You are on page 1of 69

‘

S  
   

‘

  

  

   

  !

"‘

‘‘ 
‘ ‘ ‘  
‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘  ‘‘



#

$"

%  

‘

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

c
<D 
 ‘<2010‘

 " &'(S"

‘ ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘ ‘  ‘‘  ‘
‘ ‘ ‘
 ‘ ‘ ‘
  ‘‘ ‘  ‘

‘  ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘ ‘   ‘ ‘  ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘ ‘
  ‘‘   ‘ ‘ 
‘ ‘
 ‘  ‘  ‘‘ ‘

‘  ‘
‘ ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘!  "‘# ‘$     ‘‘

 ‘ ‘ ‘  "‘ ‘‘ ‘
‘

 %‘D‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ &


‘ 

D %‘ ' ‘D ‘2010‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

ë
‘

# ")$($)$

!   ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘

() ‘$ ‘ ‘*  ‘


+‘ ‘ ‘   ‘ ‘ ‘&
‘ 
‘ ‘
 ‘ ‘ ‘  ‘ ‘ ‘
‘   ‘‘

  ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘   ‘
# ‘ ‘ ‘ 
‘‘‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ,‘ ‘  ‘

-
PREFACE
This project has been submitted in the fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master in business administration. I, Namrata Sharma, take high
pleasure in producing project report that reflects in the academic year.

The focus of this project is how operations management and their trends are
maintained globally.

The individual topics cover all the basic concepts and functions explaining the
subject matter regarding project implementation.

As usual in a project of such magnitude, progress continues even after work


on the manuscript stops. In documenting this guide I emphasize on the
approach to provide a measure of consistency in a rapidly evolving pool of
knowledge.

‰
Sr No Topic Page No
c  



ë  
   
-  
  
 
 
‰   
 
  c
    
 

 cc
! 
  cë
 


 c-
 " # 

  #  c‰
 
 $ 

 


 c
c   
    #
 c!
cc %
  c
cë   
 c
c- #

 
 c
c‰ &
# 
 ë
c   &   
   
 ëc
c!   #
 ëë
c  # '#
  ë-
c  $  '#
  ë‰
c  $  '#
 ë
ë '#
  ë!
ëc # $
  ë
ëë &#

  # 
  ë
ë- # 
   ë
ë‰ # 
 

(
 -
ë )   #  -c
ë! *#

  -ë
ë $ 
 
  --
ë )+ ##  -‰
ë    -
-   -!
-c   -
-ë    -
--  *  
  '
 -
-‰  ", 
 ‰
-  -.$   ‰c
-!  /  ‰ë
-  /  -


 ‰-
- + 0 -#
 ‰‰
- $ #
 ‰
‰ #
 ‰!


‘ ‘
‘
‘  ‘
‘
‘
‘ ‘ ‘
  ‘   ‘

!
‘
1   
   

 
    
#  #( 


  

    
2
3
4 -5
#  6 $4c4 ‘&  
 
 &
 7 (
 

$  
  


 
34    
 



 ‘‘

 
 (   


    #
    

   
    
 8

 
 
  ( 
( 
   

    
 
  #
    



 
‘‘‘
‘ ‘‘
‘‘ 

x  
 

 



 

‘
‘


‘

‘ ‘‘
  ‘‘
- 
   
#



 
 


 #
 
## 

   
  #
  
  (  
 



   
 
 - 9

   


# (/
 

 
    
  

    
 #
  

 

c
 
‘‘

 

  ( #

   


 
 0 /  #  
     ( 



    8#  
  04 $   $ 
 

    #8
   

  

 
 5 

   

4



 5
 ##  

#  (
  / 
    (
#  
 5 
 
 

cc
‘‘‘  
‘ ‘
‘ ‘‘‘‘‘
  # 
: 


 # 
   #
 
#
  #
 


9  0  


      
  

 
  
  #4 #   
 
   
  

      5#

  #
  ##    


  
  
 0
  (
    

 
##
    5
0#  
 


#     # 
 (  
   (#

   (/
4 #    

  (/
    5

   
#   


  ‘ ‘
‘ ‘
 ‘


#  

   
   
 

#    



  
##
    

 #
   
 (  

9 (
#
    0  


 

  (   


# (
#
 ; 
 

0  (
#
     
 

   (
#   

  
##
( #

 -# 
    #  

  #
#  , (/
  
#0 
  (
#    
  #
   #
 
#    0  

 


