2/5/2009

ISLAM: KNOWLEDGE AND CIVILIZATION
(UNGS 2040)

Definition of Knowledge

Al-‘ilm (‫/ )العمن‬Knowledge

STANDARD CONTENTS
© Department of General Studies, 2008
2

Al-‘ilm (‫)العلم‬
 The arrival (Husul:‫ )حصول‬in the soul of the

….cont.,
 Realization of the meanings of

meaning of a thing or an object of knowledge and the arrival (wusul: ‫(وصول‬of the soul at the meaning of a thing or object of knowledge

‫ ”حصول هعىى أو صورة الشيء في الىفس ووصول‬ “‫الىفس إلى هعىى الشيء‬  (al-Jurjani:160-161)
3

things (Al-Ghazzali)  Realization of something in its true nature through different levels of understanding and in agreement with the facts or true to nature. (textbook, 4)
4

1

2/5/2009

……cont.,
 To know, to understand, to

Opposite of ‫العلم‬
‫ :الظو‬Conjecture
Uncertainty Not supported with decisive proofs It might accord with the reality and it

perceive, to be familiar and acquainted with things.  A firm belief that accords with the reality of things (‫:74) )فاعلم أنه ال إله إال اهلل‬ 19(. - Theology (‫ ,)عقيدة‬Principles of Jurisprudence(‫ )أصول الفقه‬etc.
5

might not

6

….cont.,
 ‫ : الشك‬doubt  ‫ : الجهل‬ignorance  ‫ : السفة‬foolishness  ‫ :الضالل‬misguidance

Degrees of Certainty
•Certainty, conviction (‫)اهلًٖ/اهلظع‬ •Accords with the reality •Certainty by observation ِ‫عيِ اىيقي‬ •certainty through knowledge ِ‫عيٌ اىيق‬ •Certainty through experience ِ‫حق اىيقي‬
‫: العمن‬knowledge

7

8

2

2/5/2009

Importance of Knowledge
 1. Knowledge is a requirement for the

fulfillment of man‟s obligations as a khalifah on earth. Allah says:

ْ ٍِْ ‫ وإِذ قَبه ربُّلَ ىِ ْيََلئِنة إِِّّي جبعو فِي اْلَرْ ضِ خيِيفَةً قَبىُىا أَجَجْ عو فِيهَب‬ َ ٌ ِ َ ُ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ َ ََ َ ُ ِ ْ ‫يُفسد فِيهَب ويَسفِل اىدٍبء وَّحْ ُِ ُّسبِّح بِحَدِكَ وُّقَدِّسُ ىَلَ قَبه إِِّّي أَعيٌَ ٍب‬ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ َ َ َ ِّ ُ ْ َ َ ُ ْ ‫َل جَعيََىَُ (03) وعيٌَّ آَدً اْلَسَبء ميَّهب ثٌُ عَرضهٌُ عيَى اىََلئنة فَقَبه‬ َ ِ َ ِ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َّ َ ُ َ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ َ َ ُ ْ َ َّ ‫أ َّْبِئُىِّي بِأَسَبء هَؤَُلء إُِْ مْحٌُ صبدقِيَِ (13) قَبىُىا سبْحبَّلَ َل ع ْيٌ ىََْب إَِل‬ َ ُ ِ َ ْ ُْ ِ َ ِ َ ْ َ ِ َ ‫ٍب عيََّحََْب إَِّّلَ أ َّْثَ اىعيِيٌ اىحنيٌ (23) قَبه يَب آَدً أ َّْبئهٌُ بأَسَبئِهٌ فَيََب‬ َ ْ َ َ َّ ْ ِ َ ْ ِ ْ ْ ِ ُ َ ُ ِ َ ْ ُ َْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ َ َ ُ ْ ٌَ‫أ َّْبَأَهٌُ بِأَسَبئِهٌ قَبه أَىٌَ أَقُوْ ىَنٌ إِِّّي أَعيٌَ غيْب اىسَبوات واْلَرْ ضِ وأَعي‬ ُْ ْ َ ِْ َ ْ ْ ُ ْ َ )33( َُ‫ٍب ج ُْبدُوَُ وٍب م ْْحٌُ جَنحَُى‬ ُ ْ ْ ُ َ َ َ

9

10

……Cont., 2. The first revelation to the Messenger of Allah is about seeking knowledge and revealing scientific knowledge:
Read! In the name of the Lord and Cherisher, who created- created man, out of a mere clot of congealed blood. Proclaim! And your Lord is most Bountiful- He who taught the use of the pen, taught man that which he knew not‛ (96:1-5)
[‚read, teach , pen‛]

‫”ؤكرؤ تبشى ربِّل اهذىخوق *خوق االٌشبً يً عوق *اكرا ّرتم‬ َ َ -1:‫االنرى *اهذْ عوى تبهلوى *عوى االٌشبً يب هى ٖعوى“ (اهعوق‬ )5

11

12

3

The Qur’an. and discover the truth. ‫ُ يٌ ٖ يٌ تي ؤ ْزل‬ َ ِ ٌُ ‫”َنًِِ َّاش ًَُّ ِٕ اهْ ِوْىِ ٌِْ ُىِ َّاهْيئْ ِ ًَُّ ُئْ ِ ًَُّ ِ َب‬ ِ ‫ه اهر ِخ ف ع ي‬ )162 :‫َِِٖ َ َ َب ٌُ ِلَ يًِِ َتِِ َ“ (اهٌشبء‬ ‫ك وم‬ ‫اه م ّي ؤ ْز‬ ‚But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge.2/5/2009 ……cont... 7. The main miracle and sign of authenticity of prophethood of Mohammed (‫ )صوٓ اهلل عوَٖ ّشوى‬was a book of knowledge. 8. The text of the Qur’an is full of verses inviting man to use his intellect. 3. to ponder.The total number of verses in which ‘ilm or its derivatives and associated words are used is 704. 13 ……cont. 6. fear him. 5. 4. believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you…‛ 16 ‚Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim‛. and the believers.. 14 ……cont. Knowledge is the way through which people can recognize Allah. 15 4 ..The Prophet (‫ )صوٓ اهلل عوَٖ ّشوى‬made seeking knowledge obligatory on Muslims (men and women): “‫”ظوة اهعوى فرٖطج عوٓ نل يشوى‬ ……cont. Islam is a religion based upon knowledge. to think and to learn.

ََ ٌَ َ ‫هل خ ٌ ّد ٌِ ف و ٖ جت ُ َّت يع ُ َاهظ‬ ُ ‫”ََّ َدِ ءَا َِٖ َب دَا ُ َ يَّب َطًِب َب ِ َبل ؤ ِّ ِٕ َ ََ ّ َِّٖر َّؤَهَّب ه‬ ‫اهْ َ ِٖ َ(01) ًَ اعِ َلْ َب ِ َبح َك ِّر ِٕ َّرِ ِ َاعِيَُّا َبِ ّب‬ ‫ؤ ِ ي ش تغ ٍ ّ َد ِ ف اهش د ّ و ص هح‬ ‫حد د‬ )‫إِّ ِ َب َعِيَُّ َ َ ِٖ ْ(11)“ (شتإء‬ ‫ٌِ تي خ و ً تص ر‬ We gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they both said: "Praise be to Allah.. and that it guides to the Path of Allah who is Exalted and Worthy of all praise. and work righteousness." 20 5 . ََٓ‫”ََّ َدِ ءَا َِٖ َب دَا ُد َ َُِٖ َب َ عِوْ ّب َ َبال اهْ َيِد هِو ِ َّ ِٔ ف ََّ َب ع‬ ‫هل خ ٌ ّ َ ّشو ي ً ي ّك ح ُ ََّ اهذ َطوٌ و‬ )‫َ ِٖ ٍ ًِِ ِ َبدِ ِ اهْ ُئْ ِ ِٖ َ“ (:51اهٌيل‬ ً ٌ‫نذ ر ي عت ٍ ي ي‬ ……cont. for be sure I see all that you do.2/5/2009 ……cont. 9. “ٍ ‫” َرِفع اهو ُ َّ ِٖ َ ءَا َ ُّا ٌِْ ُى ّ َّ ًِٖ ُّ ُّا اهْعِوْ َ َ َ َب‬ ‫ى درج ح‬ ‫ٖ َ ِ ََّ اهذ ً يٌ ي ن ِ َاهذ َ ؤ خ‬ )11 :‫(اهيجبدهج‬ ‚And those who are knowledgeable see that the revelation sent down to you from the Lord is the Truth.. to high ranks those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge…‛ 18 17 ……cont. balance well the rings of chain armour. ُّ ‫َ اه ؤ ز َ ه م ي َتم‬ َ ُ َ ِّ‫” َ َ َْ َّ ًِٖ ُّ ُّا اهْعِوْى َّذِٔ ٌُْ ِل اَِِٖ َ ًِِ ر‬ ‫ّٖر اهذ َ ؤ خ‬ (6 :‫اهْ َق َ َِِدِٔ آَِ ِرَا ِ اهْ َ ِٖ ِ اهْ َ ِٖ ِ“ (شتإ‬ ‫ه ص ظ عز ز حي د‬ ّٖ َّ ‫ح‬ ……cont.. Knowledge elevates the status and position of its bearer and makes difference between him and ignorant.‛ ‚Allah will raise up. Who has favoured us above many of His subjects who believe!" 19 ‚We bestowed grace on David … and We made the iron soft for him.. Make coats of mail.

2/5/2009 ……cont. 24 6 . those who know and those who do not know?‛ To recognize God To benefit man Pleasure of God 21 22 Week Two Classification of Knowledge Limitations  (a) Absolute (perfect) knowledge:  this is the knowledge of God who knows the reality..  (b) Limited knowledge:  The knowledge given to His creations. 9:‫”كل ُل ٖشخّٔ اهذًٖ ٖعويًّ ّاهذًٖ ال ٖعويًّ“ (اهزير‬ ) Divinely Purpose of knowledge Worldly ‚ Say: ‚are those equal. essence and details of all things.

b. senses and experience.2/5/2009 ……cont. Instinctive knowledge (natural): it is imparted in the very nature of the creation. prophets. jinn. 26 25 (ii) Acquired Knowledge  Gained through effort by way of reflection.  (a) Recommended (praiseworthy) i. human beings.. Revealed/Sacred knowledge: the knowledge that Almighty God reveals to human beings.. angels. and animals.. “ Limited knowledge:  (i) Gifted knowledge: a.Fard ‘ayn ii. Fard kifayah  (b) Prohibited (blameworthy) -Magic (kindly refer to slides 46-48) General Classification of Knowledge in Islam 27 28 7 . ….cont.

Theoretical and practical 2. Religious and intellectual 4. Presential and acquired 3. celestial & terrestrial) Practical: deals with man’s actions To find out what is useful to mankind in this life as well as in the Hereafter 32 31 8 .2/5/2009 General classification of Knowledge in Islam Absolute Knowledge Limited Knowledge Al-Ghazzali’s Criteria for Classification of sciences : Gifted Knowledge Acquired Knowledge Sacred Instinct (ilham) Praiseworthy Blame worthy By external influence Fard „Ain Fard Kifayah 29 By itself 1. Individual obligatory and communal obligatory 30 Classification of Knowledge Al-Ghazzali’s Criteria for Classification of sciences According to al-Ghazali 1. Theoretical and practical (philosophers) Theoretical Presential Religious Fard ‘ayn (Personal Obligatory Knowledge) Practical Attained Intellectual Fard kifayah(Collective Obligatory Knowledge) Theoretical: to know the states of beings as they are( to realize/ comprehend the reality of beings.

consensus) 2.Cont... rational. Which one is better? Al-Ghazzali:  the presential is superior to the acquired.Cont. Ancillary sciences (grammar and lexicography) 4.2/5/2009 …. logical …. Branches (law and ethics) 3. Roots (Qur’an. sunnah. Religious and intellectual (the source) Religious (transmitted sciences): Acquired from revelation/ prophets 1.Cont. Presential & acquired (tasawwuf) (the mode of knowing) Presential : intuitive. 2..revelation : empirical. contemplative spiritual experience . It is free from errors & doubt. Complementary sciences (Qira’at. commentary.  The intuitive knowledge claimed by people other than prophets may not be taken for granted unless it is judged in light of the established principles of Islam 3. certainty on spiritual truths  This is true with the revelation and intuition received by the prophets Acquired 33 34 …. history) Intellectual: attained by human intellect alone 36 35 9 .

Cont. worship. Fard ‘Ayn and Fard kifayah (the need for learning) Fard ‘ayn:  What should be learned by each and every Muslim..  Intellectual knowledge: all types of knowledge needed for the welfare of the society in this life 39 40 10 .  Individual responsibilities  Things which can’t be done on behalf of others 37 …. 38 …. necessary skills for daily life. beneficial and satisfy the requirements of science. core moral values.collective responsibilities  Religious sciences: knowledge that is not needed for daily practice of Islam. Fard kifayah : ..Cont.Cont Praiseworthy sciences:  Enhances human well being and the environment within the boundaries outlined by shari’ah  All sciences which are useful. . by a sufficient group on behalf of others.  Beliefs.the community’s needs that can be performed ….Cont. 4..2/5/2009 …. how to discharge one’s responsibilities towards others (man’s obligations to family and society). halal and haram.

