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Solvent Drying and Drying Agents

Solvent Drying and Drying Agents

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Published by Hong Nguyen 눈 꽃

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Published by: Hong Nguyen 눈 꽃 on Dec 03, 2010
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09/15/2013

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Solvents Drying and Drying Agents.

http://delloyd.50megs.com/moreinfo/drying.html

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Solvent Drying and Drying Agents
Related link :
Drying with sodium wire :

Disposal of spent sodium, magnesium and calcium hydride On this page : Properties of solvents and methods used for drying them with specific drying agents

Removing water from Solvents
There are various ways of removing water and other impurities from a solution. This can become a major task once the used reagents are also sensitive towards water e.g. Grignard reagents or enolates. If water is one of the products, it also has a detrimental effect on the yield and/or reaction rate. In those cases, drying agents like activated alumina¹, calcium hydride (CaH2), sodium metal (in combination with benzophenone which forms a dark blue ketyl radical), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) or phosphorous pentoxide (P4O10) are used to chemically destroy the water. The drying agents commonly used in the organic laboratories are calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4, as Drierite (R)) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), all in their anhydrous form. Listed below are the drying agents that are commonly used.Organic liquids are considered to be wet if they contain water. Realize that the organic liquid will still be a liquid after it is dried. Activated alumina ¹ is a very porous form of aluminum oxide of high surface area which adsorbs liquids and gases without any change in form. Activated alumina will not soften or disintegrate when immersed in liquids. Activated alumina may be regenerated to its original adsorption efficiency by heating to a temperature between (177-316°C). Reconditioning of mineral oils like transformer or insulating oils. Removal of oil vapor mist from compressed air. Drying of organic liquids to a moisture level of 10 ppm or below. Drying of various liquids such as Benzene, Carbon, Tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene, Ethyl Acetate, Transformer oil, Vegetable oils etc.

Solvents drying guide

TO DRY

USE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING DRYING AGENTS Anhydrous forms of potassium carbonate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate; quicklime. Anhydrous calcium chloride; anhydrous forms of sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, or calcium sulphate; sodium pentoxide. Anhydrous calcium chloride or sulphate; metallic sodium; phosphorus pentoxide. Anhydrous sodium sulphate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate. Anhydrous sodium sulphate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate; anhydrous potassium carbonate. Solid potassium or sodium hydroxide; quicklime; barium oxide. Anhydrous sodium sulphate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate.

Alcohols Alkyl halides Aryl halides Saturated and Aromatic hydrocarbons Aldehydes Ketones Organic bases (amines) Organic acids

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Na.html Solvents: Properties and Drying agents Solvent Acetone Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetonitrile Aniline Anisole Benzene 1-Butanol 2-Butanol tert-Butanol n-Butyl acetate Carbon disulphide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Decahydronaphthalene (Dekalin) Dichloromethane Dicyclopentadiene: (cyclopentadiene dimer) Diethyl carbonate Diethylene glycoldibutyl ether Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Diethyl ether Di-isopropyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfoxide 1. Molecular sieve 0.882 1. Na. Na/Pb.886 1. calcium hydride.975 0.879 0. P2O5. Molecular sieve 0.Solvents Drying and Drying Agents.810 0.885 0.50megs. Na CaCl2. Pb/Na. distillation.726 0. P2O3. Pb/Na. distillation. distillation. Na.4nm Na. Freezing MgSO4.4nm K2CO3. P2O5.995 0.P2O5 CaCl2. P2O5. Na wire/benzophenone.com/moreinfo/drying.906 na +25 +118 +70 0. Na2SO4. LiAlH4. K2CO3 CaCl2.022 0.950 1. Na.4nm Simple distillation. Molecular sieve 0. LiAlH4. CaCl2P2O5. °C °C 56 118 136 82 184 154 80 117 100 82 127 46 77 132 62 81 155 ~190 40 0. Pb/Na. (Use at once! or keep in dry ice/acetone bath no longer than 1 Hr. Molecular sieve 0.) Na2SO4.8 CaCl2.594 1. K2CO3. CaCl2 P2O5.808 0.034 0. Molecular sieve 0. . Pb/Na. Molecular sieve 0. Molecular sieve 0. MgO.4nm distillation.3nm KOH.4nm CaCl2. calcium hydride. Pb/Na CaCl2. BaO CaCl2.325 -18 +40 +49 +6 +76 +51 -10 +29 +24 +11 +33 -30 none +29 none none na <54 none Drying agent K2CO3. distillation CaO.263 1.3nm. Molecular sieve 0. http://delloyd. 170 126 225 155 165 34 68 153 189 101 79 77 118 na 0.782 1. Molecular sieve 0. CuSO4 CaCl2 CaCl2.882 0.791 1. Molecular sieve 0.4 Dioxane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylenediamine: (1-2 diaminoethane) Boiling Flash Pt. Density Pt. Molecular sieve 0. calcium hydride. Molecular sieve 0. Molecular sieve 0. distillation CaCl2. Na.4nm Distillation CaCl2. Pb/Na.082 0.4nm 2 of 4 11/23/2009 10:09 AM . Mg.714 0. Na wire. calcium hydride.4nm Refractionation: distillate at 40 .791 0.4nm CaO. Molecular sieve 0.486 0.4nm CaCl2.4nm distillation.42°C.106 1. distillation K2CO3.799 na 0.3nm K2CO3. Na CaCl2.901 na -40 -23 +62 +95 +12 -4 na +11.049 1.101 1. Na.

