AMFI MUTUAL FUND (ADVISOR) – April 2008 Training Module

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Index
Day -1 Part -1 1. Concept and Role of Mutual Funds 2. Fund Structure and Constituents 3. Legal and Regulatory Framework Part-2 4. Offer Document 5. Fund Distribution and Sales Practice 6. Investor Plan and Services 7. Measuring and Evaluating Mutual Fund Performance 8. Helping Investors Understand Risk in Fund Investing

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Chapter 1

Concept and Role Of mutual Funds

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What is a Mutual Fund ? It is a pool of money. collected from investors. and is invested according to certain investment objectives • The ownership of the fund is thus joint or mutual. the fund belongs to all investors. • A mutual funds business is to invest the funds thus collected. according to the the wishes of the investors who created the pool • Day 1 Day 2 .

Important characteristics of a Mutual Fund? • The ownership is in the hands of the investors who have pooled in their funds so it is joint or mutual. Mutual Funds are constituted as TRUSTS. The pool of funds is invested in a portfolio of marketable investments. The investment portfolio is created according to the stated investment objectives of the fund. Mutual Funds are also known as Financial Intermediaries In India. The investors share is denominated by ‘units’ whose value is called as Net Asset Value (NAV) which changes everyday. It is managed by a team of investment professionals and other service providers. • • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

Advantages of Mutual Funds to Investors? • • • • • • • Portfolio diversification Professional Management Reduction in Risk Reduction in Transaction costs Liquidity Convenience and Flexibility Safety – Well regulated by SEBI Day 1 Day 2 .

selection becomes difficult. Regulators limit the expenses of Mutual Funds. Fees are paid as percentage of the value of investment. Managing a portfolio of funds. • Day 1 Day 2 . • • No tailor made portfolios.What are the disadvantages of investing through Mutual Funds? No control over the costs. ( Investor has to hold a portfolio for funds for different objectives ). • One fund can have schemes of similar objectives so.

Offshore Funds etc.1963 The first product launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964 UTI creates products such as ULIP (1971). LIC MF.Entry of Public Sector Funds • • • • • In 1987 Public Sector Banks and FI's got permission to set up MF. set up in November 1987 This was followed by Canbank MF.Growth of UTI • • • • • UTI sole player in the industry. MIP's.Evolution of Mutual Funds in India Phase 1 – ( 1964 – 1987). created by an Act of Parliament . Mutual Fund Industry was open to private players. SEBI got its regulatory powers in 1992 Day 1 Day 2 . Indian Bank MF. MASTERSHARE (1987) – 1st Diversified Equity Investment Scheme in India. SBI mutual fund was the first non -UTI mutual fund. INDIA Fund – 1st Indian offshore fund launched in August 1986. BOI MF. Children Plans(1986) . Phase 2 – ( 1987 – 1993). GIC and PNB MF In 1993.

Evolution of Mutual Funds in India • Phase 3 – ( 1993-1996) – Emergence of Private Funds • • • • • • • • • In 1993. Phase 4 – ( 1996-1999) – Growth and SEBI Regulation AMFI also published a booklet titled “ Making Mutual Funds work for you – The investors’ Guide” Day 1 Day 2 .00. both SEBI and AMFI launched investor awareness programmes. Mutual funds assets in mid-2002 were app. mostly initiated by private players Implementation of new SEBI regulations led to rapid growth Bank mutual funds were recast as per SEBI guidelines UTI came under voluntary SEBI supervision.000 crore During this phase. Dividends made tax free in 1999. 1. Mutual Fund Industry was open to private players. SEBI's first set of regulations for the industry formulated in 1993 Significant innovations.

000 crore Rapid growth.Evolution of Mutual Funds in India Phase 5 – (1999-2004) – Emergence of a large and uniform industry • • • • – UTI Act Repealed in February 2003. INR 1. Day 1 Day 2 . significant increase in corpus of private players Tax break offered created arbitrage opportunities Bond funds and liquid funds registered highest growth Phase 6 – From 2004 onwards : Consolidation and Growth • • • Mergers and Acquisitions witnessed Alliance MF acquired by Birla Sunlife Sun F&C by Principal PNB Mutual fund. AUM by end of 2005 app.50.

there were 29 Funds.Emergence of Large and Uniform Industry • UTI Act repealed in 2003. Day 1 Day 2 .50. • Merger and Acquisitions happening. (now under SEBI) • Size of industry was 1. • At the end of March 2006. • UTI now does not have a special status. Largest MF has entered India.000 crore in 2005. • Fidelity.

the fund is declared open for further sales and repurchases • Investors receive account statements of their holdings. • The number of outstanding units goes up and down • The unit capital is not fixed but variable.specified price. in the initial offer period. • Open ended scheme are offered for sale at a pre. investors can buy and sell units of the fund. at NAV related prices. • • the corpus of an Open-ended scheme changes everyday Day 1 Day 2 .Mutual Fund Classifications What are open-ended funds? In an open ended fund. directly from the fund. say Rs. at any time. 10. After a pre-specified period say 30 days.

• The number of units of closed ended funds remains unchanged.What are closed-end funds? A closed -end fund is open for sale to investors for a specified period. • Day 1 Day 2 . after which further sales are closed. which are fundamentally linked to the NAV. • Any further transactions happen in the secondary market (stock exchange) where closed-end funds are listed. • The price at which the units are sold or redeemed depends on the market prices. • The unit capital is fixed because of one time sale.

Load and No Load Funds • Load is the one time fee payable by the investor to allow the fund to meet initial issue expenses including brokers/agents’/distributors’ commissions. a no front load fund is preferable. then . Day 1 Day 2 . or deferred loads are called LOAD funds. • Funds that charge front end( entry) load. advertising and marketing expenses. • IF the investors’ objective is to get the benefit of compounding his initial investment by reinvesting and holding his investment for a very long term. back end (exit).

open end equity oriented mutual fund schemes are tax exempt investment avenue. • So in India.Tax Exempt Vs. Day 1 Day 2 . all dividend income received from MF is tax free in hands of the investor. Non Tax Exempt Funds • When a fund invests in tax exempt securities. it is called a tax exempt fund. • After 1999 budget. • After 2005 budget. • In India any income received by mutual fund is tax free. But all funds other than open ended equity funds have to pay a dividend distribution tax. while other funds are taxable for distributable income. repurchase transaction for equity oriented schemes are subject to Securities Transaction Tax.

By Investment Objective Equity Debt Fixed Income Funds GILT Funds Money Market Equity Funds Index Funds Sector Funds Money Market Mutual Funds Balanced Funds Liquid Funds Day 1 Day 2 .Types of Funds .

Telecom) Foreign Securities Fund ( investment in shares of different countries to make it more diversified) • • • • Mid cap or Small cap Equity funds  Option Income Funds (Do not yet exist in India) Diversified Equity Funds (Do not focus on any one or few sectors or shares) Equity Index Funds (These funds take only the overall market risk) Value Funds (Invests in the companies whose shares are under-priced) Equity Income or Dividend yield funds (Invests in the shares of the companies  with high dividend yield.) • Speciality Funds   Sector Funds (Bank. IT.What are equity funds? Predominantly invest in equity shares of the company. • Aggressive Growth Funds (Targets maximum capital appreciation.) • Growth Funds (Capital appreciation over 3 to 5 years at above average rate. Power.) Day 1 Day 2 . Choices in equity funds. Pharma.

What are Gilt Funds? • • • • • It invests only in securities that are issued by the Government and therefore do not carry any credit risk Government papers are called as dated securities also. It invests in medium to long-term government papers. Lowest in the order of risk level. Securities Enables retail Participation Day 1 Day 2 . The investment portfolio is very liquid and enables investors to hold their investments for very short horizons of a day or more.What are Liquid / Money Market funds? • • • These debt funds invest only in instruments with maturities less than a year. Ideal for institutional investors who have to invest in Govt.

ELSS ( Equity Linked Saving Scheme ) • 3 year lock in period • Minimum investment of 90% in equity markets at all times • So ELSS investment automatically leads to investment in equity shares.1 lakh allowed • Dividends are tax free. Day 1 Day 2 . • Open or closed ended. • Eligible under Section 80 C up to Rs. • Benefit of Long term Capital gain taxation.

Fixed Term Plan Series • FTPs are closed ended in nature. and closes the issue after an initial offering period. • Fixed Term plan are usually for shorter term – less than a year. • AMC issues a fixed number of units for each series only once. • They are not listed on a stock exchange. Day 1 Day 2 . • FTP series are likely to be an Income scheme. • Good alternate of Bank deposits/ corporate deposits.

Gold futures or shares of gold mines.Commodity Funds • It will invest directly in commodities or through shares of the commodity companies or through commodity futures contract. • Gold funds invest in Gold. • Most common example of such fund is preciousmetal fund. Day 1 Day 2 .

Exchange Traded Funds
• It combines the best features of open end and closed structure. • It tracks a market index and trades like a stock on the stock market. • ETFs are not the index funds
It

• • • •

can : Invest in real estate Fund real estate developers Buy shares of housing finance companies Buy securitized assets.

Real Estate Funds

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How are funds different in terms of their risk profile?
Equit y Funds Debt Funds Liquid a nd Mo ne y Ma rket Funds High leve l o f Re t urn , but has a high le vel o f ris k t o o Re t urns c o mpa rat ively le s s ris ky t ha n e quit y f unds Pro vide s t a ble but lo w le vel o f ret urn

Important points

In USA, a MF is constituted as an investment company and an investor buys the share of the fund. In USA, all mutual funds are open ended. In USA, funds are also classified as Tax Exempt and Non Tax Exempt Funds In India, classified as Open – Closed ended, Load and No Load Funds. Mutual Fund is NOT a company, it can be called as a portfolio of stocks, bonds and other securities or it can be called as pool of funds used to purchase securities on behalf of investors or a collective investment

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Very Important Points to Remember
• An Open Ended Fund offers repurchase facility unconditionally at all times (But It is not obliged to keep selling new units at all times). • A Gilt Fund is a special type of Fund that invests in Dated Securities only. • Units from an Open ended fund are bought through Agencies appointed by AMC ( Distributors, Banks, Post offices, brokers etc.) • The Unit Capital of a closed Ended Fund is fixed. Also the number of units are also fixed. • Each unit holder of a mutual Fund is part owner of the asset of that Mutual fund ( he is not a creditor, not a debtor and not a trustee of that mutual fund). • Units from an Open Ended fund are bought from the Fund Itself ( not from the AMFI, stock exchange, distributors or the banks). • The assured return schemes of the UTI have gradually been wound up.

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Day 1 Day 2 . Q-3 Which of the following fund targets capital appreciation over 3 to 5 year period at above average rate? (a) Aggressive growth fund (b) Growth fund (c) Sector fund (d) None of the above. Q-2 Which of the following was the first scheme launched by UTI Mutual Fund? (a) US 64 (b) Children Growth Plan (c)Master share (d) None of the above.Questions for Revision Q-1 A mutual fund investor (a) Has a say in deciding the individual securities to be included in the portfolio (b) Can ask the fund manager to construct a tailor-made portfolio for him (c) Can never change the investment manager of the scheme (d) Delegates the decision of portfolio construction to the fund manager.

Q-3 : (b). Q-4 : (b). Q-6 : (a). Q-5 : (d). Q-7 : (b) Questions for Revision Day 1 Day 2 . Q-2 : (d). Q-5 Gold funds can invest in (a) Gold (b) Gold futures (c) Shares of gold mines (d) All of the above. Q-7 Which one of the following funds does not qualify as a speciality fund? (a)Pharma Fund (b)Balanced Fund (c) Small-Cap Fund (d) Emerging Markets Fund Answers: Q-1 : (d). Q-6 Which of the following is not charged by the no-load funds? (a) Marketing expenses (b) Management and advisory charges (c) Ongoing expenses (d) Both (b) and (c) above.Q-4 GIC launched the mutual fund product in phase (a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV.

