Biodiesel

Currently most research into efficient algal-oil production is being done in the private sector, but predictions from small scale production experiments bear out that using algae to produce biodiesel may be the only viable method by which to produce enough automotive fuel to replace current world diesel usage.[12] Microalgae have much faster growth rates than terrestrial crops. The per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from between 5,000 to 20,000 US gallons per acre per year (4,700 to 18,000 m3/km2·a);[citation needed] this is 7 to 30 times greater than the next best crop, Chinese tallow (700 US gal/acre·a or 650 m3/km2·a).[13] Studies show that algae can produce up to 60% of their biomass in the form of oil. Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension where they have more efficient access to water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients, microalgae are capable of producing large amounts of biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photobioreactors. This oil can then be turned into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles. The more efficient this process becomes the larger the profit that is turned by the company. Regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide economic benefits to rural communities.[14]

Algae cultivation
Algae can produce up to 300 times more oil per acre than conventional crops, such as rapeseed, palms, soybeans, or jatropha. As Algae has a harvesting cycle of 1–10 days, it permits several harvests in a very short time frame, a differing strategy to yearly crops (Chisti 2007). Algae can also be grown on land that is not suitable for other established crops, for instance, arid land, land with excessively saline soil, and drought-stricken land. This minimizes the issue of taking away pieces of land from the cultivation of food crops (Schenk et al. 2008). Algae can grow 20 to 30 times faster than food crops.[22]

[edit] Photobioreactors
Most companies pursuing algae as a source of biofuels are pumping nutrient-laden water through plastic tubes (called "bioreactors" ) that are exposed to sunlight (and so called photobioreactors or PBR). Running a PBR is more difficult than an open pond, and more costly. Algae can also grow on marginal lands, such as in desert areas where the groundwater is saline, rather than utilize fresh water.[23] The difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate that isn't too difficult to harvest, and a costeffective cultivation system (i.e., type of photobioreactor) that is best suited to that strain. There is also a need to provide concentrated CO2 to turbocharge the production.

[edit] Closed loop system
Another obstacle preventing widespread mass production of algae for biofuel production has been the equipment and structures needed to begin growing algae in large quantities. Maximum use of existing agriculture processes and hardware is the goal.[24] In a closed system (not exposed to open air) there is not the problem of contamination by other organisms blown in by the air. The problem for a closed system is finding a cheap source of sterile CO2. Several experimenters have found the CO2 from a smokestack works well for growing algae.[25][26] To be economical, some experts think that algae farming for biofuels will have to be done next to power plants, where they can also help soak up the pollution.[23]

[edit] Open pond
Open-pond systems for the most part have been given up for the cultivation of algae with high-oil content.[27] Many believe that a major flaw of the Aquatic Species Program was the decision to focus their efforts exclusively on open-ponds; this makes the entire effort dependent upon the hardiness of the strain chosen, requiring it to be unnecessarily resilient in order to withstand wide swings in temperature and pH, and competition from invasive algae and bacteria. Open systems using a monoculture are also vulnerable to viral infection. The energy that a high-oil strain invests into the production of oil is energy that is not invested into the production of proteins or carbohydrates, usually resulting in the species being less hardy, or having a slower growth rate. Algal species with a lower oil content, not having to divert their energies away from growth, have an easier time in the harsher conditions of an open system. Some open sewage ponds trial production has been done in Marlborough, New Zealand.
[28]

[edit] Algae types
Main article: SERI microalgae culture collection Research into algae for the mass-production of oil is mainly focused on microalgae; organisms capable of photosynthesis that are less than 0.4 mm in diameter, including the diatoms and cyanobacteria; as opposed to macroalgae, such as seaweed. The preference towards microalgae is due largely to its less complex structure, fast growth rate, and high oil content (for some species). Some commercial interests into large scale algalcultivation systems are looking to tie in to existing infrastructures, such as coal power plants or sewage treatment facilities. This approach not only provides the raw materials for the system, such as CO2 and nutrients; it changes those wastes into resources. However, some research is being done into using seaweeds for biofuels, probably due to the high availability of this resource.[29][30] The following species listed are currently being studied for their suitability as a mass-oil producing crop, across various locations worldwide[31][32][33]:

