[ISNT65 09!

11) 41-66]


A I1iU.beii, of :sch(llM8lwa:v~ ,detected in Rom., 4.20 ,n b~ckwMd :ref:W1~llce tQ 1.21.lpaIlllFs COlmnM~Dt :~"'1klU tllJat Abtallnwl! '.gave gl~ry il:Q 0011..' (ooil~ B.d'~!av TclJ! eEql'} recalls his earlier stwt:eme!Dlt inL2J ~1:tat the GeiltUes r-efill!lsed to glorify 600 (l¥diVT~~ c~int Eh~IQ!v' !I;IV't (b~ !9~ov t8,QSo;o;av). Ths ~fft!ct of ilib;. WxVIl~~. Hnkag!,l;~ :ifIJ Ut~ fl:ow of ,P_l's de'~10pinl argllme~r. ~,IID iWggest a con!l:rJ:s~lletweeiiil Ab:mham':s,faitliru and 'me Ge~tiles· r~~,~w. Abraham. :~n h:i;stmstfl(l!~ ros,onse ~o 000.. I:Idl pm:se~y W~M .edusooodie~tGenmes of Rom. 1,.18-,J2 decUnooto 00.

>I< AmI early Yeiltsiom of ImS, ooruclc williSgI'Wili1. as a :papilfiil a ~8l'C1ll semrnn:w lit

~he~pa:i'l1!r'imlt <If ThEi)h:).wali.dlR.erni.:8~~!!l Sltl~i~&' :~i[i~'~ CQl]~.eg!e. Landan" I <lim grIM~:fu[ ful the Ihelipful reedbaclj; I r,ecei;ved (l!ru!hal oocOIiSioo.1 would alMl' [ike ~o tbad: . .Dr IeI'm. MJG" Brur~<'I~.m(l 'D.r Francislk'iJlllllJS.il:lin :fer the.ir(iareflU~ l'ieOJ.d~!1lgo:r ~heeadjerdr.aft M.d. forl!bcir vru~>libk: ~g~illi'is..

rn. See C.K.IBHlEtt..A Co;n!WIII!l'J:!if{!'/), ~Jllh-(l' Epis$!e 1'0 #!~R(ji:m'(!!'h!:, I i(t~ndiillfl::

A.'& c. Blliack, 19.:51)1.p. 9g~ .!m!.. Bym~, IJ.l~!e:,.;;'i~g ,ht! .ejl!lrjt~ (~(lme!;n.ill:o;h, NSW:

S~: p'aurn P1I.lbUcati01'LLs. 1'9911)), pp, S6-:5;'7~ C.E.H. Q,;l.!rlffleW •. The Epislle .W lilt! Rmii't'Hs. I (tCC: Ed~Ii!blJr;g:n: 1' . .& '['. CI.uiI;., ru9J~). :g1\24'~~ J.o,J."1 Doon. .Rmmms 1-8 (WIEle. 383: DiliUas., 1'X, W,I)n;illiBogb:., J9gl;r). pp. '22], 238; J,A.,fil~~.yer.I'" RoJ.l;lU.1u· (AI!3:., l3~ NG'fN '{(!I1'k~ D(m'1~~li'. U900).,~, 38.;s~ E.K!il.~mml[JJ. COliN'J!i:t!WI.tary' {m Rm.!ltm..'l! (GtIlfld Ra,P](jjs:: !El)irdma!1~: LoDdo~; SCM Pre !ic'So , l'9:80}, p. IJj~ iF J.IL~~nm':lird~, li'/prlnt: (i.~ S'nirrt rom} am.: ,&tn,wiJ>!lS (Ne~.chat:e[: DeL~b;m.x &, Ni.esthll. rn951), ~p, n-74.~ l" ~ollr,is. :rk fpirtf'lt ~\I':I ~.lte I,'Ol'llml'S' ,[Lewe!lte'.r:lnwer Valrnimy P,lie!ili; (ir.;:mdi ~ids: Elliil'dm!ms,19l88:). ~jt. 2[2: A. N,~!Eiool1ii •. CWJMni!!'l,ili~i')' ar~ Rtrr\lJ\~,j's {U:mdjln~ SCM Pw"ess, H,l;,52)I, p. l&2; U. W[I.ci£!llLcS. Doe" B,.,i~f Qli~ dil1 RiJml!l'. I (EKKN"ill'~ Zit.iIi'.i.c~:b(l;tlZ~1!.efVll[lag: Neuti:i'i(;tlen-VI.ll.~~; Neu:lI.:fun::he:ner V,er]~g. 191'8), p. :& J6 ri. 89.~."

hi tms m~cW,~ i~ is. propgsed (al! tu~dmti1y additw:nalm~tu:al .~ja~' tliaMool~en R1ID13!111S 4i and R:o:m:amiS n ud! 'to mow'*at lfue co:n:trast becweetl. Ahra11:am.> S:~ii:~~ and Gentile dis(lbediem.-ce Caliii bepressed fuether tlb.. :~lS ·o:ft~n th(liU,gbt; (b) ttl ,.;uggll!s~~h.ait tbJs contr.ast: pmtern WliSWiMes ,arul bUiiJlldsl!.lJpo~ a lmdit~nn ~~:JI!it Albraiharn. w[l\j~ch :~s. k~own. M .hoo,ve been. inefd:i>l:en~iI!t me. tm.~" ,HJm'!e,~y".e tradjitlJi:iiot! (iif AbJ'.!ilh.am~s reileC110n (I,' idoJatty .d direa·ve.ryof ~e: c~tor mid (c) totQ;[!S~~ h.~ me oohoos oi]toma!llS l in dI. 4 fit :~nto 'the overall title of £ffilI.o:qgbm wh~cb Paul is .dev:~~.oping. :Belil:re ,doing so, itrnsw.mtl1 br'iieHyslll:I1m.mlzing the co.rlIte.!ltand :Plll]'(Is¢s of F«I~. 1..'~ 8,.,32; and 4!.1~Z5 :in rilie~r nooxmy and m:&rumentadve; m]1Jt:exf.

,~" Rctma~;s 1,18·3'2 anti 4.1~2j

W~tlliJin the larger eXp!Jsitrunn ;of.lkuFIJ. ~ ... 18i-3:20 iowbtcllPol. sets Ollit de .liIum.anp]~ght as, a Kgativtlfun 00,1" Ws later diOO1l!ssion ofihe meaniJng and .im,pUcamton;s {~[ sa1v.adan lin CI:"D:s~. ~.1:8~3.2 roms ,an indictment: 8!gDirlst the Gemme 'WOI1]d. The suhse<ltiQfl deve.lops iib.11l tht'l(!;lJ&~ see out in ·V. ,~, 8" dJac 000"8 'w.Fath is he.ing {~vtlall.edlag2lii~&I: hl!9l!!mlln. s~~ful~s. The :faUIi,II(\~ of tbEl Ge.wrtoo to gi'veglor.y to God il1m, .2lis the: core ~~n whjc~ has pmlV'ok:ed me diviDe wrath. tb.e tmadmilU of sin .and its ,oonsequences dCioC!l!lMenWd in. 1he:V'e"es;tffit;~lfoltlJW.

Rom. l.18 .. 32 cl~.]Y' ,~~ctsa. p~trem o,fre~il.g~ous. (;vv, 18=25). mural and s@cial deeline ('ltv .. 26-3Z)~211wmruMl to actnow~.ed;ge Goo and .'0 give .htim dlle: th.~iIDIr:espoIlsew ~s graciolls se~f.,diu:~o;sure in hilS: 'coo." arion (vv .. ]!_'~~::U)'hM, led to U[O:~a~IY ·Cvv. 22 .. 25)wbjch .. in.mm has me~ ®o 'd~ianit' sexual beffilli~.viD1IJI1r (\'v,. 2.&21) udln slmfiit ·oonduct .in. ~e'lleraJ (V'll. 28-32).3 1iherepeiaiWd 'God ga:ve 'th~m (jlv,etj ill "v. :24. '26~ :28 empbaslzes that the whcilre p:rocess WaS :tDSti~ted~y~.

PtIJl!I~.OOVGI :aClu.al1y speci:ies ·OllltlJilles." er ~Oree(ks ud billli:lariU.5" {ct. ". 14) in tbis s~b'seCniOIru .. inoooo be s~m se~~g~y bt-oad tenus of 'hiUmaliilii'Y' (a\l!Elptimov. v, IS). Th,s:liws prompk:!d. some lmJt,erpreters 'to ii_eli mal[ he .isint~ndiDg ®i) ili1i1Jptlieat,~ lJ.lliWSWII1I.Etliis pa8sag,e~!!I weUaJs Gentil>es. Bull ~Iu'![ad that PaJUm~. ap~5ro OOO'g c.rea't~ona:m.ttevebtiQ:nis

2, [Ill ilinooad ~,R~ 1" 1~32fans imlmDlne cak\gQI]" 0:1" 'decli!rie of d.vitlzatiol!l lllatrMJivei'; see: S.K. SOOW':er:.s, ,4 Rrerrn'iing oj RmlliUts: J'U!S;tice~ Jl!w.!i, ana (J.en:(i$e;r (,New Bavel'l:Yam Umva5ity Press, 1'~94), FJ, 88~ U)ll

3, a. Delllt28.U-l4;; Ros. :5.1S-<i.ll; &eIl~ 3'62s.-32~Wjs.. :14.~i21·~9. :2 Aipo.r.

Bw. 54.11-:22:; J EtI.!~l1-9: .2 :E;ij.~ID..].(l~ T. NIQih. ;Ll~·:S.

the standard by wmoo th~ people are judged (vv. ] 9-20)1 suoQgly telJs agwns~ such a conc1u~lon. The. Jews are jrulged by God, according to Paul. on a.e,basj~ ofthmtpG$$CSSionoftbe law (2.1.2-]3. 17~28). More. ovet •. lthe pliSSage very closely mOects standard Jewish invecuveagmnst the Gentik&, especially lthat ~ fmmd in, Wioonm ,of SCl:~Ommt (pattl'C1J![larly ~s .. 1),.1-19; 14.22-.3l).4 'It is not llliotil2.1 mm :PmIlbel:~.s 'to, accuse dl~ Jews1. impliciUy from, 1. ,I, to 2.16,,:5, dlen. exiP~ldtlY' from 2.17 to 2~2.9', His, rhetorica! lactic is no, gain Jewish approval ,in, 1.18-32 by re~uerajj;mgan, e.stabUshed line of ,!Jewish critique of Ihe· immoral Genlijes. and then to. rum the taJb!l.es on hws implied, Jewish COliiCS i~ 2.1 Of pronouncing mat they _ just as guilty. Illhtdn,g 'to achieve ,8 metorical effect similar to thai of Nalbwil" s cbarge :ag,amst Dav,rd in 2 Sam, 1:2.1.

All.2 J. Paul turns to 'the solution, to the human p!ighc offered in ·the gospel. his M! esUlbUsh. his claim Ibm 000 j~stifie.s by faim and Dot 'by the worts: (If dte law €3,.28). a princwple w.tuih 'hilJlJJS 'for Jew and, Geruile (3.29,). ckc~isecl arulun.circmncised (3 .. 31J)i alit>6,,6 I!haI! Paul takes up ilmi 4.2 .. I S ~e "c.wciallest case'? of Abrallam. The. ,example of Abmham is OMsu.ch imlPOrumce. to th't: deb8l1te IlH which Pan- ~s engaged. because illl (,iOllitempomry Judaism the pailriarclt was viewed as the mC1Jdel, .of faithfulness and obedience to God who demons!lr.ued his obedience by .observing me law,,;!!

