TOT 3aKIllOyeHHblVi B npo~, SeAeHl111 CMblcn AO CBOI.1X COBpeMeHHI<1KOB.

~OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

60 APTXPOH~KA 7/2006

Bnaronaps 3Hepn1V1 3TOm BHeWHe qmerMaTVI'lHOra 'lenOBeKa, a TaK)Ke npaKTW-IeCKVI HeorpaHVI'leHHbIM ¢VlHaHCOBbIM B03MO)KHOCTAM cnOHCOPOB MoMA (,Q)KOHa YVlTHVI ,., Henscoaa Poxdiennepal aa «oporxoe BpeM~ MY3ei1 cran c06CTBeHHVlKOM nY'"lwei1 B MVipe KOIlneKLllAVi lACKYCCTBa XX Bexa, Ho AAb¢peA 6app npOCnaBI<1nCH He TOIlbKO KaK cotiupareru, )KVlBOnVlCVI VI csynsnrypu. OH nepBblM B03Ben a MY3ei1Hbli1 paur ¢OTOrpa¢VlIO, KOTopaA c-urranacs pa3ane'"leHVleM VI He 60Ilbwe, ua-ran B MY3ei1Hblx crsnax YCTpaViBaTb apXVlTeKTypHble VI AVl3ai1HepcKVle BbICTaBKVI, He 6pe3- roaan peKJ1aMoi1 AJlA npVlBne'"leHI1R 3pVlTeIlA. 6app nepBblM aaen B MY3el1HYlO npaKTVlKy BbICTaBKVI, npVl3BaHHbie 3HaKOMVlTb Wl1pOKYIO ny6IlVIKY C HOBel1WVlMVI HanpaaIleHVlAMVI B VlCKYCCTBe VI nO,QrOTOBneHHble 1113BeCTHblMVI npVlrnaweHHblMIII KypaTOpaMVI. Y)Ke 8 1930-e rOAbl opraauaoBaHHbie VIM BblCTaBKVI "COBpeMeHHaA apxarexrypa» (1932), "Ky61<13M III aecrpaxruoe VlCKYCCTBO" (1936), "HerpI<1H1HCKaH csynsrrrypa» (1935), "lIIcKyccTBo <paHTa3V1V1, AeAa VI crcppearursra» (1936), perpocnexruau Marucca VI nViKacco (1931 1<1 1939) oxasana oonsuioe BIlI<1AHVle Ha XYAO)KHViKOB III aocnpaarue cOBpeMeHHoro VlCKyccTBa aMepl<1KaHcKoi1 ny6IlVlKoi1.

ABTOpl<1TeT 6appa 6blIl CTOIlb BbICOK, '"ITO ace VIM nanucanaoe (ere KHVlra «'-iTO raxoe COBpeMeHHaR )KVlBOnVlCb" 1943 rona Bbl,Qep)Kana He OAHO 1<13AaHVle) VlIlVI npencraaneuuoe B cresax MoMA ryT )Ke CTaHOBIllIlOCb 3ae3AHb1M. IIIMeHHo TaK 06CTORIlO AeIlO csa-rana C aMepl-1KaHCKVlM a6CTpaKLlI<10HI-13MOM, 3aTeM C ncn-aprora. -lerupe, rerteps Y)Ke nereHAapHble, BblCTaSKVI MoMA - «Hosaa aMepVlKaHCKaS'l )KVlBOnVlCb" (1958-1959), "WeCTHaAl..\aTb aMepVlKaHl..\es» (1959), "lIIcKyccTBo accaM6nS'l)Ka» (1961) VI "AMepI-1KaHl..\bl» (1963), - npl<1AYMaHHble AVipeKTopoM MoMA 1<1 TpVlYM<panbHO npouienuiae no AMepl<1Ke V1 Eapone, nOAHRIlI<1 3TI<1 HanpaBIleHVlA Ha HeAocAraeMYIO BbICOTY, cnocoecraceaa pOCTy l..\eH Ha XYAO)KHVlKOB, VlX npeACTaSIlflIOI..4I<1X. Cnaee VI BnaCTVI Ansrppena 6appa 3aBVIAOBanVi MHorVle, nOA03peBaH, 'ITO S paCKpYTKe a6CTpaKTHbiX 3KcnpeCCVlOHVlCTOB eMy noworano, KaK V1 rpVlH6epry, WPY (CM. CTaTblO "IIIGKycCTBO KaK Tai'iHbli'i ar eur» ,Q3BI<1Aa Yai'i3a B "ApTXpoHVlKe» N25-6, 2002), 06BVlHRIll<1 B 6eCL\epeMOHHOM BMewaTeIlbCTBe B )KVlBOi;\ npouecc VlCxyccraa, HaBS'l3bIBaHVIVI CBOVIX BKYCOB. 5app Aei'icTBVlTeIlbHo 061..4aIlCS'l co MHOrVlMI<1 XYAO)KHVlKaMVI, 1-1 nocxonsky oonaaan orpOMHOL1 BIlaCTblO VI SIlVlRHl<1eM, OT era cVlMnaTVlL1 VlIlI-1 aHTl-1naTl<111 B 6YKBanbHOM CMblCIle ororo CIlOBa '"IaCTO 3aBI<1Cena «apsepa nOCIleAHVlX. He H8,QO 06MICHATb, '"ITO 3HaYV1T AJlR )KVlBYl..4erO XYA0)KHVlKa BblCTaBKa B My3ee. Fanepacrsi He B MeHbwei1 CTeneHVI 6blIlVI 3aVlHTepecoaaHbi B 6IlarocKIloHHOCTV1 6appa - BeAb ecnu VlX XYAO)l{HVlKVI nonananu B CTeHbl MoMA, l..\eHbl ua I<1X np0l<13BeAeHVlR aoapacrana B AeCS'lTKVI, a TO VI B COTHI<1 pas.

