SolidCAM Simultaneous 5-axis Machining User’s Guide

©1995-2005 SolidCAM LTD. All Rights Reserved.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

5-axis Machining

Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 5 2. User Interface ........................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Adding a 5-axis Operation....................................................................................................6 2.2 5-axis Operation user interface ............................................................................................8 2.3 Stages of the Simultaneous 5-axis Operations parameters definition ............................... 10 3. CoordSys Page ...................................................................................................................... 11 4. Tool Page ................................................................................................................................ 12 5. Levels Page ............................................................................................................................ 14 6. Geometry Page ...................................................................................................................... 17 6.1 Drive surface selection ....................................................................................................... 18 6.2 Cut Controls: ...................................................................................................................... 20 6.2.1 Parallel cuts .................................................................................................................. 20 Exercise 1:.................................................................................................................... 23 Exercise 2:.................................................................................................................... 25 6.2.2 Cuts along curve ........................................................................................................... 26 Exercise 3:.................................................................................................................... 27 Exercise 4:.................................................................................................................... 28 6.2.3 Morph between two curves ........................................................................................... 30 Exercise 5:.................................................................................................................... 32 Exercise 6:.................................................................................................................... 34 6.2.4 Parallel to curve ............................................................................................................ 36 Exercise 7:.................................................................................................................... 37 Exercise 8:.................................................................................................................... 38 6.2.5 Project curves ............................................................................................................... 40 Exercise 9:.................................................................................................................... 41 Exercise 10:.................................................................................................................. 43 6.2.6 Morph between two surfaces ........................................................................................ 45 Exercise 11:.................................................................................................................. 46 Exercise 12:.................................................................................................................. 48 6.2.7 Parallel to surface ......................................................................................................... 50 Exercise 13:.................................................................................................................. 52 6.3 Flip Stepover ...................................................................................................................... 54 Exercise 14:.................................................................................................................. 55 6.4 Cutting Method ................................................................................................................... 56 6.5 Cut Order ........................................................................................................................... 58 Exercise 15:.................................................................................................................. 60
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SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

6.6 Direction for One Way machining ...................................................................................... 62 Exercise 16:.................................................................................................................. 64 6.7 Cutting Area ....................................................................................................................... 65 Exercise 17:.................................................................................................................. 67 6.8 Start Point .......................................................................................................................... 69 7. Finish Parameters page: ........................................................................................................ 71 7.1 Tool Contact point .............................................................................................................. 72 Exercise 18:.................................................................................................................. 75 7.2 Lead in / Lead out .............................................................................................................. 79 Exercise 19:.................................................................................................................. 82 Exercise 20:.................................................................................................................. 86 7.3 Round surface by tool radius ............................................................................................. 92 7.4 Stock to leave..................................................................................................................... 94 7.5 Multi Passes ....................................................................................................................... 95 7.6 Surface Quality................................................................................................................... 97 7.6.1 Chaining Tolerance ....................................................................................................... 97 7.6.2 Cut tolerance ................................................................................................................ 98 7.6.3 Distance ........................................................................................................................ 99 7.6.4 Stepover ..................................................................................................................... 100 8. Gaps Page............................................................................................................................ 101 8.1 Gap Along Cut.................................................................................................................. 101 8.1.1 Gap Size as % of tool diameter .................................................................................. 102 8.1.2 Direct .......................................................................................................................... 102 8.1.3 Broken ........................................................................................................................ 103 8.1.4 Retract ........................................................................................................................ 103 8.1.5 Follow Surface ............................................................................................................ 104 8.2 Gaps between cut (Gap Size as % Of Stepover) ............................................................. 105 8.2.1 Gap Size as % of Stepover......................................................................................... 105 8.2.2 Direct .......................................................................................................................... 106 8.2.3 Broken ........................................................................................................................ 106 8.2.4 Retract ........................................................................................................................ 107 8.2.5 Follow surface ............................................................................................................. 107 9. Tool axis control page ........................................................................................................... 108 9.1 Output format ................................................................................................................... 109 9.2 Maximum angle change ................................................................................................... 110 9.3 Tilting strategies (Toll axis direction) ................................................................................ 111 9.3.1 Tool axis is not tilted and stays normal to the surface ................................................ 111 9.3.2 Tool axis will be tilted relative to cutting direction ...................................................... 112 9.3.3 Tool axis will be tilted with the angle .......................................................................... 114
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.........................................................8 Stock to leave... 126 9........... 147 13.........................3 XY Limit: ..3.............................................................................................................4....................................................................... 144 10......... 117 9...............1 Clearance ........ 144 11.....................5................................................................... 132 10..........3...................................................................SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9..................................... 127 9..........................................................................5........4 Conical angles from leading curve........................... 128 10....... 125 9................................................3 Tilting tool away with max angle ... 115 9............................ 141 10........................ 129 10.8 Tool axis will be tilted through lines .................................4 Tool axis will be tilted with fixed angle to axis ...1 XZ Limit.............................................................................................................................. 133 10.......... 128 10.................................................................................3........................5.............4 Leaving out gouging points ....... 116 9............................................................................................................3.........................................1 Retracting tool along tool axis.................................................................... 145 12.........................................5............................... 127 10.............................................................................................. 144 10.......................................7 Tool axis will be tilted through curve ............ 131 10....................... 134 10.................2 At the beginning of all: Single Surface 5 Axis Flowline ................5................................3............................ 146 13.............................5.......................................................................................................................................................................................5.................................................................................................................................. 143 10.......... Gouge Check page .............................................. 131 10..........................................5....2 YZ Limit.................7 Check Surfaces ...........................................................................................4 Side tilt definition ... 124 9..............................6 Tool axis will be tilted through point ........................................ 147 Document number: SC5AUG06001 4 .............5 Stop tool path calculation...............6 Drive Surfaces................. 114 9............5 Strategy .................... 131 10....4 Tool ............. 123 9.... Additional parameter Page ..........................................................................................................4.......................2 Moving tool away ................................. 143 10..................................................................................5............................................................................... 123 9.. 126 9...........................2 Check gouge between positions ................................................. Appendix ....................2 Check Arbor and Check Holder ................ Stock Page ..5 Tool axis will tilted around axis .................................................1 Tool Tip and Tool Shaft ..........................3............................................................................................................................... 147 13.............1 Single Surface versus Multi Surface Machining in 5 Axis ......................................................3 Gouge pages......9 Tilted from point away.......................................................................... 132 10...............................................................................................5 Tool axis direction limit parameters .....................

showing the motion of all rotational and linear axes. better surface finish and improved life span of tools. SolidCAM utilizes all the advantages of Simultaneous 5-Axis machining and together with collision control and machine simulation. provides a solid base for your 5-Axis solution.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 1. Introduction Simultaneous 5-Axis machining is becoming more and more popular due to the need for reduced machining time. A number of intelligent and powerful 5axis machining strategies enable the use of SolidCAM for machining of such complex geometry parts as turbine blades and impellers. 5 . SolidCAM provides a realistic simulation of the whole machine tool.