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 2 Fund Structure and Constituents Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

Structural Framework of Mutual Funds Sponsor Trustee AMC Responsible for investors money (Primary Guardian) Fund Management Banks *Custodians are appointed by Trustees Marketing & Distribution Registrar & Custodian* .

It is mandatory to have a three tier structure of SponsorTrustee-Asset Management Company. The Sponsor is the promoter and he appoints the Trustees who are responsible to the investors of the fund.What is the regulatory structure of MF in India? • The structure of mutual funds in India is governed by SEBI(Mutual Fund)Regulations. 1996. AMC is the business face of the mutual fund as it manages all the affairs of the fund • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

Sponsor must contribute at least 40% of the net worth of the AMC Sponsor could be a bank (SBI.Who can be the Sponsor? What does the Sponsor do? • The sponsor establishes the mutual fund and registers the same with SEBI Sponsor appoints the Trustees. Birla.) • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 . Tata etc. HDFC) a financial institution (Fidelity. the AMC and custodians with prior approval of SEBI and in accordance with SEBI Regulations Sponsor must have a 5-year track record of business interest in the financial markets Sponsor must have been profit making in at least 3 of the above 5 years. PNB. Franklin Templeton) or a Corporate (Reliance. ICICI.

Mutual fund is just a “pass-through vehicle” In India. Mutual funds are organized as trusts. The trust is either managed by a Board of Trustees. • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 . or by a trustee company. The fund sponsor acts as the Settler of trust. The trustees hold the unit holders money in a fiduciary capacity. contributes the initial capital and appoints the trustees to hold the trust for the benefit of the unit holders. the investors are the beneficial owners of investments.How are Mutual Funds Structured? • In India Mutual fund is the form of a Public Trust created under the Indian trust Act 1882. (Money belongs to unit holders) In legal sense.

Trustees are the primary guardians of the unit-holders’ funds and assets. • • • Day 1 Day 2 . Trustee of one mutual fund can not be a trustee of another mutual fund. The 3rd schedule of the SEBI regulations specifies the content of the trust deed.• There must be at least 4 members in the Board of Trustees and at least 2/3 of the members of the board of trustees must be independent.

Day 2 • • • Day 1 . in consultation with the sponsor and according to SEBI Regulations All Mutual Fund Schemes floated by the AMC have to be approved by the Trustees Trustees can seek remedial actions from AMC.What are the rights of the Trustees? • • • Trustees appoint the AMC. on half yearly basis a report on the activities of the AMC Trustees must ensure compliance with SEBI regulations SEBI Regulations require that the meeting of the trustees should be held at least once in every two months. and in cases dismiss the AMC What are the obligations of the Trustees? • Trustees must ensure due diligence on the part of AMC in the appointment of constituents and business associates Trustees must furnish to the SEBI.

at all times An AMC cannot be an AMC or Trustee. 10 Cr.Regulatory requirements for the AMC? • • • • • • • Only SEBI registered AMC can be appointed as investment managers of mutual funds AMC must have a minimum net worth of Rs. Day 1 Day 2 . other than that of asset management At least half of the members of the Board of an AMC. of another Mutual Fund AMC’ s cannot indulge in any other business. have to be independent The 4th Schedule of SEBI regulations spells out rights and obligations of both trustees and AMCs The agreement between the Trustees and the AMC is known as “Investment Management Agreement”..

Who appoints the AMC and defines its functions? • The sponsors. in which the sponsors and their associates or JV partners . 10 Cr. which spells out the functions of the AMC • • • Day 1 Day 2 . if authorized by the trust deed appoint the AMC.are shareholders The AMC has to be a SEBI registered entity. with a minimum net worth of Rs. The AMC is usually a private limited co. The trustees sign an investment management agreement with the AMC.. or the trustees.

What do the Registrar and Transfer Agents do? They are responsible for issuing and redeeming units of the Mutual Fund. Their other services include: • Process investor applications Record details of Investors Send information to Investors Process dividend payout Incorporate changes in investor information Keeping Investor information up to date Example Karvy and CAMS • • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

What is the role of selling and distribution agents ? • Selling agents bring investors funds for a commission Distributors appoint agents and other mechanisms to mobilize funds from investors Banks and post offices also act as distributors The commission received by the distributors is split into initial (Upfront) commission which is paid on mobilization of funds and trail commission which is paid depending on the time the investor stays with the fund Sponsor or an associate can also act as a distributor for the AMC. • • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

What are the functions of the custodians ? • Responsible for the securities held in the mutual fund’s portfolio and is required to be registered with SEBI Custodian is appointed by the Board of Trustees Keep an investment record of the mutual fund Collect dividends and investment payments due on the mutual funds investment The custodian and sponsor cannot be the same entity The custodian is the guardian of the funds and assets of investors • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

Various Forms of Fund Mergers and Takeovers • Merger of AMC to become a single entity ( Example : HB Mutual and Taurus Mutual ) AMC takeover by sponsors ( Example : ITC Threadneedle and 20th century taken over by Zurich) ( ITI by Franklin Templeton) (Alliance by Birla) Scheme takeover (Apple’s scheme taken over by Birla AMC ) and ( Zurich’s Scheme Takeover by HDFC Mutual Fund) • • Day 1 Day 2 .

Approval required for Various Mergers and Acquisition Trustee Mergers of two AMCs Takeover of AMCs Takeover of Schemes YES YES YES SEBI YES YES YES Exit option without High Court Unit Holders Load 75% in case YES of CES YES NO NO Informed Informed NO YES Day 1 Day 2 .

• Fund manager is responsible for filing details of the funds’ portfolio with SEBI.Important Points • In USA. the regulatory body is known as Securities Exchange Commission. Day 1 Day 2 . • The sponsor may be compared to promoter of a company • Issuing units and redeeming units is the role of Transfer Agent • The appointment of AMC can be terminated by Majority of directors of trustees.

• Sponsor contributes to the capital of the AMC. • Sponsor can not act as Custodian of the Mutual Fund Day 1 Day 2 .Important Points • A sponsor of a mutual fund can act as the distributor of the Mutual fund. • Sponsor can not act as Trustee of Mutual fund. • Sponsor can invest in his own fund’s schemes. • Sponsor can contribute to the initial corpus of the trust.

a mutual fund has to be structured: (a) As a trust (b) As an investment company (c) Either as a trust or as a company at the choice of the sponsor (d) None of the above Q-3 Which of the following is true with respect to the merger of two AMCs? (a) The Companies Act apply to the mergers of the two AMCs (b) For such mergers the approval of respective High Court is also needed (c) Merger of HB and Taurus is the example of the merger of two AMCs (d) All of the above.Questions for Revision Q-1 The appointments of fund distributors are made by (a) The Transfer Agents (b) The Fund Sponsor (c) The Trustees (d) The AMC Q-2 In India. Day 1 Day 2 .

Questions for Revision Q-4 Which of the following entities is responsible for issuing and redeeming units? (a) Custodian (b)Bankers (c) Registrar (d) Distributors. Q-5 The acquisition of Zurich by HDFC is the example of (a) Scheme takeover (b) AMC takeover by a new sponsor (c) Merger of two AMCs (d) None of the above. Q-3 : (d). Answers: Q-1 : (d). Q-4 : (c). Q-2 : (a). Q-5 : (a) Day 1 Day 2 .

Chapter 3 Legal and Regulatory Framework Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt. Day 1 Day 2 .

come under the regulatory umbrella of SEBI. Day 2 Day 1 . Liquid funds which invest in money market instruments are now governed by SEBI alone. except offshore funds i. Stock Exchanges and share brokers. are managed by a UTI AMC and under purview of the SEBI SEBI regulates Share Registrars. it requires RBI permission All schemes of UTI are now under UTIMF. 1996 SEBI regulates all funds.e. those schemes offered in a foreign country Bank-sponsored mutual funds were jointly regulated by SEBI and RBI Subsequently it has been clarified that all MFs being primarily capital market players.Regulating Agencies of Mutual Fund • • • • • • • • • • SEBI ( Established in 1992 by an Act of Parliament) Mutual Funds are regulated by SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. Custodians. ( Money Market Mutual Funds are now regulated by SEBI) If a bank-sponsored mutual fund offers a guarantees. But it does not regulate Non Banking Finance companies. Mutual Funds. RBI regulates the money and government securities market where the mutual funds invest but the not the MMMF.

Day 2 Day 1 .What is the role of Ministry of Finance in mutual fund regulations ? • • • The finance ministry is the supervisor of both the RBI and SEBI Aggrieved parties can make appeals to the MoF on the SEBI rulings relating to mutual funds AMCs has to file its annual statements with Registrar of Companies ( RoC) What are self regulatory organizations (SRO’s)? − − − − − − Stock exchanges are Self-Regulatory Organizations SROs are the second-tier in the regulatory structure SROs get their powers from the apex regulating agency and act on their instructions SROs cannot do legislation of their own SROs regulate only their own members in limited manner SROs facilitate decentralization in the regulatory structure.

is not an SRO. To develop a cadre of well trained distributors AMFI is governed by a board of directors elected from mutual funds and is headed by a full time chairman. To increase public awareness of the mutual fund industry. commercial and professional standards in the industry.What are the objectives of AMFI ? AMFI is an industry association. Objectives • • To promote the interests of mutual funds and unit holders. To set ethical. • • Day 1 Day 2 . incorporated in 1995. It cannot enforce regulations. so it can just issue guidelines to members.

1)The scheme can be wound up 2)Meeting of unit holders can be called 3)Appointment of the AMC of the mutual fund can be terminated Day 1 Day 2 . Af t er 3 years he will be paid at NAV applicable at t he end of 3rd year 4. at least once in 6 months . Mutual funds have to allot units within 30 days of the closure of the issue and also open the scheme for redemption. If an invest or f ails t o claim t he dividend or red empt ion proceeds he has t he right s t o claim it up t o a period of 3 years f rom t he due dat e at t he t hen prevailing NAV.What are the rights of the investors in respect of service standards that they can expect from MFs? 1. if it is an open . Investors are entitled to receive dividends declared in a scheme within 30 days 2. Redemption proceeds have to be sent to investors within 10 days 3. Trustees will have to ensure that any information having a material impact on the unit holders investments should be made public by the mutual fund 7. If 75% of the unit holders so decide. Such disclosure should be done within 30 days from 6 monthly account closing dates of the fund 6.ended scheme daily and publish their entire portfolios.

What are the limitations to investors right ? Investors cannot sue the trust as they are not distinct from the trust • Investors cannot lodge complaints against the trustees (with the Registrar of Public Trusts) or the AMC (with the CLB). 9. They also have a right to repurchase at NAV without any load. • Investors cannot be compensated if the performance of the fund is below expectations.8. • Day 1 Day 2 . the unit holders have to be notified through a letter. If there is any change in the fundamental attributes of the scheme. Only after his investment in the scheme he becomes eligible for the earlier mentioned rights. • Investors can lodge complaints with SEBI for non-compliance. • There are no legal remedies for to a prospective investor. Unit holders have the right to receive the complete statement of the scheme portfolio before the expiry of one month from the close of each half year. before such change is effected. Unit holders have the right to inspect certain documents 10.

