Basic Circuits, Power Supplies

,
Transistors,

Basic Circuit Analysis
• What we won’t do:
– most things: RC, RLC, filters, detailed analysis
• What we will do:
– set out basic relations
– look at a few examples of fundamental
importance (mostly resistive circuits)
– look at diodes, voltage regulation, transistors
– discuss impedances (cable, output, etc.)
2
The Basic Relations
• V is voltage (volts: V); I is current (amps: A); R is
resistance (ohms: O); C is capacitance (farads: F);
L is inductance (henrys: H)
• Ohm’s Law: V = IR; V = ; V = L(dI/dt)
• Power: P = IV = V
2
/R = I
2
R
• Resistors and inductors in series add
• Capacitors in parallel add
• Resistors and inductors in parallel, and capacitors
in series add according to:

3

1
C
Idt
í

1
X
tot
=
1
X
1
+
1
X
2
+
1
X
3
+
Example: Voltage divider
• Voltage dividers are a classic way to set a
voltage
• Works on the principle that all charge
flowing through the first resistor goes
through the second
– so AV · R-value
– provided any load at output is negligible:
otherwise some current goes there too
• So V
out
= V(R
2
/(R
1
+ R
2
))
• R
2
here is a variable resistor, or
potentiometer, or “pot”
– typically three terminals: R
12
is fixed, tap
slides along to vary R
13
and R
23
, though
R
13
+ R
23
= R
12
always
4
1
2
3
R
1

R
2

V
V
out

Real Batteries: Output Impedance
 A power supply (battery) is characterized by a voltage
(V) and an output impedance (R)
◦ sometimes called source impedance
 Hooking up to load: R
load
, we form a voltage divider,
so that the voltage applied by the battery terminal is
actually V
out
= V(R
load
/(R+R
load
))
◦ thus the smaller R is, the “stiffer” the power supply
◦ when V
out
sags with higher load current, we call this
“droop”
 Example: If 10.0 V power supply droops by 1% (0.1 V)
when loaded to 1 Amp (10 O load):
◦ internal resistance is 0.1 O
◦ called output impedance or source impedance
◦ may vary with load, though (not a real resistor)
5
V
R
D-cell example: 6A
out of 1.5 V battery
indicates 0.25 O output
impedance
6
The block diagram of the basic power
supply. Most power supplies are made
up of four basic sections: a
TRANSFORMER, a RECTIFIER, a
FILTER, and a REGULATOR.
7
The transformer serves two primary
purposes: (1) to step up or step down
the input line voltage to the desired
level and (2) to couple this voltage to
the rectifier section.
Power Supplies and Regulation
 A power supply typically starts with a transformer
◦ to knock down the 470V peak-to-peak (220 V AC) to something
reasonable/manageable
 We will be using a center-tap transformer





◦ (A’ ÷ B’) = (winding ratio)×(A ÷ B)
 when A > B, so is A’ > B’
◦ geometry of center tap (CT) guarantees it is midway between A’ and B’
(frequently tie this to ground so that A’ = ÷B’)
◦ note that secondary side floats: no ground reference built-in
8
A
B
A’
CT
B’
AC input
AC output
Diodes
• Diodes are essentially one-way current
gates
• Symbolized by:
• Current vs. voltage graphs:
9
V
I
V
I
V
I
V
I
0.6 V
plain resistor diode idealized diode WAY idealized diode
no current flows current flows
the direction the
arrow points in the
diode symbol is the
direction that current
will flow
acts just like a wire
(will support arbitrary
current) provided that
voltage is positive
Diode Makeup
• Diodes are made of semiconductors (usually silicon)
• Essentially a stack of p-doped and n-doped silicon to form a p-n junction
– doping means deliberate impurities that contribute extra electrons (n-
doped) or “holes” for electrons (p-doped)
• Transistors are n-p-n or p-n-p arrangements of semiconductors
10
p-type n-type
LEDs: Light-Emitting Diodes
• Main difference is material is more exotic than silicon used in ordinary
diodes/transistors
– typically 2-volt drop instead of 0.6 V drop
• When electron flows through LED, loses energy by emitting a photon of light
rather than vibrating lattice (heat)
• LED efficiency is 30% (compare to incandescent bulb at 10%)
• Must supply current-limiting resistor in series:
– figure on 2 V drop across LED; aim for 1–10 mA of current
11
Getting DC back out of AC
• AC provides a means for us to distribute electrical power, but most
devices actually want DC
– bulbs, toasters, heaters, fans don’t care: plug straight in
– sophisticated devices care because they have diodes and
transistors that require a certain polarity
• rather than oscillating polarity derived from AC
• this is why battery orientation matters in most electronics
• Use diodes to “rectify” AC signal
• Simplest (half-wave) rectifier uses one diode:
12
AC source
load
input voltage
voltage seen by load
diode only conducts
when input voltage is positive
Doing Better: Full-wave Diode Bridge
• The diode in the rectifying circuit simply prevented the negative swing of
voltage from conducting
– but this wastes half the available cycle
– also very irregular (bumpy): far from a “good” DC source
• By using four diodes, you can recover the negative swing:

13
A
C
B
D
AC source
load
input voltage
voltage seen by load
B & C conduct
A & D conduct
Full-Wave Dual-Supply
 By grounding the center tap, we have two opposite
AC sources
◦ the diode bridge now presents + and ÷ voltages relative
to ground
◦ each can be separately smoothed/regulated
◦ cutting out diodes A and D makes a half-wave rectifier
14
A
C
B
D
AC source
+ load
÷ load
voltages seen by loads
can buy pre-packaged diode bridges
Smoothing out the Bumps
• Still a bumpy ride, but we can smooth this out with a
capacitor
– capacitors have capacity for storing charge
– acts like a reservoir to supply current during low spots
– voltage regulator smoothes out remaining ripple
15
A
C
B
D
AC source
load
capacitor
Regulating the Voltage
 The unregulated, ripply voltage may not be at the
value you want
◦ depends on transformer, etc.
◦ suppose you want 15.0 V
 You could use a voltage divider to set the voltage
 But it would droop under load
◦ output impedance ÷ R
1
|| R
2

◦ need to have very small R
1
, R
2
to make “stiff”
◦ the divider will draw a lot of current
◦ perhaps straining the source
◦ power expended in divider >> power in load
 Not a “real” solution
16
1
2
3
R
1

R
2

V
in

V
out

R
load

The Zener Regulator
• Zener diodes break down at some reverse
voltage
– can buy at specific breakdown voltages
– as long as some current goes through zener, it’ll
work
– good for rough regulation
• Conditions for working:
– let’s maintain some minimal current, I
z
through
zener (say a few mA)
– then (V
in
÷ V
out
)/R
1
= I
z
+ V
out
/R
load
sets the
requirement on R
1

– because presumably all else is known
– if load current increases too much, zener shuts
off (node drops below breakdown) and you just
have a voltage divider with the load
17
R
1

Z
V
in

V
out
= V
z

R
load

zener voltage
high slope is what makes the
zener a decent voltage regulator
Voltage Regulator IC
• Can trim down ripply voltage to
precise, rock-steady value
• Now things get complicated!
– We are now in the realm of
integrated circuits (ICs)
• ICs are whole circuits in small
packages
• ICs contain resistors, capacitors,
diodes, transistors, etc.
18
note zeners
Voltage Regulators
 The most common voltage regulators are the
LM78XX (+ voltages) and LM79XX (÷ voltages)
◦ XX represents the voltage
 7815 is +15; 7915 is ÷15; 7805 is +5, etc
◦ typically needs input > 3 volts above output (reg.)
voltage



 A versatile regulator is the LM317 (+) or LM337 (÷)
◦ 1.2–37 V output
◦ V
out
= 1.25(1+R
2
/R
1
) + I
adj
R
2
◦ Up to 1.5 A
◦ picture at right can go to 25 V
◦ datasheetcatalog.com for details
19
beware that housing is not always ground
Transistors
 Transistors are versatile, highly non-linear
devices
 Two frequent modes of operation:
◦ amplifiers/buffers
◦ switches
 Two main flavors:
◦ npn (more common) or pnp, describing doping
structure
 Also many varieties:
◦ bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) such as npn,
pnp
◦ field effect transistors (FETs): n-channel and p-
channel
◦ metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs)
 We’ll just hit the essentials of the BJT here
20
B
C
E
B
E
C
npn
pnp
Diode and Transistor Testing
21
Step by step instructions:
• The instructions are given primarily for an NPN transistor as
these are the most common types in use. The variations are
shown for PNP varieties.
• Set the meter to its ohms range - any range should do, but
the middle ohms range if several are available is probably
best.

Connect the base terminal of the transistor to the terminal
marked positive (usually colored red) on the multimeter


22
• Connect the terminal marked negative or common
(usually colored black) to the collector and measure
the resistance. It should read open circuit (there should
be a deflection for a PNP transistor).

With the terminal marked negative still connected to
the base, repeat the measurement with the positive
terminal connected to the emitter. The reading should
again read open circuit (the multimeter should deflect
for a PNP transistor).