Allah says in the Holy Qur‟an: 42 41  “And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah confirming what was with them. but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave. so don't disbelieve.Cont… Magic: It is defined as “seeking the help of demons to perform something harmful against somebody” or “showing something to an audience.2/5/2009 Blameworthy sciences:  A science which does not meet the requirement of science. but neither of these two (angles) taught anyone (such 43 things) until they had said: we are only for trial. And indeed they knew that its practitioner would have no share in the Hereafter.” (2:101-102). or it is purely or usually harmful. which is contrary to reality. teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels Harut and Marut. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves if they but knew. and they learn that which harms them rather than profits them.  Reasons why magic is prohibited in Islam:  1) It is an act of blasphemy (kufr). 44 11 . And they followed what the devils gave out falsely of magic of the reign of Solomon. a party of those who were given the scripture threw away the book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know. for Solomon did not disbelieve but the devils disbelieved.  Blameworthy by its nature by an external factor …. And from them (magicians) people learn that through which they would cause separation between a person and his spouse.

and from the evil of malignant witchcraft. From the evil of the darkness when it is intense.  Magic being harmful and evil act.” (6:59) 48 12 . miracles are real while magic is deceptive.2/5/2009  2) According to the following authentic hadith. eating usury (riba). can be performed by anyone who associates himself with the devil. which is from devils.  On the other hand.  Because miracles are from Allah. they could only be performed by Prophets while magic.” (Surah al-Falaq) 46 Differences between magic and miracles (mu„jizat)  Magic is from devils (see the above Qur‟anic  Horoscope  Not only magic is prohibited in Islam but also verse: 2:101-102)while miracles are from Allah. And from the evil of the envious when he envies. Allah has magic is a deadly act:  The Prophet (s.w) said: “Avoid the seven deadly acts which are: ascribing partners to God. magic.” 45 told us to seek His protection against it:  “Say I seek refuge in the in the Lord of daybreak From the evil of that which he created. it is covering the truth with falsehood).. defecting from the battle-field (without a justified reason) and slandering chaste. 47 horoscope or reading one‟s palm to foretell the future. unwary believing women. killing the human self which Allah prohibited except with right. the treasures that none knoweth but He..  The Holy Qur‟an affirms that no one knows the future or the unseen except Allah: “He knoweth the Unseen as well as that which is Open. devouring the orphan‟s wealth.a.” (6:73) “With Him are the keys of the Unseen.

has. disbelieved in what has been revealed to Muhammad. …Cont. you need to transform ideals into reality. Imam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Astrology that is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs is prohibited by Almighty Allah‟s Book.w) said: “Whoever even Muhammad knows the unseen:  “If I had the knowledge of the unseen. 52 51 13 . For example. I should have secured abundance for myself. the Sunnah.” (7:188).. Example: Horoscope Capricorn: (Dec 23 ..Jan 20) Today’s stars encourage you to be more diplomatic and inclusive in your relations with others Aquarius: (Jan 21 ” Feb 19) On the Zodiac’s Day of Metamorphosis.a. and no evil would have touched me. goes to a fortune teller (a soothe sayer) or a diviner and believes him. and turn dreams into concrete plans. and the unanimous agreement of the Muslim scholars.2/5/2009  The Holy Qur‟an also asserts that not  The Prophet (s. If you work patiently towards your goals.” 49 50 …. you can achieve the longterm success you are looking for. Astrology:  It is the study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies.Cont. in fact.  Muslims scholars agree that astrology is a prohibited field to deal with.

they do not eclipse because so-and-so died or was born.a.w) denied all relation between the movements of the heavenly bodies and events on the Earth. It is forbidden because it is based on illusions.2/5/2009  Ibn `Uthaymeen.” (Reported by Ahmad. The people then thought that it had eclipsed because of the Prophet‟s son‟s death. There is no relation between the movements of celestial bodies and what takes place on the Earth.” 53 54  The above hadith indicates that the  Ibn „Abbas (may Allah be pleased with Prophet (s.w) said: “He who has acquired some knowledge of astrology has acquired some knowledge of sorcery. On knowing this. Abu Dawud.” the sun eclipsed on the same day when the Prophet‟s son Ibrahim died. the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) led them in the Eclipse Prayer and then delivered them a speech saying: “The sun and moon are but signs of Allah.a. and Ibn Majah) 55 56 14 . the more he acquires of the former the more he acquires of the latter. it happened that kind of sorcery and fortune-telling. said: “Astrology is a  During the Prophet‟s lifetime. not on concrete facts. him and his father) reported that Allah‟s Messenger (s.

59    Natural and philosophical sciences are to enable the Muslim to explore. Humanities. There is no scientific proof that there is a relationship between the appearance of a star in a specific time and the character and behavior of someone born at that time. and none of them can exclude the others.w) compared between astrology and sorcery because sorcery was known to be forbidden. natural sciences. he who would get some knowledge of astrology would do something forbidden and would be sinful. astrology is based on lies and Shawkani said that the Prophet (s. it has no scientific basis. and so. al-  To sum up. exploit and get a better insight into what Allah has created in this universe. Religious sciences are to guide people to understand the reality of this life. deceit. Religious scholars are in need of philosophical and natural sciences as much as scientists are in need of the religious sciences. their origins and their mission. And to set the moral and legal guidelines that should be observed by human beings for a meaningful and better life. The astrologists‟ usage of computers to convince people that what they do is technological and scientific is nothing but deceit.a. 60 15 . 57 58 Conclusion    Sciences are inter-related. and the religious sciences unite to produce true understanding of this world and the causes behind its existence.2/5/2009  Commenting on the above hadith.

2/5/2009 Week Three Sources and Means of Knowledge 1.As guidance and mercy .It is an exposition of all things (tibyan li kulli shay’) .Qur’an is the pure speech of Allah (alNisa’:42) .Only the Allah’s speech revealed to Muhammad . Revelation (‫)اهّحٕ: اهلرآً ّاهشٌج‬ 2. Nature/ physical world )‫)اهظتعٖج‬ 4.Nothing is neglected (al-Nahl:89) 64 63 16 . Intuition (‫)اإلهِبى‬ 62 The Qur’an as a Source of Knowledge  An introduction to the the Qur’an  Definition  Qur’an is the Book revealed from Allah to His Messenger Muhammad (saw) as written in masahif and transmitted to us from him through an authentic continuous narration Definition analysis: . Five Senses (‫)اهحّاس اهخيشج‬ 5. Reason (‫)اهعلل‬ 3.

Allah said: ‫ُزل و َِ ل ً ج َ ً ح ث ن هم‬ َ َِ‫” َ َب َ َّ ِٖ َ َ َ ُّا هَِّال ٌ ِّ َ عََٖ ِ اهْ ُرِءَا ُ ُيِوج َّا ِدَ ً َذ‬ ‫ّك ل اهذ ً نفر‬ )32 :ً‫ُِذِّ َ تَ ُئَا َم َرَّوْ َب ُ َرِ ًِٖب“ (اهفركب‬ ‫هٌ َتح ِ ِ ف د َ ّ َخ ٌ ٍ خ خ و‬ 68 17 . To allow people to memorize. ٍ ‫ّ ُ ء َر ٍ ه ْرٍَ عو اهٌ س عو ي د ّ َز‬ ُ ‫” َكرِ َاًٌب ف َكٌَْب ُ ِخَل َؤ ُ ََٓ َّب ِ ََٓ ُنْ ٍ ٌَ َّهٌَْب‬ (106 :‫خٌَ ِٖال“ (اإلشراء‬ ‫ْز‬ It is a Qur’an which we have divided into parts from time to time in order that you might recite it to men at intervals… (17: 106) 67 2.To strengthen the heart of the Messenger of Allah (saw).  It was revealed to him in stages and sometimes in accordance with incidents faced by Muslim community. 65 66 The wisdom behind revealing it by stages 1. understand and implement it gradually.2/5/2009  The Qur’an is the Arabic words as well as their meanings (translation is not a Qur’an)  Transmitted to us by way of ‫جىاجر‬ [tawatur] (continuous narration by a large number of people in each part of the chain of narration) Revelation & Recording of the Qur’an a) Revelation of the Qur’an  The Qur’an was transmitted directly from Allah (swt) to the Messenger of Allah through Gibril (not a mere inspiration)  The Qur’an was not revealed to the Messenger of Allah all at once. give him courage and moral support to overcome the difficulties and challenges he was facing.

 solve problems faced by Muslim community.2/5/2009  Those who reject faith say: "Why is not the Qur’an revealed to him all at once? It is revealed in stages so that We may strengthen your heart thereby.  correct the mistakes committed by the Muslim community. and We have rehearsed it to you in slow.  respond to the challenges put by disbelievers. and questions are called occasions for revelation )‫ (أشتبة اهٌزّل‬and they help those who came later in a better understanding and implementation of those verses. Some verses came to deal with:  some situations faced by the Messenger of Allah. Live interaction between the divine text and the socio-political reality and daily practice of the people. etc. (25: 32) 3. well-arranged stages. 70 69  Those incidents. cases.  The period of revelation lasted for around 23 years. 71 The Recording of the Qur’an  The Messenger of Allah used to memorize the verses revealed to him then recite them for his companions who used to memorize them  There were scribes who used to record the verses after their revelation 72 18 . gradually.

 The suggestion came after the battle of Yamamah.  Qur’an as the last revealed Book and a universal message for all mankind needs to be comprehensive and eternally preserved.  During each month of Ramadan Jibril used to recite what was revealed in its order with the Messenger of Allah. and a watcher over it. judge between them by what Allah has revealed…‛ 75 76 19 . 73 well as the order of the surahs was directed by Jibril.2/5/2009  The order of the verses within each surah as  The original copies of the written records were preserved in the house of the Messenger of Allah.  While some other scribes would record the verses for themselves and preserve them for their own use.  During the time of Abu Bakr the Qur’an was compiled in a single official copy. 74 The Qur’an and the other Revealed Books Universality:  The previous Books were local for specific people. ‫ؤ ٌ ه م نخ ة ت َق ي َدك هي ت ً ٖد َ يً نخ ة‬ ِ ‫”ٌََّْزَهْ َب اَِِٖ َ اهْ ِ َب َ ِبهْح ِّ ُص ِّ ًب ِ َب َِٖ َ َ َِٖ ِ ِ َ اهْ ِ َب‬ )48 :‫َ ُ َِٖ ِ ًب عَََٖ َبحِ ُىِ َِٖ َ ُىِ ِ َب ٌَْ َل اهو ُ“ (اهيبئدث‬ ََّ َ ‫ّيِ يٌ و ِ ِ ف ن ت ٌِ تي ؤ ز‬ To you we sent the Scripture in truth. So. confirming the scripture that came before it.

2/5/2009 2. )9 :‫”اَّب َحِ ُ ٌ َّهْ َب ِّنْ َ َّاَّب ه ُ َ َب ِ ُّ َ ”(اهحجر‬ ً ‫ٌِ ٌ ً َز ٌ اهذ ر ٌِ ََ هح فع‬  We have.. and they were witnesses thereto…‛ (5: 44) 77 78  If they fail to do so.  The assurance from God that the Qur’an will be preserved till the Day of Judgment. and We will assuredly guard it against any manipulation or change. therein was guidance and light. The way of preservation  The people of each Book were entrusted with guarding it against any distortion or manipulation ‫”اَّب ٌَْزَهْ َب َِّّ َاث ِٖ َب ُ ّْ َُّ ْ َحِ ُ ُ ِ َب َّت ُّّ َ َّ ًِٖ َشَِ ُّا‬ ‫ٌِ ؤ ٌ اهخ ر َ ف ِ ُد ٌّ ر ٖ نى تِ اهٌ ِٖ ً اهذ َ ؤ وي‬ ََّ ِ ‫ِوذ ً ُ د ّ َّت ِٖ َ ّ إ ت ر تي خ فع ي نخ‬ ِ ‫هَّ ِٖ َ َب ُّا َاهرَّبًٌُّّ َاهَْحِ َب ُ ِ َب اشُِحِ ِ ُّا ًِِ ِ َبة اهو‬ )44 :‫َ َب ُّا عََٖ ِ ُ َدَا َ.  The Qur’an was fully recorded from the time it was revealed. by the rabbis and the priests. sent down the Message. Preservation of the Qur’an The way Qur’an was preserved:  The Qur’an was made public from the very beginning.“ (اهيبئدث‬ ‫ّن ٌ و َِ شِ ء‬ ‚It was We who revealed the Torah. By its standard have been judged the Jews. for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book.  The Qur’an was preserved in the original form (same language. same words).  Since Muhammad (saw) was the last Messenger. by the prophets who bowed to Allah's will. Allah sends another prophet to take people back to the right way.. 79 80 20 . Allah (swt) assumed the responsibility of guarding and preserving His last Book. without doubt.

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or from behind it. we should certainly seize him by his right hand. in it is guidance.2/5/2009 ،َ‫”ّاٌَ هنخبة عزٖز، ال ٖإخَٖ اهتبظل يً تًٖ ٖدَٖ ّال يً خوف‬ )42-41 :‫خٌزٖل يً حنٖى حيٖد“ (فصوح‬  No one can alter or change any part of the And indeed it is a Book of exalted power. sure. 81 82 The Characteristics of the Qur’an 1. which We explained in detail. to those who fear Allah. 83 84 21 . ‫ى ُ د ّر َ ً ه ى‬ ٍ َِّ‫”ََّ َدِ ِئْ َب ُىِ ِ ِ َبة ف َّوْ َب ُ عََٓ عِوْ ٍ ُ ّْ َ َحِيج ِل‬ ‫هل ج ٌ ُ تنخ ٍ َص ٌ ٍ و‬ )52 :‫ُئْ ُِّ َ“ (األعراف‬ ً ٌ‫ٖ ي‬ )2 :‫”ذَِ َ اهْ ِ َب ُ ال َِٖة ِٖ ِ ُ ّْ هِوْيَّ ِٖ َ“ (اهتلرث‬ ً ‫ُخل‬ ‫هم نخ ة ر َ ف َ ُد‬ For We had certainly sent unto them a Book. And if the Messenger were to invent any sayings in our name. (It is) a revelation from the Wise. not even the Messenger of Allah himself. a guide and a mercy to all who believe. and we should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart: Nor could any of you protect him from that. the Owner of Praise.)47 :‫َ َب ٌِْ ُىِ يًِِ ؤ َ ٍ ٌَْ ُ َبج ِٖ َ“ (اهحبكج‬ ً ‫َحد ع َ ح ِز‬ ‫في ي ن‬ This is a Message sent down from the Lord of the worlds. ‫ّه َّل عو ٌ ت ِض ألك ّ ل‬ ِ ِٖ ‫” ٌَ ِٖ ٌ يًِِ ر ِّ اهْ َبَ ًَِٖ (34) ََِّ خَل َّ َ ََِٖ َب َع َ ا َ َب‬ ‫َة ع هي‬ ‫خ ْز ل‬ )46( َ ِٖ َ ‫(44) أل َذْ َب ٌِْ ُ ِبهْ َ ًِِٖ (54) ذ َّ َلَ َعِ َب ٌِْ ُ اه‬ ً ‫ُى ه ظ ٌ ي َ ّْخ‬ ‫َخ ٌ ي َ ت ٖي‬ .Guidance for and mercy to believers This is the book. Qur’an. based on knowledge. without doubt.

)138 :ً‫” َذَا َ َبً ه َّبس ّ ُ ّْ َ َِّ ِعج هِوْيَّ ِٖ َ“ (آل عيرا‬ ً ‫ُ تٖ ْ ِوٌ ِ َُد ّي ع َ ٌ ُخل‬ Here is a plain statement to men. Spiritual/ social healer ‫ٖ َِٖ اهٌ ُ ك ج ء ن ي ع َج ي َتن ِ ّشف ْ هي ف اهصد ر‬ ِ ُّ ُّ ِٕ ‫” َبؤُّ َب َّبس َدِ َب َخْ ُىِ َِّ ِع ٌ ًِِ رِّ ُى َ ِ َبء ِ َب‬ )57 :‫ّ ُ ّْ َ َحِيج هِوْ ُئْ ِ ِٖ َ“ (ٌّٖس‬ ً ٌ‫َُد ّر َ ٌ ي ي‬ O mankind! there has come to you a direction from your Lord and a healing for the (diseases) in your hearts. honour him. and follow the Light which is sent down with him. a Guidance and a Mercy. 85 86 "ْ ِٖ َ َ َُّ‫“ َأ ِ ُّا ِبهوَ َ َ ُّهَ ّ ُّّ ِ َّذِٔ ٌَْزَهْ َب ‘ّ َّ ُ ِ َب َعِي‬ ‫ف يٌ ت َّ ِ ّرش ِ ِ َاهٌ ر اه ؤ ٌ َاهوَ تي خ و ً خت ر‬ )8 :ً‫(اهخغبت‬ 4. a guidance and instruction to those who fear Allah! 87 88 22 .Light ِٔ َّ َ‫”ف َّ ًَِٖ َا َ ُّا ِ ِ َّ َز ُّ ُ ٌََص ُّ ُ ّ َّ َ ُّا ُّّر‬ ‫َبهذ ء يٌ تَ ع َّر ٍ ّ َر ٍ َاختع اهٌ اهذ‬ )157 :‫ٌُ ِلَ َ َ ُ َُّ ِمَ ُ ُ اهْ ُفْو ُّ َ“ (األعراف‬ ً ‫ؤ ْز يعَ ؤ هئ ُى ي ِح‬ So it is those who believe in him (the Messenger). And Allah is well acquainted with all that you do. and for those who believe. therefore. help him. it is they who will prosper. and in the Light which We have sent down. in Allah and His Messenger.2/5/2009 2.Preacher for believers Believe. 3.

