Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers Piping System - What is that?
Concept Layout Development Piping Components & their access requirement. Straight length requirements. Orientation of various tapings, components, etc. Piping Drains & Vents Insulation. Material & Sizing Critical piping system consideration. Pipe Stress Analysis. Pipe Supports
Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers Let us first Discuss about WHAT IS PIPE! It is a Tubular item made of metal, plastic, glass etc. meant for conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows. It is a very important component for any industrial plant. And it’s engineering plays a major part in overall engineering of a Plant. In next few pages we shall try to familiarize about pipe and it’s components.
Tank-2 and Tank-3 We have to transfer the content of Tank no. We will need to connect pipes to transfer the fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3
LET US BRING THE PIPES. 1 to the other two tanks.
.In any plant various fluids flow through pipes from one end to other. Now let us start with a plant where we see three tanks. Tank-1.
To solve these problems we need the pipe components. now we need to solve some more problems. which are called PIPE FITTINGS
We have just brought the pipes. Pipes are all straight pieces.
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We need some branch connections
We need some bend connections
the pipes and fittings are in place. Reducers/Expanders.
. Tees/Branches. but the ends are yet to be joined with the Tank nozzles. Couplings. These.These are the pipe fittings. we call
TERMINAL CONNECTIONS. in piping term. etc. There are various types of fittings for various purposes. some common types are Elbows/Bends.
We now have to complete the end connections.
We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed
These are flanged joints This is a welded joint
To control the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a special component. But there is no control over the flow from Tank-1 to other tanks. That is called .VALVE
.So far this is a nice arrangement.
Gate. Those are . Check.
Other than valves another important line component of pipe line is a filter. This is called a
. etc. Globe. categorized based on their construction and functionality.There are many types of valves. Butterfly. which cleans out derbies from the flowing fluid.
with valves and strainer installed. Let us now investigate some aspects of pipe flexibility.Here we see a more or less functional piping system. which is called an EXPANSION
. when the tank is hot.
In such case we need to fit a flexible pipe component at that location.
If this tank nozzle expands.
To know these information we need to install INSTRUMENTS in the pipeline. temperature. pressure. of the fluid.When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may also like know the parameters like. flow rate etc.
Also there are specific criteria for installation of various pipe line instruments.
There are various types instruments to measure various parameters.Next we shall look into how to SUPPORT the pipe/and it’s components.
There can be numerous variants. All depend on piping designer’s preference and judgement.
Let us see some OTHER types of supports
.Here are some of the pipe supporting arrangements.
« Types of Valves are planned « Also the types of instruments required are planned We represent the whole thing in a drawing which is called Piping and Instrumentation Drawing. 2) From what point. Let us see a P&ID prepared in SPP&ID
. Pipe size. So the SPP&ID drawing is an Intelligent drawing which under it’s surface carries all the information about a pipe like. By this time you have already come to know that while we prepare P&IDs in SPP&ID. 3) To which point
« Pipe sizes are selected. etc. For P&ID generation we use SPP&ID software. in short P&ID. 1) What. « First the flow scheme is planned.We have just completed a pipe line design. We shall rewind and check how it is really done in practice. we enter all the pipe lines system information in the drawing. pipe material and pipe wall thickness are selected. Flowing Fluid.
.This is screen picture of P&ID made by SPP&ID If we click on any line it will show the Data embedded.
Also should not encroach any equipment maintenance space. We call this as piping modeling or physical design. While development of piping layout we have to consider the following « Piping from source to destination should be as short as possible with minimum change in direction.
. Here we carryout pipe routing / layout in Virtual 3D environment.After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work. We use PDS 3D software to route piping in the Plant virtual 3D space. « Should not hinder any normal passage way.
instruments on the pipe should be easily accessible. « If needed separate ACCESS PLATFORMS to be provided to facilitate these.