If an investor failed to claim the redemption proceeds after 3 years of due date he has the right to receive an amount equal to (a) Zero (b) Face value of the unit (c) Due date NAV plus interest @15% p. Bank owned mutual funds are regulated by: (a) RBI and SEBI (b) Respective parent banks (c) RBI (d) SEBI Q-2. right to wind up a scheme. The fund investors are neither shareholders nor depositors in the AMC Unit holders have right to timely service. right to terminate the AMC. Investors money is not protected by the Companies Act. SEBI requires that sponsors of a new scheme should appoint a compliance officer who must issue a Due Diligence Certificate to the effect that all regulations have been complied with by the fund and sponsors. The body to which investors may address their complaints is SEBI. right to approve changes in fundamental attributes.a. Questions for Revision Q-1. 3rd Schedule of SEBI (MF) regulations 1996 specifies the contents of the Trust Deed. right to information.Important Points • • • • • • • SEBI entertains the complaints against MF and intervenes with fund managements to help the investor. Q-2 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . (d) NAV at the end of three years after the due date Answers: Q-1 : (d).

Chapter 4 Offer Document Day 1 Day 2 .

the name of the sponsor. AMC etc. trustee.The Offer Document Offer Document is the most important source of information about a mutual fund scheme for investors • OD is the operating document and describes the product • An abridged (summary) version of the OD is Key Information Memorandum (KIM) • Investors are required to read and understand the OD • Investors sign the form stating that they have read the OD. • Mandatory disclaimer clause of SEBI should also be on the cover page of the OD • The format and contents of the OD must be as per SEBI guidelines • The OD is issued by the AMC on behalf of the trustees • The AMC is responsible for the information in the OD Day 1 Day 2 . No recourse is available to investors for not reading the OD or KIM • The cover page of OD contains details of scheme being offered.

Day 1 Day 2 .The Content Broadly the OD issued by MFs in India are required by SEBI to include the following: • Details of the sponsor and the AMC • Description of the scheme and the investment objectives/strategy • Terms of the issue • Historical statistics • Investor’s right and services.

g. For e. while KIM is the summary document If any information is crucial to the investor. it will be found in both OD and KIM. if the scheme is an assured return scheme the OD must contain a due diligence certificate signed by a compliance officer. an AMC employee – The due diligence certificate states that: • Information in the OD is according to SEBI formats • Information is verified and is true and a fair representation of facts • All constituents of the fund are SEBI registered Day 1 Day 2 . details of guarantee.The Offer Document • • • • • • • • • • Close-ended funds issue an OD at the time of the IPO Open-ended funds have to update OD and KIM at least once in 2 years Copy of all the changes in the OD is to be filed with SEBI Trustees approve the contents of the OD and KIM KIM is compulsorily made available with every application form SEBI does not approve or certify the contents of the OD Investor’s rights are stated in the OD The OD contains detailed info.

Association of Persons. HUF. explanations should be given – Investor’s rights are stated in the OD – 3 year track record of investor’s complaints and redressal should be disclosed – Any pending cases or penalties against sponsor or AMC – The borrowing restrictions on the mutual fund should be disclosed. Corporate.• The following information would be available in the OD: – Category of Investors eligible to apply. name of guarantor. Society. Trust. including the purpose and limit of borrowings and the borrowing at the end of last fiscal year – In case of a guaranteed scheme. OCB etc – Information on existing schemes and financial summary to be given for 3 years – Information on transactions with associate companies to be provided for past 3 years – If any expense incurred in a past scheme is higher than what was stated in OD. their net worth and past performance of assured return schemes Day 1 Day 2 . viz. FI. PIO. Individual. NRI.

their performance in the OD. • Investor approval is not needed. lock-in period. fund objectives. For eg. but the details of their role. asset allocation. loads and charges etc. • For any change in fundamental attributes. SEBI and Trustee approval is required. responsibilities and duties will be found in OD • There is no information about other mutual funds. However.– The name and addresses of trustee and AMC directors will be found in KIM. Fundamental attributes • Fundamental attributes of a scheme are its basic features. Day 1 Day 2 . only broad asset allocation will be given. open or close ended. No comparison or data on performance of other mutual funds is found in OD • The OD and KIM will not contain names of securities in which the fund plans to invest. each investor must be informed through a communication and given the option to exit without exit load.

closing and earliest closing date of offer. Opening . Name of the scheme.What are the mandatory disclosures to be made on the cover page ( Front Page) of the OD? • • • • • • • • • • • Name of the mutual fund. Type of scheme ( growth. balanced etc. Classes of units offered for sale. income. Name of the guarantor in case of assured return schemes. Day 1 Day 2 . Date of its publications. Price of units plus applicable load. Mandatory statements.) Major Objective Name of the AMC.

What are the standard risk factors? • Mutual fund and securities are subject to market risk and there is no assurance that the objective will be achieved NAV of units issued under the scheme can go up or down depending on factors and forces affecting capital markets. The name of the scheme does not in any manner indicate any either the quality of the scheme or the future performance of the scheme • • • Day 1 Day 2 . Past performance of the sponsor/AMC/ Mutual fund does not indicate the future performance of the scheme.

if any If a scheme offers assured returns. investment strategy and asset allocation of the scheme Risk arising from non –diversification . the scheme must state that the assurance is on the basis of the guarantees provided by the sponsor/AMC If the AMC has no previous experience in managing a mutual fund. a disclosure to the at effect should be made • • • Day 1 Day 2 .What are scheme specific risks? • Risk arising from investment objective.

• OD contains the accounting policies to be followed. he can just refer to KIM • The OD do not contain the address of the Trustees of MF • The offer document is issued by the AMC / Trustees • OD is a legal document. key personnel. investor relation officer. Such policies should be in accordance with the SEBI regulations. transfer agent and the statutory auditor. AMC and its directors. • OD issued for launching of a new schemes is valid for a period of six months and if the scheme is not launched within this period a fresh OD is required to be filed. registrar. Day 1 Day 2 . the OD is known as prospectus • The first time investor should read detailed offer document.Important Points regarding OD and KIM • In USA. • OD must disclose the names and background of fund managers. custodian. once he has gained familiarity with the AMC.

Important Points
• KIM is available at various distribution points such as banks, distributors and brokers • AMC must confirm that a due diligence certificate signed by Compliance officer / CEO / MD has been submitted to SEBI. • If a scheme’s name implies that it will invest primarily in a particular type of security or in certain industry, then it will invest at least 65% of the value of its assets in the indicated type of security/ industry. • OD must contain brief description of investors’ complaint history for the last 3 Fiscal years of existing schemes.

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Questions for Revision
Q-1 Which of the following is the operating document for a mutual fund? (a) Offer document (b) KIM (c) Trust deed (d) None of the above. Q-2 The OD may not disclose the names and background of (a) Fund manager (b) Key personnel (c) Investor relation officer (d) Statutory auditor (e) None of the above. Q-3 Offer Document issued for the launch of the new scheme is valid for a period of (a) 1 month (b) 3 months (c) 6 months (d) 1 year. Q-4 Which of the following is not the scheme specific risk factor? (a) Risk arising from the schemes objective (b) Risk arising from the non-diversification (c) No previous experience in managing a fund (d) Movement in NAV because of the market movements.

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Questions for Revision
Q-5 Which of the following document is attached with the application form? (a) Offer document (b) Prospectus (c) Offer for sale document (d) KIM. Q-6 SEBI directs that certain information must appear on the cover page of the offer document of any scheme. This includes the following except (a) A statement to the effect that the document contains information that a prospective investor should know before investing (b) A description of the investment policies for the scheme on offer (c) Opening, closing and earliest closing date for the offer (d) Type of scheme and price of units on offer Q-7 Only one of the following statements is correct as regards the required frequency of updating the contents of the Offer Document of an existing mutual fund scheme. Which one? (a) Once issued, the Offer Document of an existing scheme cannot be updated (b) The Offer Document must be updated whenever there is a material change in its contents (c) The Offer Document must be updated on a half-yearly basis (d) The Offer Document must be updated on a yearly basis. Answers: Q-1 : (a), Q-2 : (e), Q-3 : (c), Q-4 : (d), Q-5 : (d), Q-6 : (b), Q-7 : (b)

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Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 5 Fund distribution and Sales Practices Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

What are the categories of investors eligible to buy MF units? • • • • • • • • • • Resident Individuals Indian Companies Indian trusts and charitable institutions Banks NBFC’s Insurance companies Provident funds Non-resident Indians / PIO OCB’s SEBI registered FII’s Day 1 Day 2 .

charitable trusts are not allowed to invest in some category of schemes in some funds. • For example. every investment does not require RBI approval.Important point • Distributor should look up the offer document to see which category of investors are allowed to invest in any particular scheme of the fund. as it is possible that some categories are not allowed to invest in some schemes. So in this case distributor should refer offer document. Day 1 Day 2 . has to compulsorily redeem the units after obtaining foreign citizenship • FIIs can invest in Mutual Funds through their Non Resident Rupee Account • RBI has granted a blanket permission to NRI. • Any investor who becomes a foreign citizen after investing in a fund. OCB and FIIs.

028 have taken the ARN numbers ( as on 31/3/2005) Day 1 Day 2 . 2004.A person has to sign an agreement with a fund on non judicial stamp paper.837 are AMFI certified and 30.Distribution Channels • Individual Agents. Such exempted distributors were required to complete AMFI’s refresher course by Sep 30. 2003. He has to be AMFI certified also to sell Mutual Fund products. • Only exemption is distributors above 50 years of age and with at least 5 years of experience as on Sep 30. • Distribution Companies • Banks and NBFCs • Post Offices • Direct Marketing – CURRENTLY 49.

What are the AMFI recommended best practices for mutual fund agents?
1. Agents must be fully aware and informed about the features of the products that they offer to the investors 2.Agents should be highly familiar with the profile of the investors, in terms of return expectations, requirements and risk tolerance 3. Agents must strive to cultivate disciplined approach to investing and a regular investment habit among clients 4. Agents must have a thorough understanding of the needs of their investors 5. Agents must be able to help investors to choose from alternative investment products, and enable an appropriate asset allocation 6. Agents should seek from investors the commitment to invest to enable which they may assist the client with the forms and procedures for investing

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What is SEBI’s advertising code?
1.The dividends declared or paid shall be mentioned in Rs/unit along with the face value of each unit and the prevailing NAV at the time of declaration of the dividend. 2.Only compounded annualised yield can be advertised if the scheme has been in existance for more than 1 year 3.All performance calculations shall be based only on NAV and the payouts to the unit holders . 4.Annualised yield should be shown for 1,3,5 years and since launch of the scheme. For funds with less than 1 year performance can be in terms of total returns. 5.Appropriate benchmarks and identical time period must be used while comparing. Once chosen the benchmark should be used consistently over time. 6. All advertisements should in the main body of the adevertisement immediately after the return/yields and in the same font mention that past performance may or may not be sustained in future 7. Where any ranking is used such ranking should be appropriately mentioned.

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What is the AMFI Code of Ethics?

Management of the fund ought to be in the interest of unit holders High standards of service are expected from the fund. Adequate disclosures by the funds ought to be made to the unit holders and trustees. Funds are urged to adopt the use of professional selling practices. Management of funds collected has to be in accordance with stated investment objective Funds should avoid conflicts of interest in dealings by directors, officers and employees. Funds have to refrain from unethical market practices.

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Trail is an effective way to restrict the practice of rebating. • Day 1 Day 2 . and link commissions • The rates of commission are decided by the mutual fund themselves and are not subject to regulation by either AMFI or SEBI.Paid as a fixed percentage of amount mobilised by agents Trail commission .it is paid periodically on the funds that remain invested in the scheme.What is the commission structure for mutual fund agents? The commission consists of two components Initial ( Upfront )commission .

