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Scientific Paper on
"Determination of Densities"
for the subject Inorganic Chemistry

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Formal Report Grade: Date Performed: June 19, 2008 Date Submitted: June 25, 2008 Instructor: OBIAS, MA. JEANNETTE Signatures ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

Names Group Leader: CORTES, KEVIN F. Group Members: ALMANZOR, AUDREY ROSE B. HUERTO, CHRYSMEISES D. KIM, TAEHYEONG

Experiment No. 1 DETERMINATION OF DENSITIES I. OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the densities of some solids and liquids 2. To apply the rules of significant figures in measuring the weight and volume of substances. DATA AND RESULTS 1. Densities of liquids 1.1 Water Mass of dry, empty cylinder Mass of cylinder and water Mass of water Volume of water Experimental density of water Known density of water at 30 o C Percentage error 1.2 Isopropyl Alcohol Mass of dry, empty cylinder Mass of cylinder and isopropyl alcohol Mass of isopropyl alcohol Volume of isopropyl alcohol Experimental density of isopropyl alcohol Known density of isopropyl alcohol at 30 o C Percentage error 1.3 Coconut Oil Mass of dry, empty cylinder Mass of cylinder and coconut oil Mass of coconut oil Volume of coconut oil Experimental density of coconut oil Known density of coconut oil at 30o C 96 g 146 g 50 g 50 mL 1 g/mL 1 g/mL 0% 25.8 g 29.8 g 4g 5 mL 0.8 g/mL 0.79 g/mL 1.27 % 25.8 g 30.3 g 4.5 g 5 mL 0.90 g/mL 0.90 g/mL

II.

9 g 4.9 g 1.8 g 32.8 cm 127.1 g 30 mL 31 mL 1 mL 3.76 cm 22. Densities of Solids 2.Percentage error 1.3 Unknown liquid sample Mass of dry.2 Pebble Mass of empty watch glass Mass of watch glass and pebbles Mass of pebbles Initial volume of water in cylinder Final volume of water in cylinder Volume of pebbles Density of pebbles III. Density of Regularly-Shaped Solids 2.1 g 5 mL 0. The density of each object can be acquired by dividing the mass by the volume of the object.26 g/cm3 29.23 % 62.2 Spherical Solid Mass of solid Diameter Volume Density 2.84 cm3 0.7 cm 5.82 g/mL Thinner 0.1 g/mL ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION This experiment has let the students determine the density of some solids and liquids.9 g 3.1. 0% 25.8 g 29.1.5 g 12.26 cm3 0. .2 Density of Irregularly-Shaped Solids 2.1. empty cylinder Mass of cylinder and liquid sample Mass of liquid sample Volume of liquid sample Experimental density of liquid sample Identity of liquid sample Known density of liquid sample at 30o C Percentage error 2.4 cm 1.51 g/cm3 5.81 g/mL 1.1 Rectangular Solid Mass of solid Length Width Height Volume Density 2.

the liquids which will be used will now be poured one at a time.. by using a triple beam balance. The density of coconut oil is computed by using the data below Mass of coconut oil 4. The mass of the empty watch glass was gotten first by placing it on a triple beam balance. the students got first the mass of the dry empty graduated cylinder. After the mass of the dry and empty cylinder has been measured. into the graduated cylinder before we would look for the mass of the cylinder along with the liquid inside it to get the mass of the liquid by using again a triple beam balance. The mass of the regularly-shaped solids can be acquired by placing the specific solid on a triple beam balance while the mass of irregularly shaped solids can be attained with the use of a watch glass. all of the liquids used in this experiment were measured out to be 5 mL.9 g/mL In getting the density of solids the students first classified which among the solids were regularly-shaped and which among the solids were irregularly-shaped. Ex. used in this experiment namely: water.d=m/v Where: d = density m = mass v = volume In determining the density of the liquids. Ex. The mass of the liquid can be acquired by subtracting the mass of the dry and empty cylinder from the mass of the cylinder with the liquid inside it. isopropyl alcohol.9 g/mL from the solution: 4. after determining the density of each one.5 g Volume of coconut oil 5 mL To get the density of the coconut oil we would divide 4.5 g / 5 mL = 0. before pouring into the graduated cylinder the liquids which were to be used in this experiment. empty cylinder Mass of cylinder and water 96 g 146 g In solving for the mass of the water it would turn out that water has a mass of 50 g from the solution: 146 g – 96 g = 50 g Since.5 g by 5 mL to get the value of 0. In getting the mass of the water given the following data below Mass of dry. After reading the mass . the students were able to compute for the density of the liquids by dividing the mass of the liquid by its volume. except for water in which 50 mL was used. coconut oil and an unknown liquid sample. The volume of some solids can be determined with the use of a ruler and some are determined by using the displacement method.