2/5/2009 5. 92 23 . Structure ii. and passing over much (that is now unnecessary): There has come to you from Allah a (new) light and a perspicuous Book. a Book that makes things clear. Meaning (the knowledge contained in it: historical events. Sin.  The miracles contained in it are the proof of its authenticity as the real Book of Allah 91 i.Revealing reality and clarifying doubts Ta. These are verses of the Qur’an. prediction of what will happen in the future.Miraculous  The Qur’an is the main miracle of  Its miracle is in terms of: the Messenger of Allah and the main proof of the authenticity of his prophethood. )1 :‫“ظس خِوْ َ ءَا َب ُ اهْ ُرِءَاً َ ِ َب ٍ ُ ِٖ ٍ“ (اهٌيل‬ ً ‫م ٖ ح ل ِ ّنخ ة يت‬ ً ‫ٖ َ ل نخ ِ ك ج ءن رش هٌ ٖ َٖ ُ هن نذ ِي ن خ خ ف‬ َ ُّ ْ‫” َب ؤُِ َ اهْ ِ َبة َدِ َب َ ُىِ َ ُُّ َب ُتًِّ َ ُىِ َ ِٖرّا ي َّب ٌُُْىِ ُخ‬ “ْ ِٖ ُ ْ ‫ِ َ اهْ ِ َبة َ َعِ ُّ ًَِ َ ِٖر َدِ َب َ ُىِ ًِ اهو ِ ُّر َ ِ َب‬ ً ‫يً نخ ِ ّٖ ف ع نذ ٍ ك ج ءن ي َ ََّ ٌ ْ ّنخ ة يت‬ )15 :‫(اهيبئدث‬ O People of the Book! there has come to you Our Messenger. and scientific facts. revealing to you much that you used to hide in the Book. 89 90 6.

if you are truthful! 93 94 c. the like thereof.  The Qur’an should: Meet the needs of all human beings in different places and different times. Types of Knowledge in the Qur’an The Universal Book  Islam is the last and universal religion.  Human societies are always open for evolution and development. Ten chapters similar to those of the Qur’an ‫”َىِ َ ًُُّّ افْ َ َاٍ ُل َإْ ُّا ِ َشْ ِ ُ َ ٍ ِذْو ِ ُفْ َ َ َبح َّادِ ُّا‬ ‫ؤ ٖل ه َ خر ُ ك ْ ف خ تع ر شّر ي َِ ي خرٖ ٍ ع‬ . then produce a surah like one thereof. and call on everyone you can beside Allah. but they do not believe! Then let them produce a speech like it. invented.‫َب ُّا َب ِ ِٖ َ (43)“ اهظّر‬ ً ‫ن ٌ ص دك‬ Or they say: He has invented it? Nay. and call your gods and supporters beside Allah if you are truthful. if they are truthful. 95 96 24 .‫َّادِ ُّا ُ َدَا َ ُىِ ًِِ ُّ ِ اهوَ ًِِ ٌُُىِ َب ِ ِٖ َ (32)“ اهتلرث‬ ً ‫ع شِ ءن ي د ً َّ ِ ا ن خ ص دك‬ And if you are in doubt concerning that which We reveal to our Messenger (Muhammad). b.2/5/2009 Challenging the Unbelievers  The miracle is manifested in a challenge to all mankind to produce: a. One surah similar to those of the Qur’an َِ ‫ا ن خ ِ ف ر ة ِي َز ٌ و ع دٌ ف خ تش ث ي ي‬ ِ ‫”ًَِِّ ٌُُى ِٕ َِٖ ٍ ي َّب ٌ َّهْ َب عََٓ َتِ ِ َب َإْ ُّا ِ ُّرَ ٍ ًِِ ِذْو‬ . Another book similar to it: ًِِ َ‫”َىِ َ ُُّّ َ َل َّه ُ َل ال ُئْ ُِّ َ (33) فَوْ َإْ ُّا ِ َ ِٖ ٍ ِذْو‬ ‫ٖ خ تحد د ي ِ ِ ا‬ ً ٌ‫ٖ ي‬ ‫ؤ ٖل ه ً خ َََّ ت‬ .)‫ًَ اشِ َ َعُِىِ ًِِ ًُّ اهوَ ًِِ ٌُُىِ َب ِ ِٖ َ (31) ”(ُّد‬ ً ‫ي ِ خظ خ ي د ِ َّ ِ ا ن خ ص دك‬ Or they say: He has invented it! Say: Then bring ten surahs.

97  Regarding human life’s aspects which are subject to change and development. standards and universal values which suit all peoples and all times. procedures.The origin of mankind. people Physical and Natural Sciences  The Qur’an deals with those things which are are given freedom to innovate and adopt whatever systems. the Qur’an . generally. it should:  Give clear and detailed discourse on what is important for human life and can’t be known through human reasoning only (beliefs and ‘ibadat)  Set the core values and principles which guide human life to the right way. etc they may consider as good for them as long as they don’t breach those norms and values. his first acquisition of the basic knowledge. 99 needed to be known and may not be realized by man or may not be understood accurately (man would speculate about them only) Such as: . 98  In light of these norms.2/5/2009 To be able to do so.  These values and norms should not be subject to any alteration or change to ensure the prevalence of righteousness and justice (immutable values and norms). and safeguard it against any corruption or deviation from such a way. the substance and the way of his first creation. sets norms. 100 25 .  Be flexible to accommodate the evolution and development of human life and societies.

especially at the time of Muhammad (‫ .Indebtedness of mankind to Allah  For the Muslim who reads and for all what we have in life.The origin of the earth and the heavens  In other fields such as: The aims of scientific references in the Qur’an  It is not to give people details and teach them .Embryology  The Qur’an just gives some references for the following purposes: natural and physical sciences.astronomy . they serve to strengthen his or her faith. 103 ِٕ ًُّ َّ ‫” َّ ِٖ َ َذْ ُ ًُّ اهوَ ِ َب ّب َ ُ ُّ ّا َعََٓ ُُّ ِ ِىِ َ َ َف‬ ‫اهذ ً ٖ نر َ َّ َ كٖ ي ّكع د ّ و جٌ تِ ّٖخ َنر َ ف‬ ‫خَوْ ِ َّ ََّاح َّا َرِ ِ رَّ َب َب خََلْ َ َذَا َب ِ ً ُتِ َب َم َ ِ َب‬ ٌ‫ق اهشي ِ أل ض َتٌ ي و ح ُ ت ظال ش ح ٌ َ فل‬ . .Physics.)191:ً‫َذَا َ َّب ِ“(آل األعيرا‬ ‫ع ة اهٌ ر‬ understands these references.2/5/2009 . .e.The weakness of men compared to the power of the Creator 101 102 Cont. this Qur’an comes from Allah and it is impossible for a human being..The existence of God . 104 26 .)صوٓ اهلل عوَٖ ّشوى‬to compose it.  They are signs to prove: . . .The omnipotence and power of God .The authenticity of Prophets and revealed Books i.Geology.

Is it not enough that your Lord does witness all things? [41:53] How should we deal with these scientific facts?  They should be used for the aforesaid things.  They can be used to have a better understanding of those verses dealing with natural phenomena compared to the way they were understood by early Muslims. and lying down on their sides. until it becomes manifest to them that it is the Truth. sitting. these references provide some interesting answers. standing. ََّ‫ف ِ ّف ؤ فشِ َخ ٖخ َٖ َ هِ ِ ؤ‬ ُ ٌَ ‫” َُ ِٖ ِىِ ءَا َب ِ َب ِٕ اٗ َبق َ ِٕ ٌَْ ُ ِ ِىِ حَّٓ َ َت ًَّ َ ُى‬ ‫شٌر ِ ٖ خٌ ف‬ :‫اهْ َق ؤَََّىِ َنْ ِ ِرِّم ٌَ ُ عََٓ ن ِّ َِٕ ٍ َ ِٖ ْ“ (فصوح‬ ‫ح ُّ ه ٖ ف ت َت َ ؤََّ و ُل ش ء شِ د‬ )53 105 106 Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (farthest) horizons. (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught have you created all this! Glory to you! Give us salvation from the Penalty of the Fire. (3: 191)  For the non-Muslim who questions the authenticity or authorship of the Qur’an . and within themselves.2/5/2009 Those who remember and praise Allah. and contemplate the wonders of creation in the heavens and the earth. 107 108 27 .

110 109 The Concept of Prophethood  God used to send a prophet to every people  A brief history of prophets (some names mentioned) Revelation  Some revealed books: Suhuf / Ibrahim. what will happen on that day. Jannah. the Qur’an focuses on correcting the prevalent concepts of God and demonstrating the Unity of God.  The concept of tawhid (Unity of God) Since the concept of God was not new to mankind.  Such an act may lead to misinterpreting the texts of the Qur’an and changing the interpretation from time to time.  The Qur’an sets the basics of ‘ibadat and the Prophet gives details 111 112 28 . human and social sciences Belief: (Revelation is the only source) The Concept of God  The existence of God. Jahannam  No specific date is given for its happening ‘Ibadat (worship)  Revelation the only source. Zabur/ Dawud. His omnipotence and knowledge. This may be counterproductive and cause some confusion especially among non-Muslims. character. position and relation with God (not his sons or daughters) Day of Judgment  Its existence. Torah /Musa. etc. Injil/ Gospel/ Esa Angels  Their nature. b) Religious. the Creator and Lord of this universe.2/5/2009  We should not over-emphasize the scientific miracles to the extent that we hurry to relate each new scientific theory to the verses of the Qur’an .

justice.Family law .between husbands and wives . and preventing/ discouraging them from doing bad (munkar) 113 Human and social relations  Revelation is the main source  The Qur’an deals with the main principles of these relations:  Relationship among family members . sincerity.between parents and children . benevolence.marriage. inheritance  Relations with relatives 114  Relations with neighbours  Social relations and interaction  Relations between genders  Etiquettes and manners  Relations with non-Muslims  Relations with animals Law: .Criminal law . forbearance. drinks. divorce. patience.Procedural law .2/5/2009 Morality  Revelation the main source  The Qur’an sets universal ethical norms and values  Obedience and submission to God. truthfulness. clothes 115 116 29 . generosity. inviting/encouraging people to do good. trust (amanah). tolerance and forgiveness.Commercial law . brotherhood. kindness.International law Halal & haram: (Revelation is the only source) Food. honesty.

120 30 .  The format of )ْ‫(شّر‬and government are left to the choice of people and are open for development.  Social welfare (59: 7) 118 Political system  The Qur’an sets norms and principles  The establishment of a government/ central authority and the duties of subjects to obey its commands 119  The governance should be based on consultation (ْ‫)شّر‬and the right of people to select their leaders.2/5/2009 Economic system  (Revelation provides guidance to  Zakat is imposed to secure the attain and maintain justice)  Islam sets some norms and principles along with some restrictions to ensure the observance of those norms and principles (prohibition of riba. uncertain contracts.) 117 minimum economic and social justice.  Rich people are exhorted to spend and promised to be rewarded for that. etc.

.2/5/2009 History and Civilization  The origin of this universe The Qur’an states that this universe was created by Allah.The Qur’an pays enough attention to .The Qur’an wants Muslims to learn from human experience. they were sent down from Jannah (Paradise) to the earth where they and their children settled. (7: 189). (23: 12).The Qur’an gives a brief account of the history of the most significant Messengers. mistakenly. . (39: 6) 121 . civilizational studies by examining the patterns of rise and fall of civilizations. and gives short description of that creation  The origin of mankind . 122  History of Messengers of Allah .The Qur’an states that the first man (Adam) was created by God from dust/ clay (15: 26). instead it focuses on the lessons that should be learned from those events. (15: 28-29). (17: 61). .The Qur’an does not focus on the details of that history. (32: 7). (32: 9).Eve was created for Adam (4: 1).The aim of this is to guide Muslims how to build their civilization and guard it against social diseases that may lead to its fall and collapse. 38: 71-72) .When Adam and his wife.Adam was taught the basic knowledge by God (2: 30-33) . 123 124 31 . disobeyed the commands of God.

 The word sunnah and its plural sunan have been used in the Qur’an sixteen times.  Those texts which are clear and selfexplanatory should be implemented without any further examination. an established Literal Meaning: The Sunnah as a Source of Knowledge course of conduct. the pattern of life. sunnah has been used to imply an established practice or course of conduct. 126  Sunnah )‫ )شٌج‬means a clear path. a precedent and custom. 127 128 32 . In all these instances.2/5/2009 How should we deal with the Qur’an ?  Qur’an is  Grouping of similar texts/ statements which an authoritative text that should be followed and implemented by all Muslims.  Those texts which are open for interpretation and may impart more than one meaning can be examined and construed based on the following principles: 125 talk on one topic/category  Analysis and understanding of each text/ statement in its components and context  Identification of the rules which unify the various categories  Identification of the general rules and purposes which govern the interaction/ interrelation of various categories.

131 Kinds of Sunnah with respect to the channels of the ahkam 1. which is characterized by lack of precedent and continuity with the past. a sect or a community. 132 33 . The acts.2/5/2009  It may be a good example or a bad one. Technical meaning: a. acts and approval of the Prophet (saw) through which he intended the laying down of the law or the explanation of the ahkam (law) laid down by the Qur’an . This comprises the largest part of the sunnah. Sunnah which is intended to be a binding law: This kind includes the sayings. ‫”يً شً شٌج حشٌج فوَ ؤجرُب ّؤجر يً عيل تِب اهٓ ّٖى‬ ٓ‫اهلٖبيج ّيً شً شٌج شٖئج فوَ ّزرُب ّّزر يً عيل تِب اه‬ “‫ّٖى اهلٖبيج‬ ‚Whosoever originates in Islam any good way/ precedent (good sunnah) has its reward and the reward of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment. And whosoever originates in Islam a bad way/ precedent (bad sunnah) bears its burden and the burden of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment‛ 129 130  The opposite of sunnah is bid`ah (innovation). sayings and approvals of the Messenger of Allah. and it may be set by an individual.