Maximum Entry load or Exit load is 7%. Day 1 Day 2 . A No load Fund is one in which the Initial issue expenses are not charged to the investors. CDSC is an exit load that varies with holding period. Entry or Exit load for closed ended funds is 5% CDSC is Contingent Deferred Sales Charges. It is less for investors who stays longer in the fund. It is primarily used to meet the expenses related to sale and distribution of units Load charged on sale of units is entry load.Loads • • • • • • • • • • Load is charged to investor when the investor buys or redeems units. Load charged on redemption is exit load. It increases the price above the NAV for new investor. Max. Load is an amount which is recovered from the investor. (For Open ended Funds) The difference between the repurchase price and the sale price is not permitted to exceed 7% of the sale price. It reduces price.

Questions for Revision Q-1 Which one of the following statements is correct? (a) An individual agent can distribute/sell only one mutual fund's products (b) Any category of distributors/agents can distribute as many of the mutual funds' products as allowed by the concerned AMCs (c) Banks are not allowed to sell mutual fund products. Q-3 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . Answers: Q-1 : (b). Q-2 : (c). if the AMC approves their applications (c) Employees of banks who distribute the funds (d) None of the above. Q-3 Which of the following categories of distributors will be exempt from passing the AMFI Mutual Fund Test? (a) All the existing agents of UTI mutual fund and other funds (b) New applicants for distributorship. except their own funds' (d) A distribution company can distribute/sell only one mutual fund's products Q-2 Which of the following can invest in Indian Mutual fund? (a) SEBI (b) RBI (c) Foreign Banks (d) AMFI.

Chapter 7 Investor Plans and Services Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt. Day 1 Day 2 .

investor has to impose voluntary self discipline. It allows the investor flexibility with respect to the amount and frequency of investment. • In VAP. Nomination and Transfer by unit holders. • VAP is modified version of SIP. Periodic statements and Tax Information Loans against units – MF DOES NOT GIVES LOANS but banks can give against units held by unit holder. NRI investors have to make payments from their FCNR bank account or their NRE Account. It gives benefit of Rupee Cost averaging ( Discussed in later half of presentation). It is Voluntary Accumulation Plan. Cheque writing – usually for liquid funds. SIP and VAP Other Investment Services − − − − − − − Telephone / Internet Transactions. FIIs can make payments from their Non-Resident Rupee Account Day 1 Day 2 .• SIP is investing a fixed sum periodically in a disciplined manner for long term.

Growth option and Dividend Option • Automatic Reinvestment Plans (ARP) – Reinvestment of amount of dividend made by fund in the same fund and receive additional units. • Systematic Investment Plans(SIP) – For regular investment • Systematic Withdrawal Plan (SWP) – For regular income (SWP is not similar to MIP as SWP allow investor to get back the principal amount) • Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) – Transfer on a periodic basis a specified amount from one scheme to another within the same fund family.Investment Plans • Broadly 2 options. It gives Benefit of Power of Compounding. Day 1 Day 2 .

Q-3 Which of the following is not true with respect to the voluntary accumulation plan? Answer: Q-1 : (a).Questions for Revision Q-1 Investor A has opted for a systematic transfer plan. Q-3 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . This means (a) The investor is allowed to transfer on a periodic basis a specified amount from one scheme to another scheme within the fund family (b) A specified amount is automatically transferred from his bank account to his fund account (c) The investor can withdraw specified amounts at periodic intervals from the plan (d) The investor can invest any amount in the scheme at periodic intervals Q-2 Which of the following is not true with respect to the SWP? (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) All allows the investor to make systematic withdrawals on a regular intervals Here the amount withdrawn is treated as the redemption of units SWP is same as the Monthly Income Plan None of the above. It give the flexibility to the investor regarding the amount to be invested It give the flexibility to the investor regarding the frequency of investment VAP follower is obliged to keep investing None of the above. Q-2 : (c).

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 9 Measuring And Evaluating Mutual Fund Performance Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

If Rate = 12%.Performance Measurement • • • • • • • • Change in NAV= ( NAV at end – NAV at beg.)*100 NAV at the beginning Total Return = ( Change in NAV+ Dividend) *100 NAV at beg. Return on investment or Total Return with dividend reinvested at NAV. It is lesser of assets purchased or sold divided by the fund’s net assets. then money will double in 72/12 = 6 years. A 100% turnover implies that the manager replaced his entire portfolio during the period in question 200% means portfolio changed in 6 months A liquid fund has the highest portfolio turnover. Portfolio Turnover Rate – It measures the amount of buying and selling of securities done by the fund. Rule of 72 is a thumb rule used in finding doubling period. Day 1 Day 2 .

-Div. 100 gain is 19. 23 per Unit Interim Div.47% Day 1 Day 2 .47 Ans:19.49 Step 5:Withdral Amt. 10000 So that on the investment of Rs.65 Step 3: Additional Units=1363.55 Step 2:Total Div.55*3=1363. 21 Total Return=? Assume investment of Rs.17 Gain =11947.17 on the investment of Rs.17 Gain of 1947. 3 Ex.94=519. Rs.55+64. 22 per Unit NAV at year end Rs. NAV Rs.Numerical • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Purchase price Rs. 10000 Step 1: Initial Units allotted =10000/22=454.=454.94 Step 4:Total Units=454.65/21=64. =519.17-10000=1947.49*23=11947.

• The income ratio ( It is the net investment income divided by its net assets for the period) – useful for debt fund • Fund size – Small funds are easy to manage and can achieve their objectives in a focused manner with limited holdings.Other performance measures • The expense ratio ( Ratio of total expenses to average net assets of the fund)Funds with small corpus size will have a higher expense ratio affecting investor returns. • Cash holdings Day 1 Day 2 . It is indicator of the Fund’s Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness. • Large funds benefit from economies of scale with lower expense ratios and superior fund management skills.

it should not be annualized. except for liquid mutual funds which have a short investment horizon. − − − Day 1 Day 2 . Borrowings by Mutual Fund − A mutual fund can borrow for a maximum of 20% of net assets. • If the fund performance data relates to a period of less than one year. It is not a permanent source of funds for the scheme. For Maximum period of 6 months. Purpose should be to meet liquidity requirements for paying dividend or meeting redemptions.Important Points • The returns should be computed on an annualized average compound rate of return from cumulative figure.

Benchmarking • Benchmarking should be selected by reference to – The asset class it invests in and the fund’s stated investment objective. • For debt funds. and relative to other comparable financial products. the benchmark should have the same portfolio composition and the same maturity profile • Main benchmark for debt funds is I-sec • Tracking Error – Applicable for Index Fund • SEBI requires MF to specify Benchmark for each scheme in OD & KIM Day 1 Day 2 . relative to other mutual funds. • 3 kinds of benchmarks are used – Relative to market as a whole.

CRISIL: Has 8 debt indices NSE: Has designed Govt.Criteria for peer group comparisons • The investment objective and risk profiles of the two funds should be the same.( same size) • Expense Ratios is also important factor • Funds should be compared over the same periods only − Benchmarking Debt and MM Funds I-SEC: Its I-bex index is often used to track Govt. Besides NSE. securities performance. security index and T-bill index.( Debt with debt and equity with equity) • Portfolio composition of two funds is similar. JP Morgan has also developed a T-bill index. Day 2 − − − Day 1 . ( Gilt cannot be compared with riskier corporate debt) • Fund size should be comparable.

AMFI website Financial News Papers. Mutual Funds website.24. Q-1 An open-end fund was purchased when its NAV was Rs. its NAV was Rs.56% (b) 9.09% (c) 6.06% (d) Insufficient data Q-2 A high portfolio turnover rate for a fund could mean (a) That the fund is very active in its dealing on the market (b) A high level of transaction costs (c) A greater risk-prone portfolio management strategy (d) All of the above Answers: Q-1 : (c).Sources for tracking Mutual Fund Performance • • • • • • • • Mutual Funds Annual & periodic Reports. 18 months later. The annualized percent NAV change is: (a) 5.22. Value Research Newsletters Offer Document of the Fund Analytical Articles • The Credit Rating Agency CRISIL evaluates the Fund Performance and Ranks the Scheme by Performance. Q-2 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . Fund Tracking Agencies – Credence.

Chapter 13 Helping Investors understand Risks in Fund Investing Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt. Day 1 Day 2 .

Jacob’s recommendations of portfolios based on risk level of different funds • Low Risk ( conservative) portfolio : – 50% Gov. bond fund + 20% Growth fund + 10% index funds • High Risk( Aggressive) portfolio : – 25% aggressive growth fund+ 25% international funds + 25% sector funds +15% high yield bond funds+ 10% gold funds Day 1 Day 2 . sec. • Moderate Risk ( cautiously aggressive) portfolio: – 40% growth and income fund+ 30% govt. fund + 50% Money market fund.

It is independent of number of investors in the scheme. Risk Tolerance is independent of the Stock Market Movements. – “Risk” is thus equated with Volatility of Earnings • Equity Price Risk – Company Specific – Sector Specific – Market Level Volatility of an Equity mutual fund comes from: − − − − − − Kind of stocks in the portfolio ( growth/value/big/small) The number of stocks ( Degree of diversification. Day 1 Day 2 . his income and his job security.Evaluating the Risks of a Mutual Fund • What is Risk ? – Risk means the possibility of financial loss. The Risk tolerance of an investor is dependent on his age. Smaller portfolios are more volatile than large PFs) Fund manager’s success at market timings.

SD gives an idea of how volatile the earnings are. A beta of 1 means the fund moves with market. A beta of less than one means the fund will less volatile than the market. Non Diversified funds will have lower ExMarks. Beta of an equity fund measures its RISK. – An index fund will have ExMarks of nearly 100%.Evaluating the Risks of a Mutual Fund • Risk Measures – Standard Deviation – SD measures the fluctuations of a fund`s returns around a mean level. – Disadvantage of SD is that it is based on Past Returns. – Beta Coefficient – Beta relates a fund's return with a market index and measures the sensitivity of the fund's returns to change in market index. – Beta is based on past returns. – Ex Marks of an equity fund measures its Performance Standard Deviation is the best measure of risk. SD measures total risk. ExMarks or a number known as “R-Squared” – How much of a fund's fluctuations is attributable to movements in the overall market from 0 to 100 percent. • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

Risk Adjusted performance Sharpe ratio and Treynor Ratio − Risk premium= Funds return – Risk free rate of return Sharpe Ratio = Risk premium/SD Treynor Ratio = Risk Premium/Beta Both the ratios measures the adequacy of returns against the risk assumed.Evaluating the Risks of a Mutual Fund • Alpha – Risk adjusted performance calculation is called Alpha. − − − Day 1 Day 2 . – Alpha of a fund compares the fund's actual results with what would have been expected given the fund`s beta and the market index performance.

Risk is equated with Volatility of Earnings. Answer: Q-1 : (d).Important Points Important Points • • • • • • Money Market Funds are low risk fund. Short Term investment in Equity market is most risky. Q-2: (c) Day 1 Day 2 . Q-2 Diversification can not reduce (a) Company specific risk (b) Sector specific risk (c) Market risk (d) None of the above. Diversification reduces Company specific risk but it does not reduce Market Risk. Sectoral Fund are high risk fund. LOWER BETA AND HIGHER GROSS DIVIDEND YIELD Questions for Revision Q-1The Sharpe’s ratio divides risk premium by (a) Alpha (b) Beta (c) R squared (d) Standard deviation. BEST FUND WILL HAVE HIGHER EX MARKS.

