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Colloquial Turkish : The Complete Course for Beginners Colloquial Series Aarssen, Jeroen.; Backus, Ad Taylor & Francis Routledge 0415157463 9780415157469 9780203977323 English Turkish language--Textbooks for foreign speakers--English, Turkish language--Selfinstruction. 2001 PL127.5.E5A37 2001eb 494/.3582421 Turkish language--Textbooks for foreign speakers--English, Turkish language--Selfinstruction.

Page ii The Colloquial Series Series adviser: Gary King The following languages are available in the Colloquial series: Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic (Levantine) Arabic of Egypt Arabic of the Gulf and Saudi Arabia Basque Bulgarian * Cambodian * Cantonese * Chinese Croatian and Serbian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Mongolian Norwegian Panjabi Persian Polish Portuguese Portuguese of Brazil Romanian

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Page iii

Colloquial Turkish
The Complete Course for Beginners Jeroen Aarssen and Ad Backus

London and New York

Page iv First published 2001 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. © 2001 Jeroen Aarssen and Ad Backus All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloging in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Backus, Ad. Colloquial Turkish: the complete course for beginners/Jeroen Aarssen and Ad Backus. p. cm. 1. Turkish language-Textbooks for foreign speakers-English. 2. Turkish language-Self-instruction. I. Aarssen, Jeroen. II. Title. PL127.5E5 B33 2000 494′.3582421–dc21 99–056874 ISBN 0-203-97732-7 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-415-15746-3 (Print Edition) (book) 0-415-15747-1 (Print Edition) (cassette) 0-415-15748-X (Print Edition) (book and cassette course)

Page v

Contents

Acknowledgements

vii

Introduction

1

1

Nasılsın? How are you?

5

2

Tatil yapıyoruz We’re on holiday

20

Page vi 13 Geçmiş olsun! Get well soon! 14 Sayın öğrencilerimizin dikkat edeceği hususlar Matters to which our respected students should pay attention 15 Size öğretip öğretemediklerimiz The things we could and couldn’t teach you Ready-reference grammar Key to exercises Turkish-English glossary English-Turkish glossary Index 209 223 241 256 263 302 322

Page vii

Acknowledgements
This course-book of modern colloquial Turkish took quite a while to write. We are grateful to the people at Routledge for putting up with the endless delays we requested after missing yet another deadline. Our thanks to the following companies and individuals for allowing us to use their material. To Remzi Kitabevi for the use of the recipe for ‘Malzeme’ from Türk Mutfak Sanati by Necip Usta. For the reading extract in Lesson 15, which was taken from the booklet ‘Hollandaca. Yirmi milyon Hollandalı’nın ve Flaman’ın konustuğu dil’ by O.Vandeputte, H.van der Heijden and J.Schipper, published in 1996 by the FlemishNetherlands Foundation ‘Stichting Ons Erfdeel’, Murissonstraat 260, B8930 Rekkem (Belgium). Special thanks go to the people who got us interested in the Turkish language, whose efforts as teachers have directly led to our enthusiasm for the language, and hence to this course. We particularly thank Rik Boeschoten in this respect. We would also like to take the opportunity to thank the folks at our workplace, at Tilburg University in Holland, for providing us with an ideal base from which to operate. Work on the book benefited from, among other things, discussions on didactic matters and the opportunity to try out bits of this material in class. We owe a lot to the countless native speakers of Turkish who have helped us second language learners come to grips with the language’s particular difficulties and perhaps most of all at steering us away from the sorts of things learners traditionally obsess about, and in the direction of true colloquial language use. Thank you, Mustafa Güleç, Asli Özyürek, İlhan Solmaz, Emel Türker, Kutlay Yağmur. We hope the end result does not offend their feel for their mother tongue.

Turkmenian. Second.000). Kirghiz. Saliha Şahin and Hanneke van der Heijden’s help proved crucial. Uyghur and Yakut. since a small part of it is located in Europe (west of the Bosporus. Kazakh. In the word ‘agglutinative’ you can detect the English word ‘glue’. Germany (1. we apologise to our families for spending all that time at the computer while fun could have been had. The language family to which Turkish belongs is called Turkic. since the language is agglutinative. Outside Turkey. there are so-called suffixes. we are indebted to them forever. The Netherlands (200. and the native language of around 55 million people (90% of the population of 64 million). Turkish words are relatively long. for instance.000) and the UK (40. Turkish has a special way of ‘glueing’ parts of sentences to one another. called Trakya ‘Thrace’) and the larger part in Asia (Anadolu ‘Anatolia’). In fact. Turkish is the official language of the Republic of Turkey. Some believe that Turkish and Mongolian are related. Other Turkic languages. Finally. . Bulgaria (800. are Uzbek. most of them spoken in Central Asia. We’d like to single out Gary King. little parts which have a meaning. without whom this book simply wouldn’t have been possible. A big challenge for you as a language learner will be to understand this process of agglutination. An eye-catching characteristic of Turkish is that it has long words.000). Azerbaidjani. April 2000 Page 1 Introduction Turkey is sometimes referred to as the bridge between Europe and Asia. the number of speakers is 60 million. Louise Patchett. although this is still somewhat controversial. Their work on our behalf went far beyond what could be expected of a friend/proofreader.8 million). Cyprus (177. but which cannot be used on their own. Page viii The people at Routledge. you’ll find speakers of Turkish in. Jeroen Aarssen Ad Backus Tilburg.000). Jane Butcher and Sophie Oliver. deserve our gratitude. most of all James Folan. First. you have words (nouns or verbs) which you can find in a dictionary. These suffixes have to be ‘glued’ to nouns or verbs. Worldwide.Most of all. but also because they were reliable and efficient editors. not only for their patience.

It will tell you exactly on which elements to focus your attention. The main focus of this course is on the colloquial spoken language. If you don’t know a word and it’s not there. As a general point. The thing to do in that case is to look for it in the glossary. We therefore strongly recommend that you complement this textbook with other activities and materials: Buy a Turkish newspaper! Purchase a dictionary! Get hold of a grammar book! Go to Turkey for a holiday! . you’ll find the English translation there. you can practise newly learned information as well as information already digested in previous lessons. you must have seen it before but forgotten it. In these exercises. as you will notice that. Grammatical explanations are usually followed by exercises. Use these tapes for improving your pronunciation and listening proficiency. However. Apart from providing the right answers to the exercises. There is also a number of tapes with dialogues and exercises from the textbook. But even if that is not the case. New words in a dialogue or an exercise are always listed below the text. You will at least be able to handle everyday situations in Turkey and to read some Turkish texts. it contains additional information and explanations about specific grammatical features of Turkish.How this course works This book is mainly organised around dialogues. reading through Turkish dialogues and sentences in previous lessons is a good way of refreshing your command of vocabulary and turns of phrase. As these sentences are always accompanied by a translation. Some of these are most likely a bit too difficult to grasp in their totality: the key is again an important instrument for tackling these texts. we’ve included a number of written texts. you can easily find the meaning of any unfamiliar words. especially if you notice there are quite a few words in the lesson you are currently working on that you were apparently supposed to know already. you have obviously learned a lot already. we would advise you to go back a few lessons once in a while and read through dialogues and example sentences. The key at the back of this Page 2 book plays a central role (a key role. Therefore. it will probably improve your self-confidence. In the process. there is not a single language course in the world that can teach you every aspect of a language. In addition. no matter how much you’re struggling with the current lesson. Example sentences will also contain new words once in a while. From this book you will learn Turkish. it is essential to use the key every time you have finished an exercise. taken from various sources. if you like).

Nowadays. İyi çalışmalar! Alphabet and pronunciation Before the ‘writing reform’ of 1928 the Arabic alphabet was used. with a small number of modifications. Turkish uses the Latin script. It has 29 characters: .Page 3 Practise your Turkish in a Turkish restaurant! Please enjoy this course.

which is pronounced in front of the mouth. Ayhan. ‘my’. and greet people • say the names for family members • understand and make simple introductions • use the present tense • say ‘with’. with rounded lips. You could try to imagine Peter Sellers as Inspector Clouseau pronouncing the ‘oo’ in ‘my room’ v as w in English water y as y in English you z as z in English zebra Now listen to the pronunciation of the following words on tape: av—Avrupa—bacak—bahar—can—Cengiz—çıktı—çekirdek—duvar—düz—ellerinde —emin—foya—fuar—gittik—göl—ağır—dağ—sabah—hasret—ılık—kılıç—jeton— jandarma—kadar—keçi—leblebi—lamba—mum—melek—niye—nihaye—Orhan— otobüs—örneğin—öperim—pul—piyasa—radyo—rüya—siyaset—sandalye—şöyle— şalgam—tuvalet—tebrik—umarım—Urfa—ünlü—üzüldüm—var—vezir—yavru— yoksa—zaman—zemin Page 5 1 Nasılsın? How are you? In this lesson you will learn how to: • say ‘hello’. they don’t have all that much to say to each other MUSTAFA: Merhaba. and make plurals Dialogue 1 Merhaba Hello Mustafa and Ayhan run into each other at the bus station. However.Page 4 ü as ü in German für Elise. nasılsın? . ‘goodbye’.

AYHAN: İyidir. ‘good’. iyilik means ‘goodness’. And you? MUSTAFA: I’m fine too. AYHAN: Well. how are you? AYHAN: Fine. However. an equivalent of merhaba. a little bit less informal than görüşürüz ‘see you’. MUSTAFA: Hello. which is based on the same word as iyiyim above: iyi. and greets him with merhaba ‘hello’. The standard reply to ne haber? is iyilik ‘I’m fine’. Page 6 Key vocabulary merhaba iyi teşekkür ederim sen de peki Language point Greetings hello good thank you you too OK nasılsın? iyidir ederim ben iyiyim görüşürüz how are you? it is good I do I I’m fine see you The greetings used in the dialogue above are relatively informal. see you. and iyiyim means ‘I am good. AYHAN: Peki. Sen nasılsın? MUSTAFA: Ben de iyiyim. Literally. which has the same meaning as sen nasılsın: senden ‘and you?’ (literally: ‘from you?’). In Dialogue 2. John meets Mehmet for the first time. if Mehmet and Cengiz hadn’t known each other so well. Dialogue 2 Ne haber? What’s up? . colleagues or acquaintances. the slightly more formal günaydın ‘good morning/afternoon’. teşekkür ederim. They are used between friends. would have been better. thank you. for instance. görüşürüz. Ayhan. Also note how Cengiz greets his friend Mehmet: with the colloquial ne haber? ‘what’s up?’ (literally ‘what’s the news?’). The dialogues in this lesson are all informal. if the situation had been more formal. John takes leave with iyi günler ‘goodbye’.’ Mehmet answers with another informal form.

İngiliz arkadaşım. MEHMET: Nice to meet you. Mehmet. yarın görüşürüz. JOHN: Goodbye. Mehmet. Senden? CENGİZ: İyiyim. MEHMET: Çok güzel. thanks. iyi günler. How are you? CENGİZ: Fine. Key vocabulary teşekkürler İngiliz thanks English bu this arkadaşım my friend . MEHMET: That’s good. Türkiye’yi beğeniyor musunuz? JOHN: Evet. see you tomorrow. şimdi eve gidiyorum. goodbye. Bu John. JOHN: İyi günler. how are things? MEHMET: Fine.Cengiz has spotted Mehmet on the street and walks up to him to introduce him to John CENGİZ: Merhaba. John. He’s my English friend. teşekkürler. I have to go home. Are you enjoying being in Turkey? JOHN: Yes. JOHN: Hello. CENGİZ: Tamam. JOHN: Merhaba. çok seviyorum. ne haber? Page 7 MEHMET: İyilik. MEHMET: Peki. Cengiz. MEHMET: Memnun oldum. John. CENGİZ: Hello. görüşürüz. CENGİZ: OK. see you. I like it very much. This is John. Cengiz. MEHMET: OK.

arkadaş beğenmek musunuz? çok sevmek çok güzel ev tamam
Exercise 1

friend to like (something) do you? much, many, very to love (something) that’s good (literally: very nice)

Türkiye1 beğeniyor evet seviyorum güzel şimdi

Turkey he/she likes yes I love nice, beautiful, good now to go tomorrow

house OK (similar to peki)

gitmek yarın

Rearrange the words on the right to match the English translations on the left. 1 The -yi ending indicates that Türkiye is a direct object. The ending is discussed in Lesson 6.

Page 8 thanks hello yes goodbye what’s up? how are you? see you OK pleased to meet you I’m fine
Language point Introducing people

görüşürüz nasılsın? iyiyim teşekkürler tamam memnun oldum ne haber? iyi günler evet merhaba

In the dialogue above, Cengiz uses bu ‘this’ to introduce John to his friend. Note that the phrase he uses simply consists of bu and the name John. Turkish does not use a word for ‘is’ in these types of sentences. In the last of the examples below, the word öğretmen ‘teacher’ is followed by the ending -im, which means ‘I am’. It can also mean ‘my’, so that öğretmenim can mean both ‘I’m a teacher’ and ‘my teacher’. In arkadaşım and adım, the ending -ım indeed means ‘my’. It is stuck on to the nouns arkadaş ‘friend’ and ad ‘name’. The word benim also means ‘my’. The two meanings of the ending -im will be explained more fully later on, starting in this lesson.

Ben Cem. Adım Cem. Bu benim arkadaşım. Öğretmenim.
Dialogue 3 Bu babam ve annem

I am Cem. My name is Cem. This is my friend. I’m a teacher.

This is my mum and dad John now introduces his family members to Cengiz

Page 9 CENGİZ: Merhaba, dostum, nasılsın. Beni ailenle tanıştırır mısın? JOHN: İşte, bu babam. Dad, this is Cengiz. CENGİZ: Hoş geldiniz, beyefendi. JOHN: You are supposed to say ‘Hoş bulduk’ now, dad. Evet, bu da annem. Mum, Cengiz. CENGİZ: Hoş geldiniz, hanımefendi. JOHN’S MUM: Hoş bulduk (to John: I heard that!) JOHN: Bu gençler kardeşlerim: Jimmy ve Eileen. CENGİZ: Siz de hoş geldiniz. NB: In the following translation, ‘(…)’ stands for the things that are said in English in this dialogue. CENGİZ: Hello, my friend, how are you? Won’t you introduce me to your family? JOHN: Well, this is my dad. (…) CENGİZ: Welcome, sir. JOHN: (…) Yes, and this is my mother. (…) CENGİZ: Welcome, madam. JOHN’S MUM: The pleasure’s mine. (…) JOHN: Those young people are my brother and sister: Jimmy and Eileen.

CENGİZ: And welcome to you, too.
Key vocabulary

dost beni ailenle tanıştırır işte babam beyefendi da annem genç kardeş ve siz

friend me with your family introduce well my father sir too, and (same as de) my mother young brother or sister and you (plural)

dostum aile tanıştırmak mısın? baba hoş geldiniz hoş bulduk anne hanımefendi gençler kardeşlerim

my friend family to introduce do you? father welcome (answer to hoş geldiniz) mother Madam young people (here:) my brother and sister

Page 10
Language point Endings

You may have noticed that phrases that mean ‘my…’ all end in -m, e.g. babam or annem. This is because Turkish uses an ending, attached to the noun, to indicate possession. The -m, plus sometimes the preceding vowel, means ‘my’. In fact, Turkish uses such endings for practically every grammatical function. You will encounter the pattern time and time again, when we will discuss case endings, verb tenses and many more. The structure of the possessive nouns is as follows. In babam, the root word meaning ‘father’ is baba. The ending is -m. In dostum, the basic word is dost, ‘friend’. Here the ending is -um. Both -m in babam and -um in dostum mean ‘my’. When the preceding vowel is used and when not, depends on the last sound of the basic word. If it ends in a vowel, only -m is used. Note that the vowel of the suffix is not always the same. It is a u in dostum and an i in kardeşim. This is because of another typical feature of Turkish, called vowel harmony (see page 12). For now, study the following examples: dost friend gün day kardeş sibling arkadaş friend dostum my friend günüm my day kardeşim my brother or my sister arkadaşım my friend

Dost is a more intimate word for ‘friend’ than an arkadaş. You will use arkadaş, a more neutral word, most of the time and dost for close friends. The dictionary forms of verbs contain an ending, too, the infinitive ending -mek/-mak. Whether the vowel is an e or an a again depends on vowel harmony. When you look up ‘to go’ in a dictionary, you will find the infinitive gitmek, consisting of the stem git-and the ending -mek.
Exercise 2

Many of the words in the dialogue above contain endings. The following is a list of word stems. Go through the dialogue and identify the endings these words carry. Make a list of these and see if you can identify the meaning of each one on the basis of the translation. The stems are: dost, nasıl, aile, baba, gel, bul, anne, kardeş.

Page 11
Exercise 3

Pretend you’re travelling to Turkey with your family to show them what a great country it is, and you are met at the airport by a friend who you will all be staying with. Introduce everyone, using the words given below (you may have to choose between the last two). The word erkek means ‘male’, kız stands for ‘female’. Start each sentence with bu, and remember that there is no word that expresses ‘is’. my husband—kocam; my wife—eşim; my brother—erkek kardeşim; my sister—kız kardeşim; my boyfriend—erkek arkadaşım; my girlfriend—kız arkadaşım NB: eşim is given here as translating ‘my wife’, but it can actually be used for ‘my husband’ as well.
Dialogue 4 Ailem

My family John and his family have arrived at Cengiz’s house. The latter introduces his relatives to his guests JOHN: Cengiz, ailemi tanıyorsun. Ama onlar da senin ailenle tanışmak istiyorlar. CENGİZ: Tamam. Bu Ahmet Bey, babam. Bu kız kardeşim Müjgan. İngilizce biliyor, yani önemli bir kişi. Bu beyefendi, onun kocası, adı Mustafa. JOHN: Oğlan kim? CENGİZ: O Orhan, Ali’nin çocuğu.

JOHN: Erkek kardeşin nerede? CENGİZ: Ali şimdi İngiltere’de. Bu da annem, Nursen Hanım. JOHN: Well, Cengiz, you know my family. But they would like to get to know yours too. CENGİZ: OK. This is Ahmet Bey, my father. This girl is Müjgan, my sister. She speaks English, so she’s an important person. This man is her husband, his name is Mustafa. JOHN: Who’s the boy? CENGİZ: That’s Orhan, Ali’s boy. JOHN: Where is your brother?

Page 12 CENGİZ: Ali is in Britain right now. And here is my mum, Nursen Hanım.
Key vocabulary

ailem2 tanımak onlar ailen tanışmak istiyorlar biliyor yani bir onun koca ad kim çocuk çocuğu İngiltere

my family to know (someone) they your family to get to know they want she knows so one her husband name who child his child England

tanıyorsun ama senin -le istemek İngilizce bilmek önemli kişi kocası adı oğlan o Ali’nin nerede İngiltere’de

you know but your with to want English (the language) to know (something) important person her husband his name boy that Ali’s where in England

Language points Articles

Turkish has no articles. That means that a simple noun, such as şehir, can mean ‘town’, and ‘the town’ as well as ‘a town’. The context will usually provide abundant clues as to

how such a noun has to be translated exactly. Having said that, the numeral bir (‘one’) sometimes means ‘a’. You have encountered bir in the dialogue above, when Cengiz mentioned that his sister is önemli bir kişi.
Vowel harmony

Turkish has a specific feature in word endings, which is called vowel harmony. The vowels of these endings may change, depending on 2 For -i, see footnote 1. It indicates a direct object: ailemi.

Page 13 the last syllable of the preceding noun or verb stem. There are in fact two types of vowel harmony: two-fold endings can have e- or a- forms. The vowels in four-fold endings are either i, ı, u or ü. It all has to do with place of articulation in the mouth. It all may seem ridiculously complicated right now, but the experience of most learners of Turkish (or other languages with vowel harmony) is that it soon becomes second nature. This is for two reasons. First, the harmony is based on very natural sounds. Second, many of the relevant suffixes are so frequent that they appear in virtually every sentence. This way of course you get ample opportunity for practice. For the time being the following overview is sufficient: Two-fold (e or a) Four-fold (i, ı, ü, u) after e, i, ü, ö after a, ı, u, o after e, i after a, ı after ü, ö after u, o > > > > > > e a i ı ü u

The vowel that decides what form the ending is going to take is the last vowel in the stem. Examples: the suffix -im ‘my’ is four-fold, so it can appear as -im, -ım, -üm or -um. the suffix -le ‘with’ is two-fold, so it can appear as -le or -la. the suffix -ler (plural) is two-fold, so it can appear as -ler or -lar. kardeş-im-le arkadaş-ım-la kardeş-ler-im arkadaş-lar-ım kardeş-ler-im-le arkadaş-lar-ım-la with my brother with my friend my brothers my friends with my brothers with my friends

Note that when the noun that -im is suffixed to ends in a vowel, only an -m is added, so that in these combinations vowel harmony plays no role. Examples are ailem ‘my family’ and arabam ‘my car’, as well as of course babam and annem. Some more examples: Arkadaşlarımla Almanya’ya gidiyoruz. We’re going to Germany with my friends.

Page 14 Bu yeni evim. This is my new house.
Exercise 4

Fill in the correct form of the ending. The first one has been done already. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 aileml___ kadın___ arkadaş___ kişi___ dost___ ev___ adam___ Türk___ ad___ with my family ailemle (as the last vowel in ailem is ‘e’) women (kadın ‘woman’) with a friend persons with my friend my house with men (adam ‘man’) Turks my name with my teachers

10 öğretmen___
Exercise 5

Re-read the first two dialogues carefully, and pay special attention to the greetings. Then try to fill in the right forms below, without consulting the dialogues again. CENGİZ: Merhaba John, _____? JOHN: İyiyim, _____ ederim. Sen _____? CENGİZ: Ben de _____. Türkiye’yi beğeniyor musun? JOHN: Çok beğeniyorum. Şimdi eve gidiyorum. CENGİZ: Tamam, yarın _____.

Except. Still. arkadaş has no ending. while the one with a first person subject Page 15 (I am) does: the -yim in iyiyim. For ‘He is a good friend’ you say İyi bir arkadaş. for third person subjects. you or we) but verb endings instead. You may notice as well that of the Turkish sentences. So you don’t need to learn them by heart. Unlike English. you will notice that they both contain a form of ‘to be’ in the translation. is followed by the present tense ending -iyor and the person endings: .Language points Verb endings In the dialogues for this lesson you have met several sentences of the type ‘This is…’ and ‘I am’… When you compare the sentences beginning Bu John and İyiyim. as practically every sentence in Turkish contains one of them. the one that has a third person subject (this is) has no ending. You have already met a few of these endings. in which the verb stem yap. Note that no pronouns are used to translate ‘he’ and ‘you’. as they will become second nature to you before you know it. and you will meet them over and over again. that is. Turkish does not use separate pronouns (such as I. consider the following. in which case there is neither ending nor pronoun. In the first of these sentences. while ‘You’re a good friend’ is İyi bir arkadaşsın.‘to do’. in order to provide a clear picture of the endings.

-sun for second person singular. I’m learning Turkish. there is no ending. Güzel Türkçe konuşuyorsun. We’re learning Turkish. -uz for first person plural.yapıyorum I do yapıyoruz we do yapıyorsun you do yapıyorsun uz you do (plural) yapıyor she/he does yapıyorlar they do The relevant endings are -um for first person singular (the same as for ‘my’). Kız kardeşin güzel Türkçe konuşuyor. -sunuz for second person plural and -lar for third person plural. For third person singular. Some more examples: Türkçe öğreniyorum. Türkçe öğreniyoruz. Your sister speaks good Turkish. You’re speaking Turkish very well. .

So in forming a Turkish sentence. do not use one. Strangers in Turkey will usually address you with -siniz. (However. but we won’t discuss that until Lesson 8. . Nerede öğrendin? EILEEN: Teşekkür ederim. -sin for ‘you’ etc. Dialogue 5 Türkçe öğreniyorum I’m learning Turkish In a corner. anlamadım. This is öğren-.g. Where did you learn it? EILEEN: Thanks. MÜJGAN: Burada mutlaka daha da çok öğreneceksin. Ben sana yardım edeceğim.g. MÜJGAN: Ah. EILEEN: I speak a bit of Turkish. If you want to say ‘I’m learning’. so that you end up with öğreniyorum. there is another present tense in Turkish. you speak it very well. As in many other languages. which you have encountered already in the formulaic phrases teşekkür ederim and görüşürüz.. speaks). If the subject would be a pronoun in English. EILEEN: Affedersin. Eileen has learned some basic Turkish. you then add the ending -um. learning) and sometimes a simple present tense form (e. Remember that the subject will be expressed through the verb ending: -im for ‘I’. then you add -iyor. Page 16 The present tense of -iyor is the basic present tense in Turkish and covers both English tenses. For the ‘I’ part. ‘I will help you’ demek. çok güzel konuşuyorsun. and is practising it right away EILEEN: Biraz Türkçe konuşuyorum. the plural form of the second person is also used as the polite form of address. you should proceed as follows. MÜJGAN: Oh. Tekrarlar mısın? MÜJGAN: Ben sana yardım edeceğim. You might be wondering why the translations of the example sentences sometimes contain a progressive verb form (e. the present tense indicator. you need to start out with the verb ‘learn’. I’ve learnt it at home.. it should be mentioned that the difference between -sin and -siniz is not just that of singular and plural.) Finally. John’s sister Eileen and Cengiz’s sister Müjgan have struck up a conversation. Evde öğrendim.

but also for -iyor (present tense). Can you repeat it? MÜJGAN: Ben sana yardım edeceğim. EILEEN: Sorry. -e or -ye (‘to’) and -di (past tense). definitely you will learn I will help you I didn’t understand can you repeat (it)? to say (here: it means) Fill in the correct ending. That means ‘I will help you’. ‘at’). you may already have developed a feel for not only -im (‘my’). In fact. I didn’t get that. excuse me to understand to repeat mutlaka öğreneceksin yardım edeceğim anlamadım tekrarlar mısın? demek surely. 1 Öğretmen___ 2 Dost___ 3 Bil___ 4 Tanıştırıyor___ 5 Aile___ 6 Konuşuyor___ 7 Öğreniyor___ 8 Yardım ediyor___ How to find words in the dictionary I am a teacher my friend we know he’s introducing my family you (pl. -de (‘in’. or in a dictionary. to speak to learn konuşuyorum öğrendin evde I speak you learned at home Page 17 burada daha sana affedersin anlamak tekrarlamak Exercise 6 here more you (literally: to you) sorry. It won’t take long before you will start to spot the more frequent suffixes. If there is a discrepancy between what you find in the glossary at the end of the book.MÜJGAN: Here you’ll surely learn more. Key vocabulary biraz konuşmak öğrenmek a little. I’ll help you. a bit to talk. and the word as it appears in the text. -ler (plural) and -le (‘with’). . it is likely that there is a suffix attached to the word in the text. pay attention to the beginning of words if you want to know the meaning of the noun or verb stem.) are talking/speaking they are learning I’m helping As a general rule.

Their brother Ali. may arrive any minute.Reading text Try to read the following. nasılsınız? HALİL: Vallahi. Sağ ol is more informal than teşekkür ederim. HALİL: Öyle mi? O zaman beraber bekleyelim. what would Cengiz’s answer Fena değil mean? Cengiz’s father is biraz rahatsız. Birazdan gelecek. benim kız kardeşim! HALİL: Öyle mi? Çok büyümüş! At that moment Ali arrives at the scene Uncle Halil first says bak ‘look here’. and refers to a tesadüf. Halil asks Cengiz how he’s doing. Sen nasılsın? CENGİZ: Fena değil. teşekkür ederim. in beraber bekleyelim ‘let’s wait together’. Yaklaşık bir senedir görmedim onu. he uses the idiom geçmiş olsun ‘May it be past’. Could you try to answer the questions that follow. HALİL: Ya annen ve baban nasıl? CENGİZ: Annem iyi. HALİL: Geçmiş olsun. difficult text. and when Halil hears this news. Suddenly. amca. what would birazdan gelecek mean (considering the reason why they are at the airport)? Note the ending -elim. If we tell you that değil means ‘not’. Babam biraz rahatsız. without looking at the translation in the Key? Cengiz and his sister Müjgan are waiting for a plane at Esenboğa airport in Ankara. It’s Uncle Halil HALİL: Tesadüfe bak! CENGİZ: Merhaba. iyiyim. sağ ol. coming back from a holiday Page 18 in Britain. Kardeşlerin iyi mi? CENGİZ: İyiler. Aslında Ali’yi bekliyoruz. Halil Amca. what is biraz rahatsız? If we tell you that -ecek expresses future (‘shall’/‘will’). Cengiz hears a familiar voice. It is not important to understand every single detail of it. which in this case indicates a proposal. So. Can you guess what this word means? Vallahi ‘I swear’ is used here as an intensifier of iyiyim. bu güzel kız kim? CENGİZ: Tanımıyor musunuz? Bu Müjgan. but means the same. Şey. Yaklaşık bir senedir means ‘For .

the Hittites came to the area and developed the great Hittite Empire. the Osmanlı ‘Ottoman’ Sultan Fatih Mehmet ‘Mehmet the Conqueror’ was able to conquer Constantinople. but Troy itself was attacked by the Greeks (the Trojan War. After the Hittites. Müjgan has büyümüş a lot. Many yüzyıllar ‘centuries’ later. Halil does not seem to recognise Müjgan. Some small kingdoms on the western coast (such as the city of Troy) challenged the Hittite dominance. Page 20 2 Tatil yapıyoruz We’re on holiday In this lesson you will learn how to: • say something about yourself and your present situation . the only gateway to the Kara Deniz ‘Black Sea’. later on the Greeks were defeated by the Persians. Traces of these early inhabitants can still be seen in the Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi ‘The museum of Anatolian Civilisations’ in Ankara. Gradually. now İstanbul) became the capital of the East Roman. a narrow strait. Greek warriors came and conquered parts of Asia Minor. or at the site of Çatal Höyük. Cengiz asks Tanımıyor musunuz ‘Don’t you recognise her?’ Apparently. Later. or Byzantine. The Selcuk ‘Seljuk’ Turks decisively defeated the Byzantines and forced them to retreat to Constantinople. around 2000 BC. as depicted by Homer. and founded small kingdoms. the city of Byzantium. civilisations were present in Anatolia. (later called Constantinople. From that day. As early as 7500 BC. Page 19 One reason was the significance of the Bosporus. in 1453. Turkish tribes came to Anatolia. This area has continuously been playing an important role in the tarih ‘history’ of both the Orta Doğu ‘Middle East’ and Avrupa ‘Europe’. the Ottomans considered themselves to be the legitimate heirs of the Roman legacy. After the decline of Rome. the Roman Empire also had its impact on sanat ‘art’ and mimarlık ‘architecture’ of the region. Much later again. who in turn were driven off by Büyük İskender ‘Alexander the Great’. Can you guess why Halil does not recognise her at first? A short history of Turkey The territory of modern day Türkiye ‘Turkey’ is divided between the small European part Trakya ‘Trace’ (West of the Boğaziçi ‘Bosporus’) and the larger Asian part Anadolu ‘Anatolia’. took place near the small köy ‘village’ of Truva). Empire.a year or so’.

