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**MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 1
**

MODELING A BAR PROBLEM

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

In the simple bar problem below, there are three separate sections of the bar.

Each section has different properties. The following properties apply, Al

àAluminum, St à Steel, E for Steel = 200 E9 Pa, E for Al = 70 E9 Pa

All Bars have square cross section and the right and left ends of the bar are

built in. The force "F" = 9000 Newtons

The 2-d model of the problem is shown below.

St

Al

Al

5 cm 5 cm 10cm

2 cm

1 cm

5cm

F

F

F

Al

St

Al

3

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available.

Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the displacements and

stresses throughout the bar. The problem is indeterminant because there are two

reactions (one at each wall) and only one relevant equilibrium equation ( 0 ·

∑ x

F ).

Therefore, it is necessary to use the Mechanics of materials (stress and or displacement)

equations as well as the force equilibrium equations to solve the problem.

The normal stress due to axial loading is given by :

A

P

xx

· σ , where P is the internal force in the axial direction and A is the cross sectional

area of the bar. The displacements are computed from

AE

PL

u · here L is the bar’s length

and E is the Elastic (Young’s) modulus.

Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are:

1. Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive?

2. What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces?

3. Where will the displacements be greatest?

4. How do the displacements vary along the length (linear, quadratic etc.)?

5. What will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses?

6. Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements?

Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions

for the stresses and displacements, will provide reinforcement that your computational

model is correctly constructed.

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

Some general notes on PATRAN:

A general finite element analysis can be broken down into 3 principle tasks;

preprocessing, analysis and post processing. The preprocessing task includes building the

geometric model, building the finite element model, giving these elements the correct

properties, setting the boundary conditions and loading conditions and finally, assembling

these elements into a connected structure for analysis. The analysis stage simply solves

for the unknown degrees of freedom, as well as reactions and stresses. In the

postprocessing stage, the results are evaluated and displayed. The accuracy of these

results is postulated during this postprocessing task.

The Patran and Nastran software together perform all 3 of the principle tasks of a finite

element analysis. The pre and post processors are unique to PATRAN itself. However,

this package allows the user to do the actual solution analysis on a variety of different

packages. At many sites you have the option of using the MSC/Nastran package, which is

probably the most widely used solver in industry. Many of the other packages

commonly used in industrial settings (ABAQUAS, ANSYS, MARC) are also compatible

with PATRAN.

4

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The exact details of the formulation of the rod elements in MSC/Nastran is given in the

MSC/Nastran manuals and is somewhat lengthy. However, the basic formulation of an

isoparametric 2 node rod element is not difficult and will provide us with sufficient

background information to begin to understand the convergence and other accuracy

studies. This basic form can be found in any standard text of finite element analysis. For

Example see Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, by R.D. Cook, John Wiley &

Sons, 1995.

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE BAR PROBLEM

USING MSC/PATRAN

Unless you have used the PATRAN software numerous times in the past, the steps shown

below should be followed exactly. However, in order to prepare you to do independent

finite element work using PATRAN in the future, you are encouraged to go back after

you have completed the assignment and investigate modeling options using different

PATRAN selections. Also, I encourage you to take notes as you go through this exercise

in order to prepare for the time when you will be asked "build a certain geometric

structure" or "apply a certain type of boundary condition" with out being given the

specific steps for carrying out this task.

The MSC/Patran program is menu driven much in the same way that most Windows

programs are driven. Selecting a category from a menu may result in a pull down set of

options or in a subordinate menu. Selections in menus may be in the form of buttons to

turn on or off, or in the form of boxes which require text. Text entered into boxes may be

changed by positioning the cursor at the point of text insertion and either typing the new

text or erasing the incorrect text. A standard finite element analysis normally proceeds

across the top menus starting with Geometry and ending with Results. Selecting one of

these top menus results in a set of menus which allow you to complete that task in the

analysis process. Generally, it is best to attempt to proceed from the top of these menus

toward the bottom, answering questions as you go.

Preliminaries for using MSC Patran and Nastran normally include:

1) Log in to the machine.

2) Change to the directory that you wish to contain your results.

3) To start the program MSC/Patran, click on Start/Programs/MSC(common) and choose

MSC Patran 90.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

5

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn off (no check) Modify Preferences

If the new database for has come up showing a directory on a

remote computer (as opposed to a directory on the local machine),

then switch the directory to the local directory c:\MSC

Under New Database Name enter bar.db

Click OK

The geometry of the structure will be determined next:

From the TM choose Geometry

A RM called Geometry will result

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 1

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the point coordinates list:

[0,0,0] [.05,0,0] [.10,0,0] [.20,0,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

( At this point 4 points should appear on your "bar.db - default_viewport - default_group

- entity" main viewport)

The next job is to connect these points to form 3 lines:

While still in the Geometry RM,

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Turn off the Auto Execute button if it is on

6

( for the following, it is assumed that you have created points 1,2,3,4

numbered from left to right in the main viewport. If the numbers are not

in that order, follow the procedure below from left to right regardless of

point numbers)

Click in the Starting Point List box

Click on node 1 in the main viewport.

Click in the Ending Point List box

Click on the point 2 in the main viewport

Click on Apply

(A line will be drawn from point 1 to point 2. This line should be named

line 1)

Click in the Starting Point List box

Click on point 2 in the main viewport.

Click in the Ending Point List box

Click on the point 3 in the main viewport

Click on Apply

(A line will be drawn from point 2 to point 3. This line should be named

line 2)

Click in the Starting Point List box

Click on node 3 in the main viewport

Click in the Ending Point List box

Click on the point 4 in the main viewport

Click on Apply

(A line will be drawn from point 3 to point 4. This line should be named

line 3)

The finite element mesh is specified next:

From the TM choose Elements

A RM appears called Finite Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh Seed

Type = Uniform

Select Number of Elements (button down)

Number = 1

Turn off the Auto Execute (button up)

Click in Curves List box

Click on the left most curve in the main viewport

(The words "Curve 1" will be added to the Curve List)

Click Apply

(circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve)

Click Curve List box

Click on the center curve in the main viewport

(the words "Curve 2" will be added to the Curve List)

Click Apply

7

(circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve)

Click Curve List box

Click on right most curve in the main viewport

(the words "Curve 3" will be added to the Curve List)

Click Apply

(circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve)

(The nodes created above must now be tied together with element s)

(up at the top of the RM)

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh

Type = Curve

Click on Bar2 under Element Topology

Click Curve List Box

Click the left most curve in the main viewport (should be curve 1)

Click Apply

Click Curve List Box

Click the middle curve in the main viewport (should be curve 2)

Click Apply

Click Curve List Box

Click the right most curve in the main viewport (should be curve 3)

Click Apply

(numbers for the nodes will appear over the geometry points)

(up at the top of the RM)

Set Action = Equivalence

Object = All

Type = Tolerance Cube

(The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another)

Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .005

Click Apply (at the bottom of the RM)

(The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 2

nodes were deleted. In addition circles will appear over the ends of the middle curve to

indicate the equivalencing of the "overlapping" nodes)

The boundary conditions are specified next:

From the TM choose Load/BC's

A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as

8

RLClamp

( This is for the right and left clamping of the bar structure)

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Set Input Translations to <0,0,0>

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

Turn on the Geometry (button down)

Click in box under Select Geometric Entities

A Patran item menu appears (just to the left of the RM)

Click on the picture with a point in this menu

In the main view port, click on the left most point on the line

A SM called Selection Choices appears

Choose Point 1

( This will cause the words "Point 1" (assuming point 1 is the leftmost

point on the line) to appear in the Select Geometric

Entities box in the RM)

Click on Add just below this box

( This will remove the words "Point 1" from the Select Geometric

Entities box and add them to the Application Region box)

Click in the Select Geometric Entities box again.

Next Click point 2 in the main view port (assuming point 2 is the right

most point in the bar structure)

A SM called Selection Choices appears

Choose Point 2

Click Add (The Application Region box should now have the words

"Point1 2" in it and the Select Geometric Entities box should be empty)

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(3 displacement constraint arrows should now appear in the main

viewport window on the extreme right and on the extreme left points in

the bar structure)

The loads are specified next:

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

change Action = Create

Object = Force

Type = Nodal

Change the New Set Name to axial3

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

9

Enter the force vector <1.8E4,0,0>

leave the moments < > (i.e. blank)

Click OK

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

Click Select Application Region

a Select Application menu appears as well as a small Patran item

menu

In the Select Applications menu, turn on the Geometry

Filter

Next, click in the box labeled Select Geometric Entities

Click in the Patran item menu (just to the left of the RM)

on the point icon

In the main viewport, click on the 3rd point from the left

(its number (should be Point 4) will be added to the Select

Geometric Entities list)

Click Add

(the point’s number will be added to the Application

Region list)

Click OK

(Load/BC's menu now reappears)

Click Apply (bottom of the RM)

(A vector with the load should appear on the 3rd point from the left in the

main viewport)

The materials are specified next:

On the TM select Materials

a RM will appear called Materials

Set Action = Create

Object = Isotropic

Method = Manual Input

Click Material Name box

Input the name Steel

Click Input Properties

SM called Input Options appears

Input Elastic Modulus = 2.0E11

Input Poisson = 0.3

Click OK

Back in the Materials RM, click Apply

Click Material Name box

Input the name to be Aluminum

Click Input Properties box

SM called Input Options appears

10

Input Elastic Modulus = 7.0E10

Input Poisson = 0.3

Click OK

Back in the Materials RM, click Apply

(The Existing Materials box should have Steel and Aluminum in it)

The properties for each element are assigned next:

On the TM select Properties

a RM will appear called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 1d

Type = rod

Click Property Set Name box

Enter bar1

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "Steel" in the Materials Property Set box

( the words m:Steel will appear in the Material Name box)

Click in the Area box

Enter 0.0004

Click OK

(note: If you just input the word Steel in the Material Name box,

the element will not have the correct properties. The exact

syntax m:Steel is necessary)

(Back in the Element Properties RM)

Click Select Members box

a Patran item menu will appear to the left of the RM

In the item menu, click in the box which contains the element with

end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the left box)

(This allows you to pick finite element entities as opposed to the

geometric entities in the other box)

Click on element 1 in the main viewport

(element 1 is the left most element in the bar structure)

(The words Elm 1 will appear in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Element 1 appear in the Application Region box)

Click Apply in the Element Properties menu

(Bar 1 will be added to the Existing Property Sets box)

Change Property Set Name to bar2

Click Input Properties...

a SM called Input Properties will appear

Click the Material Name box

11

Click Aluminum in the Materials Property Sets box

(The words m:Aluminum will appear in the Materials Name box)

Change the Area to 0.0025

Click OK

(Back on the Element Properties Menu)

Click the Select Members box

A Patran item menu appears just to the left of the RM

In this item menu, click in the box which contains the element with

end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the other box)

Click on element 2 in the main viewport

(Element 2 is the middle element in the bar structure)

(The words Elm 2 appears in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Element 2 appear in the Application Region box)

( Note: If anything other than Element 2 is in the Application

Region box, it must be deleted.)

Click Apply

(The words bar2 will be added to the Existing Properties Sets

box)

Change Property Set Name to bar3

Click Input Properties...

a SM called Input Properties will appear

Click the Material Name box

Click Aluminum in the Materials Property Sets box

(The words m:Aluminum will appear in the Materials Name box)

Change the Area to 0.0001

Click OK

Click the Select Members box

A Patran item menu appears just to the left of the RM

In this item menu, click in the right box which contains the

element with end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the other box)

Click on element 3 in the main viewport

(Element 3 is the right most element in the bar structure)

(The words Elm 3 appears in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Element 3 appear in the Application Region box)

( Note: If anything other than Element 3 is in the Application

Region box, it must be deleted.)

Click Apply

(The words bar3 will be added to the Existing Properties Sets

box)

12

The analysis is to be done is specified next:

On the TM select Analysis

a RM will appear called Analysis

Set Action = Analyze

Object = Entire Model

Method = Full Run

Click on Translation Parameters

a SM will appear

Change the Data Output to OP2 and Print

Click OK

Click on Solution Type

a SM will appear

Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down)

Click OK

(back in the analysis menu)

Click Apply

(The analysis will take a few seconds [maybe 10] to run)

In the RM analysis

Set Action = Read Output 2

Object = Result Entities

Method = Translate

Click on Select Results File

a SM will appear

Find and select the file bar.op2

(You may need to use the “find” tools in Windows to locate the file.

Occasionally Nastran will put the *.op2 file in a weird place.

Occasionally it even puts the file on the hard drive of the license file

server. If you cannot find the file on your local hard drive then look on

the file servers hard drive. The file server for the NCL is DFELAB10.

The file server for the library is HOPPER. You should be able to access

either of these from your local machine over the network)

Click OK

Back in the Analysis RM

Click Apply

Next you will post process the results by viewing and exporting them

On the TM select Results

a RM will appear called Results

Set Action = Create

13

Object = Quick Plot

A SM appears

Under Select Result Case

highlight the option Default, Static Subcase

Under Select Fringe Result

Highlight Displacements, Translational

Under Select Deformation Result

Highlight Displacements, Translational

Click Apply

A Colored picture displaying the displacement results will appear. It

includes numeric results for max and min displacement as well as color-

coded results for the entire beam.

To save this plot use the “copy to Clipboard” icon (usually just to the right

of the print icon) to copy the viewport to the clipboard. Then paste the

picture into a word processing document.

If you want to print the viewport directly, you can just use the normal

Windows commands (File/Print)

Next, to see the stresses

Under Select Result Case

Highlight the option Default, Static Subcase

Under Select Fringe Result

Highlight Stress, tensor

Change the Quantity to X Component

Under Select Deformation Result

Highlight Displacements, Translational

Click Apply

A Colored picture displaying the stresses results will appear. It includes

numeric results for max and min Stresses as well as color-coded results for

the entire beam.

To save this plot use the “copy to Clipboard” icon (usually just to the right

of the print icon) to copy the viewport to the clipboard. Then paste the

picture into a word document.

If you want to print the viewport directly, you can just use the normal

Windows commands (File/Print)

Next you will end your PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

14

From the pull down menu select Quit

VI. EXERCISES:

1. Hand in the output file bar.f06. In this file, highlight the reaction forces,

stresses and the displacements.

2. Hand in the two picture files which have the pictures of your finite

element model and the displacement and stress results.

3. Are any of the members in or close to the plastic range of the material?

4. Check the problem against some analytic answer to see if your

displacement and stress results are the correct order of magnitude. It

might be easiest to solve the statically determinant problem and use that

as a bound for the displacements and stresses as opposed to solving the

statically indeterminant problem. If you decide to use this approach,

explain how the statically determinant problem gives bounds for the

displacements and stresses. Are these upper or lower bounds? Are your

FEA based answers consistent with this analytic check?

5. Will it increase the accuracy of the results to use a greater number of

elements? Why or why not?

6. Are there any physical phenomena that this bar might experience that we

have not taken into account?

7. Will this type of element correctly capture the physics of the problem if

the lower force is set to zero and the upper force is maintained at 9000

N? Why or Why not?

15

MSC Patran Tutorial # 2

Modeling of a Truss

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM:

The truss structure shown below has nine members. Each of the members is made of

aluminum and each has the same cross sectional area. The lower left corner of the

structure is constrained in all three directions. The lower right hand corner is constrained

in the Y and Z directions, but is free to roll in the X direction. A vertical load of 100

Newtons is applied at the midpoint of the top of the truss. The loading is directed

downward. The truss geometry is symmetric about the vertical line through the point at

which the force is applied. Material properties, as well as physical dimensions, are given

below.

For the truss below:

Young's modulus = 70 10

9 2

x N m / ( ) (Aluminum)

Poisson's ratio = 0.3

Truss members are (3 cm X 3 cm) square

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

Before you begin the computational model of the structure, study the structure for a few

minutes to determine if it has any peculiarities. Ask a few introductory questions:

I. Is the truss constrained from any rigid body displacements or rotations?

II. What direction do you expect the reactions to be in?

III. What magnitudes should the directions have?

IV. Are there any “zero-force” members in the truss?

V. Use the method of sections (or another method if you prefer) to analytically

determine the stresses in a few of the members.

Y

X

P = 100 Newtons

1 m

1 m

2 m

16

III. THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

In the modeling instructions below, the geometry is specified by creating the MSC/Patran

geometric entity called a "curve" between each of the truss’s joints. In this manner, each

truss member becomes a separate curve in the geometric portion of the database. The

lengths and directions of the curves correspond to those of the members in the physical

truss structure.

Each of the truss members is modeled using a single 2-node rod element. Each element is

originally created with two unique nodes which no other element shares. The procedure

called "equivalencing" in MSC/PATRAN creates a single node from two or more nodes

which have the same physical location. Therefore, after equivalencing, there are nine

elements and six nodes in this structure. These elements have three displacement degrees

of freedom per node. The elements can only model axial (membrane) deformations.

Bending type deformations, which are evidenced by rotation of the element cross section,

are not accounted for by this particular element. Torsion of the members is also

neglected. The neglect of torsion and bending are very common assumptions in truss

problems, as these are higher order effects in a great number of truss type structures.

Physically, this non-bending assumption is representative of pinned joints (for 2-D) or

spherical joints (for 3-D). It should be noted, however, that there are some situations

where these assumptions would not allow your model to correctly capture the physics of

the problem. This type of modeling assumption should be carefully considered.

The loading is modeled with a single concentrated force of magnitude 100 on the center

node of the top of the structure. It is also possible to position loads on geometric entities

like points and surfaces instead of on finite element entities like nodes. This is

demonstrated in other tutorials. The boundary conditions are established by constraining

the displacements at the lower left node to be zero in all 3 directions and the lower right

node to be zero in the Y and Z directions. Material properties and lengths are input

corresponding to the figure of the truss above. Note that it is not necessary to carefully

number the nodes of the structure for minimization of the bandwidth of the stiffness

matrix. The code automatically renumbers the nodes for bandwidth minimization before

solving the system of equations.

IV. THE FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The finite elements used to model two and three dimensional truss structures are actually

just the simple 2-node bar elements spatially extrapolated to function in two or three

dimensional space. This spatial extrapolation is in the form of a transformation of the

axial direction of the arbitrarily oriented bar into the global (fixed) coordinate system.

The results of the transformation is found in the following stiffness matrix for the two

dimensional case.

17

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

− −

− −

− −

− −

·

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

s cs s cs

cs c cs c

s cs s cs

cs c cs c

L

E A

K

where the order of the degrees of freedom is { ¦

2 2 1 1

, , , v u v u . The A, E, and L are

the cross sectional area, Young's (elastic) modulus and axial length respectively. The c

and s in the matrix stand for Cos ( θ ) and Sin ( θ ) respectively. The orientation of the bar

and the angle θ are shown below.

O

U1

V1

U2

V2

Y

X

This element does not have any stiffness associated with rotational degrees of freedom.

Therefore, bending and torsion effects are not included in this model nor is it possible to

load the structure with moments. Also, the element, in the manner it is used in this

analysis, does not have the ability to model large deformations and will not warn the user

in case of buckling type failures (i.e. geometric nonlinearities). Similarly, this type of

analysis does not have the ability to correctly model stresses which are not in the elastic

range of the material (i.e. material nonlinearities).

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING THE TRUSS MODEL

USING PATRAN

Preliminaries for using MSC/PATRAN include:

1) Log on to the computer

2) Change to the directory that you wish to contain your analysis results

3) Left click START (lower left corner of the NT desktop), go to PROGRAMS, then top

MSC (common), then to MSC Patran 90. This will bring up the MSC/Patran Program.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

18

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

1. Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New Database

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn off (button up) Modify Preferences

Under New Database Name enter truss.db

Click OK

A menu called New Model Preferences will appear

Select Tolerance to be based on the model

Set Model Dimension = 2.0

Analysis code = MSC/Nastran

Analysis Type = structural

Click OK

2. The geometry of the truss will be determined next:

From the TM choose Geometry

A RM called Geometry will result

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = XYZ

Set the Curve ID list to 1

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button (uncheck)

Enter the following into the Vector Coordinates list:

<1,0,0>

Enter the following into the Origin Coordinates list:

<0,0,0>

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

19

Click Apply

Build the rest of the truss using the following table

Line Number Vector Coordinates Origin Coordinates

1 <1,0,0> <0,0,0>

2 <0,1,0> <0,0,0>

3 <0,1,0> <1,0,0>

4 <1,0,0> <0,1,0>

5 <1,1,0> <0,0,0>

6 <1,0,0> <1,0,0>

7 <1,-1,0> <1,1,0>

8 <1,0,0> <1,1,0>

9 <0,1,0> <2,0,0>

Note that the commands Construct, Line, XYZ do NOT work based on the coordinates of

the 2 end points of the truss member. These commands generate lines based on the origin

and the vector for that particular truss member.

Note that if you make a mistake you can erase by clicking on the undo button on the top

of the PATRAN desktop. This will erase the LAST CONSTRUCTION COMMAND

ONLY. In other words, it will take the process back to before you hit the Apply button

the last time.

3. The boundary conditions are specified next:

From the TM choose Load/BC's

A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as leftfix

( This is for the clamping of the left most bottom nodes)

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Set Load/BC Scale Factor = 1.

Set Translations to <0,0,0>

Leave the Rotations blank

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

a SM called Select Application Region appears with a Select

menu on its left edge.

In the Select Application Region SM

Turn on the Geometry (button down)

20

Click in box under Select Geometric Entities

In the Select Menu (which is just to the left of the SM)

Click on the picture with a point

In the main view port, click on point 1 (left most point on the

bottom edge)

A Selection Choices menu will appear. Choose Point 1.

( This will cause the words "Point 1" to appear in the Select

Geometric

Entities box in the RM)

Click on Add just below this box

( This will remove the words "Point 1" from the Select Geometric

Entities box and add them to the Application Region box)

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(3 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 1,2,3 should now

appear in the main viewport window on the extreme right point on the

bottom of the truss)

Back in the RM called Load/Boundary Conditions

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as rightfix

( This is for the clamping of the right most bottom nodes)

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Set Load/BC Scale Factor = 1.

Set Translations to < ,0,0>

Note the space left in before the first comma in the

Translations vector. This ensures that the X direction is

NOT constrained

Leave the Rotations blank

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

a SM called Select Application Region appears with a Select

menu on its left edge.

In the Select Application Region SM

Turn on the Geometry (button down)

Click in box under Select Geometric Entities

21

In the Select Menu (which is just to the left of the SM)

Click on the picture with a point

In the main view port, click on point 5 (right most point on the

bottom edge)

A Selection Choices menu will appear. Choose Point 5.