Helping investors with Financial Planning 12. Investment Management Part-4 11. Accounting. Valuation and Taxation 10.Index Day-2 Part-3 1. Selecting the Right Investment products for Investors 14. Business Ethics in Mutual Fund Day 1 Day 2 . Recommending Financial Planning Strategies to Investors 13. Recommending Model Portfolios and Selecting the Right Fund 15.

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 6 Accounting Valuation and Taxation Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

Day 1 Day 2 .What are net assets of a mutual fund ? The net assets represent the market value of assets which belong to the investors. Net assets are calculated as: Market value of investments Plus(+): Current assets and other assets Plus(+): Accrued income Less(-): Current liabilities and other liabilities Less(-): Accrued expenses Net Assets/Total no. on a given date. A fund’s NAV is affected by four sets of factors − − − − Purchase and sale of investment securities Valuation of all investment securities held Other assets and liabilities Units sold and redeemed. of Units Issued = NAV per unit.

Open –ended funds have to compute and disclose NAVs everyday. closed end funds can compute NAVs every week. • • Day 1 Day 2 . by posting it on the AMFI web site by 8. as permitted by SEBI.m. but disclosures have to be made everyday. Closed end schemes not mandatorily listed on the stock exchange can publish NAV according to the periodicity of 1 month or 3 months.00 p.How frequently is the NAV calculated ? • All mutual funds have to disclose their NAVs daily.

Can the Fund be launched without bearing any initial issue expenses ?  Yes  Such funds are called as no load funds  AMCs can charge an investment management fee. Day 1 Day 2 .What are the initial issue expenses ? Expenses that are incurred in the launch of the fund are called as initial issue expenses.       The costs of registration and fund formation Legal and advisory expenses Costs of launching the scheme Advertisement and promotion expenses Distribution costs Commissions to selling agents SEBI imposes a ceiling of 6% on these expenses. which is 1% higher than the statutory limit. in this case.

Day 1 Day 2 . IIE shall be amortized on a weekly basis over the period of scheme • If an investor exiting the scheme before amortization is completed.Latest changes on Initial Issue Expenses • 6% IIE will be permitted for closed ended schemes only and they will not charge any Entry load • IN CES. marketing and other expenses of sales should be met from the entry load and not IIE. considered as other asset • IN OES. the sales. AMC shall redeem the units only after recovering the balance amortization • Unamortised portion of initial issue expenses shall be included for NAV calculation.

What are the expenses incurred by a mutual fund? • Investment management fees to the AMC Custodian’s fees Trustee fees Registrar and transfer agent fees Marketing and distribution expenses Operating expenses Audit fees Legal expenses Cost of mandatory advertisements & communications to investors • • • • • • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

that can be charged to the fund • Maximum Limit on t he expenses Equity Debt For net assets up to Rs. The second level of regulation refers to the limit on the total expenses. that are identified as having been incurred for the conduct of the business of the fund.50% 2.25% 2% For the next Rs 300 Cr.50% Day 1 Day 2 . There are two levels of restrictions At the first level only certain kinds of expenses. to the income of the fund ? • • No. f net assets 2% 1. of net assets 2.75% 1. can be charged to the fund.Can the AMC charge all the expenses that it incurs. 100 Cr 2.25% For the next Rs 300 Cr.75% For the remaining net assets 1.

100 Crore: 1. Of net assets: 1.100 Cr.25% 2.25% • For the net assets exceeding Rs. Fund type For firs t R s .25% 1. that is 1% higher than the above rates AMC charges are subject to the overall ceiling for expenses discussed in the previous slide.What are the investment management and advisory fees charged by the AMC ? The fees are regulated by SEBI as follows: • For the first Rs. it can charge the scheme a management fee. of net as s ets Above 100 crore Day 1 Day 2 Load N o-load 1.00% • If the AMC does not charge any of the initial issue expenses to the fund.00% 2% .100 Cr.

publication and other general expenses not attributable to any scheme • Expenses on general administration corporate advertising and infrastructure costs • Depreciation on fixed assets Day 1 Day 2 . marketing.Expenses that can not be charged to the Scheme • Penalties and fines for infraction of law • Interest on delayed payment • Legal.

Tax provision for Equity Mutual Fund Equity >65% Dividends Capital Gains Within 12 m After 12 m Investors DDT Short Terms Long Terms Tax Free NIL 10% Tax Free Day 1 Day 2 .

Tax provision for Debt Mutual Funds Debt Mutual Fund Dividend Capital Gain Within 12 m After 12 m Investor DDT Short term Long term Tax free Paid by the Fund As per slab 10% Two options 20% after indexation Day 1 Day 2 .

NHAI.( It is a trust) Under section 10(23 D) • The dividends are tax free in the hands of unit holders but it is liable to dividend distribution tax in case of closed ended fund and debt funds( equity <50%) • under section 54 of Income Tax Act. REC or specified equity (54ED) within 6 months of transfer of units • the bonds must be held for minimum 3 years and no loan be taken against these bonds and the equity must be held for minimum 1 year • The sale and purchase of units in equity oriented scheme of MF is subject to STT at the prescribed rate Day 1 Day 2 . LTCG are exempt from tax if invested in specified bonds (54EC) issued by NABARD.Tax Implication in Mutual Funds • Income earned by any mutual fund registered with SEBI is exempt from tax.

Numerical • An investor purchased units in an approved debt Mutual Fund on Jan. 1998 for Rs. 1. Calculate the capital gain taxes paid by him. 2001 for Rs. • Answer : – Long term capital gain = 250000/ – So Tax on LTCG = 2500000* 10% = Rs. 750000/-. 25000/- Day 1 Day 2 . He sold the units on December 1.500000/-. ( Ignore indexation).

then the loss if any. • Units are not considered under wealth tax • Section 195 – 20% TDS for LTCG and 30% TDS on STCG if unit holder is a NRI. • 48% TDS if unit holder is foreign company.1 lakh in respect of payment out of taxable income towards certain instruments which includes ELSS of Mutual funds. Day 1 Day 2 .Other points • Section 80 C – Individual and HUF are entitled to deduction up to Rs. • Dividend Stripping – Section 94(7) – As per the finance Act 2001. If investor buy units within 3 months prior to record date of dividend and sells those units within 3 months of record date. shall be ignored.

Valuation of Equity Securities • Closing price on valuation date • Selected stock exchange • Use of alternate stock exchange quote • On the basis of earliest previous quote (not more than 30 days prior to valuation date). if it is suspended for more than 30 days. Day 1 Day 2 . AMC/Trustee decide valuation norms and document such norms. • If trading is suspended up to 30 days. last quoted price.

thinly traded. Day 1 Day 2 . Any assets in excess of above limits will be valued zero.non traded. and unlisted equity shares should not exceed 15% of the total assets of open-end scheme and 20% of a closed-end scheme.Thinly traded Equity Securities • Equity and equity related security • Rs.which need to be documented • Aggregate of illiquid securities . 5 lakh or less OR less than 50000 shares in a month • For unlisted: AMC need to make its own judgement and guideline . • If no Trade done during the past thirty days then has to be treated as non traded security and the Valuation is done on basis of “Good Faith”.

Such assets will be classified as NPAs. if the interest and/or principal amount have not been received or have remained outstanding for one quarter. from the day such income/instalment has fallen due. soon after the lapse of a quarter from the date on which payments were due.Valuation of Debt Securities Non Performing Assets (NPA) An asset shall be classified as an NPA. Day 1 Day 2 .

100.02747 The value of the security is increased by 2. If it has to be valued 200 days after issuance. 100 on the date of maturity.02747*200) = 95. so that the security is worth Rs.Valuation of Debt Security • A Debt Security is treated as traded if traded any day during the previous 15 days prior to the date of valuation • A Debt Security if not traded in last 15 days is called Not Traded Security Valuation of a Thinly Traded Security (<182 Days) For example. its value is 90+(0.747 paise every day. 90 and redeemable at Rs. after 364 days.494 Day 1 Day 2 . the accrued interest for each day is = 10/364 = 0. if a security was issued at Rs.

1400.5 crore Q-2 Generally the income earned by the mutual fund registered with SEBI is exempt from tax under section (a) 80 (C) (b)10(35) (c) 10 (23D) (d) 115 (R). The maximum ongoing expenses (excluding issue/redemption expenses) that may be charged to the fund amount to: (a) Rs.75 crore (b) Rs. 27. 26.75 crore (d) Rs. Day 1 Day 2 . Unit Capital is found in the Liability side of scheme’s balance sheet.00 crore (c) Rs. Questions for Revision Q-1An equity fund has weekly average net assets of Rs.00 crore outstanding in the year.Important Points • • • • • Investors’ subscriptions are accounted for by the fund not as liabilities or deposits but as Unit Capital. The Day on which NAV is calculated is known as Valuation Date. 19. 35. Liabilities in Balance sheet of mutual fund are strictly short term in nature. Investment made by Mutual fund on behalf of investors are accounted as Assets.

On July 28. Is this debenture a Non Performing Asset? If yes. Q-4 A mutual fund holds a debenture redeemable after two years and with next quarterly interest receivable on 31/12/2001. Q-5 Which of the following is the most liquid type of shares? (a) Large cap shares (b) Mid cap shares (c) Small cap shares (d) All of the above. Its last quoted closing prices were: Rs. The debenture issuing company failed to pay the interest on that date. as the principal amount is not yet due (c) No. 27 on July 10. it would be considered an NPA from 1/4/2002. Q-2 : (c). it would not be considered an NPA until both principal and interest amounts become overdue (d) Yes.50. using SEBI norms.Question for Revision Q-3 A fund's portfolio includes an equity security which is listed at the NSE. Q-5 : (a) Day 1 Day 2 . Q-4 : (a). the fund should value this security at: (a) 35 (b) 28 (c) 30 (d) 31. Answer: Q-1 : (d). from what date? (a) Yes. if interest is not received for the quarter ending 30/3/2002 as well (b) No. Rs. 35 on July 13 and Rs. Q-3 : (b). 28 on July 16. it would be considered an NPA from 1/1/2002. it is not an NPA.

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 8 Investment Management Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

• Preference shares: Entitle the holders to dividends at a fixed rate subject to availability of PAT • Equity Warrants: Option on stock. Since September 2005 mutual funds are allowed to trade in derivatives. Long-term rights that offer the holders right to purchase shares of a company at a fixed price • Convertible Debentures: Converts into a specified number of equity shares at the end of specified period. Day 1 Day 2 .Types of equity Instruments • Ordinary shares : Ordinary shareholders are the owners of the company.

of shares issued  market price/share) Large Cap M arke t C apitalization High Gre ate r Liquidity Sm l Cap al M arke t C apitalization Low Poor Liquidity C parative ly sm om alle r re turns C parative ly highe r re turns om C ost of transaction low C ost of transaction high Day 1 Day 2 .What are large-cap and small cap shares? The size of a company in the equity markets is determined by market capitalization= (no.

value stocks generally have lower P/E ratio P/E ratio reflects over valuation and under valuation. • Day 1 Day 2 .Price Earning Ratio (P/E) • • • • The P/E ratio : = Market Price Per Share / Earnings Per Share Indicates the price the market is willing to pay per rupee of company’s potential earnings Higher P/E ratio indicates growth stock.

but dividend yield will be lower and vice versa • • Day 1 Day 2 .What is dividend yield? • • Dividend paid is usually a percentage of face value of the share Dividend Yield = (Dividend paid/Market Price) *100 What is the relationship between dividend yield? Both the measures are sensitive to market price per share If market prices are higher. P/E multiple will be higher.