This operation is available for 3 axis. mostly for undercut areas. 6 . It is also possible to use the standard tools in this operation in order to create a 3D finish tool path. in this case the operation generates 3 axis G-Code and it is not possible to tilt the tool.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2. User Interface 2. 4 axis and 5 axis CNC-machines.1 Adding a 5-axis Operation 5-axis (3) This operation performs 3-axis operations using special tools such as Lollipop and T-cutter.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis (4) This operation is used for 4-axis finish operations such as turbine blade profiles on the outside diameter and spiral parts. SolidCAM positions the tool to the proper working angle using 5-axis capabilities and then performs the 4-axis machining. The only tilt strategies that are available are those that support this type of tilting (4-axis). For the 5-axis machine. With such output. The output from this operation depends on the CNC machine type. The tool can be tilted to any possible direction that the machine supports. The @line_5x and @move_5x commands will be used in the output. This operation generates 4-axis G-code and is available for 4-axis and 5-axis CNC-machines. The user has complete control over all the cutting parameters. This type of operation is available only for postprocessors that support 5-axis machining. The operation generates 5 axis G-code. the output will be performed with the @line_5x and @move_5x commands. All the tilt strategies are available. the output will be performed with the @line_4x and @move_4x commands. 5-axis (5) This operation is used for 5-axis finish and supports all kinds of 5-axis operations. 7 . The tool will be normal to the center line but will not necessarily cross the center line. This Operation type is unavailable for 3-axis CNC-machine types. For the 4-axis machine.

When you click on an item in the tree. The sub-groups are displayed in a tree format on the left side of the 5-axis Operation dialog box. • Tool Data Page Choose a tool for the operation and define tool-related parameters such as feed and spin. • Levels Page Define Milling levels such as Clearance plane and Safety distance. 8 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2.2 5-axis Operation user interface The following 5-axis Operation dialog is displayed on the screen: The parameters of the 5-axis Milling Operation are divided into a number of sub-groups. Define the machining parameters such as the Cut control. • CoordSys Page Define the CoordSys Position for the 5-axis machining. the parameters of the selected sub-group appear on the right side of the Operation dialog box. Cuting area. Cutting method etc. • Geometry SolidCAM enables you to choose a drive surface for the machining.

The Motion Limit control page enables you to change the parameters locally for the current operation. 9 . The defaults are determined by the MAC-file (machine definition parameters). Generally. For example you can choose to have small gaps ignored and milled without the tool retracting and big gaps detected with the tool retracting back to the rapid plane and skipping the gap. Such options are set within this dialog. these parameters are defined in the first definition of the postprocessor for this machine and usually it is not necessary to change these values. • Gouge check This page contains all the options to avoid the tool gouging selected drive surfaces and check surfaces. • Gaps Page Surfaces defining the work piece can have gaps and holes.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • Finish Parameters This page enables you to define the machining parameters such as Cut tolerances. In such cases you can choose between several options. • Stock Page Stock definition can be provided in this page. • Tool axis control Define the tool orientation relative to the surface normal. • Miscellaneous parameters This page contains special functions for custom applications. Stock to leave. All tool moves in the air that do not remove material will be trimmed using this given stock definition. Entry and Exit moves are also defined here. Run tool etc. • Motion Limit control This page is related to CNC machine definitions.

Tool axis control .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2. Gouge check –the gouge strategies that SolidCAM has to take into account to avoid tool and holder crashes are defined. Tool tilting and gouging are not taken into account at this stage. Finish Parameters and Gaps – the type of finish tool paths generated along the selected faces is defined. 2. 3.controls the angle of the tool from the normal vector in every point along the tool path.3 Stages of the Simultaneous 5-axis Operations parameters definition The process of the Operation parameters definition for the tool path creation is divided into 3 stages: 1. Tool path generation Tool axis control Gouge check 10 . Geometry.

SolidCAM enables you to choose both the Machine Coordinate systems and CoordSys Positions for the operation. the model will be rotated to the selected CoordSys orientation. SolidCAM enables you to choose only the Machine Coordinate systems. CoordSys Page Choose the appropriate CoordSys position for the operation. In 5 axis (4) and 5 axis (5) operations. After the CoordSys selection. 11 . Therefore. In the 5 axis (3) Operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 3. The CoordSys Position can be chosen either direcly on the model or from the list. The CoordSys selection operation must be the first step in the Operation definition process. SolidCAM enables you to generate the G-Code according to the center of the rotation of the machine. The Machine CoordSys definition contains data of the Machine CoordSys location relative to the center of the rotation of the machine.

Tool Page The Data button enables you to choose a tool from the Part Tool Table.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4. 12 .

Feed Rates If this switch is set. The surface curvature is calculated at each tool path position where the surface contact point of the tool is known. The feed rate optimizer uses the machining feed rate supplied by the user and modifies this feed rate based on the surface curvature. If the user changes this value it will not change the related field in the Tool Data dialog. Spin Finish The spindle speed for the cutting operation. This function works only on single surfaces and can’t be used to connect 2 surfaces 13 . Feed Z The feed that SolidCAM will use to move from the safety position to the depth point.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Feed Finish This field gets the default from the Feed Finish parameter in the Tool Data dialog. Retract Rate The feed that SolidCAM will use to move the tool from the material to the retract level. then the feed rate optimizer is utilized.

The tool moves from and to this clearance plane to make major repositionings. In some cases like turbine blade machining around the X axis. Setting the clearance plane height in the X axis will make the YZ plane the parallel plane and the given X value will be the clearance value over this plane. 14 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. it might be better to have the clearance plane defined in the X axis. Levels Page Clearance Plane The clearance plane is a Z coordinate value and presents an absolute plane at this height which is parallel to the XY plane.

The tool then approaches the surface with the cutting feed rate. When this option is not active. Rapid feed Retract Rate Retract distance Safety distance 15 . the tool will be moved to the safety distance with the defined Retract Feed (see topic 4.).5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Clearance plane Safety distance Retract distance Retract distance Retract Distance and Safety Distance The tool changes its orientation at the clearance plane (machine tables or spindles are turned) and then it moves down to the part to the retract distance. The tool then moves in a rapid motion with some orientation to the safety distance. Rapid Retract This option enables you to perform the retract movement with the rapid feed.

16 . the retract movement will be performed with the Rapid Feed. Rapid feed Retract distance Safety distance Depth The Depth defines a further offset of the tool in the axial direction (especially for swarf operations). The start position of the cutting will also be shifted. The gouge control will take out all the gouges that result from this shift.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining When the Rapid Retract option is active. This command shifts each point of the tool path in the vector direction of the tool.

and than select the edges. Geometry Page This page enables you to select the faces to be machined and the machining strategy. Select the faces first. 17 . The different strategies available are: • Parallel cuts • Cut along curve • Morph between 2 curves • Parallel to curve • Project curve • Morph between 2 surfaces • Parallel to surface between 2 curves For all the above strategies. Do not use sketches to define these types of geometries. the curves have to be part of the surface external boundaries. select the drive surface and the related geometries.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. In the Morph and Parallel to curve strategies.

The selected Face tags will be displayed in the dialog. 18 . The Choose faces dialog will be displayed. If you chose wrong entities. use the Unselect option to undo your selection.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.1 Drive surface selection Click on the Define button. This dialog enables you to select one or several faces of the SolidWorks model. You can also right click on the entity name (the object will be highlighted) and choose the Unselect option from the menu.

If the tool is machining one of the faces from the wrong direction.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual SolidCAM enables you to machine surfaces from the positive direction of the surface normals. SolidCAM does not enable you to see the surface direction. return to the Geometry definition and use the Reverse command. The Reverse/Reverse All command enables you to reverse the direction of the surface normals. Sometimes surfaces are not oriented correctly and you have to reverse their normals. You have to select the faces for the 5 axis operation and calculate the operation. 19 .

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. 6. With constant X Y X Changing the Machining angle in the Z parameter to 90 degrees creates tool paths parallel to the Y axis.2.2 Cut Controls: The Exercises of the Cut control option are located in the Exercises\Cut_Control folder. Imagine slicing an apple: You can slice it with a knife parallel from top to bottom or from the left side to the right side. The X-distance is constant.1 Parallel cuts The Parallel cuts option will create tool paths that are parallel to each other. The pictures in the dialog show how the desired cutting direction is set using the angles. The angles in X. The direction of the cuts is defined by two angles. 20 . Y and Z determine the direction of the parallel cuts of the tool path.

