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CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT & LIFELONG LEARNING UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

CONTRIBUTORS

FLUID MECHANICS (Support Materials) was prepared by Associate Professor M. Nowbuth, from the Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius.

August 2008

All rights reserved. No part of the work may be reproduced in any form, without the written permission from the University of Mauritius, Réduit,

Fluid Mechanics

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Aug 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THE COURSE Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Properties of Fluids Fluid Pressure Measurement of Fluid Pressure Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces Pressure Diagrams Buoyancy Hydrodynamics – Fluid Dynamics (in Motion) Principles Of Conservation Of Mass & Energy Flow Rate Measurements – Orifices & Weirs Flow Rate Measurements – Venturimeters

Fluid Mechanics

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**ABOUT THE COURSE
**

Welcome to FLUID MECHANICS 1 (CIVE1104) is the introductory module of a series of Fluid Mechanics modules which comes in levels 2, 3 and 4, namely, CIVE2211, CIVE3104, CIVE4007. The aims of this module are to help you: • • • Appreciate the fundamental principles governing fluid at rest and in motion. Learn about flow measuring devices. Learn about forces exerted by fluids within a system.

This module introduces you to the fundamentals behind the approach of analysis fluids at rest or in motion. In general, you tend to find this introductory module of Fluid Mechanics confusing and vague, since you are most probably used to analysing the more concrete solid mechanics behaviour.

This manual has thus been structured in such a way that you are gradually introduced to the various concepts, through a set of theoretical notes, diagrams and simple examples. The complexity of examples will grow as you proceed through the contents of the modules stepwise. Your attention is drawn to the fact that all the units forming this module are interlinked, so the units should be studied progressively for the first time. Once you become familiar with the various units, you can then consult each unit on its own.

You are strongly advised to ensure that the contents of this module are well assimilated and that you have properly understood the fundamental concepts governing the analysing of fluids. These basic concepts will be used again and again in the more advanced level modules of Fluid Mechanics. A series of tutorials are included in the manual, and unless you actually attempt them on your own, you will fail to get the thorough understanding of the individual units.

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Unit 5 Calculate the individual forces acting at different points along solid and curved surfaces. Unit 8 Discuss about the concepts and approaches used to analyse fluids in motion (hydrodynamics). the flow rate within a closed conduit. Unit 2 Derive the equations governing variation of pressure with depth and variation of pressure along a horizontal plane Unit 3 Be conversant with the various apparatus used to measure the pressure exerted by a fluid. Unit 4 Learn how this fluid pressure is expressed in terms of forces.LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR THE COURSE By the end of the course. you will be able to do the following: Unit 1 Identify the basic concepts. the principles of Continuity and the principles of Conservation of Energy. Unit 11 Measure with a venturimeter. Fluid Mechanics v Aug 2008 . commonly termed hydrostatic forces when the fluid is at rest. Unit 9 Define and differentiate between two main principles used to analyse fluids in motion. Unit 10 Apply the two main principles: the principles of Continuity and the principles of Conservation of Energy. Unit 6 Use the different approaches of calculating the resultant hydrostatic force acting on vertical plane surface only. Unit 7 Learn about equilibrium conditions in liquid medium and governing factors influencing stability of structures in such medium. theories and equations related to the properties of fluids.

You should then read the LEARNING OBJECTIVES. WHERE DO I BEGIN? You should begin by taking a look at the TABLE OF CONTENTS in the MANUAL. and LEARNING OBJECTIVES sections. Fluid Mechanics vi Aug 2008 . The learning objectives also provide a useful guide for review. They also show the steps that will eventually lead to the successful completion of the course. For example. The table provides you with a framework for the entire course and outlines the organisation and structure of the material you will be covering.HOW TO PROCEED COURSE MATERIALS The manual is self-contained. The Course Schedule indicates how you should allocate your workload and what you should be working on in each week to be ready for the respective class. HOW DO I USE THE COURSE MANUAL? Take a few minutes now to glance through the entire manual to get an idea of its structure. You should stick to the Course Schedule to ensure that you are working at a steady space and that your workload does not pile up. These objectives identify the knowledge and skills you will have acquired once you have successfully completed the study of a particular unit. Notice that the format of the different units is fairly consistent throughout the manual. each unit begins with an OVERVIEW. The OVERVIEW provides a brief introduction to the unit and provide perquisite skills and knowledge you will have to possess to proceed successfully with the unit.

Read Unit 9 Revision CLASS TEST Read Unit 10 Read Unit 11 Revision 15 * Any change will be communicated by your respective tutor in class.Proposed * Course Schedule (CIVE 1104) Session 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Student’s Workplan Read Unit 1 Read Unit 2 Read Unit 3. Fluid Mechanics vii Aug 2008 . Read Unit 6 Read Unit 7 Read Unit 8. Read Unit 4 Read Unit 5.

you can make your notations on “postit-notes”. Write short comments in the margins as you go. 3. Use question marks to flag difficult or confusing passages. Put exclamation marks beside passages you find particularly important. STUDY TIPS Much of your time in the course will be spent reading. note your opinions in the margin. Your comprehension and assessment of what you read are likely to be best if you heed the following tips: 1. as well as appreciate and understand. if you disagree with an author’s argument or if you think of examples which counter the position presented. 2. It is best to complete each assigned reading in one sitting. For example.NOTE (to b confirmed by lecturer): For this module you are required to submit/present three practical reports which will be assigned to you by your lecturer during the course of the module. Ask questions. Be an active reader. Is the author’s argument logical? Are there alternatives to the author’s Fluid Mechanics viii Aug 2008 . If you prefer to leave your book pages unmarked. ASSESSMENT → COURSE GRADING SCHEME: Continuous Assessment: Examinations: 30 marks 70 marks → FINAL EXAMINATIONS: s Scheduled and administered by the Registrar’s Office s A two-hour paper at the end of the Semester. what you read. You must evaluate. The logical progression of thought in a chapter/unit can be lost if it is interrupted. Read critically. Organise your time.

Now. it’s time to get to work. you reap a number of benefits. questions. 7. They will help you prepare for the graded assignments. Study closely those passages you 6. review your flags. many of the concepts may be of interest to them. Good luck and enjoy the course! Fluid Mechanics ix Aug 2008 . classmates or friends. considered significant or difficult. ideas. First. Review your scribbling! Whether or not you make separate notes on your readings. it gives you a second shot at deciphering any confusing passages. (You will find that this review helps you recall information). the new information you absorb will stimulate new thoughts. Even if some of them are not directly involved with the techniques discussed in this course. without resorting to jargon. These may not be directly related to the subject matter.explanations or to the conclusions drawn? experience? Does the information fit with your 4. Finally. underlining and marginalia. As you progress through the course. We strongly recommend that you do not skip any of them. Write down your ideas in a course journal. note-taking allows you an immediate review of what you have just read. 8. but may be of great interest to you. and insights. Activities found in units will not be marked. 5. Second. Your ability to explain the subject matter to others is a good test of your true comprehension of the material. it gives you an opportunity to reassess your flagged or margin comments. Take notes. Use these ideas to focus your personal involvement in this and other courses. Try explaining the material you are learning to others. If you make notes on an article or chapter right after finishing it.

3.4 1.0 OVERVIEW This first unit emphasizes the need to be familiar with technical terms related to the description and analysis of fluids in motion and at rest.6 1.0 1.3.3 Relative Density ( R) or Specific gravity.3.UNIT 1 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Unit Structure 1.6 Coefficient of Dynamic (µ) and Kinematic (γ) Viscosity γ 1.2 Difference Between Solid and Fluid Technical Terms commonly Used to Describe the Properties of Fluids 1. s 1.I.2 Vapour Pressure 1.1 Mass Density or Density. what are the assumptions behind the derivation of the Fluid Mechanics 1 Aug 2008 .4 Specific volume.3.2.1 Surface Tension 1. w 1.3.2.3.3.1 1.3 Real & Ideal fluids 1.2. students will need to know how the equations being used for the analysis were derived.7 1.1 1.5 Viscosity 1.3.2.2 Specific weight.8 1.3.5 1.3. their exact definitions and their S. (Standard International) units. ρ 1.2 1.3.2. v 1.3 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction States of Matter 1.2.3.9 Bulk Modulus Cavitation Activities Summary Worked Examples Tutorial 1. When analysing fluids at rest or in motion.3.

The main properties differentiating behaviour of a solid and a fluid.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. the basic units of length. The implication is that there will be no more learning equations by heart and replacing numbers. basic properties used to describe fluids. Define cavitation. 3. 5. Fluid Mechanics 2 Aug 2008 . This is a very important unit. and students will have to be well conversant with the equations used. importance of SI units of each term within an equation and the need to resort to assumptions during analysis of fluids behaviour will be introduced and discussed in the course of the unit. mass and time. and it should be properly studied and appreciated.equations and does the equation hold true for this particular situation. Students will need to derive equations before applying them and from there. Identify situations when a real fluid has to be treated as an ideal fluid 4. So in this unit. theories and equations related to the properties of fluids. Elaborate on the different ways of expressing fluid properties such as density. 1. get a feel about whether the results they obtain have a practical and realistic meaning. 2. The results of an analysis are very much dependent on the validity of the equations used in the analysis. you will gradually be introduced to technical terms commonly used in describing properties of fluids. in basically all the different units. viscosity and compressibility. students should be able to do the following: 1. Explain how cavitation is taken care of in design of pipelines. 1. State the main difference between a solid and a fluid. it is simple. 6. for it will come up throughout the entire course on Fluid Mechanics. until the final level of your course.2 INTRODUCTION Unit 1 introduces students to the basic concepts. the units of various fluid parameters and the need for assumptions in the analysis of fluid mechanics. Differentiate between real & ideal fluid.

Liquid and Gas. Definition of a fluid: A fluid (liquid or gas) is a substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing forces.1. In a more technical term.3.3 STATES OF MATTER Matter can exist in 3 different states . Hence. in order to better distinguish between a solid and a fluid medium. It takes the shape of any solid body with which it comes into contact. Fluid Mechanics 3 Aug 2008 . a solid offers resistance to a force while a fluid cannot resist an applied force. 1.Solid.1 Difference between a Solid & a Fluid A solid has a definite shape while a fluid takes the shape of the vessel containing it. The state of a substance dictates to a large extent the behaviour of that substance under static or dynamic conditions. Other properties of a fluid: It flows under its own weight. we shall examine the response of each substance to an applied shear force: Apply of a force: Solid: Offers resistance to the deforming force Liquid and Gas (Fluid): Deform continuously as long as the force is applied. Both liquids and gases are considered to be under the category fluids.

1 Mass Density or Density. ρ The density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume. The degree to which a fluid can be compressed is expressed by the term bulk modulus of compressibility.2. (Students need to pay particular attention to the definition.) 1. its viscosity and its degree of compressibility.2 Technical Terms Commonly Used to Describe the Properties of Fluids The properties of a fluid are characterised by its density. symbol and unit for each of these terms. specific weight. mass density also commonly referred to as density. specific gravity. The fluid property density can be expressed in several ways. Students would need to learn and remember these basic technical terms. to be able to recognise precisely in which way the density of a substance has been stated in a given question.1.3. Different symbols are used to differentiate between different terms and each term is associated with a specific SI unit. relative density or specific volume.3. Similarly viscosity of a substance can either be expressed as the coefficient of dynamic viscosity or the coefficient of kinematic viscosity. ρ = mass / volume units: kg m-3 Example: Mass density of water at 4oC is 1000 kg m-3 Fluid Mechanics 4 Aug 2008 .

w Another way of expressing the density of a substance. is the ratio of its density or specific weight to that of water under standard conditions of temperature and pressure. w = weight / volume units: Mass x Acceleration due to gravity / volume kg m s-2 / m-3 or N / m3 Example: Specific Weight of water at 4oC is 9.2.3 Relative Density (R) or Specific gravity. also known as the relative density of the substance. s The specific gravity of a substance. is by the term specific weight.81 kN/ m3 1.2.6 Fluid Mechanics 5 Aug 2008 .2.1 Specific weight.1.1.3.3. where specific weight is the weight per unit volume. s = Density of substance / Density of water or Specific weight of substance / Specific weight of water Example: Relative Density or Specific gravity of mercury = 13. The standard pressure for water is usually taken as one atmosphere and temperature as 4oC.

The fluid will flow in such a way. it is the reciprocal of the density.2. Fluid Mechanics 6 Aug 2008 .1.1). the fluid cannot resist the shearing forces.4 Specific volume. v The specific volume v. while successive layers of the fluid will move with increasing velocity. will have the same velocity as the boundary.2. ρ v = 1/ρ Units: m3 per unit weight of substance Example: The specific volume of 1 kg of water = 10-3 m3 per unit weight of water kg 1.5 Viscosity When a shearing force is applied to a liquid which is initially as rest. away from the boundary (Figure 1.3. that the fluid in contact with the boundary.3. is defined as the volume occupied by a unit mass of the substance.

U Velocity of fluid in contact with the base of the channel is 0.1: Application of a shearing force to a fluid initially at rest Fluid Mechanics 7 Aug 2008 . F Stationary base of channel Velocity of fluid at surface.Open channel running completely full A A’ B B’ Applied force. D C Figure 1.

has caused a shearing action to be exerted within the fluid element.1). will be equal to 0 (Figure 1. which is initially at rest between two solid surfaces separated by a small distance. whereby Fluid Mechanics 8 Aug 2008 . h. since each has a different velocity. Successive fluid layers will have velocity which increases from bottom to the top surface (Figure 1. V Bottom layer. suppose that the upper solid surface is moved in the xdirection. τ = F/shearing area = F/AB x thickness of elemental fluid Shear Strain = δθ = δx / δy Shear Stress α Rate of change of shear strain τ α δθ / δt τ α (δx/ δy) / δt = δu/ δy (where δx/ δt = δu) Figure 1. APPLYING A SLIDING FORCE AT SURFACE OF LIQUID A δ A1 B B1 Applied force. i. application of the force F. by applying a force. the velocity at y=0.1).2. velocity.1). Top layer.1).2: Consider a small elemental fluid under the application of a shearing force With reference to Figure 1. Now. The bottom layer of the fluid immediately in contact with the boundary will have the same velocity of the boundary. The elemental fluid will undergo a change in shape as illustrated by element A’B’CD (Figure 1. The layer of fluid in contact with the moving upper solid surface. F δ δ D C Stationary base of channel Successive fluid layers sliding above each other.2). will have the same velocity as the velocity of the moving surface.e. consider an element of a fluid (ABCD). along the y direction (Figure 1. velocity 0 Shearing stress. velocity U. F (Figure 1.To explain the behaviour of a fluid when shearing force is exerted.

2). The coefficient of dynamic or absolute viscosity. µ .Shearing force per unit area. When the temperature of a fluid increases.3. It is found experimentally that the rate of shear strain is directly proportional to the shear stress. for a fluid: Assuming that shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain. τ τ α δϕ / time α δx / δy per unit time where distance x per unit time. shear strain acting on the fluid element. ϕ . is a function of temperature. τ = F / AB x s The consequent. For liquids. shear stress. viscosity arises mainly from the cohesive force of molecules. 1. can be represented by the term x/y. for a specific fluid. Units: kg m -1 s-1 The relationship defined by equation A is known as Newton’s Law of Viscosity. the cohesive forces within fluid body 9 Aug 2008 Fluid Mechanics . can also be expressed as the velocity. shearing force (Figure 1. u τ α δu/δy Removing the symbol of proportionality results in the following equation: τ = µ δu/δy ………………………equation A whereby the term µ is known as the coefficient of absolute or dynamic viscosity of the fluid.6 Coefficient of Dynamic (µ) and Kinematic (γ) Viscosity γ Viscosity is the property of a fluid which offers resistance to fluid deformation by the application of a tangential.2. The shear strain will continue to increase with time and the fluid will flow.

which is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity divided by the density of the fluid: γ = µ/ρ where γ = the coefficient of kinematic viscosity. When µ = 0.decreases. e. only theoretical solutions are obtained in these cases). then u/y = 0. Fluids such as tar and polymers do not obey equation A. This results in a decrease in the shear stress. and in many problems arising in fluid mechanics. in a decrease in the coefficient of viscosity. the relation between shear stress and the rate of shear strain in these cases is non-linear (Figure 1. eventually. hence.3 Real and Ideal Fluids Fluids that obey Newton’s equation. and velocity gradient very small can be considered as being frictionless. units : m2 s-1 1. τ .3. no shearing action takes place.3). (equation A). An ideal fluid is one which has zero viscosity. we often have to resort to the assumption that the fluid we are dealing with is an ideal one. (however. are classified under the group of Newtonian fluids. Another way of defining coefficient of viscosity.e. with coefficient of viscosity very small. Fluid Mechanics 10 Aug 2008 . i. a real fluid. is by using the coefficient of kinematic viscosity. The concept of an ideal or perfect fluid is based on theoretical considerations because all real fluids exhibit viscous property. Therefore. vanishes.g air and water. hence shear stress.

and unequal forces are acting on B. hence equal & balancing forces are acting on p Figure 1. τ = 0.3.3: Real & Ideal fluids 1. a resultant downward attractive force is exerted on q Molecule p is at rest. δv/δy δ Figure 1.4: Liquid molecules and forces of attraction Fluid Mechanics 11 Aug 2008 . Molecule q is at the surface. µ is zero Velocity gradient.Shear Stress. τ Newtonian fluid τ α δv/δy δ µ is constant – LINEAR RELATIONSHIP Non-newtonian fluid δ τ α δv/δy µ is not constant – NON LINEAR RELATIONSHIP Ideal fluid. of fluid well inside the body of the fluid (Figure 1.4).3.1 Surface Tension Consider a molecule p.

the vapour pressure will also increase (Figure 1. By reducing the pressure. The surface molecules are being pulled inward towards the bulk of the liquid.3. q. boiling can be made to occur at temperatures well below the boiling point. σ .Molecule p. But molecule. is measured as the force acting across unit length of a line drawn in the surface. will experience a resultant pull inward due to the unbalanced cohesive force of attraction. and therefore. which depends on the temperature and increases with its rise. which is on the surface of the liquid. Boiling will occur when the vapour pressure is equal to the pressure above the liquid.2 Vapour Pressure Molecules of liquids that possess sufficient kinetic energy leave the liquid surface and become vapour. and surface tension in a liquid has a tendency to contract to a minimum surface area for a given volume.5). this effect causes the liquid surface to behave as if it were an elastic membrane under tension. a. Fluid Mechanics 12 Aug 2008 . The degree of molecular activity increases with increasing temperature.3. If the vapour is confined to a space. an equilibrium condition is obtained when the amount of vaporisation is equal to the amount of condensation. The surface tension. The vapour pressure at this condition is called saturation vapour pressure. is attracted equally in all directions by the surrounding molecules within a small sphere of radius. 1.

and thereby undergoes a change in volume.4 BULK MODULUS – COMPRESSIBILITY PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Compressibility is basically the change in volume of a substance when subjected to a compressive force. also result in changing the density of a substance (density=mass/volume). Compressive forces causing major changes in volume. Consider a substance of original volume V. subjected to a compressive force. liquids or gases is to some extent compressible. The degree of compressibility of a substance is expressed by the term Bulk Modulus.5: Saturated vapour conditions 1. If the force which is applied to compress the fluid is increased from P to P + δP. While gases are highly compressible. K. then the relationship between the change in pressure and the change of volume as defined by the property Bulk Modulus is given by: Fluid Mechanics 13 Aug 2008 .1 Few water molecules possess enough energy & go into vapour state 2 More water molecules possess enough energy to go into vapour state 3 Increasing heat. further increases the number of molecules in vapour state 4 Air space eventually becomes completely saturated & cannot take more vapour molecules & At this point an equilibrium is achieved. expressed by term δv.number of water Molecules going into vapour state is the same as the number of molecules going back into liquid state Figure 1. All matter whether solids. solids and liquids offer much resistance to compressive forces.

localised zones of low pressures (at A & B) can occur. If the pressure in such areas falls below the vapour pressure at which certain gases were initially soluble in water.62 x 109 N/m2 (oil) 1. K = -V δP/δV δ Bulk Modulus of a fluid can also be expressed in terms of density . If the pressure applied is very small. at those points the gases are no longer soluble.5 CAVITATION Consider a pipeline running full (Figure 1. As far as a gas is concerned.Change in volume / Original Volume = Change in Pressure / Bulk Modulus -δV/V = . and can rarely be ignored. Gases are known to be soluble in water under given temperatures and pressures. Fluid Mechanics 14 Aug 2008 . Under certain conditions along a pipeline. a gas can be assumed to be incompressible. Then K = ρ dp/dρ ρ NOTE: When the change in volume is very small then a liquid can be assumed to be incompressible and this happens to be an assumption often made in fluid mechanics problems.δP/K δ where K is the Bulk Modulus. and are thus released.05 x 109 N/m2 (water) 1.Considering unit mass of a substance V=1/ρ. Vapour bubbles are formed at A and B. they will move towards the highest points within the pipeline (C).6). the compressibility of a gas is very large. only in such a case. Units: Typical values: same as pressure (N/m2) 2. but being in vapour state and thus light.

thus allowing the gaseous molecules to escape. 2. whereby the gas molecules are once again soluble in the water. the gas molecules will collapse suddenly to go back to the liquid phase. Solids and fluids behave in the same way under the action of stress. (C). 3. and is known as cavitation.6 (a) ACTIVITIES True/False Statements 1. usually years in the case of pipes. At this point. Liquids and gases behave in the same way under the action of all types of stresses. air valves are normally positioned at highest points along pipelines.6: Cavitation within a pipeline 1.The highest points within the pipeline may be regions of high pressures. As this process takes place over time. Fluid Mechanics 15 Aug 2008 . until it breaks. the pipe gradually gets damage. This phenomenon can cause serious problem. Liquids are often assumed to be ideal since the fluid property viscosity is often an unknown parameter in analysis of fluids. To avoid such damage to pipelines. This is achieved by striking either against each other or by striking against the walls of a container. the gaseous molecules will have to lose excess energy. at location C. C Gaseous molecules going back to liquid state A Gas molecules released from water at zones of low pressures B Figure 1. To change from gaseous to liquid state.

8. 5. we explained the: 1. Fluid Mechanics 16 Aug 2008 . Under all conditions. 5. 4. Importance of getting the right units for the various technical terms in fluid mechanics. The terms introduced will be used in the coming units. Temperature affects the property of liquids and gases in the same way. 1. Differentiate with the help of curves. Cavitation is the process of release of gases from a liquid.7 SUMMARY This basic unit introduced the basic technical terms commonly used to describe the properties of fluids. a liquid can be safely assumed to be incompressible. Concept behind the process of cavitation.4. Derive with the help of sketches. Density and specific weight are terms describing the same property of a fluid. Meaning of the different ways of expressing the fluid properties. 3. In this unit. for a fluid in motion. Air valves are always needed in water pipeline owing to cavitation process. (b) Main Questions: 1. 3. density and viscosity. 4. Describe the process of cavitation with the help of well labelled sketches. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Derivation of shear stress and velocity gradient relationship. Show that the bulk modulus of compressibility can also be expressed in terms of the pressure and density parameters. 6. 7. the equation relating shear stress and velocity gradient. 2. Importance of getting the right meaning of various technical terms in fluid mechanics. 2.

how it varies over space and how it is measured. Once again you are strongly advised to ensure that the various concepts illustrated in this unit are clear to you before you proceed to UNIT 2. A thin flat plate 100mm x 100mm.7 N m-2 s. determine the force exerted by the liquid on the thin flat plate.8 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Shearing force & Viscosity properties Example 1 – Shearing forces & Viscosity properties…1/2 • The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25 mm apart is filled with a liquid of absolute viscosity 0. is located mid way between the two large walls. The next unit will be concerned with fluid pressure: what is fluid pressure. 25mm V=75mm/s Fluid Mechanics 17 Aug 2008 . If the thin flat plate is being towed at 75mm/s. Importance of the fluid property bulk modulus of compressibility for a liquid and for a gas.6. 1.

7 x ((75 x 10-3 – 0) / 25/2 x 10-3} = 4.2 N/m2 • Shearing force acting on the thin plate – Force = Shearing stress x surface area of the plate – Force = 2 x 4. maximum at the centre and zero at the contact of the walls. 1.6 kN/m3. determine the force exerted by the liquid on the plate.y2) 2 µ If glycerine (µ = 0. 250 by 250 mm is towed at a velocity of 150 mm s-1 at a distance of 6 mm from one wall.7 N m-2 s. – The velocity distribution is assumed to be linear in this example. Within this space a thin flat plate.62 N s m-2) is flowing and the pressure gradient dP/dx is 1.9 TUTORIAL Question 1 The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25 mm apart is filled with a liquid of absolute viscosity 0. Question 2 The velocity distribution for viscous flow between stationary plates is given as follows: v = dP/dx (By . the plate and its movement being parallel to the walls.Example 1 – Shearing forces & Viscosity properties…2/2 25mm V=75mm/s • Shear stress = coefficient of dynamic viscosity x velocity gradient • τ = µ δV/δy = 0. what is the velocity and shear stress at a distance of 12 mm from the wall if the spacing B is 5 cm? What are the shear stress and velocity at the wall? Fluid Mechanics 18 Aug 2008 .2 x (100 x10-3)2 = 0.084 N • NOTE: – Shearing forces are acting on the thin plate on the top surface as well as on the bottom surface.

and ro is the pipe radius. determine the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of the oil. r is the radial distance from the centre line of the pipe. Draw the dimensionless shear stress profile τ/τo against r/ro. If a 3. What is the value of wall stress when fuel oil having absolute viscosity µ = 4 x 10-2 N s/m2 flows with an average velocity of 4m/s in a pipe of diameter 150mm? Question 4 A bush of 165mm length and 103mm internal diameter slides on a vertical column of 100mm diameter.Question 3 The velocity profile in laminar flow through a round pipe is expressed as U = 2V (1.5kg bush mass slides with a velocity of 1m/s. the clearance space being filled with oil.r2/ro2) Where V is the average velocity. Fluid Mechanics 19 Aug 2008 .