[40] [edit] Wastewater Main article: Wastewater treatment facility A possible nutrient source is waste water from the treatment of sewage. Sargassum. or flood plain run-off. In biogas facilities. it will contaminate the algae in the reactor.[36] The Department of Environmental Science at Ateneo de Manila University in the Philippines.[35] [edit] Specific research Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation of New Zealand announced that it has produced its first sample of homegrown bio-diesel fuel with algae sourced from local sewerage ponds. an area. are important for plant growth and are essential parts of fertilizer. may also be considered important marine nutrients as the lack of one can limit the growth of. According to the company. agricultural.[37] NBB’s Feedstock Development program is addressing production of algae on the horizon to expand available material for biodiesel in a sustainable manner[38]. and potassium (K). and at the very least. Silica and iron.[39] One company. If waste water is not processed before it reaches the algae. with 10 times the output volume of Gracilaria. However. through anaerobic digestion. [edit] Nutrients Main article: Algal nutrient solutions Nutrients like nitrogen (N). A small quantity of laboratory produced oil was mixed with 95% regular diesel. A feasibility study using marine microalgae in a photobioreactor is being done by The International Research Consortium on Continental Margins at the International University Bremen. kill much of the desired algae strain. phosphorus (P). its formula can increase the daily growth rate by 34% and can double the amount of algae produced in one growth cycle. this waste water cannot feed algae directly and must first be processed by bacteria. as well as several trace elements. or productivity in. Green Star Products. organic waste is often converted to a mixture of carbon .• • • • • • Botryococcus braunii Chlorella Dunaliella tertiolecta Gracilaria Pleurochrysis carterae (also called CCMP647)[34] . is working on producing biofuel from a local species of algae. announced their development of a micronutrient formula to increase the growth rate of algae. all currently major pollutants and health risks.

agricultural-grade fertilizer is the preferred source of nutrients. Every investor has its own unique stipulations that are obstacles to further algae fuel development. their great technical potential may never become economically accessible. especially for strains of algae that are susceptible to these metals. and nearly suitable for algae growth. but the contaminants are found in different concentrations. The same is true for ocean water. The group found that capital cost. labor cost and operational costs (fertilizer.) by themselves are too high for algae biofuels to be cost-competitive with conventional fuels. Only few studies on the economic viability are publicly available. Organic fertilizer that comes out of the digester is liquid. [edit] Investment and economic viability There is always uncertainty about the success of new products and investors have to consider carefully the proper energy sources in which to invest. the high up-front investment of algae-to-biofuels facilities is seen by many as a major obstacle to the success of this technology. A study by Alabi at al. Raceways might be cost-effective in warm climates with very low labor costs. In open pond systems the use of strains of algae that can deal with high concentrations of heavy metals could prevent other organisms from infesting these systems (Schenk et al. The utilization of wastewater and ocean water instead of freshwater is strongly advocated due to the continuing depletion of freshwater resources. suggesting that unless new. and other contaminants in wastewater can decrease the ability of cells to produce lipids biosynthetically and also impact various other workings in the machinery of cells. etc. Similar results were found by others[43][44][45]. However. Algal fuel companies are learning that investors have different expectations about returns and length of investments. Thus. Additional concerns consider the potential environmental impact of Algal fuel development. trace metals. such as harvesting.dioxide. are being addressed successfully by the industry. electricity. Whereas technical problems. and must often rely on the little data (often only engineering estimates) available in the public domain. AlgaePro Systems found in its talks with investors that while one wants at least 5 times the returns on their investment. heavy metals. but heavy metals are again a problem. [edit] Algae fuel by country See also: List of algal fuel producers . cheaper ways of harnessing algae for biofuels production are found. methane. but it must first be cleaned and sterilized. photobioreactors and anaerobic fermenters to make biofuels from algae and found that photobioreactors are too expensive to make biofuels. others would only be willing to invest in a profitable operation over the long term. A drop in fossil fuel oil prices might make consumers and therefore investors lose interest in renewable energy. Dmitrov[41] examined the GreenFuels photobioreactor and estimated that algae oil would only be competitive at an oil price of $800 per barrel. as well as secondary impacts on wildlife such as bears and fish. and organic fertilizer. and fermenters may become cost-effective subsequent to significant process improvements. 2008).[42] examined raceways.

shifting primary research to studying oil production in 1982. University of Brighton. Spain[47] is researching the algal fuels. In 1995. The Ukraine plans to produce biofuel using a special type of algae[46]. [edit] United States Main article: Algae fuel in the United States The Aquatic Species Program. using the sludge byproduct to produce biofuel. from algae. The CSIC´s Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis (Microalgae Biotechnology Group. Indiana. notably biodiesel.[edit] Europe See also: Algae fuel in the United Kingdom Universities in the United Kingdom which are working on producing oil from algae include:University of Glasgow. in Sevilla. based in Indianapolis.[11] The Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at University of Georgia is exploring microalgal biomass production using industrial wastewater. as part of overall efforts to lower budget demands. California) has produced a fuel suitable for powering jet aircraft from algae.[50] Algaewheel. The program initially focused efforts on the production of hydrogen. Cambridge University.[48] University of Maine. the DoE decided to end the program. presented a proposal to build a facility in Cedar Lake. From 1982 until its end in 1996. the majority of the program research was focused on the production of transportation fuels. Research stopped in 1996 and staff began compiling their research for publication. Indiana that uses algae to treat municipal wastewater. University College London. and Old Dominion University[49]. Cranfield University. US universities which are working on producing oil from algae include: University of Texas at Austin. Imperial College London. was a research program funded by the United States Department of Energy (DoE) which was tasked with investigating the use of algae for the production of energy. University of Kansas.[51][52] Sapphire Energy (San Diego) has produced green crude from algae. [edit] Other . Solazyme (South San Francisco. At the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution the wastewater from domestic and industrial sources contain rich organic compounds that are being used to accelerate the growth of algae. launched in 1978.