,4. t23 '('mil iii~iI!!i'!j' ti}v &l~\I' 10i Q.9'apw~ ho'\!, iv O~OU~lJ,Ulfl .•• ) kr~~s tH ]an:gUii,p of Ps. 106 [LXX 105,].211) ()CQl ~vw itimv i~jilIv. au"", ev o.J!101.u.an" .. )land Jer, 2:.1~ (0.& i\.a~ "'OO1i~10 ti'ro' ~Q;V Q;U1o,U). BolbOld T~wne:m le;;1!;u· ruer to Isr3t:]'s fall ~nto idoJa.try •. the fMmer to the gOlldeJJl caM ~ncidleiDl (d. E~od. 32)~ Ute Wnw 10 Tsrae&' s abafldoli!mC1i1t of Yahweh for BaaW wli)fship- Several COmIDelilWOrshave '1akM thest ,ecli:oes to mean lhat Jews are included. as "",eWl as OelltUes i~ Paul's, ~ndic~t 'of idolauy. e.g .• Crcmield, R,o,.,Jtan.r, 1, !p,p. lOS·,L06~ .D!.!!!'!rn. ,Hom.am 1-8, pp "72-73. :n~\Ii~f. it 1:<5 m.o~ mib::Ly •. :1IS 'FtituJ1.J1e.r states. ~!I:1atPalilil 'is :s~m,ply ,e:u~apo'lati:ng from ~ucbill~idgMS iii! 1M hii!ulOl)' of die chi:D~m JleOlle. and a;ppl,y.iL'l,g ~h:e: ideas tov~ :,a,gmu wod~': RQmiMS. '" 211.

5. ,cr. Cll'gllc~~. itama:ns" 1. !pp. ],38;..39.

6, D,Y' appeaHnrg: 00 ~be: OM Te!it~m ~1e of AbJ~mm. P:au~ is also able 10 ;S.:bow tliaI: llis g<J5pc:ill of jus ti fiea'lioo is !ilp'be.I~ by di!e law ('3.:)l ,cr. J.2:lb).

7. DuRI'I+ Romans j.~, po i.96,

8~ On Abramn:E"5· Wilh!lfullness., SEC,i!J.g •• , 1 Mace. 2.:52: Jdt. 8.25-2'1; 1/ Mace. 16.19-25. OR Ab.raham's mifhifulne!ils in 1ctf.~pmg the law., see, e..g, •• Sir. 44~20: Plli~. Abr. ~: 2 Bttr. 57.1; JI'(". 15.1·1; 16.20-11;. ct. G~(I,. 26.S. for Ihe'll!U~OU.~ :pMtrayals of .A!btahiam ~1!Ii ,ilfl~enest;;l1m=~'tal ,h:uialSm, ~t>s, luther N.L. Callvert, • Ab.l'iilih.am and Ido'latr:y;ihM'I's Comparison <Of ObediGliU; 10 the Law 'fO klo:hw:y l!!!l OarnafiaM 4, ~- ~O·. 'im C.A.livoSiUdl.m.A. Sudgl'$ (¢{til.) a . Paw.a the Scrl,'m'res ;ilf'

"The !iJ!mit may be undersreod to sorne e.x:teiliit,M, a midrash on Ge.n. 15.6.9 On tlllis mailysis, 'the iexposition ~ .inb'OdDcedl in ve. 1·2. aJtId 'the key ten, Gen. 15.'1), stated in v. 3. The meaning of E~ia9ll is definedin '!tv. 4-8. and 111m: of tniGl£\lG£V in vv, '~2J. The proposition is restated in v, 22. and an appUcadon. to me conrempomry simation is given hili '!!'Y. 23.25.100 The main UINst illf Pa'll~"s. ,argument :.IY be slIDImmarized as fellows, Fn-st (vv, 1·8). Abraltun was reckoned aIS dgbtoous withoot reference ro wor.ts but solemyon the basis of his faittilJ iml God, Thie p3irnlleW text Ps, 32.,1 .. 2, WhfCh Pfltd uses to mum.iJnate Gen. 15.;6 (011 the strength of the cattchw.o:rd MTr11;.:O,"u:u. ut.i~jzi.rnTh,g the im1ltetp!-etlve pd-aple ofgezemh .shawah~I •. demOinstmtes that Ged's reckoO'lng of :r,igtit,roU8iI1flSS (or his Don~reckOni"g of sin) is a free and unmeriiled act ofgraee. Second~y (vv.9-1I,2}, (ten. 15J6 shows tbat A.braham. being reckoned as dgbtwlls

. I~i ." . ... I!.: h... ' . . . .II C" • • I>-

was S0qw:e,oua I~.y ~1110r m. ~wru. w..,[lg 'c.u"Cumc~~eU!, u:cumcwatl. WillS IJ}U,t,

dle sign or seal] of the :rigihleOllSI!le8S w.hich he already bad while he was uncircumcised. AbrAham's fathemood (ef, Gen. 17.4-5), therefore, is Rot confined to t1iL>Olse who are circemcised, Because faith is the determiaing factor. aU who share Atlmham's faith and exercise it, as h~, did. regardless of'Whdber they are circumcised or Un'l;:ifCuw.cised, be:long no his family. 'fihi!!:dl.y (vv, 13~113i). Goo'sprcmise did not come 10 Abraham througb the law. bllt through faith. Faitb, therefore. and not adherence to, ehe law det:eunineswho are the heirs to the Abrahamic prom~s.e'. FOUirtlhb (·v'v·. 17b~:l1). Aibll'al:tam's ,faith was Ime:ida:er more lint less that" unqualified trust :in and dependence on God. This eMerges from the fact dlat Abraham believed in Goo's promise that he would have a son. in spite of' dte physical 'evidence to the c-Ofttra~. that is, hiB. cld age and Sarah"s barren 'womb (Gen. 17.l-18.l5). ,Fullll,l{ (vv. 23~25). Aib~.'s Ibeii!l!lg reckoned as righteous serves as the model for the justification ,of Ohristians.. They too are rec.!k:oood as righteous thmugh faith. and their

lSMtl (JSNl'S'l.Ijp, 83; Sbeffie]dI: ISm Press, lil91), pp. 22~-37; esp. p:p. Z25-35; O.w. H~selil, Ab,mham iIlG'aiatialtS: Epis,rmary ,and Rhetorical Co.nt,~xt.~ ,(JSNT~. 29: S~ffi£!.d: JSOTPr.ess. i'!11'89). pp. 119-!)9!~ .H- Moo.lteS, Theo,logy In C01ljiict; Studies ill Pa~I"s Undef:Slmu!ing oj God in Romans (Novl'Su:p'. ;5.3, Lcid\en; slI'm. 19101), ~p,. ,~11-6~i S. Sandmltl PhiLo's Place ril JulJtiil~m;' A. Study qf Co.rl€8pli:mu of Abmkam in' Jewish ,UteMtlln! (New lrQr:k; lQa!!', a~gmented edQ;, 197m)~ f. 'WaJlS011l. Pard. J'Udaism anil J~.e Qi/!ntiles: A Soclo1ogic,aJ Approach (SNTSMS~ Cambridge:. 'C'a'm'bridge 1I1i1ivmity Press, ]9il6)·. Pfi, 136-38.

9. Dun[l, RnRNim'S .1-8, pp, 197.98; cf. Mo:mes. Theology, pp. lOS-Loo. 10. ct. DtimI:lJ,. RQ:,"~ 1-8,,'p. 198"

:~ is ,al~o p:laood intlhe God who brings :nfe oot .of d~th-ile God wh-@ bW1m\ghtrnHe O~I of ~be d~eu of ~ooam's bOOy ,and. S:arah"s wumb andl the God who :Dised JeslllllS .foom tIile deadl. AbrtdThamL.c fammh is thus. t.hepmtotype of Chrlstlan fM1ih.

2 .. FurtherUWcs Between RoWQns 4 and Ram,an,s 1

As statedJ. artrove~ the link back to 1 .. 2l .in. 4.201tas, o:ftenbeen moied~y IR~erpmlern .. ~D. aMimoll ro·lilis 'b:aQbra!rd.oo:fer~oo, sev~al o,thervmru and the.alle Hriks betw~. Ru.ams 4 aHlkJmruJ.~ m cm behighngtirut,~; (Ilil) '!!il,v .liunuoivm. 1Il0<v ,&ae~,fi~1 .4.S Wld ·1i(Jt~taVIC(lld:a~JI(i«v ~mDJ 1.t8; fb) the theme 'O;f God. fue c.re8!l!o.r in 4.11b a.m1 .~.20. 25.; and (e) auva~~:. 4.2~. ami SW·IlIl.U;;, in 1.20.:~]

First, the CclnOC~mo:n rd ,ail.K6U;hll) an.di 6oo~,tw~ 4.3 ca~ls 10 m1ID'ld. the oonjill,flmioo. of dcrt~eu~ and. !(Ui!llUc:ta In l.UI,,]] &u()a~6(i) ud. '&I!ldi(~ (tlbulJ,gh d:8ud.u W' a lesser£xieFllt) are COllUIlOn. in Pa~l (ill8ll~l~ .and do~lk\u.hlJweve[. U!eRoOt; in 'me IWndls.putedi epistles lmT.ey ceeurelsewhere o.n~y at Rom .. 5;6 and ~.l.2Ji, .res.pecthl'·e~y. am1rn!l1ll1eltliterrnW~l'Iance i:iI1 oombination w.iltb II 31.K:- or a$:ru.K'- wi()!rdl.I;l;[~tllitIe l.XX. aael~EI!IO:\ del.G~ sinful. WldtraMgresslve conduct 14 Sucbbefua::yiHfWS 'charactllfistie uf the nati.ons (Dent. 9.S). I~,t1.8. gri~ta and.ldiUi:~a form a b,e~n!lj;ad'ls..gC<¥~I.Ded by n.i:CI'fl. S~Mmii~g ~p th~ sate of the .c]ellWtLh,\'!, wmldi beifclI:,e <:kI(t~' In ,41.5. Goo~s oharao~d as. tOV iB1.KmOll!lfitiU W:",I

11. 'On t~ ye;f!I;!!!a1 linb !betwe~!], Ro:,m. 1.1&·32 owd 12.:00-2. :see,. ~.g., M ... lh.o~so:ll. Clolhd with Cbrbtc: The .Bxample a~mJ.leachm:g .pJ J'efJu._~ in ~CllMn±~ 1'.2 •. 1·-.15.13 (JSNTSlIIp" S9~ Sbcffidd: ISO]' Press, ]99lJ,[I1l. :81..:8·3!. OR the ~ilIIb between Rom. 1.1:8~32 and. 8 .. rn 8.30,sS!B, !l!'.g" iN'. WaJil:m'. "GoI:l\G~ Zorn. U1md. dos ·'Jlamlil:1i.t ~a'l:Uf', mr K(J~1"Oll~ :zwisdl:en. Riij!'Er 1,18.32 !I!lmd. :8.['~12"'.~ K;, ~ne1ge., T. l!l.o.!,a; <W!~C"f. Marz. Cl!Jrw,f.1;,'I' Bt\~ug~n; 1!"5J;SC~'ift.Jf#' 'Wolfg;(lJ7g frillincg ZIlm 65. Gtbumi~ (.l.dp:zJg: .stB~m!L<D. 19i9)!.p.I".:2: ~.8-li6,.DI!!t1in"R:(}mgm'iI 1'-11, ,. 461. Onth£,~tll_!Sillil:l!bbL'ltwG:Gn Rom. 4 and 14---15, see A.T. Lifl.'OCiJm. 'Ahrab1lm. (l~ 'I.I()! RO!ilU.e: P,au}'s; '[RiIU!t'I!lmIit: 'ilr Abmllilam illl.R.o:m:t\lils 4'. j~ M.l W'JlkliiS 8t'I;~ T. PaiSt! ~~d1Si.), WOlI'"sh~p,. llt!ll!i9JO;8'}, laM. Mi~"iHry in tlJ'e Ea,~y ,00"tr:h:E:f.r~\f in HanoI' oj R'utpl:! .P. MurUn OSNTS!IlIij). 8:'1,. Ske:filleld. lS01f Pl:ess. 1992). IPp. 163~ 79.

12. lbepa!i!!'ing; ·of GGe~1Ct and ci:8~tdi!a. is :foondim the I .. XX at, e,g,. Ps.72 ('1JMjd?rQv" .[ tj.Mi.~, 1J8".!'!l.

13. ('):ll!t'lWe· tn.egjis,u.red ,epi&uks. !~.mli3iit~OOC!.!.rlll. ii!'!, .~ Tim. :I ,9. omd uaelJ'allliC: ;at: 2: Tim. 2.J6: 1"t1:.. ~ll ..

14. TDm. V .• pp. Un .. S8,.

15. TIJNf., V.p. ~OO .. :S:incc the pruase is,eom~si.ve, no, ana]1i1i'CIliI, (JDU!nn,

ooaPfi-tlle 000 who justill~s the ~ngOOJyU6--.and Albraham is. set fOI1.im as the model 0,( 000' sjrustilcadon . .of tbe ungodlly.17 A twofold implka= tim ean be dllaWn from. tbis portrayal of Abmhmn in the light of t.] S. As uot:lf.\i¥;, A!braham" s initWM status before God. prior to ~s being reckoned as.righ1.Gous. was exac~y .m.t of the ungodly Gemiles portmyed in 1.18-32. The .~mplicit association·of Abmham whh. me Oentiittes js uamistak:able. But as Justified. Ablaham,"s new slaws and onenlalion toward God through faith is (be very antithesis 'Of that of the disobedient Gentmles of' ID. ~;8- 32.

S~nd. ttli.~ focus on 'God the· creato:r in 4.17b picks up the meme or Ood as creator in 1.20 and 25. The thowght ·of GO<I as creator emerges .in ~ .. 20 W'H~ f'he w"Rils ,tim) Kd.(]E.~ Kth'J.UYI;I, "since llie c.re~tion o:f Itle world', the act of creation clearly being viewed as the work of Ood. God's activity as creator is fu!l'\lher hopHed ill 'this 'verse by x,m:.ir]p(l:lIiOl, which in the context plainly means the tbings created by God. And in 1.25 GOO is specificaUy d~~igl1laitoo creator, ~~iall~, Accoming ~o 1 ... ~91.. :20. dle Gentilles have been equipped with ,II fuodlarnootal knowledge of God the creator. mediased by God's revelation in o.i.lit.li.l!re-----a .. revehrti.Qll which has been operationa~ ever since the creation of the world. s,lFt i~stea'tl! of hOROUrlOg and! grare.rnny admuwloogiog theIr creator, whicfuJ they ought to have done, they exdhang,ed the truth they had been gJven fQr. dle lie of idolatry. preferring to direct their worship to the creature! created thing :rather than to the creator himself {&0'£Pdo81lIGUv 'Knill elu'tpE'tu::rav til rnOEl napa to\, K'tiallVlll., 1.25·). As these Gentiles had been, Abrabam is confronted wjih God the creartor--:the one who caUs into exmstem:e. mat wh~ch has no~istenoo flCaAoihrT~, 'fa ~~I ovru ~ ovta}. But unlike the Gentiles: of ,Romans. .W. Abraham acknowledges

.RomM'S 1'-8. p. 55}I, 'lbiMeis 1110 need tosee iii:it a distiDCtWn hetwailiJ. s.jll'!$agaiiIlS[ 'Ihe; Mst and SiDS agai.Ml the seco.nd tabJe5< oftbe law. ~.c: .• siilL~ ag:atniSt God and. sins agai[)il.fe~low bU!1!Ian beings: CWi'lmA~ :Scl:llane~. Gwh::s (k''eCk1igkeiJ (StllJ~tg;3n:

Ca1...ver Verlag, 193:5}t p_ 49.

H5,. The phftie: 10\1 ~h ...:atotJ,vtn lOv ci:ooOil from 3D! Old Te~liIJt pojnt ofvietw is a definition of gross iltjustk:e: &od. 23.1;fT6!o1'. 1,7. ~ 5; Is3.. :5·,23. p_ ,sruNmacher sl$es tbEl:l. PiIDl 'coil!lS a mew descr:iplioll of God wbiCh :is highly [p.u:adlo.:IIJC31 an~ of ,great .melo['.lc~ po~r': .Patl/"s ultJeJ' to the R'o:~"5: A Comn.tfmuny (Edinburg!h: T. & T. Clark. 1994). p, 72.

1'l. Tht conhmtiol1i ~fW. Sandal' and A.C. Head I aQI, ('lite Eprssl.e to Ike ~m [ICC.,; :Edi['ibl!J[l'l~: T. &: T. CI;uk, 1902],. ,'. 101) tharf roy 8tiiCtllOV'If'Wi tOy aoElj,lij iii "om meant as a descrjl!»iM of Ab.raham' completely undennme5 ~he logic of Patlll'!,! W'gu:me~ ill! ,f«y,m. 4.

and pla:oes bls iaJ.mtr.b in ilie, Ufe-givi~g God. Abfaham~ s simple and !I!I11.reseJ'Ved trust .~fiI God. the ere.aror .co:.I1kaslswiithdleir "sophisti(lared' «lIioJ!;QY-w;e:lvl;U 00410\, ] .22) :~j:ection. of tl!eJeve~atio11l ef tie creatnr in. mvull[ Mido~-W'Orsmp ..

Thin:llly.,. IDe ,8!\)wtm; of 4.2l recaUs the MrmIJII.~ of ~ .20. Hi According: to .~ .lO. threugh Goo."s mv,e~ation .Iim cR'ath:m. tbe Gentiles had. the, caJlllcitym perceive not onJIy the ,ni:stence o.f the ereator, b~l alS(l his. nawre=--h~s. 'ifrl'\itlsjlble CJ.lJ.IiiJlities· (w &6pam; oUtou)=as etemaJ] pow~r a~d dejJty: ii. Ul. d'1rH!l.or; OlGwIl) &l'vaj!J!lt; Kai &'n6rni~ I~ WYllp~ ill this. v·e.me ·oonnotes specificaHy Goo's creative -porw,e.r.Paul tate,~ up Ill, po.inrt well e~!mh~ished, .i~. Hellenistic Jewish circ:le~: from the created umi,v~ hum_ beings Ma,y deduceth:e divine&iJwlJ"tA;tffitlat sttand's behjnd and.

..:L ,'I!! :',.. 'jlI!} .8- 'GC" .. -,i/h -, .... :L .. J"''''i·~e w,-· -ld-- ,o!'-umed diel:\evela:tian of God"s

WlJ '!' _ 1'1,,. . __ ~ !lue 'Y~YL _,Qi .. ;;0.',_ .. , _

divilwnamre and pow~r~ ill hasooen left wLthout eJt01!WS'e (aNnJl(!ilcniJw~ and. de s.en edly meets God's wWh. In 4.,21, .Abraham is depw,cred es being f~l~y oo.!l.vlncoo t01l!t Ood has.the PQH'ertQ ~~mi~ w!hat he has

" . .11 .AI tI "t, .... a. . .n.,.< U' "., '. 'Ii, .'it.. . ,. '. '. .'

pmmu.eu to 1.110 .,'Jii!.J,¥o¢!oP1lm:;1lA; art 0 ;£'m1~II.:ta\ 'II.Il.!Iya~ &Gl1:V 'Killl,-

m)it't]nut).:21 It 18, ()oo"s, power w!:itch pW'3JDtees, the rm::un~se. Prom tb.e :i.mOOiaw ,oon.mx.t it .is c1earllmt milt, power retlHrOO 'W :~s GOO~ $i. creative· and r-esurrectting power ,(4. [1b). Only U1rr;o.~gha.msplaiy o:f such ptJw,er c~ld the Qb~tac~~, of Albrab_':s adlvWlc~d age and! Saruh's barren. wWD.b 00 {'jver,oOlJ"W} (4,.l9), . .AJbrah:;oo,'.s NC'o~itl,Qf!! iil.f .c.I. ro-ntlldence in

""'~A"""C'-"''';'''''c'''I''ol'IJi''';,tv '""'-n,,, in ..... ":1..",,1rT'i "":L·j''''f· ,.l..= .:I·:·" ... ' ........ dT .. "" .. .t"!"'-"~]··e"· "-RJUl D ., .. ,l~-"; ...... --iIrI.fi'- ...... ~..:-,";,. UlnU!w.g - '. ~v M-[ ...... ~·,I!1i.ri .. ~" U~!W_~.:I'~ __ ~~ul.'~J~ .:.;3'

ljitllt-ibQm refuu1 ey.en~'O :acm(lwledge it'.

T"';IIl.~n t .... I!1".«l. Wl"th· the •.• ~! ..... in;i,- .. n ...... '" ...... ~ .~. ").'~ ~,'" .;II ""0·.' .~ ... se .... liII-iJ..er'

!iiIIA''i;,;;-- 'I'lU'o-lIldIJ.. I, .. . I Il"w- 1I"w"-.J..I.,.LU."b:I·~'!i.:r ",",-"w-""''I ,~iI~,1 ,1I!lII, ""r.~ ,~ ~~~!L . .'~- ~,I.. ~~",._~ ..

'rex mal Hnkswhtru 1 .. 18,..32 .Mld. m.18~25m partkurnar. m-e sufficiently clMll", accessible. pbllilsthle and :W!II~·asID be identirfifel'l, with. SiI»lle t:b~:gree

18. Cr.. ,also :EYe8u¥!lIJ.mfi1!1 in ,4.:ID. ,[1lep.assL¥e is pro!ila~ly a divine Jl,,~I.v,e. 'was srul'mtgkme~' (~" Goo,)]: so C.ran:fi~~d~ ~Jil. I~ :pp. 248--49"

19', J.U R.I? Owen OOi¢.tVCs. Pall!li, antieiptitl!ilg nrn!llil"L'lelfil:c agatillst ±'~~iWlry in l.23-2:5. i.sempmizillllgin .~ ,::W ]JfiI!l:i.sely t!lase oolltltClEr.isti~s @i·GOO. whlich. dlsti~~ g!I!1i$h. Illim. from :idQ1s~ ~ H~f', ()wruI.'TIK: Srope o:f N&lUfiI~ Rieve1allom ~n. Rmll. I ~u;J. M:s XVII". N'f85 {l95t8-S91,;p, 13.3-43.,p. 134.

l~. W:is, 1.3.4. Ep. A,.isl. 13·2:; Pl!]w. So.m't.l 2.220~, J~,h.t1s •. Apil'7n 2,! 61.. TIilc n.mi)o:n tha[ lihe o.reation aftlre worild ~!'liilmlamfestataon 0:1"GtDd'S polWer is cl~.ly lIrti·· cllil!al-ed. in th.e LX.'[{ (Je.w., 34.-5~ .39.11).

2t elf,. (kil. [8; .. 141. Oil !1M tbHle of God's omni,~en.ceim :Philo see, S(.l.m1~" 2.136. }.ru. 24!4~ Spgc. Leg .. 1.232; wrlllil s[lllG'clJi.e ooferenceoo Abrmmn's 'tallith, ~ .4b,.,. 1. ,rn 2:;, Q,uQ!:1's,r. ,i-r:. Gen. :l.·2.56 ... See fu_~~ iMo~, ~ogy. [ill!?, .1,4~S5-

ofoonn.den:ce, as, ·defil!iite· \e;,.;:ruaOO. ,el[:l;()U.:'i.2 Indeed, M may beMgUed !lhaJt these eehoes 3lre s'w~g !~.m::n.~,~ W, belrake"!l as eenseioas and dellberate all~riQns ~(I! the le:mier pa!8IIli'l.ge. 'nisil:eXMal ~ fum.c~'o'ns to ,eS'~l!iish a ~tmccturaWp3!ttem of co:m.tr,as1t ba.ween AlbraffiJam.3Ind Ibe rebeJUIJ!ls, Oemtll~~e,s~ and ootwGemJ AbrafuraN's f3iith and dile Ge1iltii~es' disdbelWienre,

Fc![ a ,oaniU3iS1' Burn ast!h~Skl' .~ rheto:ricaH;y ~:ff~rl1ll"e lJ.ere, Must be a sufioi.e~t de-gree !Otf ~wlm~Warity rootloVe~D. ·the dlaracrets set~n Clp]X)'SitJEo:n. 00 ilia!t the d.~ffemnre8 can s,t3i~d o~t.·:l:::! Brumt ene stru;ggtes f,o~nd ;Ilny sJ.,gn~ficanm pomls of co:mpwioon~ween ~e sltu~tLO'ns !Qf Abraham (!!!!ld the rebeIlEious Geillti1es. The fi~u:ms of Alb.~!ml in RQ'.nlDS 4i1!!1d H10 Geru:U.es~:rtGly~d .. ~n 1. m. 8 .. 32 do :n!@~appe. W, :stand in 3JD IO'bvw!!l:ums1y aooa:Wogol!WS O~ p~le:l .R:~atio~. 1:lli;e ter:ms on whiclDilhe:y encouner !(J(,d are. VMdy d!ffifl~t. Ih~ O~ntij~esencoliI:D!Uer God indjrectly ttirurou:gh :t'ru~s cleMllQn; .Abrahafiil emrou~. Goo dh~ctl1y aDd peISOmiB.lly .• 'nUl eirea •. - smoes illl which. Abrwi!lm acknowwd~ lie presence :and. powie:f of!fue· cRartorUn respoifi.®eW' (ioo' s pro.i!Wrurus~ o.f ,Il son) ~. q~~~e ,di:ffe.oo;n~ ~o ~he ,cllir:ctmSit3l1OeS in W'twich.th~ (]~nti1~ all .. 18u:2:5: fail m, ,db, Mil (in response ItO, Ged's c.ooa!tiI@'Jlal. feveilaminn)!. A:~~o. in l. Ui:~ZS the G~itill~. havwn:g: .r:ejecmdJ :fhe bt0Wledge of (i;oo.~ creaiwr~ fruJM mea t&:l~a$1'Y. IfIJ R,rnna~s: 4, no oonn.ection .~:s made ibetween; AibmlTham and idorumry:;, tb.me is, flo:r 'l!xaDljple, no! connue~t: 101 tfue .effe~l, rnihM Ab[uiiJm. '~nO:ullnctlS mre.plldl= ,af~ the w,ors'hipi of klo]s. [t i~ Pfirhaps, then, little w'O.nderf:iait tbe~ddittomtrn. !oo~oes of .~ .. 18-25 ~n eh, 4 m.ve"fail.ed to' ~h 1h~ eyes o.F s ehel aD,. Of thaJt in~(l:rpre1Jenl have lOOen. dis.will:clii~ted,I:O !push the Ccuttmstbe:tw,"~n Abrahariliill. an.d the irmr!l\Qm!I. 09'tile;s, Ibeyo:nd dleMOte OllV.L(lIUS. link.lback tot2[ in 4.2Q; ..

"{,et.as nOled. 3i:bov~.a!.lbaJsic alffimty bettween dn::se O~ntil.es: and.

Abraham (or •• m:e precisely, itleJt:weelmJ Ilese Ge.nJti1es ad .Abraham priott mo hisJlJS!!fWl.cationby faimb)i is; \f\ery :silrongJy .~q;l~~ed by the ed~(!i of m . .l8 in 4.5. even ~:gb n.oe:met points: ·of Qonl\!am; 8IIie ~ed.

22:. ctHays'i, te's1s for ~m,g 'e(;!hJo.es{willi relfcR.lUll!:ilG· 011i Tesimm,m echoos~: !R.B. H~.ll(,;:wu qf &riptu,re. in· 'lite Ulltitsof Paill {f4ew .na:¥eln: "taille Un~'iEtsim.y f'res!s,. H}:89~. fP.291.J2. SeeruiSQ 1.lmmpson'$, ~!lS~®,Jll O'f C!I'.iJleriaf!;u e'i/,aiIJ1Jlllh:l:g aiIJIIJMm1iiS artiId. !.\!ebi:!e.5 (wj(h ~d'e$~mce w' th.emu<fd:il~o:ml. of '[be. sa,.ii:'i!g;s of JeSIlI!l); T.h.o;mp:&®rl •. Ci.olll'8.a, ,p. 30,.36-

23. lbe ·eOiUrM'~ behiliil;!l!~ .Adam ed. Oms! ~R Rom:. SJ.Z-2: 1 wurks:so pOWMfw~y ~anlyb¢clllU'~PBll!I ~s ahlelO'~mMl'cklar ,anillcls belweelll'~eill'i: mc!b .slmd$ at tM iDEgiJf!!l!img !®'t.1m ~~!t!; each is. a .• te:tii'I!iii~ive~gllW!e whose 8.eti,QIn.<S .lIlffect: the &s~y'Mai~.

'fh.e, answer tD tlilis uom.aly. it maiY be S'U:g~d. lies mrt, in the tex.t 01 Rom.s4 but: in a rtmditiDIJlyiog uII(!Ier fie text,. p:resuppo,sedand alluded k1I byilt.

3" TIJ'i! Tr.aail,11fm .o.(,t\bI'Qham's R;ejetclioH olldo,latry and D\£.smvery oj/he CT(!';¢U;o:r

In a ~~~e-f JeYIl"L [e~eclti,th'fi .n.fi A,I:.._L ....... dev",1n ,_ '_,',' i - ~ .. ".H~ , .... I"'1lJ,.",,- 't!b' '.'_

ijI: ,_" _' ~l __ u __ !!.&..,~~ ..... & ,J!!.IJ"O!Ql4!!n _ _ ~"'iP~n,g_n ,I;' i!lI!.ll ~ ~ ... __ e

_iaooih :is ;OO'IIle.oomd as o~ew:no :rej,ecma id.o'lattymd ;asU;a1-'WQil'i~WP m :fawlU: of the worsfil~p of the ct(lat{)'i' Ciod.,:N The uadil~o,n W3i clear oocc.ialfl.t.ncIi(J.......,kt ~g~n~ the inCWy'S.Loo, o:f Oe:[J;tih~~,~nQsclyt-es ~ntihe le~.im commul1l~ly .'lSi ,Ab,mhum poo'il'ide:sa mooeU'orplooelyms wti@WMv,e bet1Jhl.d family 4Il1d :idi;@~,on to fuUo·w tlhe we Gmt Thisre~merpremrlioFIJ e,t'AJimham·s m;;gooQ~ and ,call '~mJ Glil.mlI.W, L21-~,2,9 is bu~dI on JOi\>h. 24.2 .. 3", w~~ ~n is. ,~~plWd, that OOO,~:u'IJ~~t ,Abm:b.am, _t I@'f i.d:olB.Jtry.

ThispJn.myal afAbmhmm,cml,be found aeady inJu~iiet:r l.L]6 .. rr~

t2.1~.2.1 (SK'Ofld (~rn!i!Ii.iJl BeE), J~,~, 1.]6-17 SlaUes !(!If AbtwiWl,

1!ti~,larl,~gan 1am1~tandl!i'i,g(1w strway.wg QJ~ ~pd, ~bat e\i':ery,~.me 'oI;\51n.'I:

MtnIy afteF grave1l, :iJm.agesOlllld aiel' pol]IW:Ql!I, And !hi'S f,ub,eJ.r t;nl~b.t :h~m w!l"i~m:g. AlI1d he wa._'i tW(!, week:sof :yem, .ol~, Arnd he separ<W1:d [m.m. ,h~!i fatl!Lern-- :$ii)I,~;n he mig'liI-l :nQ~ w~m.jp~neidQ]!i. 'w~llh, .h~!lIl. ,M~ !be Mg<m,~' p'.!',ay tl!) tIle C-.reat:o:r, o.f allIl, SQ, U;.a~ b,e mi(gb-i: s:ave b~m from, the :stta,yi~of the SQI]I!SJ ofme.IIi,and so ~ibaj'u his portiol!i might l't0fi. fall, mrl) the: strr<l!Y]!lg ~:r itepQLllution Bad ~.:z6

24. See CaI,vert, 'Abtah:ami'.p,p. 21:S~l:5. W.L. KnOx. ·M.f~am H.d UMe Quest fo.~' Goo', HfR 28. U939~~P1l\ SS~:H .. Suu.k ami. P. I:Ij~lel1beck. Komm!tliU'Ui"lUm /!J,~JUtR Xe.ti\1mml (MA.:miicli:l3ec~ ,ru,91'()..:181.11I~ [J!. 195.

25. C:aity~rt. 'AI!!!r;zi~·.p"2.27~ }d. GI.I-¢:I'it'Ol!. R'Omali!3Qttd the .Apol.og;eUc 1:rrtJdiJiwt,; Th~ PlA'Fpost!'. G-el;l~' (j'niJ Audi\lj!1.ICt! of Pailll'·s Ullte:r (Sil'fJi'SM:8, 81~ C.aRbd~ge:: Camubddge UiIlmvers.ity Pess. 1995). pp. J.09-J.Hl Cf.Philo, Vir;. :2~,9:' A'br,O!ihamJ Ollis, me i'll_am of nobil~tyfot p~lll'itE!l. vil:io.abiu-dmtiirrug, ~M ~@iI'Io'b1~ily 0:[ gtr;a:n~ ~aw:'l, ,a:I'i~IlKllllimm!l, e1lllsllO-m wlrul-.cl!i .a:s;s-ig ... c~ .~vjm.I!ooi'!!(lU!tS to stoolks, ~iil s'ID.nesand. ~ess tWlli,gsimt g¢n.erulli, ~aYe come 1~ SGul.eiilil a ~l~:erlW1d. :Jill a. aOlll~we.a[m fil.lilll oM l:IUe lii!~, and, \I~13liiJy. ·vMh tro1ilfl. as tits ,'ireelm' ,mtdp.m;lSidEIn.1" • OUL qi!l~'ijQn_'5 f~llP! PbJi~Q a.:re. t~.e!1l fool'll f.R. CoIDsQJ!., i!l'~. ~l'. [em .. ] [LCL, 12, v~s .• ~: Hei.im:-rna:nn., ~92~:Sl~J.~(! ~me iI'lkili!'l~ oJ :rab'hli!1~ kadi~iQ:rI.Abfa!h!;m'I. i"ii p(lrtmyed a.'5 the f;a~heI o.fprosel()'oos: Tw, /J, 320'1. PesJ'q .. R.WOk. see "am.,_~!'l. ~,Rl·191-"9,8 ..

2'6.. Q-LrIocmions fto:mi.r.W.i~ and.~"~ ojAbm1ttJm:,1IJiE; trul!Jffo.m (Hp',

lim .100. [2,1 -5. Abraham. wam~ bils tamer Terall Orf ~ iem:>r of iooJany. stmsmng llLefblly 01 ,dmfyi.ng lme~.e~s~mag('s, 'Which are .~~.y me ~. (lrfhu~(i!llitiru:m.d!s. He exhorts hiim.lrmread to,

WnrslliliiP ~he. Goo ·of ~avt'lil'i,

who. semds OOIW'MI. rallin. and dew~n 'IE It_h, aDd wbomakss ,~verylhins, upon '!lhe eub. and. (::Iie!l,t~ ev~liEImg lim,;, his w.ord.

am a1~, ~i.fe is wn Ibis ~11e~e. U2.4)

Tecf.:a~ .. reco~es Ihe ti'iUli1i of Abrahail1f:s ~\ll~I1:3ity hun bids hjs, :!l,on k~p sne~t on tile matter. imowing ~att to decry ~ wo~ip, ~f Idols inpubUc w{)umd Co,s't ~, their Uves (12.6,,8).,

Mmy years later. Abr:aham and ~-e.1!ah eVe!mtually :m~ke rilie break from. llicir biomtrgs sUJl'OliInw~~ ~d, leili\tebeh~~.d Ur ~f the Ohal&es 02, . .15).. In. the land of Haran. where tb~yre,"5t!jm,e. Alilrnhrun sits up thmugh the llIigbt to (l!bsenetile: $UUS. D~scenwi1lg ~fi.theim '~e hmtd <If GOO. 'the dlol1gfut ,oomes tohIiim •

. lflhe desi:l!es.:he wIll make iilr.aiWl, mo:mill'lg=mrli ,e1;rf;iIDimg.,Md iri!i.e desires he wruJ~ !lOI seJi'I~ ~iJIJ dowJl;~d everylali!!lg: is ill hiis hand.. (]~. ].8)

TIilIDs leads Abraffitam. ~opr.aise ';.e Mrn;m Hi.gh God~ 'i who 1S aloe God .3IDd. the .areail:o-r 0:( eNerylllling i{ 12.1'9';1"

Acrordm,g to pfuno (Virt .. 21 m-16)~ Abmllimamwas lihe son Uf3fl1 aJs[lJ])toger,.;!.1 o:ll.ewilIDo deeil1l1li.ed. the sllar.sand ~. wbolt! ~[J!iv!erse to be gods. Philo. asks· rtleKlJjcam~f,

WJillail 'cQI,JJld be m~Je 8I1'i~"''QU.'fii O~ mom (:apOl!bh~1 ;pf :ril!i~Y1i!i!I,g ths l!:otai abselll.(le ,m!l1ohllillfy in. me soW ~!m.Im:~ that Hs kno ..... l'OOge ,of ~oo mamy .• !!he :i~IKbry" ~.Iue created. QI'lIly ]eadi :it ro .ipOR the One •. ~he PtimM. ·Iltii.~ U:fII(;lIlea1e~ amd Ma'bl:r ('!f ami, wElO&e s~iPrem.eemeWlen;ce :is ~[abH~hed by tbese.arn.d. iC01lItlIU.ess otl1ier a.urttibllltes of S'I,I(:d"l magruwde thaI no h1.1J1m.u·l JieEliSO.1lI CaJ1I ~ti!im 1cJx,m?' (2 ~3,)

~e,Ii.Q!J of tbiis trull. and. di.V"me,~ns,iratiO'n induced Albr8!h~. tQ le~v:e .Ms CQunti'J. lin .. d~a]l home.

27. Ri1o's 3$!iii;l!IJWpuot!lthi!l!1 Abr,~h!a:m,beiie;!i'ed lllil. as«omo,gJ" plI'~or 00· ~~s ~iiJ.voon~!W ,(¢:f. ,Abr • .&J.. 70) is iJ1mIlIeledim ·mile:;rJreUemstre Je!WWi. S(i[ltroes: the Oli]l~~ [I1oem ,q;uctedl im Ar:istob~lu!l, (~ .~IlIS!!;b:iiUlS, •. Prep_ SF.) ] 3 .13.:5~ PSEiUlcl)O· Bupolemus, (~EIiSG~iJUS, .Prep:. Ev.) 9.]7.3-4, 8-9i '!l".WS,2: Atta,pa!nuf> (""bf!leb:il.llS, Pnp.. AV.~! 9,. H!.. ].~JQX!pb!Ui4 ,Am', ~,158; .. m 6(5,68; •. rsel.!ld.~-EI.I~lmwll§. Ava,wlI.l!s and . .J~IiI.l!I!i ,erediil ,Abta1!:am, w:ilib.le;awg :astrology 00 OIihe:mpeopl.c·s.

ADAMS Ahn:ilunn's Faith and Gentile D,isooedlenct· 57

broWlrn"s; tID1- if be stayed 1li!e ,~~~ 0'[ '~ pollytln.cistic ~ llloooIDd !ii[ay within, hiim and. FtMer it llmp<l!l&iibJe fnr b~m to discover (be One. w,hQ a1Ql!Ieis eotenUil (liWt.oc;)2S amd the Fa1kr of all tbmgs. conccpl!l!!al and 5ens1bl:e., ~ ifbt~d. dtedelusi;Q.PJ wl;IOLd mllfGl!llOVC flom bi;s: mind and ils fu:'lse ereed be replaced ~y 1lhe nth (~ll:p~,moal1t\l1'Jl; vilIv !f211MJ ~Oi\i! rli; dl1)kulv),2'!i!' at4)

Allilding to Gen. 15.6. Philo cnml!1leM:S.

And, therefore. he is me filM ~ SopOiken of as beUeviDg io 'God, slRce he ml g,.u,ed a fiml, ,00000d 'llM~ oomceptio:n oflbe tmillhaft ~ is, (!]'Ii:; Ca.us£ abow aU. and that it p;ID'II',iees. for tbc wmid and d dnw ~h:eR is tberein. (Vin. 2.16)

Abraham' s rejection of the polytheism in. which he had been reared and his, discovery of tbe we c[eator God is. also described by Philo in Abr. 68-12:.

[The Obaldeans] coocluded (hal tbc \Vedd iilSc:mfwas God. ~Ilm pf(ifaooly Imtcnling the created to the c~, hi tms,emedi AID'aham had been~. and! fer ,adem! t~me ,rem,ulIe(t;)J CJuildGari. 'I1hefi opc1'limg tile sow"s ,~.,. 1m fol]owed.1!llc my u.d! discef.lled! wlw hm: had, IXi'I: 'beheld before, a oliiati,o· teet and. pU:u.t presidmg o"eli the W(iodd and dbtclim:.g in safe.,' illS o,wn wort. .asmming ,the charge ,illI'Id superin~eqdertOii: of tbat wod.": and of all Stdl, piUU. of ~t as an! worthy of m.e div.Lrw care. (69-70)

Abraham. came· '~() tll3iis recognid,cn of dle existence of GOO. accordl~J!lg: to, Pbilo. by examining h~mself as a microcosm {If the universe. As an ,invisible mind controls the memb~rs of the body. Abr,aham inferred. so the world bas a king who bolldls: '~l togetber and governs it with jastice (71- 74).30

In R_,er. Div~ Her, 97-99. Abr-aham'g migration is tdJegadzed in temI.~

of dle miigratioB of the. sout,

from. asu,ology kl Railoarum Mild~.rrom ml~u~ COOjecl!i,lE to ftrm 3fpoobus~ofl. and to give :its· ~sr c.x.prcss.to:n" :from ~he ,created, 'ro, the ~iUiCtta.t:ed. fronD 1lbe wo.dd to' l$ MlliktU" and, f'ath¢r. 3 ~ (98)

28. (l'.lZ£tlt.o.;, u\)m\l, a6va_Jil.u;;. ROO]!, 1.20. On etc.mi.l:y liS a. ba5ic qua).l1ly of <Qad,

for ~mllo., see vi« 65.

29. Cf. llE~«'if tnvaMrQ£UlV 'roU 8eoil &\1' fiji vet&~ .. Rom, ],25. 10., CUi. this see S!l1ildmeil. PItUQ'J' P!O~. Nil, ] 14-U ..

31, cr. a1S(II (iig. 62454; M;u; NQm'. l s- ] 7.

In similar fashion. Josephus ~m. 1.155-56) maintains that Abral!la:m W~

the fI:rst bOkUy ~o declare tbat GOO. lbe creal/i),]' of [iI.e uni.v~rSe, is. ,one_ •. Ibis he ,ililfe.rred! from tll.e· changes to \\!',hkh land! allid:sea are !lll.lbj,ecit. from dre ,lOmll:'s.e of the wn and ~ .arml oom aill ~.Irerelesl.iiail pme.no.m'l~It::I~ f~.r, bitt argue!:ll. were these bodies endOWtHHI wiilh power. they wO'Ll~d 'hay,e provided for. the,ir own regn~3Jliity. but, si:noe me.y Jacked TilLs last •. i[ W<'!!I mM'ifes~ mat ,evoo ~hMi'l! Scmce:s in w~k~ 1be:Y coo~e .(o>r ('IiU,]' gl'e8l.CII" benefit the'y if'eild'er .Iilot i.1I vjnue ofl:heir '!I)Wn ;liiQJ!dim!l'y, l:il.lJt (hrol!lgh Ute migJll of rheir omnmandl.ng s(wereign., to whom jt is right to !:"t'Iilde.t our ]u:Il:llage and lhanls.givi!U)g ~&~,oplano:). n

Aibraham's perception of the error of idorn~lry and his coming to a knowledge. of theone we God is narrated ~n Apo'caryp.ft oj ,Abra.hum

"_. -

)-8 (first: to seeond century CIS). DnJring a series of in:cidellilS ln which

some Mols made by 'Ter~. are eiifher drunaged or destroyed! (cibs. 1-6), Abra:il!am reasons mat these images. crafted by hllmmiln hands nod so easily :repillaced •. C3iDml}t !be.tm:e de~ties. In ch, ". whiCh may be an i'me~ lation.:u Abraham by ratmoM~ deduction and by observaJtrnGn of the external pby:dcal world •. eoncludes that thene is one God! who has ereated and governs ev!eryilbjng, He reasons that idols cann.olibe gods: since dJey are consumed !by filre. Fmre C·aJUlO{ be divili!J.e since it is ,quendled by water. WaleI' is subject to< earth. and emth is dried by [be sun, T1ie Sl/IDfli cannet be divine sbace it is .obscured by the.CIOn and clouds, The moon aad sltarscillll!!lC't be gods, since t!ley dim tbeir ligtu duri ng she nig!lu (1,. W-ll )' • .Abrahmn. thus de(!~aries 00 'fe.mib.,

Lisieo, Terah my lalller. I sban seek before: ),ou 1M Goo who created an 1~.e gods SJl,li~sed by us (~.o ,~i:s1).Fo.r who is it." ,wb,() ~! the bca'\!\ens Cirim!lon omd l~le !!!Illil :goldell. wOO ~IIiS .g:iv.en ~iglu.1lo me moon anlli stars will1 i~wtto bas m-.ied the earlh jn thl:l midst of :100 mailY ·W"d.~ers·._.and who has sought me OU[ ln Ilhe pE!rph~~U:~{ of my thoogJl'n s ? (7. U)- ~ I,)

Abrahem ye8!msiorthb God to IeveaW himself (1.12)". In respoase to his plea, a mwgnty voice ftom keaven annoences, • You are searchmng for the GOO of gads, the C:reato:r, ~mt the unoostallding of your head. E ;)Imi! he" (S.J).

In these i!:exts, ,com.on tl1emes emerge: Abrnham is reared in an idolMro1l.!is <Cm1te,~t. he realiaes the eao:f and. fuillly (lJf' ~diolam::ry (and ,a:SJuro]ogy).

32. cr. oil); ~ 9eiw i&~a(Jtiv ilr'J~api.(JtI'j!J«'i{, Rom. 1.21. Quonili.oo lalken fmm me Loeb traru;lllItio..ru.

33. See R. Rtlbil'lkiiewicz •. i!ii OTP. n:.p. 684.

he: Rjects idolatry. and he .arrives at a !knowledge of the exiS!tence and providemia!l porwer of the creator 'thlough sensory pefOOpdOJll (slJecUicaU_y tlnaugh observation of tke celeselal phenomerwJ4) and/or dedu.ctive ~n.

4. This Troditi'Olt as Underlying the Contrast Pattern

()fltoman~ 4.5. 17b-21 and 1.18-,25

It may be posited ~t Pallm founds his contrast between Albrabillmand lhe Gentiles of Rom. L18g25 on this Jewish traditio.n conce:ming rile, patrimeh., AiI'ru impUed reference to. the ttad~tion would cettainiy provide iJlJ.e points of contact between Ab:rahamati.d! these Gentiles Jackiing in the ~t but which seem to be. nquired by Paul's at'gum.e.nt.

Abraham..af!l:~icred in this liM of ',ew.sh lti1;oologk:a.W refiectio.n. in faa serves as ,a sU'i1dng reveDe fit 10 me ~cription. of Gend~e disobedienee in ].18~25: AJbr.ab~m disremed the folly of idolatry (vv, 21. '22).:~ he realized the abswdlty of exchanging the glQl')I of God for ~ma.ges of moral human bewnp. birds. anbnals and reptiles (v. 23); he grasped the distinction between cre.a~m ,and creation and refused ~o 1I!IJm tthe, ~rudl about God into Ute lie of idolartty: he percei ved 000' 5, ~n\lisib]e' quaUtj~s. his e1emalpowecand deity. from observation of and rational reHection upon Goo's ,cRa:tedworks (1.2'O);~~ AIb.rsibam knew _d u:ck_l!owlediged, God and gave IBm. dne thanks (n.2l). The appropriateness of the figure of Abrabam as the reverse ilnage of the pf.cture PaulpaiDts, in 1.18-25 is plruliJ 00, see.

An awareness of the tradition. of Abraham turning fromido1ab'Y to the 00.0 we God Q'Q the pan, ef both Paul and at least some of his Jewish readers does, seem to be presupposed ~1l14.5.~ The climrolCter~za(ion of Abraham as ,an ungodly OeiOti~e is most ,readHy understood aga~nst the background of dns uaditliOn. insofar as it makes Abraham a former ido~a.ter. MId polytheist 31 It ms n.oteworthy th..att Paul assens rather than argues for Abraham '·8 prior ungodliness. Paul evidently d!oe:s not

34. Dis notion. JS alse found! rutXlfig the rabbis: G~. R. 3,9.1.

35. The words '\I\OO\lJl~va lC(i!eopa1'~1l In. L20 sll,ggesr the, use or both seO:1iaF)' perapl.i.cl!Ii ami; criIl~ :~nilngl!Oi tk appr,eh.ens~ra! o:f (helMowlUge of GOO.

36. The ~man Christian comrnulllhy ap:pe~r.s lQ be of mi1ted 0e.n;tile-Jew~5b co(lnstitueru::y~ with Gea-tliLe bditvcrs proba:bLy i.n the majority: J .5'(', lJ-lS. ,11.13-3 i ~ 15.:1~ n2:. ~ $ .. 16,.

31. So' DUlIn, Roman'.f. 1-8, p. 205.

eJ:pIrotiIWspGITlJt bl be ,ei~eI' an a!Jlw~H< N8Ip&!tiOlillai'lyoolW'-ov1usiaiIJ one fu.rhis reader8" but .appetiS. to agllfmle tlWr Camiliarli!:y w.i.tb :the" llt)OOn,38

.It nmst. b~ stressed. thQ~gh,lihat 'W~ne thelraa~Jtm.o:n of AIb.mlJa.'s It~ji"cti.,Q;n. (~f idolartrJ .. dd.iis(lemm~f!:t of th.~ c.r:e!i!Wl:r pft)v.lide,s die.t'Jirio~ nale arid justifilcll~on rot tlI,e 'OO:l1Jr,S;5't: pattem. of 4:.5,. 11ftlo..2.1 and L U~~2:S, ~m does no~ :se~ ~h.etemil8 ~or it. Pwl do.ws @l!Iit his mam pomJts of 'CO:J'l~' m..:st with ~ d~sob~w~J!IU Gtl,ntUe:s (ill :m,lS .. 2,5 lI.ot.~ ~·s ,early .re.Ug~ous; '~l;~d.~I100 as d~plcred .i~.llws tnwwrio.n. b1Jt froM G~\\!o 5~ific !promise (lfa. SO.IID a~dp:roBeny as oUid1ned IflI Gen.~5.5..6a1nd Abruaili11's 1ID'S,weiMl'lngtNst .~IJ!I. tlt:at pmndsed:Mp,ehiis old .age .and. 8arttaih·s barren.. lUess .<l!!lFeool1.ed In Gel!!. 11J=~ 8.1S, Nev,en1heless.~n is :nm ulillikety that. by silresslng Abr.aham.' s a.ckllliowrneag_e:mJt of fuep.rese:nceand p)we.r Qf f:"e· ,~lj)r in R.o,~, 4!.l1b..2·~1 ~1.bI ,hhldng!lhlilt .Ab:r,abam. in iruffismueh later incl~m1t,.was displarying in~rns respense '~D God. q!!aLirua ,of faith which e.erged~n md. marked IDs arrival alII a D0wloog.e of the one uue: Goo.

Before mov.lftlg 'O\n, j'[rns worm paus:Jngm roIlS~de:r 'why it i:sIiIDM. Paul baseslll!i:s .expos:i.doo of Abnduuo"s faith. Qn G~n, .lS.S .. tSl9 and 17.rn.m.8,.ls: .mtiher than om (]~H,. 11.27-12.9' .and. lttetmdlitio.iDJw!Dcngrew nun 0:( it #0 The llOOISW;e.11' m'llS! sllre1rbetib3it~ iIl.ow,ever :iimpo,maru; A,b:raham."s

:38:. TUOl!lg.MUit t~ar~f 0:1 R:I!lI.m, ~. fmi.c~wJy in ~ •. n:·ll. p.'!L1l!~ imteftOlS with a nl(lmn~er of lh~w.im. u-ailmOll!l. of Ah.l'.aiham. of wh&ehlre sc~mi;n:gl.y (li:!:~ bJi8 m~8r(i be aware. :see. Moxn.ciS~lJ.rt!mog;\ J-"P. 11'7~2-IJ6,

:l9,P;rw. rns.~f ,eO!llrst; ~aIl!QI~ ·lIlI. ,Abrw!D:s.jll7irh ~n; 10m. ~. an:d. (Jen. U.6is the only ~~~ .m. lruoo~esi:!l Ji!Ul:m:.ive w~ AbralnamJ's f:a!ii~b, is i(iO.~1i'Ii al'.~ iSurll. So hills Iluiim!l'al. i~::UP.;ruI. !j;IiQl,Wbill ~x Oil. ~tli:s'!'ef'se. So DI,I!l]ID:.Il~mQ~ .l-!J.,p. 2m. Gen. rn 5.0315,0 nfl~. Paul's ,key IfmlS. I'tklt16 atiI~ .fit,dloa11\i'11'f.

W. Gem. lW.2'1-12.9, ~11e;HilIY 'iJtAb:~.a",t·s wjg~ti.Qn.!im~ call1.kcwe:ver,. is. ll.al: :mece.ssml.y ·ex.cmdlill :fm~view ~!l Ro:m. 4 •. :mJ: is. signfulicamu IfMt ,IJ-Em. 15,6-,{ CtJiMOOts .Ahralb:m'smmt in 'GOd '.s p.oomJge of::It sc.llianJ '~li'lild:mlS wjth li~ ~iIftW-e foom. Ur .o-[ Cha]*~$ .. ~.'spJ.ed!Rie ll;l! AbrHMIl O'l.~ S011J is depjettd. by th.e ~nesd:!iiJlli<U'uoor~':I of .~pieoll:: w.LtlliI. GOO.' 8. cailll of AbraihaJRIl 01111 of MestlIp!}tatiIili31:O Ute .i:atl'd! wmKili wolih:lbe :give!) to, .1mi1l1il to POSS!!iSS, In !lY.!'I1I[lai~y 'WiI~th. t!leG~Desi:s Ire:x;~IlliiI!:.rn:tilom. :ill!. may well be (hatP:~I.t.~ sees. a ~p :iooo.r~ebetween '1Jfuese ~W(l eploodt-s. P.l1I!ilo, '~W(li ina.ve seen, OO\ruiLe~~S, Ahl'aiI'lrun':s rai1lllil in Uen,[ 5.6 w~1ih his mlg,atDOIt .. GeIJ:lJ. 11.2:7-:1.2.9' <llld Uc<ll. 1:5 are ::tI:s<:i, li:gk'illy 'OO:mJIKICted inthe .A.poml)!p£!l' 01 A~hQm., Tb]$i!1. :refl~c~ecl! i~, Itoo struClJIJfe Qf ~ihe aJ1Qcalypse,: cbs. 1--:8 are oosed ~oo~e~y en Gen. 11 .. 2.1-~ 2.1, amlill: clIs.9-J2 oriGem. t5 .. APOiSili'M{: hidil:OUiQ!iI.that Paul. does ]1]], :fa"m see _ JniEne]alion betwee.11I tt~ I.woimcirleJlY; ~s bjs· .aJ])pM"e.lu combili'l3lti!:lm !OiF Gem. ]:5.16 iUllid :l.5J' ]111 R()'m.. 4.13. w~ ~~ sblmes v:na~Abrmocm :rue]",~([11 rhe . oom,ise tib;lir be l&h~),l.!td.~ bail' ofl!e WOl'l(l1io d! . fiVll OV n'!1ltOOv . ;;'\1\ Co)

.·;n-·· ..... J .. Iit:inn ;.,if',·l"' ... ,ti";;F.: .. '· .. • ... .,1 k:;;.,.,..~,,"'....., ... nJ.,.',' ,. __ ·:f~b;;;. , .. ,-_ ,,-· .. Ii, ,·, '~, ','l':f' th ..... :t,' ",l".t\O_

n:~~!II~"",,_ .... U w. ~~"'JiA"",!' ,IIUY ~lIL~ ~"'~''''.',lI' Q,iI, !Ill.'''' ... ~: ~, l!1.U.... ""' 'lI"'''~.l

DlQny ~f Ooo's ~d w-oits may ,hav.J~bee.lI.i"pgr$, _OOtSJ~mlg. ftJJ' 'the mlDiwrion ,of Abmhrumi"s j~mrying tiaith, these ev,ents do no,t con- 5Jtltuw the ,~mlTg InQ.mt .g,{ Inn faith.lFwhul it is not enough t:l} Salr 'W:ttil fiil,Q that me :fg~, wh~ 000. cmdlmd '~, Ahlah!\im as,nghIteou;.. ness comprised :11 .inn ppaf 'meOO!W!*, ~t ~there is one C~ ,a!b();ve all. and tJmt it p..rovidt!s ,ror.~ world and all dIDatth.eI-e is therein" (Vi,.t., 2 Hi)!., Tbe E<l1~~tly wille 111, Abrooamwti: justified enmlled, at :~,eiast aeen-

1I'I11i. . . ,f' " O?~A' Ai 'hIo, 'd·-."'-'~~ 'W • ~. ~~.-.... :iil'I:IOH'!:1 2(1.......

ce,I""",on 0:, YUI.!! S I,.!!:.e:ti .. ,:r U _HigI,!, po ._'el'. ,~!OOI !~tl:l' ,!,>,-:!,U= Q.!i, ,p. ..• ,,~.'

b'U'.'in'IIQ<i_:!IV ,iIi'~, n.. .• '1 ,jit" ., .... """'1" ........ ' ' ....... _ ,""~-ii!I"."'IU"" .. Cl .. it ;;"'- exn.tieai!e

:",rJ~~IHljJ\I'~.IIl.WI r-!R,~~ Jl, iULlI"'V.,.·~u ~II!¥ YI}M1IJ ~_W~h~;t; L~LI,._.~'L~)" ,~~ ~'L .•. '1"'" '.-:

ih.e (/islill!ctiv,,"'irnatl.lil:e of Abra:ba.m·~ [a:~til ~t Paul conceMrflMItes ion Gelmi" 15.5...6, ud 11.l-18,.I:5. Prom.thes,e texts •. Paru!lcarn mow tfuil!thisfaiilh was :marked. by the fo.iI1ow.ingfeu·ure8 •. It was, p8'r-sonoJ. Abm.lru!lIn "s ruth was dioocte-dI:OW3!1'd a Goo of 'Whom he hada d!uectandp~rsQ.m!al koowlooge. It was faith in ,000"s spoken word" God"spr-mni5e (4 .. 18. ~:~n

-A~ '+h ~ - h dbe ·ld' '").iI'- .... . •. '_,",..,;1. , .. t,,,,,,,,,.,,(4, .~.g:) 41 ..

ace{h.Yi!lrw~ Whu W~~!!l ~~a L!l'tie:n sa _. ,I!.I was, orWm~ to ~W>P"" \ •. 0 I. .<Ii

comiment ex~tatLon that Goo would. tilW~f:in his promise, It was crisis~ related. manifIes'Wd in Ii sirudluJIl,m need !t4.I,S,..:U). lit r-ecogOJized the hopeless~e:ssand lmpoS!il~hmly ,0'1 the human, com:dilltlJii.yet Vrusre.d :in Ow ioomp'euely ~om~olve th.e cds~s. tt@ bri~g H€e out: Gf delth. i(4.11b. 19). Moroov,eT. tbe~llimge af~,. 1.5.,6 wi:th Ps, 32.:~.-2. in 4J.6-8 imp1i~!> that 'tliwe jU81iifying fafu.dt ,e.xhibiled [by .Abmam b~ 10 dQ w.iilh !I:he fuf~ giive:ness of sins,. Noe af !l!h.ese .f~res, of Abraba:m:'s(mw 'Cal!1 befoumll in lite rtradittiofll. of.ttts: rejection. of.iOO1atry.llt ~s, ,precl&elydlJese aspects. of Albmfuam·s oospome 00 ,GOO \Vbich so n~aUy fur .Paul prefipre aDd uti~ cJpate Chtistiasru 1liai:lh. And .among .~ argumentative arnms of ,Roman~, 4. the ,00000oemro prove iUlJat Ahralilam is the iI1I1I.ooel.fbr cmi:s1ilm, faitb,t!1k~~ priority O'Ve:t'b cOl!lcem m. :sbow mail: Abr.ll1lam ls :an exam,p1e of w:hat .b,e n_.~l"" £..~l·-~ to ;I~. ENIJII" "+"";5. ·[···ntru1v;e·-u .. "., are n:Ot 'UL ue~~",,",s ,!,;t:!!! ~ __ UA:J., _ e __ $(I~ y"",_ e a!!l~iume_. '.' p ~ .

UlOOI,lJ,gh 'UrerjgllLtlilo:ucsmilS$ of faith (ijil;k'QlQO'IJf\i"I1 Q~~. ,lil;l!ICm!OO'lli'liI,v I![,'imeoo.; deadypru !ll!P G~, 15~6 aJII~ Mi!i:lU!1l0\iOJ!lOIil auw'V :6i\II(J'l 1!t.6.iJ'dpliobi8Jbly eoJl.oe:s ,~~ yijv wiJ!!I;iW 1IC~!;IOIilQJ!I~~jnCi'oo. ISc1. wbtic!b..m. tlllml!d~;s book: 10 (l1;!1iI. 12.L See MQJ!Iil~. T4e;Q.i!:llE)" PiP' 195-9«5, '11,. 145 .. {P:au] 'tak~ Uf ~ CXJtern.de~ fQIimI (!If' ~e '~WII!i5e-'Wiilere !he ~!l!!ld ooco!W!esmtile wihole il\ru:tb,. or tbe WMa, tD oo;m,~:from lare1.mew:i~.tr:aditi~l1!i. e,g.,. S:.il!'. 44.21: J'Ub, 1'7,3. 22.]4~J::tHJ.; J En. 5.7':;P'hi1o, SUfl:ltJ. 1.175;. -I Elm 659~.2 ""'po." .s« r, W,4JJ:; ,Mi!!t. ,b'Od.. l4.:n). 'fhe slI:iH:te ~lnIreil'rextaruiJljue.rpl:ay may sIl8S~s~ 1lhat PaIll vIews Ab:rnlruaim.·sre:s.J!(!!l!i~e to OM's ,cil111~ ~a,\!,c:;,~t:mtia ll:lf the promi®edl land a;al'!~e!l!1!ex:~~si(1!11 ~f ·iMfaitiru wbicl1. GOO wwld su~q:1lelltly aoCOOD~ 00 me ~aui~,a s 'ligbte0Jll5IUlSs..

'U.. or.. Heb. 1 m .. I . 8~12 ..

l'WcessmHy u~u7eblOOd. The backwMcl m~l\~ll(Oe ~t(I! :rn,.18 :~n 4.5 i'ndlC$l~s thm: jut~iicado~ by faith1 a~ ~xetllpnfi!ed by Abrmam. 'me jijjs!tm~d !liO£[att1~~ overwms !the predic;,n;e,n~ of l. lS-:l2. On~ may ],egllimaJEty draw the conclusion thou: it~s by 'Manifesting ,a pro~~rist~D :fW:lliI th!8.~ .AbrunmTlj is oo:~e to offer trhe glnry w,hilciJuJ, GOO as creator de.ads.

5. DI:e ,B,'c/roe.s oJ,B!!Jmans 1 • .108-25 in wke Arg.uH;!tn:t ojR,omtlm4 How dnes ainU! ,ilwmoen.ess >lJ<f these !oolOO:oos and"e !1;!(lJWlras:tfattemMlumi:rw.~e :PaJ1J~,':sliitle Qf Iwou:ght ,in,~s :pa~sa,ge? lit May lIile sugpted thail th,e wX~3iI, :asS'oc:iartio!l1ls serve :Paun's ar11:!I.liOOteJlilUti,ve aims ,~n me fulh:nv~wg ways.

P,iJrsJt. 'tihea.fjinity ,cre<l!tedJ hy f1ese Hmbetwee~ AJb:~am, and the 'Ungodly Ge~tJl~ of 1.l:8,,2c5 ~ru.v'~s uded :[cooeto ,Paul's pI~e~Ul!tiomru, @f Abtallam as ttw :lllOOJel O,OU!lstjfY~lig faith nell omy~@r Jews ,but aJso.irlr ,Gen'tiies.

'a~l rerrulu.1s h~s tea&:[S" in 3.29-30. o( the {I~~SS of 000.4:2 ms~s~~g titru;jjJ~ sinoe Oodi is Q:!li.e. tlte o.lilie God musl~. be tlTIte nod (~f Jews ,and Gemiles aindnrUSiI!: :RWam tooo~. grou[ps in the same w;ay.~'n R.omElf.ls 4 ,p.'ai.WI~. dellmililUi1traloos hOrwdifuiis unity III, God's'W'ilIy o:fw1orki.ng with Jews .. d 6e~tl[&s is eocetnfll~Hedi bl.. ,Ab.tah~m . .Abi~, is: set foWl .. asa model. of .now 000. ]im~6ij.es. the ·c.wKum.dsoowndJ the un~iiFc:llmc~sed. ai~ike 0]00 the rD3B~S of:faUh~

To. tl1~s end, .PaulpmseM:S Abraha:mas a. figurew.~~h'WiI1I,oM both Je-wish <ii!D1d. ilJenline beUeve", ~. ble,lltify.. JeloV:isl1beJ~.e'i,:te.rs. of eeuese, :lil~a![:e, filii e~c .~d:e:ntlly wm.w. Allu:f!ham .• Inle.mJs ,00Jl'~iiIJeat ,d¢;5ce~t. Im;e :~s l:ie failher ofth.e, Je:wis~ people, PaMrn does, not d~s.pme '&~s ~m, carefJuny mJl:rOducing .A.b.mnam foro ~ds~gum.entat 4, Las ~he: Jew.ish. p:atriarch {cf .. 9.5).rilough by addlngltte wOf:d$.~n1acrdpK)~ he sign;a1s am t~e oUiU'Senllhat: this le!Vel ofundentamu:ding ,o,ll' A.b:r~am.~s goin:g lObe .rnmu:cr~'li~ iiII1Ig~ypUit iruo the shade as ~h:e&!r,g:~g.e:nt procee-ds. The eehees 0,( L .~. S"" 2:5 fURctlon ro ie.gr3ib1ish pohruts of coirrlllact anim I.ay CO~gOIl ,gM-:uod ooMeell.Ab~. ad G~ntlle Chlislioms.

1'he fi,gul\e of A.bfahMT:I.~UIlliSIl'ams a~d legitimarlies the inctlls.~Qn :Ott" GentHes: into Urue peop~e iof GOO. It is ~llt diiat .A:b[a:t:ra!1111~S f(lr Paulan

42.P'w,ltiJably !e~t(}krnng; ~e Shema. th.eb.as;i~ MnJfestion 'O:[ Jewrusil!l f,aiJt!l:'l (ilk/tilL 6.4), '!l,QI.I:gb see Ottmta.llQ};!;ItiIi,tf, ,po 7,6 ... n, U- U:H. who argues, that Pooi. ~ ~a1oof,

if _ <_ iIlO i~ ~ God" to s'.··;w' -I!

example of how GOO, :accepiS Gentiliesasprosclytes .. ~ :Rather. tl!;e ease tOO' Abraham indicat,es how God justifies Gemtlles while .tntty remain G:entiks. Three tiMeS ever .in. 'iV. 11-12! it is emp'b:rudzed .• at AJb:faEmm 'W,;)]S in a stille ()funcin:l!Iirnd8.~.cm~v (~) '&KpD~1q;~lwnoo was acoepWd.lby God.WhL1:e this means, that Abmham. wasjiustiified befbrehe had sl!lib:lIlitred. to Ill'! rjlte of circumcjstQIl, aKpollumw is prOOaJbly alsa .tended to slgnrufy ,AbJ3lam's ethnic smtus 81 th.e tillme (~.9; cI 2.26-27). In. ofuer wort:l!s. Paul emphasizes tI1a1; AJbmltanru. 1W'U5 still (l. Gentile wben he was dee~~d [,ighooouslM'ougb tmil. Paiul Ilh.us ifdtly ,!llIld p:ro"i('i~.iat1i.ve[y stands tile 'trattitiona1:li':i.ew of Ab.mhaol as the ideal pJ(JU:8 J,m\!' on il.!s hm lDd6Iild" tk'Ough ,p~wm, pres~r!Jts. Aj"raitam .00 thefadter of 00111 ciwl!lmc:i.:sed, and.!!IinCEumcised, be1~e'Ve:rB. such am Ole {JemiiWe, believers' PUln1:S in ,ComMOO w.11h Abra!ham. dlat th~y can more :rea:dlii[y :iideniify widrl, him. tho lewish be~ieve,fs:!His Ge:Oiille .origins. hrns reli,giousbackg,ound. Ws EOfIllef~d\1ilatry mdlJl!,gooliness.twis eenversion Jfrom 'pagan.ism m~e Oiile true 0.00, and h~s, ethnic .Slams, when. jililisnfled make Amaham.· s close: associairJ.oo with (Jenilile be:lievenunm1Sitakahly dear. Jew.~shbelleve" c.~rny ,(ilwDlI, A.b:1':ahmn ·as thmr fmlrer" :Paul stresses, ooiy if they fo:low inae footsteps 'Oil lie faffid'iJ of Ahli3ihamJ.wJdch h~ had as a GcntUe' (Y. t2). In a, qlll!~te .remMkablefashioFli. therefore. Paul U~ Abralbam. to lllat'e the O~le Itltre to God me :standJattl andm~e. ..

S~oBd~y. the implication oftbe contrast parnem of 4.:;., I1b,21 and ~ .• 18-25 is &:at Abmha .. 's faid1l. ;mdGod's, reck.orlilng of it 3isrigbteOU:!i1" ness as ,~00d ,i~. ,Ro~aJlS 4 reverse:; tib.e Gi~~t:il~ lony. ,arid God's ffimigmemJt upo.n it, .asset OWit in lli.lB=25 .. ThisfiiU:S inID Paul's lar:ger 8O:teri.dl.o:gi.cal scheme of~l]gh1 and. mlUJtlOll. The edho of :1,.18 in, 4.5: intima~s.at Ood~s justifyJng of the UIlg'Odruy. 'GXOOlplifiw in Abraba.w~ is the .remedy rotmlJe p.rob!leM. of 1.:U;!~3.2 (<l!rI.d 1.1.&=:3.2.0 as a 'whok:).

'Paith reckoned as ~ooumess:' reverses tbe rote s.m oftliie Ge:n~ and ltin;e yeiUlict of oo:t'ide:tfi1lmiOfi whlclroJ had beomnetmile.iFS as a .. result~ En heMs, the rift betw·een iCk:n.til.t}hu~Mli~ and 000. ,hl view ofdlCI!F ihltute to acbtowl,oog.e him, JI(I!~tific~t~Qnby :(~(Ib rescues hu.anbe.~~gs from thi.'! semenee (j,f ,lfualllmposed in 1.32 aM d!rawsd1!em. l!!lto the sphere (I;:€

43, Tbisis ~a~ ~hefrea'j®on'Wllil::r POliuW .in RcOm, 4 "'e~k!i! n:.e lnL{iillliOO1. O'i ~':firem"Q;:;iiini.~,1l o:f:iti!gWtI)' al!w!!iv{:;l~ :ra!l!er {h.u explicitly. A$lilllOO. aoo,ve, the t!:aili.ti.on wa s liJsed in ,i'lliectestameMa] Judaism t,Qi ,I.e:giltim.:ate Abf~ as tile m.odcl pro.se1ym.e, and, lhlsis ~e1y '100 ep:posite, OfYl'lblElu Paul w,ams ~:o !;OO've ,ioilhjs cllaplM:so ll,. ~mHllI!, 'TIlE, Faith '!!Jf M.mbam. lin RomaJ!l:Si4·. in P:e.rspe"tiW:s Qtt

,- -.,. '. , " ..

H~e (4,.11b)., 1~ erim'bles me:n.l1in.dl. womem to secure; tillite relalliomhl:p, wilffil Godl~b:lie~ted. ~[ij .~" 1 g:ft32 and to give ~~ft! tle glory and. hom(!lUf which ~s rig. hduWJ:y his~ but wllIDroo. rrbey ha,ve boon !lIJnw~~~" to offur.

-- --

Tbirdl~y,., 'lbe backwiDird references t'(!i 1.1~.2.S rnmil4J.7b-2.1 ffirlrnghligJu the

{'Q:F'resp<lifldelioe be~.w,~e:.n the meologic~ ,categories ,of ',cteMiou' and ·~mlPtiO!n· in. lP.rst!hOtl;ght.44 aad padi.cul<'wly in Elba sote~'io.I!O,gy of R.omallS."'~ln this, .epiB:I~.e.Pa!Ul ises:peciil!1ll1y c(ln~ed to hi.,ghHghm it1he .ooDJI;ill1Ju1t:)1 of (lodtsr,~.p:ti'!i'e'!'Ji!:po:;seswijmh .hisJmrplMies as c'~Jl:oii~"f.j The SU'e$$, 0'[1 ibis contiDnlllwily is aJpp~rel1TIlt in ~he' drlyI}Le""d!esign;l'lrnolliDiof OOdruIl4.J7b.47 The descnptimril io:f God as. the one vmo g:i.\i''fts life to IIh.e d'ead and, 'who caUs m!l1lln ex:!'siIe!'1ce tl1m ",hieb, hasne ,e,:dswn.oe cO.rwW~t:es God' s md.e:emi~.g ~cthd.ty very cJooolywillliilll1rus ,activll.y .er,BaroIi. ,God's redeeming wQ.m,. ~t IS imp_d. ste.:5: from his role asereetor,

The a1W.~s~o:ns, to Ll 8~25 ail: 4.17b~21IDetr.lY this ,Ilteolil:llglcal ,empffittas:i;s.

The Goo wn. ~h(l. Ab:mtl3im [miS!tedl is me (Iud. w~o is made knowiO to all !through ffirI~s sernf-diS'dosur:e itli nartuR. The (loo re¥ealed pa:rti,CUu.r~'y~o Ab~. hID Ire O~~!:,S'e of sa1v;)JIlwoJil~hjstmy:~lle clim.ac:ti!Cpoo'inl: of \v'hl~h is the ~~an~eaf' Ch!r.ist~·. . -]S, tfue Oodwh.o is revealed uni';J.f;l1'1tdl:v ill. cre:ami'ofi.MO'teove:r,tiIDe ,c.reative-reslll.u.recti~lIg power If! wlhldlru Albraham had ,cionfidemDets tfue same power which is, Ii!v'Ldern1lit to aU as .e icr;earl:ive~ energy w~ich :S1ll1l.dS b~hind crelJlltion. Thh;· creati.ve: powe:r (a-il\!'O:_Jl~i'i)) is JIlUIIi[ested sIl!IIPreme1y ~n t~e gD:!lpellt1ive~m (Rom. L 16)., p.ar[i.C'tll~rly Ooo's rnrusmg ,!]fChristfmm. [he de~ U~:mllll .. 1.4~ c:f. 1 Cor .. .:5.~4::2 (:of .. ~ 3A ~ Phil, 1 . .lO). 411 Alhra1:uun" s :Im()iwh~dge o.f God 'WillS (1b'~iO'I.Ully fuller

44" Tnec:~a.~si'c ~re:IMj]jlelilt: (If' ttll:!; l!lreme hi J.(I. G~bb.'i, .c~Uoi'~_n €flMi Rimlmtpli~M!.::

A Sl{lr..J}t i~J Pauiil'tt 1hef11~gy ~N{M ... TS!I;I.~~ 26;:le:~derli: B,rilL. 1911).

45. See. ,e.g •• PJ .... AchtellIl.erer.', .Rof1tal1's (~rnJterpJi'e~'Iltlorn:: i\!~]llttIta, GA: JoliiJlil :I(;no)l. 1985).p,p .. ]5~26; .E!lyme, .lid!eritflffg: S.Krnilll(!]jicl':,. ·P.m.i]·~ Ui;II:Q\fCre;li'l'iQn T.lleme~: .A. Test 'Ilf R>pJiIWIIls I-S". Ex Audtl!t 3 ~1981'11,~~,J1-8j: lllE, :~U1iiekls. ',t1Te::l!linQ ilJl. ·RlImam.ll'· (I!mplli~~isbed, PhD. ''[iJRii[l,g€'I1. EII;m8ernd:SlclD!-'~ffileo~.0gi5c,llL~ocillr:it ~JI '!ler, Bbe:mar\d'-Kru:,I~UmVOl':l>i[i:il. rn ~J80).

4'6. C!'eOlltiQ.I1I,liilot~f1-i,Illigil!lrn\ G'l~l~ ~n'!he lirgiJllmel1l!t: of Rom. ~,-] 1 .. t 1,]8·32: :2.7. 14-]:5:;::1;.:2.3,: 4,1~iIJ~1]; :5.12.~~ .• 7+1"13~ 8,.rn8~~23. 2'!1-30;9,n.24~ ] L23·21.: .1. ],36 •

. 47., The first pan of ~he des:i;gilflat~ol1l-Goo g~V{)S Hf,e tothe rn:eadl UO '§ ~,OOO'!1()iJ"gwm; 'IDiI~lI\elC-pl)~ CQll'espomds to mire ~ridl ,of ~he E'i,ghtee:~.lleae.dh,;tlllrn> ~r:::f. J,f).J, A&eit. &,.9~ ~O, 2rIl.1,!. 01'1 "",l:'Ih::11Ii ~. MOio1rD.eS. T!wQ.lwgy.pp. 233-39. O.HofllllL'i: fEirneOlI~jitlj]!l(;heP,ar.ane~ m Rijm. ~'!if .•. [lilll,'., NT'S [8 [J9Jrn~'J2]., ,!,p. 9'3.941) h:igH1~ • . 1~gil1m 'IJ:i1e s~milac]ly ·of R(i;DiI!. 4,. rn~ib mLil.1M3.liC~ 14:8: .in both. texts, ~'s CI!¥(llilJ .ex lJihilo ils I:lifilkem wijh :Ms [)OW~f !~l) Fa1ise ifu;l1iI1,~be dead.

- - .. ~. ~I··_;'; '-J' 1- ,~ . :':.- I 11'1·

ADAMS ,Abraham's ,Fai,hand Ge11liil! Disotn:dience 6S

and more concrete than, the lmowled,ge of God! available in creatiio.l1Ii according to 1.19-21. And Abraham had a eleas awareness thiM the Godl ~o whom !be relates is lEhe r.edeemer God (there is no Raoon of 000 as redeemer :in 1.18e32. only ,of God as creator and judge). Yet to Almibam. t.his God was fundamerually the cr:e:aJ'urOoo" wlt() redeems, as be c.ooates (4.17b).

I~ glorifying God, Abrahmn renders to God dle very response whi~h. ,accorWDg to ].:21. he, jg due as creator. Abrabamic faith if is impUed. ,is. at its mese basic, e.reature~y :submis;sJoJ.l tOo the cfl:atm. To g~,ve g~ory '00 God, is to Iulfill the goal which God had ill view in creating humanity (cf. Rom. 3.2.3),49 Abrahamicfalth.justifying fl'lith. real~zes that goal.jO

By meaas of (he contrast patlelllJ of 4 .. 5. 17b-21 and l.l8~25. lberefore" the figure of Albm&am serves Pnu~, as, a s,ymbo~ f,oC' the unity of (lad' s ereati veand redempUve, PlLICpOse5.

6. Conclusion

To summarize ~:hen. tile textuaJI links between, Romans 4 and 1..~ 8-25 can be shown (0 extend beyond the oft-noted re.inisceliloCe of 1.2.1 in 4.20. The echoes of the ,earlier pass:age wn the later set up a . .structural contrast between .Abraham· s faidl and Gentile disobedtence. n COm1ilJa5~ ~ikeny 1£1, have been inrended by Paul. Itt ~s probable ii:uu underlying this reversal pattern is the, tradhioill, of Abraha.m·s rej;«:lHon of iido]atry and discovery of dle creasor. The contrast scheme, it, has been pC1Jposed. adds force lo Paul's argllment in Remans 4 0'.0 several d~fferel1lit levels:

Albr.diham is. more clearly seen to 'be, a model of ODd"s :a.coopt1uice of fie Oen.tUes~ justifying faith is more cleady soon to' be th-e reversaland the resolunon ohhe plight of l.m8-32;. God's savi~ activity is more clearly seen to be consonant wi.1!!h his role as creMor.

The srtmc:tumJl co'nt:ras&: between Abmha:!n and, the GemtUes of ~ .18- 2S is ofli~Y one of mooy aspects of a miulti~faoeWdi arg,ument in Romans· 4. The purpose of this article bas been to place this particular strand of Paal's porttait of Abraham under ,dose anti! careful. scrutiny and. 1'0 sharpen its profile willbinPaul"s argument (and not to aceerd it a greater i_pol:taJlCe, dJaa it has in the ~t), It is roeoognized by sctto~lH"S, ~t

49', cr. P$" 8.5. For the restoral:ro.:n or imtenlsifi;cm.Q8.Qf Ule primal glory as a m"Il'l.lre hope. see 1 En., 50. ~,. 2 Apoc. Bar. :54.15. 21; CD 3.20~ lQS 4.23,

50, Thm: UlC Genti,tes :migM glorify ~ '~6r Ms :m~Y' is !!ltated l~ Rom. [:5',:8-9 as A I1ft1d nrc.b,1I'i:lllt·s; mission (of. l5.6~,.

Al:lraham serves fer P'3i'W in Romans 4 as, !mi! SQme re~c~\. a prototype of Christian faim, It, has been '~ cOlIWntion of this article tlhU Abrahanl also stands. thougb loa lesser ,extent" as thee anUlype of Gentile dioobedience.


A series 0" text.1 hnb between ROmaDS 1 and! 4 ~ugg:e.\ts ~al Paul is setting Abrdlanlts, faim in OPPOSitloll; eo Gentile d.1!lobedi.ence. the C(J,lltrl1lst isprobab!JIy based Qil a Jewid:i,uitdi;tiolil about Aii:nahaIlh ~!1. cirou~aliO:D at me Clme'~ whiC:1iI casl8 ~be patmucb as a former ioo,lal:elr wlilQ rea..'lOrIed .from the creatioi:lt itO the: creator- These texmal, associalions, lU1~.rgirded! by lftis tradilioJl, latd ~ht.lQ' or Hlumi!tlate several f~~Mes of PaIJI,'s ,aI'glllfml!n In :R:orn.ans 4: AbnllIDMn as tbe ~'em,[ar ,of God's aooeplimOO .of the Gentiles~ juslilfictio:n hy faith. as [he feV'enai of '!!be pattern of siD in Rom. l. L8-:),2; the comimwty ktWCiM (iodJ's ,reve]atioo as creator and biis ml;'c]atio.n liS redeemer.

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