136 34 . One example is the number of his marriages.2/5/2009 2. 134 133 4.  There will be no Islam without the adoption of the sunnah. drinking. like the organizing of the army. if they are still relevant to one’s situation they might be followed.)صوٓ اهلل عوَٖ ّشوى‬ The number of these acts is very limited. Ordinary physical acts performed by every human being Like eating. Such acts are not meant to lay down laws.Sunnah which is specific to the Prophet( ٓ‫صو‬ ‫)اهلل عوَٖ ّشوى‬ This kind includes those acts which are specific to the Prophet (‫. tactics of war. marriage without dowry. not eating out of charity (‫. If one imitates the Prophet (saw) in these acts out of love for him and with the intention to get reward. he will be rewarded for this.  However. trading skills.  These acts don’t become precedents of law. But the etiquettes and manners prescribed by the Messenger of Allah for the performance of such acts are part of that which is meant to be a binding law. 135 Status of the Sunnah with respect to the Qur’an  The Sunnah is the second source just next to the Qur’an which is the first source. walking.)صدكج‬ 3. Acts based on human experience  This may include acts that pertain to his experience as a human being. because their basis is skill and experience rather than revelation.

and who often remember Allah‛ (al-Ahzab:21) interpreted in the Qur’an . and transactions: . . drinks.the Sunnah interprets what needs to be (family. clothes. commercial. qualifies.  Some ahkam are found in the Qur’an in general. ‚A noble model you have in Allah’s Apostle. follow it. in an undetermined or unelaborated form. 139 140 35 .The Sunnah may add some prohibitions which are not included in the Qur’an . criminal. for all whose hope is in Allah. And whatsoever he forbids. abstain from it‛ (al-Hashr:7) 138 The knowledge we get from The Sunnah  Worship (‫)عتبدث‬  Law The rulings and teachings related to ‫عتبدث‬  Halal and haram: In food. 137 tangible form and the actual embodiment of the Qur’an  The Sunnah may lay down some rules that are not mentioned in the Qur’an  Qur’an says: ‚And whatsoever the messenger brought to you. a elaboration and commentary on the Qur’an . international )  Manner of conduct: The biography of the Prophet (saw) is the model of individual moral conduct. and in the final Day.2/5/2009  The Sunnah is basically an  The Sunnah is a concrete implementation. or elaborates these ahkam. procedural.  The Sunnah restricts.

and perseverance etc. and brotherhood. 142 Da‘wah: Nation building and social reformation:  How he started from nothing  How he established a nation and and ended with hundreds of thousands of followers after two decades only. cooperation.  A model in hard-working.2/5/2009  The model in implementing and embodying the teachings and principles of the Qur’an  The model in the relationship between humans and Allah (‘ibadah)  The model in establishing a family and treating well the wives as well as the children. Leadership:  He was a model leader from whom we learn the requirements of a successful leader. patience. 141  A model in dealing with people. 144 143 36 . changed an almost primitive society dominated by tribalism and rivalries among different tribes and social classes to a civilized and strong state characterized by unity.

regardless of their cultural background. as distinct from experience or emotions. desire (the existence of which is denied by empiricists) 147 148 37 .These fundamental truths are intuitively apprehended . . Reason is sometimes used to denote a number of self-evident principles (such as the principle of non-contradiction) which govern the process of thinking of mentally competent people. perception. The ability or process of drawing logical inferences.2/5/2009  Eliminating idolatry and establishing Tawhid  Eliminating bad social values in dealing with the weak social classes: women. slaves. The power of being able to think in a logical and rational manner. feeling.  Meanings/ Functions of Reason: 1. black people. Ability to think clearly and coherently 3. etc. 2. poor people.as opposed to sensation. Reason (‫)اهعلل‬ as a Sources of Knowledge 146 145 Reason as a Source of Knowledge The term ‚reason‛ is used in different senses and meanings: 1.

generally. . and exhort people to think.2/5/2009  In this sense.Either coherent. analyze. Revelation  The faculty of reasoning is one of the most precious  The Qur’an is full of references which command gifts of Allah to mankind. contemplate. ‘right’ and ‘wrong’  Reason is the basis of Iman/ faith. thus. and .Islam values reason. synthesize  A body of knowledge which has been examined and systemized by the principle of logic and considered by certain people as reasonable. rather than a source of knowledge. it is given the authority to examine the authenticity of prophets and the revelation they claim to bring from God.Or contradictory.  = Reason as a mental faculty. and to examine the claimed revelation  This shows that: .  Reason is the basis of taklif (legal capacity) because it is the power of discernment by which humans can distinguish between ‘good’ and ‘bad’.  The examination allows us to conclude that the examined statements are: . and hence in conformity with the principles of reason.  Reason is to be associated with methods and mechanisms used in science and knowledge. The capacity of rational beings to acknowledge examining the coherence and rationality of a body of statements.Islam is confident that there will be no contradiction between what is contained in the revelation and what can be reasoned by human reason 151 152 38 . and thus in violation of reason  Reason which gives a priori knowledge (pure reason) the truth of certain assertions and deny the truth of others with the power to abstract. 150 149 Reason vs. reason is an instrument used for 2.

Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do. those who claim to reject religion/ revelation based on logic and rationality are characterized by the Qur’an as those who fail to use their mental faculties/ reason properly. (10:36) 153 And they say: "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.‛ (45: 18) 155 ‫َر نيذل اهذ ٖ عق تي ٖ يع ِال دع ء‬ ّ ‫” َ َ َ ُ َّ ًَِٖ نَف ُّا َ َ َ ِ َّ ِٔ ٌَْ ِ ُ ِ َب ال َشِ َ ُ ا َّ ُ َب‬ ‫ّيذل اهذ‬ )171 :‫َ ِ َا ّ ص ٌّ ُنْ ْ ُيِ ْ َ ُىِ ال َعِ ًُِّ“َ (اهتلرث‬ ‫ٖ لو‬ ِ‫ٌّد ء ُى ت ى ع ٕ ف‬ The parable of those who reject Faith is as if one were to shout like a goat-herd. = Or mere wishes and deluded hopes (hawa) ‫ن ُ د َ صر خم‬ َ ْ‫” َ َبُّا ًَِ َد ُ َ اهج َّجَ اَّب يًَِ َبًَ ُّ ّا ؤِّ ٌَ َب َْ ِو‬ ‫ّك ه ه ٖ ِخل ْ ٌَ ِه‬ )111 :‫َ َبٌ ُّ ُىِ ُلْ َب ُّا ترِ َب َ ُىِ اًِِ ٌُْ ُىِ َب ِ ًِٖ“ (اهتلرث‬ ‫ن خ ص دك‬ ‫ؤي ِِٖ ك ُ خ ُ ُ ٌن‬ ‫وه َت ِع ُه ِال َى ِو َّو ي ى هو َق ئ ِو المه‬ َ َّ َّ ‫” َ َب ي َّب ُ أَكْثَر ُنِ إ َّ ظ ًّب إ َّ الظ َّ ال ُغْ ِي ِ َ الْح ِّ شَيِ ًب إ‬ )36 :‫َ ِي ٌ ِ َب يفْ َ ُو َ“ (يوىس‬ ‫عم ن به َ عم و‬ But most of them follow nothing but conjecture and speculation: truly conjecture and speculation can never challenge or replace truth. (2: 171) 156 39 . and do not follow the desires of those who do not know. they are void of wisdom. to things that listen to nothing but calls and cries: deaf. ‫ُى جع ٌ م عو َر ع ً أل ِ َبخت ِ ّ َخت ِ ء‬ َ ‫”ذ َّ َ َوْ َب َ ََٓ ش ِٖ َجٍ يِ َ ا َيرِ ف َّ ِعِ َب َال خ َّ ِعِ ؤََُّا‬ )18 :‫َّ ًَِٖ ال َعَِ ُّ َ“ (اهجبذٖج‬ ً ‫ٖ وي‬ ‫اهذ‬ “ Then We put you on the right way of religion." Those are their vain desires. and blind. dumb.2/5/2009  What is claimed by unbelievers to be irrational or unreasonable is either:  = Mere speculation and ignorance." (2: 111) 154  Interestingly. so follow that way. Say: "Produce your proof if you are truthful. such as when they deny some beliefs or they misunderstand them.

5. Smell. which has assumed the quality of the sounds. 4. by which sounds are perceived.Elder. 3.  It is by way of connecting with the ear hole the air.  The faculties of senses will bear witness for or against one on the Day of Judgment. taste. Hearing 2. 18] 160 40 .  It blames the Kuffar for not using their senses properly. 157 158 Sound Senses (Hawwas al-Salimah) 1.2/5/2009 Hawwas (senses) as Means to Knowledge  Senses as sources of Knowledge: The Qur’an urges us to use the faculties of senses. touch 159 Hearing (al-sam’)  It is a faculty (quwa) placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear hole. meaning that Allah then creates perception in the soul (al-nafs) [E. Sight.

and the like are perceived at the time of touching and contact. the beautiful and the ugly. thence they separate and go to the two eyes. which are like the two nipples of the breast. 162 161 Taste (al-zawq) It is a faculty spread out in the nerves situated on the organ of the tongue. and through its reaching to the nerves. by this faculty odors are perceived by way of connecting with the cartilage of the nose the air which has assumed the quality of the odors. by this faculty flavors are perceived through the mixing of the saliva which is in the mouth with the thing tasted. shapes. motions. moisture and dryness. Smelling (al-shamm) It is a faculty placed in the two protruding lumps on the front of the brain. and other things. 163 Touch (al-lams) It is a faculty spread out into all the body by which heat and cold.2/5/2009 Seeing (al-basar)  It is a faculty placed in the two hollow nerves which meet each other in the brain. 164 41 . colours. measures. by this faculty are perceived rays of light. the perception of which Allah creates in the soul whenever the creature uses this faculty.

2/5/2009 Methodology Definition: Method: A particular way of doing something.  Kinds of Methodologies    i. human and social sciences and religious sciences in order to understand the subjects.The theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to a field of study or to the body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge. Methodology in revealed knowledge ii. 167 Istihsan (Juristic Preference) Islamic Methodologies Reliable Narrators Masalih Mursalah (public interest) Chain of Transformation `Urf (a particular Custom) Consultation & Consensus 168 42 . Methodology: 1. • A comprehensive Islamic methodology means to Islamize and integrate knowledge on the basis of the combination between the revelation and reason in order to overhaul the obstacles and challenges facing a modern man and the society. • It is the field of inquiry concerned with the Ijtihad (wahy. esp. Methodology in human knowledge (pure and social sciences) iii. Integrative methodology of revealed knowledge and human knowledge. `aql and Collection of Data Verifications Hawas) examination of methods used in the study of natural sciences. a systematic one. implies an orderly logical arrangement. 165 166 Methodologies used by the early Muslim scholars Slide Number? What is Islamic Methodology? • Methodology means a technique or method.

enthusiasm. Memorizations of the Qur‟an and Sunnah. Ijtihad (rational arguments. 3. Considering the reliable narrators with specific criteria. 171 172 43 . 2. if the texts of the Qur‟an and Hadith or consensus or analogy were not available. 4. `Urf (custom of a particular society or a nation). 11. piety. Collection of data of the Qur‟an and Sunnah Verified techniques used by the narrators in order to ensure the authenticity of narrations. Istihsan (juristic preference). many of whom looked for their rewards in the Hereafter. Islamic Methodology 7.  Merits of the Traditional Approach  Merits of the traditional approach were the sincerity. supplementary methods. interpretation and adjustment with the local culture and custom) 9. 5. Chain of transformation. supporting for adjustment from avoiding the contradictions and social division and disunity for the public interest. commitment. 6. 8. 169 170 Islamic Methodology 10.2/5/2009 Islamic Methodology 1. no gap between two generations and not less than 40 forty narrators. supplementary methods in order to make up for the growing number of new situations that were difficult with the textual and the analogical arguments. Compilation of the Qur‟an and Sunnah. Consultation among the scholars and consensus based on majority opinions. explanation. Maslahah or Masalih Mursalah (public interest). and dedication of the early Muslim researchers.

3. which they would commence with bismillah (in the name of Allah). Approaches must be open in order to adjust and accommodate new situations facing the society and man. Anything which does not correspond with the reality must be rejected. methodology are as follows: 1. 173 Islamic educational system made no distinction between revealed knowledge and empirically derived knowledge. Ultimate contradictions must be denied and rejected. experimentation and  The holistic nature of the traditional empirical investigation were considered acts of „ibadah.  The God-consciousness of the traditional scholars was reflected in their writings and research. 174 Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic Methodology  Knowledge was perceived as a Three main tawhidic criteria for Islamic comprehensive whole. 2.2/5/2009  Islamic research. seek His blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him. with empirically derived knowledge subject to the verification of revealed knowledge. 176 175 44 .

shortcoming Depended on Western Method Integrating Between Wahy and Aql Creativity and Initiative ness  Methodology in Human Traditional Methods as Inspiration Obstacles And Recommendations for Muslim Scholars Absence of Islamic Curriculum Knowledge (pure and social sciences) Bilingual Competency MisPropagation And Misconception Regaining Sincerity and Pure intention For humanity Unavailability Financial and Technical support 179 180 45 .2/5/2009 Merits of Islamic  s Allah’s pleasure Knowing context. Self-Initiative (Establishing Institutions) 177 178 Depended on Traditional method Verification of Validities. Purpose and Application of the Texts Pure Intention For humanity Methodology Summarized As Ibadah Commitment to People and society Merit of Islamic Methodologies Mastery of Arabic Language Reflection Of Allah Awareness Combination of Wahy & Aql Identifying the Short-comings Of Empirical Knowledge.

Deductive method (istinbat)(‫)استىببط‬  The researcher begins with a theory and then derives one or more hypotheses from it for testing. the researcher defines the variables in each hypothesis and the operations to be used to measure them in specific observable terms. 184 46 . 183  The researcher implements those observations to see whether they confirm or fail to confirms the hypotheses.  Next.2/5/2009 Science  From Latin word scientia means systematic knowledge of the physical or material world Knowledge of Science  Is acquired through experience. observation and research  Discursive: preceded by arguments  Inductive and deductive 181 182 Two scientific methods/ logical systems : induction & deduction 1.

and as objective as possible.  In induction one starts from observed data and develops a generalization which explains the relationships between the objects observed.  The evidence should be systematic. 188 187 47 . we should strive to keep an open mind about everything we thing we know or we want to understand. Collection of data This is a common basis of all sciences.  What we call ‚knowledge‛ is transitional and subject to refutation!! “ Is this possible? “ Can this characteristic be open? “ To which extent can we hold this perception? 186 2. Evidence based on observation  Scientific method seeks knowledge through observed evidence and not authority. Everything is open to question  In our quest to understand things. pure. Basic Steps in Scientific Research: 1. Inductive method (istiqra’)(‫)استقراء‬  A method of discovering general rules and principles from particular facts and examples. tradition or ideology. and social.2/5/2009 2. human. comprehensive. 185 Characteristics of Scientific Method 1.

the mind. etc. biology. goes on establishing relationships 189  The observation will be on some assumed correlation between some aspects according to some tentative hypothesis to prove if there is any interrelationships between them. by using its power of identification and retention (the ability to remember things). Simultaneously.  This observation can be done in a laboratory (physics.  The advance of scientific and technological equipment have contributed to the expansion of methods and meanings of collection of scientific data and the horizon of observation. chemistry.  In Muslim history of science it is a fact that Muslim scientists realized at an early stage the importance of scientific equipment for collection of data. geology).) or in a field when the parts under study spread over vast areas in time and space (astronomy. 190  Observation can be done through senses and perceptive power or by help of scientific equipment (devices for measurement) and technological equipment (devices to facilitate work and utilizing the resource of environment).2/5/2009  This is a function of perception and cognition.The mind goes on collecting data from all kinds of observations and experiences. . therefore they introduced big astrolabes (scientific instrument used for reckoning time and for observational purposes to enable astronomers to calculate the position of the Sun and prominent stars with respect to both the horizon and the meridian)… 192 191 48 .