National Renewable Energy Labs. biodiesel is produced by the combination of alcohol which is usually alcohol with vegetable or animal oil/fats. On the other hand. and biofuel technology developer UOP. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. will be the first wave of aviationrelated members. freshwater or even contaminated water. such as corn and switchgrass. at sea or in ponds. grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available. termed as “biofuels. a Honeywell company. can be converted directly into burnable fuels. Ethanol is produced by fermentation through a method similar to beer brewing of any biomass containing carbohydrates. for the most . Mont Vista Capital[55] and Montana State University. In contrast to other renewable energy resources. Ethanol is widely used as a blending agent with gasoline to boost octane and at the same time reducing carbon monoxide and other toxic smogcausing emissions. Virgin Atlantic Airways. At the present time. Global air carriers Air New Zealand. biomass. Continental.The Algal Biomass Organization (ABO) is formed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Algae can grow in salt water. algae production companies and the investment community who share the goal of commercializing algae oil as an alternative feedstock for the biofuels markets. as in beer and wine. The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel.[57] in Canada has grown algae directly off of a cement plant smokestack emissions.” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands. renewable resources. ethanol is derived from starches and sugars however there have been constant research to allow it to be produced from fibrous substance which consists the bulk of most plant matter . Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean. Pond Biofuels Inc. and on land not suitable for food production Biofuel: A Short Review Ethanol.the cellulose and hemicellulose. to join Algal Biomass Organization. The NAA gives its members a forum to efficiently evaluate various algae technologies for potential early stage company opportunities. together with Boeing. A2BE Carbon Capture Corporation[53]. Benemann Associates[54]. it can be utilized on its pure form or as an additive (normally 20%) as a renewable substitute fuel for diesel engines.[5 Algae are tiny biological factories that use photosynthesis to transform carbon dioxide and sunlight into energy so efficiently that they can double their weight several times a day. As part of the photosynthesis process algae produce oil and can generate 15 times more oil per acre than other plants used for biofuels.[56] The National Algae Association (NAA) is a non-profit organization of algae researchers. an organic material. In order to lessen harmful vehicle emissions. is an alcohol modified to utilize it as a fuel and making it undrinkable. or recycled cooking grease.

in turn. A number of jobs can also be produces especially in rural communities. alternative. a much-hyped reason is that lessening dependence on oil will. As a result. Each has its own pros and cons. all of which help to lengthen the life of your vehicle. the so-called “biofuels”. reduce dependence on unreliable foreign oil. biofuel. Ethanol Biofuel and Its New Developments Among the most promising replacement for nonrenewable fossil fuel (petroleum. renewable. Ethanol. clean. This can make biofuels an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. while oil is a non-renewable resource. Tags: agricultural. In addition.phase using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. it promotes American energy independence just by generating a percentage of our fuel at home. . In the contrary. etc) are fuels made from organic materials. traditional No Comments » Jan 21 2008 Posted by admin under Biofuels. Demand varies. Another gain is that many alternative fuels can be generated. It thus makes sense to search for new alternatives before that day arrives. Increased utilization of biofuel can generate new markets for American products. fact remains that the supply may well run out one day. and there is always the possibility of discovering new reserves. The two widely used biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Present estimates predict that world oil production will reach its peak some time in the next 10 to 15 years. coal. increasing octane and lessening harmful emissions. energy. and it cuts down on the dumping of used oil. biodiesel. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel fuel. Cleaner burning energy sources lessen the toxic pollutant emissions produced by burning gasoline. However. Biofuel is made from agricultural crops developed in the different parts of the United States and other countries as well. Biofuel is a “quality” fuel that cleans your fuel system. alcohol. quality. biofuel is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers. More importantly. the present technologies result in limitation of production for the reason that not all parts of a certain plant can be used. Moreover. environment. biofuel is capable of improving the performance of your engine. it can keep the money circulating all the way through the domestic economy.

Due to this drawback. development. etc. In addition. there is no doubt that an acre of grasses could make twice the number of gallons of ethanol that can be generated with an acre of corn. there have been techniques to develop fast-growing trees that can grow to size in just 10 years. biomass. there has been lot of studies that would resolve this problem. Tags: biofuel.At the present time in the United States. several companies are moving forward having plans to build plants using this method. This is starting to gain interest in the United States. Moreover. as with corn ethanol. ethanol from crop wastes. This would only mean that through this method. This is where the so-called second generation of biofuel enters. wood. less fossil fuel is required. trees and grasses can be derived. It is significantly better since trees and grasses require small amount of energy in comparison to grains that must be replanted annually. by year 2050. starch or sugar with the use of modern technology. grasses can be harvested twice every year. having a greater impact than the usual corn ethanol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. the increasing productivity of cellulosic sources would in due course allow them to generate as much as 150 billion gallons of ethanol which is comparable to more than twothirds present gasoline consumption in the United States. Cellulose ethanol production is newly discovered experimental processes which can breakdown cellulose in woody fibers. This so-called second generation denotes non food crops (cellulosic biofuel) such as waste biomass. corn. This new type of biofuel is gradually gaining popularity because of the feedstock such as wood chips and grasses that is cost effective and very abundant. nrdc. cellulose. In cellulosic ethanol. none of the ethanol is derived from cellulosic materials. Ethanol. therefore. As a matter of fact. This is according to ethanol industry’s list of producers in the United States. Proponents claims that increasing industrial and political support for this second generation biofuel is a more feasible solution to achieve efficient fuel production utilizing a much greater range of plants and its waste. To briefly differentiate second from first generation. This is great news for those regions having a short supply of corn-based food that is competing with the corn-ethanol manufacturers. Based on the report made by the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). the fuel is derived from the stems and stalks of plants rather than only using the sugars and starches from corns. This is because in cellulose ethanol. First generation biofuel are those fuel derived from vegetable or animal fats/oils. Moreover. in comparison between the land area of grasses and corn. problem No Comments » . During the conversion into ethanol. the entire plant can be utilized instead of just the grain as in corn ethanol.