CaO.50megs. Na wire/benzophenone.659 0. distillation. Mg. CaCl2.com/activated_alumina_2. Mg.php delloyd. K2CO3 distillation. CaCl2.462 Flash Pt. Ca. Na2SO4. Augustine campus The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Na. distillation.4nm distillation. Density °C 197 1.887 0.5 Drying agent distillation. Na wire calcium hydride.933 1.4nm CaCl2.3nm KOH.Solvents Drying and Drying Agents. Mg. The University of The West Indies. Molecular sieve 0.982 0. Molecular sieve 0. St.86 Reference: http://www.867 1. Na2SO4.deltaadsorbents.4nm K2CO3. 3 of 4 11/23/2009 10:09 AM . BaO.026 0. P2O5.924 1.calcium hydride.134 1. calcium hydride. Na2SO4 distillation distillation MgSO4. Na Ethylene glycol monoethyl 135 ether Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether Ethyl formate Formamide Glycerol Heptane n-Hexane Isobutanol Isobutyl methyl ketone Methanol Methyl acetate 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Methyl Ethyl ketone Nitrobenzene n-Pentane Pet ether 1. Molecular sieve 0.4nm Molecular sieve 0.50megs.109 0.792 0. Molecular sieve 0. Copyright: delloyd2000© All rights reserved. LiAlH4. Na2SO4.801 0.4nm 137/140 -0.com/moreinfo/drying. CaCl2. Pb/Na.5-4 K2CO3. http://delloyd. Pb/Na.684 0.965 0. Chem.4nm K2CO3. °C +111 +41 +52 -20 155 +176 -4 -23 +28 +11 -10 +95 -44 +92 -49 na +15 +12 +20 -17. CaO distillation calcium hydride. Na. distillation. Molecular sieve 0.html Solvent Ethylene glycol Boiling Pt. Na wire/benzophenone. Molecular sieve 0. Molecular sieve 0. CaO. Mg CaO.803 0.204 0.Propanol 2-Propanol Pyridine Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydronaphthalene (Tetralin) Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Xylene 125 54 211 290 98 69 108 117 65 57 202 80 211 36 mixture 97 82 116 66 208 48 111 87 +15.3nm K2CO3.785 0. Na wire Na.804 0.626 na 0. Na. CaO. Dept.806 1. na +4 none +25 Redistill.930 0. Na2SO4.973 na 0. Molecular sieve type 4A CaO.260 0.com Signature: Dhanlal De Lloyd.

http://delloyd.50megs.html 4 of 4 11/23/2009 10:09 AM .com/moreinfo/drying.Solvents Drying and Drying Agents.

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