These concepts will form the basis for the coming units.2 2.8 2.7 2.10 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Pascal’s Law for pressure at Point Variation of pressure vertically in a fluid under gravity Equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid Basic general equation for fluid statics (at rest) Activities Summary Worked Examples Tutorial 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.UNIT 2 Unit Structure FLUID PRESSURE 2. Student will need to understand and appreciate variation of pressure with depth and along a horizontal plane.0 OVERVIEW In this unit.6 2. Students are strongly advised to make sure that the concept illustrated in this unit is clear. Some of the concepts learnt in this unit will also be used in flow measurement in later units.1 2.3 2. student will be introduced to the concept of pressure exerted by a fluid. Fluid Mechanics 20 Aug 2008 . measurement of pressure and hydrostatics.0 2. for this unit forms an introductory unit to many others that will follow later on in this course.

Pascal. first established that the pressure at any point within a stationary fluid is the same in all directions. The famous seventeenth century mathematician.2. 2. The normal force per unit area (acting inwards) is termed the fluid pressure. Derive the equation governing variation of pressure with depth 9. Define and prove Pascal’s Law 8. and consequently. Under these conditions.2 INTRODUCTION Fluids exert a force on the walls on the vessel containing it. the fluid is in equilibrium. Derive the equation governing variation of pressure along a horizontal plane 2.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this Unit.1): Fluid Mechanics 21 Aug 2008 . The magnitude of this force which can also be expressed as pressure (force per unit area) varies with the depth of fluid from the top water surface. there are no shearing forces acting on the fluid. In this unit. B. p. students should be able to do the following: 7.3 PASCAL’S LAW FOR PRESSURE AT A POINT When a fluid is at rest. Consider equilibrium of a small fluid element in the form of a triangular prism ABCDE surrounding a point in the fluid (Figure 2. you will learn how fluid exerts pressure at a point and how this pressure varies both with depth and along horizontal planes. the only force that such a fluid can sustain acts normally on a surface within the fluid.

the sum of all the forces in any direction must be equal to zero: Solving for resultant forces in the x direction: = px (area ABFE) .B ps A px δy y θ θ δs F C δx E θ py D Figure 2. the pressure acting at right angles to plane CDEF. py the pressure acting at right angles to plane ABCD. the following pressure forces will be acting over the prism: the pressure acting at right angles to plane ABFE.1: Pressure at a Point If the fluid is at rest..equation A For equilibrium conditions. px. px = ps Fluid Mechanics 22 Aug 2008 . ps Since the fluid is at rest.ps (δy/δs) δsδz = px δ zδy . equation A.ps δyδz………………. is equal to 0 Therefore.ps sin θ (Area ABCD) = px (δ zδy) .

is the pressure on a plane at any angle θ . A Height = h Liquid density.2) Elevation = Z1 Cross sectional area. the x. ρ: (Figure 2. This is known as Pascal’s Law to a fluid at rest.4 VARIATION OF PRESSURE VERTICALLY IN A FLUID UNDER GRAVITY Consider a cylindrical element of fluid of constant cross-sectional area A. totally surrounded with fluid of mass density. pz = py = ps Given that ps. therefore indicating that the pressure at a point is the same in all directions. ρ Elevation = Z2 Pressure = P1 Figure 2.Similarly resolving for forces in the y direction py = ps Hence. 2. y and z axes have not been chosen with any particular orientation. and on the top of the elemental fluid is p2 Fluid Mechanics 23 Aug 2008 .2: Cylindrical elemental fluid The pressure acting on the bottom of the elemental fluid is p1. and the element is so small that it can be assumed to be a point.

Since the fluid is at rest.3: Cylindrical elemental fluid If P and Q are two points at the same level in a fluid at rest.z1) ρ g Since fluid is at rest. A Figure 2.5 EQUALITY OF PRESSURE AT THE SAME LEVEL IN A STATIC FLUID Consider a cylindrical element (Figure 2. there is no horizontal resultant force acting on the elemental fluid.p2 A + A (z2 . the resulting vertical force acting on the fluid is equal to 0: p1 A . and consequently under equilibrium conditions.z1) ρ g Thus in any fluid under gravitational attraction pressure decreases with increase of height h. similar in magnitude but in opposite direction. ρ h P Pressure = P1 Q 2 h Pressure = P2 Cross sectional area.Resolving for vertical forces acting on the elemental fluid: Force due to pressure p1 = p1 * A Force due to pressure p2 = p2 * A Force due to weight of the fluid = Volume x Density x gravity = A (z2 . 2. a horizontal prism of fluid of constant cross-sectional are A will be in equilibrium: Forces acting on the fluid element in the horizontal direction is P1A and P2A.3): Liquid density.(z2 . Fluid Mechanics 24 Aug 2008 .z1) ρ g = 0 p1 .p2 = .

4). Cross sectional area. the all forces must be in equilibrium. with pressure p acting on one end and pressure p + δp acting on the other end of the fluid (Figure 2. The weight of the fluid also acts downwards. A δs Pressure = P + δp θ θ Liquid density. 2. or fluid pressure is the same along a horizontal plane. the pressure at any two points at the same level in a body of fluid at rest will be the same.For static equilibrium the sum of the horizontal forces must be equal to zero: P 1 A = P2 A Hence P1 = P2 Thus. ρ Pressure = P Weight of elemental fluid mg Figure 2.4: Cylindrical inclined elemental fluid Since the fluid is at rest. Fluid Mechanics 25 Aug 2008 .6 BASIC GENERAL EQUATION FOR FLUID STATICS (AT REST) Consider an elemental cylindrical fluid.

Fluid Mechanics 26 Aug 2008 . pressure can also be expressed as an equivalent head (z) of liquid with density ρ.ρ g cos θ In a horizontal plane (x. gives. whereby integrating with respect to z. implying that pressure is constant everywhere in a horizontal plane.A δs ρ g cos θ = 0 δp =.ρ g p = z ρ g ……………….(p + δp )A . y direction) When θ =0 then cos θ =0.(p + δp )A .Resolving horizontal forces acting on the elemental fluid: pA . hence : dp/dx = 0.equation 1 Hence NOTE: From equation 1. implying that in a vertical plane. In a vertical plane ( z direction ) When θ =90 then cos θ =1.mg cos θ = 0 pA . then we end up with the general equation: dp/dz = . p = z ρ g. Replacing dscos θ by dz.δs ρ g cos θ In differential form : dp/ds = . pressure varies with height. hence : dp/dz = ρ g.

using the basic concepts illustrated in unit 2.8 SUMMARY Unit 2 introduced the student with the concept of fluid pressure. how it varies at a point.7 ACTIVITIES Main Questions: 5. Fluid Mechanics 27 Aug 2008 . 7. Explain why the pressure of a liquid can either be given in terms of N/m2 or in terms of a head of liquid. 2. with depth and along a horizontal plane. The mathematical expression relating pressure to depth of liquid must be clear to the student before he moves on to the next unit. student will not be able to appreciate contents of Unit 3. The next unit will be concerned with the measurement of the pressure exerted by a fluid. 9. 6. Unless these concepts are clear. 8. Define Pascal’s Law and illustrate it with the help of sketches Derive Pascal’s Law Show that the pressure exerted by a fluid is dependent of the depth of the liquid Show with the help of sketches that the pressure of a fluid is the same along a horizontal plane.2.

2. Convert these heads into N/m2 and find the total head against which the pump works in N/m2 and in metres of water.9 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Pressure & Force Example 1 – Pressure & Force • A mass of 50kg acts on a piston of area 100cm2.10 TUTORIAL Question 1 A gas holder at sea level contains gas under a pressure head equal to 9cm of water.72 kg/m3 respectively. 2.05 kN/m2. If the mass densities of air and gas are assumed to be constant and equal to 1. What is the intensity of pressure on the water in contact with the underside of the piston. if the piston is in equilibrium? • Intensity of pressure = Force / Area • P = (50 x 9.81) / (100 x 10-4) = 49. Question 2 A pump delivers water against a head of 15 m of water. It also raises the water from a reservoir to the pump against a suction head equal to 250mm of mercury. calculate the pressure head in cm of water in a distribution main 260 m above sea level. Question 3 Fluid Mechanics 28 Aug 2008 .28kg/m3 and 0.

8m.In a hydraulic jack a force F is applied to the small piston to lift the load on the large piston. are in the same elevation. what is the corresponding pressure drop? Assume the relative density of mercury is 13. Carbon tetrachloride. specific gravity 1. Fluid Mechanics 29 Aug 2008 . If the manometer shows a reading of 0.59 is contained in B. Question 4 A mercury manometer is used to measure pressure drop between two points along a horizontal pipe through which water drops. The inverted Utube is filled with compressed air at 300kN/m2 and barometer reads 760mm of mercury. A and B. Determine (a) the pressure difference in kN/m2 between A and B if the elevation of A is 0.8m above it. and (b) the absolute pressure in mm of mercury in B. If the diameter of the small piston is 15mm and that of the large piston is 180 mm calculate the value of F required to lift 1000kg.6. Question 5 Two pipes.45m. Water is contained in A and rises to a level of 1.

10 3.UNIT 3 MEASUREMENT OF FLUID PRESSURE Unit Structure 3. Fluid Mechanics 30 Aug 2008 .0 3.9 3.8 3. thus.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of using Piezometer 3.4 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Gauge and Absolute Pressure Piezometer 3. Students are introduced from the simplest pressure measuring device to the more complex ones.1 Pressure difference measurement using U tube manometers 3.2 3. but also of the need for the use of a particular apparatus. The advantages and disadvantages related to each of these apparatus are highlighted.11 Enlarged ends U tube manometers Inverted U tube manometers Activities Summary Worked Examples Tutorial 3.0 OVERVIEW Unit 3 deals with the various apparatus which are used to measure the pressure exerted by a fluid.7 3.1 3. so that the students are not only aware of the existence of the various apparatus.5 U tube Manometers 3. Students should however note that the concepts already described in Unit 2 form the basis behind pressure measurement.6 3. the concepts of Unit 2 will need to be well appreciated and understood before students set out to study Unit 3.3 3.5.

3. There are several devices which are commonly used to measure pressure. it is very important to appreciate and understand the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of a particular apparatus. for example in the case of land surface elevation. the atmosphere is taken as the datum.e.e. List the advantage(s) and disadvantage(s) of using U tube manometers for pressure measurements 6. Analyse how an enlarged and an inverted U tube manometer measures pressure difference 3. but not all of them are able to measure both positive and negative pressures. this pressure Fluid Mechanics 31 Aug 2008 . Describe how a Barometer and a Piezometer works 3. 3. Describe how a vertically and inverted U tube manometer works 5. the mean sea level is taken as datum). Differentiate between Gauge Pressure and Absolute Pressure 2. So. while various devices can be used to measure pressure. then the difference between the pressure of the fluid in question and that of a vacuum is known as the ABSOLUTE PRESSURE of the fluid.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. i. State the advantage(s) and disadvantage(s) of using piezometers for pressure measurements 4. While some devices can measure positive pressures.3 GAUGE AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE In practice. pressure is always measured by the determination of a pressure difference. If the datum is total vacuum. More commonly. So. when measuring the pressure of a fluid with respect to the atmosphere.2 INTRODUCTION Fluids can exert either a positive or a negative pressure (suction pressure). (A datum being a reference point or a reference line which forms the basis of a particular analysis. hence the need to appreciate their limitations. relative to a particular datum. students should be able to do the following: 1. i. they are limited physically by the magnitude of the pressure to be measured. the pressure difference is determined between the pressure of the fluid concerned and the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere.

IN TERMS OF ABSOLUTE PRESSURE Consider Figure 3. so pressure at point A is simply Atmospheric pressure.is referred to as GAUGE PRESSURE. as shown in Figure 3. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE = ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE + GAUGE PRESSURE Example . Pressure gauges are mechanical devises which are used to measure the pressure of either liquids or fluids. ρ is the density of the liquid and g. Now.e. Point A is open to the atmosphere. C and D have been positioned on the diagram with the objective of defining the relationship between gauge pressure and absolute pressure.1. Pressure = z ρ g. Fluid Mechanics 32 Aug 2008 .1: A Top water surface hd D hb C B hc Figure 3. Points A. taking atmosphere as datum. where z is the vertical distance from the top water surface to the point under consideration. From what we have learnt in Unit 2. and point B is located at the bottom of the vessel. i.1 illustrate a vessel containing liquid to a maximum depth.GAUGE AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE Consider a vessel containing liquid. the acceleration due to gravity. They are calibrated on gauge pressure. B.1: Vessel containing liquid Figure 3. hb. Point A is located at the top water surface. Hence.

taking the atmosphere as datum. Refer to relationship: ABSOLUTE PRESSURE = ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE + GAUGE PRESSURE Fluid Mechanics 33 Aug 2008 . gauge pressure is measured. so the pressure at point B is Pressure at top water surface + Pressure due to the column of liquid above point B. Point B is located at vertical distance hb from top water surface. so PB = Atmospheric Pressure + hb ρ g Therefore. so PA = 0 P B = hb ρ g P C = hc ρ g P D = hd ρ g NOTE: Gauge pressure refers only to the pressure recorded by the column of liquid above the point at which the pressure is being measured.PA = Atmospheric Pressure Similarly. pressures at point C and D: PC = Atmospheric Pressure + hc ρ g PD = Atmospheric Pressure + hd ρ g NOW IN TERMS OF GAUGE PRESSURE As mentioned in earlier.

4 PIEZOMETER A piezometer is simply a small diameter tube open at both ends. Liquid will rise in the piezometer tube to a height h. Consider a pipeline running full under pressure (Figure 3. It is usually connected to pipelines for measuring the pressure of the fluid in the pipe at different positions (refer also to the Bernoulli’s experiment carried out during the Practical sessions of Fluid Mechanics). Imagine now that a piezometer is connected to the top of the pipeline as shown in Figure 3.2).2. Now the relationship between the height of a column of liquid and the pressure at its base is given by the following equation: P=hρg Piezometer h H A Pipeline running full under pressure Figure 3.3. Fluid Mechanics 34 Aug 2008 .2: Pressure measurement by a Piezometer tube Hence Gauge Pressure at point A = H ρ g.

For measuring small gauge pressures of liquids. we would need a very long tube. the space above the liquid surface were a perfect vacuum.5 U TUBE MANOMETERS Manometers. so a cheap pressure measuring device. When a piezometer is being used for pressure measurement. A common type of manometer is employing a transparent U . so density cannot be changed. This principle is used in the well-known mercury barometer.tube set in a vertical plane (Figure 3. and practically this is not possible. With reference to the equation (P= h ρ g). and Absolute Pressure at A = P (gauge pressure) + Atmospheric pressure. but for larger pressures some modifications are necessary. or between two points neither of which is necessarily at atmospheric pressure. are devices in which columns of a suitable liquid (usually mercury) are used to measure the difference in pressure between a certain point and the atmosphere.3). if a piezometer were to be used to measure very high pressure.3). Fluid Mechanics 35 Aug 2008 . it can be noted that the higher the pressure the higher will be the value of h. also commonly known as suction pressures.If the tube were closed at the top. 3. So piezometers can only be used to measure relatively small pressure. usually U shaped (Figure 3. simple piezometer tubes may be adequate. it is limited by the density of the fluid being measured. and besides piezometers cannot be used to measure negative pressure (pressure lower than atmospheric pressure). then the height of the column of liquid would then correspond to the absolute pressure of the liquid. Hence. Advantages and disadvantages of using PIEZOMETER Piezometers are simple tube and relative inexpensive.

h liquid A P1 liquid B mercury DATUM LINE y P Q Figure 3. For ease of analysis. this line is taken at the lowest level of mercury level in the U tube manometer. the pressure is the same at any two points in a horizontal plane when equilibrium is achieved. the next step is then to identify two reference points along this line and referring to Figure Fluid Mechanics 36 Aug 2008 .4).3: U tube mercury manometer This mercury U tube manometer is connected to a pipe or other container containing liquid (A) under pressure. To solve for the value of P1.4: U tube mercury manometer connected to pipe flowing full under pressure with liquid A After equilibrium is achieved.tube contains a liquid B (mercury in this case) immiscible with A and of greater density (Figure 3. The lower part of the U .mercury Figure 3. commonly known as the DATUM LINE. the first step is to identify a horizontal plane. Having drawn the DATUM line.

Let the pressure in the pipe at is centre line be P1. Therefore P and Q are in the same horizontal plane and hence. these reference points are P and Q. therefore.ρ A g y Fluid Mechanics 37 Aug 2008 . since P and Q are along the same horizontal line: P1 + ρ A g y = ρ B g h Hence. the pressure at P and Q are equal and in equilibrium. the gauge pressure at Q is given by ρB g h From unit 2. the pressure at P is P1 + ρ A g y If the other side of the U tube is open to the atmosphere. we have learnt that pressure at two points lying on the same horizontal plane is similar. Then provided the fluid is of constant density. P1 = ρ B g h .3.4.

ρA g y + ρhg g y) ρ Fluid Mechanics 38 Aug 2008 .5.1 Pressure difference measurement -U tube MANOMETERS Consider the U tube manometer in Figure 3. connected in such a way so as to measure the pressure difference between points 1 and 2.5: U tube manometer measuring pressure difference Pressure at P = P1 + ρA g (y+x) Pressure at Q = P2 + ρhg g y + ρB g x Therefore Thus: P1 + ρA g (y+x) = P2 + ρhg g y + ρB g x P1 .3.5.P2 = (ρB g x .ρA g x . P1 P2 x Liquid A Liquid B y P Q Mercury Figure 3.

U tube manometers can be used to measure high pressures.6: Enlarged ends U The first step in the analysis is to define the relationship between ha and hb when this tube is not connected to any system. while P2 = hb ρB g Fluid Mechanics 39 Aug 2008 .2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using U Tube Manometers U tube manometers can be used to measure both positive and negative pressures and besides by using a manometer liquid of high density. hence it floats on liquid A. Liquid B ha hb 1 2 Liquid A Figure 3. Liquid B is lighter than liquid A. Drawing a horizontal line at the intersection of the two liquids: P1 = P2 P1 = ha ρa g .6 ENLARGED ENDS U TUBE MANOMETERS Consider a U tube manometer with enlarged ends (Figure 3. The right hand side of the U tube manometer contains liquid A and the left hand side contains liquid B. 3.5.3.6).

The third step in this analysis is now to draw a NEW DATUM. Figure 3. Suppose pressure in the right hand side is higher than pressure in the left hand side. Then the pressure will cause the liquid in the right hand side to move downwards. hence the liquid moves by a height h. which is a line drawn at the new position of the interface of the liquid. then on both sides the liquid moves by the same height.6. The volume of the liquid moving is the same in all three cases. Fluid Mechanics 40 Aug 2008 . P3 = P4. and since both lies on the same horizontal line. as shown in Figure 3.equation 1 ρ The second step is then to apply the pressure difference.Hence. Points 3 and 4 are positioned in the right and left limb. X.. this time in the left limb. PA PB x x ha 3 new old datum hb 4 y Figure 3. ha ρA g = hb ρB g ha = hb (ρB / ρA)…………………………………….7.7: Enlarged ends U tube manometer – measuring pressure difference Note: When both enlarged ends of the U tube manometer have similar diameter. The diameter of the tube in which the two liquids meet is smaller. This downward movement in the right limb will be accompanied by an upward movement small limb at the point of contact of the two liquids and another upward movement. as shown by the small arrows located next to the side of the tubes.

P = h ρ g. the pressure also increases.ha ρa g.Pressure at Point 3 = PA + (ha – x ) ρA g……………………. 3.h b ρ b g Hence. and in the case of an inverted U tube manometer.hb ρb g Fluid Mechanics 41 Aug 2008 .PB = x ρ A g . If we refer once again to the relationship between pressure and head of liquid. then will imply a decreasing pressure. this datum is at the highest position of the mercury level. the first step is to draw the DATUM line.hb ρb g P1 . and simply for the difference in pressure: PA .ha ρa g.equation 3 The final step would be to combine equations 1. we have.H ρhg g = P2.equation 2 Pressure at Point A = PB + (hb – y + x) ρB g………………….2 and 3.H ρhg g Py = P 2 .8.P2 = ha ρa g + H ρhg g . P1. we know that Px = Py since both points X and Y lie on the same horizontal plane. Thus starting from a particular point and moving upward.7 INVERTED U TUBE MANOMETER U tube manometer can also be connected in an inverted position as shown in Figure 3. Referring to Figure 3. equating Px and Py. Px = P1.y ρ B g + x ρ B g NOTE: Students are advised to follow all the steps while solving similar problems.8: Along the Datum Line. at points X and Y. As described in the above sections. we will find that this relationship implies that as the head of liquid above the point under consideration increases.

List the limitations of using piezometers for pressure measurements. Differentiate between absolute and gauge pressures. 15. Explain with the help of sketches how pressure difference is measured using inverted U tube manometers. 13. 11.8 ACTIVITIES Main Questions: 10. Fluid Mechanics 42 Aug 2008 . 12.Mercury x H y DATUM LINE Liquid B hb ha Liquid A P2 P1 Figure 3. Why is the manometer liquid usually denser than the liquid whose pressure is being measured? 14. Explain with the help of sketches how pressure difference is measured using enlarged ends U tube manometers.8: Inverted U tube 3. Explain how a piezometer tube works.

The next unit. so bearing this in mind. I.05 GN/m2 and a density at the surface of 1002 kg/m3. (b) Considering the salt water as being compressible incomplete part (b) NOTE: Student should pay particular attention to the S. In Units 2 and 3. P = h ρ g Example 1 – Pressure = hρg ρ • Calculate the pressure in the ocean at a depth of 2000m assuming that salt water is (a) incompressible with a constant density of 1002kg/m3. Fluid Mechanics 43 Aug 2008 .9 SUMMARY Unit 3 has introduced students to the various apparatus commonly used to measure pressure and pressure difference. you have learnt that pressure varies with depth.3. unit of each term in the equation of P=hρg. I.10 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Simple application of pressure head equation. will now introduce the student to the approach adopted to calculating the force exerted by a fluid on the walls of its container. Unit 4.81 = 19. 3. the hydrostatic force.66 MN/m2. and at the end of the calculation always specify the S. Their advantages and limitations has been highlighted. (a) Assuming constant density Pressure = h ρ g = (2000) x 1002 x 9. (b) compressible with a bulk modulus of 2. unit associated with the answer. together with detailed explanation of how the pressure is actually measured using these apparatus. the next unit will explain how hydrostatic forces are calculated.

22 kN/m2 9m B Oil Fluid Mechanics 44 Aug 2008 .81 = 58.86 kN/m2 6m water A Pressure at point B = 9 x (1000 x 0.81 = 117.72 kN/m2 Absolute pressure = 101 + 117.72 kN/m2 Example 3 – Pressure head as a function of different types of liquid (density dependency) Example 3 – Pressure & density dependency • Determine the pressure in N/m2 at (a) a depth of 6m below the free surface of a body of water and (b) at a depth of 9m below the free surface of a body of oil of specific gravity 0.81 = 66. 72 = 218. (b) the absolute pressure of water at a depth of 12m below the free surface. Pressure P = h ρ g Specific gravity of a substance = Density of the substance/ density of water at standard temperature and pressure (1000 kg/m3) Pressure at point A = 6 x 1000 x 9.75) x 9.Example 2 – Difference between Absolute and Gauge Pressure Example 2 – Gauge & Absolute Pressure • What will be (a) the gauge pressure and. Absolute Pressure = Atmospheric Pressure + Gauge Pressure Gauge pressure = h ρ g = 12 X 1000 x 9. Assume the density of water to be 1000kg/m3 and the atmospheric pressure 101 kN/m2.75.