Day 1 Day 2 .g. Have relatively lower PE ratios and higher dividend payouts.Classifications of Stocks • Cyclical Stocks – Cyclical stocks are those whose performance is closely linked to macro economic factors. • Growth Stocks – Stocks having potential for higher earnings. • Value stocks – Companies in mature industries and are expected to yield low growth in earnings. They tend to reinvest the earnings and usually have High PE ratio and low Dividend yields. e. Good assets value. Currently under valued but can yield superior returns later. cement stocks which are linked to infrastructure development in the country.

It requires limited research and monitoring costs and is therefore cheaper. or a subset of the index or choose a basket of shares from multiple indices. that his ability to buy right stock at the right time. that holding a well diversified portfolio is the cost efficient way to better returns. A passive fund manager has to rebalance his portfolio every time changes are made in the index. he would tend to mimic the market index. Active fund manager believes. What is passive equity fund management? • • • • Fund manager believes. (The Expenses are low) Fund manager may choose to mimic a index. Day 2 Day 1 .What is Active equity fund management • • • An active fund manager seeks to give a better performance than on an index Fund manager tends to look at specific attributes in selecting stocks. can translate into superior performance for his portfolio.

Fund Management Styles Active Passive Index Funds Diversified Non diversified Sector Funds Growth Value Growing companies Under-priced companies Day 1 Day 2 .

costs. sales. Day 1 Day 2 .What is the types of equity research done in MF? Fundamental analysis – Future earnings and risk profile considered (whether to buy or not) Fundamental Analysis is the analysis of the profit potential of a company. based on numbers relating to its products. profits and management of the company. Technical analysis – Study of historic data on the company’s share price movements and volume (When to buy and sell) Technical Analysis is the analysis of the market prices and trading volumes data to identify clues to market assessment of a stock.

Instruments in Indian Debt Market
• Certificate of Deposit – Issued by commercial banks and maturity of 91 days to 1 year. • Commercial Paper – Issued by corporate bodies and maturity varies between 3 months to 1 year • Corporate Debentures – Secured by the physical assets • Floating Rate Bonds • Govt. Securities. • Treasury Bills – Issued through RBI by GOI. Tenure is 91 days and 364 days. • Bonds

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Important points on Debt Portfolio Management
• Investments only in Market Traded Instruments (Not in loans as done by banks) • Debt instruments may be secured (debentures) or may be unsecured (FI bonds) • Instruments with maturity less than a year called Money Market Securities. • Instruments with maturity above 1 year are called debt securities. • Zero Coupon Bonds (discounted securities) do not pay regular interest at intervals but are bought discount to their face value and redeemed at face value.

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Important
• Debt instruments are issued by government, corporate or banks • Debt instruments have fixed interest, floating interest or zero interest or coupon i.e. on a discounted basis • Debt markets are wholesale markets and investors are large institutional investors, such as banks, insurance companies, mutual funds and corporate due to large ticket sizes • More than 90% of trading in debt markets is in government securities

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Current Yield (Very Important) • Nominal rate of interest is the rate that is paid to us by the borrower The real rate is the nominal rate less the rate of inflation. Yield is the term used to signify the actual rate earned on an investment. Current yield = [Coupon/market price] * 100 • • • Day 1 Day 2 .

This is the amount payable on redemption – Coupon – the interest paid periodically to the investor – Maturity – the date on which the bond is redeemed.Important points – Principal or Par or Face Value – the amount representing the principal borrowed and the rate of interest is calculated on this sum. investor may exercise the option when interest rates go up. Term to maturity or tenor is the period remaining for the bond to mature – Put option – refers to the option given to the investor to sell (redeem) the bond before maturity. above coupon in the market – Call option – refers to the option to the borrower to buyback (repurchase) before maturity. issuer may exercise the option when interest rates fall below the coupon rate Day 1 Day 2 .

received all the coupon payments. reinvested the coupon at same YTM and received the principal at maturity. It is annual rate of return an investor would realize if he bought a bond at a particular price. • There is inverse relationship between price and YTM of a bond. The curve is usually upward sloping because longer maturities generally offer higher Bond price movements yields and vice versa. • Yield Curve – Graph showing yields for bonds of various maturities. Also known as TSIR ( term structure of interest rates).Measure of Bond Yields • Yield to Maturity( YTM) – It is also known as bond’s Internal Rate of Return (IRR). using a benchmark group of bonds. Interest Price Day 1 Day 2 .

higher the safety and so lower the yield spread So if a bond is downgraded.Risks in Investing in Bonds • • • • • • Interest Rate Risk Reinvestment Risk Call Risk ( The issuer may call back) Default Risk Inflation Risk Liquidity Risk Yield Spreads − Yield Spread = Yield of a particular bond – Yield of benchmark security (risk free) It is the risk premium paid by the bond to induce investor Higher the credit rating. Term to Maturity – It is period until the bonds maturity − − − − Day 1 Day 2 . the yield spread will widen.

Day 1 Day 2 . except for zero coupon bonds • Bonds with longer maturities have longer durations.Duration • It is a more accurate measure of the portfolio maturity profile. • It measure the percentage change in bond’s price with a change in yield • The Duration of a bond is less than its maturity. • An interest bearing bond with a higher coupon rate will have lower duration because a higher proportion of the total inflows will be received in the interim. Changes in interest rate impact bond values in the opposite direction. Yield also gets increased by downgrading of credit rating of the bond. What is the relationship between the price and the yield of the bond ? − − − Price and Yield are inversely related.

Mut ual Funds. 5-10 Years Mut ual Funds. Insurance Companies. Securit ies Cent ral Govt . 91/364 days Mut ual Funds . Provident f unds. st ruct ured PSU's Obligat ions Corporat es Corporat es. Primary 2. Provident f unds. Corporat es Mat urit y Dat ed Cent ral Govt . Insurance 5-10 Years Companies.What are the various types of fixed income securities available in the Indian Market? Issuer Inst rument Invest ors Companies. Provident f unds Banks. Mut ual Funds Banks . Primary Dealers Banks Debent ures Commercial Paper Cert if icat es of Deposit Day 1 Day 2 . Insurance Companies. Individuals Banks. Individuals 3 mont hs 1 Year 3 mont hs 1 Year Banks. Mut ual Funds . Securit ies Bonds. Provident f unds. T -Bills Dat ed St are Govt . 1-12 Years Corporat es. Pd's Banks. Corporat e.30 Years Dealers Banks . Financial Inst it ut ions.

no trading. A MF scheme can invest max.( Exception – Index and Sectoral funds) Debt funds . MF Can invest in ADR / GDRs upto a max.Restrictions • • • • • • • • • Mutual funds can invest only in marketable securities All investments are on delivery basis. A MF under all its schemes cannot hold more than 10% of the paid up capital of a company. whichever is lower. Day 1 Day 2 . 10% of its NAV in a single company.single issuer not more than 15% of NAV for the ‘investment grade’ instrument. limit of 10% of NA or $ 50 million. can be relaxed to 20% with approval of trustees and AMC Investment in the unrated instruments of a single issuer is restricted to 10% of NAV and total for all issuers can not exceed 25% of NAV. Maximum investment in unlisted shares is 10% of NAV for Closed ended schemes Maximum investment in unlisted shares is 5% for Open ended schemes.

• One scheme can invest in another scheme. • Such transfer should not be of illiquid securities. at market prices. up to 5% of net assets. A mutual fund scheme cannot invest in privately placed securities of the sponsor or its associates. Investment by a scheme in listed securities of the sponsor or associate companies cannot exceed 25% of the net assets of the scheme − − Day 1 Day 2 . • Such transfers should not result in significantly altering the investment objectives of the scheme involved.Inter Scheme Transfer • Such transfers happen on a delivery basis. as defined in the valuation norms. No fee is payable on these investments. Investment in Sponsor Company − A mutual fund scheme cannot invest in unlisted securities of the sponsor or an associate or group company of the sponsor.

A normal MF scheme cannot invest in any FoF scheme.New Provisions on Investment Policy • • • Minimum Number of Investors per scheme Purpose of MF is sharing the risks with a large number of investors. A FoF is not allowed to invest its assets other than in schemes of MF. OES are allowed three months or upto end of the succeeding calendar quarter from the close of NFO to ensure compliance with this requirement • Fund of Funds Scheme − A FoF invests in the schemes of other MF. A FoF scheme cannot invest in another FoF scheme.75% − − − − Day 1 Day 2 . So now each scheme and individual plan under the scheme should have a minimum number of 20 investors AND no single investor should account for more than 25% of the corpus of such scheme. except to the extent of its liquidity requirements. Maximum Expense ratio of FoF is capped 0. SEBI requires each scheme to have a minimum number of investors.

Q-2 Calculate the current yield for the following security: 11.4% Q-3 Which of the following instruments have the maturity exceeding one year (a) Treasury bills (b) Certificate of deposits (c) Commercial paper (d) Gilt securities. Corporate Debentures are issued by Manufacturing Companies.5% (b) 11.Important points • • • • • Yield and price move in opposite direction Certificate of Deposits are issued by BANKS Commercial Paper are issued by Corporate.1000 Current price Rs.6% (c) 12.1010 (a) 11.5% (d) 11. Day 1 Day 2 .Face Value Rs.5% GOI Series 2010 . Questions for Revision Q-1 When similar maturity bonds are yielding 11% the bond with 9% coupon will be traded at (a) At par (b) Below par (c) Above par (d) Insufficient information. Cash of a mutual fund is to be held with scheduled banks and not in any other bank.

Questions for Revision Q-4 Duration of a portfolio is calculated to measure portfolio's sensitivity to changes in the:  (a) Interest rates (b) Stock market indexes (c) Inflation rates (d) None of the above. Answers: Q-1 : (b). Q-2 : (d). Q-5 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . Q-4 : (a). Q-5 Generally the cyclical stocks have (a) Higher P/E and lower dividend payout (b) Higher P/E and higher dividend payout (c) Lower P/E and lower dividend payout (d) Lower P/E and higher dividend payout. Q-3 : (d).

Chapter 10 Helping Investors with financial planning Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt. Day 1 Day 2 .

Definition and objective of FP • It is identifying all the financial needs of an individual – Translating needs to monetarily measurable goals – Planning financial investments that will allow individual to provide for and satisfy his future financial needs and achieve his life’s goals. Day 1 Day 2 . The objective is to ensure that right amount of money is available in the right hands at the right point in future to achieve an individual’s financial goals.

Benefits of Financial Planning Financial Plans are tax efficient. • He looks at all of client’s needs including budgeting and saving. insurance and retirement planning. taxes. Benefits to Financial Planner − Ability to establish long term relationships ( Multiple products to one client) − Financial Planner should ideally link his rewards and fees to the clients financial success and achievement of the financial goals. − It provides direction and meaning to financial decisions. • Possesses detailed knowledge of wide range of products and financial planning tools and help clients in choosing the best products. investments. − It allows one to understand how each financial decision one makes affects other areas of one’s finances.Financial Planner • A person who uses the financial planning process to help another person determine how to meet his or her life goals. − Ability to build a profitable business ( NO rebating) − Day 1 Day 2 .

Qualities of a Good Financial Planner • • • • • • • • • Building trust with the client Good knowledge of Financial products Familiarity with taxation and estate planning issues Understanding of stages of client’s life and wealth cycle and asset allocation Independent judgement and balanced thinking Organized way of working Regular contact with clients Clear Focus on Overall Financial Planning of client rather than on individual transactions. The basis of genuine advice should be Financial planning to suit the investor’s advice. Steps to Financial Planning − − − − − − Establish and define client-Planner Relationship Gather client data. Define client Goal Analyze and evaluate clients financial Status Develop and present financial planning recommendations Implement the financial planning recommendation Monitor the financial planning recommendations Day 1 Day 2 .

birth. marriage. house purchase or change of job status) • Investors benefit immensely by starting early and being systematic and disciplined in their approach.Important responsibilities of investors in the financial planning exercise? • Should set measurable financial goals. • Should understand the impact of financial decisions on their cash flows and their income. • Should be willing to revise and re-balance their portfolios with changing market conditions. performance and their changing needs and changes in lifestyle or circumstances( inheritance. Day 1 Day 2 .