7. 196 49 .  He should record only what is really happening (objective). especially to check your position at sea or to look at stars) for exact observations of stars and planets.  The rules of observation laid down by Jabir ibn Hayyan (chemistry): 1. until preliminary statistical tests confirm its reliability. He must not be deceived by appearances into bringing his operations to too hasty a conclusion. The chemist must have trusted friends. and even had invented a spherical astrolabe. Patience and reticence (not disclosing results hastily before testing them). 4. It is best for the laboratory to be in a secluded (quiet and private) place . 193 Measures to guard against distortion:  The person taking observations should be clear in his mind. 2. he should not be obsessed by any preconceived ideas.2/5/2009 and quadrants (an instrument for measuring angles. 5.  He needs patience and perseverance to ensure the reliability of his observations. 194  Even the observations taken with all this care cannot be taken at their face value. 6. Perseverance. The time and season must be carefully chosen. He must have sufficient time to conduct experiments. 195 3. or a number of other scientists confirm it independently.

199 200 50 . there comes the stage when the researcher begins to ask the question ‚How‛ about the working of those members and their correlations. Classification and analysis of data:  To arrange the data in some regular 3.  There may be many hypotheses depending on the number of variable parameters involved.  To establish the relations and correlations between different members of the population under study or with members of other series. to some extent. 197 members of the population under study. 198  This hypothesis will be depending.  The answer to this question is the hypothesis which describes in words or in symbols the relationship that appear to exist between them. This guess is based on the past observation.Hypotheses testing:  The hypotheses will be put into testing through experiments in different produced conditions to show their validity and applicability.  To find out the characteristics of the population from where the random sample of data was taken. experience and knowledge. on guessing. 4.2/5/2009 2. Hypothesis:  After studying the characteristics of the order.

204 203 51 .2/5/2009  If the predictions in the hypothesis Observation Logical deduction come out correct. The operator should know the reason for performing the experiment (hypotheses and predictions should be set clearly). for example. Among the rules of experiments laid down by him: 1. If this theory is found to be universally applicable. then the status of the hypothesis is raised to that of a ‚theory‛. Experimentation and empirical observations (under controlled conditions) The hypothesis is validated = Theory 201 202 Origination of Scientific methodology  Muslim scientists were the first ones to introduce this method and to emphasize the role of experimentation. 2. stated clearly in his book on chemistry: ‚the first essential is to perform practical work and experiments.  Jabir ibn Hayyan. The instructions must be properly understood. it is called a ‚law of nature‛. One who does not do so will never attain mastery‛.

this was an axiom and all stars are farther than the stars of the Milky Way/ the Galaxy (the system of stars that contains our sun and its planets) which is supposed to be close to the earth and to be situated in the atmosphere of the earth. 208 52 . based on his inductive method and with help of the equipment developed by Muslim scientists. 205  Until the 10th century the Greek and Egyptian theory of geocentric cosmology was assumed to be true. or hasty experiments which lead to vague results. are of no value). 207 other problems of astronomy had to satisfy this ‚truth‛. and It was held by early Muslim scientists.2/5/2009  Impossible and profitless Example: processes should be avoided (vague hypotheses which don’t lead to definite predictions.  The Muslim astronomer Ibn al-Haytham. 206  According to this theory the fixed  In Greek astronomy. came to a conclusion that the stars of the Milky Way were as far off as the other fixed stars. and that they were not situated in the atmosphere of the earth.

210 3.2/5/2009  Ibn al-Haytham was facing two contradicting hypotheses: the Greek ‚axiom‛ and his hypothesis.  If the stars of the Milky Way are as far as the other fixed stars. their relative positions will be different. 212 211 53 . then.  And the question was: how to decide about the validity of these two opposing hypotheses? 209 Ibn al-Haytham suggested an experiment to decide about these hypotheses: 1. in both the sets of observations suggested. 2. there will be no change in the relative positions of the two sets of stars in either cases. to measure the distance at the same time from two places far apart on the earth.  Observations were taken and it was found that the stars of the Milky Way did not change their relative positions among the fixed stars. to measure the distance from the same place in different seasons. The result was that if the stars of the Milky Way are in the atmosphere of the earth.

 It was this that made them the originators of chemistry. in Chemistry to employ the balance. 215 that caused them in Astronomy to appeal to divided instruments such as quadrants and astrolabes.‛ 216 54 . optics.  In their numerous writings on mechanics. hydrostatics. are experiment and observation. sublimation (conversion of a substance from the solid to the vapour state without its becoming liquid). then cooling it and collecting the drops of liquid that form). the invention of Algebra and the adoption of Indian numeration in Arithmetic.. great improvements in Geometry. Only the predictions were deduced by logic and geometry. filtration (the process of filtering a liquid or gas). fusion (the process or result of joining two or more things together to form one. 213 214 that led them to the invention of all kinds of apparatus for distillation (to make a liquid pure by heating it until it becomes a gas. geometrical and mathematical sciences that worked as instruments of reasoning. Conflict between Science and Religion  The characteristics of their (Muslims’) method not tested by the help of deductive logic alone. it is interesting to remark that the solution to a problem is always by performing an experimental observation. the theory of which they were perfectly familiar with. But the validity of the hypothesis was proved by experiment and observation.2/5/2009  Here the validity of the hypothesis was Draper. to construct tables of specific gravity and astronomical tables like those of Baghdad and Spain. etc. etc. Such were the results of the performance of the inductive method ” their declining the reveries (imaginations/ dreams) of Plato. like the fusion of copper and zinc to produce brass). And this is what is called the inductive method of modern science.

217 name of the ‚great authorities‛ and the ‚wise people‛  No one applied this method before except Muslim scientists.2/5/2009  Francis Bacon.  Limited the sphere of metaphysical studies and made shift to natural and physical studies. of Greek axioms. who is considered by  But he never once mentions the the West as one of the founders of inductive/ scientific method.  Limited the sphere of intellectual speculations and made a big room for empirical knowledge. 218 Achievements of scientific method:  Freed sciences from the domination of  Freed scientific research from the grip rigid deductive method that is more suitable to theoretical and philosophical studies. It is suggested that he did not mention them by name for fear of inquisition. in his book Novum Organum (1st quarter of the 17th century) while pleading for the introduction of empiricism in Europe says again and again that: ‚great authorities‛ follow this and consider this method better than the old deductive method of the Greeks. 219 220 55 .

 Extreme rationality led to the adoption of scientific method in the field of human and social sciences.  Experimental endeavour led to the transformation of science to technology.2/5/2009  Successful results achieved by scientists gave them confidence in this scientific method and encouraged them to further their research. discovering new laws and opening new areas.  This.)  Inaugurated by Francis Bacon and developed by John Locke (1632-1704) In philosophy. 224 56 . in turn. the attitude that beliefs are to be accepted and acted upon only if they first have been confirmed by actual experience. led to expansion of the horizon of scientific research. 221 222 ‚Side effects‛ of the scientific method  The overconfidence in and adoration of the scientific method led to extreme rationality. and the invention of sophisticated machines and equipment. 223 Empiricism/ logical-positivism (from the Greek word empeiria = experience.

as a source of certain type of knowledge.2/5/2009  Stressing experience. But he assigned to it a very marginal and subordinate role. 228 227 57 . and reason has nothing to do with it. 225 Early empiricism vs. Empiricism is opposed to the claims of authority.  The essence of empiricism is observation. in principle. 226  Most divine knowledge must come  John Locke one of the fathers of from revelation. but its sole task and competence is to prove that there is a God. or systematic reasoning (Rationalism) as sources of reliable belief. intuition. Revelation  Although Bacon proclaims the universal applicability of induction. he himself treats it almost exclusively as a means to natural knowledge and ignores its social application. measurement. and quantification of sense data available to the observer. There is such a thing as divine philosophy (what was later called rational. theology). and abstract.  He argues that knowledge acquired by human reasoning is more reliable and certain than knowledge received through revelation. empiricism did consider revelation. or natural. theoretical. imaginative conjecture.

and Logical Empiricism. 229  He gives revelation the upper hand over reason in two instances: 1. Positivism first assumed its distinctive features in the work of Auguste Comte (1798”1857). such as Empirio criticism. which derives from experience alone) or metaphysical speculations. 231  As a philosophical ideology and movement. any system that confines itself to the data of experience and excludes a priori (knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences. etc. In questions belonging to the realm of faith. or question the lack of means for validating or substantiating its content.) 230 Positivism In philosophy. Logical Positivism.  But one can always be certain about what his faculty of understanding considers true. generally.  (But one can always be certain about what his faculty of understanding considers true. Revelation should supersede reason in the realm of probable knowledge which does not rise to certainty. because it’s inaccessible to human reasoning. as opposed to a posteriori knowledge.  It then developed through several stages known by various names. 2. 232 58 .2/5/2009  Because one may doubt the preservation of the original revelation through the act of narration.

antitheological.  Consequently. There is nothing beyond. in a later phase of Positivism.That beyond the realm of fact is that of pure logic and pure mathematics. nothing ‚other than. Strict adherence to the testimony of observation and experience is the all-important imperative of the Positivists. classified as purely formal sciences. secular. which were. Positivism is worldly. 2. 234 Naturalism/ natural method  A theory that relates scientific method to philosophy by affirming that all beings and events in the universe are natural. 233 3.  Naturalists assert that nature is reality. and anti-metaphysical. all knowledge of the universe falls within the pale of scientific investigation.That all knowledge regarding matters of fact is based on the ‚positive‛ data of experience. In its basic ideological posture. 235  Usually naturalism denies the existence of truly supernatural realities.2/5/2009 The basic affirmations of Positivism are: 1. 236 59 . 4.‛ no ‚other world‛ of being.

idealism and materialism are all per se compatible with it. Conclusion W. as the only means by which we attempt to discover the secrets of nature.  Naturalism has no ontological preference: dualism and monism.  Let us not then exalt the scientific method unduly as the close preserve of the scientist nor. Development of neurosciences. and wholeness that implies objective laws. M. 240 239 60 . 237 238 Two positive results of bahaviourism 1. unity. The origin of the earth.2/5/2009  Naturalism presumes that nature is in principle completely knowable. which is much more important. atheism and theism. without which the pursuit of scientific knowledge would be absurd. Smart. Development of behaviour therapy (behaviour modification). rather than on the thoughts and feelings of the patient (as in psychoanalysis).  There is in nature a regularity. which focused on modifying observable behaviour. 2.

the investigator has preconceptions and motives. beauty. are all outside their domain. theory laden. that is. conduct. spiritual values. Kelvin (1979). moral. Education and Knowledge  The limitations of empiricism in human and social sciences can be manifested in different areas among them:  Derived conclusions could not be  Methodology of data collection is logically valid for generalization because there could be exceptions.2/5/2009  It is easy for a scientist to be a  But materialist if he sees only in the universe the apparently relentless (continuous) unfolding of natural law. which influence his choice of methodology of investigation and this subsequently affects the outcome 243 244 61 . yet all come within man’s scrutiny when he attempts to interpret the universe as a whole and strives to discern purpose therein…‛ 241 242 Harris. and forgets that there are domains where the laws of physics are irrelevant more and more scientists are realizing that they are exploring only one section of the great world of nature in all its manifold complexity. religious experience.

247  There is no objection to adopting the technical procedures developed by non-Muslims. and became as a heritage of humanity.‛ Ismail Raji al-Faruqi (1977). Conditions for using methods/ conceptual aspects of methodology 245 246 1.  It was initially started by Muslim scientists and. Natural and physical sciences  The scientific method in its technical procedures has a universal application. "Islamizing the Social Sciences" The Search for an Islamic Methodology Methodology comprises: 1.  Production of Muslim scientists 248 62 . later developed by Western scientists.  It needs to be applied within the Islamic ethical and ideological frame. Technical procedures 2.2/5/2009  ‚The humanistic studies of Western man and the social analysis of Western society by a Western scientist are necessarily "Western" and cannot serve as models for the study of Muslims or of their society.

They set the Western values & concepts as universal norms and models by which other societies should by judged. They embody the Western concepts & values (exclusion of revelation).2/5/2009 2. Social & human sciences  The main objects to the Western methods used in the domain of human & social sciences are: 1. 2. They are heavily inclined towards materialism and application of procedures of the natural sciences.  Are not real problems in Islam. 1. 251 252 63 . 249 250  The employment of this Western methodology in the Muslim world is leading toward Westernization of Muslim societies.  Confining reality to the empirical one under the justification that reason cannot ascertain transcendental reality. The issues of:  Rejecting revelation and contrasting scientific with revealed knowledge and. Exclusion of spiritual aspect.

Our understanding of the relationship between the earth and the sun is mediated by mental constructs.  The interconnectedness of the empirical and transcendental is always stressed by the Qur’an 255  Both revelation and empirical knowledge are needed for a comprehensive understanding of nature.  Divine revelation sees empirical reality as the manifestation of a transcendental reality. seeks its justification in empirical reality. There is no need at all to reproduce it in Muslim culture.  The science-revelation conflict is neither imperative nor universal. 253 254 2.2/5/2009 . the structures of empirical existence are inferred through the use of categories abstracted from the sensible.g. but specific to Western religion and experience.These structures are not immediately encountered by the senses. at least in its Islamic form. Instead. Revelation. and mediated by purely ‚rational‛ categories and statements. e. and hence is completely at variance with the immediate impression received from the senses. 256 64 .

and changing human behaviour as well as social phenomena.  The norms/ standards/ models are used to deduce conclusions. models. only little has been done. judging. standards are crucial for understanding.  Until now.2/5/2009 Setting the norm/ standard/ model  In social and human science norms. 257 258 Integrative Methodology of Revealed Knowledge and Human Knowledge  The common point among Muslim  But when it comes to ‚How‛ the scholars who are concerned with Islamization of knowledge/ Islamic methodology is the incorporation of Revelation into different fields of research. 259 answers may be different. and more efforts are required to establish a viable Islamic methodology for different social and human sciences 260 65 .  Western scholarship assumes that the practices of the Western society (which is assumed to stand at the peak of human evolution) become the standard of normality.