( This will cause the words "Point 5" to appear in the Select

Geometric

Entities box in the RM)

Click on Add just below this box

( This will remove the words "Point 5" from the Select Geometric

Entities box and add them to the Application Region box)

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(2 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 2,3 should now appear in the main

viewport window on the extreme right point on the bottom of the truss)

4. The loads are specified next:

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

change Action = Create

Object = Force

Type = Nodal

Change the New Set Name to topload

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Enter the force vector <0 , -100 , 0>

leave the moments < > (i.e. blank)

Click OK

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

Click Select Application Region

A SM called Select Application Region appears with a select menu just

to its left

In the Select Application Region menu

Select the Geometry Filter = Geometry

Click in the Select Geometry Entities box

In the select menu to the left of the SM

Click on the point icon

In the main viewport, click on the point 4 (top center point)

(point 4 will be added to the Select Geometric Entities list)

In the Select Application Region menu

Click Add

(Point 4 will be added to the Application Region list)

Click OK

22

(Load/BC's menu now reappears)

Click Apply

(A vector with the load of magnitude 100 in the –Y direction will appear

on point 4 in the main viewport)

5. The finite element mesh is specified next:

From the TM choose Elements

A RM appears called Finite Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh Seed

Type = Uniform

Select Number of Elements (button down)

Number = 1

Turn off the Auto Execute (button up)

Click in Curves List box

Click on curve 1 in the main viewport

(curve 1 is the line between point 1 and point 2. This is the bottom left part of the

truss)

(The words "Curve 1" will be added to the Curve List)

Click Apply

(circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on points 1 and 2)

Do the same for curves 2-9.

(The nodes created above must now be tied together with elements)

(up at the top of the RM)

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh

Type = Curve

Click on Bar2 under Element Topology

Click Curve List Box

Click curve 1 in the main viewport

Click Apply

Do the same for curves 2-9

To see the element numbers on the truss, click the “Label Control” button (Looks

like an “L”) on the top row menu. This adds a label control tool bar which allows

you to turn on/off labels for different geometric and/or finite element entities.

(up at the top of the RM)

Set Action = Equivalence

Object = All

23

Type = Tolerance Cube

(The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another)

Leave the Nodes to be Excluded list blank

Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .001

Click Apply

(The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that

12 nodes were deleted)

6. The materials are specified next:

On the TM select Materials

a RM will appear called Materials

Set Action = Create

Object = Isotropic

Method = Manual Input

Click Material Name box

Input the name to be Aluminum

Click Input Properties box

SM called Input Options appears

Input Elastic Modulus = 7.0E10

Input Poisson = 0.3

OK

Back in the Materials RM

Click Apply

(The Existing Materials box should have Aluminum in it)

7. The properties for each element are assigned next:

On the TM select Element Properties

a RM will appear called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 1d

Type = Rod

Click Property Set Name box

Enter truss1

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "Aluminum" in the Materials Property Set box

( the words m:Aluminum will appear in the Material Name box)

Click in the Area box

Enter .0009 (recall that the member’s cross section was 3cm x

3cm square)

Click OK

24

(Back in the Element Properties RM)

Click Select Members box

In the select menu just to the left of the SM

Click in the box which contains finite element with 2 end nodes

(This allows you to pick finite element entities as opposed to

the geometric entities in the other box)

Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest, left-

most point on the truss. Click and hold down the left mouse button.

Drag the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a

point to the right of and below the right-most bottom node. A

"selection box" is formed while you drag. Release the button.

(The words Elm 1:9 will appear in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Element 1:9 appears in the Application Region box)

Click Apply in the Element Properties menu

(truss1 will be added to the Existing Property Sets box)

8. The analysis is to be done is specified next:

On the TM select Analysis

a RM will appear called Analysis

Set Action = Analyze

Object = Entire Model

Method = Full Run

Click on Solution Type

a SM will appear

Click on Translation Parameters

A SM called Translation Parameters will appear

Set Data Output to OP2 and Print

Click OK

Back in the Analysis RM

Set Solution Type = Static (button down)

Click OK

(back in the RM Analysis)

Click Apply

(The analysis will take a few seconds to run)

Now we’ll read the results into the graphics database

(back in the RM Analysis)

Set Action = Read Output2

Object = Result Entities

25

Method = Translate

Click on Select Results File

Choose truss.op2 (you may need to go to the root or home directory to

find this. If this file does not exist, then there was an error in your model.

Go to the file truss.log or truss.f06 to attempt to find out what error

occurred.)

Back in the Analysis RM

Click Apply

9. Visualize the results

From the TM choose Results

A RM called Results appears

Set Action = Create

Object = Quick Plot

Under Select Fringe Result Choose Displacements, Translational

Set Quantity = Y Component

Under Select Deformation Results, choose Displacements, Translational

Click Apply

( A deformed plot appears with colors indicating the level of deformation. Note

that the visual deformation of the truss is magnified so that you can see the

deformation “mode”. The actual truss deformations are very small; as can be seen

by the numerical values, which are NOT scaled)

Note that you can also view the stress results in this manner. Simply choose

Stress, Tensor from the Select Fringe Result options. Recall that there are a

number of ways to compute and extrapolate the stresses for a bar and these will

make significant differences in the values which are plotted.

10. Check the written report of the truss results.

The file containing the written results from the analysis is scaled truss.f06. Open the file

(by simply double clicking on it). The file might be in the root or home directory or in

the directory from which you ran the analysis.

In this file find the displacement vectors and record the numerical values. These will

help you answer some of the question below. Also, find the vectors for the stresses and

constraint forces and record these values.

Next you will end your MSC PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Quit

26

VII. QUESTIONS FROM THE TUTORIAL: MODELING A TRUSS

The questions below refer to the truss model described at the beginning of this tutorial.

Also, information from the output file truss.f06 will be needed in order to answer many

of these questions. As used below, the term "member" refers to the portion of a truss

structure between two joints. For example, the top of this structure has two horizontal

members which are connected by the joint at which the load is applied.

1a. What is the maximum displacement for the structure ?

1b. Is this displacement consistent in location, magnitude and direction with your

physical intuition ?

2a. What is the maximum stress in the structure ?

2b. Is this stress consistent in location, magnitude and direction with your physical

intuition ?

3. Are there any members with very low stresses? Does this make physical sense?

4. How many equations are solved in order to determine the displacements for this

structure ?

5. What assumptions are involved in using this specific element as opposed to using a 2

node beam element with 6 degrees of freedom (3 displacements and 3 rotations) per node

?

6. The present model uses a single 2-node bar element for each truss member. Would

the accuracy of the model increase if two bar elements were used to model each truss

member ? Justify your answer.

7a. The resultant forces (sometimes called constraint, restoring or reaction forces), are

located at the nodes where the boundary conditions are applied. State how these resultant

forces can be used as a "necessary but not sufficient" test of the accuracy of your

analysis.

7b. Does your analysis pass this test ?

8. If two nodes in your final truss structure have the exact same physical location but

different node numbers, what part of the PATRAN analysis procedure has been left out ?

9a. How could the element properties be changed to model this truss if the members in

the structure were circular hollow aluminum bars. Assume that the outside diameter is 3

cm and the inside diameter is 2 cm. Remember that this structure only models the

membrane (axial) deformation not the bending deformation of each member.

9b. If you wanted to account for bending deformation in your model, could you use this

same adjustment to the physical properties to model the truss with hollow members ?

10. Assume that the cross sectional area of the truss members is incorrectly input in

square cm as opposed to square meters. If the other data for the problem is input using

meters, what would the maximum deflection of the truss be ?

11. Assuming that the rotations of the cross sections of the bars are small, what will be

the difference between the results of your PATRAN analysis and the exact analysis ?

("exact" here refers to the analytic analysis using standard structural analysis methods)

12a. Some truss structures may be designed so that, if certain members of the truss are

damaged to the extent that they no longer have significant stiffness, the structure will still

27

be able to handle reasonable loading. This type of truss assembly is said to have

redundant members. Without changing the number of elements in the structure, suggest a

method of using MSC PATRAN to determine if there are redundant members in this truss

structure.

12b. Use the method developed in 13a) to determine if one of the diagonal members is

redundant.

12c. Use the method developed in 13a) to determine if one of the vertical members is

redundant.

13a. Predict the deflection if the direction of the load is changed from the negative Y

direction, to the Z direction (note from your nodal location information that this truss is

located in the X - Y plane).

13b. Run the analysis and explain the displacement results.

14a. Predict the effect of removing the displacement boundary condition on the lower

right node of the truss structure ?

14b. Run the analysis and explain the displacement results.

28

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 3

MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAM WITH END LOAD

USING 4 NODE SHELL ELEMENTS

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

The beam below is cantilevered or "built in" on the left edge. This means that both the

translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. A point or concentrated

load of magnitude 1000 N (approximately 225 lb) in the negative Y direction is found at

the tip of the beam. This problem is part of a standard set of test cases for finite elements

published in a paper by MacNeal and Harder (MacNeal founded the company that makes

the FEA code MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/PATRAN). The set of problems is called "The

MacNeal - Harder Test Cases". The material properties for the beam are E= 200 x 10

9

Pascals (typical for steel) and 0 . 0 · ν (as the analytic beam theory we use below does

not take Poison’s ration effects into account). The beam has a solid rectangular cross

section with thickness in the Z-direction t = 0.1 meters and height in the Y-direction h =

0.2 meters.

P=1000 N

L= 6.0 m

h=20 cm x

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available.

Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the max stress (located at the

built in edge and on either the top fiber for max tensile stress or the bottom fiber for max

compressive stress) and the max displacement (located, of course, at the free tip where

the load is applied). These equations are given below.

For the normal stress due to bending:

Y

29

I

y x M

x

xx

) (

) ( · σ so that the max value located at the built-in edge is

3

12

1

2

) (

bh

PL

h

MAX xx

·

−

σ .

For the displacement at the tip of the beam (maximum displacement):

EI

PL

L x

Y

3

) (

3

· · δ

Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are:

a) Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive?

b) What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces/moments?

c) Where will the stresses be zero?

d) How do the displacements vary along the length (linear, quadratic etc.)?

e) What will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses?

f) Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements?

Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions

for the max stress and displacement will provide reinforcement that your computational

model is correctly constructed.

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models, we will build the geometry

first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will

proceed from creation of points to lines to surfaces for this simple model. Next, we will

use 4 node shell elements deforming in their membrane mode to model the beam. In this

exercise, we will vary the exact number and configuration of these elements. This is

discussed in detail in the next paragraph. Next, the material and element properties will

be entered. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of freedom on

the left edge (for both nodes). This creates the cantilevered or built-in, end condition.

Then we will, place a point load of magnitude 1000 on the top right node of the tip (or

right-most) element. This load will be in the negative Y direction. Finally, the nodes

must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run.

Below, we show 5 mesh configurations for the beam (labeled “a” through “e”).

Comparison of results between mesh “a” and mesh “b” will indicate of how the number

of elements affects the model’s ability to correctly model a beam problem. Increasing the

number of elements in a mesh in order to increase the accuracy of the results is called “h”

convergence. Meshes “b” – “e” all have 6 elements; but the elements have different

orientations. Elements that have non-regular shapes are said to be distorted. Distorted

elements can cause errors in the FEA results. This can be a significant problem in

30

complex meshes as even the best automatic mesh generators often produce some

distorted elements. The elements in MSC/Nastran have been specifically designed to

minimize this unfortunate effect, but some sensitivity to element distortion may still

remain. Different types of element distortion result in different levels of error.

Evaluating results from the meshes “b” - “e” will provide you with some feel for how

these elements perform when they are distorted.

Meshes for the “h” Convergence & Distortion Analysis

I. Rectangular 2 Element Mesh:

1000

6.0

N

m

20 cm

b) Rectangular 6 Element Mesh:

1000

6.0

N

m

20 cm

c) 10 Degree Parallelogram Mesh:

31

1000

6.0

N

m

20 cm

10

Degrees

Typical

d) 45 Degree Parallelogram Mesh:

1000

6.0

N

m

20 cm

45 Deg.

Typ.

e) 45 Degree Trapezoid Mesh:

1000

6.0

N

m

20 cm

45 Deg.

Typ.

32

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is

rather complicated. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node

membrane element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient

background information to begin to understand the “h” convergence and distortion

sensitivity studies. This basic form is constructed as follows:

Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix

Assume the element has the configuration shown below:

4.0

2.0

Y

X

1 2

3

4

The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 4 nodes are:

Our goal is to find the element stiffness matrix

ASSUME:

∫

·

V

T

dV B E B K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

ASSUME: 2 displacement degrees of freedom (dof) per node

With : [B] = the strain - displacement matrix such that [ ]{ } { } B u · ε

NODE (x,y) ( , ) ξ η

1 (0,0) (-1,-1)

2 (4,0) (1,-1)

3 (4,2) (1,1)

4 (0,2) (-1,1)

33

where: {u} is the dof vector and {ε } is the strain vector

[E] = the constitutive matrix such that [ ]{ } { } E ε σ ·

where {σ} is the stress vector and

V = volume.

Step 1: Interpolate the dof: } ]{ [ } , , , , , , , ]{ [

4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1

u N v u v u v u v u N

v

u

T

· ≈

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

where [N] is the shape function matrix

]

]

]

·

4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

] [

N N N N

N N N N

N

and the rules for the shape functions are : 1) N

i

must be =1 at node "i"

2) N

i

must be =0 at any node not = "i"

This leads to the shape functions: N

1

1

4

1 1 · − − ( )( ) ξ η ; N

2

1

4

1 1 · + − ( )( ) ξ η ;

N

3

1

4

1 1 · + + ( )( ) ξ η ; N

4

1

4

1 1 · − + ( )( ) ξ η

Step 2: Find the [B] matrix:

Relevant strains are

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

·

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

v

u

D

v

u

x y

y

x

xy

yy

xx

] [ 0

0

} {

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

γ

ε

ε

ε ; but from step 1

} ]{ [ u N

v

u

≈

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

So { } [ ][ ]{ } [ ]{ } ε ≈ · D N u B u with [ ] [ ][ ] B D N ·

Therefore,

]

]

]

]

]

·

x y x y x y x y

y y y y

x x x x

N N N N N N N N

N N N N

N N N N

B

, 4 , 4 , 3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

] [ where the commas denote

partial differentiation.

Step 3: Use the Jacobian to find derivatives:

Isoparametric Assumption:

T

y x y x y x y x N

y

x

} , , , , ]{ [

4 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 1

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

34

i.e. the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same

interpolation functions as the displacements.

The Jacobian matrix

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

≈

]

]

]

]

]

·

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

] [

y x

y x

y x

y x

N N N N

N N N N

y

x

y

x

J

η η η η

ξ ξ ξ ξ

∂η

∂

∂η

∂

∂ξ

∂

∂ξ

∂

and from chain rule

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

]

]

]

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

−

η

ξ

η

ξ

η ξ

η ξ

,

, 1

,

,

, ,

, ,

,

,

] [

i

i

i

i

y y

x x

y i

x i

N

N

J

N

N

N

N

So in this particular case:

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

− + − − + −

− − + − + −

·

2 0

2 4

0 4

0 0

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

4

1

] [

ξ ξ ξ ξ

η η η η

J =

]

]

]

·

]

]

]

1 0

0 2

4 0

0 8

4

1

which implies that

]

]

]

·

−

1 0

0

] [

2

1

1

J

This allows us to find the entries in [B]

Step 4: Perform the numerical integration:

Assume that the element has constant thickness = t implies

∫

·

A

T

dy dx B E B t K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

Which, according to the rules of calculus can be written:

∫

· η ξ d d J B E B t K

T

] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

where J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix.

Gaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element

stiffness.

This takes the form: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

( , )

K h B E B J w w

j

ngj

i

ngi

T

i j

n

i j

·

· ·

∑ ∑

1 1

ξ

Where ng

j

and ng

i

are the number of gaussian integration points in the “j” and “i”

directions respectively and w

j

and w

i

are the associated gaussian weighting factors.

Understanding the “h” Convergence Experiment:

35

From step 1 above we gain insight into the “h” convergence study. Remember that the

that the analytic formula for the displacements as a function X (distance from built-in

edge) is:

EI

x L Px

x

y

6

) 3 (

) (

2

−

· δ where P is the load, L is the length, E is the Elastic

Modulus and I is the bending moment in inertia. This equation shows that the

displacement is a cubic function of the distance from the cantilever. As the bi-linear

(linear in both ξ and η) shape functions are used to interpolate the displacements for this

4 node element, the elements are attempting to capture a cubic behavior by using a series

of linear approximations. The number of linear approximations is equal to the number of

elements we use (the actual situation when using MSC/Nastran’s 4 node shell element is

a little better than this due to the innovative element formulation, but this is a good way

to conceptually grasp the idea of “h” convergence). This is the reason why 2 elements

give a higher error than do 6 elements.

Understanding the Distortion Sensitivity Experiment:

When an element is rectangular, its Jacobian matrix (used in steps 3 and 4 above) is numerically

exact. However, if the element becomes distorted, the bi-linear shape functions used to form [J] can

no longer exactly capture the geometry and the Jacobian is no longer numerically exact. This

introduces error into steps 3 and 4 above. The exact form of the element’s distortion determines the

amount of error which is introduced. As mentioned previously, the elements in MSC/Nastran are

intricately designed to remove as much of this distortion based error as possible. If the simple

standard isoparametric formulation shown above is used, the trapaziodal elements (mesh “e” above)

would actually “lock” (become very stiff) and the errors in the displacements would be huge (over

90%). For this reason, it is critical that sophisticated, well-tested finite element codes be used for any

critical analysis. Even then, it is wise to inspect meshes for regions where elements are highly

distorted and attempt to create a less distorted mesh in that area.

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE

CANTILEVERED BEAM USING MSC/PATRAN

Preliminaries for using PATRAN include:

a) Log on to the computer

b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop), go to Programs, Select

MSC (common), Select MSC Patran9.0.

The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above.

Specifically, the 6 rectangular elements (mesh “b” above) is constructed. If one wishes to

create any of the other meshes, the mesh creation section must be adapted to fit that

mesh.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

36

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

1. Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences

Under File Name enter beam.db

Click OK

2. Next set the analysis preference:

A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM

Under Tolerance choose Based on Model

Set Model Dimension to 6.0

Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN

Choose Analysis Type = Structural

click OK

3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next:

From the TM choose Geometry

A RM called Geometry will result

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 1

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[0,0,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0,0,0]

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

37

Set the Point ID list to 2

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[6,0,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [6,0,0]

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 3

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[0,0.2,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0,0.2,0]

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 4

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[6,0.2,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [6,0.2,0]

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Set the Curve ID list to 1

Turn Autoexecute off

Set Starting Point List = Point 1

Set Ending Point List = Point 2

Click Apply

38

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Set the Curve ID list to 2

Turn Autoexecute off

Set Starting Point List = Point 3

Set Ending Point List = Point 4

Click Apply

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Surface

Method = Curve

Set the Surface ID list to 1

Set Patran 2 Convention off

Option = 2 Curve

Set Manifold off (not checked)

Set Starting Curve List = Curve 1

Set Ending Curve List = Curve 2

Click Apply

4. The boundary conditions are specified next:

From the TM choose Load/BC's

A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as l_cant

( The name can be whatever name you wish. The name l_cant is chosen as

this is for the cantilever of the left most nodes)

Click Input Data...

a SM called Input Data appears

Set Load/BC Scale factor =1

Set Translations to <0,0,0>

Set Rotations to <0,0,0>

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

A SM called Select Application Region appears

Turn on the Geometry (button down)

Click in box under Select Geometric Entities

In the Patran Select Menu (just to the left of the RM)

39

Click on the curve icon (just under the point icon)

In the main view port, select the left most vertical edge of

the beam.

A Selection Choices SM appears

Choose Surface 1.1

( This will cause the words "Surface 1.1" to appear in the

Select Geometric Entities box in the RM)

Click on Add just below this box

( This will remove the words "Surface 1.1 " from the Select

Geometric Entities box and adds them to the Application

Region box)

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should

now appear on each point in the main viewport window on the extreme

left edge of the beam. Numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 will appear with the arrows to

show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there)

5. The loads are specified next:

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

change Action = Create

Object = Force

Type = Nodal

Change the New Set Name to r_point

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Enter the force vector <0 , -1000 , 0>

leave the moments < > (i.e. blank)

Click OK

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

Click Select Application Region

a small Patran select menu appears to the left edge of the RM

Click in this Patran select menu on the point icon

In the main viewport, click on the point 4 (top right corner

of the beam)

A SM called Selection Choices menu appears.

Choose the Point 4 option, not the Curve or Surface

option)

(Point 4 will be added to the Select Geometric Entities

list)

Click Add

(Point 4 will be added to the Application Region list)

Click OK

40

(Load/BC's menu now reappears)

Click Apply

(A vector with the 1000 unit downward load should appear on point 4 in

the main viewport)

6. The finite element mesh is specified next:

From the TM choose Elements

A RM appears called Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh

Type = Surface

Set Node Id = 1

Set Element Id List = 1

Set Global Edge Length = 1.0 (This will create 6 elements. If you want

to create only 2 elements (as is needed to answer question #1 below) then

set the Global edge length to 3.0)

Set Element Topology = Quad4

Set Mesher = Isomesh

Click in the Surface List box

Click and drag to select the entire structure

The Words "Surface 1" should appear in the Surface List

Click Apply

Six elements will appear on the structure.

Set Action = Equivalence

Object = All

Type = Tolerance Cube

(The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another)

Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .003

Click Apply

(The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 0

nodes were deleted. This step will become critical if, in more complicated models,

you are attempting to join portions of a model which have been meshed

separately.)

7. The materials are specified next:

On the TM select Materials

a RM will appear called Materials

Set Action = Create

Object = Isotropic

Method = Manual Input

Click Material Name box

Input the name to be beam_matl

Click Input Properties box

41

SM called Input Options appears

Input Elastic Modulus =200.0E9

Input Poisson = 0.0

Click OK

Back in the Materials RM

Click Apply

8. The properties for each element are assigned next:

On the TM select Properties

a RM will appear called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 2d

Type = Shell

Click Property Set Name box

Enter beam_prop

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box

at the bottom of the SM

( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at

the top of the SM)

Click in the Thickness box

Enter 0.1

Click OK

(Back in the Element Properties RM)

Click Select Members box

a Patran Select menu will appear on the left edge of the RM

Click on the icon which contains the surface or face icon

Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest, left-

most point on the beam. Click and hold down the left mouse button. Drag

the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a point to the right of

and below the right-most bottom node. A "selection box" is formed while

you drag. Release the button.

(The words Surface 1 will appear in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Surface 1 appears in the Application Region box)

Click Apply in the Element Properties menu

(beam_prop will be added to the Existing Property Sets box)

42

9. The analysis is to be done is specified next:

On the TM select Analysis

a RM will appear called Analysis

Set Action = Analyze

Object = Entire Model

Method = Full Run

Click Translation Parameters

In the SM that appears, set Data Output = Op2 and Print

Click OK

Back in the RM Analysis

Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down)

Click OK

Click Apply

(The analysis will take a few seconds to run. A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran

is working may appear)

10. A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced.

A graphical representation of the deformation provides an easy way to help determine if

you have constructed your model correctly.

