GROUP 11 De Gula, Sheila Marie Jimenez, Bernadette Claudine Sacdalan, Michelle Torres, Joana Marie BSN208

The founding of Rome goes back to the very early days of civilization. Today known as The Eternal City'. The Romans believed that their city was founded in the year 753 BC. Modern historians though believe it was the year 625 BC.

BACKGROUND Early Rome was governed by kings. the Romans took power over their own city and ruled themselves. They then instead had a council known as the 'senate' which ruled over them. . but after only seven of them had ruled. From this point on one speaks of the 'Roman Republic'.

SLAVES: Lowest class Owned by other people Had no rights at all .BACKGROUND FOUR CLASSES OF PEOPLE: 1.

BACKGROUND 2. PLEBEIANS: Free people Had little say at all .

.BACKGROUND 3. They were owned by other people. They had no rights at all. EQUESTRIANS/KNIGHTS: Second highest class Their name means RIDERS The lowest class were the slaves.

BACKGROUND To be an equestrian you had to be rich. .

.BACKGROUND 4. NOBLES of ROME Highest class They were called PATRICIANS All the real power in Rome lay with them.

Carthage was a very powerful city in North Africa which.BACKGROUND The greatest challenge the Roman Republic faced was that of the Carthaginians. The fight between the two sides was a long one and took place on land and on sea. . much like Rome. controlled its own empire.

and invaded Italy.BACKGROUND The most famous incident came when the great Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed the mountain chain of the Alps to the north of Italy with all his troops. including his war-elephants !. . Though Rome in the end won and Carthage was completely destroyed in the year 146 BC.

without having any orders to do so. conquered the vast territory of the Gauls to the north of his province in France.BACKGROUND JULIUS CEASAR Rome s most famous citizen A Roman politician and general who. .

BACKGROUND In the year 49 BC Caesar crossed the small river between his province and Italy. His military campaigns also took him to Egypt where he met the famous Cleopatra. and conquered Rome itself which he then ruled as a dictator. . called the river Rubicon. His life though was ended as he was infamously murdered in the senate in Rome.

. July (after Julius Caesar).BACKGROUND So famous and respected was Caesar that a month of the year is still named after him and his heirs today. Also the great English poet Shakespeare wrote a famous play called Julius Caesar about his famous murder.

Bridges over the Danube and Rhine ‡In order to easily resupply their troops they built enormous bridges across.GREAT BUILDERS 1. .

Julius Caesar famously constructed a bridge across the Rhine in only 10 days. These were fetes of incredible engineering skill. Trajan built a huge bridge across the Danube into Dacia.Hence the barbarians soon learnt to see the bridges themselves as further Roman weapons. . performed with only the most basic tools.

GREAT BUILDERS 2. Colosseum .

.Under the emperor Titus the Colosseum. One thinks. Often it is confused with the Circus Maximus (which was used for the chariot races). The Colosseum was the venue for gladiatorial and animal fights. was completed. It was indeed the most magnificent amphitheatre in the world. which his father Vespasian had begun. rather than races. the arena could even be flooded for purposebuilt ships to enact naval battles.


Sooner or later all towns and cities of the empire were connected by an elaborate road system. Well built. Also trade prospered (and brought in taxes) wherever there was reliable roads.leading to the famous phrase. The Romans learnt early on that to control their territories they needed easy access to them.Roman roads ran to every corner of the Roman empire. 'All roads lead to Rome' . which meant that from any place within the empire you could travel to Rome by road . stone-covered roads laid on proper foundations.

GREAT BUILDERS 4. Aquaeducts .

Emperor Claudius even had a tunnel built through the hills to carry water from a lake into Rome. is an aquaeduct. they simply built a channel to carry water from elsewhere to where it was required. Sometimes though a valley could lie in between the place from where the water came and where it needed to go. but couldn't find it where it was needed.When the Romans required more water for a large town or city. be it such a spectacular bridge or just a pipe in the ground. Though really. the whole channel. Here the Romans simply constructed bridges for the channel to cross the valley. Mostly we refer to these as aquaeducts. .

GREAT BUILDERS 5. Hagia Sophia .