it would take time for biofuels to be readily accessible due to lack of ethanol or biodiesel pumps at existing filling station. wind. biodiesel can run most diesel operated engines. The use of biofuel is not complicated. In addition. such biofuels are biodegradable which means they are derived from organic materials. Ethanol The Pros and Cons of Biofuels There have been studies that prove the many benefits of substituting fossil fuels (petroleum. particularly true for ethanol. biodiesel even has an output of 3. our reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced. Biofuels are renewable but crops are still not enough. these biofuels emit nontoxic and cleaner emissions in comparison to traditional fuels. Ethanol puts out about 1. Compared to other forms of renewable energy (solar. Biofuels uses more energy than they can produce. etc). In its simplest sense. biofuel is far more simple and easy to use. For this reason. Over the years. It is a fact that biofuels are derived from biomass that is renewable and biodegradable. since the carbon they emit is taken back to the environment. Any automobile will not need complex changes.Dec 15 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. Biofuels. Biofuels are easily utilize but not readily accessible.2 . it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come. wild habitats and agricultural lands. It can create numerous jobs since our own farmers can practically make them domestically. However. since it might require extensive land that may involve forests. This leads to some arguments. This had been an issue in so many years whether producing biofuels would actually need more energy than they can give.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used in processing it. one major concern of wide scale biofuel production is the increased need of growing crops to meet the demand. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. etc) with biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. Consequently. In some instances. Despite these benefits. These alternative fuels also do not promote global warming. technology has significantly improved. The biodiesel can be readily combined with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time. If not. It does not require special equipment or a modification in all engines. you may have to look for flexible fuel car models. They are naturally renewable. Moreover.

On the other hand. technology. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel or gasoline fuel. it is fermented into sugar. . As a matter of fact. Process The two processes that can generate fuel-grade ethanol are wet milling and dry milling. experts states that the main biofuels. yeast. corn and biomass. or leaving you with only 80%. diesel. Biodiesel is produced through a chemical process termed as transesterification.units of energy to every unit of energy used on its production. The utilization of both ethanol and biodiesel will result to a decrease reliance on foreign conventional fossil fuels and a reduction on harmful. thus including wasted cooking oil. But this does not mean that biofuel have no future. etc. biodiesel is made from natural oils such as animal fats or vegetable oils. traditional No Comments » Nov 19 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. biofuels. it is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers. Presently. The “traditional” fuel like gasoline needs 20% energy based on what it can provide. afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol. Just a brief review. wheat. Tags: alternative. Below are some of them. wind. There is no instant weaning on conventional petroleum diesel. Conclusion To reduce the reliance on fossil fuel. ethanol is an alcohol fuel derived from sugarcane. conservation is still the primary strategy. methyl esters and glycerin which are not good for engines. cons. In this method. it has a very promising potential. are left behind. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. renewable. the two byproducts. energy. From starch. Biofuels. Other sources of energy such as solar. sugars and starch are fermented. It can be blended with conventional petroleum diesel to improve its octane level resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In it simplest explanation. have a positive effect to the environment. It is quite impossible to totally replace it but instead the consumption must be decreased. toxic emissions. Ethanol Ethanol and Biodiesel: A Biofuel Comparison The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. There are various methods to compare ethanol and biodiesel. pros. Each of them has its pros and cons. are still needed. ethanol and biodiesel.

biodiesel and perhaps some yet-to-be discovered alternative fuel. The reason is that about 420 gallons of ethanol can be generated per acre in contrast to 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre soybeans. In the United States. commercial biodiesel is more expensive than ethanol. Therefore. The two have a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that these biofuels are primarily derived from crops which absorb carbon dioxide. However. On the other hand. . Costs Currently. Greenhouse-gas Emissions (GHG) The production and combustion of ethanol ends in 12% less greenhouse gas emission than the production and combustion of regular diesel. On the other hand ethanol produces only 25% more net energy. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. Stated above are some of the many facts about ethanol and biodiesel with the end view of comparing the two biofuels on which one is better. Both biodiesel and ethanol could provide significant environmental benefit. The pursuit to lessen our reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels will not be realized with a single alternative fuel. Gallons per acre In the perspective of land use and agricultural efficiency. Compatibility Biodiesel can run in any diesel generated engines. It necessitates a blend of ethanol. the cost of soybean oil would significantly increase if biodiesel production is increased as well. Consequently. it is not yet clear if it is the same when using 100% ethanol since it is recommended to be blended with fossil fuel like gasoline. almost all ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline. ethanol seems to be a good choice. the generation and combustion of biodiesel from soybeans results in 41% diminution compared to conventional gasoline. Thus. it is only compatible with selected gasoline powered automobiles.Environmental Benefit Both biofuels can reduce harmful emissions. Energy Many reports stated that biodiesel provides 93% more net energy per gallon than is necessary for its manufacture.