On the TM select Analysis

Set Action = Read Output2

Object = Results Entities

Method = Translate

Click Select Results File

A SM appears called Select File

Click the file beam.op2

(You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the

file. If this file does not exist, then you have made a mistake in

constructing your model. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and

choose Explore) and find the file beam.log and beam.f06. Open

these files by double clicking on them and search for the word

“error” to determine what your mistake is).

beam.op2 then appears in the File Name box

Click OK

(back in the Analysis menu)

Click Apply

On the TM select Results

A RM will appear called Results

Set Action = Create

Object = Quick Plot

In the Select Fringe Result box click Displacements, translational

In the Apply Fringe Result box click Displacements, translational

Set Quantity = Y Component

Click Apply

43

(This will create the deformed plot)

Note that stresses can also be plotted from the Results menu by specifying them

in the Select Fringe Result section.

11. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting.

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Quit

VI. EXERCISES:

For many of the exercises below, it may be helpful to use the Results Template

included after the exercises.

a) Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the tip deflection and

stresses using two elements and using 6 elements along the axis of the beam (see

figures “a” – “e” above). This is a small h convergence test. Plot (% error) Vs

(number of elements). Assume a linear function from your 2 data points. If this linear

assumption is correct, what is the least number of elements you would need to get 1%

error in the displacements? What is the least number of elements you would need to

get 10% error in the stresses? (Note 1% error in displacements and 10% error in

stresses are sometimes used for standard error goals. In addition, because stresses

usually converge more slowly than displacements, these two errors often occur for

approximately the same number of elements.)

b) Return to your "MacNeal - Harder" beam model. Rerun the analysis using the

same structural geometry, boundary conditions, loading conditions and material

properties as you used previously. Model the structure with the 4 meshes specified as

meshes b-e in the “Geometric Properties” section above. Compare both the

displacement and stress solutions from the FEA with their analytic counterpart.

Determine which type of distortion appears to be most detrimental to the FEA results

by recording specific error percentages for all 4 meshes for both displacements and

stresses.

c) Noting that the elements we are using are "shell" elements (that is they have both

membrane AND bending dof), rerun the four 6-node meshes. This time load the

structure in the "out-of-plane" or Z direction. To do this you will need to apply 2

equal loads to the 2 nodes on the tip of the beam. These loads must be in the Z-

direction. As the thickness is not the same as the width of the beam, your analytic

answers for the tip deflection will be different than when you loaded the beam in the -

Y direction. Again, compare the percent errors for both displacements and stresses

for the meshes b-e.

44

d) Determine the numerical values for the Jacobian matrix for an element in one of

the distorted meshes.

e) Run the 6-element distorted-mesh problems with the load parallel to the long axis

(in axial loading) and discuss the resulting errors for both displacements and stresses.

f) Rerun the analysis using only rectangular elements. Change the Poisson’s ratio to

0.3 (normal Poisson’s ratio for steel). Run the analysis using 2, then 6 then 480

elements (by setting the global edge length to 3, then 1 then 0.05 respectively).

Record the displacement and stress results for the 3 meshes. Compute the percent

errors for the stresses (using the analytic results as the baseline). Compare these

errors with those found while using a Poisson’s ratio of zero, Propose an explanation

for the differences,

g) Run the 6-element distorted-mesh problems with loads that create torsion and

discuss the resulting errors for both displacements and stresses. Note that you will

need to consult a Mechanics of Materials text for the analytic expressions for the

displacements and stresses of a shaft with rectangular cross section.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

RESULT TEMPLATE

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Analytic tip deflection for the membrane-based case = ________________

Analytic tip deflection for the bending -based case = ________________

Analytic max. stress for the membrane-based case = ________________

Analytic max. stress for the bending -based case = ________________

Loading Type: (bending with load in y, bending with load in Z, axial,

torsion)

MESH TIP

DISPL.

DISPL.

ERROR

MAX.

STRESS

STRESS

ERROR

2 element rectangular mesh

6 element rectangular mesh

10 degree parallelograms

45 degree parallelograms

45 degree trapezoids

45

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL# 4

MODELING A FRAME STRUCTURE (WEIGHT BENCH)

USING BEAM ELEMENTS

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

The frame structure (weight lifting bench) below has the 4 legs that are attached to the

floor. The weight of a user is assumed to be distributed across the rectangular box which

sits in the horizontal plane. The weight of this user and accompanying weights is

accounted for by a 8 lb per inch load distributed across the 108 inches of the horizontal

rectangle. The weight on the uprights is assumed to be 500 lb max on each upright. This

accounts for some impact load as well as the static force of a fully loaded bar. In addition

to the vertical force, there is a 100 lb per upright force in the horizontal direction. This is

intended to model the physics of someone pushing the bar horizontally (in the Y

direction) against the cradle supports as they remove the bar to begin the bench press

exercise.

46

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available

if we think about the problem in sections. Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide

equations for the stress and the displacements for built in and simply supported beams as

well as axial loads. These results can be used to give basic analytic comparison solutions

for certain sections of the structure.

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models, we will build the geometry

first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will

proceed from creation of points to curves for this simple model. Next, we will use 2 node

beam elements to model the frame. Next, the material and element properties will be

entered. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of freedom on the

4 legs. This creates the cantilevered or built-in, end conditions for these sections of the

frame. Then we will place a point load of magnitude 500 in the –Y direction on the top

nodes of each of the uprights (where the weight bar would rest). A 100 lb load in the

horizontal direction is also placed at that same node. A vertical load of 8 lb per inch is

placed on the horizontal bench section (rectangle in the XY plane). Finally, the nodes

must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run.

As can be seen in the step by step instructions below, Patran has a library of beam cross

sections that can be used for frame analysis. These properties include various cross

sections and wall thickness. One particular feature of note is the manner in which the

orientation of the cross section is specified. The menu that allows you to pick the

properties of the beam cross section requires a value for “Beam Orientation” . This value

determines how the cross section will oriented. In particular, imagine that the graphic of

the cross section (which is shown on the library menu) has a local coordinate system with

X

L

being the horizontal andY

L

being the vertical coordinates respectively (see figure

below). Obviously, this means that Z

L

is the coordinate down the long axis of the beam.

If we label the “Beam Orientation” vector {bo}, then the following relationship can be

used to specify our values for the components of {bo}.

{bo} X {Z

L

} = {X

L

}.

An Example is shown below:

47

Consider the following cross section and the orientation of the cross section on the 2

beams in the picture.

For the section of the beam that has its long axis down the global X axis, the Beam

Orientation vector {bo} is set to {0,1,0} This results in the orientation of the cross

section as shown because

{bo} X {Z

L

} = {X

L

} à {0,1,0} X {1,0,0} = {0,0,1}. So the choice of {bo} = {0,1,0}

results in the global Z axis (i.e. {0,0,1}) being the local X-axis as seen in the graphic of

the cross section. Note that this same choice for {bo} will result in the orientation for the

section of the beam that has its long axis in the {1,1,0} direction above. This is because,

for that case {bo} X {Z

L

} = {X

L

}. = {0,1,0} X {1,1,0} = {0,0,1}.

This procedure is used below, in the step-by-step procedure, to determine the choice

of{bo} in the beam library menu.

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The exact details of the formulation of the 2 node beam elements in MSC/Nastran is

rather complicated. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 2 node beam

Y

L

X

L

48

element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient background

information to begin to understand the general application areas and “h” convergence of

these elements. This basic formulation for the 2 node isoparametric beam can be found

in the almost any Finite Elements text (see for example Finite Elements for Stress

Analysis, R.D. Cook, John Wiley & Sons, 1995) .

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE FRAME

USING MSC/PATRAN & MSC/NASTRAN

Preliminaries for using PATRAN include:

a) Log on to the computer

b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop), go to Programs, Select

MSC (common), Select MSC Patran9.0.

The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above. The

instructions are NOT as detailed as I have given in other problems as I expect that you

have begun to get a feel for how to do certain tasks in Patran.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

1. Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences

Under File Name enter bench.db

Click OK

2. Next set the analysis preference:

49

A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM

Under Tolerance choose Based on Model

Set Model Dimension to 40.0

Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN

Choose Analysis Type = Structural

click OK

3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next:

From the TM choose Geometry

A RM called Geometry will result

Set Action = Create

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 1

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[2,0,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [2,0,0]

Using the same approach, create each of the other points in this table

Point X Y Z

1 2 0 0

2 16 0 0

3 2 0 18

4 16 0 18

5 18 42 0

6 0 42 0

7 18 42 38

8 0 42 38

9 16 42 18

10 2 42 18

11 18 42 18

12 0 42 18

50

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Set the Curve ID list to 1

Turn Autoexecute off

Set Starting Point List = Point 1

Set Ending Point List = Point 3

Click Apply

Using the same approach, create each of the other curves in this table

Curve Beginning

Point

Ending

Point

1 1 3

2 2 4

3 4 9

4 4 3

5 11 7

6 11 5

7 11 9

8 9 10

9 12 10

10 12 8

11 12 6

12 3 10

4. The boundary conditions are specified next:

From the TM choose Load/BC's

A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as cant

( The name can be whatever name you wish. The name cant is chosen as

this is for the cantilever of the leg ends which contact the floor)

Click Input Data...

a SM called Input Data appears

Set Load/BC Scale factor =1

Set Translations to <0,0,0>

Set Rotations to <0,0,0>

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

51

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

A SM called Select Application Region appears

Turn on the Geometry (button down)

Click in box under Select Geometric Entities

A Selection Choices SM appears

Choose points 1,2,5,6

Click on Add just below this box

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should

now appear on each point in the main viewport window on the extreme

lower edge of the bench’s legs. Numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 will appear with the

arrows to show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there)

5. The finite element mesh is specified next:

From the TM choose Elements

A RM appears called Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh Seed

Type = Uniform

Choose the Number of Elements option

Set the number of elements to 4

We want each of the 12 curves to have 4 elements. To ensure this, in the

Curve List Box enter Curve 1:12

Click APPLY

A set of mesh seeds will appear to show the density of nodes.

Back at the top of the RM called Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh

Type = Curve

Set Node Id = 1

Set Element Id List = 1

Set Global Edge Length = 1.0

Set Element Topology = Bar 2

Click in the Curve List box

Click and drag to select the entire structure

Click Apply

Four elements will appear on each of the curves in the structure.

Back at the top of the RM called Elements

Set Action = Equivalence

Object = All

52

Type = Tolerance Cube

(The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one

another)

Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .02

Click Apply

(The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that

some nodes were deleted. This step is CRITICAL as it “attaches” the nodes

together at the frame junctions)

6. The materials are specified next:

On the TM select Materials

a RM will appear called Materials

Set Action = Create

Object = Isotropic

Method = Manual Input

Click Material Name box

Input the name to be beam_matl

Click Input Properties box

SM called Input Options appears

Input Elastic Modulus 30.0E6

Input Poisson = 0.3

Click OK

Back in the Materials RM

Click Apply

7. The properties for each element are assigned next:

On the TM select Properties

a RM will appear called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 1d

Type = Beam

Click Property Set Name box

Enter square_prop

We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench

that have square cross sections. These parts are the 4 legs and the 2

uprights(which would hold the actual weight bar)

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box

at the bottom of the SM

( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at

the top of the SM)

Just to the right of the Section Name box, set the option to Dimensions

Click in the Section name box and input square_sect

Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box, set the option to Vector

53

Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <1,0,0>

Click on the ICLBeam Library button

A SM appears called Beam Library

Set Action = Create

Dimension = Standard Shape

Type = Nastran Standard

Set the New Section Name to Square1

Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the < and >

buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures) until you find

the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall thickness (on the

lowest row). Click this graphic.

In the upper right part of the window:

Set W = 1.0

Set H = 1.0

Set t1 = .125

Set t2 = .125

If you want to see the information on the cross sectional properties

(which will come in handy when doing the analytical comparison

calculation later) click on the Calculate/Display button.

Click Apply

Click OK (if a menu asks if you wish to over write say YES)

Click Cancel

Back in the Input Properties Menu, click OK

Back in the Properties RM

Click in the Select Members box

Choose the 4 legs and the 2 uprights (this is 6 curves and all the vertical

members)

Click Add

Click Apply

Now we’ll create the properties for the horizontal members. These members will have a

2 in x 1 in hollow cross section with .125 wall thickness. In this case it is critical that the

large dimension of the cross section be oriented to provide the max bending moment of

inertia “I” , so the larger (2 in) dimension must be the vertical dimension of the cross

section.

Back in the RM called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 1d

Type = Beam

Click Property Set Name box

Enter rectY_prop

We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench

that have rectangular cross sections and run in the Y direction

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

54

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box

at the bottom of the SM

( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at

the top of the SM)

Just to the right of the Section Name box, set the option to

Dimensions

Click in the Section name box and input rectY_sect

Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box, set the option to

Vector

Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <1,0,0>

Click on the ICLBeam Library button

A SM appears called Beam Library

Set Action = Create

Dimension = Standard Shape

Type = Nastran Standard

Set the New Section Name to RectY

Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the

< and > buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures)

until you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant

wall thickness (on the lowest row). Click this graphic

Set W = 2.0

Set H = 1.0

Set t1 = .125

Set t2 = .125

If you want to see the information on the cross sectional

properties (which will come in handy when doing the

analytical comparison calculation later) click on the

Calculate/Display button.

Click Apply

Click OK (if a menu asks if you wish to over write say

YES)

Click Cancel

Back in the Input Properties Menu, click OK

Back in the Properties RM

Click in the Select Members box

Choose the 2 horizontal members that have their long axis in the Y

direction (curves 3 & 12)

Click Add

Click Apply

Back in the RM called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 1d

Type = Beam

Click Property Set Name box

55

Enter rectX_prop

We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench

that have rectangular cross sections and run in the X direction

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box

at the bottom of the SM

( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at

the top of the SM)

Just to the right of the Section Name box, set the option to

Dimensions

Click in the Section name box and input rectX_sect

Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box, set the option to

Vector

Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <0,1,0>

Click on the ICLBeam Library button

A SM appears called Beam Library

Dimension = Standard Shape

Type = Nastran Standard

Set the New Section Name to RectX

Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the

< and > buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures)

until you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant

wall thickness (on the lowest row). Click this graphic

Set W =2.0

Set H = 1.0

Set t1 = .125

Set t2 = .125

If you want to see the information on the cross sectional

properties (which will come in handy when doing the

analytical comparison calculation later) click on the

Calculate button.

Click Apply

Click OK ( if you are asked to overwrite, say YES)

Click Cancel

Back in the Input Properties Menu, click OK

Back in the Properties RM

Click in the Select Members box

Choose the 4 horizontal members that have their long axis in the X

direction (curves 4,7,8,9)

Note that there are 4 members that have their long axis aligned with the X

axis; not just 2. These 4 include 2 curves that attach the uprights to the

rectangular horizontal supports.

Click Add

Click Apply

56

In order to see if the cross sections are correctly aligned, go to the TM = Display, then

select Load/BC/Elem Props… in the RM that appears, Under Beam Display, change the

default 1-D Line to 3-D Full Span and hit Apply (at the bottom of the SM ). This will

turn on display of the cross sections. If you wish to see the cross sections shaded, you

can use the TM shading icon (solid shaded box, just to the right of the little wire frame

icons)

8. The loads are specified next:

Click the TM = Loads/BC

The RM Loads/BC pops up. Set

Action = Create

Object = Force

Type = Nodal

Change the New Set Name to weights

Click Input Data...

a SM appears

Enter the force vector <0, 100 , -500 >

Leave the moments < > (i.e. blank)

Click OK

(Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM)

Click Select Application Region

a small Patran select menu appears close to the RM

Click in this Patran select menu on the point icon

In the main viewport, click on the points 7 & 8 (top of the

uprights on the bench)

Add these points to the application region

Click OK

(Load/BC's menu now reappears)

Click Apply

(A vector with the 510 unit downward and backward load should appear

on points 7 & 8 in the main viewport)

Back in the main RM Loads/BC

Action = Create

Object = Distributed Load

Type = Element Uniform

Set NewSet Name = d-load

Set Target Element Type = 1-d

Click Input Data

In the resulting SM

Set the forces to <0,0,8>

Leave the moments blank

Click OK

Back in the Loads/BC RM

Click Select Application Region

57

In the resulting RM

Turn on FEM as the Geometry filter

Select all the elements along the curves 3,4,8,12 (these are the 4

beams in the XY plane that form the rectangle)

Click Add

Click OK

Back in the RM click Apply

Note: if the forces that appear on the main view screen are not in the correct direction,

then you probably flipped one of the curve beginning/ending points. The easiest way to

fix this is to remove the distributed load from those elements where it is in the wrong

directions and create a second distributed force set that has the values <0,0,-8> and apply

it to these elements.

9. The analysis is to be done is specified next:

On the TM select Analysis

a RM will appear called Analysis

Set Action = Analyze

Object = Entire Model

Method = Full Run

Click Translation Parameters

In the SM that appears, set Data Output = Op2 and Print

Click OK

Back in the RM Analysis

Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down)

Click OK

Click Apply

(The analysis will take a few seconds to run. A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran

is working may appear)

10. A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced.

A graphical representation of the deformation provides an easy way to help determine if

you have constructed your model correctly.

On the TM select Analysis

Set Action = Read Output2

Object = Results Entities

Method = Translate

Click Select Results File

A SM appears called Select File

Click the file bench.op2

(You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the

file. If this file does not exist, then you have made a mistake in

constructing your model. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and

choose Explore) and find the file bench.log and bench.f06. Open

these files by double clicking on them and search for the word

“error” or “fatal” to determine what your mistake is).

beam.op2 then appears in the File Name box

58

Click OK

(back in the Analysis menu)

Click Apply

Select the TM Results

A RM will appear called Results

Set Action = Create

Object = Quick Plot

In the Select Fringe Result box click Displacements, translational

In the Apply Displacement Result box click Displacements, translational

Set Quantity = magnitude

Click Apply

(This will create the deformed plot)

Note that stresses can also be plotted from the Results menu by specifying them

in the Select Fringe Result section. You will want to use the VonMises stresses

in this case as the X, Y or Z based stresses are, by default, in the local coordinate

system for that beam and are not in the global (Coord 0) frame.

11. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting.

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Quit

VI. EXERCISES:

1. Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the mid-span deflection and

stresses of a simply supported beam. To do this look at the mid-span deflection

and stresses of either of the long horizontal members. Note that the BC of the

ends of these members are Not really simply supported. There is some resistance

to rotation of the cross section. However, neither is it truly a cantilevered BC.

Therefore, if you calculate the midspan displacements sing simply supported BC,

the analytic displacement will be an upper bound.

2. Create the Von Mises stress plot and the displacement plot. Do these make

physical sense?

3. Compare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical P/A approximation using

only the axial (Z component) part of the load. What do you conclude?

4. Compare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical My/I approximation using

only the bending (y component) part of the load. What do you conclude?

59

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 5

MODELING A STABELIZATION FIXTURE WITH END PRESSURE

USING SOLID ELEMENTS

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

The structure below is designed to support a bearing on its right, curved edge. A similar

part exists to hold the bearing on the other side. The left edge is cantilevered or "built in".

This means that both the translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. A

pressure load of magnitude 100 lb/in

2

in the negative X direction results from the

bearing reaction. The material properties for the beam are E= 10 x 10

6

psi (typical for

aluminum) and 3 . 0 · ν . The part has a solid cross section with thickness in the Z-

direction t = 3 in.

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is not readily

available. However, any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the max

stress and the max displacement of simple problems that will provide upper or lower

bounds for stresses and displacements. These analytic verifications will be discussed

below.

Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are:

1. Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive?

2. What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces/moments?

60

3. Where will the stresses be zero?

4. How do the displacements vary along the length (linear, quadratic etc.)?

5. What will the local effect of the pressure load be on the stresses?

6. Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements?

Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions

for the max stress and displacement will provide reinforcement that your computational

model is correctly constructed.

III. CREATING THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

1. Create the Geometry

Create the 3-d object below according to the following steps:

Create the points shown with coordinates as in the table

Point x-coord y-coord z-coord

1 0 0 0

2 10 0 0

3 11 -1 0

4 16 -1 0

5 13 2 0

6 16 5 0

7 11 5 0

8 10 4 0

9 0 4 0

61

Next create curves between points 1 and 2, 3 and another curve between 4, 6 and

another curve between 7, 8 and 9, 2 and another curve between 8, 3 and 7.

Create the curve between points 2 and 3 and between points 7and 8 using the 2-d arc

2point using a radius of 1.

Create the arc between points 4, 5 and 6 using the 2d arc3point option.

Now create 3 surfaces. The instructions will use the curve numbers in the picture below.

Please substitute the curve numbers form the curves you created.

Create the first surface between the curves 1,2,5 and 10 using the Create/Surface/Edge

command.

Create the 2

nd

surface between the curves 7, 10, 6 and 9 and the 3

rd

surface between the

curves 3, 9, 4, and 8.

Now create solids of thickness 3 (in the Z direction) from each of the 3 surfaces using the

Create/Solid/Extrude command. The translation vector will need to be <0,0,3>.

When you are done, the part will look like this.

62

2. Create the Finite Element Mesh

The first task is to seed the mesh. This is critical in this model as the model contains 3

separate solids which will need to be meshes separately. Then the nodes will need to be

equivalenced so that the 3 solids are “attached” computationally. If this equivalencing is

to work correctly, nodes along the interface between 2 solids will need to be coincident.

The mesh seed will ensure this. Using the Create/Mesh Seed/Uniform option in the

Element menu, create mesh seeds as shown below. Note that is your mesh seeds are a

little different than the ones shown below, it will simply mean that you end up with a

slightly different number and placement of elements. This should NOT affect the results

of your analysis substantially except in one case. The distribution of elements in the Y

direction must be constant across the part. For example if you have 6 elements across the

far left edge, then you need to have 6 elements across the right curved edge and across

other X=constant planes in the part. The reason this is important is that if the element

pattern is not symmetric in the in the Y direction, the part will experience a non-

symmetric distribution of loads in the Y direction, resulting in non-physical

displacements in the Y direction and also resulting in non-physical bending stresses.

63

Next place the actual mesh on the solids using the Create/Mesh/Solid. If the mesh seeds

are done as shown, it will not matter what the global edge length is. Use the Hex8

elements. Use the isomesh mesh generator.

Next equivalence the nodes using the Equivalence/All/Tolerance cube command. The

defaults tolerance is fine. This should indicate approximately 64 nodes were deleted.

The graphics will show these nodes along the interface between the 3 solids.

The completed mesh should look approximately as shown below.

3. Create the BC and Loads

To clamp the left edge (edge away from the rounded bearing surface) use the

Create/Displacement/Nodal command in the Loads/BC menu. Set all 3 displacements

and all 3 rotations to zero and select apply to the left edge.

Next create the pressure load on the bearing surface by using the Create/Pressure/element

Uniform command. Make sure the element target type is 3d. Choose a pressure of 100.

To select the application surface (in the Select Application Surface) turn on the geometry

button and then select the icon for “Face of a Solid” and choose the curved surface shown

highlighted below. The BC and loads graphics will appear as shown.