Gidelim. I’ll go to some more places later. bazı yerlere daha gideceğim. güzel. oradaki bina ne? MÜJGAN: İşte bu. EILEEN: Ah. Let’s go. yonder sonra bazı yerlere yer gideceğim var later some to places place I’ll go there is .• tell people what you’ve done recently Dialogue 1 Ankara’da In Ankara Müjgan is showing Eileen around in Ankara. I have plenty of time. She is trying to find out what her guest is interested in doing MÜJGAN: Nereleri görmek istiyorsun? EILEEN: Bakalım. Page 21 Key vocabulary nereleri görmek istiyorsun bakalım bir dakika oradaki what places to see you want. Sonra. EILEEN: Let’s just walk around a bit. birkaç sokak ileride Gençlik Parkı var. bir dakika. that’s the famous ethnographic museum. what’s that building over there? MÜJGAN: Well. a few streets ahead there’s the Gençlik Park. EILEEN: Ah. good. Güzel bir park var mı buralarda? MÜJGAN: Var. EILEEN: Biraz dolaşalım. you like let’s see (just) a minute over there. just a minute. Is there a nice park somewhere around here? MÜJGAN: Yes. Vaktim çok. MÜJGAN: What places would you like to see? EILEEN: Let’s see. ünlü etnoğrafya müzesi.

‘My city’ is şehrim. the word for ‘city’ is şehir. tam merkezde. So. Eileen? EILEEN: Londra’da oturuyorum. When a question contains var and the answer is positive. a few street ahead Youth let’s go 1 The construction vaktim çok ‘I have plenty of time’ contains the word vaktim (=vakit ‘time’+-im ‘my’). MÜJGAN: Güzel. Page 22 Dialogue 2 Parkta piknik A picnic in the park The two women have found a nice place to have a picnic. Oraya hiç gittin mi? MÜJGAN: Gitmedim. (More in Unit 4. The first example shows that ‘I am’ is -yim. Müjgan says var ‘there is’ twice. There’s more on ‘to be’ in Lesson 4.lose it when it is followed by a suffix starting with a vowel. güzel mi? EILEEN: Evet. not şehirim. in Turkish ‘to be’ is in fact not a full-fledged verb. Yalnız mı oturuyorsun? . Müjgan asks Eileen about her life in Britain MÜJGAN: Nerede oturuyorsun. but merely a personal ending. it is not vakitim but vaktim. Anlatsana biraz. you can simply reply var. ve bahçesi var. Büyüklüğü benim için yeterli.bina ne işte ünlü dolaşalım dolaşmak vaktim çok Three remarks: building what well famous let’s walk around to walk around I have plenty of time (see below) var mı buralarda birkaç sokak ileride Gençlik gidelim is there? around here some. Remember iyiyim ‘I am fine’ and Bu John ‘This is John’ in Unit 1.g. e. the latter shows that the third person singular form of ‘to be’ (‘he/she/it/John is’ in English) has in fact no ending.) Some words in which the second syllable contains an -i. 2 You may wonder where the verb ‘to be’ is in Turkish. Oldukça büyük. evin nasıl. Likewise. in oradaki bina ne? ‘What is that building over there?’ Well. 3 Note that in her last sentence. in which case it means ‘yes’.

Do you live by yourself? EILEEN: Yes. Tell me. Eileen? EILEEN: I live in London. precisely in the centre yalnız sizinle maalesef gelmedi gelmek alone with you unfortunately he did not come to come . is it nice? EILEEN: Yes. how’s your house. he didn’t (literally: he did not come). but he lives in Oxford. what kind of right. Maalesef. It’s fairly big. it’s right in the centre. Did you ever go there? MÜJGAN: No.EILEEN: Evet. Erkek arkadaşım var. I have a boyfriend. Çalışıyor. He is working. MÜJGAN: He didn’t come with you? EILEEN: No. ama o Oxford’da oturuyor. MÜJGAN: Ne is yapıyor? EILEEN: Öğretmen. Unfortunately. MÜJGAN: Nice. Key vocabulary oturyorsun oturmak oturuyorum oraya you live to live. He teaches French lessons. I didn’t (literally: I did not go). Fransızca dersi veriyor. The size is enough for me. MÜJGAN: What kind of job does he do? EILEEN: He’s a teacher. to sit I live to there hiç gittin mi? gitmedim anlatsana ever did you go? I did not go tell me Page 23 anlatmak evin nasıl? nasıl tam merkezde to tell how’s your house? how. MÜJGAN: Sizinle gelmedi mi? EILEEN: Gelmedi. and it has a garden. MÜJGAN: Where do you live.

however. For example. because you are describing something that is still going on. if you want to say what line of work you’re in.merkez oldukça büyük bahçesi var bahçe büyüklük için yeterli Language point Verbs centre fairly big it has a garden garden size for enough çalışıyor çalışmak iş ders Fransızca dersi veriyor vermek he works. Where do you work? It’s a nice day. Page 24 1 2 3 4 5 The food is ready. Similarly. They are sitting at an outdoor cafe and are about to order . are you a teacher? etc. It is important to learn at least the two basic forms of present and past tenses right away. they. -di is needed. etc. such as I am sick. say whether you need a verb with -iyor or -di in the translations of the following sentences or whether you should only use one of the personal suffixes. you will want to use the present tense. Exercise 1 Without translating. All this is true for Turkish as it is for any other language. he is working to work job lesson French lessons he gives to give In order to produce even the simplest sentences you need to know something about verb tenses. These are the endings -iyor. I like it very much. the past tense ending.. you need to put the verb in the past tense. In the past tense. because you did the arriving sometime in the (recent) past. Where is she? He’s a young man. They came early. Dialogue 3 Buyurun There you are/What can I get you Bülent and Sabahat have arrived in Antalya for a weekend at the beach. But remember that where you would use forms of ‘to be’ in English. you. as in ‘I came yesterday’. if you want to say when you arrived. you do not need -iyor: A personal ending (I. They came early! 6 7 8 9 10 Did you know that? She’s not going.) on the noun or adjective is enough. the present tense ending and -di.

SABAHAT: Teşekkürler. SABAHAT: Teşekkürler. (The waiter hangs around) GARSON: Buraya ilk defa mı geliyorsunuz? SABAHAT: Evet. ilk defa. GARSON: Kaç gün kalacaksınız? SABAHAT: Bu hafta sonu Antalya’da kalıyoruz. SABAHAT: Hoş bulduk. Ondan sonra biraz gezmek istiyoruz. please. bir kola ve bir bira. There we are.GARSON: Hoş geldiniz. GARSON: Hemen getireyim. GARSON: What would you like to drink? SABAHAT: A coke and a beer. GARSON: Welcome. GARSON: İyi tatiller. one coke and one beer. What can I get you? SABAHAT: Thank you. Buyurun. Page 25 GARSON: Let me bring that right away. (The waiter returns) GARSON: Buyurun. GARSON: Ne zaman döneceksiniz? SABAHAT: Gelecek hafta gideceğiz. GARSON: Bir şey değil. GARSON: Ne içersiniz? SABAHAT: Bir kola ve bir bira lütfen. . Geçen yıllarda hep İzmir’e gittik.

it’s the first time. GARSON: You’re welcome. After that we want to travel around a bit. coming we’ll go vacation. we have gone how many day kalacaksınız you (plural) will stay kalmak hafta sonu hafta son değil ilk defa buraya geçen yıl geçen yıllarda hep Izmir’e kalıyoruz gezmek ne zaman gelecek gideceğiz tatil iyi tatiller to stay weekend week end we stay travel/walk/drive around when next. Is this your first time here? SABAHAT: Yes. holiday have a nice holiday geliyorsunuz you (plural) come to here last. GARSON: When will you return? SABAHAT: We’ll go next week. In previous years. Key vocabulary içersiniz içmek lütfen hemen getireyim getirmek bir şey değil you (plural) drink to drink please right away. GARSON: How many days will you be staying? SABAHAT: We’re staying in Antalya for the weekend. GARSON: Have a nice holiday. all to Izmir döneceksiniz you will return . immediately let me bring to bring you’re welcome (literally: it’s nothing) not first time gittik kaç gün we went.SABAHAT: Thank you. we’ve always gone to İzmir. previous year in previous years always. SABAHAT: Thank you.

(Remember that this ending is necessary because in Turkish you do not usually use words meaning ‘I’. Only now you use -di. as far as grammar goes. so the stem is ver-. the verb endings change to show who the subject is.). Note that the verb comes last. 2 Add -iyor to give veriyor-. Then you add the personal ending. In a dictionary you will usually find vermek ‘to give’. because the o in -iyor never changes. For ‘I’ that is -im or a variant of it (which form exactly depends on vowel harmony). In this and the other early lessons. With these two endings you will have what you need.) So. ‘we’ etc. i. 3 Add the personal ending -m: verdim.Page 26 Language points Forming the present tense You first take the verb stem and add -iyor to it. 3 Add the personal ending. The endings: the present tense with -iyor Since Turkish uses personal endings (not personal pronouns such as ‘I’. the steps you need to make in order to say ‘I give a book’ are: 1 Find the verb stem. 1 Find the verb stem ver-. In our example.e. 4 Now you need to make clear that it is a book you give: bir kitap veriyorum. ‘you’ etc. The -mek part is the infinitive ending. Forming the past tense You follow the same steps if you want to say that you gave a book some time ago. in the past. ‘you’. In the case of -iyor (see p 15) they are: -iyorum -iyorsun I you . the vowel is always u. 2 Add -di: verdi-. After -iyor. you will encounter most of the more frequently used verbs. this gives us veriyorum ‘I give’. to say most of the basic things you would want to say in the early stages of language learning. 4 Put the other words you need before the verb: bir kitap verdim.

bakıyor she looks.g. büyüyor she grows. kırıyor it breaks > ü e. bekliyor he waits.) (2 sg. ı ü. -ıyor.g.) nd st e. for example. oturuyor he lives.) they All these of course attach to a verb stem. (See Lesson 1 to refresh your memory. ö u. i -dim -din a. The different forms are: Final vowel of the stem: I you (sg.) geliyorsun he/she/it geliyor we they geliyoruz geliyorlar you (pl. and each of these forms has four slightly different versions which have to do with the rules of vowel harmony. The form can be -iyor. ö -düm -dün u.Page 27 -iyor -iyoruz -iyorsunuz -iyor or -iyorlar he/she/it we you (pl.) geliyorsunuz yapıyorsun yapıyor yapıyoruz yapıyorlar büyüyorsun büyüyor büyüyoruz büyüyorlar oturuyorsun oturuyor oturuyoruz oturuyorsunuz oturuyorlar yapıyorsunuz büyüyorsunuz The past tense with -di Again. o -dum -dun . i a.) If the vowel in the last syllable of the stem is an ‘i’ or an ‘e’. gelmek ‘to come’ I geliyorum yapmak ‘to do’ yapıyorum büyümek ‘to grow’ büyüyorum oturmak ‘to live’/‘to sit’ oturuyorum I come/I am coming I do/I am doing I grow/I am growing I live/I am living you (sg. the exact form of the past tense depends upon the subject. the first vowel in the -iyor suffix will be -i.) (1 sg. -uyor or -üyor. and on vowel harmony. o > i > ı e.g. oluyor it becomes Remember that the -iyor tense can be translated with either the English progressive or simple present.g. depending on the final vowel of the stem: after after after after e. dönüyor he returns > u e. gidiyor she goes e. ı -dım -dın ü.

) they (1st pl. ö -tüm -tün -tü -tük -tünüz -tü or -tüler u. i -tim -tin -ti -tik -tiniz -ti or -tiler a. In addition. p.) (3 pl.) (3 sg. etc. Don’t worry about learning this list by heart. s. It’ll be second nature before you know it. h. k.) rd nd rd st e. z and d. as opposed to their ‘voiced’ counterparts (c. ş and t) are the so-called ‘voiceless’ consonants.) he/she/it we you (pl. ç . p. o -tum -tun -tu -tuk -tunuz -tu or -tular These sounds (ç. indicating both past tense and subject. b. The -uz of the first person plural (in -iyoruz ‘we’) is replaced by -k and the -sunuz of the second person plural (in -iyorsunuz ‘you’ (pl. Here are some examples of the past tense with -di: Page 29 gelmek yapmak büyümek oturmak .) they (1 sg.). ‘you all’. As you can see in the list above. v. k. i -dik -diniz a. the vowel of the past tense suffix can be an i. is sometimes changed into -t-. ı. The personal endings are not exactly the same as for the present tense. ı -dık -dınız ü. ş or t. s. u or ü. (The process of consonants changing under the influence of preceding consonants is called ‘assimilation’. o -duk -dunuz -du or -dular -di or -diler -dı or -dılar -dü or -düler Note that there are a couple of surprises here.) rd nd e. as in running speech you won’t have time to decide whether the suffix should start with a -d or a -t. with which the past tense suffix starts.) (2 pl.) (2nd sg. As with vowel harmony. This depends on the last sound of the stem: if it is a.) (2 pl.) (1st pl. it is better to let the principle slowly but surely become part of your expanding ‘feel’ for the language. ö -dük -dünüz u.he/she/it (3rd sg. h. f. Again. these endings.) (3 pl. the -d becomes a -t.) is replaced by -niz/-nız/-nuz/-nüz.) -di -dı -dü -du Page 28 Final vowel of the stem: we you (pl. ğ. n and r). attach to verb stems and are subject to vowel harmony. f. as well as l.) That means that there are even more possibilities: Final vowel of the stem: I you (sg. ı -tım -tın -tı -tık -tınız -tı or -tılar ü. the -d-. m.

I saw a good programme on TV last night. That’s why we chose Turkey. Then work out exactly what each verb form means. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 yazdı geliyorsun kaldık seçiyorsunuz gitti veriyorlar satıyoruz çıktın vardınız yaz-+-di >> yaz+mak >> >> yazmak yazdı to write he wrote 10 yardım ediyoruz Page 30 .) geldiniz geldi/ geldiler yaptı/ yaptılar büyüdü/ büyüdüler Dün gece televizyonda güzel bir programı seyrettim.) geldin he/she/it geldi we they geldik you (pl.I geldim I came yaptım I did yaptın yaptı yaptık yaptınız büyüdüm I grew up büyüdün büyüdü büyüdük büyüdünüz oturdum I lived oturdun oturdu oturduk oturdunuz oturdu/ oturdular you (sg. The first one has been done as an example. try to supply the right alternative before looking up the verb’s meaning. Exercise 2 Find out the dictionary forms (the infinitives) of the following verb forms and look them up in the Glossary to find their meanings. Bu sabah kaçta kalktın? What time did you get up this morning? Onun için Türkiye’yi seçtik. Dictionary forms consist of the verb stem plus the infinitive suffix -mak or -mek.

as the focus of the exercise is on getting a feel for the vowel harmony rules. 1 Ona bir mektup yazd. Nerede oturuyorsunuz? Ne zaman geldiniz? Türkiye’yi beğeniyor musun? Buraya tatil için mi geldiniz? New York’ta oturuyorum.yor? 3 Ali bulutlu ve soğuk hava çok sev. Çok beğeniyorum.m. You will also want to know how to give negative answers. which contain many useful new words.. 7 Sana söyled.n mü? 6 Dün akşam hep dans ett. tatil için.. Several questions are used in the dialogues of this lesson.k. 10 Kalabalık bir lokantada yemek yed. You don’t need to know them.Exercise 3 Fill in the right vowel in the sentences below.k. Remind yourself first of the rules for vowel harmony and of which one of the two types you need to use for the -iyor and -di tenses.nız? 9 Saat onda buluş. but actual discussion will follow later.m ya! 8 Çarşıdan ne ald.yor? 5 Yürüd. 2 Bu sene sonbahar hangi gün başl. ‘Are you enjoying your stay?’ and ‘What are your plans for the next few days?’. you may have already developed a bit of a feel for how questions and negative answers are formed in Turkish on the basis of examples in the dialogues. Exercise 4 Many of the sentences you learn to say in this lesson will often be used to answer questions like ‘Where did you learn Turkish?’. you will need to learn how to understand these questions before you can answer them. To test these intuitions.. . and in Lesson 3 we will look into them in detail.’ The same thing holds true as for questions: some examples are used here.yor 4 Trenin kaçta kalk. try to translate the following little dialogue. Translations of the sentences. such as ‘I don’t speak Turkish very well yet.. Bu sabah geldim..... Evet.yoruz. Obviously.. Don’t be put off by any unfamiliar verbs in the example sentences. Nevertheless.. are given in the Key.

subject=he/she/it >> present tense yaz+-iyor >> yazıyor he/she/it is writing A final remark: the main difference you should focus on right now is between sentences where you do need to use -iyor or -di and those where you don’t. as practised in Exercise 1 above. and change their tense from -iyor into -di and vice versa. i. An example is ‘yesterday’. The first one has been done: 1 yazdı =stem yaz plus past tense -dı. sene geç hour day week month year late In order to say things like ‘last week’ and ‘next month’ the words geçen ‘last’ and gelecek or önümüzdeki ‘next’. never to nouns or adjectives. A word like ‘now’ on the other hand. which always occurs with a past tense marking on the verb. is typically associated with the present tense.e. geçen gün geçen hafta the other day last week gelecek/önümüzdeki hafta next/the coming week . Here are some of the most important of those words related to time: şimdi bugün dün yarın dakika erken sık sık now today yesterday tomorrow minute early often saat gün hafta ay yıl. where the personal ending is enough. This is why in sentences like ‘I’m a banker’ (bankacıyım). Go back to the verbs given in Exercise 2. ama henüz iyi konuşamıyorum. there is no need for -iyor. The rule is that the -iyor and -di endings apply to verbs only. Language points Adverbs of time Tenses often go hand in hand with time words.Page 31 Türkçeyi iyi konuşuyorsunuz? Exercise 5 Teşekkür ederim. Using a personal ending (here -yım) is enough. ‘coming’ are important.

. I get up early. In the mornings. evenings’. you use the form -ları.haftaya next week Page 32 Often you will need to say things like ‘tomorrow morning’ or ‘last night’. for which you need to know the words for the parts of the day: sabah öğleden sonra morning afternoon akşam gece evening night If you want to say something like ‘in the mornings. Sabahları erken kalkıyorum. etc. In these kinds of time expressions you also need to know what the days of the week are called (the word günü ‘day’ is optional): . Easy-to-handle combinations give you dün akşam for ‘yesterday evening’ and bu öğleden sonra for ‘this afternoon’.

pazar (günü) Sunday pazartesi (günü) Monday salı (günü) Tuesday çarşamba (günü) Wednesday perşembe (günü) Thursday cuma (günü) Friday cumartesi (günü) Saturday .

We arrived here on Wednesday. as has been done for the first sentence. gift . Sizinle cuma günü buluşuyoruz. Exercise 6 The following sentences all contain a time adverb. and make sure you use the right form of those. 1 Her yaz Türkiye’ye dön_____ (Every summer we return to Turkey) her yaz >> -iyor >> dönüyor (+ we) >> dönüyoruz 2 Dün büyük bir hata yap_____ (Yesterday I made a big mistake) 3 Gelecek hafta Liverpool’a gi_____ (Next week they go to Liverpool) Page 33 4 Arkadaşlarım dün akşam gel_____ (My friends came yesterday evening) 5 Bugün çok çalış_____ (You worked a lot today) 6 O filmi geçen ay gör_____ (I saw that film last month) 7 Şimdi bir şey yemek ist_____ (Now I want to eat something) 8 Ona bir hediye ver_____ (He gives her a present) 9 Tamam. Choose between -iyor and -di. The verb has not been given the proper tense ending yet. We’ll meet you on Friday.Çarşamba günü buraya geldik. Your job is to supply it. şimdi yap_____ (Okay. to eat present. we’ll do it now) 10 Geçen hafta sonu ne yap_____ (What did you do last weekend?) yaz dönmek hata o filmi görmek Exercise 7 Translate: summer to return mistake to see that movie film yemek hediye movie food.

is on page 34 and contains the Table of Contents. 8 They came late yesterday evening.1 I went home early. Now for the other ones: on pp 36–37 are sample entries under sergi. the içindekiler. the Ankara culture and arts map. 2 You speak good Turkish. 7 I work for a bank. okul bankada Exercise 8 school for a bank The first page of the Ankara kültür ve sanat haritası. (You is plural here!) 3 He gave me a present. gezi and kitap. söyleşi. 6 I did it yesterday. 5 We live in Newcastle. 4 She goes to school in the evenings. You can probably guess most of these words without knowing any Turkish. Can you work out what these words are? Page 34 .

which could have been. But be that as it may. The last option is impossible in the Turkish spelling system. and in yet others the two vowels are separated by an extra consonant (e.kütüphane Spelling library You may have noticed that the spelling of verbs which have a stem that ends in a vowel and are marked with the present tense suffix is not predictable. bab-ım).g. it is not so obvious why ‘she wants’ would be istiyor and not ‘isteyor’ or even ‘isteiyor’. as the combination of two vowels in a row is simply ruled out. but isn’t. Taking istemek ‘to want’ as an example.g. This is not a universal rule. the vowel of the suffix is lost (e. Page 35 . in iyi-y-im). This is because -iyor ‘absorbs’ the last vowel of the stem. the possessive in words like baba-m. in other cases. The other option. ‘isteyor’ is not possible either. -iyor absorbs the last vowel of a verb stem if that stem ends in one.

beni çaya davet etti de. lop off that vowel and make sure the first vowel of -iyor harmonises with what is now the last vowel of the stem. i in the case of istemek. when you have the time (and in writing you usually do). Remember to apply the correct vowel harmony rules: final vowel in stem final vowel in stem final vowel in stem final vowel in stem For example: istemek—ist—istiyor oynamak—oyn—oynuyor anlamak—anl—anlıyor ödemek—öd—ödüyor The last two verbs mean ‘to understand’ and ‘to pay’. Tower Köprüsü. Reading text = = = = e. ö u. think of the following rule: if the stem ends in a vowel. İngiltere’ye geldiğimde. Hem de Buckingham Sarayı. giving us istiyor. şahane bir yer. anlatsana! ALI: Peki. ı ü. araba kiraladım ve Londra’ya gittim. Saint Paul Katedrali. CENGIZ: Kraliçeyi filan gördün mü? ALI: Yoo.Vowel harmony with the last vowel before that one. i a. vaktim yoktu. then decides the actual form of the -iyor suffix. Fakat hemen şaşakaldım. CENGIZ: Niye abi? ALI: Hayret! Arabalar hep sol taraftan gider! Az kalsın trafik kazası oluyordu! CENGIZ: Allaha şükür. respectively. kazasız belasız döndün! MÜJGAN: Londra güzel mi? ALI: Çok. Bir sürü eski binalar var. So. o > > > > iyor ıyor üyor uyor Cengiz and his sister Müjgan listen to their brother Ali’s travel experiences MÜJGAN: Hadi. abi. .

very!’. You may guess the meaning now of İngiltere’ye geldiğimde. as can be derived from az kalsın ‘almost’. colloquial for ‘Yes. London has many . Ali rented a car (araba kiraladım).All three start to laugh Page 36 Müjgan urges Ali to start his story about his trip to İngiltere. Try to figure out what this means. tell us about it’. Now. -diğimde means ‘when I…’. there was no trafik kazası. the -ya part in Londra’ya is easy to understand. by saying hadi anlatsana ‘come on. Ali starts his answer by saying Çok. especially when we tell you that the last part. How did Ali return home? Müjgan asks whether London is a nice city. Müjgan addresses Ali with abi. Ali says fakat hemen saşakaldım ‘but immediately I was astonished’. After Cengiz asks him niye ‘why’. the word hayret expresses surprise. Since you know that gittim means ‘I went’. Cengiz thanks God (Allaha şükür) that Ali returned (döndün) home kazasız belasız. So why was Ali flabber-gasted? Luckily. and trafik kazası means ‘traffic accident’. Ali explains that arabalar hep sol taraftan gider (an alternative to gidiyor).

Page 37 eski binalar which make the place not just güzel. The interest of the Turks in Central Page 38 . he could not accept the invitation because vaktim yoktu. He says he was invited (beni davet etti ‘she invited me’) to çay ‘tea’. which is colloquial for hayır ‘no’. but şahane! What are those eski binalar which seem to fascinate Ali? He mentions a few: Tower Köprüsü. Who would that be? Ali answers yoo. he had no time. contacts between Turkey and former Sovyet Cumhuriyetleri ‘Soviet Republics’ have intensified. There you have three new words to add to your vocabulary! When Ali mentions Buckingham Sarayı. Alas. Cengiz asks whether he saw the kraliçe. Saint Paul Katedrali and Buckingham Sarayı. A short history of the Turks Since the fall of communist Sovyet Birliği ‘Soviet Union’.

the Uzbek. This was a gradual process that took centuries. and was replaced by the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ‘Republic of Turkey’. Anatolia has not always been the area where Turkish (or rather. the Ottoman Empire came to its end. in the decisive Battle of Malazgırt ‘Manzikert’. Çin ‘China’ and Rusya ‘Russia’ meet). The Seljuks in Persia were Turkic as well. where they settled and established several small beylikler ‘principalities’. A branch of these Seljuks were among the first Turks to arrive in Anatolia. Page 39 3 Nerede? Where? In this lesson you will learn how to: . for instance. was great. the Ottoman Empire was at the very height of its glory. In fact. Süleyman brought the Ottoman ordu ‘army’ to the gates of Viyana ‘Vienna’. at ‘horses’ and other animals was the cause of several westward göç ‘migration’ waves. A generic term for all these people and their languages is ‘Turkic’. the Turkish-Seljuk army defeated the Bizanslılar ‘Byzantines’ and the road towards Anatolia lay open to them. modern day Iran. the Empire lost power and its çöküş ‘fall’ came slowly. also called Kanuni ‘the Lawgiver’. but arasıra ‘from time to time’ one of these tribes left their traces in Avrupa tarihi ‘European history’. Turkic) people lived. In those days. considering that. The Mongols drove the Turks to the West (being driven westward seems to be a recurrent theme in Turkish history). however.Asia is not strange. Reforms of later sultans. Turkic tribes originate from the Altai region (which is situated where the sınırlar ‘borders’ of Moğolistan ‘Mongolia’. In the beginning of the twentieth century. efforts to modernise and westernise. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was overrun by Mongol hordes. but especially the city of Konya preserves many good examples of Seljuk buildings. such as the Huns and their leader Attila. Their influence on sanat ‘art’ and mimarlık ‘architecture’ in Persia. The need to find new çayır ‘pasture’ grounds for their sürü ‘flock’ of koyun ‘sheep’. and he conquered large parts of Kuzey Afrika ‘Northern Africa’. named after the founder. In 1071. its nickname was ‘the sick man of Europe’. The Ottomans ambitiously developed their Empire and were strong enough to beat the Byzantines. were in vain and could not prevent the decline of the once mighty empire. One of these developed into the Osmanlı Emperatorluğu ‘Ottoman Empire’. Under the reign of Muhteşem Sultan Süleyman ‘Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent’. Kazakh and Kirghiz people speak a language that is quite similar to Turkish. but inevitably. After Süleyman. Osman.

CEM: Where does she live? ÖZLEM: She lives in Ankara. Ankara Üniversitesinde okuyor. or has come from • say things like ‘bigger’ and ‘the biggest’ Dialogue 1 O kim? Who’s that? CEM: O kim? ÖZLEM: Emel. is going. CEM: Nerede oturuyor? ÖZLEM: Ankara’da oturuyor.• ask questions • say where you are. Page 40 Key vocabulary o okumak mu that to study does she? Ankara’da hayır in Ankara no . where you are going and where you have come from • combine these two and ask where someone is. she is studying at Ankara University. CEM: Does she work? ÖZLEM: No. CEM: Çalışıyor mu? ÖZLEM: Hayır. CEM: Who is that? ÖZLEM: That’s Emel.

NB: Note that the simple answer Emel is enough to express ‘That’s Emel’. so we advise you use one of the other two. ‘for what’). The first type uses question words like ‘where’. or right before the verb: Ne yaptın? Nerede oturuyorsun? Ne zaman geldin? Neden/niye/niçin bize geldin? Kaç gün Türkiye’de kaldı? What did you do? Where do you live? When did you come? Why did you come to us? How many days did he stay in Turkey? There are only subtle differences between neden. This is not a strict rule. ‘how’ and ‘what’ (interrogative pronouns). however. and nerede ‘where’ in the second. It is used in Cem’s last question. In sentences that contain a form of ‘to be’. sounds a bit like an accusation. hence the third example below: Page 41 Şu armutlar ne kadar? O şarkıcı kim? Hava nasıl oralarda? How much are those pears? Who is that singer? How is the weather over there? . In the first question. however. Niye. the question word tends to appear at the end. Language point Asking questions There are two types of questions in this conversation. kim ‘who’ is used. The major question words are: ne? nasıl? ne zaman? neden? niye? niçin? what? how? when? why? why? why? ne kadar? nerede? nereli? kaç? kim? hangi? how much? where? from where? how many? where? which? In -iyor and -di sentences. or as asking for justification. The second type of question involves ‘yes/no’ answers. question words appear either at the beginning of a sentence. niye and niçin (a shortened form of ne için.

ne. etc. You can always recognise whether a Turkish sentence is a question or not: all questions contain an explicit question marker. with the plural marker. This can be either a word from the list above (kim. ‘in those parts’. An example is Cem’s last question in the conversation above. nerede.). Note also the personal ending -siniz ‘you’: Nerelisiniz? Exercise 1 Where are you from? Match the Turkish questions on the right to the English translations on the left 1 where does she work? 2 when does she work? 3 how much does she work? 4 who is working? 5 why does she work? 6 how does it work? 7 what does he do? 8 where does he do it? 9 how does he do it? Language point Yes/no questions a c e f ne yapıyor? nasıl çalışıyor? nasıl yapıyor? ne kadar çalışıyor? b nerede çalışıyor? d nerede yapıyor? g ne zaman çalışıyor? h kim çalışıyor? i neden çalışıyor? Yes/no questions are so named because they can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. mu. Exercise 2 Say which type of question marker (interrogative pronoun or mi) you need in the Turkish translations of the following English sentences. mü) turns any sentence into a yes/no question. accurate translations (which are given in the Key). The word mi (or mı. not to give full. 1 Did you see that movie? 2 When did we go to the cinema? . Keep in mind that the purpose of this exercise is to help Page 42 you sort out the different types of questions. or the word mi in one of its four forms.NB: While orada means ‘there’. means ‘over there’. oralarda.

g.: çalışıyorlar çalışıyorlar mı? they work do they work? Here are all the forms for present tense questions: singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person çalışıyor muyum? çalışıyor musun? çalışıyor mu? do I work? do you work? does he/she/it work? Page 43 plural 1st person çalışıyor muyuz? do we work? .g.3 Who played the main part in this film? 4 Has it been on television? 5 Are you an actor? NB: Of course. you can also answer with ‘I don’t know’ which is bilmiyorum. As you remember from Lesson 2. the personal ending comes after the question marker. e. In çalışıyor mu? there is no personal ending because there is no added ending for the third person singular. the personal endings express the subject. mı. Language point The form of mi-questions The question marker mi. e. Some examples with other subjects: çalışıyorsun çalışıyor musun? görüyorum görüyor muyum? you work do you work? I see do I see? oturuyorsunuz oturuyor musunuz? istiyoruz istiyor muyuz? you sit/live do you sit/ live? we want do we want? An exception to the rule that the personal ending comes after the question marker is the third person plural (they): the question marker comes after the personal ending -lar.: çalışıyor çalışıyor mu? she works does she work? In -iyor sentences. mü or mu follows -iyor.