Y to 0 degrees creates circular tool paths. 21 . Y to 90 degrees creates tool paths parallel to the X axis. With constant Z Z X Changing the Machining angle in Z and the Machining angle in X.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual With constant Y Y X Changing the Machining angle in Z and the Machining angle in X. The Y-distance is constant. The Z-distance is constant.

In this setup you can enter any angle to get the required tool path. The Constant Z button.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Fast orientation buttons Th following buttons enable you to expedite the definition of the orientation of the parallel cuts. 22 . The Parallel button.

Use the Parallel Cuts strategy and define the necessary parameters in order to cut the cylinder normal to the direction of the center line. Add operations for the machining of other cylinders. Simulate the operations and check the parameters used to control the Machining angles for the Parallel Cuts strategy. In order to cut the cylinder and the top face you have to use a different angle (inclination). 4. 23 . 3.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 1: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\parallel_cuts. Create some operations to practice this task.prt 2.

The option is not chosen The option is chosen 24 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Change Parallel cuts to spiral This option enables you to substitute the parallel cuts with the spiral cuts with the pitch equal to the defined Step over.

In the Geometry page.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 2: 1. 5. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\parallel_cuts. Edit the operation rotate around z 45 deg. 25 . Calculate and simulate the operation. 4. choose the Change parallel cuts to spiral option.prt 2. Simulate the operations and check the parameters used to control the Machining angles for the Parallel Cuts strategy. Note that the parallel cuts of the operation were changed to spiral movements. 3.

Curve Tool path 90° 90° 90° 26 . In each point of the leading curve.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. The tool path will be created at the intersection of this plane with the drive surface. This kind of tool path is popular for milling engines ports or internal curved surfaces. The generated tool path is orthogonal to this leading curve. The selected chain could be a planar or a 3D sketch.2.2 Cuts along curve The Cuts along curve option enables the user to select a leading curve. so the cuts do not have to be parallel to each other. SolidCAM creates a plane nornal to the curve. The curve geometry does not have to be located on the surface or on the edges of the surface. If a wrong leading curve is selected. the cuts can cross over each other and the result will be unacceptable.

27 .sldprt 2. Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose the Cuts Along Curve strategy. Define a new CAM-Part. use the home_ definition sketch.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 3: 1. Calculate and Simulate the Operation. 5. 6. 4. For the CoordSys definition. Use the Fanuc_4x_x postprocessor. Load the SolidWorks document: Exercises\Cut_control\cone. Define the Machine CoordSys with the X-axis directed along the cone centerline and the Z-axis directed upwards. Choose the circle segment contained in the Lead_ curve sketch as a lead curve. 3. Define the conical face as the drive surface.

sldprt 2. Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose the Cuts Along Curve strategy. Define the CoordSys on the top face of the model. 28 . 4. 3. Define the internal face of the manifold as the Drive Surface and the sketch segment containd in the Center_line sketch as a Lead curve. Load the SolidWorks document: Exercises\Cut_control\cone. Create a new CAM-Part. Use the Fanuc_5x CNC controller. 5.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 4: 1.

The simulation can be performed using either 3D or HostCAD simulation modes.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. 29 . Calculate and Simulate the Operation.

This option is very suitable for machining steep areas for mould making. click on the Upper and Lower button.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. To select the first (upper) and second (lower) curve.3 Morph between two curves The Morph between two curves option will create swarf cuts morphing between two leading curves.2. the better this function works. First curve Tool path Second curve 30 . The more accurate the guiding curves are to the real surface edges.

Upper Edge curve It is recommended to select the edges of the surface as the geometry of the Upper and Lower Edge curves.03 and the option that moves the tool exactly on the edges of the surface is used. tool jumps can result.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual It is very important to define the geometry for the Upper and Lower Edge curves correctly. SolidCAM will check the distance from the curve to the surface and if Lower Edge curve the distance is bigger than 0. 31 . The reason for these jumps is that SolidCAM did not find a point on the surface after creating a circle with the tolerance size on a plane normal to the point on the curve. SolidCAM generates the tool path from the Upper Edge curve till the Lower Edge curve.

32 . 4.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 5: 1.prt 2. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Select the model edge for the Upper Edge curve geometry as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two curves strategy. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console.

6. Calculate and Simulate the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5. Save. Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown. 33 . Make a note to select the short edge as shown.

This option is used due to the inequality of the distance between the upper and lower curves of the blade. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\impeller. The accurate selection results in a more accurate tool path without tool jumps. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two curves strategy. Select the model edge for the Upper Edge curve geometry as shown.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 6: 1. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown.prt 2. 34 . 4. Make a note to select the geometry accurately without gaps.

Calculate and Simulate the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5. 6. Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown. Save. 35 .the absence of this edge in the geometry causes an inaccurate tool path. Select the short edge as shown .

Tool path Curve 36 .2.4 Parallel to curve The Parallel to curve option will align the cut direction along a leading curve.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. Click Single Edge and select the curve.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 7: 1.prt. 37 . Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console. 4. calculate and simulate the operation. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to curve strategy. Save. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Select the model edge as shown as the Curve geometry. 5. 3. 2.

4. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\impeller. 38 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 8: 1.prt 2. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to curve strategy. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown.

Save.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Select the short edge as shown . 39 . calculate and simulate the operation.the absence of this edge in the geometry causes an inaccurate tool path. 5.

The tool will move with the center on the selected geometry.2. If the point is not on the surface the point will be eliminated from the tool path and handled like a gap. Curve & Tool path The projected curve is a result of the projection of the specified curve onto the selected surface. It is not possible to get the tool path in the left or the right side. SolidCAM will not check the curve against the surface to check if it is a good curve. 40 . Click on the Projection curve button to define a curve. The calculation algorithm tries to retrieve the vector to each point of the curve according to the surface normal in this point.5 Project curves Project curves generates a single tool path along a curve.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.

Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\Solidcam.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 9: 1.prt. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Project curves strategy. 41 . Define the Drive Surface as shown. 2. 3.

calculate and simulate the operation. Select the model edges of the text for the Projection curves geometry as shown. 5.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4. Save. 42 .

2.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 10: 1.prt. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\3D_engraving. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Project curves strategy. 3. 43 .

5. 44 . calculate and simulate the operation. Select the curve in the middle of the surface as the Projected curve geometry. Save. This curve has to be created in the middle of the selected face and projected on the surface or created exactly on the surface.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4.

2.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. SolidCAM will create tool path morphing between two leading curves. 45 . the Calc based on tool center option must be enabled. The option is located on the Misc.6 Morph between two surfaces Upper edge surface Drive surface This option is similar to the Morph between two curves option. Lower edge surface For proper machining. If the calculation is not based on the tool center. the Morph between two surface option enables you to choose two surfaces adjacent to the drive surface. a wrong tool path will be generated. In contrast to the Morph between two curves option where the leading curves are directly selected on the model. The common boundaries of these surfaces and the drive surface will be used as the leading curves. Parameters page.

prt. 3.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 11: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert. 46 . Define the Drive Surface as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two surfaces strategy. 2.

5. Select the lower fillet as shown to define the Lower Edge surface geometry. Select the upper fillet as shown to define the Upper Edge surface geometry.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. Save. 47 . calculate and simulate the operation. 6.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

5-axis Machining

Exercise 12: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console.prt.

2. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two surfaces strategy. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Select all the tangential side faces of the pocket.

4. Select all the adjacent top faces as shown to define the Upper Edge surface geometry.

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5. Select all the faces of the lower fillet as shown to define the Lower Edge surface geometry.