64

The BC on the left and the pressure load on the right might look different on your part

depending on whether you have applied the BC or pressure to the geometry .

4. Create the Material and Property

The material for the part is aluminum which has a E of 10e6 psi and a Poisson’s ratio of

0.3. Using the Materials menu create an isotropic homogeneous material with these

properties.

The properties set is made using the command Create/3D/Solid in the properties menu.

Input the properties simply as the material you just created. Select the entire part to have

these properties.

5. Do the Analysis

In the analysis menu, use the command Analyze/Entire Model/Full Run . Set the

Translation Parameters to output the *.op2 file. Read in the analysis results Using the

command Read Output2/Result Entities/ Translate. Select the appropriate results (*.op2)

file.

6. View the Results

In the results menu, use the command Create/Quick Plot. Make plots of the

displacements ad the appropriate stresses.

65

VI. EXERCISES

1. Turn in the plots for the displacements and stresses. Do they make physical

sense?

2. Find a way to get some substantial analytic verification for the model.

3. Look at the stress results and prescribe a weight savings measure that should not

create stress related problems (i.e. determine where material can probably be

removed). Computationally test your new design.

66

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 6

MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAM’S VIBRATION

USING 4 NODE SHELL ELEMENTS

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

The beam below is cantilevered or "built in" on the left edge. This means that both the

translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. The material properties for

the beam are E= 70 x 10

9

Pascals (typical for Aluminum) and 3 . 0 · ν . The beam has a

solid rectangular cross section with thickness in the Z-direction t = 0.01 meters and

height in the Y-direction h = 0.1 meters. We wish to find the mode shapes and associated

vibration frequencies for this beam.

L= 1.0 m

h=10 cm x

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution (modes shapes and natural frequencies) for this problem is readily

available. Any vibrations text will provide equations for the mode shapes (eigenvectors)

and the natural frequencies (eigenvalues). These equations are given below.

For the cantilevered beam with bending moment of inertia “I”, Elastic (Young’s)

modulus “E”, mass per unit length “m” and Length “L”, the first 3 natural frequencies

W

1-3

(rad/sec) are given by:

4

2

1

875 . 1

mL

EI

· ω

4

2

2

694 . 4

mL

EI

· ω

4

2

3

855 . 7

mL

EI

· ω

Note that these correspond to the following 3 mode shapes which are all bending modes

in the plane of the smallest value of “I”.

Modeshape 1:

Y

67

Modeshape 2:

Modeshape 3

68

Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are:

1. Are there any other types of mode shapes that might occur (torsional, axial or

bending in a different plane)?

2. What would be a reasonable frequency for the first mode shape?

3. Are there any constraint force checks that will help me validate the accuracy of my

model?

Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions

for the mode shapes and their associated natural frequencies will provide reinforcement

that your computational model is correctly constructed.

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models, we will build the geometry

first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will

proceed from creation of points to curves to surfaces for this simple model. Next, we will

use 4 node shell elements to model the beam. Next, the material and element properties

will be entered. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of

freedom on the left edge (for all nodes). This creates the cantilevered or built-in, end

condition. Finally, the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run.

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is

rather complicated. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node

membrane element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient

background information to begin to understand the vibration model studies. This basic

form is constructed as follows:

Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix

Assume the element has the configuration shown below:

69

4.0

2.0

Y

X

1 2

3

4

The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 4 nodes are:

Our goal is to find the element stiffness matrix

ASSUME:

∫

·

V

T

dV B E B K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

ASSUME: 2 displacement degrees of freedom (dof) per node

With : [B] = the strain - displacement matrix such that [ ]{ } { } B u · ε

where: {u} is the dof vector and {ε } is the strain vector

[E] = the constitutive matrix such that [ ]{ } { } E ε σ ·

where {σ} is the stress vector and

V = volume.

Step 1: Interpolate the dof: } ]{ [ } , , , , , , , ]{ [

4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1

u N v u v u v u v u N

v

u

T

· ≈

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

where [N] is the shape function matrix

]

]

]

·

4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

] [

N N N N

N N N N

N

and the rules for the shape functions are : 1) N

i

must be =1 at node "i"

2) N

i

must be =0 at any node not = "i"

This leads to the shape functions: N

1

1

4

1 1 · − − ( )( ) ξ η ; N

2

1

4

1 1 · + − ( )( ) ξ η ;

N

3

1

4

1 1 · + + ( )( ) ξ η ; N

4

1

4

1 1 · − + ( )( ) ξ η

NODE (x,y) ( , ) ξ η

1 (0,0) (-1,-1)

2 (4,0) (1,-1)

3 (4,2) (1,1)

4 (0,2) (-1,1)

70

Step 2: Find the [B] matrix:

Relevant strains are

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

·

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

v

u

D

v

u

x y

y

x

xy

yy

xx

] [ 0

0

} {

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

γ

ε

ε

ε ; but from step 1

} ]{ [ u N

v

u

≈

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

So { } [ ][ ]{ } [ ]{ } ε ≈ · D N u B u with [ ] [ ][ ] B D N ·

Therefore,

]

]

]

]

]

·

x y x y x y x y

y y y y

x x x x

N N N N N N N N

N N N N

N N N N

B

, 4 , 4 , 3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

] [ where the commas denote

partial differentiation.

Step 3: Use the Jacobian to find derivatives:

Isoparametric Assumption:

T

y x y x y x y x N

y

x

} , , , , ]{ [

4 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 1

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

i.e. the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same

interpolation functions as the displacements.

The Jacobian matrix

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

≈

]

]

]

]

]

·

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

, 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

] [

y x

y x

y x

y x

N N N N

N N N N

y

x

y

x

J

η η η η

ξ ξ ξ ξ

∂η

∂

∂η

∂

∂ξ

∂

∂ξ

∂

and from chain rule

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

]

]

]

·

¹

'

¹

¹

'

¹

−

η

ξ

η

ξ

η ξ

η ξ

,

, 1

,

,

, ,

, ,

,

,

] [

i

i

i

i

y y

x x

y i

x i

N

N

J

N

N

N

N

71

So in this particular case:

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

− + − − + −

− − + − + −

·

2 0

2 4

0 4

0 0

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

4

1

] [

ξ ξ ξ ξ

η η η η

J =

]

]

]

·

]

]

]

1 0

0 2

4 0

0 8

4

1

which implies that

]

]

]

·

−

1 0

0

] [

2

1

1

J

This allows us to find the entries in [B]

Step 4: Perform the numerical integration:

Assume that the element has constant thickness = t implies

∫

·

A

T

dy dx B E B t K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

Which, according to the rules of calculus can be written:

∫

· η ξ d d J B E B t K

T

] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

where J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix.

Gaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element

stiffness.

This takes the form: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

( , )

K h B E B J w w

j

ngj

i

ngi

T

i j

n

i j

·

· ·

∑ ∑

1 1

ξ

Where ng

j

and ng

i

are the number of gaussian integration points in the “j” and “i”

directions respectively and w

j

and w

i

are the associated gaussian weighting factors.

Understanding the Computational Vibration Analysis :

The elements as formed above must be assembled into a global stiffness matrix. In the

same manner, element mass matrices are formed using the equation

∫

· η ξ ρ d d J N N M

T

] [ ] [ ] [ . A similar form exists for the Rayleigh damping matrix

[C]. The stiffness, mass and damping matrices are then used in the dynamics equilibrium

relationship } { } { ] [ } { ] [ } { ] [ f d K d C d M · + +

& & &

where the over-dots indicated

derivatives with respect to time and {f} is the forcing function. This set of equations can

be solved for the time history of the motion (transient dynamics) or for the eigenvalues

and eigenvectors. For the vibration analysis, the damping and the forcing function are

assumed to be zero. The resulting eigenvalue problem of the second kind is :

} 0 { } { ] [ } { ] [ · + d K M ω where eigenvalues are the natural frequencies ω and the

eigenvectors {d} give the node shapes.

72

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE

VIBRATION OF THE CANTILEVERED BEAM USING

MSC/PATRAN

Preliminaries for using PATRAN include:

a) Log on to the computer

b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop), go to Programs, Select

MSC (common), Select MSC Patran9.0.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

1. Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences

Under File Name enter beam-vib.db

Click OK

2. Next set the analysis preference:

A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM

Under Tolerance choose Based on Model

Set Model Dimension to10.0

Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN

Choose Analysis Type = Structural

click OK

3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next:

From the TM choose Geometry

A RM called Geometry will result

Set Action = Create

73

Object = Point

Method = XYZ

Set the Point ID list to 1

Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0

Turn off the Auto Execute button

Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list:

[0,0,0]

(note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators

between coordinates)

Click Apply

A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0,0,0]

Use this same procedure to create points at coordinates [1,0,0], [1,0.1,0] and [0,0.1,0]

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Set the Curve ID list to 1

Turn Autoexecute off

Set Starting Point List = Point 1

Set Ending Point List = Point 2

Click Apply

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Curve

Method = Point

Set the Curve ID list to 2

Turn Autoexecute off

Set Starting Point List = Point 3

Set Ending Point List = Point 4

Click Apply

Back at the top of the RM called Geometry

Set Action = Create

Object = Surface

Method = Curve

Set the Surface ID list to 1

Set Patran 2 Convention off

Option = 2 Curve

Set Manifold off (not checked)

Set Starting Curve List = Curve 1

Set Ending Curve List = Curve 2

Click Apply

2. The finite element mesh is specified next:

74

From the TM choose Elements

A RM appears called Elements

Set Action = Create

Object = Mesh

Type = Surface

Set Node Id = 1

Set Element Id List = 1

Set Global Edge Length = 0.025

Set Element Topology = Quad4

Set Mesher = Isomesh

Click in the Surface List box

Click and drag to select the entire structure

The Words "Surface 1" should appear in the Surface List

Click Apply

Set Action = Equivalence

Object = All

Type = Tolerance Cube

(The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another)

Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .003

Click Apply

(The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 0 nodes

were deleted. This step will become critical if, in more complicated models, you are

attempting to join portions of a model which have been meshed separately.)

3. The boundary conditions are specified next:

From the TM choose Load/BC's

A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear

Set Action = Create

Object = Displacement

Type = Nodal

Set Current Load Case = Default

Enter New Set Name as l_cant

( The name can be whatever name you wish. The name l_cant is chosen as

this is for the cantilever of the left most nodes)

Click Input Data...

a SM called Input Data appears

Set Load/BC Scale factor =1

Set Translations to <0,0,0>

Set Rotations to <0,0,0>

Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0

Click OK

(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM)

Click Select Application Region

A SM called Select Application Region appears

Turn on the FEM (button down)

Click in box under Select Nodes

75

Use the cursor to highlight the set of nodes along the left vertical edge of

the beam. There should be 5 nodes there.

Click OK

(The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again)

Click Apply

(3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should

now appear on each node in the main viewport window on the extreme left

edge of the beam. Numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 will appear with the arrows to

show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there)

4. The materials are specified next:

On the TM select Materials

a RM will appear called Materials

Set Action = Create

Object = Isotropic

Method = Manual Input

Click Material Name box

Input the name to be aluminum

Click Input Properties box

SM called Input Options appears

Input Elastic Modulus =70.0E9

Input Poisson = 0.3

Input the Density to be 2700

Click OK

Back in the Materials RM

Click Apply

5. The properties for each element are assigned next:

On the TM select Properties

a RM will appear called Element Properties

Set Action = Create

Dimension = 2d

Type = Shell

Click Property Set Name box

Enter beam_prop

Click Input Properties

a SM appears called Input Properties

Click in the Material Name box

76

Click on the word "aluminum" in the Material Property Sets box

at the bottom of the SM

( the words m:aluminum will appear in the Material Name box at

the top of the SM)

Click in the Thickness box

Enter 0.01

Click OK

(Back in the Element Properties RM)

Click Select Members box

a Patran Select menu will appear on the left edge of the RM

Click on the icon which contains the surface or face icon

Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest, left-

most point on the beam. Click and hold down the left mouse button. Drag

the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a point to the right of

and below the right-most bottom node. A "selection box" is formed while

you drag. Release the button.

(The words Surface 1 will appear in the Select Members box)

Click Add

(The words Surface 1 appears in the Application Region box)

Click Apply in the Element Properties menu

(beam_prop will be added to the Existing Property Sets box)

6. The analysis is to be done is specified next:

On the TM select Analysis

a RM will appear called Analysis

Set Action = Analyze

Object = Entire Model

Method = Full Run

Click Translation Parameters

In the SM that appears, set Data Output = Op2 and Print

Click OK

Back in the RM Analysis

Set Solution Type = Normal Modes (button down)

Click OK

Click Apply

(The analysis will take a few seconds to run. A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran

is working may appear)

7. A graphical representation of the mode shapes can be produced.

A graphical representation of the mode shapes provides an easy way to begin to

determine if you have constructed your model correctly.

77

On the TM select Analysis

Set Action = Read Output2

Object = Results Entities

Method = Translate

Click Select Results File

A SM appears called Select File

Click the file beam-vib.op2

(You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the

file. If this file does not exist, then you have made a mistake in

constructing your model. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and

choose Explore) and find the file beam- vib.log and beam.f06.

Open these files by double clicking on them and search for the

word “error” to determine what your mistake is).

Beam-vib.op2 then appears in the File Name box

Click OK

(back in the Analysis menu)

Click Apply

On the TM select Results

A RM will appear called Results

Set Action = Create

Object = Quick Plot

In the Select Result Case box click Default, Mode 1…

In the Select Fringe Result box click Eigenvectors, translational

In the Apply Fringe Result box click Eigenvectors, translational

Set Quantity = Magnitude

Turn on the animation button (so it displays a check)

Click Apply

(This will create the animation of the first mode)

Investigate other, higher order mode shapes. Be sure to record data and screen

captures needed to answer the questions below.

8. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting.

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Quit

VI. EXERCISES:

78

a) Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the first 3 pairs of mode

shapes and frequencies which are associated with bending of the beam in the

direction of minimum “I”. You can use the analytic equations shown earlier to

produce the analytic results.

b) Study the first 5 mode shapes produced by the Nastran and comment on which

modes are not associated with bending about the minimum “I” direction.

c) Rerun the analysis using only .00625 as the global edge length (produces 4 times

as many elements). Does a refinement in the mesh appear to produce more closely

converged results?

d) Change the Poisson’s ratio to 0.0. Rerun the analysis using the original global

edge length of 0.025. Compare these errors with those found while using a Poisson’s

ratio of 0.03, Propose an explanation for the differences.

e) Identify the possible sources of that might make our results a poor model of the

actual physical structure.

79

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 7

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLING FIN USING SHELL ELEMENTS

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

The problem you will model is a fin of aluminum alloy, 0.2 m long, 0.002 m thick and

large width. This is the type of fin that might provide air-cooling on a motorcycle engine.

For the finite element model, we consider a representative strip of the fin 0.01 m in depth

(shown as the region between the dotted lines in the drawing). The 200-degree wall is

representative of the hot temperature of the engine. Our goal is to find the temperature

distribution down the fin. If the outside tip of the engine is too hot, it can be a safety

concern. Heat is conducted down the fin (away from the heat source of the engine) and

heat is also lost through convection from the top and bottom surfaces to the air. The

ambient temperature of the air is known to be 25 C

o

and the convection coefficient (film

coefficient) is known to be 30 (W/m

2

) . The fin itself is made of aluminum which has a

conductivity of 177 (W/m

2

K).

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS

The analytic solution for the temperatures for this problem is readily available. Any Heat

Transfer text will provide equations for the temperature distribution of a fin considering

conduction away from the heat source and convection from the top and bottom surfaces.

These results can be used to give basic analytic comparison solutions for certain sections

of the structure. Note that we assume no radiation occurs and that only the top and

bottom surfaces have significant convection heat transfer (the convection from the edges

of the fin is neglected). These assumptions are normal for a first level analysis where the

temperatures are in the ranges used in this problem.

0.002

0.20

Wall

200 C

0.01

80

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models, we will build the geometry

first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will

proceed from creation of curves to a surface for this simple model. Next, we will use 4

node 2-dimensional elements to model the fin. Next, the material and element properties

will be entered. We will set the wall temperature and the convection characteristics for

the top and bottom of the fin. Finally, the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis

is ready to run.

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY

The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node 2-d elements in MSC/Nastran is rather

complicated. However, the basic formulation of the 2-d thermal element is not extremely

difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to

understand the general application areas and convergence of these elements. This basic

formulation for the 2-d thermal, linear, quasistatic element can be found in most any

Finite Element Analysis text (see for example Finite Elements for Stress Analysis, by

R.D. Cook, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.) .

V. INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE FIN USING

MSC/PATRAN & MSC/NASTRAN

Preliminaries for using PATRAN include:

a) Log on to the computer

b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop), go to Programs, Select

MSC (common), Select MSC Patran9.0.

The instructions below give details for modeling the thermal fin problem discussed

above. The instructions are NOT as detailed as have been given in other problems as it is

expected that you have begun to get a feel for how to do certain tasks in Patran.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the

screen after PATRAN has been initiated.

RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen

from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop.

SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected

in the right menu.

Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button.

Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.

81

Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or

text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

1. Our first step is to create a new database:

From the TM choose File

In the resulting pull down menu choose New

A SM called New Database pops up

Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences

Under File Name enter fin.db

Click OK

2. Next set the analysis preference:

A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM

Under Tolerance choose Based on Model

Set Model Dimension to 0.2

Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN

Choose Analysis Type = Thermal

click OK

3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next:

Select Geometry from TM.

On RM, select Action= Create, Object= Curve, Method= XYZ

Note Curve ID List has a 1.

Refer. Coordinate Frame should be Coord 0

Set Vector Coordinates List to 0.2 0 0 (You will be drawing lines (vectors)

with these xyz components.)

Origin Coordinates List = 0 0 0 Click APPLY. (A line from origin to point

0.2,0,0 should appear on screen.)

Make second curve: With same vector, set Origin Coordinates List to 0 0.01 0.

Click Apply. (A second curve appears on the screen.)

Now create a surface between the curves.

On the Geometry RM, choose Action= Create; Object= Surface; Method= Curve.

Set Option to 2 Curve.

Note there is a Starting Curve List and Ending Curve List.

Click in the Starting Curve List box. .Select the first curve by using the mouse.

Click the small box on curve 1 on the screen. Click in the Ending Curve List

box. Then click on curve 2. Note a surface is created.

4. Create the finite elements.

On the TM select Elements and get a RM.

Choose Action= Create; Object=Mesh; Type= Surface

Choose the size of the elements. Type in Global Edge Length: 0.01

Select Isomesh. Click in Surface List box. Select the Surface 1 with the cursor.

Click Apply. Note the model has 20 elements.

5. Create Boundary conditions

82

At TM, select Load/BC’s. Get RM.

Now create the convection characteristics for the bottom of the fin

Chose Action=create, Object=convection, type=element uniform

Name the convection BC. In New Set Name, type top-convec

Select Target Element Type = 2D

Click Input Data. Get submenu. Type 30 for convection coefficient (w/m

2

c) for

top surface convection. Type 25 for ambient temp. Click OK.

Back in Load/ BC menu, click Select Application Region box

Select FEM as the Geometry Filter.

Click in Select 2D Elements or Edges box

Using mouse, click on all the elements. (Hold shift down for

multiple selections.) Click Add. The application

region box should list the elements 1:20. Click OK

Back in Load/BC menu click Apply.

Now create the convection characteristics for the bottom of the fin

Chose Action=create, Object=convection, type=element uniform

Name the convection BC. In New Set Name, type bot-convec

Select Target Element Type = 2D

Click Input Data. Get submenu. Type 30 for convection coefficient (w/m

2

c) for

bottom surface convection. Type 25 for ambient temp. Click OK.

Back in Load/ BC menu, click Select Application Region box

Select FEM as the Geometry Filter.

Click in Select 2D Elements or Edges box

Using mouse, click on all the elements. (Hold shift down for

multiple selections.) Click Add. The application

region box should list the elements 1:20. Click OK

Back in Load/BC menu click Apply.

Now create the base temperature BC. In Load/BC RM

Action=create, Object=Temp, type=nodal

In New Set Name type Basetemp. Click on Input Data.

In submenu Input Data, type 200 in Temperature box. Click OK.

Back in Load/BC SM, click on Select Application Region.

In submenu, select FEM as Geometry Filter.

Click on Select Nodes.

Using mouse, select the nodes 1 and 22 at the extreme left of the model. Click

Add. Click OK.

Back in Load/BC menu, click Apply. (The screen should show 200 at nodes 1

and 22.)

6. Create and select material

On TM select Materials.

In submenu, Action=create, Object=isotropic, method=manual input.

In Material Name box, type aluminum. Click Input Properties.

83

In submenu, Input Options, enter thermal conductivity as 177. (w/m

2

k).

Click OK. If SM does not disappear, Click Cancel.

Back in the RM , Click Apply

In TM, select Properties

In submenu Action=create, Object=2D, Type=shell.

In Property Set Name type shell_prop.

Click on Input Properties In submenu, click on Aluminum in the Material

Property Sets box.

M: Aluminum appears in the Material Name box at the top of the form.

Set Thickness= 0.002 Click OK.

Back in Element Properties, click Select members.

Use mouse to select the entire model. (You can click and draw a box around the

entire model to select it.) Click Add. Click Apply.

7. Load Boundary Conditions

In order to have both the convection on top and on the bottom as well as the and

base temperature

BC on the model, all 3 boundary conditions must be combined into a

single load case.

In TM, select Load Cases.

In SM, Action=Create, Load case name, type fin_case.

In Description, type: h=30 on fin with base= 200C.

and ambient=25C.

Click on Assign/Prioritize BC under the Select Individual Loads/BC

Click on conve_bot-convec and then on conve_top-convec and then on

temp_basetemp

As you click on these each of the 3 is added to the Assigned Load/BC

At the bottom of the menu, click OK

Back in the Load Case RM, click Apply

8. Analyze (solve) for temperature.

In TM select Analysis. In SM, Action= Analysis Object = entire model,

Method = Full Run, Job name = fin

Click translation Parameters and set output to Op2 & Print

Click, OK

Back in the Analysis RM, click Solution Type

Choose Steady State Analysis

Click OK

Back in the Analysis RM, choose Subcase Create

Under Available Subcases, select fin_case

Under Available Loadcases, select fin_case

Click Apply

Click Cancel

Back in the Analysis RM, click Subcase Select

Under Subcases for Solution Sequence 153, select fin_case

84

Under Subcases Selected, click on Default (this removes default from the

list)

Click OK

Back in Analysis SM Click Apply

9. To read in the results for post-processing

.In the RM=Analysis

Set Action = Read Output2; Object = Results Entities; Method = Translate

Click Select Results File

A SM appears called Select File

Click the file fin.op2

(You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the

file. If this file does not exist, then you have made a mistake in

constructing your model. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and

choose Explore) and find the file fin.log and fin .f06. Open these

files by double clicking on them and search for the word “error” or

“fatal” to determine what your mistake is).

fin.op2 then appears in the File Name box

Click OK

(back in the Analysis menu)

Click Apply

10. Select the TM Results

A RM will appear called Results

Set Action = Create

Object = Quick Plot

You can display different results, but the main focus will be on the temperatures.

11. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting.

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Save

On the TM select File

From the pull down menu select Quit

VI. EXERCISES:

I. Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the problem found from

a Heat Transfer text. How do the results compare. Discuss any discrepancies.

II. Create the temperature plot. Does the distribution make physical sense? Why

or why not?

III. What assumptions are we making that might significantly affect the reliability

of the results?

MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 1 MODELING A BAR PROBLEM

I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM

In the simple bar problem below, there are three separate sections of the bar. Each section has different properties. The following properties apply, Al àAluminum, St à Steel, E for Steel = 200 E9 Pa, E for Al = 70 E9 Pa All Bars have square cross section and the right and left ends of the bar are built in. The force "F" = 9000 Newtons

F Al

Al

St

The 2-d model of the problem is shown below.

Al St 2 cm 5cm

F Al F 1 cm

5 cm

5 cm

10cm

2

II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available. Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the displacements and stresses throughout the bar. The problem is indeterminant because there are two reactions (one at each wall) and only one relevant equilibrium equation ( ∑ Fx = 0 ). Therefore, it is necessary to use the Mechanics of materials (stress and or displacement) equations as well as the force equilibrium equations to solve the problem. The normal stress due to axial loading is given by : σ xx = P A , where P is the internal force in the axial direction and A is the cross sectional area of the bar. The displacements are computed from u = and E is the Elastic (Young’s) modulus. Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are: 1. Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive? 2. What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces? 3. Where will the displacements be greatest? 4. How do the displacements vary along the length (linear, quadratic etc.)? 5. What will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses? 6. Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements? Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions for the stresses and displacements, will provide reinforcement that your computational model is correctly constructed.

PL here L is the bar’s length AE

III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL Some general notes on PATRAN: A general finite element analysis can be broken down into 3 principle tasks; preprocessing, analysis and post processing. The preprocessing task includes building the geometric model, building the finite element model, giving these elements the correct properties, setting the boundary conditions and loading conditions and finally, assembling these elements into a connected structure for analysis. The analysis stage simply solves for the unknown degrees of freedom, as well as reactions and stresses. In the postprocessing stage, the results are evaluated and displayed. The accuracy of these results is postulated during this postprocessing task. The Patran and Nastran software together perform all 3 of the principle tasks of a finite element analysis. The pre and post processors are unique to PATRAN itself. However, this package allows the user to do the actual solution analysis on a variety of different packages. At many sites you have the option of using the MSC/Nastran package, which is probably the most widely used solver in industry. Many of the other packages commonly used in industrial settings (ABAQUAS, ANSYS, MARC) are also compatible with PATRAN.

3

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The exact details of the formulation of the rod elements in MSC/Nastran is given in the MSC/Nastran manuals and is somewhat lengthy. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 2 node rod element is not difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the convergence and other accuracy studies. This basic form can be found in any standard text of finite element analysis. For Example see Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, by R.D. Cook, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE BAR PROBLEM USING MSC/PATRAN Unless you have used the PATRAN software numerous times in the past, the steps shown below should be followed exactly. However, in order to prepare you to do independent finite element work using PATRAN in the future, you are encouraged to go back after you have completed the assignment and investigate modeling options using different PATRAN selections. Also, I encourage you to take notes as you go through this exercise in order to prepare for the time when you will be asked "build a certain geometric structure" or "apply a certain type of boundary condition" with out being given the specific steps for carrying out this task.

The MSC/Patran program is menu driven much in the same way that most Windows programs are driven. Selecting a category from a menu may result in a pull down set of options or in a subordinate menu. Selections in menus may be in the form of buttons to turn on or off, or in the form of boxes which require text. Text entered into boxes may be changed by positioning the cursor at the point of text insertion and either typing the new text or erasing the incorrect text. A standard finite element analysis normally proceeds across the top menus starting with Geometry and ending with Results. Selecting one of these top menus results in a set of menus which allow you to complete that task in the analysis process. Generally, it is best to attempt to proceed from the top of these menus toward the bottom, answering questions as you go. Preliminaries for using MSC Patran and Nastran normally include: 1) Log in to the machine. 2) Change to the directory that you wish to contain your results. 3) To start the program MSC/Patran, click on Start/Programs/MSC(common) and choose MSC Patran 90.

In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used:

4

TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. then switch the directory to the local directory c:\MSC Under New Database Name enter bar. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus. Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box.0] [.db .0. SM = Subordinate Menu. this indicates a click with the left mouse button.default_viewport .0. RM = Right Menu.0] [. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu.10.0.db Click OK The geometry of the structure will be determined next: From the TM choose Geometry A RM called Geometry will result Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 1 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the point coordinates list: [0.entity" main viewport) The next job is to connect these points to form 3 lines: While still in the Geometry RM. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New A SM called New Database pops up Turn off (no check) Modify Preferences If the new database for has come up showing a directory on a remote computer (as opposed to a directory on the local machine). Click = Unless otherwise stated.0] [.05.0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply ( At this point 4 points should appear on your "bar.default_group .20.0. Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Turn off the Auto Execute button if it is on 5 .

This line should be named line 2) Click in the Starting Point List box Click on node 3 in the main viewport Click in the Ending Point List box Click on the point 4 in the main viewport Click on Apply (A line will be drawn from point 3 to point 4. follow the procedure below from left to right regardless of point numbers) Click in the Starting Point List box Click on node 1 in the main viewport.2.4 numbered from left to right in the main viewport. This line should be named line 1) Click in the Starting Point List box Click on point 2 in the main viewport. This line should be named line 3) The finite element mesh is specified next: From the TM choose Elements A RM appears called Finite Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Seed Type = Uniform Select Number of Elements (button down) Number = 1 Turn off the Auto Execute (button up) Click in Curves List box Click on the left most curve in the main viewport (The words "Curve 1" will be added to the Curve List) Click Apply (circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve) Click Curve List box Click on the center curve in the main viewport (the words "Curve 2" will be added to the Curve List) Click Apply 6 .( for the following. Click in the Ending Point List box Click on the point 2 in the main viewport Click on Apply (A line will be drawn from point 1 to point 2. Click in the Ending Point List box Click on the point 3 in the main viewport Click on Apply (A line will be drawn from point 2 to point 3.3. If the numbers are not in that order. it is assumed that you have created points 1.

005 Click Apply (at the bottom of the RM) (The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 2 nodes were deleted.(circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve) Click Curve List box Click on right most curve in the main viewport (the words "Curve 3" will be added to the Curve List) Click Apply (circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the curve) (The nodes created above must now be tied together with element s) (up at the top of the RM) Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Type = Curve Click on Bar2 under Element Topology Click Curve List Box Click the left most curve in the main viewport (should be curve 1) Click Apply Click Curve List Box Click the middle curve in the main viewport (should be curve 2) Click Apply Click Curve List Box Click the right most curve in the main viewport (should be curve 3) Click Apply (numbers for the nodes will appear over the geometry points) (up at the top of the RM) Set Action = Equivalence Object = All Type = Tolerance Cube (The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another) Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to . In addition circles will appear over the ends of the middle curve to indicate the equivalencing of the "overlapping" nodes) The boundary conditions are specified next: From the TM choose Load/BC's A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as 7 .

0.... a SM appears Set Input Translations to <0.RLClamp ( This is for the right and left clamping of the bar structure) Click Input Data.0> Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK (back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region Turn on the Geometry (button down) Click in box under Select Geometric Entities A Patran item menu appears (just to the left of the RM) Click on the picture with a point in this menu In the main view port.. Next Click point 2 in the main view port (assuming point 2 is the right most point in the bar structure) A SM called Selection Choices appears Choose Point 2 Click Add (The Application Region box should now have the words "Point1 2" in it and the Select Geometric Entities box should be empty) Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (3 displacement constraint arrows should now appear in the main viewport window on the extreme right and on the extreme left points in the bar structure) The loads are specified next: (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) change Action = Create Object = Force Type = Nodal Change the New Set Name to axial3 Click Input Data. a SM appears 8 . click on the left most point on the line A SM called Selection Choices appears Choose Point 1 ( This will cause the words "Point 1" (assuming point 1 is the leftmost point on the line) to appear in the Select Geometric Entities box in the RM) Click on Add just below this box ( This will remove the words "Point 1" from the Select Geometric Entities box and add them to the Application Region box) Click in the Select Geometric Entities box again.

blank) Click OK (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) Click Select Application Region a Select Application menu appears as well as a small Patran item menu In the Select Applications menu.Enter the force vector <1.3 Click OK Back in the Materials RM. turn on the Geometry Filter Next. click on the 3rd point from the left (its number (should be Point 4) will be added to the Select Geometric Entities list) Click Add (the point’s number will be added to the Application Region list) Click OK (Load/BC's menu now reappears) Click Apply (bottom of the RM) (A vector with the load should appear on the 3rd point from the left in the viewport) main The materials are specified next: On the TM select Materials a RM will appear called Materials Set Action = Create Object = Isotropic Method = Manual Input Click Material Name box Input the name Steel Click Input Properties SM called Input Options appears Input Elastic Modulus = 2. click Apply Click Material Name box Input the name to be Aluminum Click Input Properties box SM called Input Options appears 9 .0> leave the moments < > (i.8E4. click in the box labeled Select Geometric Entities Click in the Patran item menu (just to the left of the RM) on the point icon In the main viewport.0.e.0E11 Input Poisson = 0.

. click Apply (The Existing Materials box should have Steel and Aluminum in it) The properties for each element are assigned next: On the TM select Properties a RM will appear called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 1d Type = rod Click Property Set Name box Enter bar1 Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "Steel" in the Materials Property Set box ( the words m:Steel will appear in the Material Name box) Click in the Area box Enter 0. The exact syntax m:Steel is necessary) (Back in the Element Properties RM) Click Select Members box a Patran item menu will appear to the left of the RM In the item menu. click in the box which contains the element with end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the left box) (This allows you to pick finite element entities as opposed to the geometric entities in the other box) Click on element 1 in the main viewport (element 1 is the left most element in the bar structure) (The words Elm 1 will appear in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Element 1 appear in the Application Region box) Click Apply in the Element Properties menu (Bar 1 will be added to the Existing Property Sets box) Change Property Set Name to bar2 Click Input Properties.0004 Click OK (note: If you just input the word Steel in the Material Name box.3 Click OK Back in the Materials RM.. the element will not have the correct properties.0E10 Input Poisson = 0.Input Elastic Modulus = 7. a SM called Input Properties will appear Click the Material Name box 10 .

0001 Click OK Click the Select Members box A Patran item menu appears just to the left of the RM In this item menu. click in the right box which contains the element with end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the other box) Click on element 3 in the main viewport (Element 3 is the right most element in the bar structure) (The words Elm 3 appears in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Element 3 appear in the Application Region box) ( Note: If anything other than Element 3 is in the Application Region box. it must be deleted. click in the box which contains the element with end nodes (as opposed to the curve in the other box) Click on element 2 in the main viewport (Element 2 is the middle element in the bar structure) (The words Elm 2 appears in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Element 2 appear in the Application Region box) ( Note: If anything other than Element 2 is in the Application Region box. it must be deleted. a SM called Input Properties will appear Click the Material Name box Click Aluminum in the Materials Property Sets box (The words m:Aluminum will appear in the Materials Name box) Change the Area to 0.0025 Click OK (Back on the Element Properties Menu) Click the Select Members box A Patran item menu appears just to the left of the RM In this item menu...) Click Apply (The words bar2 will be added to the Existing Properties Sets box) Change Property Set Name to bar3 Click Input Properties.Click Aluminum in the Materials Property Sets box (The words m:Aluminum will appear in the Materials Name box) Change the Area to 0.) Click Apply (The words bar3 will be added to the Existing Properties Sets box) 11 .

The file server for the library is HOPPER.op2 (You may need to use the “find” tools in Windows to locate the file. Occasionally Nastran will put the *. If you cannot find the file on your local hard drive then look on the file servers hard drive. You should be able to access either of these from your local machine over the network) Click OK Back in the Analysis RM Click Apply Next you will post process the results by viewing and exporting them On the TM select Results a RM will appear called Results Set Action = Create 12 .op2 file in a weird place. The file server for the NCL is DFELAB10. Occasionally it even puts the file on the hard drive of the license file server.The analysis is to be done is specified next: On the TM select Analysis a RM will appear called Analysis Set Action = Analyze Object = Entire Model Method = Full Run Click on Translation Parameters a SM will appear Change the Data Output to OP2 and Print Click OK Click on Solution Type a SM will appear Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down) Click OK (back in the analysis menu) Click Apply (The analysis will take a few seconds [maybe 10] to run) In the RM analysis Set Action = Read Output 2 Object = Result Entities Method = Translate Click on Select Results File a SM will appear Find and select the file bar.

It includes numeric results for max and min Stresses as well as color-coded results for the entire beam. Translational Click Apply A Colored picture displaying the displacement results will appear. Static Subcase Under Select Fringe Result Highlight Displacements. Then paste the picture into a word processing document. To save this plot use the “copy to Clipboard” icon (usually just to the right of the print icon) to copy the viewport to the clipboard. tensor Change the Quantity to X Component Under Select Deformation Result Highlight Displacements. It includes numeric results for max and min displacement as well as colorcoded results for the entire beam. If you want to print the viewport directly. you can just use the normal Windows commands (File/Print) Next. Translational Under Select Deformation Result Highlight Displacements. Translational Click Apply A Colored picture displaying the stresses results will appear. Static Subcase Under Select Fringe Result Highlight Stress.Object = Quick Plot A SM appears Under Select Result Case highlight the option Default. If you want to print the viewport directly. you can just use the normal Windows commands (File/Print) Next you will end your PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File 13 . Then paste the picture into a word document. To save this plot use the “copy to Clipboard” icon (usually just to the right of the print icon) to copy the viewport to the clipboard. to see the stresses Under Select Result Case Highlight the option Default.

Are there any physical phenomena that this bar might experience that we have not taken into account? 7. Will it increase the accuracy of the results to use a greater number of elements? Why or why not? 6.f06. EXERCISES: 1. explain how the statically determinant problem gives bounds for the displacements and stresses. If you decide to use this approach. highlight the reaction forces. Hand in the two picture files which have the pictures of your finite element model and the displacement and stress results. 3. 2. Check the problem against some analytic answer to see if your displacement and stress results are the correct order of magnitude.From the pull down menu select Quit VI. Hand in the output file bar. Are these upper or lower bounds? Are your FEA based answers consistent with this analytic check? 5. stresses and the displacements. Will this type of element correctly capture the physics of the problem if the lower force is set to zero and the upper force is maintained at 9000 N? Why or Why not? 14 . In this file. Are any of the members in or close to the plastic range of the material? 4. It might be easiest to solve the statically determinant problem and use that as a bound for the displacements and stresses as opposed to solving the statically indeterminant problem.

study the structure for a few minutes to determine if it has any peculiarities.3 Truss members are (3 cm X 3 cm) square Y P = 100 Newtons 1m X 1m 2m II. The truss geometry is symmetric about the vertical line through the point at which the force is applied. Is the truss constrained from any rigid body displacements or rotations? II. but is free to roll in the X direction. Each of the members is made of aluminum and each has the same cross sectional area. are given below. Ask a few introductory questions: I. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS Before you begin the computational model of the structure. Use the method of sections (or another method if you prefer) to analytically determine the stresses in a few of the members. 15 . The lower right hand corner is constrained in the Y and Z directions. The loading is directed downward.MSC Patran Tutorial # 2 Modeling of a Truss I. What direction do you expect the reactions to be in? III. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM: The truss structure shown below has nine members. as well as physical dimensions. A vertical load of 100 Newtons is applied at the midpoint of the top of the truss. Material properties. The lower left corner of the structure is constrained in all three directions. For the truss below: Young's modulus = 70 x 10 9 N / ( m2 ) (Aluminum) Poisson's ratio = 0. Are there any “zero-force” members in the truss? V. What magnitudes should the directions have? IV.

there are nine elements and six nodes in this structure. This spatial extrapolation is in the form of a transformation of the axial direction of the arbitrarily oriented bar into the global (fixed) coordinate system. are not accounted for by this particular element. Torsion of the members is also neglected. The elements can only model axial (membrane) deformations. The procedure called "equivalencing" in MSC/PATRAN creates a single node from two or more nodes which have the same physical location. This is demonstrated in other tutorials. Note that it is not necessary to carefully number the nodes of the structure for minimization of the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. this non-bending assumption is representative of pinned joints (for 2-D) or spherical joints (for 3-D). It is also possible to position loads on geometric entities like points and surfaces instead of on finite element entities like nodes. The results of the transformation is found in the following stiffness matrix for the two dimensional case. 16 . The boundary conditions are established by constraining the displacements at the lower left node to be zero in all 3 directions and the lower right node to be zero in the Y and Z directions. The neglect of torsion and bending are very common assumptions in truss problems. THE FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The finite elements used to model two and three dimensional truss structures are actually just the simple 2-node bar elements spatially extrapolated to function in two or three dimensional space.III. Each element is originally created with two unique nodes which no other element shares. Bending type deformations. These elements have three displacement degrees of freedom per node. each truss member becomes a separate curve in the geometric portion of the database. This type of modeling assumption should be carefully considered. The code automatically renumbers the nodes for bandwidth minimization before solving the system of equations. however. as these are higher order effects in a great number of truss type structures. Therefore. that there are some situations where these assumptions would not allow your model to correctly capture the physics of the problem. In this manner. It should be noted. the geometry is specified by creating the MSC/Patran geometric entity called a "curve" between each of the truss’s joints. after equivalencing. Physically. which are evidenced by rotation of the element cross section. The lengths and directions of the curves correspond to those of the members in the physical truss structure. The loading is modeled with a single concentrated force of magnitude 100 on the center node of the top of the structure. THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL In the modeling instructions below. IV. Material properties and lengths are input corresponding to the figure of the truss above. Each of the truss members is modeled using a single 2-node rod element.

v 2 }. E. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. this type of analysis does not have the ability to correctly model stresses which are not in the elastic range of the material (i. c2 A E cs K = L − c 2 − cs cs s2 − cs − s2 − c2 − cs c2 cs − cs − s2 cs s2 where the order of the degrees of freedom is {u1 . bending and torsion effects are not included in this model nor is it possible to load the structure with moments. then to MSC Patran 90. Also. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING THE TRUSS MODEL USING PATRAN Preliminaries for using MSC/PATRAN include: 1) Log on to the computer 2) Change to the directory that you wish to contain your analysis results 3) Left click START (lower left corner of the NT desktop). The orientation of the bar and the angle θ are shown below. geometric nonlinearities). The c and s in the matrix stand for Cos ( θ ) and Sin ( θ ) respectively. does not have the ability to model large deformations and will not warn the user in case of buckling type failures (i. The A. in the manner it is used in this analysis. then top MSC (common). the element. v1 . u 2 . the following abbreviations and terms will be used: TM = Top Menu. V. Young's (elastic) modulus and axial length respectively. go to PROGRAMS. material nonlinearities). and L are the cross sectional area.e. 17 . In the instructions below. V2 U2 V1 O Y X U1 This element does not have any stiffness associated with rotational degrees of freedom.e. This will bring up the MSC/Patran Program. Therefore. Similarly.

0. 1. SM = Subordinate Menu. this indicates a click with the left mouse button. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New Database A SM called New Database pops up Turn off (button up) Modify Preferences Under New Database Name enter truss.0> Enter the following into the Origin Coordinates list: <0. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. Click = Unless otherwise stated.0.0> (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) 18 .RM = Right Menu.db Click OK A menu called New Model Preferences will appear Select Tolerance to be based on the model Set Model Dimension = 2.0 Analysis code = MSC/Nastran Analysis Type = structural Click OK 2. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. The geometry of the truss will be determined next: From the TM choose Geometry A RM called Geometry will result Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = XYZ Set the Curve ID list to 1 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button (uncheck) Enter the following into the Vector Coordinates list: <1. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus. Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box.

These commands generate lines based on the origin and the vector for that particular truss member. This will erase the LAST CONSTRUCTION COMMAND ONLY. it will take the process back to before you hit the Apply button the last time.0.0.0> Leave the Rotations blank Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK (back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region a SM called Select Application Region appears with a Select menu on its left edge.0> <1. XYZ do NOT work based on the coordinates of the 2 end points of the truss member.0> <0.0> <0. a SM appears Set Load/BC Scale Factor = 1.0> <2.0> <1.0> <1.1.0.0> Origin Coordinates <0..0> <1.0> <0.0. Line.1.0> <1.0.0> <0.0> <0.1.Click Apply Build the rest of the truss using the following table Line Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Vector Coordinates <1. 3.0> <0.1. Set Translations to <0.0.1.1.0> <1. In the Select Application Region SM Turn on the Geometry (button down) 19 .0.0> Note that the commands Construct.0. The boundary conditions are specified next: From the TM choose Load/BC's A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as leftfix ( This is for the clamping of the left most bottom nodes) Click Input Data.0.0> <1.0> <1.1. Note that if you make a mistake you can erase by clicking on the undo button on the top of the PATRAN desktop. In other words.-1.0..0.0> <1.

a SM appears Set Load/BC Scale Factor = 1. This ensures that the X direction is NOT constrained Leave the Rotations blank Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK (back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region a SM called Select Application Region appears with a Select menu on its left edge. Set Translations to < ..2.bottom Click in box under Select Geometric Entities In the Select Menu (which is just to the left of the SM) Click on the picture with a point In the main view port. ( This will cause the words "Point 1" to appear in the Select Geometric Entities box in the RM) Click on Add just below this box ( This will remove the words "Point 1" from the Select Geometric Entities box and add them to the Application Region box) Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (3 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 1. In the Select Application Region SM Turn on the Geometry (button down) Click in box under Select Geometric Entities 20 ..3 should now appear in the main viewport window on the extreme right point on the bottom of the truss) Back in the RM called Load/Boundary Conditions Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as rightfix ( This is for the clamping of the right most bottom nodes) Click Input Data. Choose Point 1.0> Note the space left in before the first comma in the Translations vector. click on point 1 (left most point on the edge) A Selection Choices menu will appear.0.

3 should now appear in the main viewport window on the extreme right point on the bottom of the truss) 4. -100 . click on the point 4 (top center point) (point 4 will be added to the Select Geometric Entities list) In the Select Application Region menu Click Add (Point 4 will be added to the Application Region list) Click OK 21 . click on point 5 (right most point on the edge) A Selection Choices menu will appear..bottom In the Select Menu (which is just to the left of the SM) Click on the picture with a point In the main view port. ( This will cause the words "Point 5" to appear in the Select Geometric Entities box in the RM) Click on Add just below this box ( This will remove the words "Point 5" from the Select Geometric Entities box and add them to the Application Region box) Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (2 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 2. The loads are specified next: (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) change Action = Create Object = Force Type = Nodal Change the New Set Name to topload Click Input Data. a SM appears Enter the force vector <0 . 0> leave the moments < > (i.. Choose Point 5. blank) Click OK (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) Click Select Application Region A SM called Select Application Region appears with a select menu just to its left In the Select Application Region menu Select the Geometry Filter = Geometry Click in the Select Geometry Entities box In the select menu to the left of the SM Click on the point icon In the main viewport.e.