81) = 15.81) = 12.29 m Corresponding depth of water.8 x 1000) x 9.8 x 1000 x9. What would be the corresponding depth of water. h water = (120 x 1000) / (1000 x 9.(50 x 0.32 kN/m2 Fluid Mechanics 45 Aug 2008 . What is the absolute pressure in the pipe in N/m2.8.Example 4 – Pressure expressed as a depth of a given liquid Example 4 – Expressing pressure as a depth of liquid • What depth of oil. specific gravity 0.6 x 9. Atmospheric pressure = 1 bar = 101 kN/m2 Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure = (101x 1000 ) . Pressure = h ρ g Depth of oil corresponding to pressure of 120kN/m2: 120 x 1000 = hoil x (0.81 hoil = (120 x 1000 ) / ( 0.81) = 94.23m Example 5 – Negative gauge pressure Example 5 – Negative gauge pressure & absolute pressure • A U tube manometer is connected to a pipe in which a fluid is flowing under a negative gauge pressure of 50mm of mercury. will produce a pressure of 120 kN/m2.001 x 1000 x 13. if the atmospheric pressure is 1 bar? Gauge pressure is negative and its magnitude is 50mm mercury.

7 kN/m2 Gauge pressure of air = Pressure due to 0.(0. if the barometric pressure is 780mm of mercury and (a) the liquid is water of density 1000kg/m3 and (b) oil of specific weight 7.001 x 1000 x 13.5m of liquid) liquid Therefore: Absolute pressure of air = Atmospheric pressure .5 x 102) = .81) – (0.001 x 1000 x 13.(0.5 x 7.3.6 x 9.81) = -4.5 x 102) = 103.5m Pressure at A = Pressure at B (along same horizontal line) B Absolute Pressure at A = atmospheric pressure Absolute Pressure at B = Pair + (Pressure due to 0. Air A 0.5 x102 N/m3.81) = 99.5m depth of water = (780 x 0.5m depth of water = .5m depth of liquid) Example 6 – Barometric pressure in terms of equivalent head of mercury…2/2 Liquid is water: Absolute Pressure of air = Atmospheric pressure – pressure due to 0.6 x 9.81) – (0.(Pressure due to 0.75 kN/m2 Fluid Mechanics 46 Aug 2008 .5 x 1000 x9.16 kN/m2 Gauge pressure of air = Pressure due to 0.Example 6 – Barometric pressure expressed as head of mercury Example 6 – Barometric pressure in terms of equivalent head of mercury…1/2 • What is the gauge pressure and absolute pressure of the air in the figure below.9 kN/m2 Liquid is oil: Absolute Pressure of air = Atmospheric pressure – pressure due to 0.5 x 1000 x 9.5 x 7.5m depth of oil = (780 x 0.5m depth of oil= .

is 3 0 c m b e lo w A in th e le ft h a n d lim b a n d 2 0 c m a b o v e A in th e rig h t h a n d lim b .7kN/m2 D A B C Fluid Mechanics 47 Aug 2008 .81) = (30+20) x 10-2 x 13. S p e c ific g ra v ity o f m e rc u ry is 1 3 . since B and C are on the same horizontal line PB = PA + Pressure due to the height of water between A and B PC = Pressure due to the height of mercury between D and C PB = PC PA + (30 x 10-2 x 1000 x 9. D 20cm A L iq u id Q (m e rc u r y ) 30cm w a te r B C Example 7 – U tube manometer…2/2 • Pressure at B = Pressure at C.91 PA = 63.6 . liq u id Q .Example 7 – U tube manometer E x a m p le 7 – U tu b e m a n o m e te r… 1 /2 • A U tu b e m a n o m e te r a s illu s tra te d in th e fig u re b e lo w is u s e d to m e a s u re th e p re s s u re a b o v e a tm o s p h e ric o f w a te r in a p ip e . w h a t is th e g a u g e p re s s u r e a t A . If th e m e rc u ry .6 x 1000 x 9.

the gauge pressure is negative and is known as a Suction Pressure. If the specific weight of mercury is 13. A h1 Fluid P B h2 C PB = PC PB = PA + h1ρPg+ h2ρQg PC=0 (gauge pressure) or atmospheric pressure PA + h1ρPg+ h2ρQg =101.3 x 103) – (15x10-2)x1000x9. what is the absolute pressure at A when h1 is 15cm and h2 is 30cm.5 kN/m2 Fluid Q Fluid Mechanics 48 Aug 2008 .81(30x10-2)x13.81 Absolute pressure.6 times that of water and the atmospheric pressure is 101.6 x1000x9. PA = 59. NOTE: When the pressure in the pipe is lower than atmospheric pressure.Example 8 – U tube manometer to measure negative pressure Example 8 – Negative gauge pressure (suction pressure) • In the figure below.3kN/m2.3 x 103 PA = (101. fluid P is water and fluid Q is mercury.

Example 9 – U tube manometer with enlarged ends Example 9 – Enlarged U tube manometer…1/5 • An oil and water manometer consists of a U-tube 4mm diameter with both limbs vertical.0 and that of the oil is 0. its upper end being open to the atmosphere. The left-hand limb contains water only. • oil Diameter = 20mm water Diameter = 4mm Example 9 – Enlarged U tube manometer…2/5 hoil 1 2 hwater • Step 1: Work out the relationship between hoil and hwater when there is no pressure difference between the two top ends of the U tube. Calculate the gauge pressure in the cylinder.9….9. The enlarged end contains oil with its free surface in the enlarged portion and the surface of separation between water and oil is below the enlarged end. The right-hand limb is enlarged at its upper end to 20mm diameter. • Working in terms of Gauge pressure: P1 = hoil ρoil g P2 = hwater ρwater g P1 = P2 (points 1 and 2 lie on the same horizontal line within the hoil ρoil g = hwater ρwater g Hence: hoil = hwater ρwater / ρoil = hwater/0.equation 1 system) Fluid Mechanics 49 Aug 2008 . but the surface of the oil remains in the enlarged end. Assume that the specific gravity of the water is 1. When the right hand side is connected to a cylinder of gas the surface of separation is observed to fall by 25mm.

x) ρoil g …equation 2 Fluid Mechanics 50 Aug 2008 . while the level of oil in the smaller diameter pipe. the level of oil in the larger end goes down by a value of x.x) ρoil g P4 = (2y + hwater ) ρwater g P3 = P4 Hence: Pg + (y + hoil .x) ρoil g = (2y + hwater ) ρwater g Pg = (2y + hwater ) ρwater g – (y + hoil . since the change in volume in the two cases is the same.Example 9 – Enlarged U tube manometer…3/5 • • Step 2: Calculating x When the pressure is applied. Volume change in smaller diameter pipe = (25x10-3) x Π/4 x (4 x 10-3)2 This volume equals (X) x Π/4 x (20 x 10-3)2 Hence X = 1mm x y hoil 1 y 3 2 4 hwater • • • Example 9 – Enlarged U tube manometer…4/5 Pressurised Gas cylinder Pg x y hoil 1 y 2 hwater 3 4 • Step 3: Working in terms of Gauge pressure: P3 = Pg + (y + hoil . moves down by an amount y.

81 Pg = 278.Example 9 – Enlarged U tube manometer…5/5 • Step 4: Replacing values of X.81 – (0.025 + hwater/0. Y=25mm and hoil=hwater/0.6N/m2 x y hoil 1 y 3 2 4 hwater Fluid Mechanics 51 Aug 2008 .9 Pg = (2y + hwater ) ρwater g – (y + hoil .9 x1000 x 9.x) ρoil g …equation 2 Pg = (2 x 0.9) ) x 0. Y and relationship from equation 1 into equation 2: X=1mm.025 + hwater) x 1000 x 9.

Tube B is now close and the space above the liquid is pressurised such that the surface of separation in tube C rises by 60 mm. where the ration of D/d is equal to 5. with vertical axes and uniform cross-sectional areas 500 mm2 and 800 mm2 respectively. The right-hand limb is enlarged at its upper end to 25 mm diameter. Question 2 A manometer consists of two tubes A and B open to the atmosphere. If the surface of the oil remains in the enlarged end and the oil/water interface remains in the smaller diameter tube.95 in both limbs. of density 900 kg/m3. Initially the surfaces are level.8. Tube A contains a liquid of relative density 0. and its upper end is opened to the atmosphere. The free surfaces are in the enlarged parts of the U tube. the upper part of each limb being enlarged to diameter D. while the surfaces of separation between the two liquids are in the small tube. Question 3 A manometer consists of a U tube of diameter d. Fluid Mechanics 52 Aug 2008 . The enlarged end contain oil. The left hand limb contains water only. The surface of separation between the two liquids is in the vertical side of C connected to tube A. (b) An oil and water manometer consists of a U tube 7 mm diameter with both limbs vertical.11 TUTORIAL Question 1 (a) For a U tube manometer with enlarged ends containing two manometer liquids. A pressure of 350 N/m2 is applied to the right hand side of the manometer.9. derive the formula for the difference in pressures applied to the two enlarged ends. the free surface of the oil is in the enlarged portion of the limb and oil/water interface is in the smaller diameter tube. tube B contains one of relative density 0. calculate the depth by which the surface separation between the oil and the water will move.3. connected to a U tube C of cross-sectional area 70 mm2 throughout. The small tube contains water and on top the water surface there is a liquid of relative density 0. Determine the pressure applied.

0. find the difference in pressure between A and B in N/m2. If the area A of each enlarged end is 50 times the area of the tube.8. (specific gravity. Calculate the difference in pressure. when the gauge reads 110mm. and one side is filled with water and the other side with oil. For an angle of inclination θ of 30o and with a manometric fluid of specific gravity 0. The cross sectional are of the reservoir is 50 times that of the tube.95). calculate the pressure difference corresponding to a movement of 25 mm of the surface separation between the oil and water. this causes the interface to move by a depth of 1 cm.When a pressure difference is applied to the top of the U tube in the enlarged ends. B A L θ h Fluid Mechanics 53 Aug 2008 . Question 5 The inclined U tube manometer as indicated in the diagram below. Question 4 The sensitivity of a U-tube gauge is increased by enlarging the ends. gives zero reading when A and B are set at the same pressure.

6 4. you have been introduced to the concepts of a fluid exerting pressure on the walls of the vessel in which it is contained. In this unit.9 4.8 4.0 OVERVIEW In units 2 and 3.UNIT 4 HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES Unit Structure 4. Fluid Mechanics 54 Aug 2008 .1 4.10 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Magnitude of the Hydrostatic Force – Vertical plane Magnitude of the Hydrostatic Force – Inclined plane Centre of Pressure Activities Summary Additional Reading Materials Worked examples Tutorial 4.5 4.0 4. Since pressure exerted by a fluid is depth dependent. commonly termed hydrostatic forces when the fluid is at rest. you will now learn how this fluid pressure is expressed in terms of forces.7 4.3 4. from the relationship (P = h ρ g).2 4. You are now familiar with the relationship between pressure (P) and an equivalent head of fluid (h). You have also learnt about the various devices that can be used to calculate pressure or pressure difference. this particular characteristic is taken into consideration when calculating hydrostatic forces.4 4.

Similarly. at the bottom of the vessel. Derive the equation governing the resultant force exerted by a fluid on plane surfaces.4. increases. and this pressure can also be expressed in terms of a force. as being described in the next section. and from there. Now imagine that surface ABCD is now divided into very small layers of area δA. which is located at depth h1 from top water level. of density ρ .3 MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT HYDROSTATIC FORCE –VERTICAL PLANE Consider a vessel containing liquid. Thus.2 INTRODUCTION Fluid exerts pressure on the walls of the vessel in which it is contained. being higher in magnitude.1.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. The pressure acting at point 1 is given by h1ρg. 2. ending up with a series of individual forces. Now we also know that the pressure exerted by a fluid varies with depth. to a depth H. increasing as the depth of liquid above the point under consideration. will be given by the Fluid Mechanics 55 Aug 2008 . we know that the pressure will be increasing from a value of 0 to a value of Hρg. you should be able to do the following: 1. 3. the point of action of the resultant force can be obtained by taken moments of each individual force. and consider the surface ABCD. Analyse how the worked examples were solved. 4. Figure 4. These individual forces can then be combined to get the resultant force acting. Clearly define the exact meaning of each term making up the equation for hydrostatic force on plane surface. the hydrostatic force acting on the plane surface also varies from point to point. given that Force = Pressure x Cross Sectional Area. the hydrostatic force acting at point 1. Consider now point 1. 4. As we move down from AB to CD.

1: Magnitude of Hydrostatic Force Fluid Mechanics 56 Aug 2008 . where F1= h1ρg δA. force= pressure x area. will be F1. the forces acting at point 2. h3ρg δA and h4ρg δA A h1 top water surface H h4 h2 h3 Cross sectional area of each layer. 3 and 4. Thus force acting at point 1. can be expressed by the following equations: h2ρg δA. Similarly.relationship. δA B D C Figure 4.

8). to get the final resultant force. where ∫ h δA represents the first moment of area about the horizontal surface of the liquid and this can also be written as A h. h1 F1=h1 ρ g δA F2=h2 ρ g δA F3=h3 ρ g δA F4=h4 ρ g δA B h h4 h3 h2 Position of centroid of ABCD C Figure 4. as a series of parallel forces acting perpendicularly to the surface ABCD.These individual forces can be represented as shown in Figure 4. there would be a series of individual forces. then the above equation can also be written as ∫ ρg h δA. going down to the bottom of the side ABCD. When vertical surface of a plane is being analysed. these individual forces are parallel and thus can be linearly combined (refer to section 4.2: Individual hydrostatic forces Similarly. where A is the total surface area of the body and h.2. This results in equation 1 (I think it is equation 1instead of 2) being written as follows: Fluid Mechanics 57 Aug 2008 . If the area is made extremely small. is the distance from the centroid of the body to the horizontal surface of the liquid. which will be: Resultant force acting on ABCD = ∑ hi ρ g δA where i will vary from 1 to the total number of layers into which the solid surface has been divided for analysis purposes.

Once again imagine that surface XY has been divided into small layers. h2 ρ g δA. the hydrostatic force acting on the left hand side of surface XY. respectively from the top water level. δA. Refer to the relationship between depth of liquid and pressure. Similarly at points 2. will be h1 ρ g δA. 3 and 4 have been identified on that side. Fluid Mechanics 58 Aug 2008 . and these points are located at depth h1. 3 and 4.FR= ρg A h ……………………. where h is the vertical depth of liquid above point under consideration. Where 4. h3 ρ g and h4 ρ g. 2. 3 and 4. h3 ρ g δA and h4 ρ g δA. You need to know how to derive this equation. Thus applying this relationship. which is submerged in the liquid. Hence the corresponding forces acting at point 1. P = h ρ g. The centroid of a rectangular body lies at the centre of that body. We will consider here.equation 1 ρ = density of the liquid g = acceleration due to gravity A = cross sectional area of the surface in contact with the liquid h = vertical depth from top liquid level to the centroid of the solid surface Note: 1. the pressures will be h2 ρ g. h2..4 MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT HYDROSTATIC FORCE – INCLINED PLANE Consider surface XY. being P1 = h1 ρ g. h3 and h4. Four points 1. that these individual forces are also parallel to each other. 2. and they can thus be combined linearly as was the case for the vertical plane surface. Note here. we have pressure acting at point 1. and also to be clear about the exact meaning of each of the term in the equation. 2.

the resultant hydrostatic force acting on an inclined plane surface will be given by FR = ρg A h ………………….equation 2 Fluid Mechanics 59 Aug 2008 ..3: Inclined plane surface So referring to equation 1.h h4 h3 h2 h1 1 2 4 3 X Position of centroid of XY Y Figure 4.

The next step will be then to find out the location of the resultant hydrostatic force. Take moments about point O on the surface of the liquid then δM = δF x s.4). is given by equation 1 or 2. the summation of individual forces acting on the surface of an inclined body.4: Centre of Pressure Fluid Mechanics 60 Aug 2008 . as indicated before. as illustrated in previous sections. Now each individual force acts at a particular point. whereby δF = ρg δA h (Figure 4.5 CENTRE OF PRESSURE The hydrostatic force. or the Centre of Pressure. This force is.Where ρ = density of the liquid g = acceleration due to gravity A = cross sectional area of the surface in contact with the liquid h = vertical depth from top liquid level to the centroid of the solid surface 4. This location is also known as the point of action of the hydrostatic force. Consider an elemental force acting on the surface. θ h D FR = h ρ g A δF = h ρ g h O X s Position of centroid of XY Y Position of centre of pressure Figure 4.

This can be written (Theorem of Parallel Axes ) as the second moment of area about the centroid of a body + A y2. where y is the distance between the axis passing through the centroid of the body and the axis passing through point O (refer to section 4.equation 4 Hence. equating 3 and 4 gives: ρg A h D sin θ= ∫ ρg δA s2 sin θ ∫ s2 δA is the second moment of area about the surface of the liquid and about the axis passing through the point O.8). D from point O. ρg A h D / sin θ= ρg sin θ ( Icg + A (h / sin θ) 2) D = Icg sin2 θ / A h + h Where D Icg = vertical distance from position of centre of pressure to the top water level = second moment of area of solid surface about its centroid 61 Aug 2008 Fluid Mechanics . Therefore.. at position of centre of pressure. given by: M = FR x D sin θ M = ρg A h D sin θ ……………………………….Total moments of individual elemental forces acting on the surface of the inclined body: ∑ δF x s = ∑ ρg δA h x s M = = ∑ ρg δA (s sin θ) x s ∫ ρg δA s2 sin θ …… …………………….equation 3 = The total moments can also be given in terms of the resultant hydrostatic force.

5m above the top water level in the vessel.A h θ = cross sectional area of solid surface in contact with the liquid = vertical distance from centroid of body to the top water level = angle of inclination of body with the horizontal plane 4. what is the value of h in the equation of the resultant hydrostatic force? 4. hydrostatic force? What is the value of h in the equation of the resultant 5. 8. of width 1m and depth 2m. 6. Refer to the case in part 2. Illustrate with the help of sketches the centroid of a rectangle and a triangle. is inserted in a vessel containing water. If the top of the rectangular body is now 1m below the top water level. Now the top of the rectangular body is 0. Derive the centre of pressure for the hydrostatic force acting on a plane vertical rectangular surface.6 ACTIVITIES 1. A rectangular body. what is the value of h in the equation of resultant hydrostatic force? 3. Derive the equation for the hydrostatic force acting on the inclined plane rectangular surface of a dam. when the body is now circular in shape. 7. such as a valve in the side of a reservoir? Fluid Mechanics 62 Aug 2008 . 2. How does your equation derived in part 5 change. If the rectangular body is just submerged in the vessel. Refer to the case in part 2. The resultant hydrostatic force acts as the centroid of the solid body on which the force is being exerted Discuss.

it does help you to get a better understanding of the contents of the unit. is not an integral part of Unit 4. So. 2. Unit 5 will illustrate the governing principles for deriving hydrostatic forces and centre of pressure when the force is being exerted on a curved surface. You are advised to go over the derivations of the equations and make sure that you have understood them and can easily reproduce them. You should derive the equations when asked to work from first principles or when directly asked to do so.8. students are strongly advised to get the concepts discussed here clear before moving on to the next unit. NOTE: Additional reading materials have been included in section 4. Unit 5 is a continuation of the concepts described in Unit 4.8 at least once. to help you better appreciate the following: 1. but you need not do so when solving problems all the time.7 SUMMARY Unit 4 has illustrated how to calculate the hydrostatic force exerted by fluids on the surface of solids bodies. the meaning of the Theorem of Parallel Axes. 4. the position of action of a resultant force. as compared to a plane surface as was illustrated in Unit 4. Fluid Mechanics 63 Aug 2008 .4. and also the position of location of that force. While section 4.8. There are some important differences between the equations derived in Unit 4 and those to be derived in Unit 5. the meaning of resultant force. You will be required to derive the equations governing the resultant force and centre of pressure. the application of the Theorem of Parallel Axes. and you are advised to go through section 4. 3. Your attention is also drawn to the exact meaning of each of the terms in the equations derived.

So taking moments about Z: F1 x h1 + F2 x h2 – F3 x h3 = FR x y. The concept of resultant forces: RESULTANT FORCES F1=20kN F2=50kN Solid body. the resultant force acting on A is simply the summation of the forces. Solve for position of Z. FR. A F3=30kN Consider 3 forces acting on solid body A: In terms of magnitude only.4.8 ADDITIONAL READING MATERIALS 1. Fluid Mechanics 64 Aug 2008 . taking into consideration that not all the three forces are acting in the same direction: Hence FR = (20 + 50) – 30 = 40 kN 2. A F3=30kN h3 F2=50kN h2 y Z Consider point Z: Each of the individual forces exert a moment about point Z. the magnitude of the resultant moment of the forces about Z. The concept of the point of action of Resultant Forces: POINT OF ACTION OF RESULTANT FORCE F1=20kN h1 Solid body. the resultant force. where y is the perpendicular distance form the point of action of FR and point Z. Hence. should be located such that it produces the same resultant moment about Z. will either cause the body to overturn or to stay unmoved.

In this exercise. which is a line located at the bottom of the rectangle. The first axis is indicated by line aa. total second moment of area of rectangle about line aa: = ∫ b δh x h2 with limits from h= 0 to d = bd /3 3 Second moment of area of small element about line gg. Proof of Theorem of Parallel Axes: Consider a rectangle of width b and depth d. line gg. (part 1) b b Small element. line gg passing through the centroid of rectangle = Area x (distance)2 = b δh x h2 Hence.3. thickness δh d h g d g h a a Second moment of area of small element about line aa: = Area x (distance)2 = b δh x h2 Hence. Proof – Theorem of Parallel Axes…. the second moment of area of the rectangle about two axes will be derived. total second moment of area of rectangle about line gg: = ∫ b δh x h2 with limits from h= +d/2 to -d/2 = bd /12 = Icg 3 Fluid Mechanics 65 Aug 2008 . The second axis passes through the centroid of the rectangle.

the next step will be to make use of the theory in the Theorem of Parallel Axes. if the second moment of area about the centroidal axis is known.Having derived the second moment of area of the rectangle about axes passing through aa and gg. Hence. Proof – Theorem of Parallel Axes…. (part 2) b d g g The Theorem of Parallel Axes states that: The second moment of area of a body about any axis. to show that the second moment of area passing through line aa can be obtained directly. to find the second moment of area of rectangle about the axis aa: Iaa = Icg + AY2 Iaa = bd3/12 + (bd) (d/2)2 Iaa = bd3/3 Fluid Mechanics 66 Aug 2008 . Icg = bd3/12 Distance from the centroid to the axis xx. Hence this second part sets out to prove the Theorem of Parallel Axes. is the sum of the second moment of area of the body about its centroidal axis Icg and the area of the body x (perpendicular distance from the given axis to the centroidal axis)2 Ixx = Icg + (AY2) where Y is the perpendicular a a Second moment of area of rectangle about line aa = bd3/3 Second moment of area of rectangle about line gg. applying the above theorem.

Determine the magnitude of the force on one side and the depth of its centre of pressure if the top edge is: a.5 x (1. 0. in the water surface b.9) + 0.5m Where is the density3of the liquid in contact with the plane surface (kg/m ) 2 g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s ) A is the wetted area of the rectangular surface in contact with 2 the liquid (m ) y is the vertical distance from the top liquid surface to the centre of gravity of the wetted surface (m).8m 1.5m Example 1 – Rectangular plane surface…2/4 (a) Width = 1.8m Icg of a rectangular body: Icg =bd3/12 Icg = 1. 30m below the water surface (a) (b) (c) 30m 0.3m 1.8m 1.5 ) x 1.5m by 1.8X0.8m side vertical.8 x 1.8 kN Position of centre of pressure D = Icg/Ay + y = (0.9 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Hydrostatic force exerted on a plane surface Example 1 – Rectangular plane surface…1/4 • A rectangular plane area.9 = 1.4.8m Width = 1.5m side horizontal and the 1. is 1.2 m Fluid Mechanics 67 Aug 2008 .3m below the water surface c.729/(1.8)3/12 = 0.81 x (1. immersed in water. Hydrostatic force acting on one side of rectangular surface = F = ρ g A y b=1.729 m4 Hydrostatic force acting on one side of rectangular body = 1000 x 9.8m with the 1.8/2 = 23.5x1.