various methods are used in making ethanol from biomass .an organic material. 3. potato skins and sugarcane and it is commonly made from corn. biofuel. From starch. 6. afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol. energy. sugarcane. Ethanol. liquefy it by placing the blend of water. wheat. Add another enzyme that will facilitate the conversion of starch into sugars which are then fermented. .Tags: biodiesel. Below is the brief step by step process. A variety of procedures can generate fuel-grade ethanol. compatibility. Start the fermentation by adding yeast to the sugar mixture. But in Brazil. sorghum and wheat. 7. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. Get rid of the water from the separated ethanol through a dehydration process. Presently. 4. it is considered biodegradable and renewable. ghg. environment. Ethanol-producing plant also buys these byproducts for a variety of purposes. Then. Cool it afterwards. gallons per acre. 2. comparison. The sugars will be broken down to ethanol (a form of alcohol) and carbon dioxide. process No Comments » Oct 06 2007 Posted by admin under Biofuels. The carbon dioxide and distiller grain which are both byproducts of this method can be use in the ranching and farming industry. The ethanol should be non potable to be used as an alternative fuel. etc) pass through a grinding meal to pulverize the selected material. Corn is commonly the base material in the United States due to its affordability and availability. 5. 1. add a small amount of gasoline. Since it is produced from plants. producing alcohol from the cooled mash. grain powder and an enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of the grain compound into a high-heat cooker. It is definitely a clear. The fermentation of sugars and starch in corn with the use of yeast is the most frequently method utilized. sugarcane is widely used. Let the base organic material (corn. Distill the fermented mixture in order for the ethanol to separate from the solids. it is fermented into sugar. Ethanol Uncovering a Biofuel: Ethanol Ethanol is alcohol fuel derived from sugars found in crops such as rice. cost. colorless alternative alcohol fuel. To make it undrinkable.

This reaction gets rid of the by-product glycerin which is not suitable for the engines through a refinery process termed as transesterification. For urban regions that don’t meet the standards of a clean air. In addition. generator or oil home heating units. It is not detrimental if accidentally spilled because it breaks down very quickly. cleaner-burning alternative for petroleum-based diesel fuel. On another note. Since it is primarily derived from plants and animals. It can be used in unmodified engines . The glycerin that is removed in turn can be made into soaps. Thus. Biofuels Biodiesel: In Depth A type of biofuel that is now frequently used is biodiesel. gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) is utilized. corn. biodiesel is way better for the environment. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines. Since it does not produce detrimental . biodiesel is primarily produced from a chemical reaction of alcohol (commonly methanol) and a wide range of fats which include vegetable or animal oils and plant extracts such as corn. other byproducts such as methyl esters are also left behind. Biodiesel is then free from such materials as sulfur and aromatics which are contained in traditional fuels that in turn will substantially facilitate in the reduction of harmful emissions from diesel-fed engines. soybean. In the United States. Tags: biofuel. ethanol as a transportation fuel can be utilized as a partial or total alternative for conventional petroleum diesel. canola. boat. nontoxic and biodegradable. Ethanol. ghg. construction equipment. Considered to be biodegradable and nontoxic. it also one of the most thoroughly tested substitute fuels on the market. Tests have verified that even though it operates in a similar manner to conventional diesel. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. It has a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that biodiesel is primarily derived from crops which absorbs carbon dioxide.Utilizing ethanol means using less of the nonrenewable fuel to produce gasoline. the supply can be replenished by means of farming and recycling. It does not require lead or other derivatives to keep the engine running smoothly. organic. It is a renewable. Ethanol is safe. truck.be it a car. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. almost 99% of ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline to make E10. and sunflowers. It is considered clean for the main reason that it lessens toxic pollutants such as carbon monoxide from the pipelines of vehicles. safe No Comments » Sep 14 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. bus. During the transesterification process.