(The nodes created above must now be tied together with elements) (up at the top of the RM) Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Type = Curve Click on Bar2 under Element Topology Click Curve List Box Click curve 1 in the main viewport Click Apply Do the same for curves 2-9 To see the element numbers on the truss. This is the bottom left part of the truss) (The words "Curve 1" will be added to the Curve List) Click Apply (circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on points 1 and 2) Do the same for curves 2-9. This adds a label control tool bar which allows you to turn on/off labels for different geometric and/or finite element entities. The finite element mesh is specified next: From the TM choose Elements A RM appears called Finite Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Seed Type = Uniform Select Number of Elements (button down) Number = 1 Turn off the Auto Execute (button up) Click in Curves List box Click on curve 1 in the main viewport (curve 1 is the line between point 1 and point 2. (up at the top of the RM) Set Action = Equivalence Object = All 22 .(Load/BC's menu now reappears) Click Apply (A vector with the load of magnitude 100 in the –Y direction will appear on point 4 in the main viewport) 5. click the “Label Control” button (Looks like an “L”) on the top row menu.

0E10 Input Poisson = 0.3 OK Back in the Materials RM Click Apply (The Existing Materials box should have Aluminum in it) 7.0009 (recall that the member’s cross section was 3cm x 3cm square) Click OK 23 . The properties for each element are assigned next: On the TM select Element Properties a RM will appear called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 1d Type = Rod Click Property Set Name box Enter truss1 Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "Aluminum" in the Materials Property Set box ( the words m:Aluminum will appear in the Material Name box) Click in the Area box Enter . The materials are specified next: On the TM select Materials a RM will appear called Materials Set Action = Create Object = Isotropic Method = Manual Input Click Material Name box Input the name to be Aluminum Click Input Properties box SM called Input Options appears Input Elastic Modulus = 7.Type = Tolerance Cube (The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another) Leave the Nodes to be Excluded list blank Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .001 Click Apply (The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 12 nodes were deleted) 6.

A "selection box" is formed while you drag. Click and hold down the left mouse button.(Back in the Element Properties RM) Click Select Members box In the select menu just to the left of the SM Click in the box which contains finite element with 2 end nodes (This allows you to pick finite element entities as opposed to the geometric entities in the other box) Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest. Drag the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a point to the right of and below the right-most bottom node. Release the button. (The words Elm 1:9 will appear in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Element 1:9 appears in the Application Region box) Click Apply in the Element Properties menu (truss1 will be added to the Existing Property Sets box) 8. leftmost point on the truss. The analysis is to be done is specified next: On the TM select Analysis a RM will appear called Analysis Set Action = Analyze Object = Entire Model Method = Full Run Click on Solution Type a SM will appear Click on Translation Parameters A SM called Translation Parameters will appear Set Data Output to OP2 and Print Click OK Back in the Analysis RM Set Solution Type = Static (button down) Click OK (back in the RM Analysis) Click Apply (The analysis will take a few seconds to run) Now we’ll read the results into the graphics database (back in the RM Analysis) Set Action = Read Output2 Object = Result Entities 24 .

Also. Recall that there are a number of ways to compute and extrapolate the stresses for a bar and these will make significant differences in the values which are plotted. 10. Translational Click Apply ( A deformed plot appears with colors indicating the level of deformation. choose Displacements. The actual truss deformations are very small.Method = Translate Click on Select Results File Choose truss. Go to the file truss. In this file find the displacement vectors and record the numerical values. Translational Set Quantity = Y Component Under Select Deformation Results.) Back in the Analysis RM Click Apply 9.log or truss. The file containing the written results from the analysis is scaled truss. If this file does not exist. Next you will end your MSC PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Quit 25 . Visualize the results From the TM choose Results A RM called Results appears Set Action = Create Object = Quick Plot Under Select Fringe Result Choose Displacements. then there was an error in your model. as can be seen by the numerical values. find the vectors for the stresses and constraint forces and record these values. Note that the visual deformation of the truss is magnified so that you can see the deformation “mode”. which are NOT scaled) Note that you can also view the stress results in this manner. Tensor from the Select Fringe Result options. Check the written report of the truss results.f06. Open the file (by simply double clicking on it). These will help you answer some of the question below.op2 (you may need to go to the root or home directory to find this. Simply choose Stress. The file might be in the root or home directory or in the directory from which you ran the analysis.f06 to attempt to find out what error occurred.

restoring or reaction forces). 7a. The present model uses a single 2-node bar element for each truss member. If the other data for the problem is input using meters. the term "member" refers to the portion of a truss structure between two joints. could you use this same adjustment to the physical properties to model the truss with hollow members ? 10. the structure will still 26 . How many equations are solved in order to determine the displacements for this structure ? 5. If two nodes in your final truss structure have the exact same physical location but different node numbers. what would the maximum deflection of the truss be ? 11. Would the accuracy of the model increase if two bar elements were used to model each truss member ? Justify your answer. For example. 7b. Remember that this structure only models the membrane (axial) deformation not the bending deformation of each member. QUESTIONS FROM THE TUTORIAL: MODELING A TRUSS The questions below refer to the truss model described at the beginning of this tutorial. the top of this structure has two horizontal members which are connected by the joint at which the load is applied.VII. magnitude and direction with your physical intuition ? 2a. magnitude and direction with your physical intuition ? 3. Does your analysis pass this test ? 8. Assume that the cross sectional area of the truss members is incorrectly input in square cm as opposed to square meters. What is the maximum stress in the structure ? 2b. What assumptions are involved in using this specific element as opposed to using a 2 node beam element with 6 degrees of freedom (3 displacements and 3 rotations) per node ? 6. If you wanted to account for bending deformation in your model. Some truss structures may be designed so that. what will be the difference between the results of your PATRAN analysis and the exact analysis ? ("exact" here refers to the analytic analysis using standard structural analysis methods) 12a. Assuming that the rotations of the cross sections of the bars are small. Assume that the outside diameter is 3 cm and the inside diameter is 2 cm. State how these resultant forces can be used as a "necessary but not sufficient" test of the accuracy of your analysis. what part of the PATRAN analysis procedure has been left out ? 9a. Is this displacement consistent in location. are located at the nodes where the boundary conditions are applied. Is this stress consistent in location. information from the output file truss.f06 will be needed in order to answer many of these questions. 9b. What is the maximum displacement for the structure ? 1b. Also. Are there any members with very low stresses? Does this make physical sense? 4. As used below. The resultant forces (sometimes called constraint. if certain members of the truss are damaged to the extent that they no longer have significant stiffness. How could the element properties be changed to model this truss if the members in the structure were circular hollow aluminum bars. 1a.

Without changing the number of elements in the structure. Predict the deflection if the direction of the load is changed from the negative Y direction.be able to handle reasonable loading. to the Z direction (note from your nodal location information that this truss is located in the X . 12b. Use the method developed in 13a) to determine if one of the diagonal members is redundant. Run the analysis and explain the displacement results. 27 . 13a. 14a. This type of truss assembly is said to have redundant members. 13b. Use the method developed in 13a) to determine if one of the vertical members is redundant. 12c. Run the analysis and explain the displacement results. Predict the effect of removing the displacement boundary condition on the lower right node of the truss structure ? 14b. suggest a method of using MSC PATRAN to determine if there are redundant members in this truss structure.Y plane).

0 m II. Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the max stress (located at the built in edge and on either the top fiber for max tensile stress or the bottom fiber for max compressive stress) and the max displacement (located. The beam has a solid rectangular cross section with thickness in the Z-direction t = 0. of course. This means that both the translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. at the free tip where the load is applied).2 meters. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM The beam below is cantilevered or "built in" on the left edge.0 (as the analytic beam theory we use below does not take Poison’s ration effects into account). Y P=1000 N x h=20 cm L= 6.1 meters and height in the Y-direction h = 0. The material properties for the beam are E= 200 x 109 Pascals (typical for steel) and ν = 0. The set of problems is called "The MacNeal .Harder Test Cases". These equations are given below. This problem is part of a standard set of test cases for finite elements published in a paper by MacNeal and Harder (MacNeal founded the company that makes the FEA code MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/PATRAN). A point or concentrated load of magnitude 1000 N (approximately 225 lb) in the negative Y direction is found at the tip of the beam.MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 3 MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAM WITH END LOAD USING 4 NODE SHELL ELEMENTS I. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available. For the normal stress due to bending: 28 .

Elements that have non-regular shapes are said to be distorted. Increasing the number of elements in a mesh in order to increase the accuracy of the results is called “h” convergence. This creates the cantilevered or built-in.σ xx ( x ) = σ xx − MAX M (x ) y so that the max value located at the built-in edge is I PL( h ) = 1 23 . end condition. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of freedom on the left edge (for both nodes). place a point load of magnitude 1000 on the top right node of the tip (or right-most) element. the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run. we show 5 mesh configurations for the beam (labeled “a” through “e”). quadratic etc. This load will be in the negative Y direction. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models. Distorted elements can cause errors in the FEA results. The geometry will proceed from creation of points to lines to surfaces for this simple model. This can be a significant problem in 29 . Meshes “b” – “e” all have 6 elements. Next. This is discussed in detail in the next paragraph. Next. along with the quantitative analytical solutions for the max stress and displacement will provide reinforcement that your computational model is correctly constructed. but the elements have different orientations. we will build the geometry first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. the material and element properties will be entered. Comparison of results between mesh “a” and mesh “b” will indicate of how the number of elements affects the model’s ability to correctly model a beam problem. we will use 4 node shell elements deforming in their membrane mode to model the beam. bh 12 For the displacement at the tip of the beam (maximum displacement): PL3 δ Y ( x = L) = 3 EI Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are: a) Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive? b) What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces/moments? c) Where will the stresses be zero? d) How do the displacements vary along the length (linear. Finally. In this exercise.)? e) What will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses? f) Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements? Answering these questions qualitatively. III. Then we will. we will vary the exact number and configuration of these elements. Below.

0 m c) 10 Degree Parallelogram Mesh: 30 . The elements in MSC/Nastran have been specifically designed to minimize this unfortunate effect. Meshes for the “h” Convergence & Distortion Analysis I.0 m b) Rectangular 6 Element Mesh: 1000 N 20 cm 6. Evaluating results from the meshes “b” . but some sensitivity to element distortion may still remain.“e” will provide you with some feel for how these elements perform when they are distorted. Rectangular 2 Element Mesh: 1000 N 20 cm 6. Different types of element distortion result in different levels of error.complex meshes as even the best automatic mesh generators often produce some distorted elements.

Typ.0 m e) 45 Degree Trapezoid Mesh: 45 Deg.0 m 31 . Typ. 1000 N 20 cm 6. 1000 N 20 cm 6.10 Degrees Typical 1000 N 20 cm 6.0 m d) 45 Degree Parallelogram Mesh: 45 Deg.

the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node membrane element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the “h” convergence and distortion sensitivity studies. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated.0) (4.0 X 1 2 The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 4 nodes are: NODE 1 2 3 4 (x.0) (4.-1) (1. However.2) (ξ. η) (-1. This basic form is constructed as follows: Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix Assume the element has the configuration shown below: Y 4 4.IV.displacement matrix such that [ B]{u} = {ε} 32 .y) (0.0 3 2.1) (-1.1) Our goal is to find the element stiffness matrix ASSUME: [ K ] = ∫ [ B]T [ E ] [ B] dV V ASSUME: 2 displacement degrees of freedom (dof) per node With : [B] = the strain .-1) (1.2) (0.

y 0 N2. y N3. y 0 N3. v1. x 0 N3. Step 3: Use the Jacobian to find derivatives: x Isoparametric Assumption: = [ N ]{ x1. y3. u3 . x partial differentiation. N2 = (1 + ξ)(1 − η) . v2 . u Step 1: Interpolate the dof: ≈ [ N ]{u1 . y where the commas denote N4. x N3. y N 2. x4 . y N1. x 0 N4. v3 . but from step 1 Relevant strains are {ε } = ε yy = 0 ∂y v v γ ∂ ∂ xy ∂x ∂y u ≈ [ N ]{u} v So {ε} ≈ [ D][ N]{u} = [ B]{u} with [ B] = [ D][ N ] Therefore. x N 2. y 2. y1. 4 4 1 1 (1 + ξ )(1 + η) . x 0 N 2. x [B ] = 0 N1. x3 . y 4}T y 33 . y 0 N1. x N 4.where: {u} is the dof vector and {ε } is the strain vector [E] = the constitutive matrix such that [ E]{ε} = {σ} where {σ} is the stress vector and V = volume. x2 . N1. N4 = (1 − ξ)(1 + η) 4 4 Step 2: Find the [B] matrix: 0 ε xx ∂ ∂x ∂ u = [ D ]u . v4}T = [ N ]{u} v 0 N 2 0 N3 0 N where [N] is the shape function matrix [ N ] = 1 0 N1 0 N 2 0 N3 N4 0 0 N4 and the rules for the shape functions are : 1) Ni must be =1 at node "i" 2) Ni must be =0 at any node not = "i" This leads to the shape functions: N1 = N3 = 1 1 (1 − ξ )(1 − η) . u 4 . u 2 . y 0 N 4.

Gaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element stiffness.ξ N 4.η N 3.n ) i j Where ngj and ngi are the number of gaussian integration points in the “j” and “i” directions respectively and wj and wi are the associated gaussian weighting factors. This takes the form: [ K] = h∑ j=1 ngj ∑ i =1 ngi [ B]T [ E] [ B] J wi w j ( ξ .ξ x2 y 2 ∂ξ The Jacobian matrix [ J ] = ≈ ∂y N1. according to the rules of calculus can be written: [ K ] = t ∫[ B]T [ E] [ B] J dξ dη where J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. ξ −1 i .y i .e. x Ni. Understanding the “h” Convergence Experiment: 34 .η . x1 y1 ∂y ∂x ∂ξ N1.η x3 y3 ∂x ∂η ∂η x4 y 4 Ni .ξ N 3. η N 2.η N 4. y N ξ .i. y i . the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same interpolation functions as the displacements. x η.η 0 − 1 − η 4 1 − ξ 4 0 0 0 = 2 2 So in this particular case: [ J ] = 1 − 1 + η 1 − η 1 + η 4 − 1 + ξ − 1 − ξ 1 + ξ 1 8 0 2 0 = 4 0 4 0 1 1 0 which implies that [ J ] = 2 0 1 −1 This allows us to find the entries in [B] Step 4: Perform the numerical integration: Assume that the element has constant thickness = t implies [ K ] = t ∫[ B]T [ E ] [ B] dx dy A Which. ξ N 2.ξ ξ η N = [ J ] N . x and from chain rule = N i.

the elements in MSC/Nastran are intricately designed to remove as much of this distortion based error as possible. Even then. For this reason. the elements are attempting to capture a cubic behavior by using a series of linear approximations. This is the reason why 2 elements give a higher error than do 6 elements. RM = Right Menu. If the simple standard isoparametric formulation shown above is used. the following abbreviations and terms will be used: TM = Top Menu. As mentioned previously. well-tested finite element codes be used for any critical analysis. Remember that the that the analytic formula for the displacements as a function X (distance from built-in Px 2 (3 L − x ) edge) is: δ y ( x ) = where P is the load. the bi-linear shape functions used to form [J] can no longer exactly capture the geometry and the Jacobian is no longer numerically exact. The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above. the trapaziodal elements (mesh “e” above) would actually “lock” (become very stiff) and the errors in the displacements would be huge (over 90%). This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. Select MSC Patran9. E is the Elastic 6EI Modulus and I is the bending moment in inertia. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. L is the length. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE CANTILEVERED BEAM USING MSC/PATRAN Preliminaries for using PATRAN include: a) Log on to the computer b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop).0. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. its Jacobian matrix (used in steps 3 and 4 above) is numerically exact. V. This equation shows that the displacement is a cubic function of the distance from the cantilever. but this is a good way to conceptually grasp the idea of “h” convergence). Select MSC (common). 35 . the mesh creation section must be adapted to fit that mesh. it is critical that sophisticated. If one wishes to create any of the other meshes. if the element becomes distorted. it is wise to inspect meshes for regions where elements are highly distorted and attempt to create a less distorted mesh in that area. However. the 6 rectangular elements (mesh “b” above) is constructed. In the instructions below. This introduces error into steps 3 and 4 above. The exact form of the element’s distortion determines the amount of error which is introduced.From step 1 above we gain insight into the “h” convergence study. Specifically. As the bi-linear (linear in both ξ and η ) shape functions are used to interpolate the displacements for this 4 node element. go to Programs. Understanding the Distortion Sensitivity Experiment: When an element is rectangular. The number of linear approximations is equal to the number of elements we use (the actual situation when using MSC/Nastran’s 4 node shell element is a little better than this due to the innovative element formulation.

This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus.0.0] Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ 36 .SM = Subordinate Menu.0. this indicates a click with the left mouse button. Click = Unless otherwise stated.0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0. Next set the analysis preference: A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM Under Tolerance choose Based on Model Set Model Dimension to 6. 1. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New A SM called New Database pops up Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences Under File Name enter beam. Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box.0 Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN Choose Analysis Type = Structural click OK 3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next: From the TM choose Geometry A RM called Geometry will result Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 1 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [0.db Click OK 2.

0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [6.0.0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0.2.2.0] Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 4 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [6.Set the Point ID list to 2 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [6.2.0.0.0.0.0] Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Set the Curve ID list to 1 Turn Autoexecute off Set Starting Point List = Point 1 Set Ending Point List = Point 2 Click Apply 37 .0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [6.2.0.0] Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 3 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [0.

a SM called Input Data appears Set Load/BC Scale factor =1 Set Translations to <0.0> Set Rotations to <0... The boundary conditions are specified next: From the TM choose Load/BC's A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as l_cant ( The name can be whatever name you wish.0> Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK (back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region A SM called Select Application Region appears Turn on the Geometry (button down) Click in box under Select Geometric Entities In the Patran Select Menu (just to the left of the RM) 38 . The name l_cant is chosen as this is for the cantilever of the left most nodes) Click Input Data.Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Set the Curve ID list to 2 Turn Autoexecute off Set Starting Point List = Point 3 Set Ending Point List = Point 4 Click Apply Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Surface Method = Curve Set the Surface ID list to 1 Set Patran 2 Convention off Option = 2 Curve Set Manifold off (not checked) Set Starting Curve List = Curve 1 Set Ending Curve List = Curve 2 Click Apply 4.0.0.

1 ( This will cause the words "Surface 1. A Selection Choices SM appears Choose Surface 1.e. Choose the Point 4 option.Click on the curve icon (just under the point icon) In the main view port. blank) Click OK (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) Click Select Application Region a small Patran select menu appears to the left edge of the RM Click in this Patran select menu on the point icon In the main viewport.2.1 " from the Select Geometric Entities box and adds them to the Application Region box) Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should now appear on each point in the main viewport window on the extreme left edge of the beam. -1000 .4.6 will appear with the arrows to show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there) 5.1" to appear in the Select Geometric Entities box in the RM) Click on Add just below this box ( This will remove the words "Surface 1. a SM appears Enter the force vector <0 . The loads are specified next: (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) change Action = Create Object = Force Type = Nodal Change the New Set Name to r_point Click Input Data.. select the left most vertical edge of the beam. Numbers 1. click on the point 4 (top right corner of the beam) A SM called Selection Choices menu appears. 0> leave the moments < > (i. not the Curve or Surface option) (Point 4 will be added to the Select Geometric Entities list) Click Add (Point 4 will be added to the Application Region list) Click OK 39 .5..3.

(Load/BC's menu now reappears) Click Apply (A vector with the 1000 unit downward load should appear on point 4 in the main viewport) 6. in more complicated models. This step will become critical if. The materials are specified next: On the TM select Materials a RM will appear called Materials Set Action = Create Object = Isotropic Method = Manual Input Click Material Name box Input the name to be beam_matl Click Input Properties box 40 . If you want to create only 2 elements (as is needed to answer question #1 below) then set the Global edge length to 3. The finite element mesh is specified next: From the TM choose Elements A RM appears called Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Type = Surface Set Node Id = 1 Set Element Id List = 1 Set Global Edge Length = 1.003 Click Apply (The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 0 nodes were deleted.) 7. you are attempting to join portions of a model which have been meshed separately.0) Set Element Topology = Quad4 Set Mesher = Isomesh Click in the Surface List box Click and drag to select the entire structure The Words "Surface 1" should appear in the Surface List Click Apply Six elements will appear on the structure.0 (This will create 6 elements. Set Action = Equivalence Object = All Type = Tolerance Cube (The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another) Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .

A "selection box" is formed while you drag. (The words Surface 1 will appear in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Surface 1 appears in the Application Region box) Click Apply in the Element Properties menu (beam_prop will be added to the Existing Property Sets box) 41 .0 Click OK Back in the Materials RM Click Apply 8. Release the button. leftmost point on the beam.1 Click OK (Back in the Element Properties RM) Click Select Members box a Patran Select menu will appear on the left edge of the RM Click on the icon which contains the surface or face icon Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest. Click and hold down the left mouse button.0E9 Input Poisson = 0.SM called Input Options appears Input Elastic Modulus =200. The properties for each element are assigned next: On the TM select Properties a RM will appear called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 2d Type = Shell Click Property Set Name box Enter beam_prop Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box at the bottom of the SM ( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at the top of the SM) Click in the Thickness box Enter 0. Drag the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a point to the right of and below the right-most bottom node.

A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced. If this file does not exist.f06. translational In the Apply Fringe Result box click Displacements. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and choose Explore) and find the file beam.9. On the TM select Analysis Set Action = Read Output2 Object = Results Entities Method = Translate Click Select Results File A SM appears called Select File Click the file beam. set Data Output = Op2 and Print Click OK Back in the RM Analysis Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down) Click OK Click Apply (The analysis will take a few seconds to run. A graphical representation of the deformation provides an easy way to help determine if you have constructed your model correctly.op2 then appears in the File Name box Click OK (back in the Analysis menu) Click Apply On the TM select Results A RM will appear called Results Set Action = Create Object = Quick Plot In the Select Fringe Result box click Displacements.op2 (You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the file. beam. translational Set Quantity = Y Component Click Apply 42 . then you have made a mistake in constructing your model. The analysis is to be done is specified next: On the TM select Analysis a RM will appear called Analysis Set Action = Analyze Object = Entire Model Method = Full Run Click Translation Parameters In the SM that appears.log and beam. Open these files by double clicking on them and search for the word “error” to determine what your mistake is). A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran is working may appear) 10.