 0  

  
 #  #


  # 

   


 # ##  (   (
#

  #

 

c-
 
‘    ‘
!   
‘

  #   

 (
#


 

   

  
  (
  

 


 &  




    (
#

 
(   ## 
$‘ $ 
$‘ 

$‘ '#

$‘ &#8
(
#



d 
 


  
  
 



# 
9 0
   ( #   
 

 
 
## 
 0   

 
#4


 5#4  
 0 



 #  $ 
 #
   
 

      0 
4 

 
     
     8




   8

 
    
 
  
  0
 /   
     4 
#


3
#
   
# 
  
     
 #
 
 
 
  
# - #
# ##   

   ## 
  
 #( 

c
Æ 
 
 #   
  (
   
 (   5  
 :
   

 
 :
 
 
     
 
 0
 
 (  

 
    < 
    

 3     5  

 :
    #   
  
 4 0  #
  3   
 
  
#    
0 
## 
#    #
 

8
 (      

 
  
 (    
  #
 

  0  #


         #




   ## #
 
 

 

    (   (  
    #
 
  (  



c!
A  
'#
   (   5#
  :


#   5#


     #
 
 :
 '#
  (  ( 
=   5#
9  #     
 
  
    

  
5#
       5#
   
   5#
   



# (
#
4    
 
  

&  *8#< -  (
#   
  
     . + 
 '#
 
  
 (  (

c
D   
  ( 
 
 #8
(
#
  (
  &  8#
    (
#
 
  
 
  :
   
  ( (#    :
 5
0#
&#8
(
#

    

   

   
    
 
     
 
   ##
  5
 (0   
  

c
Æ 
D   

  
 

 

 

c

D   
  &#8
(
#

  (
#
  5
0# 

   
    
 
 :
 

&  *8#< - $    
  ",
>
 8

   ( 
   
 

# 
     
5
  0   

ë

 D   
 # &#8
(
#

  (
#
 
 
 
    
 
 # #8
(
#
     # 

  
      
 
 ( 

&  *8#< -    # ( 
 
 
 0
  

 #  
 
   #
 


  
,

ëc

   
 


S

 x


  

 


 
 

  
 

ëë
S    
      
  # (  

    
  
#
 market research4
customers viewpoints4  organization¶s research 
development (R&D) department
 8
4
 
   # # 
   # 
$ 
    
     
 



    



 #    

    0  0   

  " 


  
   

#
 

   
 9    # 0
  
   # (
  
 


    

 
## #
   
   #8 (#   4 

 
  
 .0
   
  
 
  
  (
  0
   0
  
    
   (
     

ë-

  


  

     


    

ë‰
¬  
0 #
  
 #
   
  
  
#    

4
       ##
   

#    (  ( #
  # 
  #
  0 #
  #


 

        8



 
 8

 0
 
- 
 ##  

      #

#  
  #
0#     #


       #
 #

(    #  # 
   #

 
   
    
  

  ( 5 ;    # ( #
#
   

         


  (      
 

   
    # ( #

   

   



 0 #  
   

  
##
 



   #     (  


 


    
    

 

  # (  
    

 
 (      
ë
Æ  

# #
 
  
# (
#
 
     
   
 
#
 
#(#  0     5




4  #     


 0
##  
#(#   0 
 

#  
# #
  0
  
  0     
   

  (  #    

 


ë!
      
       
(
#
  
#

 
  


    
 0 5
   :
  


(  #

 (      
(
## 
#  #
    5

 
  
       ( 
  0

   # ( 




  
 
 5 


 
  0 
  (

 
  
  
    # 


ë
D   

# 
 
 #       
  #

 
 
# 
# 
  (
  $  -
 
 3$-  
#

 #
  (       ,(
      


ë
Æ
A  ¬
 # '#
  3'    

#
 #  

 c‰  


  
 
  
 
    
    



   
(
#
 

 

( #


     5#
  (#
    
 


 

 

#     

 
 
  ; # #  
  

#
5#
   # 
5     8

# 
 #
  5#

 
 

ë
¬    
ÆA¬
 
  
 

# '
  #   ## 
$‘   
 5#
   
   (  


  #  
 5#
 (       
  
 
    
  0

 

   
  
    




  ( 
$‘'#

   
(
#
 ## # 
 ##  


       #
 # 
 # 


 5#

 '    
#
  
# #
 
  
   
 


      
  
 


