P. 1
OD Intervention

OD Intervention

|Views: 1,614|Likes:
Published by rohan_rmv

More info:

Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: rohan_rmv on Dec 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPTX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Presentation On: Systems Or Techno-structural Interventions

Group No.6
Roll No. Name Stream

9140 Rohan Vishwasrao


What is an OD intervention?

Personal Interventions System or
OD Interventions

Techno-Structural Interventions Team Interventions

Techno Structural Interventions.
‡ Structural Design ‡ Downsizing ‡ Reengineering ‡ Employee Involvement ‡ Work Design

Structural Design Interventions
Socio technical systems (STS). Self-managed teams. Management by objectives (MBO). Quality circles. Quality of work life projects (QWL). Parallel learning structures (or collateral organizations). ‡ Physical settings. ‡ Total quality management (TQM). ‡ Large-scale systems change. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ Socio Technical Systems (STS):
Social technical refers to the interrelatedness of social and technical aspects of an organization. It was established to emphasize the two-way relationship between people and machines. Its role is to foster the program of shaping both the technical and social conditions of work in such a way that efficiency and humanity would not contradict each other

‡ Self Managed Teams:
± A self-managed team has total responsibility for its defined roles which might be specific to a project. They consist of group of 10-15 people who take on responsibility of their supervisor ± The team is autonomous and its members are responsible only to each other.

‡ Management by objectives (MBO):
MBO is a process wherein management and employees jointly participate in goal setting , they choose the course of actions and decision making. An important part of MBO is the measurement and comparison of actual performance with the standards set.

‡ Quality circles:
Quality circle is a form of group problem solving and goal setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing product quality. It is advised to meet one hour once in a week. Quality circle should make sure that each meeting has a clear agenda and objective. Quality circles contributes toward total quality management

‡ Quality of work life projects (QWL):
QWL programs are another way in which organisations recognise their responsibility to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for economic health of the organisation. The elements in a typical QWL program include ± open communications, equitable reward systems, a concern for employee job security and satisfying careers and participation in decision making.

‡ Parallel learning structures:
Parallel Learning Structures promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure.

‡ Physical settings
Physical settings are an important part of organization culture that work groups should learn to diagnose and manage, and about which top management needs input in designing plants and buildings. Sometime, physical setting were found to interfere with effective group and organizational functioning.

‡ Total quality management (TQM):
Also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation.

‡ Large-scale systems change:
Large-scale systems change; mean organizational change that is massive in terms of the number of organizational units involved, the number of people affected, the number of organizational subsystems altered, and/or the depth of the cultural change involved.

Downsizing is a set of organizational activities undertaken by the management , which are designed to improve the organizational efficiency, productivity & improve competiveness.

Techniques & Strategies of Downsizing
‡ Attrition: The natural process of reduction in the workforce of the organization by the way of retirement, death or resignation. ‡ Voluntary Retirement and Buyout benefits : It encourages employees to retire early with full or reduced pension benefits before stipulated retirement age. Buyout is a similar technique that offers employees lump sum amount to encourage employees leave the job. ‡ Involuntary Separation / Layoffs: Terminating the employees from the job without giving proper reasons for it.

‡ Leave without Pay: Employees are asked to go on a long leave with reduced benefits, but guarantees jobs when they return.

Objectives behind Downsizing
The major objectives behind Downsizing is as follows:‡ Optimization of resources. ‡ Enhancing the Long term value of the firm. ‡ Reduction of costs. ‡ Improvement of Productivity. ‡ Improvement of Profitability. ‡ Eliminate the Duplication of work after M&A. ‡ Elimination of unnecessary intermediary channels

Side Effects of Downsizing
Effect on Fired Workers ‡ Depression ‡ Anxiety ‡ Frustration ‡ Anger ‡ Bitterness Effect on Retained workers ‡ Low Morale ‡ Uncertainty of the Job ‡ High Stress due to overload. ‡ Frustration, envy and depression. ‡ Decreased Productivity.