Example of Straight length requirement for Flow Orifice
. « Specific requirements of STRAIGHT LENGTH of pipe for some components to be maintained. « Specific requirements for instrument installation to be checked. « Desired location and orientation of valves / instruments and other pipe components are to be checked and maintained.While carrying out pipe routing we also need to consider the following « Valves. strainers. like temperature gauge can not be installed in pipe which is less than 4 inch in size. like some valves or strainers can only be installed in horizontal position. like for flow orifice we need to provide 15 times diameter straight pipe length at upstream of orifice and 5 times diameter straight at down stream of orifice.
} To achieve this a VENT connection with Valve is provided at the top most point of the pipeline. Let us look into typical Vent and Drain arrangement in a pipeline
.} For Pipeline which shall carry liquid. } Also arrangement is kept in the pipeline so that liquid can be drained out if required. } To achieve this a DRAIN connection with Valve is provided at the lowest point of the pipeline } Pipes are also slopped towards low points. we have to make sure that all air is allowed to vent out of the line when the line is filled with liquid.
This is a 3D model of Feed water line along with pumps and other accessories
Let us have a look into a piping model done by PDS 3D
It is called Cold Insulation.
. Some times cold pipes are insulated to prevent condensation of atmospheric water vapor on pipe surface. Some times pipe and it’s content are heated from outside. In that case pipe along with heat tracing element are insulated to conserve the heat of the tracer. it creates noise. It is called Personnel Protection Insulation Cold or chilled fluid carrying pipes are insulated to prevent heating of cold fluid from outside. It is called Anti-Sweat Insulation. It is called Heat Tracing Insulation. Insulation preserves the heat of the fluid. Other types of Insulation When gas flows through pipes at high velocity. so that people do not get burn injury by touching hot surface of pipes are also insulated Cold pipe.When hot fluid flows through pipe then generally pipe is insulated. There are two primary reasons for insulating the pipe carrying hot fluid. It is called Acoustic Insulation.INSULATION . by heat tracing element. It is called Hot Insulation Personnel safety. In such cases pipes are insulated to reduce noise. Containing the heat inside the pipe.
Note stagnant air is a bad conductor. Organic Fibers. INSULATION CLADDING . Some times Cast material like Cement Plaster or Plaster of Paris are also used. which has large voids full of air between fibers .Calcium Silicate.The insulating material should be bad conductor of heat. 2) Cellular Material. So the outer surface of insulation are protected with Aluminum sheet or GI sheet cladding. Mineral Wool. and general components of insulation
. Polyurethane Foam (PUF).Insulation materials are generally soft or fragile. etc. which has closed void cells full or air .INSULATION MATERIAL .Cork. There are two basic categories 1) Fibrous Material. Cellular Glass (Foam Glass).
Have a look at how pipes are insulated. Polystyrene (Thermocol). Glass Wool.
to select required pipe diameter based on velocity and pressure drop. YES Drop meets Press.
Pipe Sizing Calculation . flow area required and Pipe size Calc. Find out Flow volume per second Check Velocity Allowable per second Calc. Listed in Design Code NO See Note1 YES Pipe Material OK
Note-1 : Material is selected per past experience with cost in mind and per material listed in design code.to select appropriate pipe thickness based on flowing fluid property. & Diameter as above Find out Fluid Temp. Find out type of Fluid flowing Find out Fluid Temp. If material is not listed in code we may select next suitable material listed. & Pressure Check Pipe life Expectancy Select suitable Material per practice (Note-1) Check Mat. Select Mat. Budget NO Increase Pipe Size Pipe Thickness Selection .Pipe Material Selection . Drop for that Pipe size Check Press. Pipe Thickness per Code Pipe Size OK
.to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property. & Pressure Decide on Corrosion allowance Calc. Press.