• It is not only Tax Planning. saving. It comes before investing. • It is relevant for all category of clients. • A financial planner can link his own rewards and fees to the client’s financial success and the achievement of their financial goals • MUTUAL FUND IS THE MOST IMPORTANT TOOL FOR FINANCIAL PLANNING. Day 1 Day 2 . • It is not as same as retirement planning.( CORE PRODUCT) • Financial is not only investing. • Financial planning is important at younger stage of life.Very important points on financial planning • The planner can look at all the clients need including budgeting. investments. taxes. insurance and retirement planning.

• Financial planners and their clients should focus on allocating funds to different asset classes. • Financial planning is relevant not only to HNIs • Financial planning works better for younger/ middle aged client. • Financial Planning allows a person to achieve financial goals through proper management of finances.Important points on Financial Planning • The basis of genuine investment advice should be financial planning to suit the investor’s situation. Day 1 Day 2 . It should not be current market condition.

Stages of Life Cycle • Childhood Stage • Young Unmarried Stage • Young Married Stage • Young Married with Children Stage • Married with Older Children Stage • Pre-retirement Stage • Retirement Stage Day 1 Day 2 .

High risk appetite Liquid and medium term investments. Ability to take risk and invest for the long term   Wealth preservation.Stage Wealth cycle for investors (Very Important) Financial needs Investment preferences Accumulation stage   Transition Stage     Reaping Stage     Inter Generational transfer   Sudden wealth surge   Investing for long term identified financial goals Near term needs for funds as pre-specified needs draw closer   Higher liquidity requirements     Long term investment of inheritance     Medium to long term   Growth options and long term products. Preference for income and debt products   Low liquidity needs. Lower risk appetite   Liquid and medium term investments. Preference for low risk products Day 1 Day 2 .

For such investors a conservative portfolio with a 70% to 80% exposure to income. gilt and liquid funds would be appropriate. Day 1 Day 2 . they prefer debt investments. Wealth preservers – Those who prefer capital safety and are risk averse. For such investors 70% to 80% allocation to diversified equity and sector funds is advisable.Affluent investors – the rich investors are of 2 types: Wealth creators – Those who prefer growth and are willing to take the risk of equity investments.

Q-2 As a good financial planner. Questions for Revision Day 1 Day 2 . is known as (a) Accumulation (b) Transition (c) Reaping (d) Transfer.Q-1 The stage at which the goals and purpose towards which the clients have been investing have arrived. his wealth cycle stage is (a) Accumulation (b) Transition (c) Reaping (d) Transfer. Q-3 A salaried executive in late fifties who is planning to retire at 60 years of age. you should avoid applying the normal Life Cycle Model to your client who is (a) A 25-year-old unemployed person (b) A 60-year-old person who has just retired (c) A Well-known 32 years old cricketer (d) A 35-year-old unmarried person. Q-4 For older investors who want to transfer their wealth (a) No financial planning is required (b) The right investment strategy depends upon who the beneficiaries are (c) The right investment strategy depends upon the state of the stock market (d) All the funds can be invested in aggressive equity funds.

Q-4 : (b). Q-3 : (b). Answers: Q-1 : (c). Q-2 : (c).Questions for Revision Q-5 A high amount of equity investment is suggested to the investor if he is in (a) Accumulation phase (b) Transition phase (c) Distribution phase (d) Investment has no such relation with any phase of life. Q-5 : (a) Day 1 Day 2 .

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 11 Recommending Financial Planning Strategies to Investors Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

Ideally it should be. • Jacob’s Rebalancing Strategy ( Combination of RCA and Value averaging strategies. discard the non performers and keep the good performers. track your investments.• FINANCIAL PLANNING STRATEGIES • Harness the Power of Compounding – 1% interest per month is better than 12% yearly return.) ( putting regularly money in liquid fund and set a target value for the equity fund) Day 1 Day 2 . • Buy and hold is most common strategy BUT most common mistake.Using a aggressive growth fund and liquid fund of the same family. • Rupee cost averaging • Value Averaging.

• Buy and hold strategy may not be a beneficial strategy because investors may not weed out poor performing companies and invest in better performing companies • Rupee Cost Averaging (RCA) is a technique that involves: – Fixed amount invested at regular intervals – When NAV is down. fewer units are bought – Over a period of time. more units are bought and when price is high. the average purchase price of the investor’s holdings will be lower – Investors use the SIP or AIP to implement RCA • Disadvantage: RCA does not tell when to sell or switch from one scheme to another. Day 1 Day 2 .

25 12.00 70.25 11.18 335.28 790.095.000.46 4.161.250.18 85.358.52 541.140.33 66.11 83.00 2.011.50 9.86 6.68 5.63 1.50 14.65 130.11 117.043.520.33 Day 1 Day 2 .951.Rupee Cost Averaging (RCA) Value of Holding (Rs) 1.603.64 108.24 111.565.00 12.874.75 10.11 95.80 9.00 15.00 80.939.00 903.07 1.50 7.12   Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12   Amount Invested (Rs) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Average Cost NAV (Rs) 10.90 17.00 8.48 7.00 180.00 3.00 3.67 12000/1162= Cumulative No of units 100.74 1.74 10.00 250.61 13.97 9.426.65 8.00   No of units bought 100.63 659.72 113.56 4.28 430.

the average purchase price of the investor’s holding will be lower than if one tries to guess the market highs and lows • • • VA is superior to RCA because it enables the investor to book profits and rebalance the portfolio Investors can use the systematic withdrawal and automatic withdrawal plan to implement value averaging Investors can also use an equity and a money market mutual fund to implement value averaging. the units are sold and the target value is restored – If market moves down. additional units are bought at the lower prices – Over a period of time. Day 1 Day 2 .• Value Averaging (VA) involves: – A fixed amount is targeted as desired portfolio value at regular intervals – If market has moved up.

00 50.25 12.202.65 8.68 3.00 9.90 135.00 12.473.22 (23.86 222.460.35 (164.045.67) Cumulative no of units 100.574.80 9.00 1.53 1.00 8.02) 58.75 10.67 823.Value Averaging Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Target Value (Rs) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 NAV (Rs) 10.00 160.280.50 7.73 1.00 210.50 9.00 Value of Holding 100.00 2.41) (116.71 5.48 156.666.300.285.43 476.67 6.022.00 2.97 13.972.76 190.47 4.25 11.61 9.00 60.50 14.19 666.750.08 916.53 340.00 Units to invest 100.250.67 800.00 Day 1 Day 2 .53 129.75 1.081.23 12.00 15.

Day 1 Day 2 .Some Key concepts of Financial Planning • When to invest – when they have money to invest • When to cash out – When the goals have arrived and clients need the money for the purpose for which they have invested – IF the overall market appears overvalued in terms of fundamentals and historic valuations • Start planning and investing regularly • Have realistic expectations • Invest Regularly • The Strategy advisable for an investor to maximise investment return in long run is Switch from poor performers to Good performers.

equity and money market segments • Asset allocation differs from investor to investor and depends upon their situation. Day 1 Day 2 . their financial goals and risk appetite • The asset allocation for an investor depends upon his life and wealth cycle stage • A model portfolio creates and ideal approach for an investor’ situation and is a sensible way to invest.Asset Allocation • Asset allocation refers to deciding the composition of the portfolio in terms of debt.

being disciplined – Re-balancing the portfolio in a disciplined manner – Periodical review and returning to original allocation – If value of equity component increases.e.Asset Allocation • Investors can have 2 approaches: – Fixed asset allocation – Flexible asset allocation • Fixed asset allocation means – maintaining the same ratio between various components of the portfolio i. it results in higher proportion in equity than debt. investor books profits • Flexible asset allocation means – Allowing the portfolio profits to run. without booking them – If equity market appreciates. Day 1 Day 2 .

• Bogle gives a nice rule of thumb for asset allocation : Debt portion for an investors portfolio should be equal to his age. financial goals and risk appetite. • Depends upon situations. • Example: A 30 year old investor will make 70/30 asset allocation. • Benjamin Graham advocates 50/50 split between equities and bond .Asset Allocation – The Strategic Tool • Allocation of money between equity. But Bogle suggests different combinations. debt and money market instruments. Day 1 Day 2 .

What is Bogle’s strategic asset allocation? • Older investors in the distribution phase: .50% equity : 50% debt • Younger investors in the distribution phase: .80% equity : 20% debt Day 1 Day 2 .60% equity : 40% debt • Older investors in the accumulation phase: .70% equity : 30% debt • Younger investors in the accumulation phase: .

Q-4 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . 30% debt (d) 80% equity. Q-3 : (d). 40% debt (c) 70% equity. sell or switch from one scheme to another (d) Rupee cost averaging has no serious shortcomings. 20% debt. Answers: Q-1 : (c). Q-2 As per Bogle’s strategic allocation the portfolio for the older investor in accumulation phase should be (a) 50% equity. the average purchase price will work out higher than if one tries to guess the market highs and lows (c) It does not inform an investor when to buy. Q-2 : (c). Q-3 Fixed ratio of asset allocation means (a) It is a relatively aggressive approach for managing investments (b) Investing the same amount every month (c) Not doing any re-balancing (d) Balance is maintained by liquidating a part of the position in the asset class with higher return and reinvesting in the other asset with lower return Q-4 Asset allocation for any investor generally depends on (a) Age (b) Financial status (c) Investment objective (d) All of the above.Questions for Revision Q-1 A criticism of rupee-cost averaging is (a) Investment is for the same amount at regular intervals (b) Over a period of time. 50% debt (b) 60% equity.

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 12 Selecting the right Investment Products for Investors Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

debt and money market instruments are direct investments with the borrower/ issuer of securities – Mutual funds represent an indirect investment through an intermediary. • • Products by issuer: Bank deposits – Offer high liquidity and perceived safety – Low or negligible returns after factoring inflation and tax Day 1 Day 2 . debt and money-market instruments – Equity.• Physical Assets include gold and real estate and traditionally very popular – Gold is not subject to value erosion on account of rupee depreciation – Gold is perceived as a protection/hedge against inflation – Gold-linked unit schemes from mutual funds in India are under way – Real estate requires a high capital investment and may not be easy to liquidate at the appropriate price – Some fund houses are preparing to launch Real estate mutual funds in the near future • Financial assets include equity.

– The Rate of interest paid by a company on debentures issued by it depends on the Company’s Credit rating. – The Listing of shares at Stock Exchange ensures High Liquidity as you can trade regularly to sell your shares. Day 2 Day 1 . Debt – Debentures issue a fixed rate of interest – Debentures are secured by the assets of the borrower – Debentures are provided rating by credit-rating agencies – Bonds are also generally provided rating by independent agencies if the maturity exceeds 18 months – Creditworthiness of borrower and risk of default have to be analysed before investing in these bonds and debentures – Company fixed deposits carry a higher interest rate and are unsecured – These would also have tax implications. – The most important factor to look for when investing in a corporate fixed deposit is the Credit Rating of the deposit.• • • Corporate Equity – Issued publicly and listed – Issued privately and unlisted – Investors may acquire shares either at the time of IPO or secondary (stock) market – Equity offers high growth potential and liquidity – The challenge is to identify the right shares that are likely to appreciate – Requires capital to build a diversified portfolio.