6. Save, calculate and simulate the operation.

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6.2.7 Parallel to surface

Drive surface

Edge surface

This option is similar to the Parallel to curve option. SolidCAM will align the cut direction along a leading curve. In contrast to the Parallel to curve option where the leading curve was directly selected on the model, the Parallel to surface option enables you to choose the surface adjacent to the drive surface. The common boundary of this surface and the drive surface will be used as the leading curve.

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Parameters page.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual You can work with margins. The tool has to be a sphere mill and the Calc based on tool center option has to be activated in the Misc. Tool center Margin Margin 51 .

52 . 3. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to surface strategy.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 13: 1. Define the Drive Surface as shown. 2. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert.prt.

5. SolidCAM finds the common edges between the drive and edge surfaces and defines the leading curve for the tool path. All these points are eliminated and the gap control handles this gap in a later step of the calculation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. calculate and simulate the operation. 53 . Save. 6. Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the Step Over to 5. The jumps in the top side of the face are created because SolidCAM did not find a vector from the surface in the geometry point. The tool path is a result of the offset of the leading curve along the drive surface. Select the lower fillet as shown to define the Single Edge surface geometry.

This can change the machining direction from the outside to the inside or from the left to the right.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. 54 . begins at the edge.3 Flip Stepover changes the start cutting direction. Flip step over The machining begins at the top of the With the Flip Step over option the machining workpiece.

Simulate the Operation. Save.prt prepared in Exercise 11. note that the cutting is performed from the upper boundary of the drive surface downwards.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 14: 1. 5. During the simulation. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert. calculate and simulate the Operation. 6. 4. In the Geometry page make sure that the Flip step over checkbox is not activated. Activate the Flip step over checkbox. 55 . 2. Do not close the CAM-Part. Note that the cutting direction was changed: the cutting was performed from the lower boundary of the drive surface upwards. 3.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.4 Cutting Method SolidCAM enables you to choose the following Cutting methods: • One way • Zig Zag If you have a closed geometry and you select one way machining. One Way Zig Zag 56 . the tool will always move around the part in the same direction.

then it is recommended to set the option Enforce closed contours.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual If the geometry is not completely closed. 57 .

Sets a default cut order. 58 . • From Center Away .5 Cut Order In the cut order menu you can choose between three options: • Standard .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.The machining begins in the center of the surface.

The machining begins from outside the surface.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • From outside to center . 59 .

Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 14. Calculate and simulate the operation. Edit the 5-axis operation. Set the Cut order to the From center away option.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 15: 1. 2. 60 . Make sure that the Flip step over checkbox is not active in the Geometry page. 3. 5. 4. You will see that the tool path starts from the center and moves sequentially one step up and one step down.

Calculate and simulate the operation. As you can see the tool path starts from the top. 8. moves to the bottom and then moves to the second top and so on. 61 . Do not close the CAM-Part. Set the Cut order to the From outside to center option.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. 7.

6 Direction for One Way machining This option is available only for the One way Cutting method. 62 . • Ccwise This option enables you to perform the machining in counter clockwise direction. They are used to determine whether the tool should move around a closed surface model in clockwise or counter clockwise direction. The Clockwise and Counter clockwise options are not for the spindle rotation.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.

Tool rotation Tool movement direction 63 . Conventional milling is preferred for milling of castings or forgings with very rough surfaces. Tool rotation Tool movement direction • Conventional The tool movement is opposite to the tool rotation. Climb milling is preferred when milling heat treated alloys. Otherwise chipping can result when milling hot rolled materials due to the hardened layer on the surface. • Climb The tool movement and the tool rotation have the same direction.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • Cwise This option enables you to perform the machining in clockwise direction.

3. 64 . As you can see the tool path works in the opposite direction. Calculate and simulate the operation. it is not so clear what is the conventional or climb milling direction. 4. Switch to the Geometry page and choose the Cwise for the Direction for one way machining option. So you can use the CW or CCW to get the requested tool path direction. Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 15. Edit the 5-axis operation. 2. When the tool path is normal to the surface.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 16: 1.

the tool path will be generated on the whole surface and exactly to the surface edge or to the nearest possible position.7 Cutting Area SolidCAM enables you to choose the following options for the Cutting area: • Full. Edge Edge 65 . start and end at exact surface edge If this option is chosen. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises/Cutting_area folder. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6.

Edge Edge • Limit cuts by one or two points This option enables you to limit the machining between one or two points. Point 2 66 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining • Full. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises/Cutting_ area folder. This dialog enables you to define point coordinates Point 1 or pick the points from the workplane. The Data button displays the Limit cuts between two points dialog. The CAM-Part located in the Exercises/Cutting_ area folder. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18. avoid cuts at exact edges With this option the tool path will be generated on the whole surface but avoids the surface edges. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18.

start and end at exact surface edges. 2. Simulate the operation. Note that the tool path does not reach the edges of the drive surface because of the Cutting area option. 67 . This option is set to Full. Edit the 5-axis operation. 3. Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 16.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 17: 1. Switch to the Geometry page and set the Cutting area option to the Full. avoid cuts at exact edges. 4.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. Calculate and simulate the operation. 68 . Note that the first and last cuts are performed exactly on the drive surface edges.

Y and Z coordinates for your new point or select a point in your geometry. The Start point option enables you to choose a new start point where the machining begins. With the Rotate by option you can relocate the start position for the following cut.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. Click on the Data button.8 Start Point Examples of the Start Point option are located in the Exercises\Start_Point folder. Depending on the geometry. The coordinates will be calculated with the stepover and the angle you set. 5axmsurf tries to find the nearest possible position next to your point. 69 . In this window you can enter X.

Simlate operations of Exercise4 . 70 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Start_Point folder.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Original start point New start point Default tool path start position Tool path start position with new start point 20° 20° 20° Start points This is a tool path start position with a new start point and a 20 degrees rotation angle.

Finish Parameters page: 71 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7.

Radius is every point on the round radius surface.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.1 Tool Contact point Examples of the Tool Contact point option are located in the Exercises\Tool_Contact_point folder. This parameter defines the contact point of the tool and drive surfaces. Front is the point where the flat part of the tool ends and the radius starts. 72 . At a surface point with a given surface normal direction. but only in the move direction. Move direction Radius Center Front You can see the touching points in the above picture. the tool can always be placed tangentially. Center is exactly in the middle of the tool.

then the tool will be tilted around this tip point. then the tip of the tool touches the surface’s contact point. In such a case. Move direction Tool Path Tool Radius 73 . then the tangentiality is maintained like in the case of AUTO. the tip of the tool is never used as the touch point on the drive surfaces. This situation must be avoided by setting the first gouge check strategy to retract the tool from the drive surfaces.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual AT CENTER If this parameter is set to AT CENTER. the difference is that for a bull nose tool. the tool and surface are not tangential anymore and the tool will gouge the surface. If the tool axis orientation is changed due to tilting options. Move direction Tool Center AT RADIUS If this parameter is set to AT RADIUS.

In this case.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining AT FRONT The option AT FRONT is similar to AT CENTER and forces the tool touching point to be always a fixed point on the tool. Move direction Tool Front AUTO If the AUTO option is chosen. Simulate Move direction Touch points 74 . the operations of Exercise13. the tool can be placed tangentially at a surface point with a given surface normal direction. this fixed point is the beginning of the radius of a bull nose tool in the direction of the tool motion. If the user changes the orientation of the tool. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tool_ Contact_point folder. Setting the gouge control is critical when working with this option. then the surface contact point remains and the contact point on the tool moves from the tip of the tool to the radius of the tool still maintaining the tangentiality between the tool and the surface. All changes to the tool orientation are done around this pivot point which can cause gouging of the drive surfaces.

