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Philly Cheung Mr.

Evans Period 9-10 18 September 2010 ~~~~~ Experiment

Evidence For Chemical Change

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Objectives
To observe the types of evidence that indicate a chemical change has taken place. To infer from the observation of chemical change that a new substance has been formed. To identify and record data that shows how heat is involved in chemical change. To explain why a substance can be either a reactant or a product in chemical reactions, and why this is necessary for recycling.

Data Table 1: Observations
Step Observations
Slightly warm (exothermic) , light blue to royal blue slime-like solid formed As it is heated, blackens, specks form, collecting as a dark powdery precipitate at bottom; water forms at top due to lower density

Data Table 2: Copper Chemical Reactions
Reactants Products Precipitate (Solid) Supernate (Liquid)
Copper(II) nitrate (blue solution) + Sodium hydroxide (colorless solution) Copper(II) hydroxide (blue solid) + Sodium nitrate

4

5

6

As mixed, contents gradually clear to a translucent turquoise

Copper(II) hydroxide (blue solid) + (heat)

Copper(II) oxide (black solid) + water

7

Heat released; bubbling up, copper forms on wire and flakes off, from brown to clay red

Copper(II) oxide (black solid) + Hydrochloric acid

Copper(II) chloride (aqua. solution) + water

Aluminum + Copper(II) chloride (aqua. solution)

Copper (red solid) + Aluminum chloride

Aluminum + Hydrochloric acid

Hydrogen gas + Aluminum chloride

The substances that are used/produced in this experiment are 4. for example. e. the aluminum chloride is 5. when mixing the hydrochloric acid with the Copper(II) oxide. Some causes of chemical changes are 2. The color of solutions of copper compounds is a blue hue. d.Questions 1. Four types of observations that indicate when a chemical change has occurred are . thus creating an exothermic reaction and producing Copper(II) chloride and water. Copper(II) nitrate + sodium hydroxide = Copper(II) hydroxide + sodium nitrate Copper(II) hydroxide + heat = Copper(II) oxide + water Copper(II) oxide + hydrochloric acid = Copper(II) chloride + water Copper(II) chloride + aluminum = Copper + aluminum chloride Hydrochloric acid + aluminum = Hydrogen gas + aluminum chloride General Conclusions 1. 7. c. In the last step of the experiment. Meanwhile. 6. Some of the substances used in this experiment that dissolve in water are Completion of the following word equations: a. Heat is involved in chemical change in that it is required for endothermic and exothermic reactions to occur. heat is released. b. heat from the boiling water causes an endothermic reaction to produce Copper(II) oxide and water. when placing the test tube in the beaker. 3.