The first four translate with the verb ‘to be’. by using the question marker mi. The first item has already been filled in. . one of the guests in the hotel Her husband Cem is trying to fix the phone on the reception desk FATMA: Fethiye’ye ne zaman geldiniz? SEYFİ: Bir hafta önce geldim. This type of sentence will be dealt with in Lesson 4.2nd person 3rd person çalışıyor musunuz? çalışıyorlar mı? do you (pl. hasta mı? güzel mi? bozuk mu? soför mü? düşünüyor musun? Türkçe öğreniyorlar mı? anlıyor musunuz? Exercise 3 is he ill? is it beautiful? is it broken? is he a driver? do you think? do they learn Turkish? do you understand? Form questions from the following sentences.) work? do they work? Note again how vowel harmony works in the following examples. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Görüyorsun Çalışıyoruz Gidiyorsunuz Türkçe konuşuyor Yardım ediyoruz Ankara’ya geliyorum Ailemi biliyorsun Anlıyorlar İngilizce öğreniyor Görüyor musun? _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Do you see? Are we working? Are you going? Does he/she speak Turkish? Are we helping? Am I going to Ankara? Do you know my family? Do they understand? Is he/she learning English? Do you like Turkey? 10 Türkiye’yi beğeniyorsunuz Page 44 Dialogue 2 Resepsiyonda At reception Fatma is talking to Seyfi.

It’s the most beautiful place in Turkey. FATMA: Have you been to Ölüdeniz? CEM: Me? FATMA: No. I was obviously asking our guest! SEYFİ: I went there yesterday. very nice.FATMA: Buralar nasıl. not you. FATMA: Ölüdeniz’e gittiniz mi? CEM: Ben mi? FATMA: Hayır. Orası Türkiye’nin en şahane yeri. FATMA: When did you come to Fethiye? SEYFİ: I got here a week ago. SEYFİ: Yardım edebilir miyim? Elektrikçiyim. CEM: Allah allah! SEYFİ: (to Cem) Çalışmıyor mu? CEM: Bozuk herhalde. SEYFİ: Shall I help you? I am an electrician. konuğumuza sordum tabii ki! SEYFİ: Dün gittim. FATMA: Elektrikçi misiniz? O zaman kocama yardım edin. would you? . CEM: Oh no! SEYFİ: (to Cem) Isn’t it working? CEM: It’s probably broken. Meanwhile Cem tests the telephone. çok güzel. güzel mi? SEYFİ: Evet. FATMA: You’re an electrician! Then please help this husband of mine. sen değil. lütfen. FATMA: Is it nice around here? SEYFİ: Yes. but in vain.

) work? did they work? . so after the personal markers: singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Compare: Present tense: Past: sinemaya gidiyor musun? are you going to the cinema? sinemaya gittin mi? çalıştım mı? çalıştın mı? çalıştı mı? çalıştık mı? çalıştınız mı? çalıştılar mı? did I work? did you work? did he/she/it work? did we work? did you (pl.Page 45 Key vocabulary Fethiye’ye buralar değil konuk tabii ki! Türkiye’nin şahane bozuk yardım edebilir miyim? elektrikçi o zaman koca Language point Past tense questions to Fethiye these places (i. fantastic broken can I help? electrician önce Ölüdeniz’e konuğumuza sormak orası en yer herhalde elektrikçiyim earlier to Ölüdeniz to our guest to ask that place most place1 probably I’m an electrician elektrikçi misiniz? are you an electrician? to my husband help! then husband kocama yardım edin! In past tense questions. ‘here’) not guest of course! of Turkey great.e. the question marker comes last.

it is (1) verb stem plus (2) tense plus (3) personal ending plus (4) question marker. the order is (1) verb stem plus (2) tense plus (3) question marker plus (4) personal ending: 1 The ending -i on yer has to do with the -nin in Türkiye’nin. It will be explained in Lesson 6. on the other hand.did you go to the cinema? In the present tense. More examples of typical past tense questions: oraya gittin mi? beğendin mi? Türkiye’de mi aldın? kaça aldın? have you been there? (literally: did you go there?) did you like it? did you buy that in Turkey? how much did you pay for it? (literally: to how much did you . Page 46 gid1 iyor 2 mu3 sun 4 In the past tense. git1 Some further examples: present tense geliyor musunuz? do you come? yapıyor muyum? do I make it? çalışıyor musun? do you work? Kaş’ta oturuyor mu? does he live in Kaş? past tense geldiniz mi? did you come? yaptım mı? did I make it? çalıştın mı? did you work? Kaş’ta oturdu mu? did he live in Kaş? ti2 n 3 mi 4 Note that the question marker mi is always preceded by a space.

is used. (NB: ‘who’ is translated here as kimi) 4 Dün akşam gitti. 2 Hayır. Their English versions have been given. One of those is Ali’yi in number 3. there is also something that is seen. When the verb görmek ‘see’. in this case Ali. something we will explain more fully in Lesson 6. the first item has been done. and not orada because the verb gitmek involves direction. 7 Onu biliyoruz. yardım ettiler. The other accusative-marked direct objects here are Türkiye’yi in number 5. but you can make the exercise harder by blocking them off. 1 İstanbul’da oturuyorum. 6 Sinemaya gittik. _____ When did he go? _____ Do they like Turkey? _____ Where did you go? _____ Do we know him? _____ Did they help? Nerede oturuyorsun(uz)? Where do you live? _____ Are you a student? _____ Who did you see? . çalışıyorum. Three of the words (all direct objects) used in this Page 47 exercise contain what is called the accusative case suffix. and onu him/her in number 7. 8 Evet.buy?) A couple of notes on these examples: (1) the form for ‘there’ is oraya. The thing or person that is seen. (2) the last three examples illustrate that words such as ‘it’ and ‘that’ are often not expressed in Turkish when they are the direct object in the sentence. Exercise 4 Below are some answers. 3 Ali’yi gördüm. You have to supply the questions. 5 Türkiye’yi çok beğeniyorlar. is the direct object. By way of example. Turkish often adds a suffix to the noun that functions as the direct object in a sentence. Oraya means ‘to that place’.

on (locative case) English uses prepositions to express the place where you are. or came from London. where you are going to or from where you came. -te or -ta. Bu kız Eskişehir’de oturuyor mu? Does this girl live in Eskişehir? (no particular emphasis) Bu kız mı Eskişehir’de oturuyor? Does this girl live in Eskişehir? (emphasis on ‘this girl’) Bu kız Eskişehir’de mi oturuyor? Does this girl live in Eskişehir? (emphasis on the place name ‘Eskişehir’) Page 48 Language point Location: in.student öğrenci The question form mi may be used for emphasis. and we have encountered it a few times. Turkish does not have prepositions. Examples: Londra’da İstanbul’da Eskişehir’de İznik’te Kaş’ta hastanede evde sokakta in London in İstanbul in Eskişehir in İznik in Kaş in hospital at home. in the house in the street . at. go to London. it has postpositions and case endings. You say that you are in London. Instead. The element expressing location is -de. and may therefore also appear as -da. for the time being the case endings will suffice to express location and direction. We will leave the postpositions for later. as in Nerede oturuyorsun? Where do you live? This ending -de is subject to vowel harmony (see Reference Grammar) and also to the kind of ‘assimilation’ earlier seen for the past tense ending -di (see Lesson 2). Whatever is followed by mi is what is emphasised.

in which places? I live in England he’s in school today she lives in Adana now Note that the ending is preceded by an apostrophe when it is attached to a name. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bursa___ İzmir___ kütüphane___ kitap___ Kars___ gözlerin___ okul___ Antep___ in your eyes at school in the library in the book Direction: to (dative case) The case ending -e or -a is used for expressing direction towards something or someone. to give ‘in Bursa’.yürekte nerede? nerelerde? İngiltere’de oturuyorum bugün okulda şimdi Adana’da oturuyor in the heart where? where?. -te. -da. Page 49 Exercise 5 Fill in the correct ending (-de. -ta). After vowels the form is -ye or -ya: . etc. (The same is true for other case markers. Examples are: saat yedide beşte geliyor bir Ağustosta at seven o’clock (yedi=7) he comes at five (beş=5) on the first of August More on times and numbers in Lesson 5.) The ending -de is also used to express the time when something takes place. The words that are not translated are all Turkish place names.

as in the following examples: Aynur’a bir hediye verdim. Similarly. a ç becomes a c. and a p becomes a b: ağaç—ağaca kitap—kitaba tree—to the tree book—to the book The -e or -a case ending (to a noun. I gave a present to Aynur. -ye.Londra’ya İstanbul’a Eskişehir’e Fethiye’ye hastaneye eve sokağa yüreğe to London to İstanbul to Eskişehir to Fethiye to the hospital to the house to the street to the heart Pay special attention to the last two examples and see what happens to a k between two vowels: it turns into a ğ: thus sokak-a becomes sokağa and yürek-e becomes yüreğe.e.e. -ya) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 kim___? köpek___ oda___ aile___ at___ kedi___ Ankara___ sancak___ to whom? to the dog to the room to the family to the horse to the cat to Ankara to the flag . Kediye mamayı verdin mi? I gave Aynur a present. (i. -a.) Did you give the cat its food? (i. person’s name or a place) is also used to mark the indirect object or the receiver. Did you give its food to the cat?) Page 50 Exercise 6 Fill in the correct ending (-e.

as in: Anayoldan geldiniz mi? Did you come via the motorway? Toros Dağlarından yolculuk ettik. Do you remember the word nerede? ‘where?’ Now you have learnt the case endings expressing direction to and from. you can add these two to your list of question words: Page 51 nereye? nereden? Exercise 7 where to? where from? Fill in the correct ending (-den. is expressed by the ending -dan (or -den.Language point Direction: from (ablative case) The direction from which you. They came across the bridge. Köprüden geçtiler. ‘via’. We travelled through the Taurus Mountains. -tan. -dan. -ten): Londra’dan İstanbul’dan Eskişehir’den İznik’ten Kaş’tan hastaneden evden sokaktan yürekten from London from Istanbul from Eskişehir from İznik from Kaş from the hospital from home. ‘through’ or ‘across’. -tan) . someone or something comes. -ten. from the house from the street from the heart Besides direction from. the -den/-dan ending may also indicate ‘along’.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Türkiye___ Erzurum___ İstanbul___ İngiltere___ şehir___ Cardiff___ York___ Londra___ from the city Language point Comparison of adjectives The ablative case (direction from) is also used for the comparison of adjectives (i. The case marker follows the word that in the English construction follows ‘than’: İstanbul Tarsus’dan güzel. for expressions such as ‘bigger’). Tarsus İstanbul’dan az güzel. It may be followed by daha ‘more’ or az ‘less’. Tarsus is less beautiful than İstanbul. Istanbul is prettier than Tarsus. Istanbul is prettier than Tarsus.e. İstanbul Tarsus’dan daha güzel. The superlative contains the word en ‘most’: .

You are my best friend.güzel beautiful hızlı fast daha güzel more beautiful daha hızlı faster en güzel most beautiful en hızlı fastest Sen en iyi arkadaşım. Page 52 Atatürk During and after the Birinci Dünya Savaşı ‘First World War’. Postwar treaties subdivided the land between the various Allies (such as the Greeks. almost literally drove the Greeks into the sea at İzmir. The Greeks nearly captured Ankara (the seat of the nationalist movement). a nationalist Turkish movement took over power. but in the end the nationalists. the English and the French). the Turks started their fierce Kurtuluş Savaşı ‘War of Independence’ (1920–1922). foreign powers threatened Turkish sovereignty. a cumhuriyet ‘republic’ was formed. under the leadership of paşa ‘general’ Mustafa Kemal. in which the Ottoman Turks had chosen the side of the Germans. When the Greeks invaded the city of İzmir ‘Smyrna’. The sultan was deposed. Although officially the sultan was still the head of state. .

at least not in public buildings. The Arabic script was replaced by the Latin alphabet and efforts were made to clear the language of foreign influence. Page 53 4 Muhallebicide At the cake shop In this lesson you will learn how to: • express the present and past tenses of ‘to be’ or ‘not to be’ • say whether things are around or not • use the word ‘not’. A Türk Dil Kurumu ‘Turkish Language Committee’ was set up to reform the language. the Father of all Turks. but was turned into the layık ‘laicist’.e. ‘Islamic law’.Mustafa Kemal became Turkey’s national superhero. ‘secular’ nation which it nowadays still is. Moreover. and his surname became Atatürk. i. He strongly believed in Turkish identity and self-assurance. use negatives • talk and ask about possession • ask for things • use demonstratives (‘this’ and ‘that’) Dialogue 1 Muhallebicidedirler They are at the cake shop Demet meets Özlem in a cake shop . based on a rather strict separation between state and religion. ekonomik ‘economic’ and eğitimsel ‘educational’ aspects of Turkish life. as he was the Conqueror of the Greeks. Atatürk’s republic was no longer based on the şeriat ‘the Sharia’. His reforms drastically changed the siyasal ‘political’. This meant that all ‘loanwords’ (Ottoman Turkish had many from Arapça Arabic and Farsça Persian) should be replaced by an öztürkçe ‘originally Turkish’ word. dinsel ‘religious’. the Founder of the new Turkish Republic. There were new dress codes: ‘old’ clothing (such as the oriental fez which was seen as a reminder of the old days) was not allowed.

Isn’t there one? ÖZLEM: There is a waiter! Are you blind? (to the waiter:) Can you help us please? NB: Güle güle kullan! means literally ‘Use it with pleasure!’ The literal translation of Gözlerin görmüyor mu? is ‘Don’t your eyes see?’ The word ‘blind’ is kör in Turkish (see Exercise 1). thanks. Dün aldım. dear. güle güle kullan! Ne içersin? ÖZLEM: Çay. (looks around) Garson nerede? Yok mu? ÖZLEM: Var! Gözlerin görmüyor mu? (to the waiter:) Bakar mısınız? DEMET: Hello. O çanta yeni mi? ÖZLEM: Evet. Nasılsın? ÖZLEM: Bomba gibiyim.DEMET: Selam. canım. Is that bag new? Page 54 ÖZLEM: Yes. Key vocabulary selam canım hello dear. What do you want to drink? DEMET: I’ll have orange juice. (looks around) Where’s the waiter. Sen nasılsın? DEMET: Sağ ol. DEMET: Nice. Sen ne içmek istiyorsun? DEMET: Portakal suyu alayım. How are you? ÖZLEM: Great. love portakal suyu portakal orange juice orange . How are you? DEMET: Fine. DEMET: Çok güzel. I bought it yesterday. have fun with it! What are you drinking? ÖZLEM: Tea.

g. look at the following examples. We will come back to the third person forms in a moment. and -ler (‘they are’) for third person plural. similar forms appear. (‘you are’) for second person plural. -sin may also become -sın. They are. We will call this type of sentence the ‘verbless’ sentence. -sün or -sun. juice let me take eye can you help us.bomba gibiyim I am doing very well (literally: I am like a bomb) su alayım göz water. not a verb stem. please? (literally: do you look?) bomba gibi sağ ol çanta yeni ne içersin bomb like. Remember that Turkish does not have a verb ‘to be’. Instead it makes use of personal endings. however. The personal endings follow a noun or an adjective. -iz (‘we are’) for first person Page 55 plural. no ending at all for third person singular. e. the same as on verbs: -im (‘I am’) for first person singular. -sin (‘you are’) for second person singular. as thanks handbag new what do you drink? bakar mısınız bakmak to look Language points ‘Verbless’ sentences In earlier lessons you have seen sentences such as iyiyim ‘I am fine’. First. such as O çanta yeni mi? ‘Is that bag new?’ This type of sentence contains a form of the verb ‘to be’ in the English translation. In the dialogue above. -siniz. Examples: öğretmenim öğretmensin ögretmen öğretmeniz öğretmensiniz öğretmenler hastasın I am a teacher you are a teacher he/she is a teacher we are teachers you are teachers they are teachers you are ill . All endings are subject to vowel harmony.

hazırım öğrencisiniz arkadaşlarımız öğrenci elektrikçidir I am ready you are students our friends are students he is an electrician If the noun or adjective ends in a vowel. h. The difference between the two is that -dir is used more in writing and formal speech. akıllı bir kızdır yüksek bir binadır Saying where someone/something is she is a clever girl it is a tall building The endings are not solely used for sentences of the ‘he is an X’ or ‘she is a Y’ types. . ‘You (plural) are in the restaurant’ is lokantadasınız: lokanta ‘restaurant’+-da in+-sınız ‘you are (plural)’. The title of the dialogue above consists of muhallebici ‘cake shop’. -tür or -tur. In everyday speech you don’t need to use it. as you already know. To say ‘I am in the house’ or ‘I am at home’ you use evdeyim. If you want to express ‘they are on holiday’. Phrases expressing location often take them Page 56 as well. -tır. k. -dür or -dur. the ending -dir (öğretmendir) is added. you say tatildeler: tatil ‘holiday/vacation’+-de ‘on’+-ler ‘they are’. however. the ending -de ‘in’ and the third person plural (‘they’) ending -dirler ‘they are’ Exercise 1 Fill in the right forms of ‘to be’. ş or t the -d becomes a -t: -tir. f. means ‘in the house’ or ‘at home’. so becomes -yim and -yiz respectively. Examples: hastayım hastayız I am ill we are ill iyiyim iyiyiz I am fine we’re fine The third person singular normally has no ending at all (öğretmen ‘he/she is a teacher’). Sometimes. Vowel harmony may turn the -dir form into -dır. s. the ending for the first person (singular ‘I’ and plural ‘we’) has an extra -y-. except for emphasis. evde. after ç. p. For instance. There is a similar difference between -ler and -dirler as third person plural forms.

meaning ‘not’.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 kör şoför kör parkta şoför memur gelin Türkçe öğretmeni hastanede arkadaş polis öğrenci blind driver memur gelin (you sing. The personal ending follows değil.) (they) (I) (we) (you sing. a teacher. Page 57 Examples: öğretmen değilim öğretmen değilsin öğretmen değil öğretmen değiliz öğretmen değilsiniz öğretmen değiller hasta değilsin öğrenci değildirler arkadaşlarımız öğrenci değil I am not a teacher you are not a teacher he/she is not a teacher (also: öğretmen değildir) we are not teachers you are not teachers they are not teachers (also: öğretmen değildirler) you are not ill they are not students (also: öğrenci değiller) our friends are not students . for instance.) (we) (he) (they) (I) (you plur. Then you use the word değil. once you know how to say that you are.) officer/civil servant bride körsün _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ And do you still remember the following words? park öğretmen hastane Language point Negation: değil park teacher hospital arkadaş öğrenci friend student. pupil Of course. you may also want to say what you are not.

Exercise 2 Fill in the right forms of ‘not to be’. that verbs always seem to be found at the end of a sentence. mean Page 58 ‘the sick teacher’. but are nouns modified by an adjective.) (we) (he) (they) (I) (you plur. however. The words on the right. ‘the girl is pretty’ and ‘the building is old’. Exercise 3 Translate into Turkish: 1 The teacher is handsome. . ‘the pretty girl’ and ‘the old building’.) (they) (I) (we) (you sing. You may be able now to see the difference between the following pairs: öğretmen hasta kız güzel bina eski and and and hasta öğretmen güzel kız eski bina You may have guessed that the left column contains ‘verbless’ sentences which mean ‘the teacher is ill’. The same is true for ‘verbless sentences’ where the personal endings play the role of ‘to be’. on the other hand. You may have noticed. by using değil. 3 The museum is old. 2 She is not the pretty teacher. These are not ‘verbless’ sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 kör parkta şoför memur gelin Türkçe öğretmeni hastanede arkadaş polis öğrenci (you sing.) kör değilsin _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Until now you have encountered few comments on word order in Turkish.

in order to express ‘was’ and ‘were’ in Turkish. .4 The old museum is closed. all examples of ‘to be’ or ‘not to be’ have been in the present tense. you do need one. 9 The building is tall. 5 You are in the big building. ‘You were at home’ is not evdediniz. There is. the past tense of nominal sentences. 6 He is a jobless electrician. a minor difference with the past tense verb endings. depending on the last vowel of the preceding noun. however. 7 The electrician is jobless. similar to those on past tense verbs: -dim for first person. 8 The jobless electrician is a handsome man. such as hasta. and is combined with personal endings. After words that end in a vowel. but evdeydiniz. The correct form for ‘I was ill’ is not hastadım but hastaydım. -diniz for second person plural and -diler for third person plural. the endings have an additional y right before the -di marker. 10 She is a pretty teacher. and a tense marker has not been needed. The past tense marker is -di. Be aware. However. -dik for first person plural. as usual. -di for third person singular. these could also have been past tense forms of (nonexistent) verbs öğretmenmek and şoförmek. handsome closed jobless Language points Past tense yakışıklı kapalı işsiz building tall bina yüksek So far. Examples: öğretmendin şofördü you were a teacher he was a driver Page 59 If you didn’t know any better. that is. -din for second person singular. that vowel harmony gives these endings different shapes.

NB: In written texts, the past tense ending of nominal sentences is sometimes written as idim, idin, idi, idik, idiniz and idiler with a space between the past tense marker and the word it belongs to. In daily life, however, you would not say hasta idim.
Exercise 4

The following text is written in the present tense. Change all verb forms and ‘verbless’ sentences into the past tense. Then translate into English. Ankara Üniversitesinde okuyorum. Yani bir öğrenciyim. Her gün üniversiteye gidiyorum. Her akşam çok yorgunum. En iyi arkadaşım aynı sokakta oturuyor. Onunla beraber sık sık sinemaya ve tiyatroya gidiyoruz. Arkadaşım öğrenci değil. O bir gazeteci. Gazete için röportaj yapıyor. Bazen de televizyon için röportaj yapıyor. O zaman onu televizyonda görüyorum. Arkadaşım çok ünlü. üniversite okumak yorgun aynı sokak onunla onunla beraber tiyatro gazeteci gazete gazete için bazen röportaj
Negation in the past tense

university to read; to study tired same street with him/her together with her, with him theatre journalist newspaper for a newspaper sometimes article, documentary

In the previous exercise you tried to find the past tense of öğrenci

Page 60 değil. You may have come up with the right answer (öğrenci değildi). As you see, in the negative form of past tense ‘verbles’ sentences, değil is used again. The past tense marker (-di) comes right after değil.
Examples:

hasta değildim

I was not ill

gazeteci değildiniz arkadaşım ünlü değildi
Language point Questions

you were not journalists my friend was not famous

This might be a good moment to quickly look again at the section on questions with -iyor and -di in Lesson 3. In order to turn ‘verbless’ sentences into questions, you also use the question marker mi. In the present tense, the personal endings are added to mi, except for, of course, the third person (he/she/it) which has no personal ending for ‘to be’. In the past tense, however, the past tense endings (-ydim, -ydin etc.) come right after mi. Watch how this works in the following examples: 3rd person singular present tense statements bu patlıcan iyi this aubergine is good patlıcan iyi değil the aubergine is not good past tense patlıcan iyiydi the aubergine was good patlıcan iyi değildi the aubergine was not good 2nd person singular present tense statements hastasın you are ill hasta değilsin you are not ill questions patlıcan iyi mi? is the aubergine good? patlıcan iyi değil mi? the aubergine is not good? patlıcan iyi miydi? was the aubergine good? patlıcan iyi değil miydi? was the aubergine not good? questions hasta mısın? are you ill? hasta değil misin? are you not ill?

Page 61 past tense hastaydın you were ill hasta değildin you were not ill More examples: Patlıcan iyi. İyi misin? Tehlikeli değil mi? Tehlikeli, değil mi? hasta mıydın? were you ill? hasta değil mıydın? were you not ill? Aubergines are good. Are you okay? Isn’t it dangerous? It is dangerous, isn’t it?

Müze güzel değil miydi?

Wasn’t the museum nice?

The third person plural questions (‘are they?’) are a bit tricky, since both forms (-ler and -dirler; see earlier in this Lesson) have a different placement of the question word mi. The written and slightly more formal variant (-dirler ‘they are’) is added to mi, as in Öğrenci midirler? ‘Are they students?’. In the more colloquial version, however, -ler is used instead of -dirler, and is added to the noun. The question word mi comes last: Ögrenciler mi? ‘Are they students?’. Exercise 5 Find the right forms, using the information on person, tense and sentence type: Example: gazeteci or: gazeteci gazeteci gazeteci şoför şoför şoför şoför they, present tense, question Gazeteci midirler? Gazeteciler mi? I, past tense we past tense, negation you plur., present tense, question you sing., past tense you sing., present tense, question she, present tense they, past tense ‘Are they journalists?’ ‘Are they journalists?’ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

By now you know much of the basics of how to make a sentence in Turkish.

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Exercise 6

Translate the following text into Turkish. You’ll have to use both ‘verbless’ sentences and ones with verbs (with -iyor and -di). 1 Did you see the accident? 2 Yes, I did see it. Were there injured people? 3 Yes, there were. The drivers are in hospital. 4 How are they?

5 They are doing well now. 6 Are you sure? 7 No, I am not sure. the accident were there kazayı var mıydı? injured people sure yaralılar emin

Dialogue 2 Maalesef yok

Unfortunately not The waiter arrives at Özlem and Demet’s table GARSON: Buyurun? DEMET: Kahve var mı? GARSON: Maalesef yok. DEMET: Neyse, bana portakal suyu getirir misiniz? GARSON: Tabii, getiririm. (The waiter returns with a bottle of orange juice) ÖZLEM: Tatlı olarak ne var? GARSON: Çeşitlerimiz çok. Baklava, kadayıf, aşure ve muhallebi var. DEMET: Bize ne tavsiye edersiniz? GARSON: Kadayıfımız çok nefis. GARSON: Yes please? DEMET: Do you have coffee? GARSON: Unfortunately not. DEMET: Well then, can you bring me an orange juice? GARSON: Of course, I’ll bring it.

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(The waiter returns with a bottle of orange juice) ÖZLEM: What do you have for dessert? GARSON: We ‘ve got various things. Honey-and-almonds-filled pastry, syrup-andnuts-filled pastry, fruit-and-nut pudding and rice pudding. DEMET: What do you recommend? GARSON: Our kadayıf is very tasty.
Key vocabulary

kahve neyse bana getirir misiniz? tatlı
Language point Existential sentences

coffee well then (to) me do you bring? dessert, sweet

olarak çeşit tavsiye etmek tavsiye edersiniz nefis

as, for kind, sort, variety to recommend you recommend tasty

In order to express whether things are around or not, Turkish has a special type of sentence, called existential sentences. They typically contain either var ‘there is/are’ or yok ‘there is/are not’. Both words come at the end: Kahve var. Çay yok. There is coffee/They have coffee. There is no tea/They haven’t got any tea.

Londra’da eski binalar var. In London there are old buildings. Ankara’da ilginç müzeler var mı? Are there interesting museums in Ankara? Var and yok are also often used where English would use ‘to have’ e.g. kardeşim var ‘I have a brother’.
Exercise 7

Say whether the Turkish translation of the following English sentences is a var/yok sentence or a ‘verbless’ sentence. You will then see whether you’ve grasped the difference between the two types.

Page 64 1 He is not very smart, is he? 2 Do you have any money? 3 Is there any hope? 4 The smart students are in my class. 5 There is no smart student in my class. 6 There are many bookshops in this street.
Language point Possession

You have learnt before that Turkish usually does not use pronouns where English does. One case in which Turkish uses pronouns, such as ben ‘I’ and sen ‘you’, is when the English translation is ‘to have with me/you/him/her’ etc. So, when you want to say you have something with you, the words var and yok are used, in combination with a pronoun and the ending for place -de. Bende para var. Sende para yok mu? I have money (on me). Don’t you have money (on you)?

For an answer you can just say var if you have, or yok if you haven’t got money in your pocket. You don’t have to repeat para ‘money’ in the answer. Maybe you do have money, but you’re not carrying it around all the time. If you have it in your bank account, you say: Param var. I’ve got money.

The -m ending after para is the ending signifying possession. The literal meaning of param var is ‘my money is there’ i.e., it exists. The difference between bende para var and param var is that the first is focused on the fact that you have it ‘on you’ at the time of speech, whereas the latter means ‘I’ve got money’ in a more general sense. You also use this format with things that you cannot possibly carry with you: Vaktim var. İyi bir fikrimiz var. İsteğim yok. Cesareti yok. I’ve got time. We have a good idea. I don’t fancy…(I don’t have the wish to…). He hasn’t got the courage.

Page 65 This form also is used with persons other than first singular ‘I’. The possessive endings are: -im (or after a vowel -m) for first person singular; -in (or after a vowel -n) for second person singular; -si (or after a vowel -i) for third person singular; -imiz (or after a vowel -miz) for first person plural; -iniz (or after a vowel -niz) for second person plural; and -leri for third person plural.
More examples:

Annesi var. Boş odalarınız var mı? Maalesef boş odalarımız yok. Çocukları yok. Tatlı olarak neleriniz var?

He/she/it’s got a mother. Have you got vacancies (‘empty rooms’)? Unfortunately we haven’t got vacancies. They haven’t got children. What have you got for dessert?

You may already have seen some similarity between the first person possessive marker -(i)m ‘my’ and the first person personal ending -(y)im ‘I am’. See for yourself in the following examples how the two differ when the word before ends in a vowel: babam babayım öğretmenim my father I am a father my teacher/I am a teacher

In Lesson 6 we will elaborate on this. For the time being, just take a look at the following examples. The -un in çocuğun and the -in in evin are so-called genitive case markers. Çocuğun annesi var. Evin bahçesi yok.
Language points Past tense: vardı/yoktu

The child has got a mother. The house hasn’t got a garden.

The past tense forms of var and yok are vardı (‘there was/there were’) and yoktu (‘there was not/ there were not’).

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Examples:

Dün dersler yoktu. Yesterday there were no lessons. Geçen hafta başka bir öğretmen vardı. Last week there was another teacher. Geçen yıl başka bir arabamız vardı. Last year we had a different car. Parası yoktu. He did not have any money. Gücümüz vardı. We had the strength. Cesaretin yoktu. You didn’t have the courage.
Questions

If you want to ask questions about whether something is available, such as specific vegetables at the greengrocer’s, use the mi question marker. It follows var and yok, but precedes the past tense marker. In this situation, you don’t need to use the possessive ending (which you might think when you look at the English translation).
Examples:

Patlıcan var mı? Have you got any aubergines? Kavun yok mu? Haven’t you got any honeydew melons? Dün tek bir öğrenci yok muydu? Wasn’t there a single student yesterday? Geçen hafta ders var mıydı? Were there any lessons last week?

But remember that mi comes after the past tense -di in normal questions about the past: Dün döndün mü? Did you return yesterday?

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Exercise 8

You should now be able to make questions from the following sentences. The first one has been done for you. Remember that mi may be placed in different positions to stress different elements in a sentence (see Lesson 3). 1 O çok yaşlı. 2 Bunlar. 3 Kahve istiyorsun. 4 Bir tane kavun aldık. 5 Hiç çay yoktu. 6 Ankara’daydılar. 7 Ankara’da var. 8 İngiltere’de oturuyoruz. yaşlı
Dialogue 3 Bu ne?

O çok yaşlı mı? (or: Çok mu yaşlı? if you want to stress çok ‘very’)

old (used of people)

What’s this? Eileen joins Demet and Özlem and stares in amazement at a plate filled with sweets and pastries EILEEN: Ne kadar güzel görünüyor! DEMET: Hadi, bir tadına bak! EILEEN: Tamam. Bu ne? DEMET: Bu mu? EILEEN: Hayır, şu pasta.