# ( 
# #

$‘ 
  

# '    
(
#
  5#
  #
 
   # 0
  0 
  
 
# 


#    5#
   
 
 5
  
#  
  
 
0 ( ##  (
#
 

   
 
  0 
 / ( 
 5

         
  #
 
 
 

   

 0
  
 

    0  
(
#
    0  
 #

  #   
 8

$‘&
##   
   
  #  (
#  

##  # 
  
 
 
5#
   

-
Æ

A  
-## 
   
  
##
  
  
 '   &  8# 
0
  
##
   
   
  (#
  
 '#
     
  
 
  

   5#
    5#

       5#
   
  5#
       
5#
          
 





-c
Æ

  S

A  
   


   
 5#
 
   (  

 
   
-
#  

  #  5#
 
#   1


"
  &
 
2 
#    



    (# 

 
 #
 ## 
   8# 
  
c    

   
 5#
   #



ë    

   
    
5#
 



-    
#
  


 
-
#        
 
   ##

5#
     
  
  
      5#
 


 
      ## 
   8#

#  
#
$‘   
 

  
$‘   


 
 5

$‘ 
 
 
   

$‘ 
  /
 5
  


5#


 

Æ



A  

  (   
 ( 
 ##
    
     
  
  #  

     5#


  
# 
   
 ?  ?  # 5#
     (
 


# 
#    8# 
#
  # 
#    (    

#
      ## 
   8#

# 
#  
#
c       5#
    (


ë   0  
8
  
  
-   
   
 
 #   
8

5
  #
  
  
*8# 
#         

     

# #   

  ## 
   8# 8#

#  
#
$‘    
     #

$‘   #
  #
  ,5#

 
$‘ #


   #
     #
(
#

$‘  #  #
 (    
##

 
  (


--
A    
   
   5#
 
( #
      # 
  #8
 
  (

 5#
      
 #
    
 
#

    ## 
  





SR ISO 9000 Series Description
NO

c  c -#
   #

  
(#   # 4 
4
 

##
  

  

ë  ë -#
   #

  
(#   
 
##


-  - -#
 
#

  
  

‰  
 
#
   

  #  
 ‰ #  
 5#
   
 
  # 


  5
  
  

-
  ¬
- # 

  
 


  #

    
     -



 
# 

#  
 
# 
  4  
    
  

  
 
#

  

(
   
     # 


 #   

     

   
 
##
#  


 
 (
 
  
#
4 

(    

-!
D  
    
 (
 # 
   (/  
#
  ( 
(   (##
   
  
  #0  


 # 

(4    #
 
   # 
##

# (0
   

 
##
 
  (##
    (  

 
# 
4
      8 0 # 
  (
  # 
  
 
 
 
  
    #

 
(##
   
 
  ( 0  /  
  #

 # 
 
(
#

  
 

  (  # 
  
#

  #
 (          
#
##4   ## (
  
    
    
  #    *# 


, ,# 3*   (  ( 
#   ##
  
 
   
 
  (

     #
     #


 

 
#(#  ##   # 


 
## # #   # 
 ( 
 
#
 ( 
    
   


#  

-
  
 
-
   # 
 



 
 #  
   # 5

 

#  (  

 ( #
0
 


   #
 #
4
 
   

    
#
    
   


   
 ( 

 0    
 #  (
   
#4 
5
  ##     
 


 

-


   
.   
  #
4  

 

 

 
(#  
(#   
    

,  .
 

4 
 
   
4 
##
##    0, ,( #
 

    #     (
 
##   #   4 
 

5#
   #
     #


-
Æ

       



    
w‘ Price<       
   #



 

# #    
   
 
  #
    
 



  
     

  
  


     



w‘ Auality<  (  
   #
4

 8 
   
##  
   ## 5#

   
 

 (   5#
   

    


 

    
   
 

w‘ Delivery<   #
4 #
   #

 
4  
4
      #
(
#
4 
5
  (
#
  #
 
    # 
 
  5
0#     ( #  # (

    

‰
     

# 
 

(
      

#   #  
    
 ## 
    
 


   


  

‰c
¬    
    
# #
  
 
#(#  (  
  ## 
$‘Manual
$‘Mechanized
$‘Automated
- # #
    #    
#

  
  #8
(# 4 (
 # 
(# 

#   (# 
  # 
 #
# 


    5
   0#

0         
   


 #
 4 
  # #

    # -    
 #    -  %
 
# 3-%9
 # 
:# 
 
    
  #

# 

#

‰ë
^ 

@    (
 
   # ,
      ( #  
   #

    