Crapanacs He OTGTaBaTb OT bappa B GTeneHVI BnVlAHVlS'l Ha xYA0)l{eCTBeHHYIO )l{Vl3Hb VI oora-uca Feprpyaa BaHAep6V1IlT YVlTHI<1 - caua CKYIlbflTOP no 06pa30BaHVlIO. '-iT06bl npOABVIraTb euie HenpV13- HaHHbie Ha'"lV1HaIOI..4I<1S IIIMeHa, OHa B 1915 rOAY C03,[laeT AccoL\VlaLlVIIO ,[lpY3el1 MOIlOAblX XY,QO)l{HI<1KOB, nepeViMeHoBaHHYIO a 1918 roqy 8 Whitney Studio Club C MHoroYVlCIleHHblMVI 'lIleHaMH 1<1 aKTVlBHoi'i BbICTaBO'lHoi1 AeRTeIlbHOCTblO. OCHoBaB MY3Si'i, Feprpyna YVlTHVI nepenaer ryAa CBOIO KOIlIleKL\HIO V13 600 pa60T cOBpsMeHHblx XYAO)KHVlKOB VI npOAOIl)KaeT aKTVlBHO nononaan, ee HOBblMVI 3aKynKaMI<1. C 1933 rona MY3ei1 YVlTHV1 HaYVlHaeT npOaOAI-1Tb 6V1eHHane Mono,Qoro aMepl-1KaHCKOro VlCKyccTBa, OTKYAa KapTVlHbl, ,QalKe He ycnes BbICOXHyrb, roxe nonanaior B MY3ei'i. "YVITHI-1 noxynana KapTVlHbl XY,QO)l{HVIKOB AO roro, KaK VlMVI 3al-1HTepeCYIOTGH KPVlTVlKVI VI ranepncru. 111 '"IaCTO 3TO CTaHOBVlIlOCb crapTOM AJlR xopoursa xapsapet», - roaopan ,Ql<1peKTOp MY3eR YVlTHVI ,Q3BVI,Q POCC.

MY3eeB ccepeweuuoro VlCKYCCTBa CerOAHS'l raxoe MHO)l{eCTBO, 'ITO O,QHO VlX nepe'"lViCIleHVle 3aHS'lno 6bl HeCKOJlbKO CTpaHHU. Bce OHVI, KaK npasano, senyr aKTVlBHYIO nOf1l>nl-1KY saxynox pa60T >KV1- syumx XY,QO)l{HVIKOB, TSCHO COTpYAHVI'laS'l C ranepeRMVI 1<1 KpVlTV1KaMVI. IIIx POIlb KaK CTaTYC-CI-1MBOnOB nporpeCCVlBHOCTI<1 1<1 OTKPblTOCTVI BceMY HOBOMY B COBpeMeHHOM 3an8,QHOM 061..4eCTBS ,QOCTaTOYHO BbICOKa. ,Qpyra5'l npW-lVlHa VlX aucoxoro craryca - POCT pblHKa coaperaenuoro HCKYCCTBa aa nocnenaue rO,Qbl, nOCTOS'lHHO Tps6YIOI..4erO ace HOBblX VlMeH XY,QO)KHVlKOB VI VlX npOVl3BeASHVlI1. A nOCIleAHVle MorYT CTaTb TOBapOM BbICOKOi1 npoou, nony'-lViB "cepTVI<pVlKaT xa-recraa» He TOIlbKO OT ranepe«, HO reneps VI MY3eR. Pa3YMeeTCfl, 'leM npeCTVI)I{Hee MY3ei1, rne npencrasnea XYAO)l{HVlK, TeM 60nbwylO LleHY npVl06p8TalOT ero paooru, To ecrs eCIlI<1 pausure nepcoaansaas BbICTaB«a B My3ee 6blna KOHe'iHbIM 3TanOM B TBOp'"lSCTBS XYAO)KHVlKa, TO cerOAHR OHa OAHa Vl3 cryneuex BOCXOlK,Q8HVlR XYAo)l{HVIKa Ha Me)K,QYHapOAHblL1 OnViMn VlCKYGCTBa. Pa3YMeeTCS'l, pe-ns VlAeT He 060 BCSX MY3e5'lX cOBpeMeHHoro VlCKyccTBa, a caMblX npSCTI<1)KHbIX VI npVl3HaHHbix B MVipe .

.. . Hy a XYAO>KHVlK? Taicoe cKIla,QbIBaeTcS1 sne-ratneuee. '"ITO B cxeve pacxpyrxu «ranepes - KPVlTVlK - npecca - KypaTop - MY3e(;i - apT-pbIHOK" 8MY OTBOAVlTCfl ponb nVlWb CTpa,QaTeIlbHaS'l, neWKVI B 60IlbW0i1 urpe. Ho BPflA IlVi Hai.1AeTcR XYAO)l{HI<1K, KOTOPbli1 C 3TVlM COrnaCI<1TCA .•

.OKYC:CONTEMPORARY

[eopr Eaaenau. Eike.1977

Cnesa: MIt1MMO naJla.Q~HO. 5e3 H83saHI1R. 1986

7/2006 APTXPOHWKA 61