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Exercise 18: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Tool_Contact_point\blade.prt.

2. Simulate the CAM-Part. This part is machined using the 4 axis CNC machine. The blade is twisted and if the tool is positioned tangentially to the surface, the tool path will not be parallel. It is possible to define a parallel tool path by using the Run tool option. 3. Edit the 5-axis operation and switch to the Finish parameters page. 4. Set the Tool Contact point option to At center.

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5. Calculate and simulate the operation. It is recommended to use 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed.

The tool center is coincident to the drive surface along the whole length of the tool path. This causes gouges, so this option has to be used together with the gouge control options.

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6. If a flat tool is used for rough face milling, the At Front option enables you to mill the front part of the tool. Change the Tool Contact point option to At Front.

7. Calculate and simulate the operation. It is recommended to use the 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed.

The front of the tool is placed on the point and the angle results from the vector of this point. (Later on we will see how we can tilt the tool more in the cutting direction to get better cutting conditions). 8. To use the At radius option we have to define the tool with corner radius for the operation. Change the Corner Radius to 2.

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Calculate and simulate the operation. Note that the tool path is not parallel because SolidCAM tries to put the radius tangential to the surface normal.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. Set the Tool Contact point option to At radius. Note that the tool corner radius is tangent to the drive surface along the whole length of the tool path. It is recommended to use the 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed. Make a note that the corner radius of the tool is tangent to the surface. 10. 78 .

79 .2 Lead in / Lead out This switch turns on and off the tangential entry and exit moves.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. The Lead in / Lead out dialog enables you to define the parameters of Lead in / Lead out.

Arc sweep Arc sweep Lead in point Tool path Lead in arc the tool diameter.This parameter specifies the ratio of the lead in/out arc diameter to Don’t plunge with tool This option enables you to perform the arc approach in the plane normal to the tool vector in the entry point. The approach/retreat movements are performed by an arc with the following parameters: – The sweep angle of the lead in/out arc from the entry point on the tool path. Arc diameter / Tool diameter % .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Lead in/Lead out– These checkboxes enable you to define the lead in/out. Lead in Tool Path Lead out Tool Path 90° Lead in 80 .

the approach arc plane will be normal to the previous plane.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual When this option is not chosen. Tool Path Lead in Lead in Tool Path 90° Lead in Lead out 90° 81 .

Set the following parameters in the Finish page. Drive surface Upper edge surface Lower edge surface 82 . Choose the Drive.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 19: 1. Choose the Morph between 2 surfaces option in the Cut Control field. Upper edge and Lower edge surface as shown. Load the CAM-Part Exercises\Lead_in_Lead_out\insert. 2.prt Now we will see how to use the entry and exit arc moves.

3. Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the following parameters: Set the Step Over value to 3. 83 . Activate the Lead in/Lead out checkbox and click on the Lead in/Lead out button in order to define the Lead in/Lead out parameters. Choose the Standard option in the Cut Order field.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Choose the Zigzag option in the Cutting method field. 4.

Switch to the Gaps page and set the following parameters: 84 . Set the Arc Sweep to 90 and Arc diameter/Tool diameter to 200 in both sections. 6.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. In the Lead in/Lead out dialog activate both the Lead in and Lead out sections.

9. The arc size is double the tool radius. The arcs are parallel to the tool path direction in the entry point.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. the entry and exit movements are performed by arcs. Calculate and simulate the operation. 85 . Calculate and simulate the operation. Display the Lead in/Lead out dialog and activate the Plunge with Z-Axis option. As you can see the entry and exit arc are rotated 90 degrees and are now normal to the tool path direction in the Lead in/Lead out point. As you can see. 8.

Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose Tool #1 from the Part Tool table. 86 . 3. Set the following parameters in the Geometry page: Choose the Parallel Cuts option for the Cut Control. Load the CAM-Part Exercises\Lead_in_Lead_out\Undercut. Click on the Constant Z button to define the Machining Angle. 2. Choose the One Way option in the Cutting Method field.prt We will now see how the gouge checking affects the entry and exit arcs.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 20: 1.

Define the Drive surface as shown below. Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the following parameters: Set Step Over to 6.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. 87 . Check the Lead in/Lead out checkbox. 5.

choose the Tilting tool away with max. 88 . In the Strategy field. The Gouge check options will be explained later. Inactivate the Drive surfaces option. angle option. Inactivate the Check surfaces option. 7. Switch to the Gouge check page and define the following parameters: Activate the Enable/Disable checkbox. Switch to the Gouge 2 page and define the following parameters: Activate the Enable/Disable checkbox.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.

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8. Define the Check surfaces as shown below.

Check surfaces The chosen strategy enables the user to avoid gouging by retracting the tool along the tool axis.

9. Switch to the Tool Axis Control page.

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10. Set the following options: Choose the Tilted relative to cutting direction option in the Tool axis direction combo-box. Set the Tilt angle at side of cutting direction value to 90. Choose the Follow surface iso direction option in the Side tilt direction combobox.

11.Calculate and simulate the operation.

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We can see arcs in every tool path depth in the right side approach and only one in the left side. This is because the gouge check sees that the tool will gouge to the left wall and moves the tool along the vector of the tool center till this gouge is finished. In this part all the paths move to a safe point (in the same point in this part) and then adds the exit arc. The gouge algorithm and the Entry/Exit algorithms protect the part from gouging. 12.Close the simulation. 13.Choose the Leaving out gouging points option in the Strategy field of the Gouge check page. 14.Calculate and simulate the operation.

As you can see the arc is mirrored and moved out from the corner and the part is gouge protected.

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Such areas will be left out from the tool path generation. 92 . The applied radius is the main tool radius plus the current stock to leave value. The surface model is rounded (filletted) in the direction of tool path slices with a radius to avoid small radii and inner sharp corners. lollipop cutter or a conical cutter with a ball tip. In most cases.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7. The fillet generation is independent of the tool type and shape.3 Round surface by tool radius This switch can be set to find small radius areas and inner sharp edges in the surface model. The Round surface by tool radius option is not active. this switch is used in the presence of a ball cutter. Inside corners can cause “fish tails” in tool paths. This flag can also be considered as a fillet generator. Such fish tails are removed by turning on this switch. then also cylinder or torus cutters are used together with this switch. If swarf machining is applied (side cutting).

93 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual The Round surface by tool radius option is active.

This parameter can also be negative.2 units. 94 . then the tool will not come closer than 0. after the machining. if this value is set to 0. there will be remaining stock on the surface of about 0. Simulate the operations of Exercise14.4 Stock to leave The Stock to leave parameter describes the stock to be left on the finishing surfaces. Therefore. Stock to leave For example.2 units.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.g. for cutting electrodes. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Stock_to_leave folder. e.2 units to the surface.

The Finishing passes section enables you to define a number of finishing passes. 95 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. The Multi passes dialog enables you to define the following parameters: The Roughing passes section enables you to define a number of rough passes (specified by the Number parameter) with the specified spacing (the Spacing parameter) between them.5 Multi Passes This switch can be turned on to calculate multiple tool path passes on the same geometry.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Constant step over at each pass roughing and finish passes. Simulate Exercise16. all the rough and finish passes will be done at the current height level before moving to the next height level. With the Constant Stepover option Without the Constant Stepover option 96 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Multi_Passes folder. When the Constant step over at each pass option is not selected. pass 1 pass 2 pass 3 pass 4 – this option enables you to define the order of execution of the 1 2 3 4 pass pass pass pass With Constant Stepover Without Constant Stepover When this option is turned off. each pass will be finished for all height levels before moving to the next pass.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. If you have untrimmed simple surfaces.6. The tool path will not be as good. but the calculation time will be faster.6 Surface Quality 7. Using higher values in the chaining tolerance can cause inaccuracies. 97 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Chaining_tolerance. Simulate Exercise5. then this value can be set to 100 times of the cut tolerance and will increase the calculation speed drastically.1 Chaining Tolerance The chaining tolerance is an internal value for the tool path generation and should be 1 to 10 times the cut tolerance.

the surface is rougher but the calculation time is much faster. A loose Cut tolerance generates less points on the tool path. After the machining. A tight Cut tolerance gives you more tool path points on the drive surface. Loose Cut tolerance Tight Cut tolerance 98 . The result of the machining is a very good surface quality but the calculation time is increased.6.2 Cut tolerance The Cut tolerance is the tolerance for the accuracy of the tool path. Therefore the generated tool path is more accurate.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.