Definition ± The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cost -- GLOBAL SOURCING, APPLE IPAD¶S Quality -- DAIRY MILK CASEWITHWORMS Service ± PDA¶S AT PARADISE HOTEL Speed -- SPEED POST vs. DTDC/FEDEX

Why BPR««..?????
‡ Customer focus. ‡ Speed. ‡ Compression ‡ Flexibility ‡ Quality. ‡ Innovation ‡ Productivity. ‡ In short to SURVIVE in the market is the only reason for BPR.

Employee Involvement
‡ A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees & designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization. ‡ Job satisfaction can be increased by: Involving workers in decisions that affect them. Increasing autonomy & control over their work lives.

Four ways of Employee Involvement
1. Participative Management 2. Representative Participation 3. Quality Circles 4. Employee Stock Ownership Plans

Work Design
‡ This refers to OD interventions aimed at creating jobs, and workgroups that generate high levels of employee fulfilment and productivity. ‡ This techno-structural intervention can be part of a larger employee involvement application, or it can be an independent change program.

There are three approaches to work design. ‡ The Engineering approach focuses on efficiency and simplification, and results in traditional job and work group ‡ designs. Telephone operators and data-entry positions are examples of this job design. ‡ A second approach is work enrichment and rests on motivational theories and attempts to enrich the work experience. Job enrichment involves designing jobs with high levels of meaning, discretion, and knowledge of results. E.g. Hackman and Oldhams Model ±WORK REDESIGN ‡ The third approach is socio-technical approach and seeks to optimize both social and technical aspects of work systems. This method has led to a popular form of work design called ³self managed teams´ which are composed of multi-skilled members performing interrelated tasks. Members are given the knowledge, information, and power necessary to control their own task behaviours with relatively little external control.

ackman and Oldhams Model ± WORK REDESIGN

Case Study

Techno Structural Interventions in the Indian Railways.

Indian Railway Overview
‡ Foundation: ± 1st established on 16th April, 1853 (Between Mumbai to Thane). ± Nationalized in 1951. ‡ Headquarters: New Delhi, India. ‡ 24x7x365 Operations. ‡ Slogan: ³Lifeline of the Nation´

Some Facts
‡ The current earnings of the Indian Railways is Rs 29274.55 Cr. ‡ Indian Railway runs around 11,000 trains everyday, of which 7,000 are passenger trains. ‡ There are: ± 7,566 Locomotives ± 37,840 Coaching Vehicles ± 6,853 Stations ± 300 yards of railway tracks ± 2,300 good sheds ± 700 repair shops ± 1.54 million work force ± And some few Crores of customers««.

Techno Structural Interventions in the Indian Railways
‡ Information Technology
± Development of Centralized Information System. ± Online monitoring of rolling stocks. ± Modern and automatic signaling system.

‡ Benefits ± Increasing operational efficiency. ± Transparency in working. ± Seamless Integration on Nationwide Railways. ± Safety of Railway operations. ± Value Added Services. ± Increased Productivity. ± Freight Revenue Enhancement. ± Passenger Revenue Enhancement ± Investment Optimization. ± And finally PROFIT MAXIMISATION.

‡ Evolution of Ticketing Systems

Techno Structural Interventions in the Indian Railways

± Long distance trains: ‡ Online ticketing. ‡ Introduction of ³Tatkaal´ booking of tickets. ± Local Trains: ‡ Card tickets . ‡ Printed Tickets. ‡ Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) systems: ± Smart Cards (September 2009). ± Go Mumbai (2nd February, 2007).
**The cards are available in multiples of Rs 50, with the upper limit as Rs 5,000.

‡ Benefits
± Smart Cards:
‡ The card allows a passenger to travel on trains without standing in ticket queues ‡ by means of using these Smart Cards commuters will be able to buy railway tickets from touch screen ATVMs. ‡ In the future, the same card can be used to purchase tickets from any ATVM across the country.

± Go Mumbai:
‡ The card allows a passenger to travel on trains without standing in ticket queues. ‡ Commuter has to swipe the card at valuators' before and after a journey. ‡ Fare is automatically deducted from the prepaid amount of the card

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ www.littleabout.com www.go4mumbai.com www.ameinfo.com www.authorstream.com www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com www.wordpress.com www.business-standard.com www.indianrailways.gov.in www.wikipedia.com

Thank You

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->