. and intricate carvings adorn the walls.despite it being a temple of their Christian enemy. . Far more. they didn't destroy.Under the emperor Justinian the greatest church of its day. So fantastic was and is the Santa Sophia that when the Turks conquered Constantinople in AD 1453. nor damage it at all. was built in Constantinople. Huge domes form its roof. the Santa Sophia. Wherever you look. they converted it into a mosque for themselves. there is sheer beauty. It was by far the largest and most lavish church of its time. The church still stands today in Istanbul (Constantinople's modern day name) and it is called Aya Sophia by the Turks.

GREAT BUILDERS 6. Hadrian's Wall .

Emperor Hadrian is famous for having stated that the empire should expand no further (although emperor Augustus said it before him!). rather than to further attack them. . and his wall is a powerful symbol of his intention to defend the empire from its enemies. Though most of its remains are not actually built under Hadrian's reign at all. small castles and forts at regular intervals. It is eighty Roman miles long. and hence it has always kept his name. For his wall was mainly built of earth and wood.Hadrian's Wall is a landmark in northern England known all over the world. But it was Hadrian who first built defences there. But under Septimius Severus it was reconstructed in stone. with turrets.

less than 250 years. From 625 BC to AD 476 = 1101 years ! . which spread over three continents. long time.And if one includes the eastern Roman empire which lasted until AD 1453 it would even be 2078 years ! In comparison the United States of America only exists since 1776 . .ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS Roman empire Naturally the most obvious achievement of the Romans was their vast empire. It lasted for a long.

tanks and battleships like today. . spears and swords. they didn't have airplanes. despite being equipped with the same basic weapons: shields. Sure. But they were capable of defeating armies far larger than themselves. It defeated pretty much everybody. The Roman Legion was perhaps the most powerful army ever.ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS The Roman Army The Romans achieved world fame with their incredible army.

.ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS Latin. are the many languages which in time developed from it. so too was it the language of the governors and office workers in the provinces of the empire. The language of their army was Latin. Lasting witness to this language which was once spoken all over the ancient empire. the eternal Language As the Romans conquered their empire so did they bring with them their language.

All these languages have developed out of Latin..French. Rhaeto-Romantsch (spoken in the Canton Grison in Switzerland). . the Pope. Rumanian. Its head. The Catholic church still speaks and prays in Latin today. is still today called thePontifex Maximus (the greatest high-priest). Spanish. Portuguese.. Italian.

but it is much still the same alphabet used by the Romans.ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS Alphabet The Roman alphabet is what most of us still use today in the western world. like W. But for inscriptions on public buildings and some other things Roman numerals are still sometimes used. . We have added a few letters to it. It is Arabic numbers we use today. Their numerals are not any longer in every day use.

They developed many of the ideas of justice which we today take for granted. Already in 451 BC they created basic laws which governed them all. . These were the first examples of written law. which became known as the Twelve Tables. They wrote them down on twelve plates made of bronze.ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS The Twelve Tables and the Justinian Code Roman law was indeed a great institution. laying down what one could and could not do.

Justinian. These laws form the basis of all today's justice systems in the western world. . refined many of the laws of the day and collected them all into one work.Much later a great Roman emperor of Constantinople. This is known as the Justinian Code and it was completed in AD 529.

Pliny said it was the work of three sculptors from Rhodes. 50 BCE. The date of the Laocoön is controversial. some scholars arguing for the late second century BCE. .ROMAN ARTS ‡ Laocoön and his Sons -Trojan priest Laocoön and his two sons are attacked at an altar by giant serpents. Polydoros. others for c. and Athenodoros. Hagesandros.

St. Russia .ROMAN ARTS ‡ Bust of Sextus Pompeius -State Hermitage Museum. Petersburg.

ROMAN ARTS ‡ Augustus of Primaporta. -Early 1st century CE after a bronze of the 1st century BCE .