renewable fuel source. as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable.” This refining method uses of an industrial alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and a catalyst (substance that speeds up the chemical reaction) resulting to a conversion of the oil into a fatty-acid methyl-ester fuel (biodiesel). It can be seen around the country in selected areas or it can be purchased directly from manufacturers. efficacy and worth. designed to be ran on traditional fuel on the condition that it meets the given standards that can be checked on the manufacturer’s recommendations and information. it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come.and 80%. such as 2% bio.and 98% diesel or 5% bio. renewable No Comments » Aug 28 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. The contribution to the sustainability and cleanliness of diesel engines has been one of the focuses of biodiesel production. Nevertheless. . it yields a fuel which is compatible with diesel engines. biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy.consequences to the environment. its main goal is to broaden its usefulness. shifts imported petroleum and decrease toxic emissions. Biofuels Why Choose Biodiesel? How It Works To generate biodiesel.and 95% diesel. the raw oil is subjected to a process called “transesterification. are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by drivers as they become more aware of the many advantages. The ultimate target of the biodiesel industry is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. When biodiesel is mixed with petroleum diesel. It can be safely utilized in any compression-ignition engine. the price will eventually drop. Lower-level biodiesel blends. It may rate a little more expensive than conventional fuels at the present time due to the demand that is not as great. energy. Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. As one of numerous alternative fuels. However. Tags: alcohol. It is most often blended with traditional diesel fuel at any level to lessen automobile emissions. biodiesel. A combination of 20% bio. production.conventional diesel will considerably lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can aggravate global warming. fuel. Biodiesel is a ground-breaking fuel that is rapidly becoming more available to the general community. may it light-duty or heavy-duty engines.

recycled vegetable oils.It can be utilized in single pure form however it may require engine alterations to avoid maintenance and performance troubles. A combination of 20% bio. • Nonflammable – In contrast to gasoline which ignites immediately at any lower temperature. biodiesel is also renewable in contrast to scarce fossil fuel use which is formed from the remnants of animals and plants that have lain in the earth for millions of years. • Non-hazardous – In terms of toxicity. Lower-level biodiesel blends. such as 2% bio.and 98% diesel or 5% bio.and 95% diesel. canola oil. . it brings in a fuel that is compatible with diesel engines. • Sustainable – Aside from it biodegradability. Definition Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from farm products such as vegetable or animal oils. biodiesel is the best alternative that has proven to be safe and not harmful to the environment. A Safe and Clean Fuel • Cleaner Emissions – The use of biodiesel lessens greenhouse emissions because carbon dioxide that is released from the combustion of biodiesel is neutralize by the carbon dioxide utilized while growing the feedstock. or recycled cooking greases.conventional diesel will greatly lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can worsen global warming. however sunflower oil.and 80%. When biodiesel is combined with petroleum diesel. • Renewable – Biodiesel is derived from 85% vegetable or animal oils/fats which are renewable sources. are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by the public as they become more aware of the many benefits. fats. It is most commonly mixed with conventional petroleum diesel fuel at any level to reduce detrimental automobile emissions. reduce imported petroleum needs and decrease toxic emissions. Various tests verified that biodiesel is biodegradable and nontoxic that poses no threat to human health. Almost all biodiesels are derived from soybean oil. and animal fats can also be used in the United States. The biodiesel can be readily blended with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time. • Simple – The automobile need not any complex modification or conversion. • Appropriate for Your Engine – A number of tests reveal that biodiesel is more lubricating than any conventional diesel to both the fuel injection pump and engine. biodiesel will only ignite at a very high temperature.

renewable No Comments » Jul 22 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. Here are some of the important considerations in utilizing biodiesel in your engines. it is advisable to consult the manufacturer’s recommendations and information about the use of biodiesel. Since it turns out to be increasingly common and generally used by the public as they become more knowledgeable of the positive effects. Canada. fuel. etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. • Rubber Seals and Hoses Almost all pre . such as hoses and pump seals will be gradually degraded with the utilization of biodiesel. energy.1994 automobiles and several later model vehicles have fuel lines that are not compatible with biodiesel. there are roughly 600 fleets that use biodiesel blends in their diesel engines. Tags: biodiesel. It is suggested to carry an extra fuel filter in your car. thus primarily causing fuel filter clogs when used for the first time. Before they will entirely ruin. various blends of biodiesel at approximately 800 areas are available nationwide. These rubber fuel system components. acquisitions of new spare parts supply or rebuilding stations need not to be done by the manager. clean. base organic material (soybean. know how to change it and be prepared at all times. Biofuels Precautionary Measures in Using Biodiesel in Your Engines One of the main biofuels which is biodiesel is now widely used in the United States. • Paint . • Affordable – The geographic area. On the side of the fleets. Moreover. and many countries in Europe. It varies depending on the said determinants. Thus. Vehicle owners must change the filter shortly after trying on a full tank of biodiesel. It does not also require purchasing new vehicles to shift from conventional diesel to biodiesel. once in a while check under your hood and replace with a biodiesel resistant synthetic any ruined fuel lines and seals • Fuel Filter Clogging Biodiesel can liberate deposits mounted up on pipes and tank walls from previous traditional diesel fuel. corn. it will first become supple or spongy. Thailand. Power loss is an indication of fuel filter clogging.• Available – Currently in the United States.