) Return to your "MacNeal . This time load the structure in the "out-of-plane" or Z direction. Rerun the analysis using the same structural geometry. it may be helpful to use the Results Template included after the exercises. 11.Harder" beam model. If this linear assumption is correct. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting. a) Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the tip deflection and stresses using two elements and using 6 elements along the axis of the beam (see figures “a” – “e” above). your analytic answers for the tip deflection will be different than when you loaded the beam in the Y direction. b) c) 43 . boundary conditions. In addition. To do this you will need to apply 2 equal loads to the 2 nodes on the tip of the beam. loading conditions and material properties as you used previously. Determine which type of distortion appears to be most detrimental to the FEA results by recording specific error percentages for all 4 meshes for both displacements and stresses. EXERCISES: For many of the exercises below. these two errors often occur for approximately the same number of elements. because stresses usually converge more slowly than displacements. This is a small h convergence test. Plot (% error) Vs (number of elements). Assume a linear function from your 2 data points. These loads must be in the Zdirection. compare the percent errors for both displacements and stresses for the meshes b-e. Noting that the elements we are using are "shell" elements (that is they have both membrane AND bending dof). what is the least number of elements you would need to get 1% error in the displacements? What is the least number of elements you would need to get 10% error in the stresses? (Note 1% error in displacements and 10% error in stresses are sometimes used for standard error goals. Again. As the thickness is not the same as the width of the beam.(This will create the deformed plot) Note that stresses can also be plotted from the Results menu by specifying them in the Select Fringe Result section. rerun the four 6-node meshes. On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Quit VI. Compare both the displacement and stress solutions from the FEA with their analytic counterpart. Model the structure with the 4 meshes specified as meshes b-e in the “Geometric Properties” section above.

Rerun the analysis using only rectangular elements. Note that you will need to consult a Mechanics of Materials text for the analytic expressions for the displacements and stresses of a shaft with rectangular cross section. e) f) g) +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ RESULT TEMPLATE +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Analytic tip deflection for the membrane-based case = ________________ Analytic tip deflection for the bending -based case = ________________ Analytic max. ERROR STRESS ERROR 44 . Propose an explanation for the differences. stress for the membrane-based case = ________________ Analytic max. stress for the bending -based case = ________________ Loading Type: MESH 2 element rectangular mesh 6 element rectangular mesh 10 degree parallelograms 45 degree parallelograms 45 degree trapezoids (bending with load in y.d) Determine the numerical values for the Jacobian matrix for an element in one of the distorted meshes. then 6 then 480 elements (by setting the global edge length to 3. Run the analysis using 2. Record the displacement and stress results for the 3 meshes. Compare these errors with those found while using a Poisson’s ratio of zero. MAX. Compute the percent errors for the stresses (using the analytic results as the baseline).3 (normal Poisson’s ratio for steel). bending with load in Z. Change the Poisson’s ratio to 0.05 respectively). torsion) TIP DISPL. STRESS DISPL. Run the 6-element distorted-mesh problems with the load parallel to the long axis (in axial loading) and discuss the resulting errors for both displacements and stresses. Run the 6-element distorted-mesh problems with loads that create torsion and discuss the resulting errors for both displacements and stresses. axial. then 1 then 0.

The weight of this user and accompanying weights is accounted for by a 8 lb per inch load distributed across the 108 inches of the horizontal rectangle.MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL# 4 MODELING A FRAME STRUCTURE (WEIGHT BENCH) USING BEAM ELEMENTS I. This accounts for some impact load as well as the static force of a fully loaded bar. The weight of a user is assumed to be distributed across the rectangular box which sits in the horizontal plane. This is intended to model the physics of someone pushing the bar horizontally (in the Y direction) against the cradle supports as they remove the bar to begin the bench press exercise. there is a 100 lb per upright force in the horizontal direction. 45 . The weight on the uprights is assumed to be 500 lb max on each upright. In addition to the vertical force. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM The frame structure (weight lifting bench) below has the 4 legs that are attached to the floor.

These results can be used to give basic analytic comparison solutions for certain sections of the structure. this means that ZL is the coordinate down the long axis of the beam. the material and element properties will be entered. {bo} X {ZL} = {XL}. the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run. An Example is shown below: 46 . This creates the cantilevered or built-in. Obviously. This value determines how the cross section will oriented. Any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the stress and the displacements for built in and simply supported beams as well as axial loads. we will build the geometry first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry.II. Finally. end conditions for these sections of the frame. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily available if we think about the problem in sections. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of freedom on the 4 legs. imagine that the graphic of the cross section (which is shown on the library menu) has a local coordinate system with XL being the horizontal andYL being the vertical coordinates respectively (see figure below). These properties include various cross sections and wall thickness. Next. we will use 2 node beam elements to model the frame. A vertical load of 8 lb per inch is placed on the horizontal bench section (rectangle in the XY plane). The menu that allows you to pick the properties of the beam cross section requires a value for “Beam Orientation” . III. then the following relationship can be used to specify our values for the components of {bo}. The geometry will proceed from creation of points to curves for this simple model. In particular. As can be seen in the step by step instructions below. Patran has a library of beam cross sections that can be used for frame analysis. One particular feature of note is the manner in which the orientation of the cross section is specified. Next. A 100 lb load in the horizontal direction is also placed at that same node. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models. Then we will place a point load of magnitude 500 in the –Y direction on the top nodes of each of the uprights (where the weight bar would rest). If we label the “Beam Orientation” vector {bo}.

Consider the following cross section and the orientation of the cross section on the 2 beams in the picture.

YL

XL

For the section of the beam that has its long axis down the global X axis, the Beam Orientation vector {bo} is set to {0,1,0} This results in the orientation of the cross section as shown because {bo} X {ZL} = {XL} à {0,1,0} X {1,0,0} = {0,0,1}. So the choice of {bo} = {0,1,0} results in the global Z axis (i.e. {0,0,1}) being the local X-axis as seen in the graphic of the cross section. Note that this same choice for {bo} will result in the orientation for the section of the beam that has its long axis in the {1,1,0} direction above. This is because, for that case {bo} X {ZL} = {XL}. = {0,1,0} X {1,1,0} = {0,0,1}. This procedure is used below, in the step-by-step procedure, to determine the choice of{bo} in the beam library menu.

IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The exact details of the formulation of the 2 node beam elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 2 node beam

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element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the general application areas and “h” convergence of these elements. This basic formulation for the 2 node isoparametric beam can be found in the almost any Finite Elements text (see for example Finite Elements for Stress Analysis, R.D. Cook, John Wiley & Sons, 1995) .

V.

STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE FRAME USING MSC/PATRAN & MSC/NASTRAN

Preliminaries for using PATRAN include: a) Log on to the computer b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop), go to Programs, Select MSC (common), Select MSC Patran9.0. The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above. The instructions are NOT as detailed as I have given in other problems as I expect that you have begun to get a feel for how to do certain tasks in Patran. In the instructions below, the following abbreviations and terms will be used: TM = Top Menu. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. RM = Right Menu. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. SM = Subordinate Menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu. Click = Unless otherwise stated, this indicates a click with the left mouse button. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus. Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box. 1. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New A SM called New Database pops up Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences Under File Name enter bench.db Click OK 2. Next set the analysis preference:

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A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM Under Tolerance choose Based on Model Set Model Dimension to 40.0 Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN Choose Analysis Type = Structural click OK

3. The geometry of the beam will be determined next: From the TM choose Geometry A RM called Geometry will result Set Action = Create Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 1 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [2,0,0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [2,0,0]

Using the same approach, create each of the other points in this table Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 X 2 16 2 16 18 0 18 0 16 2 18 0 Y 0 0 0 0 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 Z 0 0 18 18 0 0 38 38 18 18 18 18

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Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Set the Curve ID list to 1 Turn Autoexecute off Set Starting Point List = Point 1

Set Ending Point List = Point 3

Click Apply

Using the same approach, create each of the other curves in this table Curve 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Beginning Point 1 2 4 4 11 11 11 9 12 12 12 3 Ending Point 3 4 9 3 7 5 9 10 10 8 6 10

4. The boundary conditions are specified next: From the TM choose Load/BC's A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as cant ( The name can be whatever name you wish. The name cant is chosen as this is for the cantilever of the leg ends which contact the floor) Click Input Data... a SM called Input Data appears Set Load/BC Scale factor =1 Set Translations to <0,0,0> Set Rotations to <0,0,0> Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK

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The finite element mesh is specified next: From the TM choose Elements A RM appears called Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Seed Type = Uniform Choose the Number of Elements option Set the number of elements to 4 We want each of the 12 curves to have 4 elements.2.0 Set Element Topology = Bar 2 Click in the Curve List box Click and drag to select the entire structure Click Apply Four elements will appear on each of the curves in the structure. Back at the top of the RM called Elements Set Action = Equivalence Object = All 51 .5.5. To ensure this.6 Click on Add just below this box Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should now appear on each point in the main viewport window on the extreme lower edge of the bench’s legs.(back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region A SM called Select Application Region appears Turn on the Geometry (button down) Click in box under Select Geometric Entities A Selection Choices SM appears Choose points 1. in the Curve List Box enter Curve 1:12 Click APPLY A set of mesh seeds will appear to show the density of nodes. Numbers 1.4. Back at the top of the RM called Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Type = Curve Set Node Id = 1 Set Element Id List = 1 Set Global Edge Length = 1.6 will appear with the arrows to show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there) 5.3.2.

This step is CRITICAL as it “attaches” the nodes together at the frame junctions) 6.0E6 Input Poisson = 0. The properties for each element are assigned next: On the TM select Properties a RM will appear called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 1d Type = Beam Click Property Set Name box Enter square_prop We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have square cross sections.Type = Tolerance Cube (The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another) Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to . set the option to Vector 52 . set the option to Dimensions Click in the Section name box and input square_sect Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box.02 Click Apply (The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that some nodes were deleted. The materials are specified next: On the TM select Materials a RM will appear called Materials Set Action = Create Object = Isotropic Method = Manual Input Click Material Name box Input the name to be beam_matl Click Input Properties box SM called Input Options appears Input Elastic Modulus 30. These parts are the 4 legs and the 2 uprights(which would hold the actual weight bar) Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box at the bottom of the SM ( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at the top of the SM) Just to the right of the Section Name box.3 Click OK Back in the Materials RM Click Apply 7.

0 Set t1 = . Click Apply Click OK (if a menu asks if you wish to over write say YES) Click Cancel Back in the Input Properties Menu. Click this graphic.125 If you want to see the information on the cross sectional properties (which will come in handy when doing the analytical comparison calculation later) click on the Calculate/Display button.Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <1. In this case it is critical that the large dimension of the cross section be oriented to provide the max bending moment of inertia “I” . These members will have a 2 in x 1 in hollow cross section with . In the upper right part of the window: Set W = 1.125 Set t2 = .0. Back in the RM called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 1d Type = Beam Click Property Set Name box Enter rectY_prop We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have rectangular cross sections and run in the Y direction Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties 53 . click OK Back in the Properties RM Click in the Select Members box Choose the 4 legs and the 2 uprights (this is 6 curves and all the vertical members) Click Add Click Apply Now we’ll create the properties for the horizontal members.0 Set H = 1.0> Click on the ICLBeam Library button A SM appears called Beam Library Set Action = Create Dimension = Standard Shape Type = Nastran Standard Set the New Section Name to Square1 Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the < and > buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures) until you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall thickness (on the lowest row).125 wall thickness. so the larger (2 in) dimension must be the vertical dimension of the cross section.

Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box at the bottom of the SM ( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at the top of the SM) Just to the right of the Section Name box. Click this graphic Set W = 2. set the option to Vector Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <1. Click Apply Click OK (if a menu asks if you wish to over write say YES) Click Cancel Back in the Input Properties Menu. set the option to Dimensions Click in the Section name box and input rectY_sect Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box.125 If you want to see the information on the cross sectional properties (which will come in handy when doing the analytical comparison calculation later) click on the Calculate/Display button.125 Set t2 = .0.0 Set t1 = . click OK Back in the Properties RM Click in the Select Members box Choose the 2 horizontal members that have their long axis in the Y direction (curves 3 & 12) Click Add Click Apply Back in the RM called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 1d Type = Beam Click Property Set Name box 54 .0 Set H = 1.0> Click on the ICLBeam Library button A SM appears called Beam Library Set Action = Create Dimension = Standard Shape Type = Nastran Standard Set the New Section Name to RectY Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the < and > buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures) until you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall thickness (on the lowest row).

7.Enter rectX_prop We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have rectangular cross sections and run in the X direction Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box Click on the word "beam_matl" in the Material Property Sets box at the bottom of the SM ( the words m:beam_matl will appear in the Material Name box at the top of the SM) Just to the right of the Section Name box.125 If you want to see the information on the cross sectional properties (which will come in handy when doing the analytical comparison calculation later) click on the Calculate button.0 Set H = 1. Click this graphic Set W =2. say YES) Click Cancel Back in the Input Properties Menu. click OK Back in the Properties RM Click in the Select Members box Choose the 4 horizontal members that have their long axis in the X direction (curves 4. set the option to Vector Click in the Bar Orientation box and enter the vector <0. Click Apply Click OK ( if you are asked to overwrite. Click Add Click Apply 55 . These 4 include 2 curves that attach the uprights to the rectangular horizontal supports.0> Click on the ICLBeam Library button A SM appears called Beam Library Dimension = Standard Shape Type = Nastran Standard Set the New Section Name to RectX Scroll through the various possible cross sections using the < and > buttons (under the 3x3 set of cross section pictures) until you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall thickness (on the lowest row).9) Note that there are 4 members that have their long axis aligned with the X axis.8. not just 2.1.0 Set t1 = . set the option to Dimensions Click in the Section name box and input rectX_sect Just to the right of the Bar Orientation box.125 Set t2 = .

The loads are specified next: Click the TM = Loads/BC The RM Loads/BC pops up. click on the points 7 & 8 (top of the uprights on the bench) Add these points to the application region Click OK (Load/BC's menu now reappears) Click Apply (A vector with the 510 unit downward and backward load should appear on points 7 & 8 in the main viewport) Back in the main RM Loads/BC Action = Create Object = Distributed Load Type = Element Uniform Set NewSet Name = d-load Set Target Element Type = 1-d Click Input Data In the resulting SM Set the forces to <0.. If you wish to see the cross sections shaded. blank) Click OK (Continuing on in the Load/BC's RM) Click Select Application Region a small Patran select menu appears close to the RM Click in this Patran select menu on the point icon In the main viewport. -500 > Leave the moments < > (i. change the default 1-D Line to 3-D Full Span and hit Apply (at the bottom of the SM ). 100 . a SM appears Enter the force vector <0. go to the TM = Display. you can use the TM shading icon (solid shaded box.8> Leave the moments blank Click OK Back in the Loads/BC RM Click Select Application Region 56 .0. Under Beam Display. just to the right of the little wire frame icons) 8. Set Action = Create Object = Force Type = Nodal Change the New Set Name to weights Click Input Data.In order to see if the cross sections are correctly aligned..e. This will turn on display of the cross sections. then select Load/BC/Elem Props… in the RM that appears.

8. beam. The easiest way to fix this is to remove the distributed load from those elements where it is in the wrong directions and create a second distributed force set that has the values <0.12 (these are the 4 beams in the XY plane that form the rectangle) Click Add Click OK Back in the RM click Apply Note: if the forces that appear on the main view screen are not in the correct direction. then you have made a mistake in constructing your model.0. A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran is working may appear) 10. Open these files by double clicking on them and search for the word “error” or “fatal” to determine what your mistake is). then you probably flipped one of the curve beginning/ending points. A graphical representation of the deformation provides an easy way to help determine if you have constructed your model correctly. On the TM select Analysis Set Action = Read Output2 Object = Results Entities Method = Translate Click Select Results File A SM appears called Select File Click the file bench.op2 (You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the file.In the resulting RM Turn on FEM as the Geometry filter Select all the elements along the curves 3. 9.log and bench.-8> and apply it to these elements. A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced. The analysis is to be done is specified next: On the TM select Analysis a RM will appear called Analysis Set Action = Analyze Object = Entire Model Method = Full Run Click Translation Parameters In the SM that appears.f06.op2 then appears in the File Name box 57 . If this file does not exist. set Data Output = Op2 and Print Click OK Back in the RM Analysis Set Solution Type = Linear Static (button down) Click OK Click Apply (The analysis will take a few seconds to run.4. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and choose Explore) and find the file bench.

by default. What do you conclude? 58 . EXERCISES: 1. Create the Von Mises stress plot and the displacement plot. neither is it truly a cantilevered BC. 11. There is some resistance to rotation of the cross section. Y or Z based stresses are. translational In the Apply Displacement Result box click Displacements. 2.Click OK (back in the Analysis menu) Click Apply Select the TM Results A RM will appear called Results Set Action = Create Object = Quick Plot In the Select Fringe Result box click Displacements. You will want to use the VonMises stresses in this case as the X. if you calculate the midspan displacements sing simply supported BC. translational Set Quantity = magnitude Click Apply (This will create the deformed plot) Note that stresses can also be plotted from the Results menu by specifying them in the Select Fringe Result section. Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the mid-span deflection and stresses of a simply supported beam. in the local coordinate system for that beam and are not in the global (Coord 0) frame. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting. What do you conclude? 4. Compare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical My/I approximation using only the bending (y component) part of the load. To do this look at the mid-span deflection and stresses of either of the long horizontal members. Note that the BC of the ends of these members are Not really simply supported. However. On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Quit VI. the analytic displacement will be an upper bound. Therefore. Do these make physical sense? 3. Compare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical P/A approximation using only the axial (Z component) part of the load.

These analytic verifications will be discussed below. any Mechanics of Materials text will provide equations for the max stress and the max displacement of simple problems that will provide upper or lower bounds for stresses and displacements. II. Where will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressive? 2. The part has a solid cross section with thickness in the Zdirection t = 3 in. However. A similar part exists to hold the bearing on the other side. A pressure load of magnitude 100 lb/in2 in the negative X direction results from the bearing reaction. The left edge is cantilevered or "built in". THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is not readily available. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM The structure below is designed to support a bearing on its right. The material properties for the beam are E= 10 x 106 psi (typical for aluminum) and ν = 0. What will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces/moments? 59 .MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 5 MODELING A STABELIZATION FIXTURE WITH END PRESSURE USING SOLID ELEMENTS I. Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are: 1.3 . This means that both the translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. curved edge.

5. along with the quantitative analytical solutions for the max stress and displacement will provide reinforcement that your computational model is correctly constructed. III.)? What will the local effect of the pressure load be on the stresses? Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements? Answering these questions qualitatively. CREATING THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL 1. quadratic etc.3. 6. Where will the stresses be zero? How do the displacements vary along the length (linear. 4. Create the Geometry Create the 3-d object below according to the following steps: Create the points shown with coordinates as in the table Point x-coord y-coord z-coord 1 0 0 0 2 10 0 0 3 11 -1 0 4 16 -1 0 5 13 2 0 6 16 5 0 7 11 5 0 8 10 4 0 9 0 4 0 60 .

Create the 2nd surface between the curves 7. 3 and 7. 4. 9.3>.Next create curves between points 1 and 2. The instructions will use the curve numbers in the picture below. and 8. Create the arc between points 4. 3 and another curve between 4.2. Now create 3 surfaces. 61 . 10.0. Create the first surface between the curves 1. 8 and 9. 5 and 6 using the 2d arc3point option. 6 and another curve between 7. 2 and another curve between 8. Create the curve between points 2 and 3 and between points 7and 8 using the 2-d arc 2point using a radius of 1. the part will look like this. The translation vector will need to be <0. Now create solids of thickness 3 (in the Z direction) from each of the 3 surfaces using the Create/Solid/Extrude command. Please substitute the curve numbers form the curves you created.5 and 10 using the Create/Surface/Edge command. When you are done. 6 and 9 and the 3rd surface between the curves 3.

The reason this is important is that if the element pattern is not symmetric in the in the Y direction. If this equivalencing is to work correctly.2. it will simply mean that you end up with a slightly different number and placement of elements. The mesh seed will ensure this. the part will experience a nonsymmetric distribution of loads in the Y direction. The distribution of elements in the Y direction must be constant across the part. Note that is your mesh seeds are a little different than the ones shown below. Then the nodes will need to be equivalenced so that the 3 solids are “attached” computationally. resulting in non-physical displacements in the Y direction and also resulting in non-physical bending stresses. Using the Create/Mesh Seed/Uniform option in the Element menu. 62 . create mesh seeds as shown below. This is critical in this model as the model contains 3 separate solids which will need to be meshes separately. Create the Finite Element Mesh The first task is to seed the mesh. nodes along the interface between 2 solids will need to be coincident. This should NOT affect the results of your analysis substantially except in one case. then you need to have 6 elements across the right curved edge and across other X=constant planes in the part. For example if you have 6 elements across the far left edge.

3. Create the BC and Loads To clamp the left edge (edge away from the rounded bearing surface) use the Create/Displacement/Nodal command in the Loads/BC menu.Next place the actual mesh on the solids using the Create/Mesh/Solid. Choose a pressure of 100. Next equivalence the nodes using the Equivalence/All/Tolerance cube command. The BC and loads graphics will appear as shown. To select the application surface (in the Select Application Surface) turn on the geometry button and then select the icon for “Face of a Solid” and choose the curved surface shown highlighted below. Use the isomesh mesh generator. it will not matter what the global edge length is. Next create the pressure load on the bearing surface by using the Create/Pressure/element Uniform command. If the mesh seeds are done as shown. 63 . Make sure the element target type is 3d. The completed mesh should look approximately as shown below. Use the Hex8 elements. The defaults tolerance is fine. Set all 3 displacements and all 3 rotations to zero and select apply to the left edge. The graphics will show these nodes along the interface between the 3 solids. This should indicate approximately 64 nodes were deleted.

Using the Materials menu create an isotropic homogeneous material with these properties. Do the Analysis In the analysis menu. Create the Material and Property The material for the part is aluminum which has a E of 10e6 psi and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. 6. View the Results In the results menu. 64 .3. Select the entire part to have these properties. The properties set is made using the command Create/3D/Solid in the properties menu.The BC on the left and the pressure load on the right might look different on your part depending on whether you have applied the BC or pressure to the geometry .op2) file. Input the properties simply as the material you just created. Set the Translation Parameters to output the *. use the command Analyze/Entire Model/Full Run . Make plots of the displacements ad the appropriate stresses.op2 file. 4. use the command Create/Quick Plot. 5. Select the appropriate results (*. Read in the analysis results Using the command Read Output2/Result Entities/ Translate.

Computationally test your new design. Look at the stress results and prescribe a weight savings measure that should not create stress related problems (i. Do they make physical sense? 2.VI. Turn in the plots for the displacements and stresses. 65 .e. 3. Find a way to get some substantial analytic verification for the model. EXERCISES 1. determine where material can probably be removed).