3 Distance Whether you have more or less points depends on the Cut tolerance. Use the Distance option to get more points on flat surfaces.6. You have more points on round surfaces because the tool path always changes direction. Although the Cut tolerance is the same you get more points on straight or flat surfaces. Result without distance Result with distance 99 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. Setting a small value gives more points whereas a high value gives fewer points.

4 Stepover The Stepover is the distance between two neighboring parallel cuts. Small stepover Big Stepover 100 .6.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.

The diameter of this arc is determined in relation to the currently used tool diameter. An example of the Gap Along Cut option is located in the Exercises\ Gap_Along_Cut folder. then come back from the rapid plane to the other side of the gap and pursue the machining. Gaps Page The tangential entry and exit switch add 90° arc moves to the beginning and end of each tool path section. The limit for ignoring the gap can be entered as the gap size as a % of the tool diameter. 101 . then you can ignore the gap and move the tool connecting the two sides of the gap or retract the tool to the rapid plane and skip the gap.1 Gap Along Cut If gaps along a tool path are detected. The plane of the arc is automatically determined perpendicular to the surface. 8.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8.

102 . 8. E. All other gaps that are larger than this value are larger gaps and the action defined for large gaps is performed. If the motion is smaller than the gap size. All gaps along the tool path segment. All gaps greater than 2mm are considered large gaps. then the threshold is 10% of 20mm. are considered as small gaps and the action defined for small gaps is executed. if the tool diameter is 20mm and the gap size is set to 10%. The value is defined as the percentage of the tool diameter. which are smaller than this threshold value.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 8. Tool path Tool path > Gap size Tool path < Gap size Here you can see that if the motion is bigger than the gap size. The tool diameter is 20 mm so the small gaps are 10 mm and smaller and the big gaps are over 10 mm. The tool path in the gap is a straight line and the tool moves in machining speed.1. All gaps smaller than 2mm are considered small gaps.g. which is 2mm. the tool uses the shortest way to the other side of the gap without any retracting movements. the tool movement is Direct. If the Gap size is bigger than the tool path length. The gap size is set to 50% of the tool diameter. the tool will go back from the end to the start and connect the tool path to closed loops.1 Gap Size as % of tool diameter The value in the field Gap Size as % of tool diameter sets the threshold for small and large gaps along a tool path segment.1. the tool path is set to “broken”.2 Direct If you choose Direct.

1. Simulate Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder.3 Broken If you choose Broken and a gap is detected. As you can see the short retraction is way above the gap.1. the appropriate operation of in the 8. the appropriate Operation of Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder.4 Retract With the Retract mode the tool moves back to the rapid plane. The retracting direction is the tool axis.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Here you can see the Direct tool path between the two drive surfaces. The tool movement has rapid speed. Simulate 8. Only the return to the drive surface has machining speed. the tool retracts a litt le bit. the tool leaves the drive surface and moves over to the next tool path point with machining speed. 103 . With rapid speed.

Simulate Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder.1.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Here you can see the tool retracting to the rapid plane.5 Follow Surface SolidCAM performs the machining of the gap area tangentially to the surfaces close to the gap. It leaves and enters the drive surfaces along its axis. 8. Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder. the appropriate Operation of in the 104 .

g.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8. E. 105 .15mm. the gap threshold is 0.2 Gaps between cut (Gap Size as % Of Stepover) If gaps between a tool path are detected. if this value is set to 150% and the maximum step over value is 0. The limit for ignoring the gap can be entered as the gap size as a % of the maximum stepover. skip the gap and then come back from the rapid plane to the other side of the gap and pursue the machining. 8. the gap is the step over move). you can ignore the gap and move the tool connecting the two sides of the gap or retract the tool to the rapid plane. That means all step over moves from one tool path slice to the next slice are checked against 0.2.1mm.1 Gap Size as % of Stepover This value defines the threshold value to recognize a gap as a percentage of the user given maximum stepover value (in this case.15 mm and it is then determined whether the gap is smaller or larger than this value.

the tool retracts a little bit.3 Broken If you choose Broken and a gap is detected.2 Direct If you choose Direct. The tool path in the gap is a straight line and the tool moves in machining speed. Here you can see the Direct toolpath between the two drive surfaces.2.2. 8.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 8. As you can see the short retraction is way above the gap. the tool uses the shortest way to the other side of the gap without any retracting movements. With rapid speed the tool leaves the drive surface and moves over to the next tool path point with machining speed. The retracting direction is the tool axis. 106 .

5 Follow surface 107 . 8. Only the return to the drive surface has machining speed. The tool movement has rapid speed.2.4 Retract With Retract the tool moves back to the rapid plane. It leaves and enters the drive surfaces along its axis.2. Here you can see the tool retracting to the rapid plane.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. Tool axis control page 108 .

SolidCAM generates the output for simultaneous 4-axis movement. the tool axis direction is defined according to the Machine CoordSys and the Position used for the Operation. 4 or 5 axis. SolidCAM has three types of 5-axis Operations: 3-axis. In case of 3 axis.g. In case of 3-axis Operation type. the tool axis direction must be defined by the user. the simultaneous 5-axis output will be performed. e. The output format is the property of this operation. As explained previously. 109 .0. This output can be used with 4. In case of 4-axis Operation type. In case of 5-axis Operation type.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9. top view is 0.and 5 axes-CNC Machines. e. In case of 4 axis output. Y or Z.1 Output format The output format can be set to 3.1. the G-code will set the 5-axis to the correct position and then simultaneous 4-axis tool path will be performed. the rotary axis must be selected. If you use this output with z 5-axis CNC machine. around X. 4-axis and 5-axis.g.

Big maximum step angle Small maximum Step angle 110 . Increasing the maximum angle step generates more points. The number of points generated depends on the surface blending and the maximum angle step.2 Maximum angle change The maximum angle step is the maximum angle value between two tool path points on the surface. decreasing the value generates less points.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.

9.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9.3. Tool Axis: Surface normal 111 .3 Tilting strategies (Tool axis direction) Exercises of the Tilting strategies are located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder.1 Tool axis is not tilted and stays normal to the surface Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder.

2 Tool axis will be tilted relative to cutting direction This option enables you to change the lag angle of the cutting direction as well as the lag angle at the side of the cutting direction. 45° Surface Normal Tool Axis tti Cu ng tion rec di Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder.3. Both are shown below. The tool axis is tilted only with a lag angle of 45° to the cutting direction and 0° at the side of the cutting direction.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. 112 .

The tool axis is tilted with a lag angle of 45° to the cutting direction and 45° at the side of the cutting direction. 113 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Tool Axis Cutting direction 45° Surface Normal 45° Z-Axis 45° Tool Axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder.

4 Tool axis will be tilted with fixed angle to axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.3.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. 114 .3. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. Surface Normal 9. the tool axis is tilted 45 degrees from the surface normal direction towards the Y axis. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. In the above case. Z Axis 15° Tool Axis The tool axis is tilted 15 degrees towards the main Z axis.3 Tool axis will be tilted with the angle Tool Axis 45° Tilt Axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.