Winter 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 23
Winter 2007 24


Base emitter must
have
RESISTANCE

Base-collector also
have
RESISTANCE

Emitter-collector
has
RESISTANCE
• Now reverse the connection to the base of the transistor,
this time connecting the negative or common (black)
terminal of the analogue test meter to the base of the
transistor.
Connect the terminal marked positive, first to the collector
and measure the resistance. Then take it to the emitter. In
both cases the meter should deflect (indicate open circuit
for
• a PNP transistor).
It is next necessary to connect the meter negative or
common to the collector and meter positive to the emitter.
Check that the meter reads open circuit. (The meter should
read open circuit for both NPN and PNP types.
26
• Now reverse the connections so that the
meter negative or common is connected to
the emitter and meter positive to the
collector. Check again that the meter reads
open circuit.

• If the transistor passes all the tests then it is
basically functional and all the junctions are
intact.
27
Improved Zener Regulator
 By adding a transistor to the zener regulator
from before, we no longer have to worry as
much about the current being pulled away
from the zener to the load
◦ the base current is small
◦ R
load
effectively looks | times bigger
◦ real current supplied through transistor
 Can often find zeners at 5.6 V, 9.6 V, 12.6 V,
15.6 V, etc. because drop from base to
emitter is about 0.6 V
◦ so transistor-buffered V
reg
comes out to 5.0,
9.0, etc.
 I
z
varies less in this arrangement, so the
regulated voltage is steadier
28
V
reg

R
load

V
z

V
in

R
z

Z
V
in

Designing PCB
• cut your COPPER
CLAD BOARD to
desired size
• Clean by soap and
water
• a pencil eraser may
also help


29
• Put a masking tape
on the copper side
of the board, enough
to fully cover the
surface
• using the carbon
paper transfer your
design to the
masking tape
• Use a cutter to
remove excess
masking tape from
your design.

30
Etching
Material and
Equipment
Ferric Chloride
powder
distill or plain water
glove
glass, plastic,
wooden rod or old
chopstick
long container for
the etchant

a boarder container
for boiling hot water
below
3 litre of boiling
water
drilling machine
plastic string
developed PCB
board
container with water
for washing
detergent
31
Ferric Chloride is use
to etch away copper
surface on the PCB
board. It is a very
toxin chemical and is
harmful to the
environment. Please
handle and dispose
the chemical waste
with care. It is dark
yellowish in color
and can stain your
clothing.



32
• Remember to wear
protective gloves
while handling
FeCl3. Chemical is
toxin and will cause
skin irritation Wash
skin with running
water immediately
when in contact
with skin.

33
• Stronger FeCl3 solution enables etching
process to be faster.
• When design PCB board, it may be a good idea
to fill up with regions of copper. This is to
minimise the area of copper surface to be
etched away. With less copper to etched, it
will also means that the solution can be
effectively use to etch more PCB board

Winter 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 34
Etchant mixture


The solvent composite
for making the etchant
consist of about 1 unit
of Ferric Chloride
FeCl3 is to 3 unit of
water or about 1 unit
of Ammonium
Persulphate is to 5
unit of water.

Stir the mixture until
FeCl3 is fully dissolved
with the water.

Winter 2007 35
Board preparation for etching


Drill a small hole on
the PCB board so
that a string can be
secure to the
board. The string is
use to position or
pull out the PCB in
the toxin solution.


36
or

A scotch tape can be
used to secure the
string to the PCB
board.


37
Immerse the PCB
board slowly into
the FeCl3 solution.
Agitate the PCB by
tilting the container
to and fro gently,
until the unwanted
copper layer are
properly etched
away, leaving only
the required region
on the PCB.
38
• The process may
take 15 - 60
minutes to
complete. Process
duration will
depends on the
concentration,
temperature of the
etchant solution.

39

40
• After the
unnecessary
copper clad is
removed, use a
hand drill for
drilling component
holes.
• 1/16 for diodes and
wires and 1/32 for
resistors and
capacitor.
Winter 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 41
• The soldering iron
tip transfers thermal
energy from the
heater to the solder
connection. In most
soldering iron tips,
the base metal is
copper or some
copper alloy because
of its excellent
thermal conductivity.
42
basics of Soldering.
• A tip's conductivity
determines how
fast thermal energy
can be sent from
the heater to the
connection.


43
Right Amount of Solder
a) Minimum amount of
solder
b) Optimal
c) Excessive solder
What is the first component?
1. Resistors
2. Capacitors
3. Diodes
4. Transistors
5. IC’s
6. Connecting wires
7. Heat sink
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