Example 1 – Rectangular plane surface…3/4 Since the top edge of the rectangular body is below the water surface.8/2) = 30.3m 1.8/2) = 1.5 x (1.8X30.729 m4 Position of centre of pressure D = Icg/Ay + y = (0. i.9 = 30.8m (b) Hydrostatic force F = ρ g A y Hydrostatic force = 1000 x 9. there is a need to calculate the new value of y.5x1.5 ) x 1.8 x 1.8)3/12 = 0.5x1.5 x (1.8 x 1.729/(1.2 = 1.9 = 818 kN Icg of a rectangular body: Icg =bd3/12 Icg = 1.81 x (1.8 kN Icg of a rectangular body: Icg =bd3/12 Icg = 1.8X1.91 m Example 2 – Hydrostatic force and its dependency on density of the liquid exerting it Fluid Mechanics 68 Aug 2008 .81 x (1.729 m4 Position of centre of pressure D = Icg/Ay + y = (0.9) + 30.9 m 1.5 ) x 30.729/(1.8)3/12 = 0.2) + 1.8m Hydrostatic force F = ρ g A y Hydrostatic force = 1000 x 9.42 m Example 1 – Rectangular plane surface…4/4 (c) 30m New value of y in this case: y = 30 + (1.2 m 0.2 = 31.3 + (1.e the vertical distance from the top water surface to the centre of gravity of the rectangular body: y= 0.

which an be rotated about its horizontal diameter. The tank is completely filled with oil of specific weight 9kN/m2.5 x 23 = 1 m4 bd3/12 Hydrostatic force F = ρ g A y = γ A y F = 9 x 1000 x (2 x 1.25m Hinged about the horizontal diameter Fluid Mechanics 69 Aug 2008 . Find the resultant pressure on this vertical end and the depth of the centre of pressure from the top.5)x1 + 1 = 1. Vertical depth from top liquid surface to centre of gravity of plane vertical surface y = 2/2 = 1m A 2m B width = 1. The entrance to the culvert is closed by a circular gate 1.33 m Side under study NOTE: Specific weight = Density x acceleration due to gravity γ = ρg Example 3 – Hydrostatic force exerted on a circular opening Example 3 – Hydrostatic force on a circular opening.5m wide by 2m deep.Example 2 – Hydrostatic force & density of liquid • One end of a rectangular tank is 1.25m in diameter. Show that the turning moment on the gate is independent of the depth of water if the gate is completely immersed and find the value of this moment. Circular opening Diameter of circular gate = 1.1/2 • A culvert draws off water from the base of a reservoir.5m Icg = = 1.5) x 2/2 = 27 kN Centre of Pressure D = Icg/Ay + y = 1/ (2 x 1..

The door is 120cm wide and 90cm long and the centre of gravity of the complete door and weight is at G.Example 3 – Hydrostatic force on a circular opening.5 y kN Centre of pressure D = Icg/Ay + y = 0.1/y)+y The hydrostatic force acts at D and since the opening is hinged along its horizontal diameter. Find the height of the water h on the inside of the door which will just cause the door to open. thus independent of y. the combined weight being 9810N. the moment of the hydrostatic force is given by the hydrostatic force multiply by the vertical distance from D to the hinge.25/2)4 / 4 = 0. Taking moment about the horizontal diameter of the circular opening. M = F (D-y) M = 12043.2/2 Icg for circular body = Π r4/4 = 22/7 x (1.2 y x 0.5 x 0.252/4)x y + y = (0.12m4 Hydrostatic force F = ρ g A y = 1000 x 9.1/4 • A rectangular sluice door is hinged at the top at A and kept closed by a weight fixed to the door.1/y)+y – y } = 1177.1/y Note: y is eliminated in the equation for M M = (12043.1) = 1204 Nm. 30cm A W G B 600 h Fluid Mechanics 70 Aug 2008 .81 x (Π x 1.. D y D-y Example 4 – Turning moment exerted by hydrostatic force about a hinge Example 4 – Hydrostatic force and turning moments.12/(Πx1.252/4) x y = 12043.5 y x { (0..

.39) m =0 .2 x 0.78} /sin60o = 10595(h-0.78m W G 600 h B • Hydrostatic force acting on door AB = (1000 x 9.39) ] – h + 0.9sin60 = 0.07(h-0.39) x { 0.Example 4 – Hydrostatic force and turning moments.9) x (h-0.39) m Under equilibrium conditions: Clockwise moment about hinge A = Anticlockwise moments about hinge A • • Example 4 – Hydrostatic force and turning moments.3/4 • Under equilibrium conditions: Clockwise moment about hinge A = Anticlockwise moments about hinge A Hydrostatic force will create a clockwise moment trying to open the gate.3 = 2943 Nm Equating these two moments and solving for h.39) N Centre of pressure D = (1.81 x 1.39 }/sin60o Anticlockwise moment about A = (W x 0. yields h=0.78/2) = 10595(h-0.39) + (h-0.07/(h-0.39) } x { [0 . while the weight of the door and the gate will induce an anticlockwise moment trying to close the gate: W 30cm h-0.93/12)/(1.9)(h-0.07/(h-0.39) + (h-0.88m Fluid Mechanics 71 Aug 2008 .2 x 0.2x0.2/4 30cm A 0.39) + (h-0.39) + 0.3) = 9810 x 0.39) } x (D-h+0.78 h • D F Clockwise moment about A = {10595(h-0.78)/sin60o = {10595(h-0..

Example 4 – Hydrostatic force and turning moments..4/4

Mathematical solution:

Replacing (h-0.39) by X

Clockwise moments: 10595(h-0.39) x { 0.07(h-0.39) + 0.39 }/sin60o = (10595X) x (0.07X+0.39)/sin60o = (7416.5+10595X2) /sin60o Nm = 8564.6X2 + 4771.3X Anticlockwise moments: 2943 Nm Equating moments: 8564.6X2 + 4771.3X- 2943 =0 X = -4771.3 E e ( 4771/32-4x8564.5x-2943) = h-0.39 = , therefore h = m

Example 5 – Circular opening and moment exerted by hydrostatic force

**Example 5 – Circular openings & moment of hydrostatic force…1/2
**

• A sluice gate closes a circular opening 0.30m diameter and is hinged 1m below the surface of the water which acts on its face. If the centre of the opening lies at a depth of 1.25m find the force on the gate due to the fluid pressure. Find also the minimum force that must be applied by a clamp which lies 0.5m below the hinge, in order to keep the gate closed.

Sluice gate 1m 1.25m 0.3m 0.5m clamp Circular opening, 03m diameter

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**Example 5 – Circular openings & moment of hydrostatic force…2/2
**

1m 1.25m 0.3m

1m

0.5m clamp

Hydrostatic D-1 force, F Fclamp

• • •

Hydrostatic force, F = ρ g A y = 1000 X 9.81 x (π x 0.32/4) x 1.25 = 867N Centre of pressure, D = Icg/Ay + y = (π x 0.154/4)/[(π x 0.32/4)x1.25] + 1.25 = 1.255m Taking moments about the hinge: 867 x (1.255-1) = Fclamp x 0.5 Therefore Fclamp = 442 N

4.10

TUTORIAL

Question 1 A square aperture in a vertical side of a tank has one diagonal vertical and is completely covered by a plane plate hinged along one of the upper sides of the aperture. The diagonals of the aperture are 2m long and the tank contains water to a height of 1.5 m above the centre of the aperture. Calculate the force exerted on the plate by the water, the moment of this force about the hinge, and the position of the centre of pressure. How will the above values change if, instead of water, the tank contained a liquid of relative density 1.25? Question 2 The figure below shows a rectangular gate AB hinged at the top A and kept closed by a weight fixed to the door. The door is 120 cm wide and 90 cm long and the combined centre of gravity of the complete door and the weight is at G, the combined weight being 1000N. Find the height of water h on the inside of the door that will just cause the door to open.

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Question 3 (a) A closed channel full of water has a cross-section in the form of an equilateral triangle of sides 2.5 m and lies horizontally on one of its sides. Its end is closed by a triangular vertical gate having similar side lengths, i.e, 2.5m. The gate is supported by a bolt at each corner. Calculate the magnitude and position of the force acting on the gate. Find also the force acting on each bolt. Icg = bh3/36

Question 4 (a) A vertical dock gate is 5.5 m wide and has water to a depth of 7.3 m on one side and to a depth of 3 m on the other side. Find the resultant horizontal force acting on the dock gate and the position of its line of action. (b) To what position does this line tend as the depth of water on the shallow side rises to 7.3 m ?

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Question 5 (a) Derive from first principles, an expression for the force acting on one side of a plane surface, cross sectional area A submerged in a liquid of density ρ. (b) A square shaped gate, of side length 0.3 m, closes an opening. The gate is hinged at the top, (Figure 1), below the surface of the water which acts on its face. If the centre of the opening lies at a depth of 1.25 m below top water level, calculate the magnitude and position of the force acting on the gate. Find also the force that must be applied by a clamp which lies 0.5 m below the hinge in order to keep the gate closed.

Square opening 0.3m side length

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At this point. you should be able to do the following: 1. 76 Aug 2008 Fluid Mechanics .1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. 5.4 5.1 5.0 OVERVIEW In Unit 4.2 5. In the case of a curved surface. So your attention is drawn to this particular difference. it is advisable that you once again go back to the contents of Unit 4.8 5. the centre of pressure. there will once again be individual forces acting at different points along the solid surface. but this time they will not be parallel forces.3 5.7 5. the concept of fluid exerting a pressure has been converted to the fluid exerting a resultant hydrostatic force on the walls of the vessel in which it is contained. Derive the equation governing the resultant force exerted by a fluid on curved surfaces. You must probably have noted that the individual forces acting on the solid plane surface were all parallel. and thus could be linearly combined.5 5.9 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Magnitude of the Horizontal Component of the Hydrostatic Force – Curved Surface Magnitude of the Vertical Component of the Hydrostatic Force Resultant Hydrostatic Force Acting on Curved Surface Activities Summary Worked Examples Tutorial 5.0 5.UNIT 5 HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES Unit Structure 5. to appreciate the methodology guiding the approach to deriving the resultant hydrostatic force and the position of action of this force.6 5.

these forces can be linearly combined. as was the case with the plane surface in Unit 4. the forces acting at Fluid Mechanics 77 Aug 2008 . Now.3 MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT HORIZONTAL COMPONENT OF THE HYDROSTATIC FORCE – CURVED SURFACE Consider a vessel containing liquid. The force exerted by a fluid. 5. 3. However. of density ρ . When the surface area is plane. Analyse how the worked examples were solved. Thus. Clearly define the exact meaning of each term making up the equation for hydrostatic force on plane surface.1.2. can be illustrated as a series of individual forces acting on the surface of the solid. will be F1. 5. a slightly different approach is adopted to combine these forces and to eventually find their point of action of the resultant force. Similarly. this implies that the force exerted by the fluid also varies with depth. to a depth H. also known as the hydrostatic force. and since fluid pressure varies with depth.2 INTRODUCTION Referring to what has been explained in Unit 4. and in terms of gauge pressure. this fluid pressure will be a minimum (zero) at the top liquid surface and a maximum at the bottom liquid level. where F1= h1ρg δA. Force is equal to pressure x cross sectional area. Figure 5. Differentiate between solution of problems between plane and curved surface. the hydrostatic force acting at point 1. force acting at point 1. The pressure acting at 1 is given by h1ρg. we know that the pressure will be increasing from a value of 0 to a value of Hρg. As we move down from AB to CD. will be given by the relationship. and from there. Consider now layer 1. a fluid exerts pressure on the surface of the vessel in which it is contained. when the surface is curved. This pressure varies with depth. force= pressure x area. as shown in Unit 4. and consider the curved surface ABCD. 4. which is located at depth h1 from top water level. imagine that the curved surface ABCD is now divided into very small layers of area δA.

3 and 4. Fluid Mechanics 78 Aug 2008 . as a series of individual forces acting perpendicularly at their point of contact with the curved surface ABCD.2. Note in the case of a curved surface. that these individual hydrostatic forces are NOT parallel to each other.point 2.1: Hydrostatic force on a Curved Surface These individual forces can be represented as shown in Figure 5. can be expressed by the following equations: h2ρg δA. top water surface A H h4 h3 h2 h1 Width of AB = b B D δA C Figure 5. h3ρg δA and h4ρg δA (same situation as described for plane surface in Unit 4).

as was the case for the plane surface.B h1 h2 F2=h2 ρ g δA h3 F1=h1 ρ g δA H h4 F3=h3 ρ g δA F4=h4 ρ g δA C Figure 5. but these forces are not parallel to each other. However each inclined individual force can be considered in a different way.3. Fluid Mechanics 79 Aug 2008 . going down up to the bottom of the side ABCD. and therefore cannot be combined linearly.2: Individual hydrostatic forces Similarly. An inclined force has a vertical and a horizontal component. there would be a series of individual forces acting perpendicularly on the curved surface. Figure 5.

as illustrated in Figure 5.4. Now consider all the individual inclined forces acting on the curved surface.3. Fluid Mechanics 80 Aug 2008 .H Fi sin θ Fi cos θθ F C Figure 5. each will have a vertical and a horizontal component. The corresponding horizontal force is Fi cos θ and the corresponding vertical force is Fi sin θ. Figure 5.3: Horizontal and Vertical Components of Individual forces Consider a general inclined individual force Fi. making an angle θ with the horizontal.

From Figure 5. the projected area of curved surface ABCD. Fluid Mechanics 81 Aug 2008 . given by B’C x width of curved surface (b).B ’ B H C Figure 5. they can be considered as if they are acting on a vertical plane surface.e. i. it can be noted that when all the horizontal components of the individual forces are being considered.4: Horizontal and vertical components of individual forces Now consider only all the horizontal component of these individual forces.5.

the Resultant Horizontal component of the hydrostatic force acting on AB’CD = ∑ hi ρ g δA where i will vary from 1 to the total number of layers into which the solid surface has been divided for analysis purposes. Since here we are once again dealing with a vertical plane surface (the projected area).e. we can resort back to the methodology adopted for plane vertical surface in Unit 4.5: Resultant horizontal force acts on Projected Area = B’C x width of curved surface BC Thus the horizontal components of the individual forces therefore act on the projected area of the curved surface. and which eventually yields. i. combine the individual forces linearly.B’ B H C’ Figure 5. FH= ρg A h Fluid Mechanics 82 Aug 2008 . Therefore.

the vertical component of the hydrostatic force is exerted by the weight of the liquid.4 MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT VERTICAL COMPONENT OF THE HYDROSTATIC FORCE Having obtained the horizontal component of the resultant force.6: Vertical component of resultant forces = weight of liquid above or below curved surface Consider Figure 5. will simply be the weight of the fluid above the curved surface or opposing the curved surface. 5.Where ρ = density of the liquid g = acceleration due to gravity A = cross sectional area of the projected surface in contact with the liquid h = vertical depth from top liquid level to the centroid of the projected surface. and this force acts at the centre of pressure related to the projected vertical surface. Fluid Mechanics 83 Aug 2008 . B’ B H C’ Figure 5. we need now to work out the vertical component of the vertical force.6. Hence the vertical component of the resultant hydrostatic force acting on surface BC.

7. in section 5. it has been shown that the vertical component of the hydrostatic force FV acts at the centroid of the liquid above the curved surface. and is also the vertical component of the resultant hydrostatic force. Similarly. FV= V ρ g Where V is the volume of liquid above or against the curved surface ρ is the density of the liquid g is the acceleration due to gravity 5. Hence.5 RESULTANT HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON CURVED SURFACE From section 5.3. it was shown that the horizontal component FH acts at the centre of pressure related to the projected vertical surface B’C. and these are illustrated in Figure 5.4. and this weight acts at the centroid of the body of liquid.Weight of liquid = shaded area x width of curved surface x density x acceleration due to gravity Weight of liquid = A b ρ g = Vρ g . Fluid Mechanics 84 Aug 2008 .

is reported as follows: FH θ FV FR FR = { (FH)2 + (FV)2 } ½ Acting at an angle. Fluid Mechanics 85 Aug 2008 . θ. where θ is given by tan-1 (FV/FH).B’ B D H FV FH Position of the centroid of the liquid above curved surface C Figure 5.7: Resultant force acting on Curved Surface Thus the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the curved surface.

7 SUMMARY Unit 5 was a continuation of Unit 4. 5. how you would locate the position of centroid of the liquid above the curved surface? 4. What do you understand by the term projected area? What is the shape of the projected surface of a sphere? 3. the Pressure Diagrams. before moving to Unit 6. Differentiate between the concepts behind the analysis of the resultant hydrostatic force acting on curved surface as compared to those used in the analysis of a plane surface. Fluid Mechanics 86 Aug 2008 . Given the equation of the curved surface under study. else you might get confused while going through Unit 6.5. Derive the equation governing the resultant hydrostatic force acting on a curved surface. whereby in this unit you have has been explained how to work out the resultant force acting on a curved surface. However. based upon the principles of first moment of area. to make sure the concepts described there are clear. 2.6 ACTIVITIES 1. you are strongly advised to go back once more to Units 4 and 5. You need to learn both methodologies. explain. The next unit will also be concerned with the calculation of hydrostatic force on plane surface based upon a slightly different approach.

5m Fluid Mechanics 87 Aug 2008 . calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the gate due to the water and the turning moment required to open the gate.5m radius O W G 0.6m water 1.5. Its centre of gravity is at G as shown.5m pivoted at its centre O.6m 0. consists of a quadrant of a circle of radius 1. When the water is level with the pivot O. The width of the gate is 3m and it has a mass of 6000kg. 1.8 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Hydrostatic force on curved surface in the shape of the quadrant of a circle Example 1 – Quadrant of circle …1/4 • A sluice gate as shown below.

y is given by 1.5m.52)/4x3 x 1000 x 9.5 x 3) x (1. Hence.. measured from the top liquid surface. FH = ρ g A y Where is the density of the liquid exerting the hydrostatic force (kg/m3) g the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) A is the projected area of the curved surface (m2) y is the vertical distance from the top liquid surface to the centre of gravity of the projected area (m) • • • Projected area of curved surface is a rectangular surface.. and depth 1.81 FV = (πx 1.5/2) = 33.1 kN Example 1 – Quadrant of circle.3/4 • • Vertical component of the hydrostatic force is given by the weight of the liquid either above the curved surface or opposing the curved surface.81 (1.2/4 • Horizontal component of force acting on Projected area. In this example.5/2 = 0. horizontal component of force acting on Projected area. FH = ρ g A y = 1000 x 9.81 = 52 kN Fluid Mechanics 88 Aug 2008 .75m. width 3m. the vertical component of the force will be given by the weight of the water which is opposing the presence of the curved surface.81 Weight = Vertical component of the hydrostatic force = (πr2)/4x3 x 1000 x 9. Weight of the water acting against the curved surface • Weight = volume of quadrant x density x g Weight = (πr2)/4x3 x 1000 x 9.Example 1 – Quadrant of circle.

3 kNm Note: Since the line of action of the resultant hydrostatic force passes through the centre of the quadrant.4/4 • Resultant hydrostatic force acting on curved surface.25m.12 +522} FR = ? {33.81 = 35. W x 0..6 kN Point of action of resultant hydrostatic force. θ = tan -1 (52/33.1) θ = 52. and determine the position of the point B at which the line of action of this force cuts the horizontal plane through A.4 where y and x are in metres. H =15..1/9 • The face of a dam is curved according to the relation Y=X2/2. the surface of a dam Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam. the hydrostatic force exerts no moment about the pivot O.12 +522} = 61.25m Y A X Fluid Mechanics 89 Aug 2008 .5o • Turning moment required to open the sluice gate: Taking moment about the centre of the quadrant. The height of the free surface above the horizontal plane through A is 15. Example 2 – Hydrostatic force acting on a curved surface.6 = 6000 x 0.6 x 9. FR FR = ? (FH2 + FV2) FR = ? {33.Example 1 – Quadrant of circle. Calculate the resultant force F due to the fresh water acting on unit breadth of the dam.

5 m2 Fluid Mechanics 90 Aug 2008 .7 kN per m width of dam Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam.4.25 gives Shaded area = {2/3 x 2.25 x 1) x (15.Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam.4 x Y} 3/2 from y=0 to y=15.25/2) = 1143.25... FH = ρ g A y = 1000 x 9.2/9 15.3/9 A • Vertical component of the hydrostatic force: – Weight of the water above the curved surface = Shaded area x width of the dam x density of water x g • • • • Equation of dam: Y=X2/2. X = 6.81 (15.25m Y A X • Horizontal component of force acting on Projected area.05 Shaded area = ∫ (2.25 Shaded area = 120.4 Y)1/2 dy from y=0 to y=12. and when Y = 15.

18 MN per m width of the dam Resultant hydrostatic force acting on dam: • FR = ? (FH2 + FV2) FR = ? {1143.81 = 1..4/9 A • Vertical component of the hydrostatic force: – Weight of the water above the curved surface FV = Shaded area x width of the dam x density of water x g = 120.5 x 1 x 1000 x 9.Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam.72 +11802} = 1643 kN per m width of dam Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam. FV ZB = (H-D) tanθ Fluid Mechanics 91 Aug 2008 .5/9 D centre of pressure for force FH FH FV A Z FR B H θ (H-D) tanθ • • • Distance AB = Distance AZ + ZB AZ = horizontal distance from point A to the line of action of the vertical component of the force..

Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam.25/2 D=10.25/2} + 15.25)x15.7/9 • A’ Small element thickness dX H-Y H Calculating position of centroid of the curved surface: Consider a small element of thickness dX.17m (distance ZB) Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam. Fluid Mechanics 92 Aug 2008 .6/9 FH A FV Z H θ (H-D) tanθ FR B • Calculating distance D: D = Icg/Ay +y= (bd3/12)/(bd)xd/2 + d/2 D = (1x15..253)/{12x(1x15.4 B ? {(H-Y)dX x X} = area above curved surface x distance of centroid of curved surface from line AA’.. within the curve surface: First moment of area of this small element about line AA’: A X Y=X2/2.

5 (see slide no. H-Y H Small element thickness dX • ? {(H-X2/2.51) = = 1. 96m (distance AZ) A X Y=X2/2.9/9 • A’ ?{(H-X2/2.. 3) Therefore X = (120.51.4)dX x X} . Integrating from X =0 to X =6.4 B • Distance AB = AZ + ZB = 1.17 = 12.5 (see slide no.5/61. gives 61.05 (see slide no..4 B • Total area above curved surface = 120.4)dX x X} . 3) Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam. Integrating from X =0 to X =6.Example 2 – Force acting on a Dam.4)} and from X=0 to X=6.05. 3) A X Y=X2/2.05 (see slide no.96 + 10. • Total area above curved surface = 120.8/9 A’ • ? {(H-Y)dX x X} = area above curved surface x distance of centroid of curved surface from line AA’.13m Fluid Mechanics 93 Aug 2008 . 3) Small element thickness dX H-Y H Integrating equation results in { HX – X3/(3x2.

(b) the point of action of the resultant force.5 (a) The profile of the water face of a dam is given by the equation 44. (b) Calculate also the horizontal distance at which the resultant force cuts a horizontal line at floor level. The depth of the water is 4 m. Question 2 2. in terms of magnitude and direction. The width of the gate is 3 m and it has a mass of 6000 kg. Question 3 (a) A sluice gate consists of a quadrant of a circle of radius 1. measured from the origin. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant hydrostatic force per meter width of the dam. Its centre of gravity is at G as shown. Fluid Mechanics 94 Aug 2008 .5m pivoted at its centre at O. When the water is level with the pivot O. where the coordinates of x and y in metres are measured from an origin set at the point of intersection of the flat floor and the curved face of the dam. where x and y are measured in metres from the origin. Calculate (a) the resultant force acting on the dam. calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the gate due to the water and the turning moment required to open the gate.75 y = x .9 TUTORIAL Question 1 The curved surface of a dam retaining water is shaped according to the relationship y=x2/4.5. The origin is being defined as the point of intersection of the base of the dam to the horizontal.

where y and x are in metres.25 m. The height of the free surface above the horizontal plane through A is 15. Fluid Mechanics 95 Aug 2008 .4. and determine the position of the point B at which the line of action of this force cuts the horizontal plane through A. Calculate the resultant force F due to the fresh water acting on unit breadth of the dam.Question 4 The face of a dam is curved according to the relation y=x2/2.

Fluid Mechanics 96 Aug 2008 .

one particular approached to calculating resultant hydrostatic force was presented.9 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Pressure diagrams Magnitude of the Vertical component of the Hydrostatic Force Position of Centre of Pressure Activities Summary Worked Examples Tutorial 6. the student will now be introduced to a second approach of calculating the resultant hydrostatic force acting on vertical plane surface only.8 6.3 6. In Units 4 and 5.UNIT 6 Unit Structure PRESSURE DIAGARAMS 6.0 6. the student was introduced to the concept of pressure exerted by fluids and the conversion of this fluid pressure into a resultant hydrostatic force on a plane and a curved surface.2 6.0 OVERVIEW In Units 3. In Unit 6. 4 and 5.1 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.4 6. Fluid Mechanics 97 Aug 2008 .

The fluid pressure at A in terms of Gauge Pressure (Unit 3). students should be able to do the following: 1. 4. a fluid at rest exerts pressure and this pressure can be converted to a force. How to derive the equation for calculating resultant hydrostatic force on vertical plane surface using the pressure diagram method. the hydrostatic force exerted on the walls of the vessel in which it is contained.1. Pressure diagrams are convenient for plane vertical surfaces only. where A is located at the top water level and B is located at the bottom edge. Pressure diagram is simply the graph showing the distribution of pressure from one extremity of the plane vertical surface to the other.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. Understand why the method of pressure diagrams can be applied only to plane surface 3. A second. Understand the meaning of pressure diagrams 2. The two extremities of the plane vertical surface is A and B. One particular method for calculating this pressure was illustrated in Unit 4.2 INTRODUCTION As discussed in Unit 4. from Figure 6. 6. For example. more simplified way of calculating the resultant hydrostatic force and its centre of pressure will be illustrated in this unit. is zero. 6.6. and the fluid pressure at B is (Hρg). we need to calculate the hydrostatic force acting on vertical plane surface AB.1: Fluid Mechanics 98 Aug 2008 . Thus plotting these two points yields a triangular shaped graph as shown in Figure 6. How to derive the equation for calculating the centre of pressure for the resultant hydrostatic force on a vertical plane surface using the pressure diagram method.3 PRESSURE DIAGRAMS The method of Pressure Diagram is a graphical method for calculating hydrostatic forces on solid surfaces and the centre of pressure of these forces.