The tool axis direction is the same like the surface normal but tilted with a 45 degrees angle around the main Z axis.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9.5 Tool axis will be tilted around axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.3. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. Z Axis Tool Axis 45° Z-Axis 45° Tool Axis 115 .

Tool Axis direction Point The tool axis is always aligned to the point above the work piece.6 Tool axis will be tilted through point Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder.3. 116 .

The tool axis is always aligned to the curve above the workpiece. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. main direction • From start to end • Automatic curve 117 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9.3. Curve Curve tilt type SolidCAM enables you to choose the following options for the Curve tilt type: • Closest point • Angle from point • Angle from spindle.7 Tool axis will be tilted through curve Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Closest point The direction of your tool axis here is the same like the shortest distance between your present tool path point and the tilt curve. Curve Tool path point Tool Axis direction 118 . So the 3D-length is used. The following example shows a wavy surface with a tilt curve above. You can see that the tool axis has the same direction like the shortest 3D distance between the surface and the present tool path point.

Curve 25º Maximum angle Tool Axis direction 119 . The Positive angle lets the axis tilt against the main axis. With negative angles the tool axis tilts from the main axis. Maximum tilt is reached when the tool axis is parallel to the main axis.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Fixed tilt angle You can set an additive tilt angle to your present tool axis direction. The main axis is usually the Z-axis.

So the 2D distance is used.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Angle from curve The direction of your tool axis here is the projected length between your present tool path point and the tilt curve. Shortest 2D distance Curve Tool Axis direction 120 . The following example shows a wavy surface with an tilt curve above. You can see that the tool axis has the same direction like the projected distance between the surface and present tool path point.

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The view from the top shows the shortest 2D distance between the tilt curve and the tool path point. The tool axis always has the same direction.

Tool Path point

st te or Sh 2D s di ta nc e

Curve

Tool Axis direction

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From Start to end This tilt type is used for generating tool paths for tube milling. The tube milling is usually machined in z-constant cuts and the result is cut slices. The amount of the z constant cuts depends on the maximum stepover. Now the tilt curve will be divided by the number of slices of the tool path. Every slice is now aligned to its point on the curve. Make sure that the beginning of the curve is on the right side. Click the tilt curve and select the curve from your geometry. The curve tilt type is from the start to the end .

Tool Axis direction Tilt curve Curve points

In this example the maximum step over is 10 mm. The tool path for the tube has 10 slices. So the curve has 10 points. Now every cut is aligned to its point on the curve..

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9.3.8 Tool axis will be tilted through lines

Simulate the appropriate Operations of Exercise9 and Exercise8 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder. Line Tool Axis Tool Axis Line

Line Tool Axis Line

Tool Axis

9.3.9 Tilted from point away

Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder. The tool axis is always aligned from the point.
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Point

Side milling is aimed to get a line contact between the tool and the surface. if the spindle main direction vector is the z axis and side tilting of 90 degrees from surface normal takes place. The definition of the side tilt direction is a user option with the following interpretation: The option Follow surface iso directions is a good choice if linear surfaces are present. If any surface does not have a compatible u and v direction with the neighboring surfaces. The option Ortho to cut dir at each pos can be used only if the Cut strategy is Parallel cuts or Morph between 2 curves. then this function tries to correct this automatically. Instead it is set for a complete contour segment. Side tilting definition is an important setting to define a proper side milling with the tool. The option Use spindle main direction uses the machine definitions spindle main direction vector definition as the reference for finding the side tilt direction. Use the Ortho to cut dir at each pos if the side tilt direction should be defined by the tool path moving direction and orthogonal direction to this move direction. The side tilt direction is determined by an orthogonal line from the current surface contact point to the lower edge curve. The difference is that the side tilt direction is not individually defined at each tool path position.4 Side tilt definition This parameter defines the side tilting direction when the tilt strategy is set to relative to cutting dir. E.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. The side tilting always happens from the view defined by the spindle main direction vector. The function Approximate sets the formula to calculate the side direction at each position of the contour. then the tool axis orientation is 124 . The Ortho to cut dir at each contour option is similar to Ortho to cut dir at each pos.g. Multiple surfaces can be used here.

such a rotation can be handled by a machine tool without utilizing the C axis. 125 . In practical terms. This option gives the user the freedom of defining the side tilting direction manually by just passing lines.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual the surface normal rotated 90 degrees towards the spindle main direction. 9. The next option Use user defined dir is the same like the previously described spindle main direction option. The only difference is that the user can set any user defined direction instead of the spindle main dir.5 Tool axis direction limit parameters The Data button displays the Limits dialog. The option Use tilt line definition utilizes user given tilt line elements as the side tilt direction.

2 YZ Limit This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the YZ plane between angle a1 and a2. B2=120° B1=30° Z X 9.5.5.1 XZ Limit This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the XY plane between angle b1 and b2. B2=95° B1=40° Z X 126 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. Tool axis In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle is a1 = 40 degrees and the maximum angle is a2 = 95 degrees. Tool axis In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle b1 = 30 degrees and the maximum angle b2 = 120 degrees. You can use any angle between 0 and 360 degrees.

C1=40° C1=40° Y X 9. Slices Surface normal w1 w2 127 . You can use any angle between 0 and 180 degrees. This function works especially for tube milling. The angles start from the tool path slice normal vector. In this example you have a limit angle w1 = 10° and w2 = 10°. imagine 2 cones with different opening angles w1 and w2. The tool axis direction is between these 2 cones.4 Conical angles from leading curve This switch is set to true to limit the tool between two angles which are orthogonal to the leading curve.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9. In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle c1 is 40 degrees and the maximum angle c2 is 95 degrees. In other words.5.3 XY Limit: This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the XY plane between angle c1 and c2. You can use any angle between 0 and 360 degrees.5. The orientation of the cones is redefined by subsequent tool path slices.

Further check surfaces can be selected to avoid gouges with surfaces that are not going to be machined. Holder Arbor Holder clearance Arbor clearance 128 . ball. The check is done at each calculated tool position. conical and bull nose). 10.1 Clearance Clearance is a virtual stock added to your holder and arbor diameter. The gouge checking is supported for all tool types (flat. Gouge checking for complicated swarf motions between two tool positions is under development.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10. Gouge Check page The gouge checking option looks at the generated tool path and the end surfaces to decide whether the tool tip or shaft is gouging the surfaces.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10.2 Check gouge between positions Exercises of Check gouge between positions option are located in the Exercises\Gouge_Check folder. The 5 axis sweep moves from one position to the next position and is then used to check for collisions with drive and check surfaces. False True 129 . This switch is set to true to activate the collision check between tool path positions.

Using this option will slow down the calculation but it is important if you are using check surfaces. the check will be performed every 0. If the option is not checked.01 of mm (or inch) along the tool path. the gouge check will be done in steps of the Cut tolerance defined in the Finish Parameters page.01. the checking will be done at every end point of the tool path. If the option is checked. 130 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Position 1 Position 2 Position 2 Position 1 No gouge check between positions With gouge check between positions SolidCAM sets this field as the default to avoid problems of gouging check surfaces along movements. If the tolerance is 0.