Then.9 g From the given data one could come up with an answer of 3.1416 and r is the radius) the students solved for the value of r.1 g As the students finished classifying the solids whether they are regularly-shaped or irregularly-shaped.of the empty watch glass. π is pi which is equals to 3.7 cm x 5.8g = 3. After measuring the length.8 g Mass of watch glass and pebbles 32.26 cm3 For spherical solids the students used a string in which it was wrapped around the object to measure its circumference. The mass of the pebble can be attained based on the data below. width and the height of the rectangular solid. Mass of empty watch glass 29. the irregularly-shaped solid used in this experiment was placed on the empty watch glass after which it was placed on a triple beam balance so as to be able to get the mass of the watch glass along with the irregularly-shaped solid. Length 12. width and height.4 cm Width 1. Ex. The . The students used a ruler to determine the volume of the rectangular solid by measuring its length.8 cm = 127. width and height of the object the volume can be attained by multiplying the length. the radius is now multiplied by 2 to get the diameter of the solid. by using the formula c = 2 x π x r (where in c is the circumference. v=lxwxh Where: v = volume of the rectangular solid l = length of the rectangular solid w = width of the rectangular solid h = height of the rectangular solid Ex.26 cm3 from the solution: 12.4 cm x 1. Then. those solids that are regularly-shaped were divided again into rectangular and spherical solid so that the volume can be easily solved. The volume of a block of wood can be computed based on the data below.8 cm By solving these given data the volume of the block of wood would turn out to be 127. After getting the radius.9 g – 29. to get the mass of that solid the students subtracted the mass of the empty watch glass from the mass of the watch glass with the irregularly-shaped solid on it.1 g from the solution: 32.7 cm Height 5.

this can be gotten from the results one has acquired in doing the experiment. We also applied the rules of the significant figures in measuring the weight and volume of the substance so that it would be easier for them to read. 10. the objectives that were stated before performing this activity are achieved. We were able to determine the densities of the solids and liquids in the experiment. the students placed 30 mL of water in a graduated cylinder to get the initial volume of water in the cylinder. Then. Expressing IV. The volume of the pebble can be attained from the following data. V. Therefore.04 g/mL is the density of the solid. However. As the students calculated the densities of the solids and the liquids there might be some percentage error that they may have committed while doing the experiment for the liquids. The percentage error can be obtained by subtracting the known density of the liquid at 30o C from the experimental density.04 g/mL. If a solid has the mass of 50. the object is placed gently into the cylinder so as to get the final volume of the water in the cylinder. Based on the data now collected the volume of the object can now be computed by subtracting the initial volume of water in the cylinder from the final volume of water in the cylinder. Ex. In determining the volume of irregularly-shaped solids. Water displacement should be used in determining the volume of irregularly shaped solids. in the case of irregularly shaped solids the volume of the object can’t be measured by the use of the ruler.volume of the spherical solid was attained by using the formula v = 4/3 x π x r3. Initial volume of water in cylinder 30 mL Final volume of water in cylinder 31 mL From the given data above the answer would arrive up into 1 mL from the solution: 31 mL – 30 mL = 1 mL As the students have collected the mass and the volume of each solid the density of the object can now already be computed. CONCLUSION Through this experiment we learned on how to compute for the densities of the given solids and liquids using the formula.2 g and has the volume of 5 mL we can compute for its density by dividing the mass by the volume of the object to get an answer of 10. . By doing this we can now solve for the volume of the object and later on we can compute for its density by dividing the mass by the volume of the solid. ANSWERS TO GUIDE QUESTIONS The density of an object can be computed by measuring the mass and volume of the object.

REFERENCES 1.. J. Samonte. 2007. Wikipedia. At http://www. 2. the free encyclopedia (internet website). Inc. this answer by a correct number of significant figures would give us a final answer of 10 g/mL.org/ .VI. and Figueroa L.wikipedia. Quezon City: C&E Publishing. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual 3rd Edition.

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