 Work under the directions of our worldview (the origin & nature of man and universe. and their destiny). enthusiastic. the purpose of their creation.2/5/2009 Islamic Methodology should:  Incorporate revelation as a source of  Reflect the Islamic objectives and knowledge and give it its due role in guiding human inquiry of knowledge. 264 66 .  They perceived knowledge as a comprehensive whole. the Sunnah.  They were sincere.  They avoided any innovation in the religion for fear of Allah‟s punishment. pious. committed and dedicated researchers. and the practice of the early Muslim society 261 262 A framework for islamization of knowledge Islamic legacy Western knowledge Conclusion  Muslims of the past always followed the Islamic methodology in their research:  They based their work on the principle of Mastery of disciplinary substantive knowledge Mastery of analytical and synthetic techniques University textbooks Islamic University Perfect/universal man 263 tawhid.  They verified the information to ensure its authenticity. values  Set our norms/ standards/ models which are derived from the Qur’an.

2/5/2009  They had greater familiarity with classical Arabic than contemporary Muslim scholars. seeking Allah‟s blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him. and material. in this way they treated their research as an act of „ibadah. which facilitated their understanding and analysis of the original texts. 4. the Merciful). its culture and its way of life during a particular period of time or in a particular part of the world.  Al-‘Umran 267 268 67 . 2. 3.  They used to commence their work with bismillahi al-Rahman al-Rahim (in the Name of Allah. and ‘din’(religion). Islam and Civilization 1. Meaning of civilization Civilization and Culture Arabic terms for civilization Characteristics of Civilization 265 266 Arabic terms:  al. Madaniyyah  Al-Tamaddun/ al-Madaniyyah: derived from the word ‘madinah’(city or town). the Gracious. scientific. and artistic progress A society.Hadarah/ Al-Tamaddun/ al- Meaning of Civilization An advanced level of development in society that is marked by complex social and political organization.

technological equipment. and their interrelations. groups. infrastructure. The soul of civilization is the set of.  manners and traditions that are embodied in the behavior of individuals. and all that is related to various pleasures of worldly life. and correspondingly complex social and political development It is an advanced state of intellectual.2/5/2009  The way and level of life of people  in the cities as contrasted with the way and level of life in rural areas.  ideologies.  The body of the civilization is its material achievements such as buildings. agriculture.  The relation between ‘madinah’ and ‘din’ indicates the role of religion in the establishment of civilization and refinement of social culture 269   Civilization designates a condition of human society characterized by a high level of cultural and technological achievements. educational institutions.  concepts.  moral values. industry. 272 271 68 . cultural and material development in human society 270  Each civilization has a body or matter and a soul.

Based on the ‫توحيد‬ Characteristics of Islamic civilization  Eliminates idolatry (idols. Universality  Islamic civilization was the first  This civilization is attributed to all civilization which embraced the entire humanity  It declared equality of all human beings of all descents. and colours  ٌ‫‚ إَُِّ أَمرٍنٌ عْد َّللاِ أَجقَبم‬Verily the most ْ ُ ْ َّ َ ْ ِ ْ ُ َ َ ْ honoured of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous of you‛ (49: 13). Globalization]  Open to the contribution of all members of the Muslim ummah regardless of their race.2/5/2009 1. and Brahmanism  Sets right the relationship between the ruler and the ruled (all people are equal) 274 273 2. ethnicity. races. 275 Muslims on an equal basis. Papacy.  (Arab nationalism / Western civilization /supremacy of white man)  [Universality vs. 276 69 . and  Muslim civilization was the first universal civilization that was based on a pure and strict unitarianism (unity of God)  The only one who deserves submission  The only one who deserves worship  The only one who deserves absolute obedience. and even non-Muslim citizens. or colour. statues)  Frees common people from the oppression of the kings.

 It does not go to the extreme of denying the truths which are not directly related to empirical knowledge but are based on revealed knowledge 4.Moderate Rationalism  It gives human reason a high position  Its faith is based on reasoning and conviction  It rejects superstitious and unfounded beliefs. 279 5.  This characteristic is peculiar for a civilization based on religious foundations. 278 277  It would be reasonable for a secularist who does not believe in any religion to treat religions equally and give people freedom of belief.Tolerance  Tolerance towards people of different religions (especially Christians and Jews)  Minorities enjoyed a high level of tolerance and freedom of religion and economic pursuit. Integrated and balanced civilization  Integrates the faith with the state/ rejection of secularism  Integrates the body with the spirit (material vs. spiritual)  Integrates the worldly life with the life in the hereafter 280 70 . but it may be difficult for a religious person to do so.2/5/2009 3.

the modern Western civilization has surpassed all civilizations across history. and their further development and formation by the Latin. Germanic. Celtic and Nordic Peoples‛.2/5/2009  Integrates empirical sciences with Western Culture and Civilization  Western Civilization is ‚The civilization revelation  Assigns priority to moral principles = morality vs. philosophies.  Pushing forward man’s incentives and capabilities to exploit nature and benefit from it. luxury  Effective management and organization  Respect of human rights within its homelands 284 71 . pragmatism  Integration in a balanced manner  Balance means following a middle course between two extremes of thought and action. their amalgamation with Judaism and Christianity. 282 Western Civilization Characteristics of Western civilization  In terms of material progress and scientific exploration. values and aspirations of ancient Greece and Rome. 283  Technological achievements = eased human life. 281 that has evolved out of the historical fusion of cultures.

Secularism   religion as a personal matter limited  Inspired by secular philosophy. economic or political activities  religious practice limited to dead rituals 288 72 .2/5/2009 The ideologies of the Western civilization are: 1.  It accepts only things which are considered by it as of ‚practical value‛  The ‚practical value‛ is in luxury and worldly pleasure = this is the real ‘God’ 285 286 2. devoid of certainty. subject to constant review and change Its worldview formulation is not upon revealed knowledge and religious belief but rather upon cultural tradition. speculations to secular life centered upon man as physical entity 287 to individual practice without any interference in social. Utilitarian materialism  This civilization may not deny the existence of God strongly and openly.  But it does not recognize the value of ‚God‛ in its ideological system. or deny the existence of the spirit.

Humanism  Reliance upon the powers of human reason alone to guide man through life 290 5. neglect of the elderly…)  Creates an atmosphere of fear. anxiety and distraction 3. Dualism  Adherence to the validity of dualistic vision of reality and truth  Affirmation of the reality of the temporary/impermanent aspect of existence projecting a secular worldview The Rise and Decline of Islamic civilization 291 292 73 .2/5/2009 Destruction of moral values = utilitarianism/ pragmatism  Destruction of family (abortion. Atheism: The doctrine or belief that there is no God  289 4.

Peace to give people a chance to know about the new religion. This year was marked with an invasion of Makkah and an attempt to destroy Ka‘bah (the year of the Elephant). 624: Battle of Badr. marks the establishment of the Muslim state. The acceptance of the people of Yathrib to receive the Prophet (saw) and his followers 294 The Emergence of the State 622: The Hijrah (migration to Yathrib/ Madina). Going international (beyond Arabian territories) 630: Muslims return back to their homeland Makkah after being expelled from it. The search for a place to establish Muslim state. 293 621: First pledge at Aqaba. and to focus on strengthening the newly emerged state. 622: Second pledge at Aqaba. 610: The first revelation in the cave at Mount Hira’. 628: Truce of Hudaibiya. The new power in the Arab peninsula. The beginning of Mohammad’s prophethood. 296 74 . 295 628: The Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.2/5/2009 A brief chronology of Muslim Civilization Preparatory phase 571: Birth of the Prophet.

(occupied by Persians and Roman Byzantines) 636: Defeating the occupying forces of the Romans (Battle of Yermuk) followed by the liberation of Syria and al-Quds. and the remaining parts of Jazirah. 300 75 . Syria. 632: Death of the Prophet (saw).2/5/2009 631: Expedition to Tabuk Sending a message to the Persian authorities who had been occupying the Arab territories and were hostile to the new religion.  Rejection of paying Zakat (disloyalty to the central authority) 297 298 Wars of liberation: 633 . al-Quds/ Jerusalem. Iraq. 299 636: The last major battle against Persian Empire (the battle of Qadsiyyah) the fall of their capital ‘Madain’. The Prophet addresses his followers with his last speech. 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.641: Liberation of Arab territories (Bahrain. Election of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Oman. Transitory instability  Attempts to destroy the new religion and state  Pseudo-prophets.

Accession of His son Yazid.2/5/2009 641: . Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph. Battle of the Camel. 656: Ali becomes the Caliph. Christians and Jews due to the Muslims' establishment of religious freedom for Christians and Jews.This exemplifies the alliances formed between Muslims. The monarchy system successfully established 303 304 76 . .The Catholic Archbishop of Egypt invites the Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.  680: Death of Muawiyah. Al-Hasan bin Ali abdicates (gives up/ renounces) in favour of Mu‘awiyah. . Another period of turmoil and political instability (fighting between different political groups) 660: Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.Liberation of oppressed people in Egypt. An attempt to transform the Islamic political system to a monarchy system. 301 644: Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman 654: Islam spreads into all of North Africa which was partly occupied by Romans. 302 661: Ali assassinated. Accession of Hasan.

The crusaders capture al-Quds. 750: The establishment of the Abbasid rule 305 The first breakaway Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain. End of the Umayyad rule. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph. 718: By this year almost the entire Iberian peninsula is under Muslim control. his death and accession of Mu‘tamid. 308 77 . 763: Foundation of Baghdad. The first crusade. Roman Byzantines occupy Aleppo. The Normans conquer the island of Sicily. Second crusade. 767: The second breakaway Khawarij set up their own state by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. end of the Muslim rule.2/5/2009 710: Tariq ibn Malik crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain. 7000 Muslim men invade Gibraltar. 814: Civil war between Amin and Ma’mun. 827: Ma’mun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion. A year later. Third breakaway: Rustamid state set up in Morocco 756: 306 Those breakaways were followed by hundreds of other breakaways and civil wars across the Muslim world 792: Invasion of South France. 307 870: 968: 1091: 1095: 1099: 1144: Turks revolt against Muhtadi. 750: Fall of Damascus.

The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco.2/5/2009 1187: 1212: 1248: Salah al-Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians. 309 1258: 1260: Baghdad destroyed by the Mongols. Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. Battle of AI ‘Uqab in Spain. End of the Abbasid rule. and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. 312 78 . 311 1274: 1371: Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. 1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. The Spaniards invade Morocco. In the Ottoman Turks empire. Invasion of Bulgaria. Third crusade. 310 1266: The eighth crusade. Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks. Muslims defeated by the Christians in Spain By this year Muslim control of Spain was reduced to the Kingdom of Granada. Failure of the crusade. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt. The crusaders invade Tunisia. which survives for more than two centuries.

Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna. The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and conquer Egypt. Serbia annexed to Turkey. Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Annexation of Albania. Turkey became the master of the Aegean Sea. 316 315 79 .2/5/2009 1446: In the Ottoman Turks empire. The Portuguese conquer Malacca from the Muslims. Annexation of Serbia by Ottoman empire. 313 314 1475: Annexation of Crimea (peninsula in southeastern Ukraine between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov). 1507: 1511: 1517: 1529: The Portuguese under establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf. 1453: 1456: 1461: 1462: Capture of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman empire.

By the treaty of Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary. 1830: 1832: 1857: French forces occupy Algeria. 319 320 80 .2/5/2009 1550: 1550: 1687: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra. 1811:The British occupied Indonesia. Defeat of the Turks by Austria. the Moluccas. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India. Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz. Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo-Netherlands treaty in 1824. 317 318 1812: 1813: 1827: Madina fell to Egyptians. and Borneo. British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. ending 313 years rule of Turks. . Islam spreads to Java. 1797: Russia occupied Daghestan. Turkey suffers defeat. 1718: In the war against Austria. Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.

Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.2/5/2009 1859: 1901: 1916: Imam Shamil defeated by Russian forces in Daghestan French forces occupy Morocco. Spiritual power: a tremendous impulse was given to the Muslim community to explore life and the world around them (life and world created for a purpose). 322 Stages of the process of rise and fall 1) Gestation (Hijra ”the end of Abu Bakar’s khilafah) 2) Expansion/ Universal Empire 3) Decay (the second half of khilafa Abbasiyyah) 4) Invasion/ fall 323 Causes of Rise of Muslim Civilization 1. The Muslims spread the word of Allah. Arab revolt against Ottoman rule. 1924: The Turkish khilafah is abolished. 321 1918: Syria occupied by France. 1921: Abd Allah bin Husayn was made King of Transjordan by the British. 1948: The official establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine. Islam ” way to save people and liberate them 324 81 .

teaching people to think critically and creatively (prohibition of imitation without sound evidence) 4.2/5/2009 2.  The Muslims intermarried freely with local people and became part of them. Intellectual freedom. It was their righteousness and their humaneness.  They encouraged learning and scientific enquiry and used to spend on it generously (the House of Wisdom). equality between the ruler and the ruled. patience 3. sincerity. and to commit them to worshipping Allah‛ 326 325 5. Ability to transform the ideals of the Qur’an to daily conduct: Hardwork. 327 328 82 . Openness:  To learn from human experience  To people of different races and ethnicities. The spirit of seeking knowledge  Most of the rulers of Banu Ummayah and the first two centuries of al-‘abbasiyyin dynasties were educated or scholars. freeing human intellect from superstitions. perseverance. Political freedom. ‚Allah has sent us to free humans from worshipping other humans. honesty. 6.  Muslim civilization was a joint endeavour of Muslims from different peoples and races  It was not the military power which enabled early Muslims to dominate half of the then known world.

rulers did not use to interfere in educational institutions and the affairs of scholars. waqf (endowment fund) was well developed and played a significant role in developing educational institutions. brought with them those loyalties. alQayrawan etc. 330 329 Causes of decline  Tribalism  Ethnocentrism  The Prophet (saw) was able to suppress  The new comers to Islam. under the rule of tribes or monarchs and emperors.  Sectarianism  Obsession with power/ prestige/  Striving for power ” assassinations ” overthrowing each other ” civil wars ” separation ” seeking help from enemies 331 332 83 . who used to live these social diseases and reduce them to the minimal level among sahabah and substitute them with a strong brotherhood.2/5/2009  The establishment of hundreds of  In addition to the generous spending on schools and universities such as alNizamiyyah. education and scholars.  Although there was a relevant level of dictatorship. al-Azhar.