2. yielding a trapezoidal shaped pressure diagram.2: Pressure Diagram – a submerged vertical surface AB Fluid Mechanics 99 Aug 2008 .1: Pressure Diagram – vertical plane surface AB Similarly. depth Y Liquid density. consider a vertical plane surface. The extremities of this plane vertical surface is A and B.depth A PA=0 H Liquid density. submerged in a body of fluid. ρ A H B PA=Y ρ g Pressure head PB=(H+Y) ρ g Figure 6. Figure 6. H B Pressure head PB=H ρ g Figure 6. where the fluid pressure at A is (Yρg) and the fluid pressure at B is [(H+Y)ρg].

4 MAGNITUDE OF THE HYDROSTATIC FORCE RESULTANT VERTICAL COMPONENT OF THE The magnitude of the resultant hydrostatic force on a vertical plane surface using the pressure diagram is simply.1. the hydrostatic force acting on vertical plane surface AB is the area of the triangular pressure diagram multiply by the width of AB: Resultant hydrostatic force = (AREA of Pressure diagram) x Width of surface AB = { ½ Hρg x H } x B = ½ H2ρ g B Referring to Figure 6. The key point in this method is to have a clear diagram and draw your pressure diagram accurately. the AREA of the pressure diagram multiply by the width of the plane surface. will therefore be given by Resultant force acting on AB (Figure 6. triangles or trapezium. Fluid Mechanics 100 Aug 2008 . else the width of the plane surface will vary and so will the shape of the pressure diagram. the hydrostatic force acting on vertical plane surface AB.2. 6.2) = Area of trapezium x Width of AB = { ½ (Yρg + (H+Y)ρg} H x B = ½ H B (H+2Y)ρg ρ NOTE: Student should know about how to make use of the method of pressure diagram to calculate the resultant hydrostatic force acting on a plane surface. The rest is just calculating the area of simple diagrams.Note: The plane surface AB should either be rectangular or square. Referring to Figure 6.

the centre of pressure.3: Pressure Diagram – CENTROID OF PRESSURE DIAGRAM Similarly. a rectangle and a triangle.1. The position of centroid of a trapezium can be calculated by dividing the trapezium into 2 simple shapes. Referring to Figure 6. Hence in Figure 6.5 POSITION OF CENTRE OF PRESSURE The position of action of the resultant hydrostatic force. is simply the CENTROID of the pressure diagram. i. the pressure diagram in this case is in the form of a triangle. The CENTROID of a triangle is located at position 1/3 the height of the triangle. the position of centroid of which are known. the centroid will be H/3 from point B (Figure 6. the position of centre for the resultant force in Figure 6. Next by taking moments about the base of the trapezium.e.2. Fluid Mechanics 101 Aug 2008 .3): dept PA=0 H Position of centroid of triangle H/ Pressure PB=H ρ g Figure 6. the position of centroid of the trapezium can be calculated.6. will be the position of centroid of the trapezium.1.

depth H H/2 x H/ x Pressure head Take moments about line XX to find the position of centroid of the trapezium Figure 6.4: Pressure Diagram – centroid of Trapezium Calculation of the centroid of a trapezium is best illustrated with a numerical example. Fluid Mechanics 102 Aug 2008 .

immersed in water is 1. A closed tank rectangular in plan with vertical sides is 1.5m A B (b) (c) A (d) Pressurised air A 5kN/m2 1. 8.5m 0.6. 7. and (b) If the air space above the water is filled with pressurised air.8 m with the 1. 35 kN/m2. A rectangular plane area. Calculate the position of the centroid of the following diagrams in part 1.6 ACTIVITIES 5. Fluid Mechanics 103 Aug 2008 .5 m side horizontal and the 1. if the top edge is 30 m below the water surface.8m deep and contains water to a depth of 1. Calculate the hydrostatic force and its centre of pressure. Calculate the resultant and centre of pressure of the various cases illustrated in part 1.5m by 1.8 m side vertical.5m in all cases & fluid is vessel is water 6. Draw pressure diagrams acting on the plane vertical surface AB for the following cases: (a) A 1. Determine the magnitude of the force on one side and the depth of its centre of pressure (measured from the base). 4.5m B B Width of AB = 2.2m: (a) Calculate the hydrostatic force acting on one side of the tank if its width is 3m and its centre of pressure.5m B 1m 1.

Unit 7 will be a continuation of hydrostatics. rectangular in plan with vertical sides. for vertical plane surface. Your attention is drawn to the fact that the plane vertical surface needs to be either rectangular or square for making use of the method of pressure diagrams.8m deep and contains water to a depth of 1.8 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Calculation of hydrostatic force with the top surface under atmospheric pressure Example 1 – Simple application…1/4 • A tank.6. A 1.7 SUMMARY In this unit you have been introduced to a different method for calculating resultant hydrostatic force and centre of pressure of pressure.e. is 1. fluids at rest.2m. If the length of one wall of the tank is 3m. 6. calculate the resultant force on this wall and the height of the centre of pressure measured from above the base.8m B Width of wall (AB) = 3m Fluid Mechanics 104 Aug 2008 . i. but bears no direct relation to what has been discussed in units 3 to 6.

8ρg ρ height H=0.Example 1 – Simple application…2/4 A 1.8ρg ρ height H=0.8m B H=1. Hydrostatic force per m width of the wall is given by the area of the pressure diagram = Area of the shaded triangle Area of shaded triangle = {½ x base x height } = • • {½ x 1. hρg.62 ρg • Total hydrostatic force acting on AB = shaded area x width of AB = 1.8 Gauge pressure = 1.8 } ρ Example 1 – Simple application…3/4 A 1.8m B H=1.8 Gauge pressure = 1. the gauge pressure is given by the height of the liquid exerting the pressure.8 } ρ = 1.8ρg x 1. Gauge pressure=0 Pressure • At position A. Gauge pressure=0 Pressure • Area of shaded triangle = {½ x base x height } = {½ x 1. the gauge pressure = 0 and at position B.62 ρg x 3 = 47.8ρg x 1.7 kN Fluid Mechanics 105 Aug 2008 .

8m. is located as shown in the diagram above: – Hence measured from the base. rectangular in plan with vertical sides. Gauge pressure=0 Centroid B H=1. Position of Centroid of a triangle. calculate the resultant force on this wall and the height of the centre of pressure measured from above the base. • Example 2 – Calculation of hydrostatic force with the top surface under pressure Example 2 – Slightly more complex example…1/4 • A closed tank.e. Centre of pressure.8ρg ρ Pressure h/3 • Position of action of the hydrostatic force. hence Centre of Pressure of the hydrostatic force acting on AB is 1. Pressurised Air A 2. the position of centroid.4m deep and contains water to a depth of 1.Example 1 – Simple application…4/4 A 1.4m Width of wall (AB) = 3m 1.8m B Fluid Mechanics 106 Aug 2008 . i. Air is pumped into the space above the water until the air pressure is 35kN/m2. if the length of one wall of the tank is 3m.8m b/3 height H=0. is given by the position of the centroid of the pressure diagram.8/3 = 0. is 2.6m measured from the base.8 Gauge pressure = 1.

8m column of water. Gauge pressure= Pressure of Air = 35kN/m2 Pressurised Air A height 1.7 kN Fluid Mechanics 107 Aug 2008 .8ρg x 1. Gauge pressure = 1. • At B. Gauge pressure= Pressure of Air 1.4m Gauge pressure = 1. the pressure is equal to the pressure exerted by the pressurised air and the pressure exerted by the 1.8ρg + Pressure of Air ρ • At A the pressure at the water surface. is equal to the same as the pressure of the air. – FAB = { (35x1000 x 2. Example 2 – Slightly more complex example…3/4 Pressurised Air A height H=0.8)} x 3 = 299.8m B Pressure H=2.8m B Pressure H=2.4) + (½ x 1. 35kN/m2.8ρg + Pressure of Air ρ • Hydrostatic force acting on AB is given by the product of the shaded area and the width of the wall (3m).Example 2 – Slightly more complex example…2/4 H=0.4m. i.e.

8) x 0.6} = {(35x1000x2.9m.4) Shaded Area = (½ x 1.88 stored to a depth of 0. The pressure diagram is therefore divided into two simple diagrams.9 TUTORIAL Question 1 (a) A gate 3 m wide and 2 m deep divides a storage tank.8ρgx1.2+ (½x1. with known position of centroid. is the position of centroid of the pressure diagram. determine the resulting hydrostatic force acting on the gate.11m 6. a rectangle and a triangle.4/2=1. Fluid Mechanics 108 Aug 2008 .2m 1. and the centroid of the pressure diagram is calculated by taking the first moment of area about the base: { (35x1000x2.8) } Y Therefore.4)x1. Using the pressure diagram method.78 stored at a depth of 1.8) 2. On one side of the gate there is petrol of specific gravity 0.4) + (½x1. Discuss. (b) 'The centre of pressure is always located below the centroid of the wetted surface'.8m.Example 2 – Slightly more complex example…4/4 Shaded Area = (35x1000x12.8ρgx1. Y = 1.8/3=0.8ρg x 1. while on the other side there is oil of specific gravity 0.6m BASE • • The position of action of the hydrostatic force acting on AB. and the position of action of this force.

given the center of the plate is 1. while on the other side there is oil of specific gravity 0. and the position of action of this force. using the pressure diagram method. On one side of the gate there is petrol of specific gravity 0. determine the resulting hydrostatic force acting on the gate. 'The centre of pressure is always located below the centroid of the wetted surface'. Question 3 Find the resultant pressure and the center of pressure on a vertical square plate 1.8m side. Question 4 a. Using the pressure diagram method. A gate 3 m wide and 2 m deep divides a storage tank.2m below the surface of the water. Fluid Mechanics 109 Aug 2008 .9m. b.8m.Question 2 A lock gate is 3m wide. Find the initial turning moment necessary to force the gate to open when the water levels across the gate are 3m and 4m respectively above the sill. using the pressure diagram method.88 stored to a depth of 0.78 stored at a depth of 1. Discuss.

UNIT 7

BUOYANCY

Unit Structure

7.0

Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Resultant Force Acting on a Completely Submerged Body Definition –Buoyancy Sink or Float? Stability of Submerged Bodies Metacentre Summary

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8

7.0

OVERVIEW

Unit 7 deals with the forces exerted by a fluid on a solid body in contact with the fluid. This unit just like units 1 to 6 is concerned with fluids at rest.

7.1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, students should be able to do the following:

1. Define what you understand by the term Buoyancy & Archimedes Principle. 2. Differentiate with the help of sketches between, stable equilibrium, unstable equilibrium and neutral equilibrium. 3. Explain what is meant by the term metacenter. 4. To relate the position of metacentre, centre of gravity of a body to the stability of the body in the fluid.

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7.2

INTRODUCTION

Buoyancy is the term used to describe the force of resistance exerted by a fluid on a body which is either partially or completely submerged into it. Buoyancy is a term which is very much relevant in boat construction. 7.3 RESULTANT FORCE ACTING ON A COMPLETELY SUBMERGED BODY

Buoyancy is a force exerted by a fluid on a solid body completely or partially immersed in the fluid and buoyancy always pushes upwards against the pull of gravity. How buoyancy works: a) Buoyancy is based on Newton's Third Law of Motion, which states: "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." Here is the process: (i) objects placed in a fluid push particles of the fluid away (displace particles) (ii) following Newton's Third Law, the particles push back on the object (iii) the force with which the particles push back is the buoyant force measured in newtons (N)

Referring to Unit 5, it is to be noted here that the method use for calculating forces on curved surfaces applies to any shaped body. The approach is to work out the resultant horizontal component and the resultant vertical component, and combine them to obtain the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the curved surface. Consider the following completely submerged body:

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Figure 7.1: Completely submerged body Calculating the resultant HORIZONTAL COMPONENT To obtain the resultant horizontal force acting, we divide the body into two and then project the curved surface, which is a circle in this case, as indicated in Figure 7.1. The result is that there is an equal and opposite horizontal component of hydrostatic force acting on the body, hence no resultant horizontal force will be acting on the completely submerged body. Calculating the resultant VERTICAL COMPONENT For the resultant vertical component, we once again divide the body into two parts from a horizontal plane. Consider equilibrium of vertical forces on the upper surface and on the lower surface of the body: Vertical force acting on the upper surface of the body = weight of fluid displaced by this curved surface

Similarly, the vertical force acting on the lower surface = weight of fluid displaced by this curved surface

Therefore the resultant vertical force acting on the curved body, also called the upthrust on the body = The weight of the fluid displaced by the body (Archimedes’ Principle).

This vertical force will act through the centroid of the volume of fluid displaced by the body, known as the centre of buoyancy. Fluid Mechanics 112 Aug 2008

7.4

DEFINITION - BUOYANCY

Any body in a fluid, whether floating or completely submerged, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid that has been displaced – Archimedes Principle. The buoyancy force is given by the product of the volume of fluid displaced, the density of the liquid and the acceleration due to gravity, V ρ (liquid) g. The buoyancy force acts at the centroid of the liquid which has been displaced (Figure 7.2) in the case of a rectangular body ABCD floating in a liquid. In the case of a completely submerged spherical body, the centroid of the liquid which will have been displaced, is the centre of the sphere.

A

B

E

cgb cgd

F

D

C

cgb – centre of gravity of solid body ABCD cgd – centroid of the displaced fluid, space EFCD

Figure 7.2: Centroidal position of displaced liquid NOTE: For a completely submerged body, the centroid of the displaced fluid is located at the same position as the center of gravity of the body.

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and consequently a change in the position of centroid of the dispersed fluid. unstable or neutral equilibrium position. and the upthrust R acts through the centre of buoyancy cgd. and hence the higher the vertical upthrust force.5 SINK OR FLOAT If the downward force exerted by the weight of the body is higher than the vertical upwards buoyancy force. If body acquires a different position after having been tilted. the body will sink. Consider the body ABCD floating in liquid (Figure 7.7.3): the weight W=mg acts through the centre of gravity of the body cgb. then it is said to be under unstable equilibrium. Fluid Mechanics 114 Aug 2008 . The larger the surface area of a solid body in contact with the fluid. else it floats. this is accompanied by a change in the volume of fluid displaced by the tilted body.6 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED BODY A submerged or partially immersed body can be in stable. The body is in stable equilibrium if when titled it regains its original position. 7.3: Position of action of Weight and Upthrust acting on ABCD When the body ABCD is titled. A W=mg E cgb cgd B F R D C Figure 7. the greater the amount of fluid displaced.

4: Titled object – Resulting restoring moment (anticlockwise) The two forces.4 & Figure 7. A B B’ cgd mg A’ D cgb R C Figure 7. exert a moment as indicated by the arrows in Figure 7.4: Tilted object – Resulting restoring moment (anticlockwise) Figure 7.5. If the however the moment is such that the body comes to equilibrium in another position.The position of cgd changes. as indicated by Figure 7. then we have UNSTABLE condition (Figure 7. the weight of the body ABCD acting at the center of gravity cgb. Fluid Mechanics 115 Aug 2008 . but the position of the center of gravity cgb of the body which is independent of the fluid displaced. stays the same. cgd. this is knows as the STABLE condition. When this moment is such that it makes the body regain its original position. and the upthrust R acting at the new position of centroid of the displaced fluid (A’B’CD).4.6).

5: Tilted object – Resulting Restoring moment (clockwise) Figure 7.5: Titled Object – Resulting Restoring moment (clockwise) mg cgb cgd R Figure 7.B A A’ cgb cgd mg B’ C R D Figure 7.6: Titled object – Resulting Overturning moment (clockwise) Fluid Mechanics 116 Aug 2008 .6: Tilted object – Resulting Overturning moment (clockwise) Figure 7.

always lies below the position of metacentre M. in the water. however little. or tipped.7-7. hence body is under stable equilibrium Figure 7. Basically the centre of buoyancy of a floating body is the point about which all the body parts exactly buoy.7: Position of Metacentre Fluid Mechanics 117 Aug 2008 .7 METACENTRE The metacentre is defined as the theoretical point at which an imaginary vertical line through the centre of buoyancy (cgd) intersects another imaginary vertical line through a new centre of buoyancy created when the body is displaced.9. A body is under stable equilibrium if its center of gravity cgb. as indicated by figures 7. M cgb cgd Note: The center of gravity cgb of the solid body lies below the metacentre point M.7.7: Position of Metacentre Figure 7.

hence body is under stab le eq u ilib riu m Figure 7.8: Position of Metacentre Fluid Mechanics 118 Aug 2008 .M cg b cg d N o te: T he center of gravity cg b of the solid body lies below the m etacentre point M .8: P osition of M etacentre Figure 7.

9: Position of Metacentre Fluid Mechanics 119 Aug 2008 .9: Position of Metacentre Figure 7.cgb cgd M Note: The center of gravity cgb of the solid body lies above the metacentre point M. hence body is under unstable equilibrium Figure 7.

6: Titled object – Resulting Overturning moment (clockwise) mg cgb cgd R Figure 7.Figure 7.6: Tilted object – Resulting Overturning moment (clockwise) Fluid Mechanics 120 Aug 2008 .

Unit 8 will be the first chapter dealing with fluids in motion. The tank has a mass of 68kg and its centre of gravity is 15cm above the bottom.35m in diameter and 1. the centre of gravity for the combined weight lies on the vertical axis of symmetry 250mm above the water surface.9 TUTORIAL Question 1 A rectangular pontoon 10m by 4m in plan weighs 280kN. If one end of a vertical chain is Fluid Mechanics 121 Aug 2008 . Some of the concepts discussed in units 1 to 8 will be referred to in the coming units. i.8m high has a mass of 770kg. You will also have learnt about how the stability of a body is related to the density of the fluid in which the body is being immersed and the relative position of the metacentre and the centre of gravity of the solid body. fluids in motion. Question 2 A rectangular tank 90cm long and 60cm wide is mounted on bearings so that it is free to turn on a longitudinal axis.e. and students will need to make sure the concepts behind the analysis of fluids at rest are well understood before they move on to the next part of the module. A steel tube weighing 34kN is placed longitudinally on the deck. When the tube is in a central position.8 SUMMARY In this unit you have learnt how a fluid exerts a vertical force on a solid body. 7. When the tank is slowly filled with water it hangs in stable equilibrium until the depth of water is 45cm after which it becomes unstable. (b) the maximum distance the tube may be rolled laterally across the deck if the angle of heel is not to exceed 5o. Find (a) the metacentric height. How far is the axis of the bearings above the bottom of the tank? Question 3 A cylindrical buoy 1. Show that is will not float with its axis vertical in sea water of density 1025kg/m3.7.

9m from its base.fastened to the base find the pull required to keep the buoy vertical. The centre of gravity of the buoy is 0. Fluid Mechanics 122 Aug 2008 .

0 OVERVIEW This unit illustrates the approach and the various concepts commonly used when analyzing a fluid in motion (hydrodynamics).0 HYDRODYNAMICS – FLUID DYNAMICS (IN MOTION) Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Types of Flow Uniform & non-uniform Flow Steady & unsteady flow Reynolds’ Number Pathlines & Streamlines Streamlines & Streamtubes Rotational & Irrotational Fluid Activities Summary 8. with a few minor changes induced by the behaviour of the fluids under stress conditions.10 8.11 8.5 8.1 8.4 8. the motion of fluid can be analysed with high level of accuracy. In hydrodynamics assumptions often have to be made while carrying out analysis.UNIT 8 Unit Structure 8. The concepts used in the analysis of hydrodynamics are very much similar to those used in the motion of solids.6 8.2 8. In many cases.3 8. except when dealing with very complex fluid flows.9 8. Fluid Mechanics 123 Aug 2008 .8 8.7 8.

The approach used in the analysis of fluids in motion is very much dependent upon the prevailing flow conditions. you should be able to do the following: 1.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this Unit. 6. 2. Differentiate between rotational and irrotational fluids. over an obstacle 5. Differentiate between a pathline and a streamline. 4. Some assumptions may not always hold true is all circumstances.2 INTRODUCTION Before dealing the mathematical concepts behind the analysis of fluids in motion. it is first of all important to understand the characteristics of different types of flows.8. 3. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent fluid flow. Differentiate between streamlines and stream tubes. 8. in a river. steady and unsteady fluid motion. Learnt about the concepts and approaches used to analyse fluids in motion. and uniform and non-uniform fluid motion. Illustrate with the help of sketches streamlines in a pipeline. Fluid Mechanics 124 Aug 2008 .

The velocity of flow at these two points should have been the same.3 TYPES OF FLOW Consider the flow in a river (Figure 8.1): flow direction 3 1 4 2 5 Figure 8.1: River flow Figure 8. Consider point 1 and 2. Fluid Mechanics 125 Aug 2008 .1: River flow Points 1 to 5 have been highlighted in Figure 8.8. so as to make an important point about the conditions affecting flows in a river. both of which lie more or less in the middle of the river. however most likely they will not be. The reason being that slightly downstream of point 1 the river meanders slightly and this feature will induce disturbance in flow pattern upstream.1.

However point 3 lies within the zone where the river meanders. the higher the impact of boundary. The velocity of flow at both points will be influenced by the presence of the solid boundary of the river bank. variation of velocity with distance.2: Fluid Mechanics 126 Aug 2008 . and such a situation is also technically termed – NON-UNIFORM FLOW.3. had the velocity been similar at any point along and across the river channel. both of which are located close to the river bank. Uniform or non-uniform flow is the A simplified illustration of uniform and non-uniform flow is given in Figure 8. it has clearly been illustrated that the flow both along and across a river channel varies from point to point. the closer the point to the boundary (in this case 3). the velocity of flow at point 4 will be higher than that at 3. so the velocity at 3 and 5 will not be similar.Similarly compare points 3 and 5. the flow would have been termed – UNIFORM FLOW. Thus. Point 4 was highlighted so as to emphasise on the influence of boundary (river bank) on the velocity of flow. 8. Hence though both points 4 and 5 lie within the meandering zone.4 UNIFORM & NON-UNIFORM FLOW In section 8.

are simplified illustrations of steady and unsteady flow. but if it stays the same all the time.2 – Uniform and non-uniform flow 8.Uniform and non-uniform flow Figure 8.2 .3 and Figure 8. Figure 8.Uniform flow – same velocity at any point Non-uniform flow – varying velocity at different points Note: The direction and magnitude of the velocity is illustrated by the arrow at the various points under consideration.4. then the flow is considered as being steady.5 STEADY & UNSTEADY FLOW Steady or unsteady flow is the variation of velocity with respect to time. Figure 8. Fluid Mechanics 127 Aug 2008 . A flow may either be uniform or non-uniform.

4 .Unsteady flow Figure 8.3 .4: Unsteady flow When a fluid flow is uniform and steady it is commonly termed as being LAMINAR FLOW.3: Steady flow Velocity pattern at time t=0 Velocity pattern at time t=t1 Unsteady uniform flow Velocity pattern at time t=0 Velocity pattern at time t=t1 Unsteady non-uniform flow Note: The direction and magnitude of the velocity is illustrated by the arrow at the various points under consideration.Steady flow Figure 8. Unsteady and non-uniform flow is known as TURBULENT FLOW. Figure 8.Velocity pattern at time t=0 Velocity pattern at time t=t1 Steady uniform flow Velocity pattern at time t=0 Velocity pattern at time t=t1 Steady non-uniform flow Note: The direction and magnitude of the velocity is illustrated by the arrow at the various points under consideration. Fluid Mechanics 128 Aug 2008 . Figure 8.

running full. diameter d. as illustrated in Figure 8.5: Dye d Laminar flow Dye v ρ Transition Dye Turbulent flow Figure 8. Figure 8. ρ . Gradually the flow in the pipeline is varied. So long as the flow in the pipeline is laminar.5. Finally when the flow rate is even higher. laminar flow changes first to a transition flow. with a velocity V and liquid of density. Fluid Mechanics 129 Aug 2008 . hence V varies.5: Reynolds’ Experiment In this experiment a coloured dye in injected in a pipeline. the entire flow in the pipeline becomes turbulent.5: Reynolds’ Experiment Figure 8.6 REYNOLDS’ NUMBER The difference behind laminar and turbulent flows has been best illustrated by Reynolds’s Experiment.8. causing the entire liquid in the pipe to be coloured. the dye appears as a thin coloured thread or streamline within the pipeline.