DEMET: Ha, bu bülbül yuvası. Çok güzel! İstersen, bir tane al. (Eileen tastes the ‘nightingale’s nest’) EILEEN: Hmm, çok nefis! EILEEN: How nice this looks! DEMET: Come on, try something! EILEEN: All right. What’s that? DEMET: This one? EILEEN: No, that cake.

Page 68 DEMET: Oh, that’s ‘nightingale’s nest’. It’s very nice! Take a piece, if you want. EILEEN: Hmm, very tasty!
Key vocabulary

görünmek

to look, appear

bir tane a piece istersen if you want al! take! to take almak

bir tadına bak try something (literally: just look at its taste) tat pasta
Language point Demonstratives: bu, şu, o

taste cake

In everyday conversation you often need gestures to accompany your words. Demonstratives often accompany your gestures. Turkish has three of them, and you’ve encountered them all before: bu this (close) şu this or that (used when you want to focus the listener’s direction) o that (far away), but also used as personal pronoun (‘he’, ‘she’ or ‘it’)
Examples:

Bu Müjgan.

This is Müjgan.

Bu ne? Patlıcan. O Orhan. Şu armut ne kadar?

What is this? (It’s) aubergine. That is Orhan. How much are those pears?

Bu, şu and o can be used both as modifier of a noun and by themselves. Sometimes this may lead to some ambiguity: Bu Ford. O kasap. 1 2 1 2 This Ford. This is a Ford. That butcher. He is a butcher.

Page 69 You use şu whenever you want to direct the attention of the listener towards an object or a person not previously mentioned in the conversation. As soon as the listener notices the object or person referred to, both speakers have to use bu when object or person are nearby, or o when object or person are further away. For instance, the answer to the question Şu bina ne? ‘What’s that building?’ is O bina bir kütüphane ‘That building is a library’ and never Şu bina bir kütüphane. Şu may have a slightly derogatory meaning, so be careful with this form. Examples are: Şu adam kim? Who’s that (suspicious-looking) man? Şunu yapmak istemiyorum. I don’t want to do that (lousy) job. Note that in the second example, şu carries the accusative case, because it is a direct object. Remember we saw onu ‘him/her/ it/that’, the accusative of o ‘he/she/it/that’ in Lesson 3 (see the Reference Grammar for the complete list of case markings on bu/şu/o). You will learn more about the accusative in Lesson 6. Şu may also refer to something mentioned in the sentence following it, or to things that are handed over to someone else: Şunu diyelim: Ali bugün burada yoktu. Let me say this: Ali wasn’t here today. Şunu alır mısın?

Can you take this? The word bu may have an idiomatic use when it is used after nouns: Türk Hava Yolları bu! That’s Turkish Airlines for you! (i.e.: what would you expect!?) hava yol hava yolları air (in addition to ‘weather’) way airways, airlines

These three forms form the basis of a host of other words. You already know burada ‘here’ and orada ‘there’. Similarly, there is also şurada ‘there’, ‘yonder’. The plural forms of bu, şu and o are: bunlar şunlar onlar these those those

Page 70 These plural forms are often used as the subject of a sentence, meaning ‘these/those [are]…’). Note in the following examples that the word after bunlar doesn’t have to be marked for plural: Bunlar Alman. Bunlar normal insan. but: Bu ağaçlar yüksek. These trees are tall. These are Germans. These are normal people.

In colloquial speech, the plural demonstratives are also used for people: Bunlar lokantaya gider sık sık.
Exercise 9

They often go to the restaurant.

Translate into English: 1 Bu kitap iyi. 2 Bu iyi kitap şimdi kütüphanede. 3 Böyle bir kitap dün kütüphanede yoktu.

4 Onlar kitap. Translate into Turkish: 5 This is Aylin. 6 That girl is not Aylin. 7 Those aubergines are in the kitchen. 8 Are these in the library? böyle kütüphane mutfak
Reading text

such library kitchen

The main purpose of the following text is to enlarge your vocabulary, in particular the part devoted to food.

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Türk mutfağının zenginliği

The richness of Turkish cuisine When you go to a Turkish lokanta ‘restaurant’, you will certainly have a great time. The Türk mutfağı ‘Turkish cuisine’ is renowned, and combines the best of Central Asian, Oriental and Balkan dishes and ingredients. In many restaurants, although not in the expensive ones, it is common not to have a yemek listesi or menü ‘menu’ available. Instead, you will be invited to come and have a look in the mutfak ‘kitchen’ and point at the things you would like to eat. So, what can you expect from eating out in Turkey? You may eat one of several delicious çorba ‘soups’ for starters, for öğle yemeği ‘lunch’, or even for kahvaltı ‘breakfast’, such as mercimek çorbası ‘lentil soup’, or düğün çorbası “wedding soup” containing eggs and lemon juice. Another way of starting a meal is to have some meze ‘hors d’oeuvres’, such as yaprak dolması ‘stuffed vine leaves’, sigara böreği “cigar pastry” (fried dough filled with white cheese), or cacık (diced cucumber with yoghurt and garlic). You may also order a plate of karışık ‘mixed’ meze as a full meal. As a main course, you may have et ‘meat’, balık ‘fish’, tavuk ‘chicken’ or sebze ‘vegetable’ dishes, accompanied by a nice pilav ‘pilaf rice dish’. Su ‘water’ and ekmek

‘bread’ are always served. Popular meat dishes are given names of cities, such as Adana kebap, a spicy variant, Bursa kebap (made from döner kebap, lamb roasted on a vertical spit, on pide ‘bread’). Turkey’s national drink is çay ‘tea’, which is offered everywhere, whether you are visiting a family, buying a carpet, or taking a rest in a shady park. At dinner, however, you’ll find other drinks, such as different kinds of meyve suyu ‘fruit juice’ or içkiler ‘alcoholic beverages’, such as şarap ‘wine’, bira ‘beer’ and rakı, a pastis- or ouzo-like drink. Of course, kola and fanta are popular as well. You can end your meal with a dessert (see the dialogues above for some possibilities). When you order Türk kahvesi ‘Turkish coffee’, you’ll have to state whether you want it sade ‘black, no sugar’, orta ‘with a medium amount of sugar’ or şekerli which usually is ‘very, very, very sweet’. If you want milk in your coffee, specifically state that you want it sütlü ‘with milk’. When you’re ready to pay the bill, ask the waiter ‘Ödeyebilir miyim?’ ‘Can I pay?’ or ‘Hesap, lütfen’ ‘The bill, please.’ When you read the bill, you will notice that in most cases servis ‘service’

Page 72 is dahil ‘included’. If you leave satisfied, you may want to leave a small bahşiş ‘tip’.
More useful words:

bulgur ayran lahmacun beyin aile salonu aileye mahsustur

broken wheat salty yoghurt drink Turkish version of pizza brain

işkembe kaşık bıcak çatal

tripe spoon knife fork

family room (meaning that no single men are allowed there) reserved for families (with a similar implication)

See Lesson 8 for a recipe.

Page 73

5 Kaç yaşındasın?
How old are you?

kaç doğumlusun? ESER: Bin dokuz yüz altmış dört. Sen kaç yaşındasın? NURSEN: Ben yirmi üç yaşındayım. NURSEN: Aya ilk ayak basan insanı hatırlıyor musun? ESER: Hatırlıyorum. They are hanging around in the school building after the class NURSEN: Sana bir soru sormak istiyorum: kaç yaşındasın? ESER: Kaç gösteriyorum? NURSEN: Yirmi beş mi? ESER: Hayır. etc.In this lesson you will learn how to: • use numbers • ask and answer questions • say how old you are • use ‘negative’ expressions • ask and answer questions in more detail • use plurals • say ‘first’. ‘second’. NURSEN: Ya öyle mi? Peki. Dialogue 1 O kadar gençsin! You’re so young! Nursen and Eser have struck up a friendship after both joining an evening class. o kadar genç değilim. NURSEN: I want to ask you a question: how old are you? Page 74 . ama çok iyi değil.

I’m not that young. NURSEN: Oh. Here are the numbers for ‘1’ to ‘10’ and for ‘20’ to ‘100’: . when were you born? ESER: In 1961. Key vocabulary soru yaş göstermek o kadar doğumlu ay question age to show that much born moon. NURSEN: Do you remember the first man who walked on the moon? ESER: I do. human stepping to step. but not very well. really? OK. month ayak insan basan basmak ilk ayak basan insan hatırlamak foot people. And how old are you? NURSEN: I’m twenty-three. to tread the first person who set foot to remember Language points Numbers The word for ‘zero’ is sıfır.ESER: How old do I look? NURSEN: Twenty-five? ESER: No.

bir one yirmi twent y iki two otuz thirty üç three kırk forty dört four elli fifty beş five altmış sixty .

there are two words: yarım and buçuk. ‘half’ is translated by yarım. . Thus. however. We walked three and a half kilometers. iki etc. for the higher numbers. I worked in this factory for two years. He came at half past four. Thus.000) is bir milyon. I’ve bought half a kilo of cheese. The second example shows how to express ‘for X years’: you simply say X sene. it is also the word used in telling the time (see Lesson 7).Numbers between 10 and 20. Page 75 and ‘seventy six’ is yetmiş altı. Turkish never uses bir. Üç buçuk kilometre yürüdük. Bu üniversite için bin dokuz yüz seksen üçten beri çalışıyorum. Yarım kilo peynir aldım.. In the Glossary. I was born in 1965. you will see this as: beri (-den) ‘since’. At all other times. between 20 and 30 etc. as it is only used after another numeral. Note that for ‘a hundred’ and ‘a thousand’.000. Saat dört buçukta geldi. the pattern is exactly the same. With numbers over a hundred. the sequence iki bin ‘two thousand’ will be heard more and more. It does do this. The word for ‘thousand’ is bin. Bu fabrikada iki sene calıştım. For ‘half. An important sequence of numbers to know is bin dokuz yüz. The word for ‘a million’ (1. I’ve been working for this university since 1983. For ‘523’ you say beş yüz yirmi üç. Bin dokuz yüz altmış beşte doğdum. And from now on. ‘eleven’ is on bir. for the 1900s. The last example shows how to express ‘since’ in Turkish: you add the ablative case suffix (the one that indicates ‘direction away from’) to the name of the year. are regularly formed by putting on before bir. and then add the word beri. The latter means ‘and a half’. Note that the noun following a number is not in the plural form.

yendim ve ödül aldım. Bin dokuz yüz onda. Dört sene sonra ailemiz Ankara’ya taşındı. some important dates in the life of an old man are mentioned. Key vocabulary ailemiz bulmak kadar (-e) Hanım en sonuncusu son our family to find until Mrs the very last end mutlu yanında hayat birde başarı happy at. İlk çocuğumuz iki sene sonra doğdu. read the text and then match the dates given with the events listed on the righthand side.… success 1910 did a few years of secondary school (rüştiye is what it was called at the time. Ben. Ondan sonra benim karımla tanıştım. In other words. Bin dokuz yüz altmışa kadar çok mutluydum. You’ll find a translation in the Key. Bin dokuz yüz yetmiş üçe kadar çalıştım. Try to resist the temptation of listing the dates according to the most Page 76 logical progression in a person’s life. next to life you know. en büyük başarım bin dokuz yüz otuz birdeydi. Dediğim gibi. look for the written-out dates in the text and see what is said about them.Exercise 1 In the following little text. Kızdı. Eser Hanım iyi bir kadındı. bin dokuz yüz yirmi üçten yirmi yediye kadar rüştiyeye gittim. Günaydın. En sonuncusu bin dokuz yüz kırk dokuzda doğdu. First. the modern equivalent is a lise) 1916 won wrestling competition 1920 retired 1920s had their last child 1931 got married 1935 lost his wife 1937 had their first child 1949 was born 1960 went to school . Kars’ta doğdum. Şimdi kızlarımızın birinin yanında oturuyorum. go through that translation carefully. Bin dokuz yüz on altıda ilk defa okula gittim. After you’ve completed the exercise. adı Sumru. making sure you know the meaning of the words underlined there. Birde. Adım Orhan. hayatım çok güzeldi. O sene karım öldü. Daha beş çocuğumuz oldu. Babam orada iyi bir iş buldu. Ankara güreş yarışmasına katıldım. Bin dokuz yüz otuz beşte evlendik.

it is important that you try and master them as soon as possible.1973 lives with one of his three daughters now family moved to Ankara Page 77 Exercise 2 Match the English and Turkish numbers. . for example at the beginning of every new lesson. It is advisable to repeat this exercise every once in a while. try and work on your speed by trying to complete the exercise as quickly as possible. by writing them out a few times on different pieces of paper in various random orders). While doing that.g. As numbers are frequently used in daily speech. You could time yourself each time to monitor your progress. The effects will be even better if you jumble the numbers around a bit (e.

three altı fifty doks an five bir twent y sekse n eight doku z hund red otuz two on sixty yirm i nine yedi seven .

BAKKAL: Tamam.’ Simply insert your age. Page 78 Dialogue 2 Dükkanda In the shop Mehmet has run into the bakkal (the grocer’s) on the corner to get a few things for tonight’s meal. maalesef bitti. Çocuklarımız iki ve beş yaşında. . ‘year’. say otuz bir. Bin dokuz yüz yetmişte on bir yaşındaydım. In 1970 I was 11 years old. bir kilo yeterli. The phrase…yaşındayım means ‘I’m…years old. and you’ve answered the question kaç yaşındasın? An alternative answer would be yaşım otuz bir. BAKKAL: Buyurun! MEHMET: Biraz peynir istiyorum. The bakkal (grocer) is now ready to take his order BAKKAL: Hoş geldiniz. BAKKAL: Buyurun. dolmalık biber var mı? BAKKAL: Yok. Başka birşey istiyor musunuz? MEHMET: Evet. Our children are two and five. iki tane ekmek de alayım. To talk about your age at some point in the past. Teşekkürler.Saying how old you are The important word here is yaş. use yaşındaydım. nasılsınız? MEHMET: Hoş bulduk. MEHMET: Birde. BAKKAL: Ne kadar istiyorsunuz? MEHMET: Bakayım.

BAKKAL: How much would you like? MEHMET: Let me see. efendim. Hayırlı işler. BAKKAL: Welcome. MEHMET: Buyurun. MEHMET: There you go. a kilo would be fine. MEHMET: And. Page 79 Key vocabulary peynir yeterli ekmek bitmek cheese enough bread to finish bakayım alayım biber dolmalık let me see let me take pepper. Sir. unfortunately. BAKKAL: OK. we’re out.000 lira please. Goodbye. Would you like anything else? MEHMET: Yes. how are you? MEHMET: The pleasure’s mine. Have a good day. (literally: it has finished) MEHMET: OK. lütfen. BAKKAL: What can I do for you? MEHMET: I’d like some cheese please. er. Hepsi bu kadar. paprika pepper for . What do I owe you? BAKKAL: 800. Borcum ne kadar? BAKKAL: Sekiz yüz bin lira. BAKKAL: Teşekkür ederim. I’ll have two loaves of bread as well. have you got any peppers for stuffing? BAKKAL: No. Thank you. BAKKAL: There you are. o zaman. BAKKAL: Thank you. İyi günler. That’s everything.MEHMET: Peki. then.

others will typically be thrown at you by the shop assistant. üzgünüm 11 bozuk paranız mevsim ucuz üzgün season cheap sad Page 80 Language point Negation By now you have learned the basic ways of asking things and answering questions.biber hepsi iki tane ekmek everything two loaves (literally: pieces) of bread borç stuffing debt NB: You may remember from Lesson 2 that buyurun is used both when giving something to someone and when asking someone what he/she would like. Be aware that in some cases the English equivalent is not at all a literal translation (for instance with No. Some will be said by you as a customer. that’s cheap. Exercise 3 There are of course many other useful phrases for shopping. Here are some. at least when the answer is ‘yes’. After that. f have you got…? g are they good this time of year? h we haven’t got any left. that’s…. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 …niz var mı? hepsi ne kadar? …verir misiniz? hepsi…ediyor. little small change (literally: broken money) 10 maalesef. maalesef bitti. 10 below). i how much is that together? j do you want a bag? k oh. bu mevsimde iyi mi? bu ucuz bir poşet istiyor musunuz? daha küçüğü var mı? a could you give me…? b your change c in all. all the ground covered so far concerning questions and answers will be reviewed. . which phrase goes with which English equivalent. try and figure out on the basis of what you know and the Glossary provided at the end of the exercise. küçük bozuk para small. we don’t sell that. d have you got anything smaller? e unfortunately. We will now see how to answer in the negative. unfortunately.

(Lesson 2: Exercise 4) But I don’t speak it well yet. Burada değiller. Two of them you already know from the previous lesson. The negative of bakıyor is bakmıyor. However. Şunu yapmak istemiyorum. and sentences with ‘there isn’t’ use yok. -me or -ma. -iyor) and person markers. this suffix comes before the tense (e. That is. and of gidiyorsun it is gitmiyorsun. What you don’t know yet is how to negate sentences with a verb. a verb is negated by adding a suffix. Paramız yoktu. ‘he isn’t’ and ‘they aren’t’ are translated using değil. Türk değilim. . They’re not here. Sentences such as ‘I’m not’. to the verb stem. (Lesson 4: Demonstratives) I don’t want to do that. The negation of geldi is gelmedi. We didn’t have any money. so that in -iyor forms the negation is solely expressed through an -m after the verb stem. I’m not Turkish. My wife isn’t working at the moment. Ama henüz iyi konuşmuyorum. from examples in the dialogues and exercises you may have developed an intuition for how this is done. (Lesson 2: Dialogue 2) He didn’t come with you? He didn’t come. Page 81 Some more examples: Karım şimdi çalışmıyor. Ergün hiçbir şey fark etmedi. In Turkish.There are three ways of negating that you will need to know about. Both occur in ‘verbless’ sentences. The e or a of the negative suffix is omitted if the following sound is a vowel.g. There isn’t another train to Bursa today. Bugün daha Bursa’ya giden tren yok. Tanımıyor musunuz? (Lesson 1: Reading text) Don’t you know (recognise) her? Sizinle gelmedi mi? Gelmedi.

such as ne or ne zaman. such as Ankara’ya gidiyor musunuz? ‘Are you going to Ankara?’ or Ankara’ya gittiniz mi? ‘Did you go to Ankara?’. Kazanmadım. Açmadı. Dinlenmiyor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Beklemedik. Yıkıyorlar. mu or mü) to the word that you’re questioning. as they are not all negative. Exercise 4 Give the dictionary forms of the following finite verbs. Bunun iyi olduğunu sanmıyorum. The first one has been done already. Batmıyor. as illustrated by most of the examples encountered so far. Uğramıyorum.Ergün didn’t notice a thing. Be careful. Yaşıyor. You will see that both positive and negative answers are given. Beklemek. Questions: 1 Add mi (or mı. Seviyorsunuz. Pişirmedi. You can precede it by evet. I don’t think that’s right. Questions and answers: an overview Here is a review of asking and answering questions. 2 Use one of the question words. then: (a) if you want to say ‘yes’: use the normal type of sentence. If . Answers: I If the question was a mi-type sentence containing a verb marked with -iyor or -di.

You can always precede your answer with hayır. I’m going. Example: Evet. but with the negative marker -me. I was ill. Example: Gitmiyorum. There was (tea). as in Çay var mı? ‘Is there tea?’ or Çay var mıydı? ‘Was there tea?’ then: (a) if you want to say ‘yes’: answer with var. (b) if you want to say ‘no’: use değil plus the relevant person marker (for ‘I’m not’ the right form is değilim). hastayım. I went. Example: (Çay) var. such as Hasta mısın? ‘Are you ill?’ or Hasta mıydın? ‘Were you ill?’ then: (a) if you want to say ‘yes’: repeat the word that was questioned plus the relevant person marker. also optionally. the word that was questioned. (b) if you want to say ‘no’: repeat the verb that was used in the question. I’m not (ill).(or -ma-). possibly preceded by evet and. (Hasta) değildim. I’m not going. Hastaydım. but be warned that this word is not used nearly as often in Turkish as ‘no’ is in English. Yes. try and use that verb in your answer too. I didn’t go.Page 82 there was a verb with for example -iyor or -di in the question. Gittim. I wasn’t (ill). II If the question was a mi-type sentence without a verb marked with -iyor or -di. III If the question contained var mı? or yok mu?. (Çay) vardı. possibly preceded by evet. Gitmedim. . Example: Gidiyorum. (b) if you want to say ‘no’: There is (tea). I’m ill. Example: (Hasta) değilim.

providing a relevant answer.answer with yok. there isn’t (any tea). Page 83 Example: Hayır. I live in London. No. as in Nerede oturuyorsunuz? ‘Where do you live?’ then: use a normal type of sentence. Give an appropriate answer to the following questions. possibly preceded by hayır and/or the word that was questioned. (çay) yok. 1 Bu akşam evde misin? 2 Nereden geldin? 3 Bize uğramak istiyor musunuz? 4 Bu hafta sonu neler yaptınız? 5 Şu ağacı görüyor musunuz? 6 Lahmacun seviyor musun? 7 Buralarda bakkal var mı? 8 Kaç dil biliyorsunuz? 9 Türkiye’de kilo aldınız mu? 10 Siz nerelisiniz? 11 Vaktiniz yok mı? 12 Kahvaltı dahil mi? uğramak ağaç lahmacun to visit tree Turkish pizza dil kilo almak dahil language to put on weight included . there wasn’t (any tea). No. (Çay) yoktu. but with a question word (often in first position). IV If the question was a sentence without mi. Example: Exercise 5 Londra’da oturuyorum.

var mı. Buyurun. isn’t it? Türkiye’de güzel yerler gördün mü? Did you see any nice places in Turkey? . teşekkürler. mı. misiniz. Başka bir isteğiniz…? 7 Hayır. ne kadar. Baklava bugün…? 4 Çok iyi. as long as the noun is singular: Eskişehir güzel bir şehir. Kuzu…sığır…istiyorsunuz? 3 Sığır istiyorum lütfen. çok nefis! Bir kilo verebilir…? Page 84 6 Tamam. When a noun combines with an adjective. they are separated by bir. Borcum…? kıymalı et kuzu sığır tadına bakın! Language points The use of bir ground meat lamb beef have a taste! verebilir istek borcum could you give wish my bill The word bir ‘one’ also functions as an indefinite article. nasıl. tadına bakın! 5 Oh. the question words are omitted. mı 1 Merhaba. değil mi? Eskişehir is a nice city. Using the list given.bakkal Exercise 6 grocery store In the following dialogue. Kıymalı et var…? 2 Var. mu. supply the correct forms.

use the word kimse. From now on. No-one knew the answer. Biri cevabı bildi. Birisi and biri can also be preceded by hiç and then mean ‘none of them’. The basic principle is that you don’t use the plural suffix if you don’t have to. Examples include ‘something’ birşey. In Turkish. which must be used to negate bir zaman. similar to English). However. Numbers higher than one are assumed to make clear that you’re not talking about something in the singular. but ‘three duck’. you don’t say ‘three ducks’ in Turkish. This principle extends to uses where it is irrelevant (or you want to make it seem irrelevant) whether you are talking about one or more items. i. so the plural marker is considered redundant. For ‘no-one’. for instance. Contrary to English. the last one is the least specific about the number of CDs bought by the speaker: it may be one or any number of CDs. Page 85 Kimse cevabı bilmedi. absence of -ler does not necessarily mean that the noun in question is singular. ‘someone’ birisi or biri. It is one of the few suffixes that are used with both nouns and verbs. Someone knew the answer. look out for new occurrences of these types of words. I didn’t understand a thing. most negation is done through negative verbs. and serves to emphasise the negation of birşey. Hiçbir zaman rakı içmem. Their negations are handy to know as well. depending on vowel harmony. .Bir is also part of a great many other words. Hiçbir şey anlamadım. Of the next three examples. through verbs with the -me/-ma suffix. Its use is fairly straightforward (that is. except for a few details.e. I didn’t understand a single thing. you should also know the word hiç. I never drink rakı. and ‘sometimes’ bir zaman (compare ‘one time’). many of them frequently used. Use of plural The plural suffix is -ler or -lar. Birşey anlamadım. Importantly.

I don’t know anybody in Turkey. . How many? Three. Turkish doesn’t. 5 No. I’ve bought a CD/CDs in town. 8 What happened here? (use oldu) 9 We have four dogs at home. Exercise 7 I bought aubergines. though note that numbers do often co-occur with the word tane ‘piece’. 6 Türk gazetelerini okuyor musunuz? 7 Hiçbir şey yapmadım. When you’re listening to somebody. Page 86 Exercise 8 Translate English sentences into Turkish and Turkish ones into English: 1 Bir şey içiyor musun? 2 Şimdi hangi romanı okuyorsun? 3 I was born in the US. I’ve bought CDs in town. Çarşıda CDler aldım. So. Go over all the nouns used so far in the dialogues in this lesson. 10 Sokakta bir kaza oldu ve hemen polis geldi. you can’t be sure whether absence of -ler actually means that the speaker is talking about ‘one’ and not about ‘more’. Give their plural forms. I’ve bought a couple of CDs in town. Çarşıda CD aldım. ask a question with kaç: Patlıcan aldım.Çarşıda iki tane CD aldım. Kaç tane? Üç. where English forces you to use the plural if you are talking about more than one instance of something. that means that without further context (such as being shown five CDs at the same time). If you want to make sure. 4 Bu tişörtü bin dokuz yüz doksanda aldım.

-uncu or -üncü. of course) turns the numerals into ordinals. ‘second’ and ‘thirtieth’: .Language point Ordinal numbers The suffix -inci (or -ıncı. words like ‘first’.e. i.

birinci first altıncı sixth ikinci second yedinci seventh üçüncü third sekizinci eighth dördüncü fourth dokuzuncu ninth beşinci fifth onuncu tenth yirmi beşinci .

‘few’. ‘a definite set’. The first day the coffee is free. Some of these are introduced in the following exercise. One such word is tane. Exercise 9 Read through the following text and try to reconstruct Mevlüt’s shopping list. kilo. metre and litre (their particular form gives away that they were borrowed from French). Ordering When you find yourself in a shop or a restaurant. ondan sonra yemek yiyeceğiz. Birinci is used in summing-up contexts. First I want something to drink. This word has overtones of ‘the very first’. and is often used in contexts where in English you can paraphrase with ‘at first’. Page 87 Bu beşinci ders. Önce birşey içmek istiyorum. etc. Both words only mean ‘first’ when used as an adjective. then we’ll eat. Watch out: some of the things she wanted she didn’t get. which roughly means ‘piece’. The numerals are basic. Birinci gün kahve ücretsiz.You may have noted an alternative for birinci in the first dialogue of this lesson: ilk. where you can clearly paraphrase with ‘the first of many’. But other things are different. so that other words may be thrown at you. is more of an abstract ‘first’. try and find out what the words printed in bold mean. The first months aren’t easy. . In the process. This is the fifth lesson. The two words are not interchangeable. so it is for instance often used in the phrase ilk defa. but there are a few other words without which interaction would not be easy. on the other hand. Bugün Olimpiyat oyunlarının kaçıncı günü? The ‘how many-eth’ day of the Olympics is it today? İlk aylar kolay değil. İlk. Very easy are the international words gram. in phrases like ‘first I did this. then that’. there are a few things you typically need to be able to understand and/or say. ‘the first time’. ‘first’ is an adverb and translated with önce.

tabii ki. Yalnız beş şişe bira aldım. Sonunda patlıcan aldım. ALİ: Ha. Tahmin etmek istiyorum. (hums the melody) Şarkının konusu ne? CENGİZ: Aşktır. ya! Fakat ismini unuttum. Bugünkü alışverişler işte böyle berbat geçti. and is telling her how her trip to the shop was Bu akşam dolma yemek istedik. Şarkıcı kim? CENGİZ: Edip Akbayram. ALİ: O mu? Biraz düşünelim. Nohut istedim. O beni bir sey içmeye davet etti. şimdi hatırladım! ‘Hava nasıl oralarda…’ Together they start singing the song ALİ/CENGİZ: hava nasıl oralarda üşüyor musun? kar yağıyor saçlarıma bilmiyor musun? . Orada iki tavuk. nohut da yoktu. biraz siyah zeytin ve bir buçuk kilo elma aldım ama yine de iyi dolmalık biber bulamadım. Sonra pazara gittim. ama iyi değildi. Ama hava durumundan da söz ediyor. söyleme. yarım kilo beyaz peynir. ama biber yoktu markette. Ondan sonra başka bir bakkala gittim. dolma dükkan pazar tavuk beyaz siyah zeytin elma Reading text stuffed peppers store market chicken white black olives apple nohut aramak durmak şarap alışveriş geçmek chickpeas to search for to stand (here: keep) wine shopping to pass Cengiz is humming a song ALİ: Bu melodiyi tanıyorum. İki tane ekmek aldım ve dükkandan çıktım. O bir fincan kahve Page 88 içti. ben de bir kadeh şarap içtim. Dur. Bibere baktım. Her yerde aradım durdum. Daha sonra Eser’e rastladım.Mevlüt is talking to her friend Hatice on the phone.

Ali seems to know the melody. Now Ali remembers the title: hava nasıl oralarda. • use ‘to have’ in more detail • use the accusative and genitive cases. such as ‘mine’. What could that mean? Dur ‘wait’ and söyleme ‘don’t sing’ are examples of how you ‘give orders’. use ‘possessives’. Can you figure out what the root word is of saçlarıma (i.e. i. The word tabii ‘of course’ indicates that there are many more songs about aşk. ‘yours’. Again. and asks şarkıcı kim? Now. Can you find out what it means? The question üşüyor musun? relates to the fact that in the next line kar yağıyor ‘snow falls’ or ‘it is snowing’. once you know that a şarkı is ‘a song’. and which suffixes follow it? Note the negative verb bilmiyor in the last line. The konu of the song which Cengiz hums is aşk. as in previous reading texts. when to use them. of which you might gather the meaning. Note also the word combination şarkının konusu. you see a subjunctive ending -elim in the word düşünelim ‘let me think’. Page 90 6 Ali′nin yeni evini gördün mü? Have you seen Ali’s new house? In this lesson you will learn how to: • say something is someone’s. The kar yağıyor not just to the ground. But the song is Page 89 also about hava durumu ‘the weather condition’. but says ismini unuttum. you can easily derive the meaning of şarkıcı. and how to form them Dialogue 1 Yeni evin nasıl? How’s your new house? . Ali wants to tahmin etmek what he has forgotten. and the ending -ci may denote someone’s profession. what the Turkish word for ‘hair’ is). etc. and can be taken as a sign that the singer seems rather concerned about the listener’s well-being.e. but saçlarıma ‘on my hair’.