This incident can be prevented by immediately wiping off or washing with small amount of soap and water. A blow-dryer can also be aimed at the fuel filter and lines. In regions with colder climates. Biofuels.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used. at around 32°F or higher. Ethanol Misconceptions on Biofuel Misconception # 1: Biofuel generates a small amount of energy than it takes to produce them. • Uninformed Mechanics Mechanics that are not knowledgeable and familiar with biodiesel might misdiagnosed not related problems as being brought about by biodiesel and perform “repairs” in the fuel system that are not necessary and expensive. precaution. crystallization can be prevented with adding of heating elements or insulation to the fuel systems. Nevertheless it is still best to check your owner’s manual or consult your vehicle manufacturers for recommendations and more specific information. A lot of newer vehicles have compatible components that will accept biofuels readily. Overall.2 units of energy to every unit . Ethanol gives about 1. If experiencing power loss. the utilization of biodiesel can not be the primary reason for maintenance issues and concerns. This however may not cause damage. else park it indoors. A second opinion from an expert mechanic is also suggested before permitting any expensive repairs to be done. warming up the vehicle helps. Fact: Over the years. If no indoor parking is available. • Cold Weather Depending on the type of fat sources it was derived from. Tags: biodiesel. The vehicle will not start when biodiesel freezes your fuel system and injection pump. vehicle No Comments » Mar 11 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. immediately replace your fuel filter. danger. biodiesel even provides 3. Fuel containers can be stored in warm places. engine. Pouring hot water can also be done but be sure to avoid wetting the electrical components.The paint on your automobile may dissolve with the use of biodiesel in due course. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. technology has significantly improved. biofuel. the car should be parked where sunlight can hit it. biodiesel crystallizes. It is better to look and locate for the nearest biodiesel-friendly mechanic before actually needing one. In addition.

It may rate a little more expensive than traditional fuels at the current time due to the demand that is not as great. truck. generator or oil home heating units. boat. biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy. the price will eventually drop. Misconception # 2: Biofuel brings about food shortage. In biodiesel for example. it is also damaging our environment. etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. It can create jobs and help boost the economy as well. biofuels are the best alternatives to fossil fuels which are nonrenewable. Nevertheless. . As a matter of fact. gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) can also be used. This can make biofuel an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. Fact: The ultimate target of the biofuel manufacturing is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. Sufficient amount of food exist than there has ever been before.of energy used. Misconception # 5: Biofuels will completely replace conventional fuel. efficacy and worth. The main reason why people starve is not because of biofuel production but because of inequitable economic system. base organic material (soybean.be it a car. Not only traditional petroleum fuel is far more expensive. most of the time using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable. bus. Misconception # 3: Modification of all engines is a must in using Biofuel. construction equipment. renewable fuel source. Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. Misconception # 4: Biofuel must be subsidized to be affordable. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. that is not primarily because there is not enough food. It varies depending on the said determinants. it can be used in unmodified engines . Fact: This is not true for all. “traditional” fuel (gasoline) uses 20% more energy to make it than it provides or converts. If there are billions of people who suffer starvation in different parts of the world. On another note. grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available. However. renewable resources. corn. its main goal is to broaden its usefulness. Reality: At the present time. Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean. Fact: There is more than enough food to cater to the general public. Fact: The geographic area. As one of numerous alternative fuels.

It has been believed to be the sole answer for the world’s global warming and energy crisis. This is where biofuel production comes in. water limits are becoming more severe.an organic material. will cause food shortages and price increase. etc.Tags: affordable. water. This would only result to further reduction of water availability. Consequently. e10. Ethanol. alternative. However there are a lot of controversies that arises from biofuel production and use. Issue # 3: Does it not affect a considerable amount of land and water?It is a fact that biofuel production necessitates growing biomass such as crops which in turn require a massive amount of land and water. It is especially not good in developing countries. It is believed to redirect agricultural production away from food crops. Manufacturing biofuel would only worsen water problem. The presence of large-scale biofuels would greatly need enormous amount of water. food shortage No Comments » Jan 24 2007 Posted by admin under Biofuels Biofuel and the Controversies There have been many efforts to generate unlimited and renewable source of fuel. energy.” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands. biodiesel. looking at the entire process. the biofuel industry is gaining impetus to promote a cleaner environment. It is particularly alarming in regions known to have scarcity of water. engine modification. biomass . agricultural. termed as “biofuels. We can’t deny the fact that in other parts of the world. etc. In contrast to other renewable energy resources. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. improve new economic prospect for the agriculture industry and eventually reduce reliance on crude oil as a feedstock for gasoline. Issue # 1: Is it really environmental friendly?It is known that biofuel chief benefit is the reduction of harmful greenhouse gas emission because of the fact that these biofuel is primarily derived from crops which can absorb carbon dioxide. fertilizers. Thus. can be converted directly into burnable fuels. biofuel. The central dispute is that biofuel production will compete with food supply in numerous ways. However. Issue # 2: Does it not really affect food supply?One of the prime criticisms is usually directed against large-scale biofuel production. . from clearing the field to its consumption. infrastructure. human resource. In the contemporary years. the considerable reduced emission from the utilization of biofuel is overshadowed by far greater emissions that result from burning. this fight over rural investment. deforestation.

Tags: benefit. manufacturing biofuel would necessitate growing biomass which requires large agricultural lands. algae. Consequently. biofuel is now widely used in different countries including United States. These controversies would result to a much continual and thorough studies and research that would greatly benefit not only the government but the public itself. Other common biofuels are made from corn.frankenfilter. subsistence farmers and endangered species is in reality affected by this land clearing for growing biomass. It does not only destroy wild habitats but also increase carbon dioxide that is emitted when forests are burnt. Brazil and some countries in Europe because it poses a very good potential as an alternative fuel. The simplest biofuel is wood.com What is Biofuel? Biorganic fuel – biofuel – is any combustible plant or animal material that can be used as an energy source. . Fuel can be made from sugar cane.aspx Biodiesel Plants . in some countries. The issues presented above are indeed hot topics that need to be clarified and answered.com/algae Solar Energy Blog . and even manure.Issue # 4: does it not involve destruction of wild habitats?As stated above. biomass. biofuel.solutionrecovery. environment. the incidence of deforestation is alarmingly increasing as croplands are being created. Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels There are both advantages and disadvantages of biofuels that eco-savvy consumers should be aware of when investigating this green fuel alternative to more destructive petroleum products. But despite of these uncertainties.com/events. wood-burning as a heat and light source has been popular for millennia. The home occupied by indigenous people. vegetable oils. soybeans. sugar cane. damascusenergy.Solar Energy information Your source for energy information.High lipid recovery for biofuels Leaders in fractionation technology www.We supply components for Biodiesel Plants! www. Ads by Google Algae Oil Extraction .

Primary Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels No fuel source is completely positive or completely negative. Ads by Google Free Algae Co's Database . particularly as worldwide demand for oil increases. Biofuel production will also increase the demand for suitable biofuel crops. • Source Material: Whereas oil is a limited resource that comes from specific materials.and animal-based fuels. Lower Carbon Emissions: When biofuels are burned. Economic Stimulation: Because biofuels are produced locally. manure. therefore increasing oil and gasoline prices to unheard of levels. biofuels can be manufactured from a wide range of materials including crop waste. biofuel manufacturing plants can employ hundreds or thousands of workers.thegreentrackers. Advantages Biofuel advocates frequently point out the advantages of these plant.50+ companies profiles 1000+ interactive comparison views www. providing economic stimulation to the agriculture industry. and other byproducts. biofuels are often considered to be a more environmentally responsible type of fuel compared to oil and other fossil fuel products because biofuels have many advantages in terms of ecological sustainability. Different biofuels have more specialized pros and cons.Biofuel development research on lab and pilot plant scales.pos. • • • Renewability: It takes thousands of years for fossil fuels to be produced. making them a safer alternative to preserve atmospheric quality and lower air pollution. biofuels can be significantly less expensive than gasoline and other fossil fuels. such as: • Cost: Once the technology is widely available.Today. making it a efficient step in recycling.ca . they produce significantly less carbon output and fewer toxins. but the general arguments for and against this type of renewable energy resource are applicable to all types of biofuels and biodiesel. making spills less hazardous and much easier and less expensive to clean up. Consumers need to weigh the pros and cons of biofuels to determine whether they feel comfortable with this emerging resource as an alternative to traditional fuels. • • Biodegradability: Biofuels are easily biodegradable and far safer to handle than traditional fuels. countries can protect the integrity of their energy resources and make them safe from outside influences.com Biofuels Development . www. Security: By reducing dependence on foreign fuel sources. creating new jobs in rural areas. but biofuels are much more easily renewable as new crops are grown and waste material is collected.

Learn Energy Work Basics . which could strain local and regional water resources. Food Prices: As demand for food crops such as corn grows for biofuel production.com Disadvantages Despite the many positive characteristics of biofuels. Limited availability reduces the desirability of biofuels as alternative energy sources.spiritconnections. and those smells are generally undesirable near large communities. there are also many disadvantages to these energy sources. • Production Carbon Emissions: Several studies have been conducted to analyze the carbon footprint of biofuels. it could also raise prices for necessary staple food crops. . • • • • High Cost: To refine biofuels to more efficient energy outputs and to build the necessary manufacturing plants to increase biofuel quantities will require a high initial investment. and while they may be cleaner to burn. protection.Free 7-Part course sent by email Intention. Availability: Biofuels are not widely available for consumer purchase and most vehicles are not equipped to run on biofuel products. Biofuels aren't all good. Water Use: Massive quantities of water are required for proper irrigation of biofuel crops as well as to manufacture the fuel. there are strong indications that the process to produce the fuel – including the machinery necessary to cultivate the crops and the plants to produce the fuel – has hefty carbon emissions. While manufacturing plants can be isolated. • Smell: Biofuel production produces heavy smells depending on the type of materials used. clearing etc www. • Energy Output: Biofuels have a lower energy output than traditional fuels and therefore require greater quantities to be consumed in order to produce the same energy level. this will add to the carbon emissions necessary to bring fuel to population centers.

The Future of Biofuels Biofuels are a reliable alternative energy resource but more development and research is necessary to overcome the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels and make them suitable for widespread consumer use. renewable energy source. land. many of the disadvantages will be minimized and consumers can begin to enjoy all the benefits of this sustainable. food supply. wild habitat . When the technology is available. water.

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