Finally he came up with the relationship: Re = ρ v d / µ where µ is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid Laminar flow conditions will prevail (provided the entire system is undisturbed).e. PATHLINE – Consider the movement of a boat every hour Time=t1 Time=t2 Time=t3 Time=t4 Time=t5 Time=t6 Time=t7 Time=t9 Time=t8 Figure 8.Apart from the flow rate.6 – Pathline described by moving boat Figure 8. one particle is chosen and is followed as it moves through space with time.6. The line traced out by that one particle is called a particle pathline or a streakline. ρ and d. i. commonly referred to as (1) the Lagrangian approach (named after the famous French mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange). Figure 8. if Re≤ 2000. with respect to distance and with respect to time.6: Pathline described by moving boat Fluid Mechanics 130 Aug 2008 . respectively. and (2) the Eulerian approach (named after Leonhard Euler. the variation of the particle flow characteristics with time. ≤ 8. were influencing type of flow within a pipe. Reynolds’ also varied the diameter of the pipe and the type of liquid within the pipeline to investigate how these three parameters. In the Lagrangian approach. a famous Swiss mathematician).7 PATHLINES & STREAMLINES A fluid flow (both liquid and air) may be described in two different ways. V.

7.7 – Flow over a solid body Figure 8.7.4 Fluid Mechanics 131 Aug 2008 . Refer to section 8. here we join particle having similar velocity together and we produce what is known as streamlines.A Eulerian approach is used to obtain a clearer idea of the airflow at one particular instant. Figure 8.4. streamline also does not cross each other. for instance. No flow takes place across steamlines. One can imagine taking the picture of the flow of. Figures 8. Similar to the properties of contour lines. a pathline refers to the trace of a single particle in time and space whereas a streamline represents the line of motion of many particles at a fixed time. Lines are used to join points of equal velocity and these produces the streamlines shown below. At different points. surface ocean currents at a particular fixed time. Just like drawing contour lines. fluid is flowing over a solid body. In Figure 8.7: Flow over a solid body Thus. Streamline – Snapshot of flow at a point in time solid body Figure 8. The entire flow field is easily visualized. the fluids will have different velocity.

Fluid Mechanics 132 Aug 2008 . pathlines and streamlines will always be the same.9. it can be seen that under steady conditions.6. streamlines formed in a pipeline and in a river will appear as shown in Figures 8. streamlines are formed when fluid particles of similar velocity are joined together.7.8 STREAMLINES & STREAMTUBES As mentioned in section 8.8 and 8. 8. Bearing in mind that the velocity of flow is not constant all throughout.to 8.

a

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

b

c

a

b

c streamlines

NOTE: Consider a pipeline running full. Across the pipe, at each point the fluid has a different velocity (boundary effects). The same pattern will repeat itself at each section (aa, bb, cc). By joining points of equal velocity, we get streamlines.

Figure 8.8 – Streamlines pattern in a pipeline running full

Figure 8.8: Streamlines pattern in a pipeline running full

flow direction

Figure 8.9 – Streamlines in a river

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To draw a streamtube, we refer here to the flow through a pipeline running full. Consider a small cylindrical element inside the pipeline, as indicated in Figure 8.10. From this circle, we can draw a series of streamlines from one end of the cylindrical element to the other. This process eventually forms a Streamtube, Figure 8.10.

Streamtubes

Consider a small circle inside a pipeline running full, based upon the concept of streamlines, we can imagine a series of streamlines stemming from the circle. This gives rise to a Streamtube.

streamtube

Figure 8.10: Streamtube in a pipeline running full

Figure 8.10: Streamtube in a pipeline running full Since a streamtube is formed by a series of streamlines, there cannot be any flow inside a streamtube. 8.9 ROTATIONAL & IRROTATIONAL FLUID

As well as steady or unsteady, fluid flow can be rotational or irrotational. If the elements of fluid at each point in the flow have no net angular (spin) velocity about the points, the fluid flow is said to be irrotational. One can imagine a small paddle wheel immersed in a moving fluid. If the wheel translates (or moves) without rotating, the motion is irrotational. If the wheel rotates in a flow, the flow is rotational.

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8.10 1.

ACTIVITIES Explain with the help of sketches what how boundaries such as river banks influence the flow in a river.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Differentiate between steady and uniform flow. Illustrate an unsteady but uniform flow. Does unsteady uniform flow exist in practice? Describe the Reynolds’ Experiment and define the purpose of the Reynolds’ number. Differentiate between a pathline and a streamline. Explain why there cannot be flow across a streamtube.

8.11

SUMMARY

This unit has introduced the student to the various terms used to describe the characteristics of fluids in motion. The student need to be familiar with the terms and their meanings, for these will eventually guide the assumptions that can be made during analysis of fluids in motion. The next unit, will now introduce the student to the first two principles used to mathematically analyse fluids in motion, the Principle of Continuity and the Conservation of Energy.

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UNIT 9

PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION OF MASS & ENERGY

Unit Structure 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Continuity Mass Flow Rate Principles of Continuity Discharge and Mean Velocity Conservation of Energy Bernoulli’s Equation – Pipelines Hydraulic Grade Line Frictional Losses Activities Summary

9.0

OVERVIEW

This unit introduces the student to two main principles used to analyse fluids in motion, the principles of Continuity and the principles of conservation of Energy. The third principle is the conservation of Momentum, which will be introduced at a later stage, in the second level of the course. These basic governing principles will always be used in the analysis of the simple or complex cases of fluids in motion, and hence, the need to understand and learn them.

9.1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. 2. Define Conservation of Mass and Conservation of Energy. Differentiate between the governing equation for conservation of mass for a compressible and an incompressible liquid. Fluid Mechanics 136 Aug 2008

3. The principle of conservation of Energy is used a lot in the analysis of fluids in motion. Fluid Mechanics 137 Aug 2008 . Appreciate the application of Bernoulli’s equation. 9. Derive Bernoulli’s equation. Explain the term Energy Head. Appreciate the application of Continuity equation in a branched pipeline. Differentiate between Total Energy Head and Hydraulic Grade Line Modify Bernoulli’s equation to include frictional losses.2 INTRODUCTION Analysis of fluids in motion is no very much different from that of solids in motion. 8. 6. Differentiate between mass flow rate and discharge or volume flow rate. 9. The most important step in this unit is to learn how to derive the Continuity and Bernoulli’s equation. Because we are here dealing with a liquid there is some modifications which have to be considered during the analysis. 7. 4. 5. The concepts described below are simple and easy to understand. The principle of conservation of mass is one concept which is used in most if not all the analysis of fluids in motion. to understand the meaning of each and every term in these equations and to get used to the units of each term.

1: Continuum analogy – cars If 15 cars pass by location A. will be 15. if a given volume of liquid flows through a main pipeline (A) in unit time. Fluid Mechanics 138 Aug 2008 .9.2).3 CONTINUITY The concept of Continuity is best illustrated using the anology of a road junction (Figure 9. Similarly. C and D.1). the sum of the volume of liquid flowing through the two branched pipes will be the same as that which was flowing through the main pipe (Figure 9. and this pipe branches out. and no car is allowed to stop along the road. then the sum of the total number of cars passing location B. 8 3 B C 4 D A 15 Figure 9.

The volume of water collected in a given period of time can be converted into mass of water by multiplying the volume by density (V x ρ ). The volume of water (V) collected in a given time (t) is noted.2: Continuum – flow through a branched pipeline 9. Hence Mass flow rate = m = (V ρ )/ t . Fluid Mechanics 139 Aug 2008 . and its units are kg/s.4 MASS FLOW RATE A simple way of measuring the flow of water through a pipe is to allow the water to collect in a bucket at the end of the pipe.7m /s 3m /s 3 3 A 10m /s 3 Figure 9.

Hence in a pipeline under laminar flow conditions. they can be safely assumed to be incompressible. For continuity of flow. or (cross sectional area of flow x horizontal distance moved my fluid in unit time x density) = A1 L1 ρ1 / t .5 PRINCIPLES OF CONTINUITY Consider a pipeline with varying diameter along its length (figure 9. Since in general liquids have very low degree of compressibility. Applying the principle of conservation of mass. Mass flow per unit time at section 1 = (volume x density )/ time. Similarly the mass flow rate at section 2. The velocity of flow in any system is very much influenced by the surface in which it is in contact. hence ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ. can be simplified to m = A1 V1 ρ. the mass flow rate per unit time. will be given by A2 L2 ρ2 / t. is V1. then A2 V2 ρ = A2 V2 ρ. volume flow rate equation. 9. can also be represented by the distance L1 per unit time. gives. Hence. which simplifies to: A1 V1 = A2 V2 = Q. mass flow per unit time at section 1 is equal to the mass flow per unit time at section 2.3). the maximum velocity is located at the centre. where V1. also known as the Discharge. The closer the liquid to the boundary the more significant the impact of the boundary of the liquid. given by A1 L1 ρ1 / t.6 DISCHARGE & MEAN VELOCITY Consider the flow of water through a pipeline.9. The velocity of flow at section 1. Q = AV. Fluid Mechanics 140 Aug 2008 . Thus. where Q is referred to as the Volume Flow Rate (units are m3/s).

characterised by pressure P. then the mean velocity (Vmean) through the pipe is calculated using the discharge equation. then this body will possess kinetic energy by virtue of its movement.4: Boundary effects on flow velocity in a pipeline Thus if the flow rate (Q) through the pipeline is known (collect water in a given time period). and mass M. Hence. When a body is located at a given height above a datum. Fluid Mechanics 141 Aug 2008 . Vmean = Q / A. Consider Figure 9. 9.Velocity flow profile V=0 V Pipeline running full Vmax = V V=0 Figure 9. V. a. which shows a small element of a fluid. When a body is moving with a given velocity. The same concepts apply for a fluid. it possesses potential energy by virtue of its position. velocity V.5. Q.7 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY In solid mechanics you have learnt about the meaning of Potential energy and Kinetic energy. cross sectional area. and the cross sectional area (A) of the pipe is known.

V A A’ B flow direction Z weight. Kinetic energy: The elemental fluid is moving with a velocity V. by multiplying it by the cross sectional area of flow.cross sectional area of flow. kinetic energy possessed by the elemental fluid will be.5 – Derivation of Bernoulli’s equation 1. ½ m V2. Hence. which can also be given by the (volume of shaded element/cross sectional area of flow). hence the potential energy possessed by the elemental fluid is (mass x elevation x acceleration due to gravity) = m g z. 2. mg B’ A small fluid element from the main fluid body: Figure 9. L = m/ρ a Pressure Energy = Work done by this force = force x distance moved = ( P a) x m/ρ a Therefore. This pressure can be converted to a force. which gives. a P. Pressure energy: The fluid is also under pressure P. the Pressure energy = P m/ρ Fluid Mechanics 142 Aug 2008 . In unit time the force will have moved a distance L. or L = (mass/density)/a. P a. Potential energy: The elemental fluid is located at an elevation Z above the datum. The elemental fluid is moving with a velocity V. 3.

H: H = P/ρ g + V2/2g + Z ρ Units: m Owing to its units. P2 V2 P1 z2 V1 z1 DATUM A fluid possesses energy by virtue of its position as well as by virtue of its movement. this would mean that the total energy head at section 1 is equal to the total energy head at section 2. 9. this equation is also commonly known as the total energy Head. to work out missing information.Total Energy Contained by the small fluid element – Bernoulli’s equation: E = P m/ρ + ½ m V2 + m g z ρ Units: Joules Total energy contained by the small fluid element per unit mass. Assuming that the energy losses from section 1 to section 2 are negligible.6: Principle of conservation of Energy – Bernoulli’s Equation Fluid Mechanics 143 Aug 2008 .6. Principle of Continuity tends to be used in most of the problems involving application of Energy principles. and a pipeline running full is being considered in Figure 9. Usually this equation is applied at two different sections within a system.8 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION – IN PIPELINES The meaning of Bernoulli’s equation is best illustrated in a system. P1/ρg + V1 /2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V2 /2g + Z2 2 2 Figure 9.

Total energy head line h1 A Velocity head Z1 Pressure head + Elevation head line commonly known as the Hydraulic Grade Line B h2 Z2 Datum Fluid Mechanics 144 Aug 2008 . that join the sum of their pressure head and elevation head at respective points.7. A line can then be drawn at points A and B.7. water will rise into the piezometer tube.7 shows a reservoir located at a higher elevation Z1 feeding another one located below. At any point along the pipeline. The Hydraulic Grade Line is always below the Total Energy Head line.4). if a piezometer is connected. points A and B in Figure 9.9. both reservoirs being connected by a pipeline. this line is known as the hydraulic grade line.9 HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE Hydraulic grade line is simply the sum of the Pressure head and the elevation head. to a height equivalent to the pressure at that point (Unit 3 – section 3. Figure 9. at elevation Z2. and this is being illustrated in Figure 9. and the difference is the velocity head.

11. frictional losses are high. 10.9. 9. hf. for these will crop up in most of the remaining units of the subject. so some energy is lost.10 FRICTIONAL LOSSES In practice as liquid flows frictional forces have to be overcome. Such features may be in the form of sudden change in diameter. 9.11 8. How does Principle of conservation of energy different when it is being used to analyse solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. reducers. bends. valves and connections to branched pipes. in all levels of the course. ACTIVITIES Derive Continuity equation Derive Bernoulli’s equation Explain under what circumstances frictional losses cannot be ignored when applying Bernoulli’s equation. 9. P1/ρ g + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρ g + V22/2g + Z2 + hf ρ ρ In a pipeline connection. Fluid Mechanics 145 Aug 2008 .12 SUMMARY This unit has introduced you to the basic principles which govern the analysis of fluids in motion. each time there is a feature which disturbs the regular flow pattern. The Bernoulli’s equation has then to include the term for frictional losses. The next unit will show you how these principles are being used in practice in flow measurement devices to measure flow of liquid in both closed and open systems. Students are strongly advised to ensure that the concepts described in this unit are clear.

Fluid Mechanics 146 Aug 2008 .15 Tutorial 10.3 10.12 Activities 10. the student will learn how to apply these principles to obtain further information about a system and also how to these principles are used in estimating flow rates of fluids in motion.4 10.8 10.14 Worked Examples 10.10 Flow Measurement Through a Triangular weir 10.0 OVERVIEW In the previous unit.6 10.1 10.2 10.11 Flow Measurement Through a Trapezoidal Weir 10.7 10.0 10.UNIT 10 FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS – ORIFICES & WEIRS Unit Structure 10.5 10.9 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Small Orifice Vena Contracta Flow Measurement by an Orifice Coefficient of Contraction and Velocity Discharge Through a Large Orifice Velocity of Approach (V1) Flow Measurement Through a Rectangular Weir 10. In this unit.13 Summary 10. two of the main principles which form the basis of the analysis of fluids in motion were introduced.

here also there are different approaches are available. To justify any assumption made in the derivation of the equation of flow velocity through an orifice. fluid can be collected in a bucket for a given time and the flow rate worked out. you should be able to do the following: 10. A floating object can be timed over a distance and knowing the cross sectional area of the river. 15. 10. the student will be introduced to several devices which are used to measure flow rate in different situations. 11. the flow rate of the river can be estimated. 13. In this units. In such cases a different approach has to be adopted. This is however a rough approach. Fluid Mechanics 147 Aug 2008 . have proved to be useful tools for such estimates.2 INTRODUCTION One of the many important characteristics of a fluid in motion is the rate at which it flows. However in a long complex pipe network this is not possible along the pipes. To derive the equation governing flow of a fluid over a rectangular and a triangular weir To derive the equation from first principles for flow rate estimation using an irregular trapezoidal weir. In fluid mechanics practicals. and with different accuracies. 12. the students will have learnt that to get an estimate of the flow rate of a fluid.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.10. 14. Similarly when the flow rate of a river is needed. To understand why a larger orifice is analysed in a different approach. Differentiate between a sharp edged orifice and a streamline office. To applying Bernoulli’s equation to derive the velocity of flow through a small orifice. and the applications of both Continuity equations and Energy equations. Weirs are devises which have proved to be effective in such measurements.

The sharp edged opening gives rise to significant disturbances as compared to the streamline opening. This helps in the simplifying the general equations (Figure 10. Sharp edged opening Streamline opening A Small orifice B Figure 10. The opening can either be sharp edge or streamline edged (Figure 10. at two points where maximum information is present.10. A small orifice can also be located on the bottom of the container.1: Small orifice The approach in estimating the flow through a small orifice is to apply the Continuity equation and Bernoulli’s equation.3 SMALL ORIFICE A small orifice is simply a small circular opening most of the time located on the side of a reservoir or a container.1).2). Fluid Mechanics 148 Aug 2008 .

it can be noted that if the pathway of a fluid particle is highlighted. This sudden change in path gives rise to turbulence and hence heavy losses of energy. Thus a large flow area is suddenly constricted into a small opening. Fluid Mechanics 149 Aug 2008 .2 – Flow pattern through small orifice From Figure 10.Enlargement – at orifice Figure 10. Though an orifice is a simple device to measure the flow rate. it would be straight vertical line from the surface of the liquid and curved as it reached the opening.2. it does not offer much accuracy owing to the structure of the system.

the pressure of the fluid is once again zero gauge pressure or atmospheric pressure (Figure 3). At the vena contracta. Enlargement – at orifice 1 vena contracta 2 Figure 10.3: Vena Contracta Fluid Mechanics 150 Aug 2008 .4 VENA CONTRACTA The basic principle behind the application of Bernoulli’s Equation is to identify two points at which maximum information is known. At the surface we know that the pressure is zero gauge pressure or atmospheric pressure and that the velocity of flow is so small that it can safely be considered as being negligible.10. the first such point is at the surface of the liquid.) A second such point is just outside the opening of the orifice. In the case of an orifice. The Vena Contracta is smaller in size than that of the orifice and it lies just outside the orifice. since just outside the flow lines becomes straight and parallel as compared to the curved flow lines at the opening of the orifice. (Imagine Mare Aux Vacoas reservoir with a small circular opening on its side. This point is also known as the Vena Contracta.

Z2= 0 being at datum Figure 10. the next step is to apply Bernoulli’s equation and Continuity equation (Figure 10. Z1= H P2= 0 gauge pressure. the pressure at points 1 and 2 are both zero gauge pressure. V1≅ 0. Similarly the elevation at point 1 is the height of liquid from the datum to the top water surface. the velocity of flow at point 1 is zero and the elevation at point 2 is zero since in this analysis the datum has been drawn at point 2 itself.4). 1 H 2 Datum P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 Where P1 = 0 gauge pressure.10.5 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY AN ORIFICE Having identified the two reference points within the system.4– Reference points for application of Bernoulli’s equation As mentioned in the section above. Fluid Mechanics 151 Aug 2008 . which is equal to H.

Note.6). The flow rate through the orifice. as being equal to √2gH (Figure 10. Thus assuming that the cross sectional flow area at the vena contracta is not very different from the cross sectional area of flow at the orifice the cross sectional area of the orifice is used in the continuity equation. where Q = A V (Figure 10. since the reference point 2. will simply be the given by Continuity equation. However.5– Governing equation for flow through an orifice Simplifying Bernoulli’s equation . it is difficult to locate the vena contracta.5). was taken at the Vena Contracta position. let alone measure its cross section.1 H 2 Datum P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 ρ ρ 0 + 0 + H = 0 + V22/2g + 0 V2= (2gH)½ Figure 10. We end up with a Theoretical flow rate through the orifice. in practical situation. yields the governing equation for the velocity of flow through an orifice. Fluid Mechanics 152 Aug 2008 . is the area of flow at the vena contracta. then the cross sectional area of flow that should be considered.

Cd can lie between 0.6.6– Flow rate through a small orifice Two assumptions have been made in the derivation of this theoretical velocity.5 to 0. To cater for the errors likely to be induced by these assumptions. if any assumptions made is true. Cd. the theoretical discharge is multiplied by a factor of safety known as the Coefficient of Discharge. Fluid Mechanics 153 Aug 2008 .1 H 2 Datum V2= (2gH)½ Applying Continuity Equation: Q = A V Q = A(vena contracta) x V2 Q = A(vena contracta) x (2gH)½ Q = Aorifice x (2gH)½ x Cd Where Cd = coefficient of discharge Figure 10. or 0 is they are completely wrong. Cd is either equal to 1. first the velocity of flow at point 1 is negligible and secondly the cross sectional area of flow at the vena contracta is similar to that at the orifice. In the case of small orifice.

Cd.7. The product of Cc and Cv yields the coefficient of discharge.10. the coefficient of discharge can further be subdivided into two coefficients.7: Coefficients of contraction. Fluid Mechanics 154 Aug 2008 .6 COEFFICIENTS OF CONTRACTION & VELOCITY In the case of an orifice. Similarly the coefficient of discharge relates the cross sectional area of flow at the orifice and that at the vena contracta. velocity and discharge The coefficient of velocity as illustrated in Figure 10. simply relates the velocity at the orifice to the velocity of flow at the vena contracta. the coefficient of velocity and the coefficient of contraction. Discharge through an orifice: Q = Aorifice x (2gH)½ x Cd Cc = coefficient of contraction = Area of orifice/area of vena contracta Cv= coefficient of velocity = velocity of flow at orifice/velocity of flow at vena contracta Cd= coefficient of Discharge = Cc x Cv Figure 10.

this assumption may not necessarily hold true.10. the opening is large.8). However.7 DISCHARGE THROUGH A LARGE ORIFICE When the opening is small then the height of liquid causing flow above the centre of the orifice can be safely assumed to be H.8– Discharge through a large orifice The flow is more turbulent a large orifice as illustrated by the curved flow lines at the opening (Figure 10. Large orifice 1 2 Figure 10. Fluid Mechanics 155 Aug 2008 .

10.Velocity of flow through an orifice: V = (2gh) ½ 1 Since the orifice this time is large. V1. h1 h2 dh h dQ= A V dQ = B dh √2gh Q = ∫ B √2g h dh where the limits of h varies from h2 to h1. in which case the velocity of approach can be safely assumed as being negligible. The opening will be assumed to be made up of a series of small openings.9: Discharge through a large rectangular orifice In the case of a large orifice.4. The discharge is obtained by multiplying this flow velocity by the cross sectional area of flow of the small element. then the opening is considered as being made up of a series of small orifices. Finally to obtain the total discharge. As illustrated in Figure 10. B Figure 10. Fluid Mechanics 156 Aug 2008 . through which the velocity of flow will be equal to √2gh.9). In this case the variable h in the velocity equation varies from h1 to h2. This velocity is commonly known as the velocity of approach. given by B dh. the velocity of flow at the surface of the container or reservoir. is often safely assumed to be negligible and hence equal to zero in the analysis.8 VELOCITY OF APPROACH (V1) As discussed in section 10. when the cross sectional area of flow at the surface is much larger than the cross sectional area of the orifice. then the velocity of approach will be much smaller than the velocity at the orifice. Consider the case of a large rectangular opening (Figure 10. it is not accurate enough to assume that h varies from 0 to H2. 10. this equation is integrated with limits of h varying from h2 to h1. through which the fluid will flow.

that it is considered as zero Figure 10. in which case the assumption of considering the velocity of approach as being negligible may not always hold true.10: Incoming velocity – velocity of approach However.11). thus V1 is relatively much smaller than V2. 2 Datum V1≅ 0. Having now got a first estimate for the discharge within the system. Fluid Mechanics 157 Aug 2008 . which is simply the discharge/cross sectional area of the container. hence V1<<<V2. The first step behind this method is to assume that the velocity of approach is negligible and work out as described in section 10. A 1V 1 = A 2V 2 A1>>>A2. often safe to assume being so small that it is equal to zero. In such a case the analysis is carried out using an iterative approach (Figure 10.1 P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 ρ ρ H Where P1 = 0 gauge pressure. This velocity head (V12/2g) is then included when the Bernoulli’s equation is being applied now and a new velocity of flow through the orifice V2 is now calculated and hence a new discharge value. the theoretical discharge through the orifice. the next step is to work out a first estimate for the velocity of approach. the cross sectional area of flow of the container may not always be much much larger than the cross sectional area of flow of the orifice. Z1= H P2= 0 gauge pressure.5. Z2= 0 being at datum V1 – Velocity of approach.

1 P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 ρ ρ H 2 Datum For a large orifice. and incorporate it in the Bernoulli’s Equation. Thus. Fluid Mechanics 158 Aug 2008 .11: Considering velocity of approach in the analysis 10.This iterative process is continued until two consecutive discharge values are within close agreement. an iterative process is adopted. Figure 10. The first step is to assume V1 being equal to zero. it may at times not be safe to ignore the velocity of approach.12). and the opening can have different shapes. ranging from the simplest rectangular ones to complex irregular shapes.9 FLOW MEASURMENT BY A RECTANGULAR WEIR Weirs are another type of flow measuring devices which are used to measure flow rates through open channels such as rivers. and work out the new discharge through the orifice. and work out the discharge through the orifice. once a rough estimate of Q is obtained. A weir is simplying a small opening located most of the time at the end of an open channel. canals and culverts. calculate V1. The analysis of flow over weirs is very similar to that used in the derivation of flow rate via a large orifice (Figure 10. Step 2. Step 2 is once again repeated until the 2 consecutive values of discharge are within agreeable limits.