855 2 4 4 mL mL mL4 Note that these correspond to the following 3 mode shapes which are all bending modes in the plane of the smallest value of “I”. The material properties for the beam are E= 70 x 109 Pascals (typical for Aluminum) and ν = 0. This means that both the translations and the rotations are held to zero along this edge. the first 3 natural frequencies W1-3 (rad/sec) are given by: EI EI EI ω1 = 1. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM The beam below is cantilevered or "built in" on the left edge.MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 6 MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAM’S VIBRATION USING 4 NODE SHELL ELEMENTS I. For the cantilevered beam with bending moment of inertia “I”. These equations are given below.3 . The beam has a solid rectangular cross section with thickness in the Z-direction t = 0. Any vibrations text will provide equations for the mode shapes (eigenvectors) and the natural frequencies (eigenvalues).1 meters. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution (modes shapes and natural frequencies) for this problem is readily available. Elastic (Young’s) modulus “E”.6942 ω 3 = 7.0 m II.01 meters and height in the Y-direction h = 0. Y x h=10 cm L= 1.875 2 ω 2 = 4. We wish to find the mode shapes and associated vibration frequencies for this beam. mass per unit length “m” and Length “L”. Modeshape 1: 66 .

Modeshape 2: Modeshape 3 67 .

GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models. Next. However. the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node membrane element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the vibration model studies. axial or bending in a different plane)? 2. This basic form is constructed as follows: Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix Assume the element has the configuration shown below: 68 . the material and element properties will be entered. III. This creates the cantilevered or built-in. The geometry will proceed from creation of points to curves to surfaces for this simple model. IV. Are there any other types of mode shapes that might occur (torsional. Are there any constraint force checks that will help me validate the accuracy of my model? Answering these questions qualitatively. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated. along with the quantitative analytical solutions for the mode shapes and their associated natural frequencies will provide reinforcement that your computational model is correctly constructed. Next. What would be a reasonable frequency for the first mode shape? 3.Some basic questions to consider before creating the computational model are: 1. end condition. the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run. Finally. We will constrain the 3 displacement and 3 rotational degrees of freedom on the left edge (for all nodes). we will build the geometry first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. we will use 4 node shell elements to model the beam.

u 2 . v2 .0) (4. v1. 4 4 1 1 (1 + ξ )(1 + η) .1) Our goal is to find the element stiffness matrix ASSUME: [ K ] = ∫ [ B]T [ E ] [ B] dV V ASSUME: 2 displacement degrees of freedom (dof) per node With : [B] = the strain .y) (0. N4 = (1 − ξ)(1 + η) 4 4 69 .2) (0. u3 . N2 = (1 + ξ)(1 − η) . v3 . u 4 . v4}T = [ N ]{u} v 0 N 2 0 N3 0 N where [N] is the shape function matrix [ N ] = 1 0 N1 0 N 2 0 N3 N4 0 0 N4 and the rules for the shape functions are : 1) Ni must be =1 at node "i" 2) Ni must be =0 at any node not = "i" This leads to the shape functions: N1 = N3 = 1 1 (1 − ξ )(1 − η) .0 X 1 2 The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 4 nodes are: NODE 1 2 3 4 (x.Y 4 4.0 3 2. η) (-1.1) (-1.displacement matrix such that [ B]{u} = {ε} where: {u} is the dof vector and {ε } is the strain vector [E] = the constitutive matrix such that [ E]{ε} = {σ} where {σ} is the stress vector and V = volume.0) (4.2) (ξ.-1) (1.-1) (1. u Step 1: Interpolate the dof: ≈ [ N ]{u1 .

x N 4. x η. x Ni.η 70 . x4 . x3 . the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same interpolation functions as the displacements.e.Step 2: Find the [B] matrix: 0 ε xx ∂ ∂x ∂ u = [ D ]u . x 0 N4. x1 y1 ∂y ∂x ∂ξ N1. y 4}T y i. ξ −1 i . y 0 N2.η . x and from chain rule = N i.η x3 y3 ∂x ∂η ∂η x4 y 4 Ni . x 0 N 2. x N 2. y 2. y 0 N 4. x N3.ξ N 4. but from step 1 Relevant strains are {ε } = ε yy = 0 ∂y v v γ ∂ ∂ xy ∂x ∂y u ≈ [ N ]{u} v So {ε} ≈ [ D][ N]{u} = [ B]{u} with [ B] = [ D][ N ] Therefore. Step 3: Use the Jacobian to find derivatives: x Isoparametric Assumption: = [ N ]{ x1. η N 2.ξ N 3. y N1.η N 3.ξ ξ η N = [ J ] N . y N3. y 0 N1. N1.ξ x2 y 2 ∂ξ The Jacobian matrix [ J ] = ≈ ∂y N1. y N 2. y i . y N ξ . x partial differentiation.η N 4. x 0 N3. y where the commas denote N4. x2 .y i . ξ N 2. y1. y 0 N3. y3. x [B ] = 0 N1.

element mass matrices are formed using the equation T [ M ] = ρ ∫ [ N ] [ N ] J dξ dη . A similar form exists for the Rayleigh damping matrix [C].So in this particular case: [ J ] = 1 − 1 + η 1 − η 1 + η 4 − 1 + ξ − 1 − ξ 1 + ξ 0 − 1 − η 4 1 − ξ 4 0 0 0 = 2 2 1 8 0 2 0 = 4 0 4 0 1 1 0 which implies that [ J ]−1 = 2 0 1 This allows us to find the entries in [B] Step 4: Perform the numerical integration: Assume that the element has constant thickness = t implies [ K ] = t ∫[ B]T [ E ] [ B] dx dy A Which.n ) i j Where ngj and ngi are the number of gaussian integration points in the “j” and “i” directions respectively and wj and wi are the associated gaussian weighting factors. The resulting eigenvalue problem of the second kind is : [ M ] {ω} + [ K ] {d} = {0} where eigenvalues are the natural frequencies ω and the eigenvectors {d} give the node shapes. The stiffness. This takes the form: [ K] = h∑ j=1 ngj ∑ i =1 ngi [ B]T [ E] [ B] J wi w j ( ξ . For the vibration analysis. 71 . In the same manner. mass and damping matrices are then used in the dynamics equilibrium & & relationship [ M ] {d&} + [C ] {d } + [ K ] {d} = { f } where the over-dots indicated derivatives with respect to time and {f} is the forcing function. Gaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element stiffness. the damping and the forcing function are assumed to be zero. This set of equations can be solved for the time history of the motion (transient dynamics) or for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. according to the rules of calculus can be written: [ K ] = t ∫[ B]T [ E] [ B] J dξ dη where J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. Understanding the Computational Vibration Analysis : The elements as formed above must be assembled into a global stiffness matrix.

Select MSC Patran9.V. SM = Subordinate Menu. In the instructions below. Select MSC (common). 1. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. the following abbreviations and terms will be used: TM = Top Menu. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New A SM called New Database pops up Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences Under File Name enter beam-vib.0 Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN Choose Analysis Type = Structural click OK 3.0. this indicates a click with the left mouse button. Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box.db Click OK 2. Click = Unless otherwise stated. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. Next set the analysis preference: A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM Under Tolerance choose Based on Model Set Model Dimension to10. The geometry of the beam will be determined next: From the TM choose Geometry A RM called Geometry will result Set Action = Create 72 . RM = Right Menu. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE VIBRATION OF THE CANTILEVERED BEAM USING MSC/PATRAN Preliminaries for using PATRAN include: a) Log on to the computer b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop). This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu. go to Programs.

0] and [0. [1.0] Use this same procedure to create points at coordinates [1. The finite element mesh is specified next: 73 .0.1.0.0.0].0] Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Set the Curve ID list to 1 Turn Autoexecute off Set Starting Point List = Point 1 Set Ending Point List = Point 2 Click Apply Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Curve Method = Point Set the Curve ID list to 2 Turn Autoexecute off Set Starting Point List = Point 3 Set Ending Point List = Point 4 Click Apply Back at the top of the RM called Geometry Set Action = Create Object = Surface Method = Curve Set the Surface ID list to 1 Set Patran 2 Convention off Option = 2 Curve Set Manifold off (not checked) Set Starting Curve List = Curve 1 Set Ending Curve List = Curve 2 Click Apply 2.1.Object = Point Method = XYZ Set the Point ID list to 1 Set Reference Coordinate Frame to Coord 0 Turn off the Auto Execute button Enter the following into the Point Coordinates list: [0.0.0] (note that PATRAN will accept either commas or blanks as separators between coordinates) Click Apply A point will appear in the main viewport at coordinates [0.0.

you are attempting to join portions of a model which have been meshed separately. The name l_cant is chosen as this is for the cantilever of the left most nodes) Click Input Data.0.0.0> Be sure Analysis Coordinate Frame is Coord0 Click OK (back in the Load/Boundary Conditions RM) Click Select Application Region A SM called Select Application Region appears Turn on the FEM (button down) Click in box under Select Nodes 74 . The boundary conditions are specified next: From the TM choose Load/BC's A RM called Load/Boundary Conditions will appear Set Action = Create Object = Displacement Type = Nodal Set Current Load Case = Default Enter New Set Name as l_cant ( The name can be whatever name you wish.003 Click Apply (The command window at the bottom of the PATRAN desktop will tell you that 0 nodes were deleted..) 3.From the TM choose Elements A RM appears called Elements Set Action = Create Object = Mesh Type = Surface Set Node Id = 1 Set Element Id List = 1 Set Global Edge Length = 0. in more complicated models. a SM called Input Data appears Set Load/BC Scale factor =1 Set Translations to <0..025 Set Element Topology = Quad4 Set Mesher = Isomesh Click in the Surface List box Click and drag to select the entire structure The Words "Surface 1" should appear in the Surface List Click Apply Set Action = Equivalence Object = All Type = Tolerance Cube (The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another) Set the Equivalencing Tolerance to .0> Set Rotations to <0. This step will become critical if.

The properties for each element are assigned next: On the TM select Properties a RM will appear called Element Properties Set Action = Create Dimension = 2d Type = Shell Click Property Set Name box Enter beam_prop Click Input Properties a SM appears called Input Properties Click in the Material Name box 75 .3 Input the Density to be 2700 Click OK Back in the Materials RM Click Apply 5.0E9 Input Poisson = 0.Use the cursor to highlight the set of nodes along the left vertical edge of the beam.5.4. Numbers 1. The materials are specified next: On the TM select Materials a RM will appear called Materials Set Action = Create Object = Isotropic Method = Manual Input Click Material Name box Input the name to be aluminum Click Input Properties box SM called Input Options appears Input Elastic Modulus =70. Click OK (The Load / Boundary Condition RM appears again) Click Apply (3 displacement constraint arrows and 3 rotation constraint arrows should now appear on each node in the main viewport window on the extreme left edge of the beam.6 will appear with the arrows to show that all 6 of the dof are constrained there) 4.2.3. There should be 5 nodes there.

A graphical representation of the mode shapes can be produced. A "selection box" is formed while you drag.01 Click OK (Back in the Element Properties RM) Click Select Members box a Patran Select menu will appear on the left edge of the RM Click on the icon which contains the surface or face icon Move the cursor arrow to a point to the left and above the highest. 76 .Click on the word "aluminum" in the Material Property Sets box at the bottom of the SM ( the words m:aluminum will appear in the Material Name box at the top of the SM) Click in the Thickness box Enter 0. Release the button. (The words Surface 1 will appear in the Select Members box) Click Add (The words Surface 1 appears in the Application Region box) Click Apply in the Element Properties menu (beam_prop will be added to the Existing Property Sets box) 6. A graphical representation of the mode shapes provides an easy way to begin to determine if you have constructed your model correctly. The analysis is to be done is specified next: On the TM select Analysis a RM will appear called Analysis Set Action = Analyze Object = Entire Model Method = Full Run Click Translation Parameters In the SM that appears. Drag the cursor (while holding down the mouse button) to a point to the right of and below the right-most bottom node. A SM indicating that MSC/Nastran is working may appear) 7. set Data Output = Op2 and Print Click OK Back in the RM Analysis Set Solution Type = Normal Modes (button down) Click OK Click Apply (The analysis will take a few seconds to run. leftmost point on the beam. Click and hold down the left mouse button.

On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Quit VI. Beam-vib. Be sure to record data and screen captures needed to answer the questions below.f06.op2 then appears in the File Name box Click OK (back in the Analysis menu) Click Apply On the TM select Results A RM will appear called Results Set Action = Create Object = Quick Plot In the Select Result Case box click Default. If this file does not exist. translational In the Apply Fringe Result box click Eigenvectors.On the TM select Analysis Set Action = Read Output2 Object = Results Entities Method = Translate Click Select Results File A SM appears called Select File Click the file beam-vib. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and choose Explore) and find the file beam. 8.op2 (You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the file.vib. then you have made a mistake in constructing your model. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting. higher order mode shapes.log and beam. Mode 1… In the Select Fringe Result box click Eigenvectors. Open these files by double clicking on them and search for the word “error” to determine what your mistake is). translational Set Quantity = Magnitude Turn on the animation button (so it displays a check) Click Apply (This will create the animation of the first mode) Investigate other. EXERCISES: 77 .

d) e) 78 . Rerun the analysis using the original global edge length of 0. You can use the analytic equations shown earlier to produce the analytic results. b) c) Rerun the analysis using only .a) Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the first 3 pairs of mode shapes and frequencies which are associated with bending of the beam in the direction of minimum “I”. Compare these errors with those found while using a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Does a refinement in the mesh appear to produce more closely converged results? Change the Poisson’s ratio to 0. Identify the possible sources of that might make our results a poor model of the actual physical structure.00625 as the global edge length (produces 4 times as many elements).025. Study the first 5 mode shapes produced by the Nastran and comment on which modes are not associated with bending about the minimum “I” direction.0. Propose an explanation for the differences.03.

it can be a safety concern.2 m long. This is the type of fin that might provide air-cooling on a motorcycle engine. Our goal is to find the temperature distribution down the fin. These results can be used to give basic analytic comparison solutions for certain sections of the structure. If the outside tip of the engine is too hot.002 0. we consider a representative strip of the fin 0. Note that we assume no radiation occurs and that only the top and bottom surfaces have significant convection heat transfer (the convection from the edges of the fin is neglected). The fin itself is made of aluminum which has a conductivity of 177 (W/m2 K). 0. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS The analytic solution for the temperatures for this problem is readily available.01 m in depth (shown as the region between the dotted lines in the drawing). These assumptions are normal for a first level analysis where the temperatures are in the ranges used in this problem.MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 7 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLING FIN USING SHELL ELEMENTS I. The ambient temperature of the air is known to be 25 Co and the convection coefficient (film coefficient) is known to be 30 (W/m2 ) . 0. Heat is conducted down the fin (away from the heat source of the engine) and heat is also lost through convection from the top and bottom surfaces to the air. The 200-degree wall is representative of the hot temperature of the engine.002 m thick and large width. 79 . Wall 200 C 0. For the finite element model. Any Heat Transfer text will provide equations for the temperature distribution of a fin considering conduction away from the heat source and convection from the top and bottom surfaces.20 II. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM The problem you will model is a fin of aluminum alloy.01 0.

Cook. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from the top menu. 1995. Boldface will indicate text that occurs in the PATRAN menus. RM = Right Menu. INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE FIN USING MSC/PATRAN & MSC/NASTRAN Preliminaries for using PATRAN include: a) Log on to the computer b) Click START (lower left corner of the Windows Desktop).III. V. This basic formulation for the 2-d thermal. quasistatic element can be found in most any Finite Element Analysis text (see for example Finite Elements for Stress Analysis. We will set the wall temperature and the convection characteristics for the top and bottom of the fin. by R. In the instructions below. go to Programs. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node 2-d elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated. we will use 4 node 2-dimensional elements to model the fin. the basic formulation of the 2-d thermal element is not extremely difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the general application areas and convergence of these elements. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the right menu.) . GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL As is the standard procedure for building MSC/Patran models. we will build the geometry first and then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. John Wiley & Sons. The geometry will proceed from creation of curves to a surface for this simple model. The instructions are NOT as detailed as have been given in other problems as it is expected that you have begun to get a feel for how to do certain tasks in Patran. the following abbreviations and terms will be used: TM = Top Menu. Next. 80 . Click = Unless otherwise stated. Select MSC Patran9. These menus reside on the far right side of the PATRAN desktop. This refers to the horizontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after PATRAN has been initiated. this indicates a click with the left mouse button. the nodes must be equivalenced before the analysis is ready to run. Next. Finally. However. Select MSC (common). SM = Subordinate Menu.0. The instructions below give details for modeling the thermal fin problem discussed above. IV.D. linear. the material and element properties will be entered.

(A second curve appears on the screen. Set Option to 2 Curve. On the Geometry RM.2 Under Analysis Code choose MSC/NASTRAN Choose Analysis Type = Thermal click OK 3.2 0 0 (You will be drawing lines (vectors) with these xyz components. set Origin Coordinates List to 0 0.01 Select Isomesh.Italics text will indicate text that you must enter into text boxes in the PATRAN menus or text that you choose in a menu scroll box. The geometry of the beam will be determined next: Select Geometry from TM. Note the model has 20 elements. Object=Mesh.db Click OK 2. Type in Global Edge Length: 0. Click in Surface List box. On the TM select Elements and get a RM. Click in the Ending Curve List box. select Action= Create. Note there is a Starting Curve List and Ending Curve List. Click the small box on curve 1 on the screen. Next set the analysis preference: A New Model Preferences window will appear as a RM Under Tolerance choose Based on Model Set Model Dimension to 0. Coordinate Frame should be Coord 0 Set Vector Coordinates List to 0. Click in the Starting Curve List box. Choose Action= Create.) Origin Coordinates List = 0 0 0 Click APPLY. (A line from origin to point 0. 1. On RM. Note a surface is created. Click Apply. . Then click on curve 2.2.01 0.) Make second curve: With same vector. 4. Create the finite elements. 5. Create Boundary conditions 81 . Method= Curve. Object= Curve. Click Apply. Method= XYZ Note Curve ID List has a 1. Object= Surface.Select the first curve by using the mouse. Select the Surface 1 with the cursor.0 should appear on screen. choose Action= Create.) Now create a surface between the curves. Our first step is to create a new database: From the TM choose File In the resulting pull down menu choose New A SM called New Database pops up Turn on (checked) Modify Preferences Under File Name enter fin. Refer.0. Type= Surface Choose the size of the elements.

Back in Load/BC menu. type 200 in Temperature box. Object=isotropic. In submenu. In New Set Name . Click on Select Nodes. Type 30 for convection coefficient (w/m2 c) for top surface convection. In submenu Input Data.) Click Add. (The screen should show 200 at nodes 1 and 22. (Hold shift down for multiple selections. type =element uniform Name the convection BC. Object=convection. In New Set Name . type bot-convec Select Target Element Type = 2D Click Input Data. Back in Load/BC SM. Get RM. Click Add. Click OK. method=manual input. Create and select material On TM select Materials. Click OK Back in Load/BC menu click Apply. Back in Load/ BC menu. click Select Application Region box Select FEM as the Geometry Filter. Click in Select 2D Elements or Edges box Using mouse. type aluminum. Object=convection. Type 25 for ambient temp. Click on Input Data. type top-convec Select Target Element Type = 2D Click Input Data. click on all the elements. Now create the base temperature BC. type=nodal In New Set Name type Basetemp. (Hold shift down for multiple selections. Now create the convection characteristics for the bottom of the fin Chose Action=create. Action=create. select the nodes 1 and 22 at the extreme left of the model.) 6. Using mouse. Click OK. Object=Temp. click on Select Application Region. Click OK Back in Load/BC menu click Apply. Now create the convection characteristics for the bottom of the fin Chose Action=create. select FEM as Geometry Filter. Back in Load/ BC menu. In Material Name box. click Select Application Region box Select FEM as the Geometry Filter. Click Input Properties. Type 25 for ambient temp. Click OK. Type 30 for convection coefficient (w/m2 c) for bottom surface convection. The application region box should list the elements 1:20. In submenu. Get submenu. click Apply. type =element uniform Name the convection BC. In Load/BC RM Action=create.At TM. Click in Select 2D Elements or Edges box Using mouse. select Load/BC’s. Get submenu. The application region box should list the elements 1:20.) Click Add. 82 . Click OK. click on all the elements.

type: h=30 on fin with base= 200C. M: Aluminum appears in the Material Name box at the top of the form. Back in the RM . select fin_case Under Available Loadcases.In submenu. In Description. 7. Click Apply In TM.) Click Add.002 Click OK. select Properties In submenu Action=create. (w/m2 k). Analyze (solve) for temperature. Job name = fin Click translation Parameters and set output to Op2 & Print Click. click OK Back in the Load Case RM. select fin_case Click Apply Click Cancel Back in the Analysis RM. choose Subcase Create Under Available Subcases. select Load Cases. Load case name . click on Aluminum in the Material Property Sets box. all 3 boundary conditions must be combined into a single load case. In SM. click Subcase Select Under Subcases for Solution Sequence 153. Use mouse to select the entire model. Method = Full Run. enter thermal conductivity as 177. Input Options . Load Boundary Conditions In order to have both the convection on top and on the bottom as well as the and base temperature BC on the model. Click Cancel. In TM select Analysis. select fin_case 83 . and ambient=25C. OK Back in the Analysis RM. Set Thickness= 0. click Apply 8. Click OK. In SM. Click on Assign/Prioritize BC under the Select Individual Loads/BC Click on conve_bot-convec and then on conve_top-convec and then on temp_basetemp As you click on these each of the 3 is added to the Assigned Load/BC At the bottom of the menu. Action=Create. Back in Element Properties. type fin_case. In TM. Object=2D. Click on Input Properties In submenu. click Solution Type Choose Steady State Analysis Click OK Back in the Analysis RM. Click Apply. If SM does not disappear. (You can click and draw a box around the entire model to select it. click Select members. In Property Set Name type shell_prop. Type=shell. Action= Analysis Object = entire model.

How do the results compare. Method = Translate Click Select Results File A SM appears called Select File Click the file fin. fin. II. click on Default (this removes default from the list) Click OK Back in Analysis SM Click Apply 9. Does the distribution make physical sense? Why or why not? III. Select the TM Results A RM will appear called Results Set Action = Create Object = Quick Plot You can display different results.In the RM=Analysis Set Action = Read Output2. If this file does not exist. but the main focus will be on the temperatures.f06.Under Subcases Selected. Open these files by double clicking on them and search for the word “error” or “fatal” to determine what your mistake is). Object = Results Entities. Next you will end your MSC/PATRAN session by saving your database and exiting. 11.log and fin . Compare the FEA results with the analytic results for the problem found from a Heat Transfer text. EXERCISES: I. What assumptions are we making that might significantly affect the reliability of the results? 84 . Discuss any discrepancies. then you have made a mistake in constructing your model. To read in the results for post-processing . On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Save On the TM select File From the pull down menu select Quit VI. Go to Explorer (right-click on Start and choose Explore) and find the file fin. Create the temperature plot.op2 then appears in the File Name box Click OK (back in the Analysis menu) Click Apply 10.op2 (You may need to look in your home or root directory to find the file.

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