Day 1 Day 2 .a.• • Government Public Provident Fund – 15-year product – Risk-free government obligation – Open to individuals and HUFs – Only one account permitted per entity – Offers tax-free interest of 8% p. • Indira and Kisan Vikas Patra – Introduced as post office scheme to tap savings in rural India – Very popular with urban investors also – Current yield is 8% over 6 years. 500) are eligible for deduction under section 80C – Option to withdraw 50% of 4th year balance in the 7th year – Restriction on withdrawal reduces liquidity. and contribution up to Rs.000 (min Rs. fully taxable – IVP permits cash investment and protection of identity – Easily transferable and liquid. 70.

Day 1 Day 2 .• RBI Relief Bonds – Issued by RBI on behalf of the Government of India – A 5-year investment product with 8% interest offering – Interest is currently taxable (used to be tax-free earlier) – Free of risk of default • Government Securities – Long-term government paper – Risk-free government obligation – Low-return and define the benchmark rate of return on the yield curve – Specially appointed Primary dealers deal in G-Secs – Generally high ticket investments – Best accessible to small investors through mutual funds.

Day 1 Day 2 . the policy’s surrender value is paid which is a proportionate value based on premiums paid so far • • A ‘convergence’ of insurance and mutual funds is the development of Unit-Linked Insurance products – which offers investors choice of asset allocation between debt and equity.• Life Insurance – Viewed more for investment and tax purposes than a vehicle for risk protection – Premium qualify for deduction under section 80C – Important to assess need for life insurance with respect to earning potential – A Without Profits policy offers the Sum Assured in the event of death only – A With Profit policy pays not only the Sum Assured but also bonus declared from time to time – In case a policy is discontinued during its tenure. The Amount an insurance company pays to the nominee if a policyholder dies is known as the SUM ASSURED.

Day 1 Day 2 .• A comparison of investment products can be done on risk. ITS disadvantage is low Yield after TAX. volatility and liquidity • Mutual funds combine the advantages of all investment vehicles while doing away with their shortcomings • The returns in a mutual fund are adjusted for market movements. • The advantage of bank deposits is liquidity. • In India. • The biggest advantage of Investment in Gold is hedge against inflation. You have to invest huge amount. Individual Investors does not direct access to Money Market Instruments. • The biggest disadvantage of investment in Real estate is High Purchase Price. return. high perceived safety and low entry price.

Important points • • Mutual Funds are more recommended option for individual investors than direct equity. Direct Investment in stock market can be a better option than investing in Mutual Funds if the investor has large capital. knowledge and resources for research. Q-2 : (d) Day 1 Day 2 . Questions for Revision Q-1 RBI relief bonds have the maturity of (a) 3 years (b) 5 years (c) 7 years (d) 10 years Q-2 Which of the following is not the advantage of bank fixed deposits? (a) Safety (b) Liquidity (c) Lower entry price (d) High yield Answers: Q-1 : (b).

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 14 Recommending Model Portfolios and selecting the right Fund Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

The steps in developing a model portfolio for an investor ( Jacob’s Four Step Program – Developing a Model portfolio) • • • • Develop long term goals. Day 1 Day 2 . Select specific fund managers and their schemes. Determine asset allocation. Determine sector distribution. Developing a Model Portfolio is the most Effective ways to invest through Mutual Funds.

Young couple with 2 incomes and 2 children: – 10% in money market funds. growth and income funds.Jacob’s Model portfolios recommended for investors according to their life cycle stages: • Young unmarried professionals : – – – 50% in aggressive equity funds. Day 1 Day 2 . 25% in conservative money market funds. 25% in high yield bond funds. – 25% in high yield bond funds and long term growth funds. – 35% in municipal bond funds. – 30% in aggressive equity funds.

Contd: • Older couple single Income : – 30% in short term municipal funds – 35% in long term municipal funds – 25% in moderately aggressive equity – 10% emerging growth equity • Recently retired couple : – 35% in conservative equity funds for capital preservation / income – 25% in moderately aggressive equity for modest capital growth – 40% in money market funds Day 1 Day 2 .

What is the recommended portfolio for investors in accumulation phase? • • • Diversified Equity : Sector and balanced funds – 65 – 80% Income and gilt funds : – 15 – 30% Liquid funds and bank deposits : – 5% What is the recommended portfolio for investors in distribution phase? − − − Diversified Equity and balanced funds:  15 – 30% Income funds :  65 – 80% Cash funds:  5% Day 1 Day 2 .

Day 1 Day 2 .• Investors in the Inter-Generational Transfer Phase: – The recommended investment strategy will depend upon the beneficiaries • Investors in the sudden wealth stage : – Take into account the effect of taxes. – Keep the money in safe liquid investments and take the time to decide what to do with the money.

portfolio turnover. portfolio concentration. market capitalisation of the fund. portfolio statistics.Selecting the right equity funds • Look at Fund size • Look at fund age • Look at Portfolio’s managers experience • Look at cost of investing • Portfolio characteristics like Cash position. Day 1 Day 2 .

Most important points • The Liquidity needs of an investor are met through Money Market Funds. • A retired person generally needs a greater proportion of Debt Funds. • A young investor. Day 1 Day 2 . • A very High proportion of investment in all types of equity funds is advised for investors in accumulation phase. • A high proportion of investment in income funds is required by investors in distribution phase. • Retired investors should not invest in securities which bear risk of capital erosion. should be advised to invest in Equity Growth Funds. for growth and wealth creation. • The Transition phase of an investor’s wealth cycle is when the Financial Goals are approaching.

• The size of the market cap of fund’s equity holdings is inversely proportional to the level of risk assumed by the fund. Beta. • A steady holdings of investments in an equity fund’s portfolio indicates both Long Term orientation and Lower Transaction Costs. Day 1 Day 2 . Portfolio turnover rate. ( Large Market Cap have low risk). Yield. • An Equity Fund can be said to be concentrated when Top 10 holdings account for more than 50% of net assets invested. • Before investing in equity fund one should look at ExMark.Very Important Points on Equity Funds portfolio Characteristics. Age and size of the fund.

If an investor needs income. YTM ( Yield to maturity) of debt fund’s portfolio gives an indication of Total Return ( Not current income). An Ideal money market MF has lower expense Ratio. Running a Money Market Mutual Fund requires more of Trading Skills. Long term Debt funds carry high interest rate risk. Equity returns are volatile and very less predictable. Longer the average duration of debt fund portfolio. he should select a fund with high current yield. greater the interest rate risk. The investors should invest in Debt Fund with a Higher Rated Portfolio and Lower Expense Ratio.Debt Funds – Important points • • • • • • • • • Debt Schemes are popular because the returns are more predictable. Day 1 Day 2 . The differentiating factor among debt funds of comparable maturity and quality is Costs.

Q-2 Which one of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of a balanced fund? (a) The fund targets investors who wish to invest their temporary surpluses (b) The fund has lower potential risk as compared to pure growth funds (c) The fund's objectives are to generate both income and long term capital appreciation (d) The portfolio consists of both bonds and equity shares.Balanced fund Balance fund is rarely a 50/50 fund! Equity oriented Balanced funds (up to 65% in equity) Income oriented Balanced fund (up to 65% in debt) Question for Revision Q-1 A retired person should generally invest in (a) Equity funds (b) Index funds (c) Income funds (d) Liquid funds. Day 1 Day 2 .

Q-2 : (a). Q-4 Which of the following is true about Jacob's Model Portfolio for investors in distribution phase? (a) Investment in diversified equity should be around 15% -30% (b) Investment in income and gilt funds should be around 15% -30% (c) Investment in liquid funds should be around 15% -30 % (d) None of the above. Answers: Q-1 : (c).Questions for Revision Q-3 An ideal money market fund should have (a) High returns (b) High risk (c) Long term objectives (d) Lower expense ratio. Q-4 : (a) Day 1 Day 2 . Q-3 : (d).

Day 1 Day 2 .Chapter 15 Business Ethics in Mutual Fund Trainer must elaborate the concept before starting the ppt.

• Ethical practice means practice in the interest of unit holders of the scheme. • Business must be conducted in a disciplined.Business Ethics • Business Ethics means rules of acceptable and good conduct. fair and good business practices and apply them to all those involved in selling/ servicing activities. A salesperson is expected to know the product thoroughly and describe it accurately. • A consumer who feels cheated will never return to buy the product again. − − Day 1 Day 2 . Business Ethics for Mutual Fund Business − MF is also a business where investors buy investment products MF and sales persons are required to adopt ethical. organized and fair manner. • BE ensures that the customer remains a long term buyer.

− − Day 1 Day 2 . • To ensure fairness in dealing with investor. • To protect the clients from being cheated or exploited.Objectives of Business Ethics • Simply being honest. Areas particularly monitored by SEBI − Fund structure and Governance Exercise of Voting Rights by Funds Fund Operations. • Rules are needed to ensure that you deal with the clients fairly and transparently. open and transparent with your potential clients. • To ensure a level playing field among all categories of business participants.

Day 2 Day 1 . Registrar) • Independence of Organisations – Trust independent of AMC. Personal trading by fund managers and employees Front Running – Fund manager buying or selling securities ahead of doing the same transaction for the fund. Preferential Treatment to Selected investors – Cut off time has been introduced now to prevent late trading abuses.Trustees can not serve as Director of AMC they supervise or even any other AMC.• Separation of Functions – No one constituent is in control of the investors assets. Independent Trustees and BOD members also. Some MF ban personal trading by their fund managers. AMC.( Trust. • Independence of Personnel . Custodian. Regulatory Requirements regarding Principle of Independence Examples of Unethical practices − − − − − Insider Trading – Buying or selling securities on the basis of privileged information available to the funds by persons who are seen as insiders to the company.

Regulations on Personal Trading • AMC should file with trustees a quarterly statement of dealings in securities by the key personnel of the AMC. • The director of AMC has be file details of transaction in MF. they may report only those transaction which exceed the value of Rs.1 lakh • Trustees have to certify that the personnel of AMC don’t indulge in front running or self dealing. Day 1 Day 2 . where they exceed the value of Rs. • In case of Trustees.1 lakh.

Other Regulations • Mandatory for the AMC to appoint a compliance officer to monitor and ensure implementation of all laws / regulations. Day 1 Day 2 . • A more detailed code called AGNI (AMFI Guidelines and Norms for Intermediaries) has been put into place by AMFI for all distributors and agents. • All distributors and agents follow the code of conduct laid down in the 5th schedule of SEBI MF regulations 1996. The basic guidelines are covered in the 6th schedule of the SEBI regulations. • SEBI has issued detailed guidelines that are mandatory for AMCs to follow while advertising their mutual fund products.

Answers: Q-1 : (a). Q-1 : (c). (c) Both of the above (d) None of the above.Questions for Revision Q-1 To sell mutual funds all distributors as required to be registered with (a) AMFI (b) SEBI (c) Registrar (d) All trustees. Q-3 What is insider trading? (a) Buying and selling securities ahead of doing the same transaction for the fund. (b) Buying and selling securities on the basis of privileged information available to the fund by persons who are insiders to the company. Q-2 All distributors and agents follow the code of conduct laid down in the (a) 3rd Schedule of SEBI (b) 4th Schedule of SEBI (c) 5th Schedule of SEBI (d) 6th Schedule of SEBI. Q-1 : (b) Day 1 Day 2 .

'Best of Luck' Day 1 Day 2 . Answer only those in which you are confident.Thanks Target should be to Pass the exam – Do not try to attempt all the questions.