These pipes carries the main cycle steam and water of the steam power plant. } Also there should be enough flexibility in these pipe routing so that high loads are not transferred to the nozzles of Turbine or Pumps } There are many recognized international codes which lay down guide lines and mandatory requirements for design of such piping.Power Piping Code & IBR . } Very special care are taken for design of these piping. } Steam pipes run at very high temperature and the hot pipes expand.1. } The most important codes used by power plant piping engineers are } ASME ANSI B31. and routed at beginning of the overall plant layout. } These pipelines are call the CRITICAL PIPING. And also there are piping which carries water at High pressure. } First the pipe material selection for such piping is very important as it has to withstand the high pressure and may be also high temperature.} In Power plant there are some piping which carries steam at high pressure and temperature. We have to built in flexibility in the high temperature pipe routing so that the expansion force is absorbed within the piping. they are given the right of way. } As these pipes carry the main system fluid of the power plant.the Indian Boiler Regulation
Also pipes carry the load of the flowing fluid. } We check support load & movement for various loading condition. } Then we check with governing codes if those stresses generated are acceptable or not.
.Pipe Stress Analysis
} We have already seen that some of the pipes are subjected to high pressure and high temperature. } Pipe Stress Analysis is an Interactive and Iterative process. } We need to check and confirm the pipe is not going to fail with these loading. } This process of checking the stress developed in the piping due to various loading is called Pipe Stress Analysis/Flexibility analysis. This loading are to be within acceptable limits of the equipment suggested by the vendors. modify the layout and restart the analysis. } In the process of Analysis we apply various postulated loading on the pipe and find out the stress resulted from these loading. Each step is checked } If a check fails we have to go back. } We also find out the pipe growth due to change in temperature and need to keep the movement of pipe within acceptable limits. } We also check out the terminal point loading generated from pipe to the equipment connected to the pipe.
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS Inputs
} Geometric layout of Pipe } Pipe supporting configuration } Pipe Diameter and Thickness } Pressure inside Pipe } Cold and Hot temperatures of Pipe } Weight of Pipe and insulation } Weight of carrying Fluid } Pipe material Property (Young’s Modulus.Commercial Piping analysis software } There are many other commercial software available
} Stress of the pipe at various loading conditions } Load at various supports and restrains. Thermal Expansion Coefficient) } Thrust on pipe due to blowing wind. } Movement of pipe at support locations } Pipe terminal point loading.
Codes and Standards
} In general Power Plant Piping have to comply stipulations of ASME ANSI B31.
.is an integrated pipe stress analysis module of PLADES 2000 } CEASER .1 } In India Power cycle Piping to comply IBR code requirements. } Thrust on pipe due to earthquake } Load of Snow on pipe } Any transient loading like Steam Hammer load } Any other load on the piping
Tools we use
} PIPSYS .
Here is some elaboration
} There are three general types } Rigid type (no flexibility in the direction of restrain) } Spring type (Allows pipe movement in direction of loading) } Dynamic Support (Degree of restrain depends on acceleration of load) } There are two types of spring support } Variable load type.Types of Pipe Supports
In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of pipe supports. the load remains constant within some range of movement. } Constant load support. here support load changes as the pipe moves.
Rigid Support Rigid Hanger
Variable Spring Constant Load Spring
Dynamic Support. Snubber Rigid Support
} Avoid flange joint in U/G piping. Pipes are insulated over the heat tracing coils. C) even when the ambient temp. Freeze Protection of outdoor Piping: } In the areas where the ambient temperature goes below freezing there is a possibility that the liquid content of pipe may freeze while the plant is under shut down. } U/G.
. } Heat tracing can also be done by winding Steam tubes around main pipes. } For similar case pipes are wrapped with heat tracing elements to maintain the content temperature above freezing (around 4 deg. is below freezing. so avoid U/G routing of pipe carrying hazardous fluid. } Pipe may be properly wrapped and coated to prevent corrosion. which turns on as the ambient temperature goes down.Some Special Considerations for Piping
When pipes are routed UNDER GROUND (Buried) following points to be kept in mind: } Minimum pipe size to be routed under ground shall be not less than1 inch. } Electric Heat tracing is done by wrapping electric coil around pipe. } Or U/G piping be protected by using Cathodic protection. it will be difficult to detect. } Pipe to be laid below Frost Zone at areas where ambient temperature goes below freezing. Buried piping should be properly protected from corrosion. } Keep in mind if pipe leaks U/G.
We have come to the End of Session. Hope you have gathered the fundamentals on the subject of Piping