ROMAN ARTS ‡ Statue of the Emperor Octavian Augustus .

the supreme God of the Roman pantheon. The sculptor preserved the emperor's portrait features.-The emperor is represented here as Jupiter. and this statue is a typical example of Roman sculpture from the time of the Empire. which allowed the placing of the appropriate attributes in Augustus's hands: a Nike and a sceptre. . The composition was adapted from the celebrated sculpture of Zeus by Phidias. but idealized them to create a formal cult statue.

ruled from A. In fact. more commonly known by his nickname Caligula.D.ROMAN ARTS ‡ Head of Caligula Worked for Insertion into Togatus Statue -The Roman emperor Gaius. . 37 to 41 and was extremely unpopular. almost all portraits of him were destroyed. after he was murdered.

5 cm. .6 x 52. The Third Style is also called the "ornate" and the "ornamental" style of Roman fresco painting.7-15. George Ortiz collection. red wall: 7.ROMAN ARTS ‡ Landscape -fresco "end of Third Style".2-66. Allegedly from Stabiae. scene: 66. white border: 2-7 mm.8 cm.352.

ROMAN ARTS ‡ Pollice Verso (Thumbs Down) .

Light streaming between sections of canopy streaks across the floor and lower walls. starring Russell Crowe and Joaquin Phoenix. To the right of the imperial throne. along with other historical evidence in producing this history painting. the vestal virgins indicate their desire for the death of a defeated combatant. Ridley Scott (American. contemporary) has said that this picture inspired his production of the movie Gladiator in 2000.-Gérôme studied the architecture of the Colosseum. .

.J.ROMAN ARTS ‡ Statue of the Lansdowne Herakles (Hercules) . Paul Getty Museum. CA. Malibu.

Septimius Severus .ROMAN ARTS ‡ Denarius.

. His hair is curly. A shield stands beside her. PIVSAVG" -. the goddess of the city of Rome. VRBIS" -noblissimus urbis meaning noblest city. . Michael Delahunt Collection. . she holds a spear. The text is probably: "NOB . leaning against her seat. In her left arm. He wears a laurel wreath. his beard ending in pin-curls. Reverse: In the center is Roma.Severus Pius Augustus -his name and the titles bestowed on him as emperor.-In the center is a bust in profile of Emperor Septimius Severus. . The text: "SEVERVS .

Petersburg.ROMAN ARTS ‡ Bust of Emperor Philip the Arab -State Hermitage Museum. Russia . St.

and spirits. and other natural disasters. They believed the gods showed their unhappiness by sending earthquakes. . demigods (halfhumans and half god).ROMAN GODS The Romans believed in many different gods and goddesses. They believed that each god had specific powers and controlled parts of the world. hailstorms.

-He was the master of the gods and the main god of the Romans. In his hand he held thunderbolts which he could hurl from the sky.

-She was the wife of Jupiter, the goddess of women and fertility. Her symbols were a pomegranate and a peacock.

-He was the god of war, the strongest and most fearsome god, except for Jupiter.

.ROMAN GODS Venus -She was the goddess of love and beauty.

ROMAN GODS Minerva -She was the goddess of wisdom. Her symbol was the owl. art crafts and industry. learning. .

His symbol was the trident. .ROMAN GODS Neptune -He was the powerful god of the sea.

ROMAN GODS Ceres -She was the goddess of the harvest. always depicted carrying a bundle of grain. .

.ROMAN GODS Vulcan -He was the blacksmith of the gods and a god of the underworld. He was the god of blacksmiths and volcanos. If he stoked his furness too hard volcanos might erupt.

ROMAN GODS Pluto -Pluto was the god of the Dead. Romans were afraid to say Pluto's real name because they were afraid he might notice them and they would die. .

ROMAN GODS Apollo -He was the god of the sun. .

.ROMAN GODS Diana -She was the goddess of hunting and a goddess of the moon.

Naturally.ROMAN GODS Bacchus -He was the god of wine and partying. . he was one of Rome's most popular gods.

ROMAN GODS Mercury -He was the messenger of the gods. . the wings on his helmet and sandals allowed him to travel very quickly to wherever a god might send him. He was the god of travellers and tradesmen.

ROMAN GODS Vesta -She was the goddess of the hearth and home. She was very important to Romans. In her temple a flame was always kept burning as in the 'hearth of Rome' the flame should never go out. .

ROMAN GODS Cupid -Cupid was the mischievous little god of love. . His weapon was a bow. and anyone hit by one of his arrows fell madly in love.