PINYIN SYSTEM Started in 1958 Vowel-dominated language A syllable may consist of a single vowel. a compound vowel or a vowel proceeded by a consonant Consonants are called ¶initials· -sh ngm Vowels are called ¶finals· -yùnm .

and one neutral tone.TONES There are four full tones in Mandarin pronunciation. á à a . Let·s read out the vowel ´aµ in the four tones.

TONES The tone of a syllable may change in some situations. . the second "ma" becomes toneless/neutral: m ma Rules like this are. very few and very easy to remember. these are the characters for "mother" . As separate characters each is pronounced as "ma. however. For example." but when put together.

INITIALS-SH NGM b-bore p-poor m-me f-fan d-door t-tore n-need l-lie z-adds c-its s-say zh-jelly ch-chilly sh-shy r-razor j-genius q-cheese x-sheet g-guard k-card h-loch .

s.FINALS-YÙNM a-father ai-bite ao-cow e-fur ei-play i-tea ia-yarrow iao-meow ie-yes iu-yo-yo y replaces i at the beginning of a word if there is no initial consonant o-more ou-go u-moo ua-suave uo-war uai-swipe ui-weigh ü-pneumonia üepneumonia+air .

FINALS-YÙNM an-man en-under eng-hung in-bin ian-yen iang-Yangse ing-finger iong-Jung ong-Jung uan-wangle un-won uang-w+wrong üan-pneumatic+end ün-une .

between a number and a noun Punctuation ² full stop `list Äcomma . either time or place.GRAMMAR Nouns-no singular or plural forms No Tense Prepositions-before time.phrases The largest unit. always comes first in the sentence Measure words.

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