3 Gouge pages SolidCAM enables you to set a number of parameter sets for the gouge check. Tool Shaft. The non-cylindrical holder shape of the backplot function can mislead the user. 131 . 10. Please note that the holder and arbor are considered cylindrical.4. Arbor and Holder.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. Both switches are set to false to turn off collision checking with the tool tip and shaft.4 Tool Here you can activate the gouge check for the Tool Tip. 10.1 Tool Tip and Tool Shaft Both switches are set to true if collision checking should be performed with the tool tip and shaft. When the page is enabled. the collision checking will be performed with the defined parameters. It is also possible to give a clearance to the arbor and the holder. Gouge of holder switch is used to turn on gouge checking of tool holders and arbors defined within the tool definition page. Please note that the gouge checking is only from the tool tip up to the shoulder and not overall.

This function sets the collision elimination strategy for the first collision checking block. Both switches are set to false to turn off collision checking with the arbor and holder.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10. 10.2 Check Arbor and Check Holder Both switches should be set to true if the collision checking is performed with the arbor and holder. 132 .4.5 Strategy Examples of the Check gouge between positions option are located in the Exercises\Gouge_Check folder.

Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11. then the gouge is avoided by retracting the tool. Actually this surface point may indicate remaining stock. Also a red line is drawn which shows the retraction move. Retracting direction Tool axis Check surface Drive surface Here you can see the tool retracting along the tool axis. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. because there is a surface area that ought to be machined but after retraction. You can turn the find and report option on and off. The retract distance is shown to the user.5.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. that is not the case.1 Retracting tool along tool axis If control by retracting tool along tool axis is selected. 133 . The resulting tool path is then gouge free. Another line connects the calculated tool position before retraction and the surface point used for calculating the tool position.

X.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10. When retracting. Y. If you select “move tool in –X “ the affected tool path points will be moved away only in –X direction until the check surface ends and the tool is able to pass. retracting the tool away from the origin and retracting the tool to cut center. Parameters: Here you can choose between the following available retracting options.5.2 Moving the tool away This option assigns the direction in which the tool has to move away. 134 . retracting the tool along the surface. New tool path points X-direction Check surface Old tool path points Drive surface Here a gouge is detected. the tool always uses the shortest distance to go around the check surface. and Z axis. the tool moves away only in the selected retracting direction. From the point a gouge is detected.

Here the tool retracts in X or Y. Retract tool in XZ: Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in XY: Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Here the tool retracts in X or Z. 135 .

Retract tool in +Z: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Here the tool retracts in Y or Z.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool in YZ: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. 136 . Here the tool retracts only in +Z.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Retract tool in –X: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. 137 . Here the tool retracts only in -Z. Here the tool retracts only in -X.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in –Z: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

Retract tool in –Y: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Here the tool retracts only in -Y. Here the tool retracts only in +X (Operation 7).SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool in +X: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. 138 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Tool axis Surface normal 139 . Retract tool along surface normal: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Here the tool retracts only in +Y.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in +Y: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

With the gouge check the cutter retracts along the check surface to the cut center. The red surface is the check surface. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Tool axis Surface normal Origin Retract tool cut to center: You need this gouge check option for Tool path tube milling.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool away from orign: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Cut center Drive surface Check surface 140 . To avoid the gouge the cutter will be tilted to the cut center. The cut center is the center point of your enclosed geometry. This drawing shows a simple cutout through a tube. The green drive surface is machined in parallel Z-cuts.

then the gouge is avoided by tilting the tool. Tool Axis +65° -65° Surface normal 141 . angle is selected.5. angle to prevent gouging: The gouge checking requires a lot of computing time. to create a gouge free tool path and use the gouge checking find and report option just to prove that there are no gouges. Below you can see the options that are given with the option with tilting tool away with max.3 Tilting tool away with max angle If control by tilting tool away with max. tilt angles etc. This main parameter contains a std vector of 4 independent collision control operations where each of them can be defined individually by the user. So the best approach is to use limit angles.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. Parameters Use side tilt angle: The tool tilts horizontally with a 65 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal.

-90° Surface normal +90° Tool Axis Use lead/lag angle and side tilt angle -90° Tool Axis +90° Surface normal +90° -90° The tool tilts horizontally and vertically with a 90 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal. 142 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Use lead/lag angle: The tool tilts horizontally with a 90 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. The tool path was created until the stop position. First gouge Here you can see that the next cut would cause contact with the check Check surface surface.5. Check surface 10. Drive surface Stop position Tool path 143 .5.4 Leaving out gouging points Activating this option will cause the tool path to be trimmed when a collision is detected. the tool path will be created only until the first gouge is detected.5 Stop tool path calculation If you select the option Avoid by leaving out the tool.

6 Drive Surfaces This switch should be set to true if collision control is performed with the drive surfaces passed by the user. if collision control operation Nr. 10. then the user needs to pass Check Surfaces 3 as geometry to the interface. 10.5 mm Check surface 144 . 0. E. 3 is used.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10.g.8 Stock to leave Stock to leave defines a minimum distance between the tool and check surface.7 Check Surfaces This switch should be set to true if collision control is performed with the check surfaces passed by the user.

This information is then used to allow only tool path segments that are removing chip (material) from this given stock. Stock Page If this switch is set to true. E. if multiple cuts are used. then the surfaces or triangle meshes must be provided to the library to define the stock or remaining stock from the last operation. 145 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 11.g. All the tool path segments out of the stock definition will be filtered out. the stock definition will allow the library to eliminate air cuts.

Set Y axis machining limit restricts the angle output of SolidCAM calculation to a certain machine limit. Read last operation flag reads the last operation in the operation manager and creates a 5 axis tool path based on that. Ignore all closed contours switch ignores all closed shapes in the geometry and machines only open areas. Create multiple pockets creates several pocket operations with tilted tool planes for each tool section instead of one 5axmsurf operation. Please ignore this page unless you are advised otherwise. Additional parameter Page The following parameters in this page are implemented to handle very exceptional cases. In such a case 5axmsurf is used to modify the tool angles or to do a gouge checking.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 12. This “base operation” can be any 3 axis or 5 axis operation. 146 .

13. Surface XYZpoints in CAD/CAM-systems are afterwards usually defined by a 2-Parameter representation.and Z-coordinate can be calculated from a unique pair of U and V. This publication tries to as easily and clearly as possible address one common question about 5 Axis machining of multiple surfaces.). 147 . These parameters are called U and V: Surface point (U. Appendix 13. There are more issues to explain but it seems to be more reasonable to deal with one point of interest. the need for information about 5 Axis machining has recently increased dramatically.2 At the beginning of all: Single Surface 5 Axis Flowline Machining CAD surfaces are generally built on customer-defined interpolation points.V) Interpolation points Parameter V Parameter U Each surface point s X-. Y.1 Single Surface versus Multi Surface Machining in 5 Axis Due to increased availability and lower pricing of 5 Axis Milling machines and recent developments from the controller side (Fanuc etc.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 13.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Each surface point is associated with a surface normal that is always perpendicular to the surface at that point. Z 148 . The cutter axis always comes from one direction. usually it is aligned with Z. In some rare cases the cutter is aligned with the Y axis. Surface Normal In 3 axis machining this surface normal for a ball end mill points to the cutter center.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual In 5 Axis machining the surface normal may not only determine the cutter center but the cutter orientation as well (there are other ways to control the tool axis to achieve a 5 axis machining tool path. This kind of machining is called a single-surface 5 axis flow line tool path. a 5 axis flow line tool path is shown which is mainly calculated in the u-direction. the tool axis direction is changed in every single point of the tool path according to the local surface normal. During movement. but this will be discussed later): A Flowline 5 Axis tool path follows only the u-direction and v-direction of the surface. Tool movement in V-direction Tool movement in U-direction Parameter V 149 Parameter U . In the subsequent figure. As soon as the surface edge is reached the tool steps in v and then continues movement in reversed udirection to achieve a Zig-Zag tool path.

150 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining On a real machine the machine has to move its axis to rotate the tool to the required direction as shown below.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 151 .

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