2/5/2009

 Revolutions / insurgencies here and

there  Moral decadence: Dishonesty, indifference, cheating, laziness, neglecting obligation, involvement in haram, interest in pleasure and enjoyment rather than more serious things…etc.  Dictatorship/ political injustice/ changing the political system from shura to monarchy
333

Weakness of central authority:  For most of the last three centuries of the Abbasid rule, the rulers (Caliphs) became nominal.  The real sovereign power had passed already to the Turks.  The rulers became under their direct influence and they were frequently changed or murdered one after another.
334

 Deterioration in the educational level of

 They did infuse some manhood into the

the rulers: The guardians, soon became the masters.  They were men of simple, downright, brutal character, of energy and common sense.  The Ottoman Turks/ Mamalik were soldiers first. They were soldierly in all they did.
335

declining empire, which would have perished but for them.  They managed to free some Muslim territories, stop the advancement of Mongols, and expand the Muslim empire.  But those rulers were not really qualified to maintain the Muslim civilization.
336

84

2/5/2009

 At the beginning, for centuries the

civilization of Islam was almost unaffected by this transfer of power from a cultured people to a people of comparative illiteracy, rather it continued to progress in spite of it.  But the Empire was apparently progressing on the wave of a bygone impulse which was fading away.
337

Academic decline  Islamic sciences reached the stage of stagnation;  ijtihad was virtually stopped,  fanaticism to juridical as well as theological schools of thought became widespread,

338

 The extremism of philosopher and

theologians was met with another extremism of some religious scholars who went to the extent of prohibiting the study of philosophy and the sciences related to it, burning of the books of some philosophers and theologians in some areas such as Ibn Rushd, al-Ghazzali etc.
339

Muslim Sciences: Origin and Development

340

85

2/5/2009

1. Philosophy, natural and physical sciences
 The real development of Muslim natural

 In the 3rd century, the

and physical sciences started after the era of translation.  Translation of the intellectual heritage of other nations and civilizations started in the 2nd Islamic century from the four major languages: Greek, Syriac, Persian and Sanskrit.
341

establishment of bayt al-Hikmah (The House of Wisdom) founded by Harun al-Rashid and well developed by his son al-Ma’mun.  It was a research and educational institute and the centre for intellectual development.
342

 Many scientific works were

rendered into Arabic in the field of mathematics, physics, astronomy, medicine, pharmacology, history, philosophy and other sciences.  The translators were Muslims as well as non-Muslim citizens.

Translation: advantages & disadvantages Positive impact  Benefiting from human knowledge

and experience Negative impact  Translation was not confined to what is useful (pure sciences)  Extended to theology and metaphysical issues

343

344

86

Islamic sciences  Established and developed solely by Muslims 346 Major Areas of Contribution The Contribution of Muslim Scholars (Natural Sciences) 1. Development of different fields of science + inventions 3. The adoption and development of the scientific/ inductive method 2.2/5/2009  Creating confusion among some Muslims  Led to the creation of an elite group of philosophers who were fascinated with Greek philosophy and to some extent deviated from the right principles of Islam  Tension between this elite group and religious scholars 345 2. Transfer of the intellectual heritage of the ancient civilizations to the modern civilization 348 347 87 .

Al-Khawarizmi  Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa Al-  He influenced mathematical Khawarizmi. thought to a greater extent than any other mediaeval writer.2/5/2009 1. for example x2 + 1Ox = 39. 351 he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. as aljabr wa al-Muqabalah ‛ (the science of reunion and equations) and Algorithm (the old name for arithmetic)  These terms are derived from the title of his work. (780-850 CE) his birthplace is Khwarizm (modern name: Khiva) south of the Aral Sea. 352 88 . He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. HisabAl-Jabr wal alMuqabalah (Book of Calculations. 349 350  He is the founder of Algebra (al-Jabr)  In Arabic.  He also gives geometrical solutions (with figures) of quadratic equations." (Phillip Hitti). an equation often repeated by later writers. which established him as the founder of Algebra. Restoration and Reduction). astronomer and geographer.  Al-Khawarizmi was a mathematician. the full expression was ‚Ilm  His work on algebra was outstanding.

Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. including the decimal system and operations on fractions. 355  He introduced the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals) which was later passed to Europe. among them: Kitab al-Jam’a wa alTafriq bi al-Hisab al-Hind.2/5/2009  In the twelfth century Gerard of Algorithm = Arithmetic His arithmetic synthesized Cremona and Roberts of Chester translated the ‘Algebra‛ of AlKhawarizmi into Latin.  He wrote many books on arithmetic. 354 353  He explained the use of zero. a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Muslims. which was translated to and preserved in Latin language (the Arabic version was lost) 356 89 .  He developed at length several arithmetical procedures.  Mathematicians used it all over the world until the sixteenth century.

(The Face of the Earth) together with its maps. 358  He worked on measuring the volume and circumference (the line that goes around the earth) of the earth (this measurement was ordered by Al-Ma’mun) Geometry  He had many contributions to geometry including:  His astronomical and trigonometric tables.2/5/2009  A Latin translation of a Muslim arithmetic text was discovered in 1857 CE at the University of Cambridge library.  His geography captioned Kitab Surat alArd.  They were the first Muslim tables and contained not simply the sine function but also the tangent (Maslama's interpolation).’آ‬which is believed to be a copy of Al-Khawarizmi‫’آ‬s arithmetic text. 360 359 90 .  Entitled 'Algoritimi de Numero Indorum‫ . was translated to Latin language. revised by Maslama Al-Majrti (Second half of tenth century). were translated into Latin as early as l126 by Adelard of Bath. 357 Geography  He revised and corrected Ptolemy's views  He produced the first map of the known world in 830 CE. which was translated into Latin in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath (an English scholar).

and was translated over a dozen times into Latin and other European languages. 362 Works:  1. Kitab al-Hasa fi al-kula wa 'l-mathana (Stones in the kidney and bladder) is one of the most famous of his medical writings. which practically led him to the concept of differentiation.2/5/2009  He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors. Al-Razi  Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Mechanics  He contributed to work related to clocks. Zakariyya (Rhazes)(ca. He was the first to draw clear comparisons between smallpox and chicken-pox. and is largely based on Razi's original contribution. comprised ten volumes and dealt exhaustively with Greco-Muslim medicine.  Physician. philosopher and alchemist.Kitab al-Mansuri. in Rayy. 364 91 .D.  He was first placed in-charge of the first Royal Hospital at Rayy. which was translated into Latin in the 15th century A. from where he soon moved to a similar position in Baghdad where he remained the head of its famous Muqtadari Hospital for along time. 363   3. 361 2. Some of its volumes were published separately in Europe. Iran. sundials (an ancient device for telling the time when the sun is shining) and astrolabes. This book was the first book on smallpox.  2-Kitab al-Judari wa al-Hasabah was the first treatise on smallpox and chicken-pox.250/854-313/925 or 323/935)..

 This was combined with his emphasis on the influence of psychological factors on health. as revealed in his notebooks. Al-Hawi was the largest medical encyclopaedia composed by then. Medical system:  A special feature of his medical system was that he greatly favoured cure through correct and regulated food. 366 365 Medical research:  His medical research was highly methodical.  He was also an expert surgeon and was the first to use opium for anesthesia. 368 92 .2/5/2009 4.  It contained on each medical subject all important information that was available from Greek and Muslim sources.  His medical methods were characterized by lack of dogmatism and total reliance on clinical observation. 367  He also tried to test medicines first on animals in order to evaluate their effects and side effects.  and this was concluded by him by giving his own remarks based on his experience and views.

religion. and philosophy.500 pages.  His ‘Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi’ is a most extensive astronomical encyclopaedia. from Haran.  His production exceeds 146 titles in more than 20 different disciplines. Only 22 works have survived. he used to rely on his experimentation and clinical records Al-Biruni (973-1050AD).  Here al-Razi rejects claims of Galen's.  he was able to state for the first time that the motion is not identical to that of precession. and only 13 of these have been published. ranging from astronomy to mathematics. mathematical geography. from the alleged superiority of the Greek language to many of his cosmological and medical views. Al-Biruni  Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Abul-Rayhan strikingly revealed in his book al-Shukuk 'ala Jalinus (Doubts about Galen). 370 369  But the bulk of his work lies in mathematics and related disciplines (96 titles). but comes very close to it. In it:  he determines the motion of the solar apogee (the point in the orbit of the sun in space when it is furthest from the earth).  In his criticism of Galen’s medical views. 372 371 93 .  he corrects Ptolemy's findings.2/5/2009  He had an independent mind and that was 3. slightly short of 1. Syria.

2/5/2009 he employed mathematical techniques unknown to his predecessors that involve analysis of instantaneous motion and acceleration. Al-Kindi (Al-Kindus)  Abu Yusuf Ya‫’آ‬qub ibn Ishaq was born coordinates of cities) was written so as to determine the Qibla. Iraq. in 801 in Kufah. and chemistry. he calculated the earth circumference by solving a highly complex geodesic equation. described in terminology that can best be understood if we assume that he had "mathematical functions" in mind.  Using the astrolabe and the presence of a mountain near a sea or flat plain. 373  Six hundred years before Galileo. Al- Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about its own axis.  He determined the local meridian (one of the lines that is drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole) and the coordinates of any locality. pharmacist and he has some contributions to physics. but he was also a physician. astronomy. he also enabled the direction of the Qibla to be determined from anywhere in the world.  Al-Kindi was best known as a philosopher. mathematics. geography.  With the aid of mathematics. 374  His book ‘Tahdid’ (the demarcation of the 4. 376 375 94 .

 He was one of the first Muslim scholars involved in translating and commenting on Greek philosophical manuscripts. Baghdad. 377 378  His other philosophy works include  Fi kammiyat kutub Aristutalis wa Rasa’il al-Kindi al-falsafiyya (Philosophical Treatises of al-Kindi). ma yuhtaju ilaihi fi tahsil alfalsafa (The Quantity of Aristotle‫’آ‬s Books and What is Required for the Acquisition of Philosophy) and  Fi al-hila li-daf‘ al-ahzan (On the Art of Averting Sorrows).  Fi al-falsafa al-ula (On First Philosophy). Persians and Hindus. 379 380 95 . Fi wahdaniyat Allah wa tanahiy jism al-‘alam (On the Oneness of God and the Limitation of the Body of the World).  He first wrote treatise in epistemology and logic books such as Risalah fi Hudud al-Ashya’ wa Rusumiha (On the Definitions of Things and their Descriptions).  He was employed as a calligrapher as he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy.  al-Ma'mun (813-833) appointed him as a researcher and translator in the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah). He was proficient in the arts of the Greeks.2/5/2009  He learned Greek and Syriac languages.

God's knowledge. lines and multiplication with numbers. He In these works he wrote on Indian numbers. 384 96 . which was largely developed by al-Khawarizmi.2/5/2009  Although al-Kindi was  He first elaborated a system of influenced by the work of Aristotle (384-322 BC). which formed the bases medical formulary. measuring proportion and time. he tried to put the Greek’s ideas in a new context and to lay down the foundations of a new philosophy.  His thoughts very much influenced medieval Europe. and prophecy. relative quantities. immortality. and numerical procedures and cancellation. hence developed logic and systematic explanations for some of the debated theological issues of his time.  He made rich contributions to the Arabic system of numerals. One of his major contributions in medicine and pharmaceutics is to determine and apply a correct dosage. the harmony of numbers.  He contributed also to medicine. such as creation. 383 produced 22 publications on medical topics.  Several of his books were translated into Latin and was known as. 382 381  He contributed 11 works to arithmetic. thought based on the logic of Greek philosophy.

completed about 1000 AD. Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis)  Abu-Qasim Khalaf ibn Abbas. the medical students and the practising physician. al-Zahrawi classified 325 diseases and discussed their symptomatology and treatment. 386  This encyclopaedia was intended for  In places the use of instrument i.  He was born in al-Zahra near Cordoba in  His outstanding contribution in 936AD.e. about 200 instruments are described and illustrated. 387 surgical procedure itself is shown. was the result of almost fifty years of medical education and experience. 388 97 . for the first time.  In discourse l and 2.  His at-Tasrif. for whom it was a ready and useful companion in a multitude of situations since it answers all kinds of clinical problems.  In page 145. in medical history. he described.  He was one of the greatest surgeons of his time. and died in 1013 AD.  It contained the earliest picture of surgical instruments in history.2/5/2009 5.  His encyclopaedia of surgery was used as standard reference work in the subject in all the universities of Europe for over five hundred years. today we call it hemophilia. 385 medicine is his encyclopaedic work 'at-Tasrif li-man ajiza an Al-talif' in thirty treatise. a hemorrhagic disease transmitted by unaffected women to their male children.

on surgery. 389  The 300 pages of this volume represent the first book of this size devoted solely to surgery.2/5/2009  These two volumes were translated into Latin and printed in Augsburg in 1519. and throat. urology. nose. general surgery. and of the head and neck. ophthalmology diseases of the ear. became the most famous and had by far the widest and the greatest influence.  Volume 30.  Volume 28 is on pharmacy and was translated into Latin as early as 1288 as "Liber Servitoris". and orthopedic surgery. obstetrics. which at that time also included dentistry and what one may term surgical dermatology. 391 Cremona (1114-1187) it went into at least ten Latin editions between 1497 and 1544.  The last edition was that of John Channing in Oxford (I778) this contains both the original Arabic text and its Latin translation on alternate pages. 390  He developed all aspects of  It was translated into Latin by Gerard surgery and various branches. military medicine. 392 98 . gynecology.

of an illness in which all the well-known physicians had given up hope.  On his recovery the king wished to reward him but the young physician only desired permission to use his uniquely stocked library. the king of Bukhara. and astronomer of his time. encyclopedist. mathematician.  He traveled to Jurjan after his father‟s death where he met his famous contemporary Abu Raihan al-Biruni 395 396 99 .  Was the most famous physician. philosopher.  Known in the West by the name Avicenna. curing Nooh ibn Mansor.2/5/2009  Almost all European authors of surgical texts from 12th to the 16th centuries referred to alZahrawi's surgery and copied from him Human Sciences & Law and Jurisprudence 394 393 Abu Ali Al-Hassan ibn Abdullah ibn Sina (981-1037)  Was born in Asfahan near Bukhara (Central  At the age of seventeen he was successful in Asia)  By the age of ten he had become well versed in the study of the Holy Qur‟an and basic sciences.

cornea. 398 397  He was the first to describe meningitis and  Ibn Sina condemned conjectures and made rich contributions to anatomy. In this book he reviewed the medical knowledge available from ancient and Muslim sources and he also made many original contributions. optic nerve and optic chiasma. drugs (seven hundred and sixty).  Among his original contributions are such advances as recognition of the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis. diseases affecting all parts of the body from head to foot.  He observed that Aorta at its origin contains three valves which open when the blood rushes into it from the heart during contraction and closes during relaxation of the heart so that the blood may not be poured back into the heart. presumptions in anatomy and called upon physicians and surgeons to base their knowledge on a close study of human body. such as conductive sciera. iris.  Ibn al-Sina was the first scientist to describe the minute and graphic description of different parts of the eye. choroid. especially pathology and pharmacopoeia. 400 399 100 .  His book was recognized as the most authentic materia medica. which is known as Canon in the West.2/5/2009  His major contribution to medical  The Qanun deals with general medicines. layer lens. and interaction between psychology and health. distribution of diseases by water and soil. gynecology and child health. aqueous humour. science is his famous book known as alQanun fi al-Tibb. retina.