Yukarıdaki yatak odalarının birinde balkon var. Yeni evimiz var. He starts telling him about his new apartment. (A train pulls in at the station. İLHAN: Evinizi satın mı aldınız? MEHMET: Hayır. Geçen hafta taşındık. kirada oturuyoruz. acelen ne böyle? MEHMET: Trenim kalktı mı? İLHAN: Yoo. İLHAN: Kaç odanız var? MEHMET: Büyük bir salon ve iki yatak odası. çok güzel. İLHAN: Merhaba. İLHAN: Öyle mi? Hayırlı olsun. Instead. bahçemiz bile var. Görüşürüz. These will usually be in their dictionary forms. the dialogues will not be accompanied any more by full translations. introducing new words. acele hayırlı olsun! geniş bile salon hurry congratulations! wide even living room satın almak kira yoksa seninki benimki to buy rental or yours mine . Görüşürüz. only words with suffixes you have not heard about yet will be translated fully. Eviniz tekrar hayırlı olsun.) Bu benim trenim mi yoksa seninki mi? Page 91 İLHAN: Bu benimki. so any verb will appear as an infinitive in the list. kalkmadı henüz. Sözcükler (Vocabulary) From now on. daha beş dakika var. Ev nasıl. you’ll find word lists like the following. MEHMET: Teşekkür ederim. In general. N’haber? MEHMET: İyilik. güzel mi? MEHMET: Evet. the word will be given without any suffixes.Mehmet runs into İlhan at the train station. Hem de çok geniş.

here is how the two systems roughly compare: . or you can use the ‘apostrophe s’ construction with people’s names (‘Betty’s house’). You can use a possessive pronoun. Although they are used differently. you can use a form of the verbs ‘have’ or ‘got’. Turkish uses a construction which includes both the possessive suffixes and the verb var (or. The one most comparable to the English pronoun is the possessive suffix. as the case may be. too. as in ‘I had a great time’. but these are of more limited use. as in ‘This one’s my car’.yatak yukarıda Exercise 1 bed upstairs tekrar again What do the following words mean? 1 2 3 acelen kalktı mı? taşındık 4 5 6 odanız kirada eviniz Language point Possession In English. too. which indicates possession as well as a host of other things. For instance. (Turkish has possessive pronouns. Turkish has several ways of indicating possession. yok).) The similarity with English stops here. English ‘of the house’ (as in ‘the roof of the house’) is evin (ev ‘house’ with the genitive case -in). Page 92 English ‘Aylin’s’ is Aylin’in (the name Aylin plus the genitive case -in). there are several ways of saying that something is yours. Similar to the ‘apostrophe s’ is the Turkish genitive case. For ‘to have’. just like English.

your etc. while the pronouns are optional. just as we saw with the personal pronouns. house ev+suffixes (and pronouns) X’s house Xgenitive+ev+suffix es have a house ev+suffixes+var/y ok As you can see. you were introduced to the possessive suffixes. the suffixes are all-important in Turkish. Off and on you have come across them in the dialogues and example sentences as well. The suffixes In Lesson 4. Here is the schema: . when the translation of ‘to have’ was discussed.English Turkish my.

as in arabam ‘my car’. The third person singular suffix. that consonant is an -s. an extra consonant is inserted. of course. Dropping it would leave nothing to indicate possession. that for the third person plural suffix there are two. -su or -sü). yielding the easy to recognise third person possessive suffix -si (or. the vowel of the suffix is dropped. not four possible forms. Contrary to English. Note. so that the suffix for ‘my’ can be just -m. when it is attached to a word that ends in a vowel. already is just one vowel. a member of the Page 93 two-class vowel harmony group. ‘her’ and ‘its’.-im -imi z -in -iniz -i/-si -leri If the noun ends in a vowel. (This is because the suffix begins with the plural suffix. In this case. Therefore. finally. the suffix -(s)i means ‘his’. My place is not far. -sı. where you choose between ‘his’. ‘hers’ or ‘its’—you don’t know from the suffix alone. . however.) The possibilities are therefore -leri and -ları. Some examples: Evim uzak değil.

The first item has been done already. is indicated between brackets. 1 Kitap (my) 2 Ev (your. in practice you won’t often confuse them as they tend to appear in different contexts. sing. ‘John’s working’ and ‘John’s leg’ seldom get in each other’s way. Thus. singular. Memleketin nasıl? What’s your country like? Exercise 2 Turn the following nouns into possessed nouns. Who the possessor is in each case. and it can mean ‘I’m a doctor’.) 3 Hediye (your. much like in English the similar sounding ‘s’s in ‘John’s gone home’. Nouns with a possessive suffix tend to be part of a larger sentence.Notları çok iyiydi. Don’t worry. Page 94 Exercise 3 . sing. His grades were very good. plural) 8 Şehir (our) 9 Yemek (your. of the type referred to earlier as the ‘verbless’ sentence. doktorum can mean ‘my doctor’. while nouns with personal suffixes tend to be an utterance in themselves. usually as subjects or objects. polite) 10 Kahve (her) The possessive versus the personal suffix kitabım (Note that the final -p of kitap has changed to -b) You may have noticed that these suffixes are largely similar to the ones learned earlier as expressing ‘I am’.) 4 Kedi (their) 5 Kız kardeş (his) 6 Oda (her) 7 İş (your. But consider the contexts in which the two constructions would be typically used and you’ll realise they are not likely to coincide. ‘you are’ etc.

in 7 above. for instance. 1 Babam yaşlı bir adam. değil mi? 6 Evli bir adamım. ‘Our dogs’ is köpeklerimiz. because of vowel harmony). And much later we will even see that they play an important role in subordinate clauses. (see page 151). the bad and the ugly’). That would mean ‘they are our dogs’. abla evli older sister married deli sigara crazy cigarette Note. 5 Ablası seni davet etti. 3 Evi bu sokakta. Say whether the suffix is a possessive or a personal one. something else is needed in Turkish. 8 Bu senin sigaran mı? 9 Bu yenisi mi? 10 Siz delisiniz. that we are not finished yet with the possessive suffixes. The equivalent of the ‘s’ is the genitive case. This is because adjectives can be used as nouns (nominalised) as in most languages (compare the English forms ‘my old ones’. They also feature prominently in genitive constructions of the type ‘the X of the Y’ (see below). however. or ‘the good. As indicated above. from Examples 9 and 10. Also note. However. ‘his arm’ and ‘our kitchen’. (Note. The suffix is -in or -nin (with the usual alternatives. is in making compound nouns. One of their main uses. With these suffixes you can express every construction of the type ‘your country’. not köpeğimizler. 7 Çocuklarımız üç ve sekiz yaşında.) Genitive The genitive case is formed in what by now should be a familiar way: with a suffix. Listen closely to the tape to hear the slight differences in emphasis. 2 Gazeteciyim. its basic function . just as you need a special construction in English when you want to use a person’s name instead of just ‘his’ or ‘her’ (the ‘apostrophe s’ construction). that adjectives can take the possessive ending. 4 Ankara’dalar.The following sentences all contain a noun carrying a suffix. that the possessive suffix follows the plural ending. too.

) No possessive construction is complete without mentioning the thing that is possessed. Demet’in is ‘Demet’s’. written as Can. the name ‘John’ is often pronounced ‘Jahn’ in Turkey. the locative case marker. For instance. This noun follows the genitive-marked one. the little element that indicates place. for example ‘the centre of this town’ or ‘a big part of the day’. of course. but it is much more widely used than that. John’un is ‘John’s’. This whole complex may be marked with. As you know. the preposition is translated by the locative case marker in Turkish.is inserted.e. which noun will be the possessor and which one is being possessed). compound nouns may be suffixed with case markers. but we do not get şehrin merkezide. the phrase şehrin merkezi will often be used as part of the larger phrase ‘in the centre of town’. In that case. say. As a rule of thumb. First figure out what the likely combination is (i. so that we get şehrin merkezinde.Kennedy street’. and this is where it starts to get unfamiliar to the English speaker. Türkiye’nin is ‘Turkey’s’. This is added to the complex noun.Page 95 is to indicate possession: Ali’nin is ‘Ali’s’. Then build up the construction. It is marked itself with the third person possessive suffix.Kenedi caddesi. you can assume that you always need to use this construction when the construction in English would be ‘the/a X of the Y’. . Exercise 4 Combine the following word pairs. for example in Can F. When a case marker is added to the possessive suffix. ‘John F. -ın. Carefully read the examples: Müjgan’ın cüzdanı Gül’ün arabası Almanya’nın şehirleri The structure is: Possessor+Genitive+Possessed thing+3rd person possessive suffix In the examples above the construction is used with names in the role of the possessor. an -n. as has been done for the first item. the genitive suffix is. The Turkish translations of those are: bu şehrin merkezi günün büyük bir bölümü Müjgan’s purse/wallet Gül’s car Germany’s cities One more thing: as with all nouns. (Actually.

‘onun evinde’ dedim. NURSEN: Ali’nin her zaman iyi fikirleri var. Kusuru bakma. Ali. araba 3 biber. NURSEN: Ona telefon edelim mi? Ömer calls Ali on his mobile phone ÖMER: Alo. ‘senin evinde’ demedim. They got together to plan a joint weekend in the country. However. ama. Toplantılarımıza hiç geç kalmaz. neredesin ya? Evde misin? Ne oldu? Bizi mi bekliyorsun? Biz de seni bekliyoruz.Page 96 1 Dilek. hepimizin iyi fikirleri var. Nursen’lerdeyiz. fiyat 4 kitap. Evet. Evet. son anahtar fiyat Dialogue 2 Kimin evinde? Dilek’in kitabı (Note that you don’t change the final -k before a suffix when names are concerned) key price isim title In whose house? A group of friends is waiting at Nursen’s house. NURSEN: Git ya. Üçümüz de alışveriş listesini yazabiliriz. kitap 2 anahtar. şimdi hemen buraya gel! Page 97 . (to the others:) Jeton yeni düştü. is missing NURSEN: Ne yapalım şimdi? ÖMER: Bence toplantıya Ali’siz başlamalıyız. Ali’yi bekliyoruz. one person. değil mi? ÖMER: Yenge. isim 5 gün. ÖMER: Belki başına birşey geldi. koçum. Ali.

Sözcükler bence toplantı git ya! belki başına gelmek geç kalmaz yenge Exercise 5 according to me meeting come on! maybe to be in trouble he doesn’t come late aunt (here used as a form of address for a female peer) yazabiliriz koçum! we can write mate! (American: my man!) I’m sorry new (here: finally) başlamalıyız we have to start kusura bakma yeni düşmek to fall Answer the following questions about the text. extra pronouns come Page 98 . an -n. Thus. All other possessive suffixes end in a consonant. or dative -e for direction (‘to’)). note that the second person singular now causes a new problem. ‘to her house’ is ev-in-e (House-her-n-to). in spite of the systematic overall appearance that Turkish grammar makes. but confusion can arise. ‘be careful!’. 1 What’s the initial discussion about? 2 Is Ali usually late? 3 How many people are present at Nürsen’s? 4 Does Nürsen live alone? 5 What do you think jeton düştü means? Language point The genitive forms of the personal pronouns Dikkat et!. However. You know now that whenever a possessive suffix that ends in a vowel (that is: a third person possessive suffix) is followed by a case ending (e. as in the dialogue above. there’s potential for ambiguity. Thus. ‘in’).is inserted between the two suffixes. evine could also mean ‘to your house’ (ev-in-e.g. It will usually be clear from the context which meaning is intended. locative -de for ‘place’ (‘at’. so you won’t need to use the -n-with anything other than a third person possessive suffix. In that case. House-your-to). since it happens to end in an -n.

of yours his. her. yabancı başkent banyo Language point ‘To have’ revisited foreign capital bathroom firma müdür company director Recall from Lesson 4 (Possession. para 2 bu bakkal. eski müdür NB: In 7 above. of his. its bizim sizin onların our. This can only happen if there is a genitive pronoun (here: bizim). of yours their Go back to the dialogue and try to reconstruct the misunderstanding: what do you think Ömer had said to Ali when they were arranging the meeting? Exercise 7 Add the right form of the genitive suffixes to the first noun and form compounds with the second nouns. of ours your. Whereas you would have expected ‘our house’ to be bizim evimiz. the possessive suffix (in this case -imiz) can sometimes be omitted in everyday speech. of mine your. başkent 5 onun okulu. 1 Aylin. ekmek 3 üniversite. of hers. öğretmen 6 bu banka.in handy. banyo 8 firma. The pronouns to use are the genitive cases of the personal pronouns: benim senin onun Exercise 6 my. see page 64) that ‘to have’ can be translated in two ways. memur 7 bizim ev. both involving the pair var and yok. . the form bizim ev ‘our house’ reflects a characteristic of colloquial Turkish. yabancı öğrenci 4 Türkiye.

you can add emphasis to constructions like arabam var. then you have to use a noun plus genitive. in which ‘the bank’ is the possessor and therefore gets the genitive case -nin. A word . That is a case used to indicate the direct object in a sentence. possessed nouns: they are definite. To take one of the compounds from Exercise 7. first of all. because then the suffix (-m ‘my’ or -n ‘your’ etc. or the possessor is marked with the locative case (-de): param var bende para var I have money I have money (on me) Note that these patterns are only good for contexts where the possessor is a pronoun such as ‘I’. The noun refers not to the thing it stands for in general. Accusative You might be familiar with languages that use an accusative case. Adding benim does the same thing heavy emphasis does in English ‘I have a car’: Benim arabam var.. However. my dad doesn’t. not every direct object in Turkish gets an accusative case marker: only direct objects that are definite. it will suffice to simply add var (and iyi): Ali’nin okulunun iyi öğretmenleri var. though still in a construction with possessive suffix and var/yok: Noun+Genitive+Thing possessed+-i/-si/-leri+var/yok Don’t forget the possessive ending on the thing (or person) that is possessed. An example is ‘The bank has a new director’. What exactly is ‘definite’? Well. consider. If the possessor is anybody else. I have a car.) is enough to make clear who the possessor is. but to one particular instance of it. the other elements are fairly logical if you think about it. One last thing: now that you know the genitive pronouns.Page 99 Either the possessed noun is marked with a possessive suffix. babamın arabası yok. etc. for instance in ‘Ali’s school has good teachers’. if we want to turn onun okulunun öğretmeni into a ‘to have’-construction. The whole sentence then becomes Bankanın yeni bir müdürü var. Turkish too has such a case. ‘you’.

you are making that noun definite.is the extra consonant that separates the possessive and case suffixes. But don’t forget: all this is limited to where the noun functions as the direct object of a verb. The accusative has occurred a few times already in example sentences. ‘our dog’. babam ‘my father’. the form of the accusative is -i. şu or o in front of them must be marked with the accusative case if they are used as a direct object: .g. bir köpek or köpekler). for example in this one from Lesson 5 (Exercise 8): Bu tişörtü bin dokuz yüz doksanda aldım. What you have to also learn is that there are all kinds of contexts where adding an accusative suffix is simply obligatory. ‘this town’ singles out one particular town. The reference is definite. köpek. This yields the very common sequences -(s)ini. though definite.Page 100 like köpek simply means ‘dog’. Just like ‘your town’. -n. I bought this T-shirt in 1990. it is -yi. Consider the difference between ‘a cat’ and ‘the cat’. Some examples: Erol’un yeni evini gördün mü? Have you seen Erol’s new house? Yeğenimin kutularını yeni dairesine götürüyorum. I’m taking my nephew’s boxes to his new flat. as opposed to indefinite (e. After a vowel. and its plural form -lerini. and the final -i is the accusative. This much is easy. When you add an accusative suffix to a noun. in which (s)i is the possessive. just as you do when you put ‘the’ before an English noun. New examples are: Saat altı sularında eve dönüyor ve yemeği hazırlıyorum. the whole construction is followed by the accusative. Demonstratives have the same effect as possessives. but köpeğimiz. refers to one (or more) particular dog(s). Thus. does not get an accusative when it is the subject of a sentence. as in babam söyledi ‘my father said’. Nouns with bu. I return home around six and prepare dinner. so it is definite. Türkiye’de güzel yerleri gördün mü? Did you see nice places in Turkey? As these examples show. it does when it is a direct object: babamı gördüm ‘I saw my father’. If the possessed noun in a genitive construction is a direct object.

Exercise 9 . On Friday we saw Pamukkale. Examples include names of people. countries. 9 Do you want a drink? 10 Little Ahmet wants that car. Do you see that girl over there? That’s my girlfriend.. 4 Did you see that movie? 5 I’m waiting for a friend. after all. 6 We’re watching the match tonight. there is only one Turkey or Ali. 7 Cengiz really likes Fatma. Exercise 8 The following English sentences all contain nouns. Emel’i tanıyor musun? Do you know Emel? Cuma günü Pamukkale’yi gördük. 8 Extinguish your cigarette please. Some words are inherently definite even if they are not marked with a possessive suffix. Say which of those would get accusative case if the sentences were to be translated into Turkish. institutions etc. 1 Did you mail the letter? 2 Are you going to write him a letter? 3 He’s walking his dog.Page 101 Bu kitabı okudun mu? Have you read this book? O kızı görüyor musunuz? Kız arkadaşım. This is so because they refer to one and only one thing. So these too always get marked with the accusative case when they are direct objects.

inanamamak inanmak Exercise 11 to not be able to believe to believe In the dialogues of this lesson. 6 Rahime’s friend got married last week. identify all possessive. 3 Pervin’in çayı en güzeli. 8 I’m looking for your brother’s address (adres). 2 Bu yaz tatil için Azerbaycan’a gidiyoruz. genitive and accusative suffixes.Give the accusative form of the following: 1 2 3 4 5 kedi adam kadın bisiklet (‘bicycle’) mektup 6 7 8 9 10 bu ev pencere (‘window’) sen kitap Page 102 11 12 13 14 araba çocuk ziyaret (‘visit’) o 16 17 18 19 20 lamba (‘lamp’) otobüs (‘bus’) gazete ben kız arkadaşı 15 eskisi Exercise 10 Translate the following sentences. 5 I can’t believe the price of these aubergines. 1 Dün akşam erkek kardeşinize telefon ettim. . 4 Filiz’in Amerikalı arkadaşı bugün varıyor. 7 Ahmet’s girlfriend works in Istanbul. Keep genitive-possessive combinations together as single units.

Benim. anlat! . wishes and future plans • say the days of the week • urge people to do something • use ‘let’s’ do something • practise pronunciation • tell the time • talk about the future • say when you did something • express some useful ‘time’ words Dialogue 1 Kamp yapacağız We’ll go camping Nursen calls her friend İpek about holiday plans İPEK: Alo? NURSEN: Merhaba. Planlarımızı duymak istiyor musun? İPEK: Tabii.Page 103 7 Yedide gideceğiz We’ll leave at seven In this lesson you will learn how to: • express your intentions. İPEK: Merhaba Nursen! Ne zaman gideceksiniz? NURSEN: Otobüs öğleden sonra kalkacak. Bu sabah tatil üzerine konuştuk. yani ne yapacağımızı filan.

Perşembe günü bir tekneyle biraz gezeceğiz. Tatil köyü denize çok yakın. Dinle o zaman. after vowels -yecek or -yacak. close to sea to pay a visit we’ll visit we’ll do shopping little boat we’ll sail around island pity what a pity! it’ll finish Future plans and intentions Until now. Ne yazık ki. She uses the suffix -ecek or -acak. Although it is tempting to see it as the equivalent of the English ‘going to’. çadırlarımızı kuracağız. plaja gideceğiz. Now. when you want to express emotions.NURSEN: Oldu. kamp yapacağız. Salı günü bir müzeyi ziyaret edeceğiz. you will need different verb forms. attitudes. Bu akşam Fethiye’ye vardıktan sonra. intention or commitment (more like English ‘shall’/‘will’). willingness. Adaları gezmek istiyoruz. Nursen expresses future plans and intentions. we have looked at saying things by using -iyor verbs for the present tense and -di for the past tense.. cuma günü tatilimiz bitecek! Sözcükler kamp yapmak kamp yapacağız alo gideceksiniz kalkacak üzerine ne yapacağımızı plan duymak anlat! oldu dinle! dinlemek vardıktan sonra çadır kuracağız Language points to camp we’ll go camping hello you’ll go it’ll leave about what we will do plan to hear tell! OK listen! to listen after arriving tent we’ll put up kurmak plaj gideceğiz köy yakın (-e) deniz ziyaret etmek ziyaret edeceğiz alışveriş yapacağız tekne gezeceğiz ada yazık ne yazık ki! bitecek to prepare. Turkish -ecek indicates a wish. in Dialogue 1. These are introduced here and in the next lesson. intentions etc. It does not just state what is . put up beach we’ll go village near. Çarşamba Page 104 günü çarşıda alışveriş yapacağız. But. Yarın. pazartesi günü.

going to happen. but expresses what the speaker wants to happen.g. The new language course for beginners will start tomorrow.) are the same as with -iyor. ‘you’ etc. That means you already know that these are. We’ll meet at the station. . Mektubu yazacak. in plural -iz for the first. The ministers of Foreign Affairs will visit the museum tomorrow morning. I’m sure! Başlayanlar için yeni dil kursu yarın başlayacak. Hesabı resepsiyonda ödeyeceksiniz.between two vowels often becomes a -ğ. and -ler for the third person. Dış İşleri Bakanları müzeyi yarın sabah ziyaret edecekler. Though it is basically true that -iyor refers to things happening now. -di to things that happened in the Page 105 past. but -eceğim and -eceğiz. She’ll decide in a week. Remember that a -k. Examples: Buraya gelecek. He’ll come here. and -ecek to things that will happen in the future. I’ll do that for you. Haftaya karar verecek. and -sin for the second person. eminim! She’ll write the letter. The personal endings (indicating ‘I’.in Turkish (e. konuk ‘guest’ plus case suffix -a becomes konuğa ‘to the guest’). Garda buluşacağız. or is planning to do. Likewise. -siniz for the second. in singular. -im for the first. Examples: Senin için yapacağım. the first persons singular and plural of the future tense are not -ecekim and -ecekiz. there is more to it than just that: -ecek also expresses the emotion and attitude of the speaker.

as has been done for the first item: 1 başlamak 2 ödemek 3 girmek we I you (plural) başlayacağız _____ _____ (‘to pay’) (‘to enter’) Page 106 4 5 6 7 8 9 söylemek sormak tanışmak iyi bir öğrenci olmak kapatmak tamamlamak they you (singular).You’ll pay the bill at reception. I they you (plural) it they _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ (‘to close’) (‘to finish something’) (‘to try’) (‘to satisfy’) (‘to sleep’) 10 denemek 11 uymak 12 uyumak Exercise 2 Translate the text on the postcard: . using the future marker -ecek. Exercise 1 Find the right forms. we you (singular).

For regular activities on a certain day of the week. you don’t have to express the English ‘on’: Pazar günü çarşıya gittik (or: pazar çarşıya gittik). . On Wednesdays we have English classes. pazarları and çarşambaları are also possible. use the plural form: Pazar günleri çarşıya giderdik. Instead of pazar günleri and çarşamba günleri.burası cıvıl cıvıl dünya temiz this place lively world clean deniz kıyısı güneşlenmek yüzmek öbür gün coast to sunbathe to swim the day after tomorrow Page 107 Language points Days of the week Recall that the names of days of the week are Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday pazar pazartesi salı çarşamba perşembe cuma cumartesi If you want to say ‘on Sunday’. Çarşamba günleri İngilizce dersimiz var. On Sundays we used to go to the centre of town. On Sunday we went to the centre of town.

a difference. iyi bir komşu şart. The functions range from a kind but strong suggestion to a rather fierce command: Ödevini yapacaksın. . There is. you can also use -ecek for what you want to happen. Umarım. Taşındıktan sonra. çocuğum yeni bir okula gidecek. bütün komşularımızı davet edeceğiz. to be able to feel at home after we’ll have moved How did you figure out what şart means? And -dıktan sonra? How do you apparently say ‘to make friends’? Do you know the difference between -dıktan sonra and -den/dan sonra? Other ways of expressing future events Both -iyor verb forms and forms with the future marker -ecek can express future events. or what you want another person to do (-eceksin). an -ecek verb expresses the speaker’s confidence (he or she is sure) that such and such will happen. however. Tatilden sonra. Gelecek hafta Ankara’ya taşınacağız. Şimdi dinleyeceksin! And now you’ll listen! Çenesini kapatacak! He will have to shut up! (literally: he’ll shut his chin) Page 108 Exercise 3 Translate the following monologue into English. komşularımız iyi çıkar. Bir yerde durabilmek için. Whereas an -iyor verb merely states that a certain event is going to happen. You are going to do your homework.Other functions of -ecek Apart from future plans and intentions. yeni arkadaşları olacak. umarım komşu durabilmek taşındıktan sonra I hope neighbour çıkar bütün they turn out all to be able to stand.

(confident assumption: I want to come. 3 Kutlay is coming tomorrow. I’ll be staying in Istanbul. I am coming tomorrow. In August. 2 Next week they’ll come to my house. I will come tomorrow. (I want you to do that) Page 109 Exercise 4 Translate the following sentences into Turkish. More than one translation may be possible. (rather indefinite statement) Yarın geleceğim. 4 I will definitely come to your party. 5 This evening you’ll work! mutlaka definitely parti party . I’ll stay in Istanbul. (I am planning to do that) Bu akşam annene bir mektup yazıyorsun. (neutral statement) Ağustosta İstanbul’da olacağım. Tonight you’ll write a letter to your mother. değil mi? Tonight you’ll write a letter to your mother. In August. Nevertheless. in choosing the verb tense. keep the differences in context in mind! 1 Tomorrow I’ll go to the beach. so count on me. I’ll be there) Ağustosta İstanbul’dayım.Compare: Yarın geliyorum. won’t you? (neutral statement) Bu akşam annene bir mektup yazacaksın.

requires an additional -y. on the other hand. though. before the future marker -ecek.Language points Negation and questions of -ecek Negative future forms (meaning ‘won’t’ or ‘not going to’) contain the negative suffix -me or -ma. the form to use is the stem (with or without the negation marker me/ma) plus -ecek. and finally a personal ending. Gelecek misin? Will you come? (=stem gel-+future marker -ecek+question marker mi+personal ending -sin) Buraya gelmeyecek misiniz? Won’t you come here? Okumaya başlamayacaklar mı? Won’t they start to read? Page 110 As the last example shows. which is placed after the stem. . This won’t cause too much trouble. the third person plural is again the exception to the rule.between the final vowel of the negation and the initial vowel of the future marker: gelmeyeceksin kalmayacağım başlamayacağız you will not come I will not stay we will not begin In questions. You also learned there that the negation of -iyor forms is always shortened to a single -m(as in gel-m-iyorum). then the question marker mi. This is the same order as used in Negation in Lesson 5 when negating verbs in the -iyor tense. since it is the same principle (-lar attaches to the verb. The negation of -ecek. Exercise 5 Translate into Turkish: 1 I won’t listen to that nonsense. not to the question marker) as we saw in -iyor and -di (gidiyorlar mı? and gittiler mi?). 2 Ülkü is not intending to speak English to our American neighbour.

gidelim nonsense milk hesap bill Come on. Hasan demin telefon etti. Şimdi hazırız. Bu arada bir çay içelim! Page 111 Sözcükler gidelim dur be kamp malze-melerimizi şey el el feneri çekiç kibrit çakı uyku tulumu çadır let’s go wait! our camping equipment thing hand torch hammer match pocket knife sleeping bag tent cibinlik dağ sivrisinek kullanmak alayım kalkalım otur! bekleyelim demin birlikte (ile) bu arada içelim mosquito net mountain mosquito to use let me take let’s leave sit! let’s wait just now together meanwhile let’s drink . cibinliğimiz yok. çadır. Bu mevsimde dağlarda sivrisinek çok. Hadi. uyku tulumu.3 Will you buy milk? 4 We won’t give him a present. kibrit. Biraz daha bekleyelim. cibinlik… Aman. let’s go DEMET: Gidelim mi? ŞENER: Dur be. fakat mutlaka bizimle birlikte gitmek istiyor. Şener goes out and after a while returns with a mosquito net ŞENER: Buyurun. Güzel bir cibinlik buldum. kalkalım! DEMET: Otur. çakı. Mutlaka bir cibinlik kullanacağız! Hemen bir tane alayım. değil mi? Her şey var mı? Her şey çalışıyor mu? (checks luggage) El feneri. Biraz geç kaldı. Kamp malzemelerimizi henüz kontrol etmedik. çekiç. saçmalık süt Dialogue 2 Hadi. 5 Won’t they pay the bill? laflar.

intention) Are we going back to Britain? (statement about near future) In the dönelim case the speaker himself does the proposal. after a stem that ends in a vowel the ending is -yeyim or -yayım. . This form is -elim. This is the first person singular form. sana anlatayım. The first person plural form is frequently used as well. immediately after you say it. Kapıyı kapatayım mı? Haftaya hamama gidelim.Language points Let us… The most common form in ‘let’s’ or ‘let me’ sentences is the subjunctive -eyim. let me explain it to you. proposal) Will we go back to Britain? (some time in future. Kalkalım. Bak. In the dönecek case the decision has already been made without the speaker’s knowledge. Either you want to perform this action right now. The ending is placed after the verb stem. The first person plural form also conveys meanings such as willingness (compare the English ‘we could’…). Come on. Depending on vowel harmony the ending may become -eyim or -ayım. invitation or proposal. When used in a question. Exercise 6 With what you know about -ecek. -eyim and -elim refer to an intended or proposed action. the proposal meaning is stronger. Page 112 Compare the following three examples: İngiltere’ye dönelim mi? İngiltere’ye dönecek miyiz? İngiltere’ye dönüyor muyuz? Shall we go back to Britain? (now. let’s go. when they are English and have been living in Turkey for quite some time. try to explain why you cannot use -ecek for ‘let’s’. or you have the intention to do it later. The first can also be an ironic statement. -alım. right away. in the second and third sentences. the speaker doesn’t know exactly what the plans are. -yelim or -yalım and means ‘let’s’… Whereas -ecek is used to convey a future plan that with some certainty will be carried out. the third by their child who has overheard them talking about it. said to the travel companion who hasn’t stopped moaning since arriving in Turkey. On the other hand. Let’s leave. Shall I close the door? Let’s go to the Turkish bath next week. The first and second sentence can be said by a husband to his wife or vice versa.

let’s say coffee 2 to return (dönmek) to the airport (havaalanı) 3 to travel around (gezmek) Turkey 4 to sit down (oturmak) 5 to open (açmak) the parcel (paket) 6 to try (denemek) tripe soup (işkembe çorbası) 7 to give (vermek) the right (doğru) answer (yanıt or cevap) 8 to go (gitmek) to the cinema 9 to go for a walk (yürüyüş yapmak) 10 to have dinner (akşam yemeği yemek) together (beraber) Desire Turkish has another option for expressing a desire. Let me take (or buy) baklava. This conveys a more definite. Examples: Baklava almak istiyorum. You can also use the verb istemek Page 113 ‘to want’. in addition to the subjunctive -eyim /-elim. I want to take (or buy) baklava.Exercise 7 Try to propose the following in Turkish: 1 to have a drink (içmek). The children want to eat potatoes. well-considered and sometimes also stronger desire. Baklava alayım. Çocuklar patates yemek istiyorlar. .

so that it reflects the relation between the Turkish forms at the bottom and the functions above them. e. fill in the following items in the tree diagram below. your head must be spinning from all the different functions all these forms can have. In the second case. The -e or -a is pronounced as -i or -ı. Therefore. and sometimes in spelling as well. başlayacaksınız becomes başlıyacaksınız in speech. To bring things into focus. you’re in the shop or at the restaurant. Exercise 8 By now. The first peculiarity occurs when the verb stem ends in -e or -a.In the first example. 1 desire 2 strong intention 3-eyim 4-elim 5istemek Page 114 Colloquial pronunciation Both future and subjunctive endings have some peculiarities in pronunciation. where you decide on the spot that you want to have some baklava. you are ready to go to the shop. Other examples: .g. you have already decided to buy baklava.