 

  # 

   
4   #

  0
   


(
 $  #

  ( 

    #
# #
  
4 
 

  
# #    
 

  
   #


 (0,(#0  
#
  ##     
#
 
#   # #      
       #
  
    

‰-
6 Æ 6Æ
 (

 (
 )     #   
4    
 
    
#

 (  #



 5
  ( #

 #    #




  # 



  
 
  $ 
 

   A
4  ) 4
 

#   
 (#
 

  
(#  

# )  (  
  
 
 


‰‰
6Æ   

 ##         

  

   
     
#   0   
 

 
     8  0 
&  *8#< -  
      (
# 
##
5
   , 

     4
 
 
##   (      
 (#        
 

   
 
  
(

 

#   , 
   
  

# 
 
# #
 ##      
   0

 

   (    # 
   #
      

   , 


   ## (   
##

     


‰
3

# ##   0(3)  =9 
=
9
   
 
     

 * 0(  

 
   




4 5
   
   

 
   
  8  0 

A(
 #     
  # 
 
 ( 
    
   0 #
   
   
     
 ## 

‰!
Æ 
3 
    0( 
$‘ 
# $
$‘  $
 
#    #   0( 
##    0( 
  
 
    (  
    0
  # (     

 

     #   

 

 
  0(4 
#

   
 0( 
 
   
  
  

   #   
  ## 
  
   
# #
0 3
  # ##  
   
# 0(  ( 

‰
 
 S
 3
 
c    0( #   # 
 

 
ë + 
#  
   0(
 ## 
-  ( 
   (5  
 (  8 ( 

 (  0(
‰ - 0(  # # (    
#
 
  
    # #  
 

  5

 
 (  (5  
!  
   #  (    
(5  
- 
 ## 5#
  ( 

 (
 #0 ( 
  - (0 


    (# 5
0#  
   
(
#

‰

¬
      # 


 (         

   

   ( #



   








x 



 

‰
   
-  
    

 #
#

(# (

      
 
  ( #

  
 
   ( ##   5
 

     # 5
  (#
  



    
  
  
   
#
#      
 

B## 
       9 
 
   

    
(#  
 .  0   5

 4 

   
  ##
 -    0
 ##   
8     
  (


          # 


c
Æ 


%##
 
 #

  
  
#4
 0,
,  3@  

      

( 
   
##  (

 

 ## -?   
#4 ‰? 
  
 -?

    # 

   (
  
 
   
 




D

  Æ 


c ‘. :  < 

      




  

   #
  (  
# 
ë ‘$# <

 5
    #
#  
   

 (4 
   
     0  # 
#  
(  (
  
- ‘-


 < 

#  
   0 


 

     #  
-# #
  #

   (

 (#0  0
 
 
   #


  ##
‰ ‘
#
:  < 

 
   
    #0  0 
# 
#
 (

  (  &  *8#  

0
 

(
        
#
 

-
Æ

   A  ¬

A
 *' ## 
    # 




    #    #


    #   



 
  # 0  ( 

#

$‘(#  $  
$‘&
8  

(# 
 $ 
$‘    #

  

  #


   (
 #
$‘
        
   

$‘#
 # 
     
$‘+ 5
 
   
#(#
$‘-#  8

 
  #  


  
*'
 
  
  #
 
4       0  


##    
 )    -# #
 
##   8
    
  #
 #
#    ;  *'   
##    #


  
  
 
 


 #


   



Æ
 
¬

 *'  # ##      4 (  
    "  
  #


 

      0 ##    

   
   
## ##

#  5
  0      #
(   #
3 #
 # 
 
 #  0    
0 
 
 0  ##  #  3    0 
 
   
  5
  #  

 ( 
 
  #  #

 
 
  # 

  

  
*'
    
  ( 
 
 


   0   ;  
  
   #
 
 
8   
 0  #
   8 
  0 
8 "#

##   (    
      #
 #,
 
##  
  
0   0, 
 
     

 

  0     5

 (
# (  # ( 
   
# # 
#   #     
## #
 
 #  (



Æ
 

 
 -.$ #


   
 


   
     #
8
 
 
 
##   (  

 (
  ## #
#
 (
 
   

  -.$   (#

  #

 

 8
 
#
    # 8
  



!
 
  
A items  c,ë? 
    