To obtain the total discharge the equation is integrated with the depth of flow h varying from a value of 0 to H. since the disturbance to the flow pattern is relatively lower here.12: Rectangular weirs Here also a small element is considered as being a small orifice. The final equation yields the theoretical velocity of flow. Fluid Mechanics 159 Aug 2008 . with the velocity of flow being given by the equation √2gh. These values are higher than those for an orifice.8. The cross sectional area of flow of the small element is B dh. where the coefficient of discharge Cd for a rectangular weir lies being 0. The actual flow velocity Qactual = Q theoretical x Cd.Open channel H B dQ = Area of elemental fluid x Velocity of flow through elemental fluid dQ = (bdh) (2gh)½ h dh H H B Q =∫ (2g) ½ b h½ dh 0 Q(theoretical) = 2/3 (2g) ½ b H3/2 Figure 10.7 to 0.

13. Fluid Mechanics 160 Aug 2008 . However. Finally to obtain the actual discharge. the coefficient of discharge is used. the width of the small elemental fluid is worked out in terms of the angle of inclination.10 FLOW MEASURMENT BY A TRIANGULAR WEIR Similarly if the weir has triangular shape. the width of the opening is not constant here. then the analysis for flow rate is given as shown in Figure 10. is that unlike the case of a rectangular weir. the angle of inclination at the V shaped is constant.13: Triangular Weirs The difference between the analytical process here. Open channel dh h H θ dQ = Area of elemental fluid x Velocity of flow through elemental fluid dQ = [2 (H-h) tanθ dh] (2gh)½ H (H-h) tanθ Q= ∫ 0 2 x (2g) ½ tan θ (H h½. θ. In which case.h3/2) dh H-h θ Very small element can be considered as being rectangular in shape Q(theoretical) = 8/15 (2g) ½ tan θ H5/2 Figure 10.10.

This trapezium can either be regular or irregular. dh h α H θ B Discharge through small elemental fluid: dQ = area x velocity dQ = [B + (H-h) tanθ + (H-h) tanα] dh (2gh)½ θ α Integrating with respect to dh. The final theoretical equation is as illustrated in Figure 10. A trapezium can basically be subdivided in simple shapes. from h=0 to h=H.14.14. Figure 10. or for better understanding the equation can best be obtained by working through first principles.9 and 10. with depth of flow varying from 0 to H. the angle of inclinations are different on either side.14: Irregular trapezoidal Weirs In the case of an irregular trapezoidal weir. θ and α respectively.11 FLOW MEASURMENT BY A TRAPEZOIDAL WEIR A trapezoidal weir is simply a weir having its opening in the shape of a trapezium. As usual the flow rate through a small elemental fluid is considered and the entire discharge is obtained by integrating this equation. Fluid Mechanics 161 Aug 2008 . yields Q(theoretical) = (2g)½ { 2/3 BH3/2 + 4/15tanθH5/2 + 4/15tanαH5/2 } θ α Figure 10.10. a rectangle and two right angled triangles. The equation of discharge through a trapezoidal weir can be obtained directly by combining the equations derived in sections 10.10.

stating the difference in approach to small orifice.The best approach for any shaped weir is to work through first principles and derive the governing equation. the student will be introduced to another flow measuring device the Venturimeter. such as a pipe? 5. 2. Explain the choice of your reference points for application of Bernoulli’s equation.13 SUMMARY In this unit the student have been introduced to the application of both continuity equation and Bernoulli’s equation in flow measuring devices such as orifices and weirs. Can an orifice be used to measure flow rate through an open channel? 4. Working from first principles derive the actual flow rate through the following weir: H θ B 10. Explain how the analysis of flow rate through weirs is related to the equation of flow through an orifice. as compared to weirs. Derive the governing equation of velocity of flow through an orifice. The Venturimeter is a flow measuring device specially for pipelines. which are used for flow measurements in open channels. 6. Derive the equation for the actual flow rate through a large orifice.12 ACTIVITIES 1. 3. Fluid Mechanics 162 Aug 2008 .e closed conduits. In the next unit. 10. i. Can an orifice be used to measure flow rate through a closed channel.

23) 3/2 √ – Hence B = 0. and working from first principles calculate the width of the notch. – Q theoretical = 2/3 B √ 2g H 3/2 – Q actual = Cd Q theoretical – Q actual = 0.14m3/s.10. Assuming coefficient of discharge of the notch is 0.14 = 0.6 x 2/3 x B x (√ 2 x 9.1/1 Example 1 • The discharge over a rectangular notch is to be 0.81 ) x (0.14 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Flow measurement through an open channel using a rectangular weir Weirs.6..14 m3/s – 0. when the water level is 23 above the sill of the notch.72m Example 2 – Flow measurement using a trapezoidal weir Fluid Mechanics 163 Aug 2008 .

50-0..2/4 Step 3: Calculate discharge through small element. calculate the height of the water level above the base of the notch. if the discharge is 0.3 = 0.10 + 2 x (H-h) tan θ] dh = [0.33h3/2dh Q = √ 2g {2/3 *0.33h3/2} dh Step 4: Integrate to obtain the total discharge through the trapezoidal weir Q = √ 2g ∫ 0. dA= [ 0. 50cm h θ H 10cm Step 1 : calculate angle θ Tan θ = [(0. the top is 50cm wide and the depth is 30cm.10 h1/2 + 1.Weirs.07 H3/2 + 0.33 x H x h3/2– 2/5 x 1.89H5/2 –0. Assuming that the coefficient of discharge is to be 0.36H5/2} Fluid Mechanics 164 Aug 2008 .67 Step 2: Consider elemental fluid.07 H3/2 + 0.1 h3/2 +2/3 x 1.67] dh dA = {0.33 x h5/2 } limits from 0 to H Q = √ 2g {0.10 h1/2 + 1.33Hxh1/2 – 1.10 + 2 x (H-h) x 0. dq dq= dA x √ 2g h dq = [0.10)/2] / 0.043 m3/s.10 + 1. The horizontal base is 10cm wide.. located distance h from top of free water surface Area of elemental fluid.33 (H-h)] dh x √ 2g h dq = √ 2g { 0.33H h1/2 – 1.6.1/3 Example 2 • A sharp edged notch is in the form of a symmetrical trapezium.53H5/2} Q theoretical = √ 2g {0. Work from first principles.33 ( H-h)} dh Weirs.10 + 1.

18)1/2 { 0. Derive an expression governing the discharge of a liquid through an orifice.Weirs.043 = 0.5 mm and the disharge through the orifice is 18 litres per second. 10.8 for a depth of 1 m above the Fluid Mechanics 165 Aug 2008 .36H5/2} Q actual = Cd Q theoretical 0. Question 2 A large tank has a circular orifice 20 mm diameter in the vertical side near the bottom.. coefficient of velocity and coefficient of discharge. what is the coefficient of discharge.36 H5/2} H = 22.15 TUTORIAL Question 1 a.6 x (2 x 9.9 cm.07 H3/2 + 0. The tank contains water to a depth of 1 m above the orifice with oil of relative density 0. coefficient of contraction and the coefficient of velocity. explaining clearly the meaning of the following: coefficient of contraction.3/3 Step 5: Calculate the value of H Qtheoretical = √ 2g {0. Oil of relative density 0. b.07 H3/2 + 0. The diameter of the vena contracta is 39.85 flows through a 50mm diameter orifice under a pressure of 100kN/m2 (Gauge pressure).

Acting on the upper surface of the oil is an air pressure of 20 kNm-2 gauge. taking Cd as 0. each side measuring 0. If the coefficient of contraction of the orifice is 0. working from first principles.97 and Cd as 0. Also find the height of the surface above the centreline of the orifice and the rate of change of height.water.65m. estimate the value of the coefficient of velocity and the actual discharge through the orifice. If the height of water above the base of the weir is 0. Question 3 Discharge of water through an open channel is to be measured by means of an unsymmetrical trapezoidal weir as shown below. Determine whether the water surface in the tank is rising or falling at the instant under consideration. taking Cv as 0. Question 4 A tank of square cross section. Fluid Mechanics 166 Aug 2008 . The width of the weir (B) is 1.3 m.5 m from the orifice while falling a vertical distance of 0.156 m.53 m below the centre line of the orifice measured vertically. At a particular instant.62. A 6 mm diameter circular orifice is situated in one of the vertical sides near the bottom. the jet strikes the floor at a point 0. The jet of water issuing from the orifice travels a horizontal distance of 1.5m.63 m from the vena contracta. Water flows into the tank at a constant rate of 280 x 10-3 m3/hr. calculate the volume flow rate through the channel. State any assumptions made. measured horizontally 0.64.65. is open at the top and is fixed in an upright position.

7m onto a turbine. The energy of the water is used to drive the turbine which develops a power of 30kW.25 m wide. Calculate the efficiency of the turbine. The head of water above the weir is 40 cm and after passing over the weir. Fluid Mechanics 167 Aug 2008 . the water falls from a vertical height up of 3.Question 5 Water flows along a channel over a rectangular weir 1.

Describe the main features of a venturimeter.11 Worked Examples 11. is measured by venturimeter. 11.10 Summary 11.4 11.0 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Venturimeter Horizontal Venturimeter Coefficient of Discharge.12 Tutorial 11.1 11.0 OVERVIEW In this unit the student will learn how the flow rate within a closed conduit. Explain why it is better to work along the stretch between the converging section and the throat.3 11.8 11.5 11.UNIT 11 FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS – VENTURIMETERS Unit Structure 11.7 11. a pipeline. Fluid Mechanics 168 Aug 2008 .1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.6 11. The important issues to be noted in this unit will be the approach behind the application of the equations based upon different ways of pressure measurement. you should be able to do the following: 1. Emphasis is being placed here on the application of energy and continuity equations to work out theoretical flow rate through a pipe.2 11. 2. rather than the throat and the diverging section.9 11. Cd Inclined Venturimeter Pressure Difference Measurement – U Tube Manometer Eddy Zones Activities 11.

The venturimeter is a simple device which makes use of the variation of pressure and velocity conditions at varying cross sectional area. Derive the equation governing the theoretical flow rate in a pipeline fitted with an orifice. 11.3 VENTURIMETER A venturimeter is a flow measuring device used specially in the measurement of flow of closed systems. and provide a good basis for a good estimate of the flow rate in pipelines. 4. A venturimeter is made up of converging section. Derive the equation governing the theoretical flow rate in a venturimeter whereby the pressure difference between the reference points are being measured by a U tube manometer. One indirect and fairly accurate way of measuring flow rate in a pipeline is by a venturimeter. and whereby the pressure difference between the reference points are being measured by pressure gauges. a throat and a diverging section (Figure 11. The main stress in this unit is the approach adopted to measure the flow rate with the venturimeter.1).2 INTRODUCTION The flow rate within a pipeline is an important information which is required within water distribution networks. 5. Differentiate between the accuracy of flow rate measurement by a venturimeter and by an orifice. In practice it is not possible to actually collect the water in a given time and work out the flow rate. most commonly pipelines. 11. Fluid Mechanics 169 Aug 2008 . The stress is also on a good understand of the importance of the coefficient of discharge and how it compares to other the coefficient of discharge of other flow measuring devices.3. Pipelines joined together to form networks and branch from one point to another to cater for water needs within residential or commercial areas.

4 HORIZONTAL VENTURIMETER Consider a horizontal pipeline in which fluid is flowing under pressure (Figure 11. Since Bernoulli’s equation is to be applied. where the head loss between the converging section to the throat is considered negligible.throat diverging end flow direction Converging end Venturimeters are used to measure flow rate in closed conduits.2). 11. The reason behind this approach is that the energy losses accompanying the change in flow pattern within the converging section is lower than that associated in the diverging section. that fluid flows from a point of high pressure to a point of low pressure. these reference points are at the converging section and at the throat (Figure 11.2).1: Venturimeter Reference points for application of Bernoulli’s equation are taken at the converging section and at the throat. Figure 11. Fluid Mechanics 170 Aug 2008 . and as indicated in section 11. Note. two reference points are first selected. Most of the time ideal fluid conditions are assumed.3. such as pipelines.

conditions are as follows: P2. these values may be known. At the end you may be left with two unknowns in the equation. V2 and Z2 Most of the time in the measurement of flow using a Venturimeter. P1/ρg + V12/2g = P2/ρg + V22/2g Since pressure gauges have been used to measure the pressures.1 Pressure Gauges 2 flow direction 1 2 At section 11: conditions are as follows: P1. P1 and P2. Z1 = Z2. V1 and V2.P1/ρg Fluid Mechanics 171 Aug 2008 . Applying Bernoulli’s equation at 1 and 2 and assuming ideal fluid conditions.V22/2g = P2/ρg . the elevation head on both sides are similar. as indicated by the standard symbol in Figure 11. V1 and Z1 Similarly.2. V12/2g . the Principles of Continuity and the Principles of conservation of mass need to be applied: P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 Q = A 1V 1 = A 2V 2 Note here: Z1 = Z2 Figure 11. at section 22. yields: P1/ρg + V12/2g +Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g +Z2 Now. since the pipeline is horizontal.2: Venturimeter in a horizontal pipeline Pressure at points 1 and 2 are being measured by pressure gauges.

However the presence of the venturimeter is upsetting the flow pattern. Fluid Mechanics 172 Aug 2008 .8 to 0. the next step will be to work out the theoretical flow rate through the pipe using the Continuity equation. a coefficient of discharge is used.5 COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE`. will induce errors in the flow measurement. incoming flow that such an assumption is a valid one. Here also to cater for such error sources. the material in which it is constructed. meaning that energy losses are negligible. Q(theoretical) = V1 x A1 11. Once the value of V1 is known. that of IDEAL fluid conditions. Cd In the analysis described in section 11. So the actual velocity will therefore be: Qactual = Qtheoretical x Cd The coefficient of discharge of a venturimeter is a function of the shape of the instrument. depending upon the If the venturimeter is providing minimum disturbance to the prevailing flow conditions. we can replace V2 in terms of V1 and finally end up with only one unknown in the equation. Such an assumption may or may not hold completely true. Overall the coefficient of discharge of a venturimeter lies between 0. and hence do not appear in the Bernoulli’s formula.Applying Continuity equation.9. where Q=A1V1=A2V2.4. its size and also the flow rate it measures. a major assumption has been made. then this is accompanied generally by significant energy losses. This may be one of the most accurate flow measuring device for closed conduits. in which case the assumption of IDEAL fluid conditions.

The elevation of the reference points from the datum is Z1 and Z2 respectively.6 INCLINED VENTURIMETER In the case of an inclined pipeline in which a venturimeter is fitted. Fluid Mechanics 173 Aug 2008 . the difference in elevation is known. Usually the position of the datum is arbitrary and hence it is not possible to know the elevation heads at the reference points. By applying Continuity equation. the difference in elevation can be worked out where (Z1 – Z2 = L sinθ) as shown in Figure 11. one of the unknowns can be eliminated and the theoretical discharge through the pipeline worked out. V1 and V2. the application of Bernoulli’s equation has to cater for the difference in elevation.4.4.3). P P Z2 Z1 Datum In such a case elevation heads should be considered in the analysis: P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 Figure 11. However. Consider an inclined venturimeter (Figure 11.11.3: Venturimeter in an inclined pipeline The pressure at the two reference points 1 and 2 is here also being measured by pressure gauges. the final equation will have only two unknowns. in which the datum has been considered much lower than the pipeline. Then as described in section 11. given the pressure difference.

7 PRESSURE DIFFERENCE MEASUREMENT – U TUBE MANOMETER The pressure difference between the two reference points along a venturimeter can also be measured by connecting the U tube manometer to the venturimeter (Figure 11.5).4: Difference in elevation – inclined venturimeter 11.θ L (Z2-Z1) = Lsinθ Z2 Z Datum Figure 11. Fluid Mechanics 174 Aug 2008 .

for the difference in level of mercury in the manometer takes care of that as will be discussed below (Figure 11.Z Z h Datum Pressure difference is being measured by a Manometer tube Figure 11.6).5: Venturimeter & Manometer Whenever a manometer is connected to a Venturimeter the difference in elevation (Z2-Z1) is often not an issue. Fluid Mechanics 175 Aug 2008 .

A2,V2 A1,V1

Z2

Z1

h a b

Pa=P1+Z1ρ(fluid)g Pb=P2+ (Z2-h) ρ(fluid)g+ h ρ(mercuy)g Pa=Pb P1-P2= Z1ρ(fluid)g - (Z2-h) ρ(fluid)g - h ρ(mercuy)g

Datum

Figure 11.6: Manometer - analysis

By analysing the U tube manometer as explained in unit 3, and also as shown in Figure 11.6, we end up with the following equation: P1-P2= Z1ρ(fluid)g - (Z2-h) ρ(fluid)g - h ρ(mercuy)g Which can still be further simplified as: P1-P2= ρ(fluid)g { Z1 - Z2 } +h g {ρ(fluid)- ρ(mercuy)}…………(1) ρ

The next step is now to apply Bernoulli’s equation to the two reference points 1 and 2, which will give:

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P1/ρ(fluid)g + V12/2g +Z1 = P2/ρ(fluid)g + V22/2g +Z2…………..(2) Rearranging equation 2: P1/ρ(fluid)g - P2/ρ(fluid)g = V22/2g - V12/2g +Z2 - Z1

Replacing P1-P2 from equation 1 derived above: 1//ρ(fluid)g {ρ(fluid)g { Z1 - Z2 } +h g {ρ(fluid)- ρ(mercuy)} = V22/2g - V12/2g +Z2 - Z1 ρ ρ ρ And this equation simplifies to:

(Z1 - Z2) + h { 1 - ρ(mercuy)/ ρ(fluid)} = V22/2g - V12/2g +Z2 - Z1…………(3)

It can be seen that the difference in elevation terms cancel out in equation 3, leaving: h { 1 - ρ(mercuy)/ ρ(fluid)} = V22/2g - V12/2g Finally, Continuity equation can be applied to reduce the number of unknowns and the equation simplified accordingly to work out the theoretical discharge.

11.8

EDDY ZONES

An orifice can also be used to measure the flow rate in pipelines. When an orifice is fitted into a pipeline, the resulting flow pattern ressembles that within a venturimeter (Figure 11.7).

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Eddy currents – turbulent zone

P1

P2

flow direction

A2,V21 A1,V1

Much higher turbulence, on the downstream section

Flow pattern tend to behave similar to the case of a venturimeter. Analysis is carried out in the same way as a horizontal venturimeter. A1, V1 and P1 are the upstream conditions while A2, V2 and P2 are the conditions at the opening or orifice.

Figure 11.7: Flow through an orifice fitted inside pipeline The reference points are located upstream the orifice under no disturbed conditions and at the vena contracta position downstream the orifice (see Unit 10). Just like in the case of an orifice, the cross sectional area at the vena contracta is unknown, as well as the velocity of flow there. The cross sectional area of the orifice and the velocity of flow at the orifice are considered in the analysis. The analysis of flow in such a case is similar to that described in section 11.4, by applying both Bernoulli’s and Continuity equation. However in the case of an orifice the coefficient of discharge is lower than that of a venturimeter.

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11.9

ACTIVITIES

1. Derive the equation governing the flow rate in an inclined venturimeter. 2. Explain why is it more accurate to apply Bernoulli’s equation at the converging section rather than at the diverging section.

3. How does the range of the coefficient of discharge compare to that of an orifice, explain the

difference? 4. The distance between the converging edge and the throat has not been measured for a venturimeter. The pressure difference is being measured with the use of a manometer. Discuss whether this data will affect the calculation of the discharge through the pipeline. 5. ‘By inserting an orifice in the middle of a pipeline, it can be made to operate as accurately as a venturimeter’, discuss.

11.10

SUMMARY

In this unit the student has once again been introduced to the application of Bernoulli’s equation and Continuity equation for flow measurements, but this time in closed channels, such as pipelines. The student should clearly appreciate, understand and learn the concepts behind the application of these two equations, since these will constantly appear in most of the units to follow in higher levels of fluid mechanics.

Fluid Mechanics

179

Aug 2008

97 Fluid Mechanics 180 Aug 2008 . When measuring the flow of a liquid of density 989 kg/m3 the reading of a mercury differential-pressure gauge was 71mm.97 and the specific gravity of mercury as 13. Take the coefficient of the meter as 0. calculate the flow through the meter in m3/h.11 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Pressure difference measurement in Venturimeter by Pressure Gauges Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…1/7 • (a) What are the relative advantages of using a venturimeter to measure the flow compared with an orifice meter? (b) A horizontal venturimeter has a main diameter of 65mm and a throat diameter of 26mm .6.11. • Q? 65mm 26mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0. Working from first principles or proving any formula used.

Q? 65mm 26mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0. Take the coefficient of the meter as 0. the change in cross sectional area is not as drastic. or by a U tube manometer. Working from first principles or proving any formula used. Fluid Mechanics 181 Aug 2008 .97 and the specific gravity of mercury as 13. Compared to the orifice.Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…2/7 • (a) What are the relative advantages of using a venturimeter to measure the flow compared with an orifice meter? 1.6.97 NOTE: The pressure difference from the inlet to the throat section in a venturimeter can be measured by a differential pressure gauge (symbol as shown in diagram above). When measuring the flow of a liquid of density 989 kg/m3 the reading of a mercury differential-pressure gauge was 71mm. since the flow has to converged from a large surface area to a much smaller cross sectional area of flow (diameter of the orifice). Hence. the frictional losses in a venturimeter is relatively lower. Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…3/7 • (b) A horizontal venturimeter has a main diameter of 65mm and a throat diameter of 26mm . calculate the flow through the meter in m3/h. when the flow converges into the throat section. This large change in cross sectional area of flow induces a relatively larger frictional loss. making the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter larger than that for an orifice. When liquid flows through an orifice it is subjected to much larger frictional losses.

(1) •(P1-P2)/ ρg = 71 mm head of mercury (as given in the question)………….97 Applying Bernoulli’s equation: P1/ρg + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/ρg + V22/2g + Z2 •Z1 and Z2 cancel out since venturimeter is horizontal P1/ρg – P2/ρg = V22/2g .V12/2g …..(2) Fluid Mechanics 182 Aug 2008 .Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…4/7 Q? 65mm 26mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0.

65 m/s Fluid Mechanics 183 Aug 2008 .V12/2g (71 x 10-3) x 13.97 Combining 1.81 / 898 x 9. 2 and 3: P1/ρg – P2/ρg = V22/2g .Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…5/7 Q? 65mm 26mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0.16 V2………………(3) Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…6/7 Q? 26mm 65mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0.6 x 1000 x 9.16)2 V22/2g V2 = 4.81 = V22/2g –(0.97 Applying Continuity equation: A1 V1 = A2 V2 Π (65 X 10-3)2/4 V1 = Π (26 X 10-3)2/4 V2 V1 = (26 X 10-3)2/ (65 X 10-3)2 V2 V1 = 0.

89 x 0.6 with oil immediately above this.97 Applying Continuity equation to obtain flow rate: V2 = 4. The inlet and throat of the meter are connected to a differential U tube manometer containing mercury of specific gravity 13.9 is flowing at the rate of 0.97 m3/h = 8.47 x 10-3 m3/s Qactual = Qtheoretical x Cd = 8. Working from first principles.1m3/s.Example 1 – Pressure measurement by differential pressure gauge…7/7 Q? 65mm 26mm ρ = 898 kg/m3 Cd=0.65 m/s Qtheoretical = Π (26 X 10-3)2/4 V2 = 2. find the coefficient of discharge for the meter if the difference in mercury levels is 0. Fluid Mechanics 184 Aug 2008 .62 m3/h Example 2 – Pressure difference measurement using U tube manometer Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer…1/6 A venturimeter having a throat 100mm in diameter is fitted in a pipeline 250mm in diameter through which oil of specific gravity 0.63m.

2/6 Diverging section Throat section b Converging zone entry a hb ha datum 1 H 2 Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer….Za (Pa-Pb)/ ρg = Vb2/2g -Va2/2g + H + hb – ha………………1 2. Applying Continuity Equation at a and b: AaVa = AbVb Vb = (Aa/Ab) x Va………………2 Vb can be replaced by Va to reduce one unknown in above equation Fluid Mechanics 185 Aug 2008 .3/6 1.Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer…. Applying Bernoulli’s equation at a and b: Pa/ρg + Va2/2g + Za = Pb/ρg + Vb2/2g + Zb (Pa-Pb)/ ρg = Vb2/2g -Va2/2g + Zb .

5/6 (Pa-Pb)/ ρg = Vb2/2g -Va2/2g + H + hb – ha………………1 Vb = (Aa/Ab) x Va………………2 (Pa – Pb) / ρg = hb – ha + H ρ (Hg) / ρ………………3 4.ha ρg (Pa – Pb) / ρg = hb – ha + H ρ (Hg) / ρ………………3 Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer…. Replacing equations 2 and 3 in equation 1 above: hb – ha + H ρ (Hg) / ρ = (Aa/Ab)2 x Va2/2g – Va2/2g + H + hb – ha Va = {( H ρ (Hg) / ρ – H) x 2g } 1/2 / { (Aa/Ab}2 –1}1/2 When Velocity of flow is known.Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer…. Fluid Mechanics 186 Aug 2008 . then Q can be found.4/6 3. for a known value of H. Pressure difference between a and b is obtained from Manometer readings: Consider reference points 1 and 2: P1 = Pa + ha ρg P2 = Pb + hb ρg + H ρ (Hg) g P1 = P2 Pa + ha ρg = Pb + hb ρg + H ρ (Hg) g Pa – Pb = hb ρg + H ρ (Hg) g .