The forms -ecen/-acan for second person singular (instead of -eceksin/-acaksın) are common in daily speech. and finally. first person plural -eceğiz/-acağız to -ecez/-acaz. . speak yiyeceğim diyecek he’ll eat he’ll say (and not yeyeceğim) (and not deyeceğim) The future and subjunctive forms may be reduced even further in ordinary speech. Vowel harmony causes the pronunciation of future and subjunctive forms to be different from the written forms. The first person singular form -eceğim/-acağım is often reduced to -ecem/-acam. dialect differences play a role here.ödeyeceğim I’ll pay becomes ödiyeceğim isteyeceğim becomes istiyeceğim söyleyeyim becomes söyliyeyim Two frequently used one-syllable verbs are actually written this way: yemek demek to eat to say.

as a starting point. -yi. ‘to pass’). This gives us: dördü beş geçiyor dördü on geçiyor dördü çeyrek geçiyor dördü yirmi sekiz geçiyor dört buçuk it’s five past four it’s ten past four it’s a quarter past four it’s twenty-eight minutes past four it’s half past four . -a. -ı. since you use the verbless ‘It is…’ pattern: Saat kaç? Saat beş. -i. you use full sentences with -iyor or var. you need to use the locative (place where something is. -e. the first number is in the accusative case and the other one is in the dative case. in the second half hour beş is. Taking saat dört. Other important words for telling the time are çeyrek (‘quarter’) and geçiyor (from the verb geçmek. -yü. you use geçiyor until you reach saat dört buçuk (‘half past four’). however. ‘four o’clock’. you could still hear these forms. te or -ta. An important word when telling the time is saat (hour). -u.Therefore: kalacağım ödeyeceğiz başlayayım yapayım söyliyeyim içecek misin can become kalıcam ödüycez başlayım yapim söyleyim içecen mi? Even though you may ask people to slow down (yavaş!). Of those. see Lesson 3). see Lesson 3) and accusative Page 115 (used for direct objects. They are used in telling the times between the hours. -da. Telling the time For telling the time in Turkish. The question ‘What’s the time?’ is Saat kaç? Answering it is easy when it is on the hour. -yı. For the other times. What’s the time? It’s five (o’clock). and from then on you use var (to indicate how many minutes there are left until the next hour). -yu. which is used in most time expressions. -de. dative (place towards which one goes. -ya. -ye. ü. In the first half hour dört is your reference point. see Lesson 6) case endings.

45’te kalkıyor. Bursa’ya giden tren kaçta kalkıyor? LOKMAN: Bursa treni saat 16. saatiniz var mı? LOKMAN: Dört buçuk. MEHMET: O zaman yarın yine deneyeceğim. . the ticket salesman Page 116 MEHMET: Affedersiniz. İyi günler. MEHMET: Nereye? LOKMAN: İstanbul’a. using one of the two words for ‘half (although you sometimes hear people say on iki buçuk). var. MEHMET: Tam beşte kalkan bir tren yok mu? LOKMAN: Maalesef yok. MEHMET: Saat beşte kalkan bir tren var mi? LOKMAN: Evet. Dialogue 3 Tam beşte kalkan bir tren var mı? Is there a train at exactly five o’clock? Mehmet is standing in line in front of the ticket booth at the train station. which is saat yarım. Now you should be able to understand the following dialogue.beşe yirmi var beşe çeyrek var beşe beş var it’s twenty to five it’s a quarter to five it’s five to five An idiosyncrasy is the expression for 12:30 in the afternoon. MEHMET: Tam beşte mi kalkıyor? LOKMAN: Hayır. To express all other half hours use buçuk. yani beşe çeyrek kala. MEHMET: Maalesef. Lokman is the gişe memuru. beşi beş geçe kalkacak.

The train to Bursa will leave at 16.43 12.45.LOKMAN: İyi günler. Bursa’ya giden tren saat on altı kırk beşte kalkıyor. Saat kaç? Page 117 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13.32 18.30 13. You often use this at places like airports and train stations. and convert them into regular Turkish time-telling. exactly at…past….58 02. (used in time-telling) going (from gitmek) kala yine tip at…to…(used in time-telling) again character kalkan leaving (from kalkmak) ilginç interesting Language point Digital time-telling In these modern times it is also possible to resort to digital time-telling. efendim.01 04. Exercise 9 Write the digital times in full.07 08.49 on üç yirmi altı biri yirmi altı geçiyor Other useful words: . (whispers) İlginç bir tip! Sözcükler tam geçe giden precisely.11 21.26 23. for which you only need to know the numbers.27 11.

While geçiyor and var are used in saying what time it is now. In answering these. two other words. which asks when something is going to take place. Note that you do not always have to use saat. It’s starting at eight thirty. see Lesson 3) must be used as long as the time is an exact hour or half hour: Bu akşam konser kaçta başlıyor? When does the concert start tonight? Sekiz buçukta başlıyor. When does the plane arrive? At ten.hemen hemen bir iki geçiyor sularında yarım saat beri [+-den/-dan] almost just after at about half an hour since as in saat on birden beri ‘since 11 o’clock’ as in altıyı bir iki geçiyor ‘it’s just after seven’ The other question that often comes up when time is concerned. Müze saat kaçta kapanıyor? At what time does the museum close? Saat altıda. -da. For the other times. things are again a little more complicated. Some more examples: Uçak kaçta varıyor? Onda. At six. geçe (‘passed’) and kala (‘remaining’) are used in Page 118 . is (saat) kaçta?. -te or -ta. the locative case (-de. though it is never wrong to use it.

Everything else remains the same. The case endings are again accusative with geçe and dative with kala: Dokuzu on bir geçe Saat dokuzu yirmi beş geçe Saat ona çeyrek kala sularında Ona beş kala Yarımda Yarım saatte Exercise 10 at eleven past nine at twenty-five past nine at about a quarter to ten at five to ten at twelve thirty p. in half an hour Look at the timetable above of the International Film Festival in Ankara and compile your own programme of films.saying at what time something happened or will happen. the Megapol Mavi Salon and the Megapol Kırmızı Salon. Pretend that you have plenty Page 119 .m. You may choose between three locations: Kavaklıdere.

2 ______________________________________________ Saturday: 3______________________________________________ 4______________________________________________ .15 at the Mavi Salon of the Megapol. you will be able to see two films a day without having to rush to the next movie and miss the ending of the first one. For instance. try to be as explicit as you can. If you plan carefully enough.of time and money to see two films a day. You may say: Friday: 1 Cuma günü saat altıyı çeyrek geçe Megapol’da Türk Tutkusu filmini seyretmek istiyorum. on Friday 15 March you want to see the film Türk Tutkusu Turkish Passion at 18. for three days in a row (March 15 through March 17). For the sake of the exercise.

Exercise 11 Try to sort out Ali’s daily schedule by rearranging times and actions. evine döndü.00 18.30–19. Ondan on buçuğa kadar alışveriş yaptı.00–17.00 23.00 : : : : : : . kahvaltı yaptı.30 he went shopping.Page 120 Sunday: 5___________________________________ 6___________________________________ Let’s explore the Turkish time system a little more. çalıştı. parkta koştu (‘ran’). Make full sentences.30 18. kitap okudu. 7. and use the combination of -den/-dan and -e/-a kadar for longer periods of time. Use the locative ending -de/-da for points in time at which something happens.00 Saat beş buçuktan (saat) altıya kadar yemek pişirdi. On buçuktan on bire kadar kiraathanedeydi. for instance: 17.00 19. giyindi.30 8.00 22.00–18. Choose from the following actions: yemek pişirdi (‘cooked dinner’).30–17.00 17. From 10 until 10. yemeğini yedi.00 8.00–22. You’ll have to use the -den/-dan case for ‘from’ and the dative case -e/-a plus kadar for ‘until’. From 8 until 9 o’clock I was at the sports centre. kalktı. televizyon seyretti.00–23. yattı. You may have to state from when until when you will be or were at a given place.30–8. Examples: Saat sekizden dokuza kadar spor salonundaydım.30 until 11 he was at the café. From 10.00–8.30–18.00–7.00 7.30 : : : : : : 17.30 7. arabayla iş yerine gitti.30–18.

pişirmek yatmak to cook to lie down koşmak giyinmek to run to get dressed Page 121 Vocabulary In this lesson you learned how to express future events. akşamları/aksamleyin in the evenings ay bazen bir gün birazdan daha demin dün sabah erken ertesi gün evvelki gün gayrı geç gece gündüz geceleri haftaya hala henüz her zaman her yıl hiç bir zaman month sometimes one day just before. in the end then before on time for hours all day long very early sabahları/sabahleyin in the mornings . yet. Below. not yet always every year never yarın akşam yazın son son zamanlarda sonbaharda sonuçta şu anda yakınlarda often last recently (in past) in autumn in the end right now some time soon (in future) tomorrow evening in the summertime saniye seneye second in a year. not yet just before yesterday morning early the next day the day before yesterday at last. yet. not yet still. henceforth sık sık late night and day at night in a week. you will find a lot of time words (most occur throughout this book). and how to express time in Turkish. a little while ago still. next year ilk ilkbaharda kışın mevsim nihayet o zaman önce saatinde saatlerce sabah akşam sabah sabah first in spring in the wintertime season finally. next week just.

Bugün Mehmet de gelmedi. Mehmet! (Mehmet takes his seat and Orhan starts the meeting) ORHAN: Hadi arkadaşlar.Page 122 8 Sizi bekleriz! We’re expecting you! In this lesson you will learn how to: • express habits • ask for permission • express obligation or need • influence people by means of commands and requests Dialogue 1 Toplantıda In the meeting Several friends have gathered for a meeting of the ‘İngiltere-Türkiye İşbirliği Vakfı’. onu benden daha iyi biliyorsun… AYHAN: Geçen sefer tam zamanında geldi. the foundation for economic and cultural cooperation between Britain and Turkey. Devamlı geç kalır. Betül. sözü sana verebilir miyim? BETÜL: Sağ ol. ne dedim? İşte. sen bugün not alır mısın? Tamam. Şimdiye kadar. lütfen kapıyı kapatır mısın? Sağ ol. başlayalım mı? Funda. BETÜL: Fakat o mutlaka gelecek. gelmedi. gündemde ilk konu vakfımızın başkan seçimleri. Bak. Mehmet’le beraber. The meeting is about to begin AYHAN: (whispers to Betül) Hasan gelmedi mi? BETÜL: Hayır. aday listesinde tek bir isim var: . Ayhan.

Hem İngilizcesi. Ben başka bir kişiyi aday göstermek istiyorum. Yaz aylarında rehberlik yapar. relation German (language) I think. Fatma Hanım’dan daha iyi bir aday yok. Turistik seyahat dünyasında iyi ilişkileri var. It refers to (static) situations that have a timeless. Page 124 . Başkan görevine en uygunu odur. (After this speech. capable she is to work as a guide gündem vakıf başkan seçim söz vermek söz verebilir miyim? aday Language points Geniş zaman agenda foundation chairperson election to give the word to can I give the word? candidate seyahat ilişki Almanca sanırım travel contact. believe rehberlik yapar she works as a guide The ‘other’ present tense we have mentioned a few times is called geniş zaman 'broad time' in Turkish.Page 123 Hasan. You cannot really tell exactly when the situation started or when it will end. hem de Almancası var. Ekonomi öğrencisidir. repeatedly time right on time look! can you close? to take notes can you take notes? aday göstermek to propose a candidate konuşurken aklıma gelmek görev uygun odur rehberlik yapmak while talking to come to my mind function fit. Sanırım. general character. Seçimler üzerine konuşurken hemen aklıma bir isim geldi: Fatma Hanım. For example. Fatma is elected as the new chairperson of the foundation) Sözcükler devamlı sefer tam zamanında bak! kapatır mısın? not almak not alır mısın? over and over.

Türk işçileri fabrikalarda çalışır. Hakan fabrikada çalışıyor. Sizi bekliyorum. (implies that he always is) He is late. depending on the form of the stem. which describes actual. (And there are exceptions. (here and now) Hakan works at a factory. -ir and -er). (is only true for this one occasion) I’m expecting you. Formation of the geniş zaman is complicated: it has three different endings (-r. Turkish workers work in factories. (whenever. ‘she’. she doesn’t refer to the actual situation of Hasan being late for the present meeting.) Once you have extended the stem with the geniş zaman. Compare the use of the geniş zaman to the present tense -iyor. Geç kalıyor.when in the dialogue above Betül says about Hasan geç kalır ‘he is late’. but rather to Hasan’s habit of being constantly late. Sizi beklerim. you have to add the usual personal endings (and remember that the third person singular of a verb (‘he’. ‘it’) never carries a personal ending): . used as an invitation) I’m waiting for you. dynamic events taking place at the time of speech: Geç kalır. He is late.

singular plural 1st person -im -iz 2nd person -sin -siniz 3rd person – -ler Let’s start with the three geniş zaman endings: 1 Add -r-. . when the verb stem ends in a vowel. He listens. Examples: Dinle-r.

In the evenings I take my neighbour home. 2 Add -er. 1 oturmak 2 çağırmak (‘to call out’) 3 bitmek 4 söylemek 5 dökmek (‘to pour’) 6 çimdiklemek (‘to pinch’) . we’re expecting you. because we work at the same place. akşamları komşumu evine bırak-ır-ım. You leave your luggage.Sizi bekle-r-iz. Teyzem Avrupa’dan hediye getir-ir.(or -ır-. Examples: Bagajlarınızı bırak-ır-sınız. the bus) go to Ulus? 3 Add -ir.(or -ar-). Does it (i. when the verb stem consists of only one syllable and ends in a consonant. My aunt brings presents from Europe.e. Exercise 1 Do the following verbs take -ir. -ur-. -ür-). -ar or -r? Give the form in full. Bilmezsem sor-arım. when the verb stem consists of more than one syllable and ends in a consonant. If I don’t know. We wait for you. Ulus’a gid-er mi? You look. Examples: Page 125 Bak-ar-sın. I ask. Aynı is yerinde çalıstığımız için.

and most of them ending in -l or -r. strike see think kalırolurölürdururvarırverirvururgörürsanır- Don’t worry too much about these exceptions: you will see and hear them often and learn that they take -ir soon enough.7 kaşımak (‘to scratch’) 8 seçmek Language points Exceptions As we said. stand arrive give shoot. Exercise 2 Find the right form. 1 2 3 4 5 oturmak çağırmak bulmak söylemek dökmek you (singular) we they you (singular) they oturursun . there are some exceptions. The first one has been done for you. buy know find come alırbilirbulurgelir- Page 126 kalolöldurvarvervurgörsanstay be. that do not take -er-. become die stop. There is a set of frequently used verbs. all consisting of a one-syllable stem. but -ir-: albilbulgeltake.

.’) Avrupa’ya taşındıktan sonra. After I have moved to Europe I will publish a new newspaper for my fellow citizens who live there. you can use it to talk about habits. general. çaydan çok kahve içerim. my grandfather takes his sheep to the meadow. Therefore. I drink more coffee than tea. Here are some more examples of how to use the geniş zaman. (This statement is almost like a promise. You may use it in: Page 127 ‘Making promises’ Yarın gelirim. ‘Making general statements or claims’ Enflasyon işsizliği artırır. I’ll come tomorrow. Inflation causes unemployment to rise. orada yaşayan vatandaşlarım için yeni bir gazete yayınlarım. as it means ‘I am someone who makes a habit of being on time. In summer. so I will definitely be there tomorrow.6 7 8 vermek kaşımak sanmak I he/she/it you (plural) When to use the geniş zaman The geniş zaman describes a situation which is timeless. Gazete okur musun? Do you read a newspaper? (in the sense of ‘Are you a regular reader?’) Yazın dedem koyunlarını yaylaya götürür. Süt insana güç verir.

She loves soap operas. (=I know Turkish) Yaz aylarında rehberlik yaparız. Ağustos ayında buğday toplarlar. Hap içerdim. I speak Turkish. ‘Talking about people’s abilities. You tell lies. . You should see a doctor. Ahmet saz çalar. Page 128 ‘Making suggestions’ Here you see the geniş zaman in combination with a past tense. In the summer months we work as guides. I would take a pill (if I were you). In August they harvest the wheat. Hasan drinks a lot (of alcohol). (=You’re a liar. comparable to English would. Bursa kebap alırdım. Ahmet plays the saz. skills etc’ (1) basic information: Babam çok okur. (3) habits: Hasan çok içki içer. Doktora gidersin. (2) qualities/profession: Ben Türkçe konuşurum. Pembe dizileri sever.) My daddy reads a lot.Milk gives people strength. Yalan söylersin. I would take Bursa kebap (suggestion).

1 Haftaya sana uğrarım. as in Gelirler mi? ‘Do they come?’). that precedes mi/mı/mu/mü. It is quite common to ask a bus driver about the direction of the bus. qualities/ profession. (Don’t worry yet about the form.) Oturmaz mısın? Buyurmaz mıydınız? Won’t you sit down? Won’t you please come in? (Literally: ‘Didn’t you come in?’) 3 some idiomatic questions: Olur mu? Bakar mısınız? Olur mu öyle şey? Is that okay? (to a waiter:) Could you come please? Is such a thing possible? Page 129 Exercise 3 Here are some Turkish sentences. as: İstanbul’a gider mi? 2 polite requests: Tekrarlar mısın? Bana anlatır mısın? Could you repeat that? Could you tell me that? Does it go to İstanbul? The effect of politeness is even stronger when the question is negative. You can use the geniş zaman in questions like these: 1 related to qualities. the question particle mi/mı/mu/mü is placed right after the -er/-ir/-r suffix. request. Choose from the following: promise. and before the personal marker (except. . skills etc. habit. in the case of the third person plural -ler/-lar. as usual. Indicate the function of the verbs in geniş zaman.: Türkçe konuşur musun? Do you speak Turkish? This not only relates to qualities of persons.‘Asking questions’ In questions.

3 Her gün dokuza kadar çalışırsın. Page 130 The geniş zaman is never used with expressions that indicate a time span. You don’t know for sure whether it is actually happening. Compare: Hasan geliyor.’ This refers to something that is happening now or will surely happen in the near future.’) Exercise 4 . probability of Hasan’s coming late. it is not even clear when (if at all) Hasan will come.2 Ablası İngilizce dersi verir. 4 Bana bir mektup yazar mısınız? 5 Arabanı tamir eder. verbs marked with -iyor describe the main course of events.’ This. such as ‘from 9 to 5’. you only know that the action may take place. Hasan ‘Hasan comes late. 7 Araba tamir ederim. On the other hand. tamir etmek çeviri yapmak/çevirmek Language point -iyor versus the geniş zaman to repair to translate Using -iyor signals that the action is ongoing. 8 Tabii. It also means that you are able to say when this action started and when it will probably end. (Never çalışır. because it is something someone would do out of routine. Hasan’s ‘coming’ has a clear beginning and end. 6 Türkçeden Almancaya çeviri yaparım. and those in the geniş zaman the setting or background. It is not a statement about an actual action taking place. she works at a bank’ is Dokuzdan beşe kadar bankada çalışıyor. on the other hand. English ‘From 9 to 5. without reference to time: Bankada çalışır ‘She works at a bank. is a general statement about the geç gelir. ‘Hasan comes/is coming. when you hear a verb marked with the geniş zaman. yarın şu mektubu İngilizceye çeviririm. When someone uses both -iyor and the geniş zaman in turn. which can only be used as a more general remark.

to pollute situation to damage what we should do vet himself/herself (here: he/she) dirty. Bugün onunla beraber kuşlara yardımcı olmaya çalışıyoruz. villa like every summer at. Petrol denizi kirletti. enormous (wooden) house. bu yaz da anneannemin yarımda kalıyorum. Kuşları kurtarmak için genelde bir kepçe kullanırız. bize çok yakın bir körfezde büyük bir tanker battı. Kuşlar biraz toparlandıktan sonra. Kendisi dedi ki: ‘Bazı kuslar kirli sulara bulaştıktan sonra. next to bird to be of help to try bay sink to make dirty. polluted after coming into contact with to fly they can’t fly to save Page 131 genelde kepçe kullanmak in general. generally scoop to use . Onun için bu sabah veterinere telefon ettim. paying attention to the verb tenses.Read the following text carefully and translate. onları yıkayabilirsiniz. present tense -iyor or past tense -di) is used. uçamazlar. Ne yapacağımızı bilmedik. Anneannem koskoca beyaz bir yalıda oturuyor. Geçen hafta. Her yaz olduğu gibi.’ anneanne koskoca yalı her yaz olduğu gibi yanında kuş yardımcı olmak çalişmak (-e) körfez batmak kirletmek olay mahvetmek ne yapacağımızı veteriner kendisi kirli bulaştıktan sonra uçmak uçamazlar kurtarmak grandmother (the mother of your mother) large. Bu olay kuşları mahvetti. Try to work out why a certain tense (geniş zaman.

has a ‘deviant’ negation marker. for second and third persons singular and plural. -mez. the negation marker is -me. . The geniş zaman.toparlanmak toparlandıktan sonra yıkamak yıkayabilirsiniz Negative forms of the geniş zaman to regain strength after regaining strength to wash you can wash Recall that for -iyor (present) and -di (past) sentences. however.

Negative Negative questions Gel-mezGelmez mi? Doesn’t he come? Gel-mez-sin Gelmez misin? Don’t you come? Gel-mez-siniz Gelmez misiniz? Don’t you come? Gel-niez-ler Gelmezler mi? Don’t they come? .

In negative questions. the marker is not -mez. In regular negations. but -me: Negative Negative questions Gel-me-m Gelmez miyim? Gel-me-yiz Gelmez miyiz? Oku-ma-m Okumaz mıyım? Oku-ma-yız Okumaz mıyız? .The negated first person forms of the geniş zaman are also a bit tricky. the negation marker -mez is used. however.

(‘cigarettes are not smoked’) Page 132 Exercise 5 Turn the following sentences into negatives.’) 7 Araba tamir ederim. Türkçede böyle söylemeyiz. (‘I repair cars.’)=Haftaya sana uğramam.Examples: Sana hiç yardım etmez.’) 8 Şu mektubu İngilizceye çeviririm.’) 4 Bana bir mektup yazar mısınız? (‘Will you write me a letter?’) 5 Arabanı tamir eder. The first one has been done already.’) >> (‘I won’t visit you next week.’) 6 Türkçeden Almancaya çeviri yaparım. Sigara içilmez. I’ll never forget you. used as a concluding greeting in a letter to someone you know very well) kind regards we’re expecting you again! please come again! . She doesn’t eat meat. (‘He repairs your car.’) 3 Her gün dokuza kadar çalışırsın. (‘Her sister gives English lessons. (‘Every day you work until 9. (‘I translate that letter into English. He’ll never help you. Seni hiç unutmam. (‘I’ll visit you next week. No smoking. 2 Ablası İngilizce dersi verir. (‘I translate from Turkish into German. We don’t say it like that in Turkish. 1 Haftaya sana uğrarım. Et yemez.’) Language point The geniş zaman in formulas The geniş zaman is often part of well-known phrases and proverbs: teşekkür ederim rica ederim! tebrik ederim! gözlerinizden öperiz yine bekleriz! thank you I beg you! please! you’re welcome! not at all! don’t mention it! congratulations! (literally: ‘I kiss your eyes’.

her horoz kendi çöplüğünde öter köpeğe atsan yemez çocuk düşe kalka büyür every cock crows at his own garbage heap not even a dog would eat it a child learns by experience (‘grows falling and standing up’) Page 133 Dialogue 2 Büyük bir ihale A big order Ali is called into the director’s office MÜDÜR: Buyurun. nasıl isterseniz… Sözcükler ihale varsa orta şekerli order if there is with normal amount of sugar sadece içinde teslim etmek -mek zorunda teslim edebiliriz just. Durum şöyle. ne içersin? ALİ: Varsa. Yalnız bu demektir ki. MÜDÜR: Ali Bey. Seni önemli bir is için buraya çağırdım. Daha hızlı çalışırsak. kalite kesinlikle kalmaz. efendim. Ürünümüzü vaktinde teslim edebiliriz. ALİ: (gives in) Peki. Sadece. sanırım. orta şekerli kahve içeyim. senin ekibinin daha hızlı çalışması lazım. MÜDÜR: (through the intercom) Hülya Hanım. efendim. emir verdim. Büyük para kazanacağız. Konuya gelelim. Yani daha çok çalışılacaktır. Devletten büyük bir ihaleyi kazandık. Sen istenilen şartlara uymak durumundasın. bir şartı var. milyarlarca lira! Devlet 5000 tane çakmak sipariş etti. iki tane orta şekerli kahve getirir misin? (to Ali) Tamam. ALİ: Ama. only within to deliver to be obliged we can deliver product that means that konuya gelmek come to the point ürün bu demektir ki . Çakmakları bir ay içinde teslim etmek zorundayız. O şekilde üretimimiz artacak. aslında sana bir soru sormadım. Başka seçeneğimiz yok. şimdi çok kaliteli çakmakları üretebiliyoruz.

Did I make myself understood (was I able to tell)? You can choose the telephone number with one single button. The negative form of -ebil is -eme ‘not able to’: Şunu bilemem. Anlatabilir miyim? Telefon numarasını tek tuşla arayabilirsiniz. Bana emir veremezler. you cannot be sure if or when the action will happen.şöyle devlet büyük para çakmak sipariş etmek such state a lot of money lighter to order ki ekip lazım (-ması) kaliteli isterseniz that team must of high quality if you want Page 134 üretmek üretebiliyoruz çalışırsak kesinlikle Bey emir vermek istenilen to produce we can produce if we work surely. -ebil is typically used for asking permission: Pencereyi açabilir miyim? May I open the window? . In first person questions. because to be possible. Anlayamam. Remember that the geniş zaman typically refers more to habits than to actual situations. He cannot come here. Gelebilirim. for sure Sir to give an order wanted. Buraya gelemez. I am able to come/I can come/ I may come. This makes sense when you think about it. It is placed right after the verb stem. I cannot know that. We didn’t know what to do. option Permission and obligation The suffix -ebil means ‘to be able to’. required -a uymak şekil o şekilde üretim artmak seçenek to satisfy shape. form that way production to go up choice. I cannot understand that. Ne yapacağımızı bilemedik. They cannot give orders to me. but before the tense marker (-iyor/-di/-ecek etc.) It is useful to learn it now because it very often occurs in combination with the geniş zaman.

First.Fotoğraf çekebilir misiniz? Notlarınızı okuyabilir miyiz? Could you take a picture? May we read your notes? NB: Here. Yeni Sezen Aksu’yu almalıyım. Turkish has a number of options. I’ll buy the new Sezen Aksu (‘I still have to do that’). -ecek may denote a necessity (‘still have to…’). İngilizce iyi öğrenmelisin! . I have to buy the new Sezen Aksu (Sezen Aksu is a Turkish popstar) (‘I really must do that’). but I have to resist it. You must come. Beni uyku bastınıyor ama direnmeliyim. indicates a moral necessity (‘should’. Yeni Sezen Aksu’yu alacağım. But be careful—tenses don’t tend to be the same across languages. think of the difference in English between ‘I should’ and ‘I was going to’. In choosing between these two possibilities. -ebil resembles the geniş zaman. as we already saw in Lesson 7. Compare: Pencereyi açar mısın? Fotoğraf çeker misin? Notlarınızı okuyabilir mi? Can you open the window? Can you take a picture? Can he read your notes? Page 135 Obligation or need To express things similar to English ‘have to’ or ‘must’. The suffix -meli on the other hand. I feel sleepy (literally: sleep is pressing me). so you should try and get a feel for the Turkish system! Some examples: Gelmelisin. Geleceksin. which is more common in the second person. You’ll come/you’ll have to come. ‘have to’).

__________ We have to go now! __________ You should not accept that.You should learn English well. (literally: not leaving is necessary) Page 136 Senin ekibinin daha hızlı çalışması lazım. Your team has to work faster. rahatsız etmek You have to visit your mother. This combination is used for generalised sentences such as: Kalkmak gerek. One should stand up. One should not leave. Exercise 6 Fill in the correct translations: 1 __________ 2 Beni rahatsız etmemelisiniz. 7 __________ 8 Onu hiç bırakmaman gerek. There is a third possibility for expressing what you need to do: the use of the infinitive plus gerek or lazım ‘necessary’. The two parties should be prepared for a coalition. 3 __________ 4 Radyo dinlemesi gerek. 5 __________ 6 Daha fazla yemek hazırlamalıyım. He should shut the windows. __________ Students have to buy these books. İki parti bir koalisyona hazır olmalıdırlar. (literally: the faster working of your team is necessary) You will learn more about this in Lesson 9. __________ to disturb . (literally: standing is necessary) Bırakmamak gerek. Pencereleri kapatmalı.

Baksana! Otursana! Look here! Now sit down! When you are talking to more than one person you use the plural form of the imperative: stem+-in: Buraya gelin! Beni rahat bırakın! Beni dinleyin! Come here! Leave me in peace! Listen to me! And of course buyurun ‘please’. in origin. Gel bakalım! Come here! Page 137 Anlat bakalım! Come on. however. It is usually said with a sigh. ‘look here’ is. used for emphasis. but here used to mean ‘come on!’. The imperative is often followed by the expression bakalım literally ‘let’s see’. If you say ‘Give!’ or ‘Stop!’ or ‘Come!’ in English. is far more common and less impolite. and for expressing impatience. also an imperative.hazırlamak kabul etmek Language point Influencing people to prepare to accept When you want someone else to do something. The Turkish counterpart. you can use one of the following ways: 1 Imperatives The most direct. tell your story! Another form of the imperative is verb stem followed by -sene. it sounds impolite. . though somewhat impolite way of giving commands is to use the imperative. The singular form of the imperative is similar to the stem of the verb: the imperative of gelmek ‘to come’ is gel! ‘come!’.

2 Politer commands and suggestions Questions in the geniş zaman and suggestions with -elim are more polite ways of commanding people. Fasten your seatbelts. here is a small but useful list of interjections. (Turkish speakers use ‘my God’ more than English speakers—it is very natural in Turkish. In public places.The ‘stem+-in’ form is also a slightly more polite way to address single persons. Examples: Sigaranızı söndürür müsünüz? Bitirir misin? şarkı söyleyelim mi? Yüzmeye gidelim mi? Could you extinguish your cigarette? Could you finish? Shall we sing a song? Shall we go swimming? Come. Finally. you may encounter a third form of the imperative. lütfen. Look. even more polite than gelin: stem plus -iniz.) öf of hadi/haydi ugh! yuk! oof! ouch! come on! aferin ah Allah well done! oh! o dear! O God! Gosh! Page 138 Tanrım Allahım Allah aşkına aman Vallahi tamam Exercise 7 God! my God! for heaven’s sake! my goodness! I swear! okay boş ver/önemli değil/fark never mind etmez sana ne! mind your own business (rather rude) baksana now look here! Ask in polite and less polite ways: 1 whether to go to the lunchroom or not . on planes etc. intensifiers and exclamations that may come in handy in casual conversations. please. Please don’t touch. Kemerlerinizi bağlayınız. Dokunmayınız. Bakınız. as in: Geliniz. in trains.