Human Sciences:  Philosophy  Theology  Sociology 401 402  The role of great Muslim Thinkers in the field of ‘aqidah and tasawwuf to the growth of knowledge and priceless contribution to the process of learning in the history of Islamic culture and civilization. al-Qusyairi. “The Qanun has remained a medical bible for a longer period than any other book. used at European universities until the eighteenth century.”  Ibn Sina also wrote Kitab al-Shifa (Book of Healing). jurist  He wrote a 7-volume medical encyclopedia. al-Ghazzali. author of the Evolution of Modern Science. alShahrastani. ect 403 Ibn Rushd  Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Rushd (known as Averroes)  He was a physician and philosopher.2/5/2009  Dr William Osler. writes. Kitab al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb (Latin name Colliget. alAsh’ari. al-Baqillani.  To name but a few. 404 101 . It is a philosophical encyclopedia covering a vast area of knowledge from philosophy to science. a corruption of the word kulliyat= generalities). Ibn al-’Arabiyy. al-Maturidiyy. known in its Latin translation as „Sanatio‟.

his works became the ruling mode of social thought in the West.  A dominant and influential school of philosophical thought emerged under his name (Averroism) 408 102 .  He asserted the "primacy of reason".  His contribution to Europe was in two major areas: i.‚  His commentaries on Aristotle were translated into Latin and Hebrew. 405 more significant to Europe than to the Muslim world. 407 long before the Renaissance (Gilson)  Later. or a purely philosophical rationalism  For him. transfer and commentary on Aristotle’s philosophy ii.2/5/2009  Ibn Rushd's philosophy was an  His contribution to philosophy was attempt to synthesize Islamic faith and reason in light of the available Greek heritage. And he used to be called "the Great Commentator. the primacy of reason is unquestioned but compatible with Islamic faith. spreading rationalism 406  European philosophers discovered Rationalism:  He was regarded as the herald of rationalism Aristotle through Ibn Rushd's writings and commentaries on Aristotle’s works. And scholars of medieval Europe were provoked and inspired by those writings. and soon became a part of the curriculum at different European universities and institutions of learning.

shy.” 411 412 103 . good natured.  Born in Tunisia in 732 A. 30). difficult to handle. Ibn Khattab. opposed to oppression. described him as “a virtuous man.  His close friend and associate. however.2/5/2009  From the end of the twelfth century to the end Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395C. Ibn khaldun was engaged in both learning and politics.  Unlike his father. wise of judgment and knowing a lot of things by heart. philosophy and poetry and excelled in all these branches of knowledge. avoided politics and devoted his time to study jurisprudence. in an influential and learned family.E).  The results were the Renaissance in the thirteenth century and the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century. 410 His Studies:  His father. wellinformed on intellectual and traditional science.E)  Full name.  Many of his ancestors had held high posts in the Tunis government. Abd al-Rahman bin of the sixteenth century Averroism remained the dominant school of thought. 409 Muhammad.H (1332 C.  His singular influence in stimulating the Western Renaissance is acknowledged "as the landmark in the history of Western civilization" (Gilson. 1938.

and the father of the economic science.  The main theme of 414  He identified an almost rhythmic repetition of  Thus. and I followed in writing it a strange and innovative way. as it is called today. and I followed in arranging the material of the book an unfamiliar method.  He is best known for his famous Muqaddimah (prolegomena) which is a masterpiece in literature on philosophy of history and sociology. social development or sociology.  He provided an analytical study of human civilization. produce the ascent of a new civilization and political power.  He wrote: “I have written on history a book in which I discussed the causes and effects of the development of states and civilizations. and analyzed factors contributing to it. economic. He is internationally recognized as the founder and father of sociology.” 415 416 104 . environmental and social facts that contribute to the advancement of human civilization and the currents of history. factors contributing to its development and the causes of decline.2/5/2009  Ibn Khaldun made great intellectual contributions in many areas of learning. historian of civilization.  His views attracted the attention of Muslim scholars as well as many Western thinkers.  He pioneered the critical study of history. its beginning.  He analyzed the dynamics of group relationships and showed how group feelings. he found a new science: the science of the rise and fall in human civilization. father of philosophy. al-„Asabiyyah. 413 Muqaddimah was to identify psychological.

he created two new sciences: Historiography and Sociology simultaneously. by selecting his particular method of  He remarked that historians have committed analysis.  He pointed out that injustice.  2) Their bias and prejudice. despotism and tyranny are the clear signs of the downfall of the state. For history should include the study of all social. religious and economic conditions. and  3) Their blind acceptance of reports given by others. 417 418  He pointed out that true progress and  3) He should not limit history to the study of development comes through correct understanding of history.  He saw reason as a necessity in judging history and social events.2/5/2009  Thus. and correct understanding of which can only be achieved by observing the following three main points:  1) A historian should not be in any way prejudiced for or against any one or any idea. due to three major factors:  1) Their ignorance of the natures of civilization and people. errors in their study of historical events. 419 420 105 . and political and military news or to news about rulers and states.  2) He needs to conform and scrutinize the reported information.

Upon these two all the rest have built.  Ibn Abd al-Barr said that Malik was the first his most important work is the Kitab alMuwatta. It is the earliest surviving book of its kind written around 150 A. which deals with the subject of Islamic Law based on Ahadith and Sunnah.795 AD) Law and Jurisprudence  The five major schools of legal  He spent the whole of his life in Madinah thought  The impact of Muslim jurisprudence on European civil law.179 AH/715 .  He spent his life studying. such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi. who compiled a book formed exclusively of sound narrations. while alBukhari‟s book is the second foundation in this respect. where much of the Qur‟an was revealed and most of the legal practices of Islam established. recording and clarifying the legal parameters and precedents which was passed down to him by the first two generations of Muslims who were the direct inheritors of the perfected form of Islam left by the Prophet (saw).” 423 424 106 . 422 421  Although he is the author of numerous books.2/5/2009 IMAM MALIK (93 AH .H.  Abu Bakr ibn al-„Arabi said: “The Muwatta‟ is the first foundation and the core.

having started with ten thousand narrations until he reduced them to their present number of under 2. 428 107 . remained silent and absorbed in his thoughts most of the time.  He was a man of few words and never took part in idle talk. avoided forbidden things. 425 426 IMAM ABU HANEEFA (80 AH . letting his pupils freely debate among themselves. never asked a favour of anybody. He was very generous and self-respecting. In his classroom he would sit quietly. the Imam was extremely gentle and polite.150 A. which would satisfy all present. it is the most widely followed.767 AD)  It is said that Abu Hanifah was extremely  He was a man of profound learning and pious. such reverence that he never narrated anything nor gave a fatwa unless in a state of ritual purity.2/5/2009  Shah Wali Allah said something similar and  Imam Malik held the hadith of the Prophet in added that it is the principal authority of all four Schools of Law.000.  Despite the fact that Abu Hanifa‟s school of thought is the last to emerge. which stand in relation to it like the commentary stands in relation to the main text. and answered a question only if he knew the answer. and would speak only when the discussion had become long and drawn-out without any conclusion being reached. shunned the company of the worldly-minded and held worldly power and position in contempt. He would then give his decision. 699 AD .H.  Despite his wealth and high position in society. He avoided slander and only talked well of people. 427 was as generous with his knowledge as with his money. Malik composed it in the course of forty years.

The most important of books is the Kitab alUmm which contains his rulings of on almost all subjects of Islamic Law.  He was honoured as al-Imam al Mujaddid in that he is the Mujaddid of the 2nd century. was a descendant from the Quraysh tribe.2/5/2009  He left behind him three works namely (1) IMAM SHAFI‘I (150 AH .”  He is said to have divided innovation (albid„ah) into good and bad on the basis of „Umar‟s words about the tarawih or congregational supererogatory night prayers in the month of Ramadan: “What a fine innovation this is!” 431 432 108 .  Imam Malik made this comment: “No scholar more brilliant than Muhammad ibn Idris alShafi„i ever came to me as a pupil. he is the only Imam who is related to the Prophet (saw).H/767 .820 AD)  Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi„i „Fiqh-i-Akbar‟. 429 430  He is known as 'Nasir al Sunnah„ (one who saved the sunnah). and thus. (2) „Al Alim Wal Mutaam‟ and (3) „Musnad‟.204 A.  He was a student of Imam Malik with whom he spent eight months.

” attracted a huge gathering of at least 5.2/5/2009  Among his sayings is: “The study of hadith is  Being a prominent figure. and the pursuit of knowledge is better than supererogatory prayer. Imam Muslim. his lectures better than supererogatory prayer. and Imam Tirmizi were also amongst his noteworthy students. Imam Bukhari. more knowledgeable than Ahmad ibn Hanbal. he was the last of the four  Harmala said: “I heard al-Shafi`i say: „I left imams. 433 434 IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL (164 AH .  He was a very pious scholar who devoted all Baghdad and did not leave behind me anyone more virtuous (afdhal). 435 436 109 . 855 AD)  Chronologically. more learned.241/780 AD.‟” his life in the Science of Ahadith and Fiqh.  It is said that he learnt almost a million Ahadith by heart.000 students among whom nearly 500 took down notes daily.

‟ . and his students included many of the foremost scholars of hadith. Abu Dawud said of him: „Ahmad‟s gatherings were gatherings of the afterlife: nothing of this world was mentioned. Never once did I hear him mention this-worldly things. science and technology will be always value-laden. and since human endeavor cannot be separated from human values.. and used to recite the entire [Qur‟an] daily. 437 Challenges Confronting Muslims Globally  Challenges of Modern Science and Technology and the Muslim Responses  Challenges of reinvention of Islamic civilization 438 The challenge of modern science and technology  Pure sciences and technology in Positive Aspects of Western Civilization  Contributed modern technology that themselves can be neutral  But since they are the outcome of human endeavor.2/5/2009  He was probably the most learned in the sciences of hadith of the four great Imams of Sacred Law. He never once missed praying in the night. 439 enable people to achieve great scientific development at all domains such as in communication and transportation  Introduced good management in perfecting one’s work 440 110 ..

air and contamination of land by toxic substances  Neglecting principle aims of human life in this world the product of the West and as a result is Western oriented/ carries their thoughts and values.2/5/2009  Respects human dignity and concerned with freedom and human rights  Exchange of power by democratic means  Provides with high quality products  Introduced computers that eased complicated tasks 441 Negative Aspects of contemporary Western Civilization  Breaking up all moral values of Divine guidance  Unimportance of family structure whereby free sexual relations. breaking of noble human feelings by drying its sources and drying up the noble emotions between husband. What needs to be done?  To develop an Islamic methodology of scientific research 444 443 111 . wife and children 442  Creation and use of weapons of  Modern science and technology is mass destruction  Pollution of clean water.

) 446 445  Historical Background:  Islam Hadari was publicized nation-wide Its Role in Reviving Islamic Civilization Islam Hadari: for the first time in the 2004 Manifesto of the National Front for the tenth General Election held in March 2004.  To produce Muslim minds who will be able to produce sciences and technology which may serve Islamic values and Muslim interests. regional groups …etc. .Bad living conditions  Sponsorship/Government sponsorship: .Political instability .lack of funds.  Dato’ Seri Abdullah Badawi.unconvinced of the merit of scientific research  Joint ventures (OIC. made Islam Hadari a new policy of his government 447 448 112 . . as the fifth Prime Minister of Malaysia.Lack of incentives and facilities . Arab league.2/5/2009  To islamize the existing science and  Brain drain in the Muslim world put them in an Islamic context.

Vision:  To make Malaysia a model Islamic country. civilized. 452 451 113 . thus ‘Islam Hadari’ means ‘civilizational Islam’. Mission:  To implement the development agenda of the country and human based on an Islamic approach which is universal. 450  Islam Hadari is not a new religion.  It aims to achieve this via the mastery of knowledge and the development of the individual and the nation. tolerant and balanced. In Arabic.‛ 449  Islam Hadari is an approach that emphasizes development. back to the Fundamentals. It is not a new teaching nor is it a new mazhab (denomination).  Islam Hadari is an effort to bring the Ummah back to basics. advanced. society and country based on the perspective of Islamic civilization. consistent with the tenets of Islam and focused on enhancing the quality of life.2/5/2009  Literal meaning: the term ‘ Hadari hadhari’ means ‘civilizational’. it is termed as ‘alIslam Hadari’  Definition:  ‚A comprehensive approach for the development of mankind. that is. as prescribed in the Qur’an and the Hadith that form the foundation of Islamic civilization. an advanced nation based on its own indigenous matrix.

2/5/2009

Principles of Islam Hadari 1. Faith in and piety towards Allah 2. A just and trustworthy government 3. Free and independent People 4. Mastery of knowledge 5. Balanced and comprehensive economic development
453

6. A good quality of life 7. Protection of the rights of minority groups and women 8. Cultural and moral integrity 9. Safeguarding of the environment 10. Strong defence capacities

454

Development & Implementation of Islam Hadari Obstacles:

Poverty and illiteracy  Both are considered as the biggest threat to Muslim societies today.  Both poverty and illiteracy may lead to underdevelopment of the country
455

Secular Vs Religious knowledge  It is not a secular approach as claimed by some people  It is an approach toward regeneration and renewal of society and civilization of the 21st century in accordance with the noble values and injunctions of Islam.
456

114

2/5/2009

Radicalism and Extremism  9/11 incident  From there onwards Muslims have been labeled as terrorists.  Some non- Muslims argue that such guidelines will affect them adversely.

Inconsistencies and confusions  Lack of advertising made by the higher authority.  Mindset of people.  Solutions: seminars/forums to be organized.

457

458

Prospects
Development  balanced development - cultural and religious diversity will be protected based on a value and moral system  internalization of high moral values - ensure prosperity, harmony and peace in multiracial society  cultural integration must be consistent with the noble values of Islam Knowledge  acquiring knowledge is compulsory and an act of ibadah  Islam Hadari encourages learning from others  Prophet Muhammad said ‚Go forth and seek knowledge even if you have to travel to China

459

460

115

2/5/2009

Wealth  wealth must be acquired in halal way  society must be bold and independent in acquiring wealth  Surah al-Qasas (77) ‚ Life in hereafter depends on the ability of individual to achieve good life in all aspects ” spiritual, physical & material‛

Health  Sick and physically weak - unable to carry out religious duties and responsibilities  good health ” society with free spirit will produce positively  Prophet Muhammad s.a.w has said ‚The mu’mins who are strong are better and loved by Allah than those who are weak‛

461

462

STRATEGIES

 To work towards

To expend Islam Hadari into the building of civilization  Islamic countries should enhance and develop their institutions of knowledge at all levels.  People should be more openminded and forward looking.
463

reducing/eliminating poverty  To increase economic resources and financial assets.  To improve the living standards of people  To make a continuous effort towards the physical and spiritual development of the human beings.
464

116

country and individual 466  To remove Islamophobia from non-Muslims  To urge International community to stop actions that lead to the perpetuation of injustices against Muslim countries and the Muslim Ummah  Government to cooperate with nations in the region and Islamic nations all over the world  Defending the country from internal and external aggression 467 468 117 .  To persuade our non-Muslim colleagues not to be prejudiced against Muslims 465 country in peace  To help preparing Muslims in facing global challenges  To have long term plans & programs for instilling responsibility towards the defense and dignity of the nation. tolerance and critical thinking.2/5/2009  To hold religious and civilizational  To protect the political institution and keep the dialogues  To expand Islam Hadari that reflects intellectuality. humanity.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful