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Work Sampling Ppt|Views: 1,478|Likes: 6

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/44526613/Work-Sampling-Ppt

03/18/2013

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Definition Explaining Work Sampling Types of Work Sampling Procedure for Work Sampling Normal Distribution Curve Confidence Level Determining Sample Size Errors in Work Sampling Uses of Work Sampling Advantages of Work Sampling Disadvantages of Work Sampling Bibliography

C.H. Also known as Activity Sampling or Random Sampling. TIPPET of British cotton industry research association in 1934. .` ` ` Work Sampling : A method of finding the percentage occurrence of a certain activity by statistical sampling and random observations. Introduced by L.

Obtaining and analyzing only a part of the universe is called Sampling. Larger the sample size.` Based upon laws of probability. ` ` ` ` ` . the more accurate or representative it becomes with respect to the original ³population´. Population or Universe is the term used for the large group. A sample taken at random from a large group tends to have the same pattern of distribution as the large group. Sample is the term used for the small representative number.

The white blocks represent working time and the colored idle time. These slips kept in a hat and mixed thoroughly. . 480 small pieces of paper are taken and numbered to represent 480 minutes in the 8 hour day. A number is drawn and a mark placed on a bar at the time corresponding to the number on the slip. A panel of 480 blocks representing 480 minutes of a 8 hour day arranged across the bottom of a board. 40 such µrandom observations¶ are done.

Markings are on white represent observations of the worker while working and those on colored represent him idle. Therefore. Total of 6 idle observations were taken during the day. State Working Idle Tally IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII I Total 34 6 . (6/40)*100=15 =15% This is the percentage of the day during which the worker was idle as determined by work sampling.

To measure the activities and delays of workers or machines. Performance Sampling. Work Measurement.Under certain circumstances. and to establish a performance index or performance level for the person during his working time. that is to establish a time standard for an operation. to measure a manual task.` Activity or Delay Sampling.To measure working time and nonworking time of a person on a manual task. ` ` .

Obtain the co-operation of the workers. Obtain the approval of the department in which the work sampling study is to be made. Describe in detail each element to be measurement.The following steps are required in making a work sampling study: Define the problem. . State the main objectives of the problem. a. b.

c. e. Determine the number of shifts needed. Determine the number of observers needed. a. ` . Make detailed plans for taking the observations such as the time and route to be followed by observer. Design the observation form. b. based on past experience or a oneday or two-day preliminary work sampling study. Make a preliminary estimate of the percentage occurrence of the activity or delay to be measured. Determine the number of observations to be made. Determine the desired accuracy of the final results. Design the study. d.

Determine the control limits. Make the observation. Prepare the report and state conclusions. d. b. c. Check the accuracy or precision of data at the end of the day. Make the observation and record the data. Make recommendations if called for. Plot the data on control charts at the end of each day. Summarize the data at the end of each day. ` ` ` . a.

` . ` Most common confidence interval is 95% which means that probability is 95% of the times the random observations will represent the facts and 5% of the time. it will not.It is necessary to decide what level of confidence is desired in the final working sample.

Normal distribution curve is described by 2 attributes : x=average or measure of central dispersion =standard deviation(deviation from average) .` ` It represents graphically the probability of the occurrence of certain chance phenomenon.

45%. This is in fact the degree of confidence in our observations.58 p 99. p on both sides of x gives an area of 68. 32 p on both sides of x gives an area of 99.9% of the area under the curve =3.73%. 2 p on both sides of x gives an area of 95.9% confidence level or 99.g. 95% confidence level or 95% of the area under the curve=1.27% of the total area.` ` ` From the previous figure. For e.3 p ` .96 p 99% confidence level or 99% of the area under the curve =2.

The standard deviation of µp1¶ for sample size µn¶. p = ¥{p(1-p)} ¥(n-1) ` . also termed as Standard Error of Proportion.` The proportion defective items µp¶ in a large number of items is to be drawn after observing the proportion defective µp1¶ in a suitably selected sample size µn¶ from the large number of items. given by.

. We have to decide the margin of error that we can allow for these observations. the average value of p1 computed from previous samples maybe used in place of p.For large µn¶ the expression can be approximated to:p = ¥{p(1-p)} ¥n When µp¶ is unknown.

S=K p =K¥p(1-p) ¥n p= percentage occurrence of the activity (working or non-working) being measured in fraction. the value of which depends on the desired confidence level. .96 n= number of observations required for the desired confidence level and margin of error. 95% confidence level. s= error in fraction K= a factor.g. K=1.` The formula for determining the number of observations is given by : P. For e.

the observed and/or environment in which the observations are made. Study is made on a finite period of time. . Observational Error: Occurs due to the presence and behavior of the observer.Work Sampling is subjected to two kinds of error. The period may not be representative.

an experimental error is introduced which is a measure of sampling variations in terms of Standard Error of Proportion. .Experimental Error: Due to finite number of random observations on a specified activity.

` ` ` . To aid in the measurement of overall performances. To study the time utilization by supervisors and establishing goals for supervision.` To aid in determination of time standards and delay allowances. To determine the nature and extent of cycles and µpeak load¶ variations in observable activity.

To assist in engineering economy studies.` To aid in job evaluation. For appraisal of safety performance. For appraisal of organizational efficiency. ` ` ` ` . To aid in manpower planning.

` Comparatively simple method. ` ` ` ` . Usually requires fewer man hours and costs less to make a work sampling study than it does to make a continuous time study.to -week variations affecting the results.to -day or week. Observations may be taken over a period of days or weeks thus decreasing the chance of day. Operator does not feel under too much pressure and attention. Work sampling may be interrupted at any time without affecting the result.

` ` ` ` . If an electronic data collector is used. Prolonged study is unnecessary since instantaneous observation of the operator at random intervals during the working day.` A simultaneous work sampling study of several operation or operators or machines maybe made by a single observer. A stop watch is not needed. Not necessary to use trained analyst for observers. Less tedious and less fatiguing to make on the part of the observer. the results are shown on a computer printout.

No details about operation.` Not economical for studying a simple a single operator or machine or for studying operators or machines located over wide areas. No No details about operation ` details about operation .

Introduction to work study( Indian Adaptation) International Labor Office. Barnes . Geneva Motion and time study design and measurement of work(Seventh Edition) -Ralph M.

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