Malzeme (5 kişilik) 500g bulgur 200g yağ 1 büyük soğan ince kıyılmış 5 adet sivri biber halka halka doğranmış 1 adet iri domates kabukları soyulup ince doğranmış 500g bulgur (pounded wheat) 200g butter (or oil) one large finely chopped onion 5 pieces of hot pepper. 10 dakika demlendirdikten sonra servis ediniz. or water Bulguru iyice temizleyip yıkadıktan sonra bir süzgece çıkarıp suyunu tamamen süzdürünüz. suyunu. Just read through the text and try to get a good idea of how the pilav is made. Sonra domatesi. . peeled and diced Page 139 1 tatlı kaçığı tuz 4 su bardağı et suyu.2 whether your friend wants to join you going to the cinema 3 whetheryour fellow traveller is inclined to put out his/her cigarette 4 whether someone wants to be silent 5 whether your children want to eat vegetables or not lunchroom be silent vegetable Reading text pastane susmak sebze The imperative is also used in recipes. tuzunu. sliced in rings 1 large tomato. The form used in the example below is the most polite one of the three forms we gave above. Orta ateşte soğanları sararıncaya kadar karıştırarak kavurup biberleri ve bulguru da ilâve ederek 5 dakika daha karıştırarak kavurunuz. the one with the -iniz ending. Bulgur pilavı From the book Türk Mutfak Sanatı (The Art of Turkish Cuisine). yoksa su 1 tablespoon of salt 4 cups (‘watercups’) of meat broth. Tencereyi ateşe koyup yağ ve soğanı ilâve ediniz. by Necip Usta. ilâve edip bir kere kuvvetlice kaynatıp karıştırdıktan sonra ağır ateşte 10 dakika pişirip ateşten alınız.

to brew Page 140 9 Dedikodu yapma! Don’t gossip! In this lesson you will learn how to: • combine two verbs • find the dictionary form of a verb • express ‘have to’ • combine two nouns into a compound noun • combine an adjective and a noun Read the following dialogue with the help of the glossary. filter to drain ilâve etmek sararmak kavurmak kuvvetlice kaynatmak demlendirmek to add to turn yellow to roast vigorously to boil to stew.Not: Domates ve sivri biber bulamadığınız zaman bibersiz ve domatessiz yapınız. kıyılmak halka halka doğranmak kabuk süzgeç süzdürmek finely chopped in rings to be chopped skin colander. Then do Exercise 1. Dialogue 1 Ne almak istiyorsun? What do you want to buy? İlknur and Hülya are waiting for their mother who is meeting them in town to go shopping İLKNUR: Ne almak istiyorsun? HÜLYA: Yeni bir etek almam gerek. Ya sen? . gelecek hafta eğlence var. Fatma için hediyeye bakmak istiyorum. Şu an bir fikrim yok.

şu ayakkabı! İLKNUR: Sana alacağım şunu. Belki Eser Hanım’a telefon açacağım. İLKNUR: Ben de. yemeğine bayılıyorum. bu arada birşey içer misiniz? HÜLYA: Evet. galiba kitap okuyacağım. HÜLYA: Oraya nasıl gider? İLKNUR: Otobüsle gitmesi gerek herhalde. önce Ayşe Hanıma uğrayacaktı. HÜLYA: Ben de Ayşe Hanım’a gitmek istiyorum. Elbisesini gördün mü? HÜLYA: Allahım. annemizi bekliyoruz. Yemekleri çok lezzetli oluyor. Acaba. HÜLYA: Bu akşam ne yapıyorsun? İLKNUR: Bilmiyorum. O Can F. biraz dedikodu yapalım. Kenedi Caddesinde oturuyor. çay lütfen. The waiter comes by to clear their table.Kenedi Caddesi cadde gitmesi gerek she was going to visit JFK Street street she has to go . The sisters are looking out the window HÜLYA: Şu kıza bak! Ay. Atina’ya yolculuk için reservasyonumu değiştirmek istiyorum. Özellikle onun köftesi nefis. annem şehir merkezine nasıl gelecek? İLKNUR: Bilmiyorum. Sözcükler etek almam almam gerek eğlence an seyahat acentası skirt my buying I have to buy party moment travel agent uğrayacaktı Can F. The girls explain why they are there HÜLYA: Affedersiniz.İLKNUR: Seyahat acentasına gitmemiz gerek. burada bekleyebilir miyiz? Page 141 GARSON: Tabii.

as Turkish doesn’t have separate auxiliary verbs like ‘can’. or that it took place at a certain time in the past. . As we saw earlier. To translate ‘playing’. -meli or gerek instead. This is the normal way of saying these kinds of things in Turkish. It is therefore important that.gitmemiz gerek Atina yolculuk reservasyon değiştirmek ayakkabı elbise acaba Exercise 1 we have to go Athens journey reservation to change shoes dress I wonder lezzetli bayılmak özellikle köfte galiba telefon açmak dedikodu yapmak delicious to really like in particular grilled meat dish probably to call up to gossip Say in your own words what went on in this dialogue. Turkish uses -ebil-. sometimes you just want to name the action. But the infinitive is used where English would use the construction: Possessive+‘-ing’. These forms indicate for instance that the action is on-going. these kinds of constructions are more common in English than in Turkish. İstiyorum already contains the relevant markers -iyor and -um. However. There is no need to repeat them with the other verb. oynama. You can always refer to the Glossary. They also signal who did or is doing the described action (compare okuyorsun ‘you are reading’ and okuyorlar ‘they are reading’). Try to imagine you overheard the conversation and are now telling a mutual friend about it. when you encounter an unfamiliar verb. ‘should’ etc. you use the infinitive of that other verb: gitmek istiyorum. without specifying who did it or when. An example of this is combining istiyorum with a verb: ‘I want to X’. just like in English. So. Actually. Page 142 Language point Infinitives You are familiar with verbs that have tense and person endings. such as -iyorum or -dik. Other examples are gitme ‘going’ and yapma ‘doing’. if necessary. There is another reason why you need to know the infinitive: it is the dictionary form of the verb. You could paraphrase ‘I think he played well’ with ‘I liked his playing’. ‘must’. you are able to strip it of its endings and reconstruct its infinitive form. you use the (short) infinitive on -me.

2 Another relevant context is ‘I’m trying to…’. The -ğ. 4 Finally. We want to go to America as well. The infinitive followed by çalışmak is marked with the dative case ending -e. For example: Futbol maçını seyretmek için eve gidiyorum. 3 The -mek infinitive is also often found with için. Page 143 Functions of the infinitive ending -mek 1 The most common use for the -mek ending is the ‘I want to…’ type of sentence. Exercise 2 Try to find all infinitives in the dialogue above. I wanted to buy peppers. you also use -mek in sentences of the type ‘to…is…’. Biber almak istedim. for example git-me-m: ‘my going’. For example: Yüzmek sıhhatli bir spordur. . I’m trying to learn Turkish. they also often end in -me or -ma. Look for the sequences -ma and -mak. In both. to give ‘in order to…’. is the verb stem. what precedes the -m-.The form of the infinitive Turkish infinitives end in -mek or -mak (in dictionaries). In actual sentences. The ending itself is often followed by a possessive ending. the k in -mek is softened to ğ: Türkçe öğrenmeğe çalışıyorum. the meaning becomes ‘to try’ (compare the English ‘to work on’). If this follows an infinitive. I’m going home to see the match. For pronunciation reasons. When to use -mek and when to use -me is explained below. The word for ‘try’ is the same as for ‘work’: çalışmak. Biz de Amerika’ya gitmek istiyoruz.is usually written as y: öğrenmeye.

these words never change form. for ‘I have to’. the one with the ending -me or -ma. 4 We have to write a letter. you could translate the -me as an ‘-ing’ form and the -mek as an infinitive with ‘to’: beklemek konuşmak to wait to talk bekleme konuşma the waiting the talking Page 144 To have to To express ‘have to’ or ‘must’ you use -me combined with the possessive ending (except if you use the -meli forms you learned in Lesson 8). Türkiye’de biraz daha kalmamız gerekti. that is: they don’t take personal or tense endings. it is normally used in the geniş zaman. if anything. preferably. This is logical if you realise that the -iyor tense is often translated by English ‘-ing’ forms: you can’t say ‘I’m having to’ either.Swimming is a healthy sport. . i. There is. There is not really much of a difference in meaning between the two forms of the infinitive. see if you can work out the Turkish translations of the following: 1 I have to go. however. also a verb gerekmek ‘to be necessary’. We had to stay in Turkey a bit longer. In the present tense. gerek ‘necessary’. Like var and yok. The infinitive ending -me To express ‘I have to…’ Turkish uses the short form of the infinitive. They are followed by the words lazım or. 3 She has to do this.e. 2 You must read this. The construction is: Verb stem+Infinitive ending -me/-ma+Possessive ending + lazım/gerek Exercise 3 Now.

everything is as expected. It is necessary that you don’t do this. but gerek yok (gerek yok with dative -e/-a). değil mi? You have to work tomorrow. In question forms a funny thing happens: gerek now needs to be replaced by gerekli. Evet demen lazım. is gerekli değil. The most common negated form is not lazım değil or gerek değil. the lazım/gerek/gerekir form is less compulsory. such as in the first example below. Otherwise. Bunu yapmaman gerek. . somewhat more formal. It is really not necessary that you do this. Cevap vermeniz gerekli miydi bu soruya? Did you have to answer that question? Bunu yapman gerek değil. Bu pahalı hediyeyi kabul etmen lazım. Page 145 Yarın çalışmanız gerek. Can you feel the difference with the -meli form? Whereas -meli expresses an obligation. You have to say ‘yes’. You have to wait a little. Here are some more examples: Bana yardım etmelisiniz.Daha çok meyve yemem gerekir. You (all) have to help me. I have to eat more fruit. haven’t you? Biraz beklemen gerekir. An alternative. You have to accept the expensive present.

some contain ‘short’ infinitives with -me (with or without additional suffixes). Another way of saying this is: Bunu doldurmanın gereği yok. for the negative versions. So if you want to say ‘I’m very happy that we met’ you take the short infinitive of görüşmek (which yields görüşme-). There’s no need to fill this out. it is more natural to use gerekli and -meli where needed. Well. However. Exercise 4 Make a list of all the forms you learned to express ‘have to’. That means that this infinitive is often marked with a case marker. They are all frequently used and most have not appeared in the dialogues so far. and put them in order of urgency. If you used lazım or gerek every time you needed to express ‘have to’. ‘must’ and ‘should’ and their negative counterparts (such as ‘don’t have to’). you know from earlier lessons that ‘pleased to meet you’ is memnun oldum. nobody would misunderstand what you were trying to say. You don’t have to fill this out. For example. add the first person plural -miz . memnun olmak ‘to be pleased’ requires that the word it co-occurs with is marked with the ablative case -den. Some have tense and person endings. ‘You don’t have to return. and often as direct objects of other verbs. Page 146 Exercise 5 Here is a list of verb forms.Bunu doldurmağa gerek yok. 1 2 3 4 5 kaybetmeleri çekmesi uçtu attılar göstermen 6 7 8 9 10 unutmadan sevmek göndermeği koyuyorsun taşımağa Case endings on infinitives The short forms of the infinitive are widely used. using ‘I have to return to London’ and. and yet others are full infinitives with -mek.’ The verb ‘to return’ is dönmek. Work out the dictionary forms for all of them and look up their meaning in the glossary.

This also works the other way round: English uses subordinate clauses with certain other verbs. atları. Müzik dinlemeyi severim.to convey the ‘we’ (this yields görüşmemiz). for instance in ‘I think (that) he’s right. I forgot to pay. and then supply the ablative case marker: görüşmemizden çok memnun oldum. (Subordinate clauses are discussed in Lesson 11. -yu. I like listening to music. in the following example. Do you recall from Lesson 6 that when a possessive (s)i or -leri is followed by a case marker. a case marker following this has to be preceded by an -n-. for instance.’ Turkish does this too. -yi.) ‘I like…’ (…severim) also requires the accusative case. Literally. ü. In general. -u. see Lesson 6). Infinitives are often used in Turkish with case marking. so if the direct object is not a normal noun (such as. it will be a good educated guess that Turkish will use an infinitive construction when English has one. so it has to be marked by the accusative case marker. -yı. This form sigara içmesi ‘his smoking’ is the direct object of istemiyor ‘she doesn’t want’. ‘horses’) but a verb. an extra -n. ‘I forgot to…’.‘smoking’ is followed by -si ‘his’ (which refers back to babasının ‘of her dad’). -yü.is used in between? See how this works in the form evini in evini gördüm ‘I’ve seen his house’: ev ‘house’ +Possessive=evi ‘his house’ +Accusative=evi+-n-+-i: evini gördüm ‘I’ve seen his house’ Likewise. This marker is preceded by the -n. Babasının sigara içmesini istemiyor. sigara içme. When a verb ending in -me is followed by a possessive marker. For example. . -ı. I like running. She doesn’t want her dad to smoke. Ödemeyi unuttum. this sentence means ‘she doesn’t want her father’s cigarette-smoking’. that verb (the -me infinitive) needs to be marked with the accusative case: Page 147 Koşmayı severim. The verb unutmak combines with a -me infinitive that is marked with the accusative case (-i.

giving istiyorum. 6 Beni mi görmeye geldin? 7 Ayşe bu yıl Karadeniz’e gitmemizi istiyor. while the short infinitive suffix is stressed itself. The negative suffix always causes the preceding syllable to be heavily stressed. dinlemek. Also. because of the wildly different contexts in which these two forms are used. The subject of the infinitive verb. Finally. Since these endings cannot possibly be attached to -mek infinitives. since the infinitive is the object of istiyorum. the form yapma can mean two things: ‘doing’ and ‘don’t do it!’ Confusion between the two will not often arise in practice. 2 Tatil resimlerini görmemi istediler. the subject of istemek is ‘I’. etc. you have to use the short infinitive. 5 Burada beklememi söyledi. Besides. there are never other personal suffixes after the imperative. we have said that the -mek infinitive is used with istemek. yielding dinlemen (or dinlemeniz). To take ‘I want you to listen to him’ as an example. Do not be surprised when you hear somebody say Yemeyi istiyor musun? instead of Yemek istiyor musun? On the other hand. this person may as well have said the noun yemeği ‘the food’. ‘in order to’ Page 148 ‘I want to…’ versus ‘I want you to…’ Above. in speech they sound very different. Identify these contexts (look up unfamiliar words in the Glossary). 3 Meseleyi anlamağa başladı. The first one has been done already. By the way. which sounds the same! Confusion between negative verbs and short infinitives Seen in isolation. is ‘you’. 8 Onları beraber görmeğe alışman gerek. even in the ‘I want to…’ construction. 1 Ablam elbise almak için çarşıya gidecek. This has to be marked on the infinitive with the second person singular ‘you’ possessive ending -in. this is only so if the sentence concerned is of the type ‘I want to…’. . 4 Oraya gitmemi düşünüyorum. the short version must be used: dinleme+-n (or -niz). ‘he wants to…’. However. If you want someone else to do something.Exercise 6 The following sentences all illustrate one context in which Turkish uses an infinitive plus other verb construction. it has to be marked with the accusative case: ona dinlemeni istiyorum (or dinlemenizi istiyorum). istemek may combine with the short infinitive.

Provide the actual answers afterwards. Which ones? 2 How was the weather? 3 İmdat’s fifth and sixth sentences contain reported speech. Identify the verb with which these sentences end. Page 149 Exercise 7 Read through Dialogue 2 below. How does she do that? Do you still remember what sana ne! means? It was introduced in Lesson 8 (also be aware that it is not a very polite thing to say). 9 At some point Şükran tries to change the conversation back to the earlier topic. using the following questions and the glossary below as a guide. 1 İmdat’s first two sentences contain three compound nouns. My coming after four annoyed him. 8 Explain why Adana kebap and the other food terms are not marked with the accusative case.Dörtten sonra gelme! Don’t come later than four! Dörtten sonra gelmem kızdırdı onu. so what’s the news about Hasan? 6 How would you characterise İmdat’s reaction to the news? 7 There are two more compound nouns in İmdat’s third turn. 10 Does İmdat accept that changed topic? 11 What is the final topic Şükran tries to introduce? . 4 Does Şükran agree with İmdat’s course of action? 5 The suffix -siz means ‘without’. nouns that are made up out of two parts.e. i. It annoyed him that I didn’t come. Identify them. Gelmemem kızdırdı onu.

lahana. Gişe şimdi kapanacak dedi. Fakat beşe sekiz kalaydı! Hiç birşey demeden hemen dışarıya çıktım. hiç belli olmuyor! Vejetaryenler için yemek kitapların var mı? Bari Hasan için yemek tariflerini toplayayım! (suddenly raises his voice) Aman. Dialogue 2 Konuşma Conversation Şükran and İmdat… İMDAT: Kötü bir gün idi. city council permit haber anlat bakalım artık etsiz news let’s hear (‘tell. Yeni bir park müsaadesi için başvurmam gerekti. akşam yemeği için. boktan herif o! Neyse. henüz kararsızım. Adana kebap hiç yemeyecek mi? Yalnız kabak. ŞÜKRAN: Hasan artık yemekleri etsiz yiyecek! Et yemeyi bıraktı. Şehir merkezindeki belediye binasına gittim. anlat bakalım. pazartesi Hasan’la Aylin bize geliyor. Sana sormak istedim az önce: deden nasıl? Sözcükler kötü şehir merkezindeki belediye müsaade bad the one in the centre of town state. Allah aşkına. demin ne dedin? Yani memur sana bilgi vermek istemedi mi? İMDAT: Ya biliyor musun. ne bileyim. Ne düşünüyorsun. Fakat içeceğe gelince. acaba. hala rakı içiyor mu. Buna ne dersin? İMDAT: Sahi mi? Kim anlattı? Sen her zaman herşeyi biliyorsun! Hayat böyle işte. Page 150 ŞÜKRAN: Haklısın. Oradaki memura bana yardımcı olur musunuz dedim. Etli nohut yahnisi pişirecektim. let’s see’) from now meatless . Hasan hakkındaki haberi duydun mu? İMDAT: Ne oldu? Hadi. patates. havuç mavuç filan mı yiyecek? Aklını kaçırmış galiba! Tavşan gibi! ŞÜKRAN: Allah bilir! Ama neden öyle kızıyorsun? Boş ver ya! Sana ne? Hm.12 Now fill in the line at the beginning that describes the setting of the dialogue and what it is about. yoksa onu da mı bıraktı? ŞÜKRAN: Dur be! Dedikodu yapmayı bırakalım. Kötü hava şartlarında otuz dakika yürüdüm.

park müsaadesi başvurmak oradaki memur gişe demeden dışarıya haklı boktan herif hakkında hakkındaki parking permit to apply the one there civil servant counter. you may not do that with yatak odası ‘bedroom’ either. its field’. Just as you don’t think of ‘bedroom’ any more as consisting of two words. its room’. an extra -n. The two nouns are put next to each other and the last one is followed by the possessive ending of the third person (-i. There is one more thing you should be aware of: as the Turkish compound noun ends in a possessive suffix (the -ü in pazar günü and the -ı in havaalanı). -si or -leri). Or else maybe with pazar günü ‘Sunday’ or havaalanı ‘airport’. two nouns can be combined to form a compound noun. It’s best to learn these compounds as one word. it might be helpful to think of Turkish compounds as literally saying: ‘the air. booth without saying outside right fool about the one about sahi mi? belli vejetaryen bari tarif toplamak kabak lahana havuç really? certain vegetarian at least recipe to collect courgette cabbage carrot havuç mavuç carrots and stuff Page 151 aklını kaçırmış aklını kaçırmak tavşan Allah bilir! Language points Compound nouns he must’ve lost his mind to lose one’s mind rabbit Lord knows! kızmak bilgi yahni gelince kararsız to get angry information stew.must be inserted before any case marker: pazar gününden havaalanına from Sunday on to the airport . sauce when it comes undecided As in English. In order to remind yourself of the possessive marker. or ‘the bed.

and a whole lot of them on the bus ticket: EGO Müdürlüğü ‘the EGO office’. halk otobüsü ‘public bus’. If a compound noun is followed by a possessive marker that is not the third person marker. . Instead. if you want to say ‘my photo camera’ you don’t just add -m for ‘my’. yolcu bileti ‘traveller ticket’. then the third person possessive marker that is found at the Page 152 end of compounds is replaced by the appropriate one. and yolculuk sırası ‘the duration of the journey’. so that you don’t get fotoğraf maki. the combination of ‘picture’ fotoğraf and ‘machine’ makine yields the word for ‘photo camera’: fotoğraf makinesi. Now. but fotoğraf makinem.nesim. For instance. As you see illustrated overleaf.NB: The word havaalanı is the exception to the rule that compounds are written as two words. EGO Müdürlüğü Denetiminde ‘under the auspices of the EGO office’. you can encounter compounds everywhere: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ‘Turkish Republic’ on the stamp. if you want to say ‘my/your/our X’.e. i. you replace the -si with the -m.

I like French villages. the short list does. but Turkish forms compound nouns with many of these. Often the compound option will come naturally to you. I’m married to an American woman. Rus and Yunan (the latter means ‘Greek’). Her yaz çok sayıda İsveçli ve Hollandalı turistler Türk plajlarına geliyor. İngiliz. İtalyan. is the compound Türk kahvesi.Country names as adjectives: Turkish. you wouldn’t expect them. NB: Speakers increasingly leave out the possessive ending. for ‘Greek’ both Yunan and Yunanlı: Amerikalı bir kadınla evlendim. however. ‘Turkish coffee’. A Russian firm has become the new owner. Alman. Page 153 Perhaps the hardest habit to break will be to use Adjective +Noun combinations in these contexts. Fransız köylerini beğeniyorum. Rus firması yeni sahip oldu. Things are a little harder with certain categories of compounds where. Every year many Swedish and Dutch tourists come to the Turkish beaches. Fransız. you may be able to construct the compound on the spot. Most other country names are formed with the suffix -li. The possessive marker does not occur with these so. for instance. Actually. both Amerikalı and Amerikan are in use. and not the Adjective+Noun combination Türk kahve. Amerikan kadınıyla evlendim. for ‘American’. include some of the most frequent ones: Türk. As -li is used to say ‘someone from…’. as with park müsaadesi ‘parking permit’ and yemek kitabı ‘cookery-book’ in Dialogue 2. Even if you have never used or heard the word before. English would use the combination Adjective+Noun here. American etc. with which you can form adjectives. you simply put the noun after the adjective. British. as in English. Not all names of countries behave this way. One of those categories is when names of countries are used as adjectives. approaching things from English. you will probably hear this suffix more often with names of cities and regions than with names of countries when you are in Turkey: .

Kocam Karslı. Take the following pair: Page 154 İngilizce kitap İngilizce kitabı Both combine the meanings ‘English’ and ‘book’. It refers to a textbook for learning English. When adjectives combine with the indefinite article. and on ‘English’ in the second. ‘the red coat’ gives more specific information than ‘the coat’. Almanca. is a compound. The place of adjectives Adjectives can be used before a noun or with the verb ‘to be’. For further illustration: the book that you are holding in your hands right now is a Türkçe kitabı. the adjective tells you something new about something or someone. Many adjectives end in -li. as can be seen from the possessive ending on kitap. etc. ‘a green car’ is yeşil bir araba. Yeşil araba means ‘green car’. In ‘the coat is red’. namely that it is red. The first combination is a regular Adjective + Noun combination. on the other hand. consider the following words that contain this suffix: pahalı bulutlu yaşlı expensive cloudy aged köylü gerekli peasant necessary (see earlier this lesson) Names of languages end in the suffix -çe/-ce/-ça/-ca: Türkçe. The second combination. but they differ in meaning. Hollandaca. in that the two uses are likewise distinguished by different word orders. With ‘to be’. the word order is as follows: Adjective+bir+Noun So. For example. something is said about the coat you didn’t know. English only uses intonation to distinguish between the two. with accent on ‘book’ in the first one. Exercise 8 . The result has a different meaning. Turkish is a lot like English. Sometimes names of languages can combine with a noun that is not marked with the possessive marker. ben ise Yozgatlıyım. and refers to a book in English. Yunanca. but it is an İngilizce kitap. for instance. while araba yeşil means ‘the car is green’. My husband is from Kars. İngilizce. Both denote a book. but I’m from Yozgat.

araba is translated as ‘the car’. The following are typical examples.00 train!) the plane to Ankara Boğazıçı University Lake Van football match taxi driver shepherd's salad For identifying a particular train. Note that in Turkish you . Combine the first three to give ‘A Adjective Noun’. even though there is no accusative case marker? Exercise 9 Here are nine combinations of noun and adjective. which combines with the second word in a compound noun.Just a little question to keep you on guard: how come. beyaz tarif. the next three to give ‘The Noun is Adjective’ and the last three to give ‘Adjective Nouns’. not ‘the train to Bursa’ (i. bus. deli genç bir adam 6 7 8 9 yeni. Tren is marked with the possessive suffix.e. adam havaalanı. plane. a certain university and a certain lake are identified through the first word. it is important that you develop a 'feel' for when to form a compound noun.05 train (or: the 15. eski elbise. boat etc. The first one has been done already.. In the third and fourth examples. boş tavuk. lokanta bardak. in araba yeşil. on beş treni Ankara uçağı Boğazıçı Üniversitesi Van gölü futbol maçı taksi söförü çoban salatası the 10. probably only the last three look 'natural' to you if you look at things from an English perspective. you use constructions as English does in ‘the six o'clock train’ or ‘the Bursa train’. you don’t say Bursa’ya tren). fiyat inek cow bardak glass Language points Other compound nouns For good idiomatic usage of Turkish. Page 155 1 2 3 4 5 genç. ucuz yüksek. kolay inek.

Remember that case endings that attach to a possessive ending must be preceded by -n-. as in futbol maçı and taksi söförü. 1 evening dinner 2 mad cow disease 3 fatigue syndrome 4 gold watch 5 homework . then it must be marked with the accusative case suffix -ı. I almost forgot to pay the taxi driver. and try to predict which ones will not be compound nouns in Turkish. The 3:10 train has not arrived yet. say. So a ‘leather suitcase’ is a deri bavul. Some more examples: Page 156 Taksi şoförüne para ödemeyi az kaldı unuttum. bulamadım. 'I couldn't find'. not a deri bavulu. to yield: İngilizce kitabını bulamadım. The other three are more straightforward for English speakers: two nouns combine to yield a new noun.don’t write words like göl or deniz with capitals. Material adjectives One class of adjectives that never occurs with possessive suffixes is material adjectives. often one that depicts a fairly easy concept. If İngilizce kitabı functions as a direct object of. Van gölünü görmedin mi? You haven’t seen Lake Van? Bu korku filmini hatırlıyor musun? Çocuk eti yiyen ağaç üzerine olan mı? Do you remember this horror movie? The one about the child-eating tree? Üç on treni henüz varmadı. Exercise 10 Look at the following English words and combinations.

We will now go over a few of these different structures. This seems a good place to revise the major points covered so far. is formed by adding -s to the noun. past and future tenses and how to form simple sentences. now that you’ve got this . Adding something to another word is called suffixation. The plural. What you have not heard anything about yet is how to combine sentences into more complex sentences. Turkish uses suffixation much more than English. and hopefully to clarify a few things. how to mark a verb for present. while others left you bewildered. We hope that. You can use this lesson to review what you have learnt —a chance to catch up so to speak—before moving ahead again. there are a few suffixes. perhaps crying out ‘Why does it have to be so complex?’ (meaning: ‘different’).6 Persian rug 7 Turkish government 8 plastic bag 9 Dutch football player Page 157 10 Tekrarlama Review Lesson 10 contains: • a revision of topics dealt with so far In the previous lessons you have learned about case endings on nouns. as in ‘house-s’. you will have noticed that some constructions were really easy to master. Suffixes In English. for instance. Turkish-isms Going through the lessons of this book. and point out some consistencies and principles that should make it easier for you to grasp them if you haven’t succeeded in doing so already.

The up side of suffixation. One area where you can get away with using an English-style construction once in a while is possession. but you will sound more natural if you manage to gradually adopt the principle ‘when in doubt. so that you don’t have much time to focus your attention on them. First and foremost. (Often. you’ll have to be able to spot suffixes quite quickly. Onun için çok mutlular. You don’t use the plural if the noun represents a group. . Exercise 1 Identify the various suffixes in the following sequences. The normal way of saying ‘my husband’ is koca-m. rather than separate individual entities. then one or more suffixes: that’s how Turkish works. you don’t use -lar if you have used a numeral or words like kaç ‘how much’/‘how many’ or az ‘few’ to go with it. using the plural ending is not exactly ‘wrong’. especially in Turkish. Page 159 Benim arkadaşlarım bu haberi bekledi.Page 158 far into this book. almost without exceptions. 1 arabamla 2 tatilinizde 3 yürüdük 4 yeşili 5 konuğumuzun arabasında 6 alıyor musunuz? 7 annenden 8 duydun Plural You may remember that the plural suffix in Turkish is not always used where you would in English. First the stem. Try to put yourself under time pressure: in real-life situations. don’t use it’. The down side is that suffixes are short. is that the order in which they come is quite regular. but benim koca is not impossible in colloquial Turkish. you have learned to think in a ‘suffix’ kind of way when you are constructing Turkish phrases.) Compare: Rosy adlı Amerikan arkadaşımız bugün dokuz elma yedi! Elma severim dedi.

so they’re very happy. 2 Is that white car yours? . During our travels in Turkey. first and second person plural forms of the verb (‘we’ and ‘you’) have their own unique endings: Üçümüz çok mutluyuz. Eski bina öyle temiz değil. but unlike in English. Türkiye’deki yolculuğumuz esnasında on iki tane güzel şehri gördük. Diğerleri çok aptal. When bir is really meant to mean one. which is why the fourth example doesn’t need it. You have the choice then either to mark the plural on the noun. If the subject is not a human being. NB: All this is only relevant for the third person plural ‘they’. As in English. as in the second and third sentences. In our class. Exercise 2 Translate 1 I just saw two huge birds.My friends have been waiting for this news. respectively. the adjective comes before the noun. we saw twelve beautiful cities. or building. the indefinite article bir follows the adjective. Sınıfımızda yalnız bir akıllı kız var. it precedes the adjective. Köpekleri terbiyeli değil. the sentence is more likely to be without -lar. there’s just one smart girl. Adjective+bir+noun In Lesson 9 you learned about adjectives. The last three sentences have no numeral to make clear we’re talking about more than one friend. Her dogs are not well-behaved. as do all numerals. The three of us are very happy. Old buildings are not that clean. dog. as in akıllı bir kız. The others are very stupid. ‘a smart girl’. or not at all.

5 Galatasaray wants a new good player. -te. The negation is expressed with yok. -da. which expresses the notion of ‘around’. ‘they have’ just stands for ‘in that place’. Turkish uses oralarda ‘here’ rather than just orada: Oralarda su çok/Oralarda su bol. No other word shows this irregularity. arabam var ‘I have a car’. -ta) is used. 4 They are very normal people. The numerous other uses ‘to have’ has in English. For ‘in’. but suyu. which you will know mainly as meaning ‘there is’ and ‘there is not’ and 2 you need to indicate with a suffix which person has something on the thing that is ‘being had’. the use of have in ‘they have lots of water there’ (or ‘they’ve got…’) is not paralleled in Turkish var. Nobody really ‘has’ this water..g. . etc. Ora ‘that place’ has the genitive suffix -nın. the locative (-de. such as in ‘I haven’t done anything’. Similarly. and since the exact spot is not defined. ‘That place’ is ora. Var/yok are mostly used for ‘there is…’ constructions and for possession (e. Note that you only use var or yok for literal ‘have’. do not have parallels in Turkish var/yok. So when you want to say ‘we don’t have a ticket’. you add a plural suffix (-ler or -lar) here. (Galatasary is a football team) kocaman üstünde…var To have huge to wear seninki futbolcu yours player Two things are important here: 1 you need to use var or yok. (an alternative:) Oranın suyu çok/Oranın suyu bol. There is much water there. Thus. There is much water there. or bahçeniz yok ‘you don’t have a garden’). so do not be tempted to experiment with var/yok when constructing a past tense verb form. you need to remember that the ‘we’ is a suffix on ‘ticket’: bilet-imiz. -Di and -miş are all you need for that (see Lesson 11). NB: Note the irregular possessive ending on su: not susu. ‘thereabout’.Page 160 3 She was wearing a green skirt at the party.