The pipe diameter is 76 mm.81]1/2 / { 0.12 TUTORIAL Question 1 A venturimeter is tested with its axis horizontal and the flow measured by means of a weighing tank. The piston rod is 20 mm diameter and passes through both ends of the cylinder. the connections being full of water.Example 2 – Pressure measurement by U tube manometer…. The upper end of a vertical cylinder 100 mm diameter is connected by a pipe to the throat of the venturimeter and the lower end of the cylinder is connected to the inlet. A piston is to be lifted when the flow rate through the venturimeter is 0. Calculate the diameter of the throat if the effective load on the piston rod is 180N.63 x 13. Fluid Mechanics 187 Aug 2008 .95. and the throat diameter is 38 mm and the pressure difference is measured by a U tube containing mercury.14 –1} ½ Cd = 0.6/0.6/6 Va = {( H ρ (Hg) / ρ – H) x 2g }1/2/ { (Aa/Ab}2 –1} 1/2 Qactual = Cd Aa Va 0.9 – 1) x 2 x 9. what is the coefficient of discharge? Question 2 A servo-mechanism is to make use of a venturimeter contraction in a horizontal 350 mm diameter pipe which carries a liquid of relative density 0.252) x [ (0.1 = Cd (π/4 x 0.15m3/s.254/0.97 11. If the difference in levels in the U tube reads 266 mm mercury while 2200 kg of water are collected in 4 minutes.

88 flowing upwards at a rate of 0. The coefficient of the venturimeter is 0. Fluid Mechanics 188 Aug 2008 .96. Two pressure gauges calibrated in kilonewtons per square meter are fitted at tapping points one at the throat and the other in the inlet pipe 320mm below the throat.Question 3 A venturimeter with a throat diameter of 100mm is fitted in a vertical pipeline of 200mm diameter with oil of specific gravity 0. Working from first principles determine the difference in level in the two limbs of a mercury manometer if it is connected to the tapping points and the connecting pipes are filled with the same oil. The difference between the two gauge pressure readings is 28kN/m2.06m3/s.

1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.6 12.UNIT 12 MOMENTUM EQUATION & ITS APPLICATIONS Unit Structure 12.17 12.4 12.9 12. The main points to note in this chapter is the internal forces which are induced in a system as the physical properties of a fluid changes.1 12.18 Overview Learning Objectives Introduction Momentum Equation Rate of change of momentum and applied force Application of Momentum equation along a streamline Possible forces acting on the control volume Momentum correction factor Momentum correction factor – circular pipe Force exerted by a jet striking a flat plate Force exerted by a jet striking an inclined plate Force exerted by a jet striking a moving plate Force exerted by a jet striking an inclined moving plate Force due to the deflection of a jet by a curved vane Force exerted on pipe bends Activities Summary Worked examples Tutorial Sheet 12. 12.10 12.0 12.12 12.11 12.2 12.7 12.8 12.3 12.15 12.0 OVERVIEW In this unit. Define the momentum equation Fluid Mechanics 189 Aug 2008 . The student will also get to appreciate the application of Newton’s Laws of motion to fluid flows.13 12. you will learn about the force which is exerted to cause a change in the physical properties of a liquid as it moves along a channel of varying orientation and size.5 12.14 12. you should be able to do the following: 1.16 12.

12. 3. a curved vane and within a bend will be calculated from these principles. Fluid Mechanics 190 Aug 2008 . 5. This chapter emphasises on the need to prove firm support to locations where there are bends and curves within a pipe network.3 MOMENTUM EQUATION In solid mechanics. Calculate the resultant force acting on a vertical bend through which a liquid is flowing. to ensure that the forces which are induced owing to the change in momentum of the liquid. Derive the equation for the force which is being exerted onto a fluid to cause a change in its momentum. 4.2 INTRODUCTION Newton’s Second and Third laws of motion will be applied in this unit to work out the force exerted on fluids by the boundaries of a system when the flow conditions changes along the path. the particles of a moving fluid will also possess momentum. m and its velocity. The force exerted is equated to the rate of change in momentum of a liquid. pressure forces and gravity forces are acting. v: Momentum = mv Similarly. and consequently the fluid offers a similar but opposite resistance to the boundaries. 12. and in accordance to Newton’s Second Law of Motion. the momentum of a particle or object is defined as the product of the mass of the object. The change in momentum is induced by a force. Derive the general equation for the force to be exerted by a jet of liquid when it strikes a plate which is at rest. where in addition. Understand and implement the appropriate approaching conditions when the jet strikes a moving plate.2. The force exerted by a moving liquid on either a plate. When the velocity of the fluid particles changes. do not damage the piping system. the momentum of the fluid particles also change. a force required to produce a change in momentum is proportional to the rate at which the change in momentum occurs (change in momentum with respect to time).

gives: A1 V1 = A2 V2 Fluid Mechanics 191 Aug 2008 . ρ1 B Figure 12. ρ2 A C Area. the fluid will exert an opposite and equal force on the solid boundary. A2 Velocity. A1 Velocity.In the case of a moving fluid. Newton’s Third Law of motion. Q=AV. The flow is non-uniform in this case (velocity changes with respect to distance). hence velocity at section AB is not the same as the velocity at section CD. Applying Continuity equation at sections AB and CD. and there is no storage within the control volume from section AB to section CD.1: Elemental fluid The fluid is assumed to be steady (same velocity conditions with respect to time). V2 Density. 12. If the solid boundary exerts a force on the moving fluid.4 RATE OF CHANGE OF MOMENTUM & APPLIED FORCE Consider a small element within the body of a fluid: D Area. V1 Density. the force may be provided by the contact between the fluid and the solid boundary or by one part of the fluid acting on the other part. consequently.

the fluid will exert an equal and opposite reaction on its surroundings.equation 2 Replacing velocity (A1V1 ρ1) by ( A2V2 ρ2) in equation 2. in terms of mass flow rate equation: ρ1 A1 V1 = ρ2 A2 V2……………………equation 1 Now. or {area x velocity x density x velocity} = A V2 ρ Initial momentum.A1V12 ρ1 ………………………. or {area x length x density x velocity}/time. Mi = A1V12 ρ1 Final momentum. gives: F = A2V22 ρ2 . Mf = A2V22 ρ2 The rate of change of momentum as the liquid passes from section AB to section CD= Force acting on the liquid to cause the change in momentum (F) = Final Momentum – Initial Momentum F = A2V22 ρ2 . hence.A2V2 ρ2 V1 = A2V2 ρ2 (V2 – V1) and the equation simplifies to: F = m (V2 – V1). Fluid Mechanics 192 Aug 2008 .Continuity equation can also be expressed in terms of mass flow rate (m). By Newton’s third law of motion. where m = ρ A V. where m is the mass flow rate and F is the Resultant force acting on the fluid element ABCD in the direction of motion. the rate of change of momentum = Change in momentum with respect to time = mv/t mv/t can also be written as {volume x density x velocity}/time..

or flow within a curved pipe of non uniform diameter. one in the horizontal direction and one in the vertical direction.2 – Momentum change in a streamline NOTE: The velocity of flow V1 and V2. being inclined at angles and respectively. they have therefore two components. Resultant force in the HORIZONTAL direction: FX = = = Rate of change of momentum of the fluid in the x direction mass flow rate x change in velocity in the x direction m (V2cosα . C Sign convention. whereby the velocity at section AB is V1 and the velocity of flow at section CD is V2.5 APPLICATION OF MOMENTUM EQUATION ALONG A STREAMLINE Consider a streamtube.12.V1cosθ) Resultant force in the VERTICAL direction: Fluid Mechanics 193 Aug 2008 . +ve X and +ve Y direction V2sinα α V2cosα D Flow direction A V1sinθ V1 θ V1cosθ B Figure 12. Hence. the force causing the change in momentum. in the horizontal and in the vertical direction. will also have two components.

6 POSSIBLE FORCES ACTING ON THE CONTROL VOLUME Within a control volume. F3=Force exerted in the given direction on the fluid in the control volume by the fluid outside the control volume. In reality. 2.7 MOMENTUM CORRECTION FACTOR When deriving the momentum equation. 12. For example. the velocity will be zero at the point of contact with the boundary and maximum at the centre of the pipe. F1 = Force exerted in the given direction on the fluid in the control volume by any solid body within the control volume or coinciding with the boundaries of the control volume. and in accordance to Newton’s third law of motion. the liquid will exert an equal and opposite reaction on its surroundings. the possible forces which can act on the system are as follows: 1. F2=Force exerted in the given direction on the fluid in the control volume by body forces such as gravity.FY = = = Rate of change of momentum of the fluid in the y direction mass flow rate x change in velocity in the y direction m (V2sinα . Thus: FR = F1+F2+F3 = m(Vout-Vin) 12. the liquid in contact with the solid boundary is under the influence of significant shearing forces. the velocity at a given cross section is assumed to be constant. Fluid Mechanics 194 Aug 2008 . the velocity of the fluid in contact with the boundary is equal to zero. and the velocity of the successive fluid layers increase gradually to the incoming velocity. in a pipe. 3.V1sinθ) Resultant force required to cause this change in momentum: FR = √ {FX + FY} NOTE: FR is the force exerted on the liquid to cause a change in momentum. Consequently.

with linear velocity distribution: r d r R y Figure 12. the rate of change of momentum for the whole flow can be found by summing the rate of change of momentum over small fluid elements.equation 3 This equation is solved for known velocity distribution.. whereby the velocity changes are so small that they can be considered to be constant.8 MOMENTUM CORRECTION FACTOR – Circular Pipe Consider flow through a circular pipe.3 – Flow through a circular pipe Fluid Mechanics 195 Aug 2008 . Consider the momentum of a small elemental fluid: Mass flow rate = Density x cross sectional area of flow x velocity of flow = ρ δA u Momentum per unit time passing through the small element of fluid = Mass flow rate x velocity of flow δM = ρ δA u2 Total Momentum per unit time passing the whole cross-section: M = ∫ ρ δA u2……………………….Taking the velocity distribution into consideration. 12.

9 FORCE EXERTED BY A JET STRIKING A VERTICAL FLAT PLATE The velocity of the incoming jet is V in the x direction.equation 4 with the maximum velocity occurring at the centre of the pipe. Area of elemental fluid δA = 2π r δr………………………… …………. When the jet strikes the plate. in equation 3: M = ∫ ρ δA u2 = ∫ ρ 2π r δr {Umax (y/R)1/7}2 And changing r in terms or R-y and dr in terms of –dy. F=m(Vout – Vin) Fluid Mechanics 196 Aug 2008 .Radius of pipe is R.equation 5 Replacing equations 4 and 5. Force acting on the fluid to produce this rate of change of momentum. and the velocity of flow at a general distance y is given by an empirical formula derived by Prandtl’s one seventh power law: U=Umax (y/R)1/7……………………………………. the final velocity component of the jet in the x direction is zero. yields: Total momentum per unit time = 49/72 π ρ R2 Umax2. and integrating with respect to dy.. 12.

Stationary Plate Jet v Figure 12.4 – Jet striking stationary plate Vin= V. is the force exerted by the jet on the plate: Force = mass flow rate (Change in velocity) = ρ A V V= ρ A V2 Fluid Mechanics 197 Aug 2008 . while Vout=0 in the x direction Mass flow rate = ρ A V Force acting perpendicular to the plate.

5 – Jet striking an inclined stationary plate Force exerted by the jet onto the plate: F = mass flow rate x change in velocity = m (Vout – Vin) F = ρ A V (Vcosθ . vsinθ v J et v vcosθ θ θ Inclined stationary Plate Figure 12.10 FORCE EXERTED BY A JET STRIKING AN INCLINED PLATE When the plate is inclined. The initial velocity in a direction perpendicular to the plate is zero.12. it is required to work out the velocity component acting in the x direction.0) = ρ A V2cosθ Fluid Mechanics 198 Aug 2008 . and the final velocity in the direction perpendicular to the plate is vcosθ.

the cross sectional area of flow and the relative velocity of flow. the plate moves away with a velocity U. Moving Plate. force exerted on the moving plate: F = mass flow rate approaching the plate x change in velocity F = ρ A (V-U) (V-U) = ρ A (V-U)2 Fluid Mechanics 199 Aug 2008 .11 FORCE EXERTED BY A JET STRIKING A MOVING PLATE The mass flow rate approaching the plate is given by the product of the density of the liquid. given that as the fluid approaches the plate with a velocity V. velocity U Jet v U Figure 12.6 – Jet striking vertical moving plate Hence.12.

results in a change in the momentum of the liquid. m = density x cross sectional area of flow x relative velocity m = ρ A (V-U) The initial velocity component normal to the plate is zero. V1 θ V2 Figure 12. Hence.13 FORCE DUE TO THE DEFLECTION OF A JET BY A CURVED VANE A jet of liquid strikes a curve vane. this change in velocity. the force exerted by the jet on the moving inclined plate: F = ρ A (V-U){ (V-U)cosθ . the first step is to work out the mass flow rate approaching the plate.11.8 – Jet striking a curved vane Fluid Mechanics 200 Aug 2008 .12. Therefore the mass flow rate approaching the plate is given by Mass flow rate.0 } = ρ A (V-U)2cosθ θ θ 12. and the final velocity component normal to the plate is given by (V-U)cosθ.12 FORCE EXERTED BY A JET STRIKING AN INCLINED MOVING PLATE In the case of a jet striking an inclined moving plate. There is however a change in the direction at which the liquid leaves the curve vane as compared to the direction in which it entered it. which is similar to the situation described in section 12. which results in either in change in the magnitude of the velocity or no change in the magnitude of the velocity of the outgoing liquid.

is that the fluid enters and leaves the curve vane tangentially without impact. thus the force will be exerted between the liquid and the surface of the curved vane. resultant force acting on the fluid. FX=ρ A1V1 ( V2 cosθ-V1) Similarly. FR: FR = √ (FX + FY) Fluid Mechanics 201 Aug 2008 . FY=ρ A1V1 V2 sin θ Therefore. Force acting in the HORIZONTAL direction: Initial velocity in the X direction = V1 Final velocity in the X direction = V2 cosθ Force acting on the fluid to cause a change in momentum = mass flow rate x change in velocity = ρ Q { V2 cosθ-V1) Force. Force acting in the VERTICAL direction: Initial velocity in the Y direction = 0 Final velocity in the Y direction = V2sinθ Force acting on the fluid to cause a change in momentum = mass flow rate x change in velocity = ρ Q {V2 sinθ-0) Force.An assumption in this present analysis.

V1 θ V2 V2cos θ θ V2sinθ θ V2 Velocity component in the X direction = V2cos θ & Velocity component in the Y direction =V2sinθ θ Velocity V1. Diameter of pipe d1. Diameter of pipe d2. Velocity of flow V2 and Pressure P2. Has component in the X direction ONLY Figure 12. Fluid Mechanics 202 Aug 2008 .14 FORCE EXERTED ON PIPE BENDS When liquid flows through a pipe connected to a bend. this induces a change in the direction of the flow.9 – Jet striking a curved vane 12. consequently a force is being exerted on the bend. Velocity of flow V1 and Pressure P1 and the conditions at the outlet (section 22) is as follows: Cross sectional area of flow A2. Consider a pipe running under pressure: The conditions at inlet (section 11) is as follows: Cross sectional area of flow A1. hence a change in the velocity components in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

denoted here by R1. whereby it was being stressed that there are 3 possible forces which can act on a control system.m(Vout-Vin) Fluid Mechanics 203 Aug 2008 .F3 = .m(Vout-Vin) R1 = F3 . Thus -F1 . which is the force exerted by the walls of the pipe onto the fluid. F2 and F3. and F3 which is the force due to the pressure under which the liquid is flowing: FR = F1+F2+F3 = m(Vout-Vin) F2 is negligible since gravity does not act on this system. F1. F2 is the force by gravity. Hence F1 + F3 = m(Vout-Vin) The force exerted by the liquid on the bend will be .F1. In this case F1.6 of this same unit.10 – Force exerted on pipe bends Now refer to item 12.1 P1 V1 d1 A1 θ 1 2 +ve sign convention 2 P2 V2 d2 A2 Figure 12.

Consequently the force exerted by the liquid on the bend will be equal and opposite. Fluid Mechanics 204 Aug 2008 .11 – Force exerted on pipe bends – velocity components Calculating the Horizontal and Resultant components of the force due to change in momentum.P1 V1 d1 A1 1 +ve sign convention θ 1 2 P 2 V2 d2 A2 2 +(V2cosθ) θ θ V2 -(V2sinθ) θ NOTE: V1 has components in the x direction ONLY Figure 12.0) = -ρ Q V2sinθ ρ θ Where FH and FV are the forces exerted on the liquid to cause the change in momentum. m(Vout-Vin): Mass flow rate passing through pipe = ρ Q Calculating resultant force in the HORIZONTAL direction: F(H) = ρ Q (V2cosθ-V1) θ Calculating resultant force in the VERTICAL direction: F(V) = ρ Q (-V2sinθ.

Resultant force acting on the bend: F(R) = √ F(RH)2+ F(RV)2 Fluid Mechanics 205 Aug 2008 .ρ Q V2sinθ} = P2sinθA2 + ρ Q V2sinθ θ θ Hence.P2cosθ A2) .{.12 – Force exerted on pipe bends – pressure force components F(PH) = P1A1 .Calculating the components of the resultant force due to the pressure under which the fluid is acting (F3): Calculating resultant force in the HORIZONTAL direction: P1 1 V1 d1 A1 1 +ve sign convention θ 2 2 P 2 V2 d2 A2 +(P2cosθ) θ θ P2 -(P2sinθ) θ NOTE: P1 has components in the x direction ONLY and it is positive.(P2cosθ) A2 = P1A1 .(-P2sinθA2) = P2sinθA2 θ OVERALL Resultant force: Recall equation R1 = F3 .ρ Q (V2cosθ-V1) OVERALL Resultant force in the VERTICAL direction acting ON THE BEND: F(RV) = P2sinθA2 .m(Vout-Vin) OVERALL Resultant force in the HORIZONTAL direction acting ON THE BEND: F(RH) = (P1A1 .P2cosθ A2 θ Calculating resultant force in the VERTICAL direction: F(PV) = 0.being in the same positive direction as the sign convention Figure 12.

Define Newton’s second Law of Motion and derive an equation governing the resultant force required to cause a change in momentum of a moving liquid.15 ACTIVITIES 1. Derive the general equation for a jet whose path is deviated by a bend through 240o. that may influence the change in momentum of that moving liquid. Fluid Mechanics 206 Aug 2008 . and students have been shown how such forces are calculated and also why it is important to consider them in the design of pipe networks. What do you understand by the Momentum correction factor? Explain how you would account for the momentum correction factor for a liquid flowing through a pipe. Consequently the moving fluid exerts a reaction onto the boundary of its container. State the 3 forces acting of a moving liquid. 4.12. 3. and (ii) a moving vertical flat plate. 5. 12. The next unit will be concerned with the application of the momentum equation to estimate the retardation forces at boundaries. Derive the general equation for a jet striking (i) a vertical flat stationery plate.16 SUMMARY In this unit the student will have been introduced to the principles governing the Momentum Equation and resultant force required to cause a change in momentum of a moving fluid. 2.

17 WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 – Force exerted by a jet on a flat plate Example 1 – Force exerted by a jet…1/4 • A flat plate is struck normally by a jet of water 50mm in diameter with a velocity of 18m/s. Calculate (a) the force on the plate when it is stationery. V=18m/s D=50mm Example 1 – Force exerted by a jet…2/4 V=18m/s D=50mm • • • • • • PLATE IS STATIONERY Initial velocity of jet = 18m/s Final Velocity of jet=0 Force exerted on the liquid to cause the change in Momentum of the liquid. Force exerted on the plate = R which is equal to -F Force on the plate = .2 N Fluid Mechanics 207 Aug 2008 . (b) the force on the plate when it moves in the same direction as the jet with a velocity of 6m/s and (c) the work done per second.ρ Q (0-18) = 1000 x {π x (50x10-3)2/4} x 18 x 18 = 636.12. F = Rate of change of Momentum = Mass flow rate x change in velocity Hence.m(Vout-Vin) = .

Force exerted on the plate R Force on the plate = .m(Vout-Vin) = . where U is the velocity of the plate Hence.ρ Q (0-12) = 1000 x {π x (50x10-3)2/4} x (18-6) x 12 = 282.7 x 6 = 1696.7 N Example 1 – Force exerted by a jet…4/4 V=18m/s D=50mm V=6m/s • PLATE IS MOVING IN DIRECTION OF THE JET • Work done = Force x distance moved in the direction of the force per unit time • Work done = 282.2 W Example 2 – Force exerted by a jet of water striking a moving curved vane Fluid Mechanics 208 Aug 2008 .Example 1 – Force exerted by a jet…3/4 V=18m/s D=50mm V=6m/s • • • • • • PLATE IS MOVING IN DIRECTION OF THE JET Initial velocity of jet = (18-6)= 12m/s Final Velocity of jet=0 Mass Flow rate striking the plate = ρ A (V-U).

8 mm Example 2 – Force exerted on vanes…2/4 V 45o 135o U=18m/s 0. V 18m/s +ve X and Y direction Diameter of the jet: 135o 0. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force on the vanes and the efficiency of the arrangement.Example 2 – Force exerted on vanes…1/4 • A jet of water delivers 85dm3/s at 36m/s onto a series of vanes moving in the same direction as the jet at 18m/s.8V Q=AV 85 x 10-3 = πd2/4 x 36 d = 54. Friction reduces the relative velocity at exit from the vanes to 0. the water which enters tangentially would be diverted through an angle of 135o.8x10-3)/4}x36 x {-0.44kN Fluid Mechanics 209 Aug 2008 .8 of that at entrance. Assume no shock at entry.8V-U)sin45o – (V-U)} = 1000 x {πx(54.8V 0.8V-U)cos45o -(0. If stationary.8x36-18) sin45o – (36-18)} = -2.8V 45o -(0.8V-U)sin45o • Horizontal component of the force exerted on the liquid to cause a change in momentum: – Mass flow rate striking the vane = ρ A V – Initial horizontal velocity = (36-18)m/s – Final horizontal velocity = -(0.8V-U)sin45o • • Horizontal force = mass flow rate striking the vane x change in velocity component F(H) = ρ A V { -(0.

8V • 45o 0.8V-U)sin45o • • Vertical component of the force exerted on the liquid to cause a change in momentum: – Initial vertical velocity = 0 m/s – Final vertical velocity = -(0.64}1/2 = 2.8V 0.8V-U)cos45o} = 1000 x {πx(54.8V-U)cos45o -(0.8x10-3)/4}x36 x {-(0.64kN Example 2 – Force exerted on vanes…4/4 V 45o 135o U=18m/s 0.8V -(0.8V-U)cos45o Vertical force = mass flow rate striking the vane x change in velocity component F(V) = ρ A V { -(0.52kN Fluid Mechanics 210 Aug 2008 .8V 45o -(0.Example 2 – Force exerted on vanes…3/4 V 45o 135o U=18m/s 0.8x36-18)cos45o} =--0.44 + 0.8V-U)sin45o • Resultant force acting on the liquid: F(R) = ? F(v)2 + F(H)2 = {2.8V-U)cos45o -(0.

A pipe bend tapers from a diameter of 500 mm at inlet to a diameter of 250 mm at outlet and turns the flow through an angle of 45o.45 m3/s. determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bed. The pressure at inlet is measured as 60 kN/m2 above atmospheric pressure. The volume of the bend is 0. neglecting friction. calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend when the oil is flowing at a rate of 0. If the pipe is conveying oil of density 850 kg/m3. Determine also the new discharge and the maximum height above the bend outlet to which the jet will rise. and the outlet is 1. and if the bend is in a horizontal plane. Find the force exerted on the plate by the water jet.18 TUTORIAL SHEET Tutorial – Applications of Momentum Principles 1. Fluid Mechanics 211 Aug 2008 .12. State any assumption made. The outlet pipe is disconnected from the bend and the bend is turned so that I now lies in a vertical plane and issues a jet of oil into the atmosphere. A water nozzle is directed vertically downward against a flat metal plate as shown in the figure below.25 m3. 500 kNm-2 Diameter = 10 cm 0.5 m Diameter = 4 cm Fixed Plate (Diagram not to scale) 2. If the same pressure is maintained at the inlet of the bend.75 m higher than the inlet.

a horizontal water jet of diameter 25 mm and nozzle velocity 25 m/s strikes it normally at its centre. Determine: (a) the angle of deflection of the plate about the hinge (b) the magnitude of the force F that must be applied at the lower edge of the plate to keep the plate vertical. When the plate is vertical.3. 4. normally at its centre with a velocity of 15 m/s. A 40 mm diameter water jet strikes a hinged vertical plate of 800 N weight. (b) What inclination to the vertical the plate will assume under the action of the jet if it is allowed to swing freely? Fluid Mechanics 212 Aug 2008 . (a) What force must be applied to the lower edge of the plate to keep it vertical. A square plate of mass 25 kg of side 500 mm is free to swing about its upper horizontal edge.

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