!,? # 8
 
   (
  ##   ## 8
  B items
    8 ë,-?
  ##
    

#   # 8

Finally C
   

 , ?

 ( #    #  ë?  #


8
 

    
  ##
8
    (  #  
 (
 

  #

   
# 

         ##  4


 
(
#

 #
 
4  #  #
  

   

   
 
  
  0  



!¬
 /  , 
 
 

 
 

   (  (  
  /  #
 
  #8
   / 
##
 
  

 ( 


 

   / *8

#
   , 

 


  5
 
#  /      / 
  
&  *8# <  /
#
##
   4
.
#
  .
   
   
   
  0



!¬ 
  /   
#  ## 


 



c) Feasibility Analysis < 
 
 # #

 8       8 
 /      8 (
 - 
   /  #    5
 
0   / 



   
 
#

       
#(#    /
 #
     (    
     #  

   ,
 
   -#
#     #
  / (  

   0   

  #
        (
4 
 (,    8#4  

#  /  #
 

 ##  
,
 
  
2) Plan : 
  
     


    
   / (/
 
 /         
#
 
   #8 0
      
 /  ( 0   #
 ## 0



#  (# 0
 
 * 0
 


  4 
  5#
 (/
 
  
#
  
(
#

 
  

 
(/
   
# 0 
    #
    0 (0  3@. 
  
 

# #

 (   / 0
-) Control : 
 
 #  
 
   
  / 
 8  
 


 
   

    #  ( 
( 

     /  #
   0
 
 
  
  
   /  

 
   
#    
  
 
      /  ( 

   (##  
   /  


    #   


 


 4  (#
     4 
   
     /





 
##
    



   
   /   

#
  , $ 

 ( 
(   4 # 
  #
(  (   / 

!
a
 
 + 0 -#
 
(  /  
 
 
  $

#    3$ 
  *#
  "
 3*"  /
 0  ## 
   
 + 0
-#


!c
   
!    
   0  0 #


  
(0     /
  (


(#



  0 
 (#


#  ( 

 
(
#
  
# 0 
   ##

  

 
 &

#   
#
  # (     0 ##   ,

 (   /     
 0 
  0
   ##  /
(/
    8


   

# 0   8  #  /


      
 
 8 
  

 
  
 

  0
 #
   /   (
 ##    (  4  
 
4 (
4


  (
#
    / # 
##   
  
 
  , (
    ##

 
  0 
 
   
  / #

!-
     
   

  

  #

 ( 0

   / & 


  
# 0    (
(#  (
 
#   0 

   0


  (

     0 
0       #

   
 
# # $

#  
  
8
#     


 0 
 
 /   
 (  





     

 $  8#  #
0 #  

 -  .   #  
 0 
  (  

  
(# 
##  5 


4 ##  4   
 0     # 

 0  ## 
 
   ##  
 


 
    
  #  
 
 
 #
 
 
 ##  

#  ( 

 

  


  
  
## 
  #  / 
  
 (    
# 


  ¬

      
 

# 

4 -

  - 3--    
  


  -

  + 3-+ 
     




!
    
    S
 
 % $  
  
    /
  ##     
   /   

#      
  #(#
 

    /   #

!!

!   
  

#      /  #



  
   0 

 # 

##

  /   (

 
    

# 0 
  ( 
  

#  ( 
  
  0
  (#  

  (  
  
# (
 
  0  ## 


 

 5

§‘  + # 0 

§‘  $ 0 

§‘  $  $
  0   $ 0 

 B
 
    ( 
  0
   


 ( (
 
 0  (   
5
 
   #    -  (  
##  /  #
 

    0

   

#  

 #  
  0 

   

#  -  

0   

#       

  0 
## # (  

# 
 
 
##
5
  
    ( 0  ## 
 
  

#    


!
d  
 # 
(
#
,  

 
 
#  #
#
    

   
     
 


 
  
 "#
 
   
    #   4 
0 #   
  (
#
 
 #,
    #
,#
#
   
  $ 
   
 #
  (
  
(
#
  #
  
## #  
# (# #
#
 
  #   #
 
  

## (   
    
4  
 

     
## ( 
0  #
  
  
(# (


!
DECLARATION

I, Namrata Sharma hereby declare that this project on ³Global Trends in


Operation Management ³ is being completed by me.

I have done all the needs of the project.

This project in future will certainly be a subject to enhancement and further


to the needs of the project.

I assure to make any changes or better variations in the systems design if


necessary.

!