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Exercise 3

Translate 1 I have no money. 2 She has two dogs. 3 What a beautiful house you (plural) have! 4 I have really enjoyed my stay here. 5 In Greece, there’s good food. Yunanistan kalma
Accusative case

Greece stay

gerçekten

really

It cannot be emphasised enough that the Turkish accusative case and the English definite article are only partially equivalent. The accusative case is only used when a noun functions as the direct object of a verb. Subject nouns can be definite, as in ‘the man saw me’, but they cannot get accusative case. In adam beni gördü ‘the man saw me’ and adamı gördüm ‘I saw the man’, adam and adamı both mean ‘the man’. In the next example, çiçekleri has the accusative marker, because it is a direct object and it is definite, due to the preceding demonstrative pronoun bu. Konuğumuz bize bu çiçekleri getirdi. Our guest has brought us these flowers. After words denoting quantities, such as çok ‘much’, ‘many’ az ‘little’, ‘few’ and hiç ‘no’, you cannot use the accusative case.
Exercise 4

Look at the direct objects and say whether they need accusative case or not. 1 Kahvenize süt koyuyor musunuz? Do you take cream in your coffee? 2 Uzun zaman konuştuktan sonra bir sonuca vardık.

After talking for a long time we reached a conclusion. 3 Tatildeyken her arkadaşıma kartpostal gönderirim. When I’m on holiday, I send postcards to all my friends. 4 Kapak aç lütfen! Please open the lid! 5 Tabağın bana verin! Give me your plate!

Page 162 6 Tabii ki, para kazanmamız lazım! Of course, we have to earn money! 7 Fransa’da işçiler sık sık grev yapar. In France, workers strike often. 8 Dün çok zaman kaybettim. Yesterday, I lost a lot of time. 9 Annenin çöplüğe attığı mektup okudun mu? Did you read the letter your mother threw into the rubbish bin? 10 Onların oğlanları gördün mü? Did you see their sons? 11 Onların bana bir iş teklif edecekleri bekliyorum. I expect them to offer me a job. 12 Bu sözcük anlıyor musunuz? Do you understand this word? uzun sonuca kartpostal kapak tabak
Compound nouns

long, tall conclusion postcard lid plate

grev çöplük teklif etmek sözcük

strike dustbin to offer word

Another thing you probably had to get used to is having to stick a possessive marker on to the second noun in a compound, the -sı in yatak odası. You think of possessives as indicating, well, possession, as in babam, ‘my father’. But nobody’s owning the oda in

yatak odası. And then, once you have mastered that, you will probably go on having some trouble deciding when NOT to add the possessive marker. The basic rule is that if you really feel that the two form a unit together, then it is a compound and you use the possessive marker. If the first word feels more like an adjective to you, then you don’t use the possessive. Most of the time that will get you the correct result. The most tricky type of combination is when you have a word denoting the name of a country as the first word. Those words feel like adjectives to English speakers, since that is what they are in English; in Turkish they form compound nouns, except when ending in the suffix -li.
Exercise 5

Here are some more English combinations; we dare you to guess whether they are compound nouns in Turkish or not, and to give the Turkish translation if you can.

Page 163 1 housekeys 2 motorway 3 old man 4 gaol 5 employer (‘work giver’) 6 summermonths 7 the five o’ clock train 8 weak tea 9 dish of the day 10 menu (eating list) 11 vegetarian food 12 lentil soup 13 Finnish skier 14 Turkish coffee açık weak (at least in the context of drinks)

mercimek Finli kayakçı Exercise 6

lentil Finnish skier

Translate the following compounds into English: 1 otel odası 2 Türk kahvesi 3 Almanca öğretmeni 4 Marmara denizi 5 Türk-Yunan dostluğu 6 kız okulu 7 mutfak dolabı 8 otobüs bileti 9 Japon arabası 10 korku filmi 11 Hemingway’in romanları 12 kuzu eti/kuzunun eti 13 Mayıs ayı 14 çocuk odası/çocuğun odası 15 balkon kapısı/balkonun kapısı 16 inek sütü 17 İkinci Dünya Savaşı 18 roman yazarı/romanın yazarı

Page 164

dolap savaş
Genitive-possessive constructions

cupboard war

In Lesson 6, you saw another type of construction in which two nouns combine with each other: the genitive-possessive construction, of the type Hasan’ın koltuğu ‘Hasan’s chair’. Again, as these combinations end in a possessive suffix, they always get accusative case if they function as direct object: benim bavulumu bulamadım ‘I couldn’t find my suitcase’ (bavul ‘suitcase’+-um ‘my’+-u accusative). This is logical: the genitive serves to pinpoint exactly one specific thing, namely, the suitcase that belongs to me (benim). Definite direct objects must be marked with accusative. Note that the thing that goes with var in the ‘I have…’ construction is not marked with accusative. Aytekin’lerin güzel banyosu var. (‘to have’ construction) Aytekin’s family has a beautiful bathroom. Bu sene Bahar’ın notları berbattı. (subject) This year Bahar’s grades were atrocious. Accusative marking is seen in the following examples: Hiç kimse memurun ya.nlışlığını fark etmedi. Nobody noticed the civil servant’s mistake. Aman allahım, onun durumunu düşün! Oh my God, think of his/her situation! Funda’nın yemeğini her zaman bitiriyor mu? Does he always finish Funda’s dinner?
Overview of combinations

You have now seen three ways of combining two nouns. The first one, Adjective/Noun+Noun is included here because the names of countries are nouns in Turkish. The difference between 2 and 3 can be illustrated neatly with the pair hafta sonu and haftanın sonu: the first one means ‘weekend’ and is a word no Turkish speaker ever has to actively put together out of hafta, son and the possessive ending. The second one means ‘the end of the week’, something you are more likely to build up when you need it.

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1 A d j e c t i v e / N o u n + N o u n y e ş i l a ğ a ç

t h e g r e e n t r e e

an adjective or a personal ending) to the compounds or change their form! Ne yapıyorsunuz. with the most appropriate of the options that are listed at the bottom. between a landlady and her tenant. İçer misiniz? Efendim. Choose from these options: meyve bahçe zavallı baba etli nohut pirinç pilav Amerikan firma kadın doktor ev kadın Türk mutfak Page 166 dükkanın sahip uzman doktor portakal su dükkan sahip bilgisayar programcı baş ağır . umarım. Teşekkür ederim ama. Bol vitaminli. Meyvemizi kendi (orchard)’de topladık. Bugün (Turkish cuisine). Funda Hanım? Ben (housewife). bu sokakta (excellent doctor) var. soğuk almışım. Çünkü. yarın (Chinese cuisine) olacak. A. Kocanız ne yapıyor? O (computer programmer).g. Babam (owner of that store). İşte. (Turkish cuisine)’dan çok farklı. Gerekli olursa. Geçen ay bir bilgisayar aldı. harika! Şifalıdır. (Woman doctor). kahve hazır. galiba doktora gitmeye gerek yok. kocam şimdi (the train from Ankara)’de. ama (aged storeowners) için çok zor dedi.Exercise 7 Fill in the dialogue below. Sanıyorum. sizin (orange juice) var mı? Var. Geçmiş olsun. Ne yiyeceğiz bu akşam? (Rice pilav) ve (chickpea and meat stew). Watch out: you may need to add something (e. Onu beğeniyor musunuz? O. Akşamlarda (my poor dad)’ı yardım ediyor. (American firm) için çalışıyor. tabii. Hem de (headache) var.

with one -lar dropped). i. The consequence is that a sequence such as çocukları may mean ‘their child’ (çocuk+-ları). a form evlerleri is not possible. Focus on what the person talking to you is talking about: more often than not only one interpretation will make sense. however: only one plural marker is used. as well as ‘her/his children’ (çocuklar+-ı).e. Forms with -leri or -ları will probably cause you some problems in your first months of learning Turkish because they can mean several things. For instance. there is no double plural. if someone is . ‘their children’ (çocuklar+-ları. 3. The sequences -ları and -leri are very common. when both the possessive ending and the noun have to be plural. These double forms do not occur. The obvious question is: ‘How can I know with which one of these senses I’m confronted with when someone says something containing -leri?’ The just-as-obvious answer is: ‘context’. It can be any of the following: 1 possessive ending ‘their’ Example: ev-leri (‘house—their’ >> ‘their house’) 2 possessive ending ‘his’ or ‘her’ on something that is plural Example: evler-i (‘houses —his/her’ >> ‘his/her houses’) 3 possessive ending ‘their’ on something that is plural Example: evler-i (‘houses— their’ >> ‘their houses’) 4 ‘they have’ (if followed by var or yok) Example: güzel bir ev-leri var (‘house— their’ >> ‘they have a nice house’) 5 plural plus accusative Example: ev-ler-i aldılar (‘house—-s—the’ >> ‘They bought the houses’) Page 167 6 plural of a compound noun Example: devlet hastane-leri (state—hospital—-s >> ‘public hospitals’) Note that in No. You could expect two ‘-lar’s there: çocuklar+ları >> çocuklarları. As explained above.Ankara’dan tren yaşlı dükkan sahip harika! şifalı bol çünkü great! healthy full of because Çin mutfak Türk mutfak zor farklı zavallı ağır difficult different poor pain The sequence -ları/-leri- An interesting problem arises when you want to say ‘their children’.

his/her cars (all direct objects!) of their house. the ‘they have’ interpretation never even comes up. even though in evlerini temizledik (‘we cleaned their house’) it really doesn’t mean that. from their houses. Her answers were satisfactory. and perhaps speakers of many other languages. as that is the only context where this sort of confusion can arise.g. For instance. of their houses. so that you may instantly think ‘houses’ when you hear evler. the following sequences are also common: -lerine e. since presumably they have just one house. if you try to think of a different meaning for each of the following examples.g. evlerinin in their car. speakers use genitive pronouns in a helpful way. With the other persons. So the only plausible interpretation that is likely to force itself upon you is ‘we cleaned their house’. Sometimes. their cars. Sevgi. you won’t succeed. to their houses. it’s not very likely that you will interpret evlerini temizledik as ‘we cleaned their houses’. the possessive ending makes only one interpretation possible. in their cars. because it follows the -n that typically comes between a possessive suffix and a case suffix. Because of the need for case markers in practically every sentence. usually to avoid ambiguity.talking to you about her parents’ house. of his/her houses This section only concentrated on third person possessives. The form consists of ev ‘house’ and -leri ‘their’. that’s all. evlerine to their house.element immediately puts ‘plural’ into your mind. Arkadaslarımı davet etmedi. arabalarını e. to his/her houses -lerinden e. The only problem for the English-speaker. from his/her houses Page 168 -larında e. . nor does the ‘plural plus accusative’ interpretation.g. their glasses are empty! Onun cevapları yeterliydi.g. is that the -ler. The sequence -lerini has alerted you immediately to the fact that the final -i is the accusative.g. onların bardakları boş! Sevgi. As there is no var or yok. Onun for ‘his’ or ‘her’ and onların for ‘their’ can give the understanding process just the boost it needs. Arkadaşlarım can only mean ‘my friends’. Don’t worry—this is something you will need time to get used to. arabalarında -larını -lerinin e. let alone as ‘we cleaned his houses’. evlerinden from their house. in his/her cars their car.

don’t forget the extra -n-: sigorta formlarını: Sigorta formlarını doldurdun mu? Did you fill in the insurance forms? Page 169 Exercise 8 Among the following twelve sentences. if he didn’t mean ‘your letters’. there are two -leri combinations of each of the six types mentioned above: • ‘their’+singular • ‘his’/or ‘her’+plural . here is an example with an accusative-marked plural compound noun: sigorta formlarını: sigorta ‘insurance’ plus form ‘form’ plus possessive suffix plural -ları=sigorta formları. I love his/their letters. for instance when you know that the speaker has received a letter from a company. Presumably. Mektuplarını severim. just like evine can mean ‘to your house’ and ‘to his house’ (see Lesson 6. so mektuplarını can mean ‘your letters’ as well as ‘his letters’. ‘their letters’ or even ‘their letter’. I love your letters. it is likely that he means ‘your letters’ (unless you have never sent him any!). The interpretation ‘their letter’ is likely to appear only when you already strongly expect it because of the context. the context will usually make only one interpretation leap to mind.She didn’t invite my friends. Akşam yemeklerinizi bitirebilecek miyiz? Shall we finish your food? But. When adding the accusative -ı. Again. Finally. he would have said: Onun/Onların mektuplarını severim. If the person who says the following sentence is talking to you directly. page 97).

6 Bazı çocukların ayaklarında ayakkabı yoktu. sol tarafta birinci odadır. these pronouns are usually not necessary. you are used to to the existence of personal and possessive pronouns. You can’t express things like ‘I’m sick’. 8 Ali komik hikayeleri anlattı. Their basic equivalents are the suffixes: hastayım ‘I am ill’. 10 Bana göre onun düşünceleri tehlikeli. . 12 Camileri gördünüz mü? ışık yanmak kırmızı …ile boyamak öneri Pronouns light to burn red with… to paint proposal hikaye giyecek göre (-e) çocukluk cami story clothes according to childhood mosque In English. 3 Bu kızlar annelerini çok seviyorlar. In Turkish. 4 Onların çocuklarını tanıyor musun? 5 Önce kızların odalarını boyadık. 11 Çocukluğumda piyano derslerini hiç sevmezdim. 7 Ondan sonra öğretmenlerin çok iyi bir önerileri vardı. Yukarıda. geliyorlar ‘they come’ and arabam ‘my car’. 9 Onun için bana giyeceklerini verdi.• ‘their’+plural • ‘they have’ • plural plus accusative • plural compound noun plus accusative Identify which sentence is of what type. ‘they’re coming’ or ‘my car’ without them. 1 Bu şehirde trafik ışıkları her zaman kırmızı yanıyor. 2 Ahmet ile Hasan odalarında.

‘your’). their’ size ‘to you’ sizi ‘you’ sizde ‘in/on/ at you’ sizden ‘from you’ onlara ‘to them’ onları ‘them’ onlarda ‘in/on/at them’ onlardan ‘from them’ locative ‘at’. Most of these forms you have already encountered. your’ onların ‘of them. here they all are: Singular: ben ‘I’ genitive ‘of’ dative ‘to’ accusative direct object locative ‘at’. ‘in’. ‘on’ ablative ‘from’ benim ‘of me.Nevertheless. pronouns exist. sen. If yours is a language. such as English. . ‘in’. ‘on’ bizde ‘in/on/ at us’ ablative ‘from’ Non-use of pronouns bizden ‘from us’ Especially in the beginning. the other cases can be added to pronouns to express meanings like ‘on’. In addition. Just be aware that they usually add emphasis. which uses pronouns a lot. you probably had the tendency to start out many sentences with ben. so you can use them. your’ sana ‘to you’ seni ‘you’ sende ‘in/on/ at you’ o ‘he/she/it’ onun ‘his/her/its’ ona ‘to him/her/ it’ onu ‘him/her/it’ onda ‘in/on/at him/her/it’ benden ‘from me’ senden ‘from you’ ondan ‘from him/ her/it’ Plural: biz ‘we’ genitive ‘of’ dative ‘to’ accusative direct object bizim ‘of us’ bize ‘to us’ bizi ‘us’ siz ‘you’ onlar ‘they’ sizin ‘of you. mine’ bana ‘to me’ beni ‘me’ bende ‘in/on/ at me’ sen ‘you’ senin ‘of you. ‘to you’ and ‘from them’. Object pronouns are marked with the accusative case (ben ‘I’ plus accusative -i makes beni) and possessive pronouns with the genitive (sen ‘you’ plus genitive -in makes senin ‘of you’. ‘near’. o etc. it is hard to break the habit when learning a language that doesn’t normally use them. The basic personal pronouns are Page 170 the subject pronouns. ‘with me’.

…nasıl buluyorsun Bursa’yı. bu yıl…yine başlamıştım oraya. We are guests here. … oraya altı ay. you should try the exercise. Exercise 9 Insert pronouns in the spaces only where you think they are needed. Bursa’lıyı? BAHAR: Mesela Ayhan dönüş yapmak isterse…hemen dönerim. compare your answers with the transcript in the Key. Pronouns basically only come in for emphasis and to take care of possible ambiguities. SABAHAT: …üç yıl oldu. . siz değilsiniz. He/She is very sweet.…Kayseri’den geleli kaç sene oldu?… Bursa’ya geleli üç yıl oldu. Page 171 Biz burada misafiriz. BAHAR: Sabahat. you are not. Ama… diğer öğrencileri beğenmedim. SABAHAT: Bursa’yı…sevemiyorum. Burada misafiriz. sekiz ay sonra yine bir kursa başladım. This is not an exercise in which you can really make any mistakes. …seviyor musunuz? AYHAN: …önceleri sevmiyordum. what do you think? Onlar çok tath.…da Kuzey Bursa’daydı. Çok tath. then listen to the cassette. ama. ne düşünüyorsun? And you.…susuyor. BAHAR: …yedi. We’re guests here. sekiz ay devam ettim…bitti. …buranın havasından çalışamıyorum. Bir tek… konuşuyorum. yok. First.such as Turkish. They are very sweet. and finally. Ya sen.

The following exercises are meant to help you remember. BAHAR: Çünkü…Almanya’da büyüdün. so that you have probably forgotten quite a few. SABAHAT: …hiç uyduramazsın. geleli Kuzey when you came North devam etmek başlamıştım to continue I had started Page 172 dönüş yapmak isterse eğer Some vocabulary exercises if he wants to return if gitsem ayak uydurmak alışmak if I go to adapt to get used to You have learned many words in the preceding nine lessons. AYHAN: …hiç uyduramam artık. Exercise 10 Connect the words on the left with those on the right that mean something similar: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Exercise 11 ad fakat gibi bırakmak merhaba dinlemek dost gelmek ve abla okumak yine a b c d e f g h i j k l kız kardeş arkadaş isim öğrenmek da/de tekrar olarak bitirmek günaydın duymak varmak ama . ondan sonra da… tekrar buraya geldin. but many of them have only occurred once.AYHAN: …eğer burdan gitsem…oraya ayak uyduramamki. Ondan sonra da…buranın hayatına alışmaya çalışıyorsun.

6 (Doğru). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 bozuk yeni kapalı almak girmek başlamak cevap vermek beyaz berbat a b c d e f g h i soru sormak (‘to ask’) güzel (‘beautiful. If you feel adventurous and/or self-confident. nice’) hasta (‘ill’) fena (‘bad’) siyah (‘black’) açık (‘clear’) vermek (‘to give’) son (‘end’) çalışıyor (‘it works’) Page 173 10 11 iyi ilk j k 1 bırakmak (‘to leave’) çıkmak (‘to come out’) eski (‘old’) 12 sıhhatli Exercise 12 Change the following sentences by replacing the word in parentheses with a (near) synonym. 10 Affedersiniz. 8 Ne zaman Güney Türkiye’ye (kalkıyorsunuz)? 9 Ama bu evin iki banyosu yok. (neden) dün akşam bana söylemediniz? . 1 Bu şarkıcıyı çok (seviyorum). Be sure any endings take their right form. try doing the exercise without looking at the list of options. 3 (Harika!) Gitar çalabiliyorsun! 4 Belediyeye başvurmalı mısın (belki)? 5 Şimdi baş rol oyuncusu (hakkında) konuşacağız.Find the words on the right that mean the opposite of the words on the left. efendim. 2 Cuma günü Fadime bana (söyledi) ki cumartesi günü eğlence var. ona iyi cevabı verdin! 7 (Bizim hanım) bana telefon etti. misafir geldi. biri (hata) yapmış. chosen from the list at the bottom.

This lesson will introduce the first relevant forms. . değil mi? yanlışlık ‘mistake’. şahane ‘great’. üzerine ‘about’.11 Nasıl mı buldum? Merak etme. haklı ‘right’. we will use the term ‘clause’ to refer to the parts that constitute a complex sentence in this way. gitmek ‘to go’. bitirmek ‘to finish’. To avoid confusion. A sentence can consist of a main clause and any number of subordinated clauses. baş rol oyuncusu misafir Güney starring actor guest. nefis ‘tasty’. karım ‘my wife’. niçin ‘why’. beğenmek ‘to like’. sentences can be combined in this way. or of two or more coordinated clauses. acaba ‘I wonder …’. you will notice that in many of their sentences two or more simple sentences are combined into more complex ones. too. In Turkish. in any language. demek ‘to say’. sene ‘year’. 12 Raporu (tamamlayabildiniz mi)? 13 Geçen (yıl) buraları daha ucuzdu. visitor South merak etmek rapor to worry report Page 174 11 Çok değişmiş She has changed a lot In this lesson you will learn how to: • combine two clauses into a complex sentence • form relative clauses • form a second past tense • decide which of the past tenses to use If you listen to two people talking to each other. bu pilav çok (iyi).

You are most likely to get this feeling in the following two contexts: with verbs like ‘say’ and ‘think’ (as in ‘do you think that was a good idea?’). to be used if you don’t want to come across as a beginner too much. I talked about the man. Other common types of subordinated clauses are ‘if’ and ‘when’ clauses. It is essential that you realise that these clauses are not simply a ‘more complex’ option. i. as in: I don’t think (that) I’m going tonight. With the types of sentences you have learned to produce so far. you can manage without them by using two sentences. .Language point Subordinated clauses: an introduction When you think of subordinated clauses. You use these if you want to say something about the book in order to make it clearer for the listener which book exactly you’re talking about. constructions such as ‘the man I was talking about and the people we met’. This man works at my workplace. you should focus on trying to get a basic grasp of how Turkish handles clausecombining.e. For now. Bunlarla geçen hafta tanıştık. but you’ll soon notice that it would be handy. What’s the title of the book that you bought? Did he say that he had seen your parents? The second sentence contains what is called a ‘relative clause’: a subordinate clause that goes with a noun (in this case with ‘the Page 175 book’). if you could form slightly more complex sentences. they really are the normal way of saying things. Often these go with verbs such as ‘think’ or ‘say’. such as: Ne düşünüyorsun? Bu iyi bir fikir mi? What do you think? Is this a good idea? Adam hakkında konuştum. and that you would sound more eloquent. In many cases. you can go a long way in conversation. you are most likely to think of clauses that start with ‘that’ or ‘which’ in English. Bu insanlarla buluştuk. NB: If you want to. Bu adam benim iş yerimde çalışıyor. and with relative clauses.

ne yok? FUNDA: Bugün bizim bankada çalışan Meral adlı arkadaşımla bir konu hakkında konuştum. Türkler. nasıl olur? Ticaret yaptığımız ülkelerle düşman olmak istemiyoruz. Ali de aynısını dedi. Ali’yle evlendiğinden beri çok değişmiş. but they’re not quite ready yet to go to bed MUSTAFA: Başka ne var. FUNDA: Tamam. bunu Meral’a anlat! O bana inanmıyor. We got to know them last week. . I talked about a man who works at my workplace. Geçen hafta tanıştığımız insanlarla buluştuk. She has just switched off the TV. O dedi ki biz. MUSTAFA: Bence zor. answer the questions below and look at the Key. kendi kendimizi yönetmiyoruz. Öte yandan. şunu yapma demesini istemiyoruz. try using subordinated clauses: Bunun iyi bir fikir olduğunu düşünüyor musun? Do you think this is a good idea? Benim iş yerimde çalışan adam hakkında konuştum. To check your understanding. For now. MUSTAFA: Belki daha sert olmamız gerekiyor ama. FUNDA: Doğru! Ama gel sen. Page 176 Dialogue 1 Funda ve Mustafa Funda and Mustafa The following dialogue contains a few complex clauses. just focus on the general meaning. diğer ülkeler bize bunu yap. We met the people we got to know last week. Funda and Mustafa are sitting around in their living room at the end of the day. Biz daha sert olmalıyız dedi. However.We met these people. if you want to sound more proficient.

ne yok çalışan adlı kendi kendimizi what’s new? who is working named ourself öte yandan diğer evlendiğinden beri değişmek on the other hand other since she got married to change Page 177 yönetmek sert ticaret yaptığımız ülke düşman Exercise 1 to govern strong trade that we do country enemy değişmiş seninki yorulmak yarınki sıcak iyi geceler she has changed yours to get tired tomorrow’s warm goodnight Answer the following questions: 1 Where does Meral work? 2 What had Meral said that morning? 3 What kind of countries should not be made enemies? 4 What don’t they want these countries to say to them. Sözcükler ne var. Yarınki hava raporunu duydun mu? FUNDA: Duydum. Ben biraz daha okuyacağım. MUSTAFA: Harika. yoruldum. compared to the English way of saying it? .MUSTAFA: Merak etme! O onun meselesi. rapora göre hava sıcak olacak. seninki değil. Yatacağım. (after a period of silence) MUSTAFA: Pf. according to Mustafa? 5 When did Meral change? 6 What does Mustafa think is Meral’s problem? 7 What strikes you about the way Mustafa says he’s tired. İyi geceler. FUNDA: İyi geceler. Mustafa.

That structure. the main thing talked about usually comes last (a noun comes after its adjective. why in the position they are in. NB: The first person ending -m. The basic subordinate clause You will soon realise that the basic structure of all subordinate clauses is always the same. and why in the form they occur in. (main clause+subordinating conjunction (‘because’) +subordinate clause) Page 178 More similar to the Turkish structure would be: Because I like it there. Just look at every word in the sentences and try to get an idea of why they are there. attached to the verb 3 Main clause As you probably realise by now. is: 1 Subordinated clause 2 Suffix indicating subordination. a yatak odası is a room and not a bed. I went to Amsterdam. needed to express the ‘I’ in ‘because I like it there’. don’t spend too much time trying to work them out. the suffix -diğim için ‘because I’ (suffixed to the verb). Amsterdam’a gittim. where the main clause comes first. Here are some more examples you can study in order to get a general feel for the structure. then the subordination marker and finally the subordinated clause. In English you say: I went to Amsterdam because I like it there. . in a nutshell. The complete subordinated clause is oraları sevdiğim için ‘because I like it there’. This consists of the subordinated clause oraları sev. Again. and the main clause Amsterdam’a gittim ‘I went to Amsterdam’.8 Now underline the subordinate clauses in the dialogue. is added to -diği (person marking will be discussed further below). Given that ‘because’ is expressed by the suffix -diği için. this sentence becomes: Oraları sevdiğim için. and the verb comes last in the sentence).‘like it there’. This order is the mirror image of that in English.

Turkish uses a suffix. 2. This section is about such clauses. so you must try to familiarise yourself with the principle that the noun follows the relative clause. stuck on to the verb stem (in the case of ‘to read’. use the following principles: 1. but in Turkish the order is just the other way round. In these cases. Further. as the former more clearly identifies who you are talking about. It can.Gazetecilerin onun üzerine yazdığı biçimi sevmiyorum. So: ‘the book that you’re reading’ becomes ‘you’re reading that the book’ (or. In English it comes first. Because I wanted to find a room in Istanbul. ‘which’ or ‘who’. The part ‘who works at the airport’ is an example of a relative clause. there is no separate word for ‘that’. the noun ‘the woman’ is the subject of the relative clause ‘who knows English’. For this suffix you have the choice of two: -diği or -en/ -an. I went early. that stem is oku-): okuduğu (notice the vowel harmony here) ‘that one reads’ (how to express ‘you’ will come later on). For deciding which one to use. Çalan kasetteki şarkıcıyı biliyorum. ‘the your-reading book’). I know that singer on the tape that’s playing. you use -en/-an: İngilizce bilen ‘who/that knows English’. followed by ‘that’. Possibility 1: the noun is the object of the verb in the relative clause In ‘the book that you’re reading’ the noun ‘the book’ is the object of the verb ‘read’ in the relative clause ‘that you’re reading’. I don’t like the way in which the journalists write about him. Possibility 2: the noun is the subject of the relative clause In ‘the woman who knows English’. be more informative to say ‘the cousin who works at the airport’ than just ‘my cousin’. İstanbul’da oda bulmak istediğim için erken gittim. for instance. rather. Language point Relative clauses A relative clause enables you to say something extra about a noun. So you use -diği. Exercise 2 . instead. Page 179 The form of the relative clause Just as you had to get used to putting the verb last in a Turkish sentence.

so I had to depend on my raincoat. Check the Key after you’ve finished. decide whether the clause makes use of Possibility 1 or Possibility 2 above. as it seems to lack a certain fluency. the same as the -i in evi ‘his/her house’. All those people stayed in. I was completely soaked. because when I got to the house. It is time now to discuss how to build up these structures. as neither Jeremy nor Jill turned out to be home. the noun that the relative clauses belong to follows: okuduğu kitap bilen kadın the book that he/she is reading the woman who knows Compare these closely with their English translations. rewrite it avoiding the underlined words. you replace the third person singular ending -u in -duğu with the second person singular suffix -un: okuduğun kitap. In addition. respectively.Read this English text.e. As a guide. To do this. Jerry and Jill have bought a new house. of which you’ll need six. As you know. A cat was sheltering under a car. it was raining pretty hard’. Then say whether you would need -diği or -en in the Turkish translations of these relative clauses. That’s because relative clauses have been avoided. When you want to say ‘the book you’re reading’. As already indicated. For example. that backfıred. That umbrella was not to be found. the forms -diği and -en are attached to oku. you should be able to read these forms immediately as ‘that is read’ and ‘who knows’. I once had an umbrella.and bil-. it was raining pretty hard. They were com- Page 180 pletely devoid of human life. The full translations of the examples we started out with are: okuduğun kitap ingilizce bilen kadın the book you’re reading the woman who knows English . to give okuduğu and bilen. Because of the division in subject and object forms (Possibilities 1 and 2). subjects are usually expressed through personal suffixes in Turkish. i. When I went out last night to see it.. The third person suffix in okuduğu kitap is the last -u in -duğu. They turned out to be quite right. This is actually the possessive marker. Your first task is to rewrite it using such relative clauses. to avoid the first it. The two forms -diği and -en get attached to the verb stem. You still have to derive from okuduğu kitap what the Turkish equivalent is of ‘he/she’ in the English sentence. so that okuduğu literally means ‘his/her reading’. In the Turkish translations of ‘the book you’re reading’ and ‘the woman who knows English’. I had intended a surprise for my friends. you need to express ‘you’ somehow. you need to pull the first two sentences together: ‘When I went out last night to see the house that Jerry and Jill bought. The streets are usually deserted at this time of night. You will notice that it doesn’t read very easily. It was the only living creature I saw.

the structure of the relative clause looks like this: .To summarise.

1 X +Ver b+diğ+-Pe rson al endi ng+ Nou n E xam ple: b ugü n+o ku+du ğ+-u m +kit ap givin g: b ugü n oku duğ um kita p ‘The book that I .

The -diği-clause. ‘to me’ bana and ‘picture’ resim. may have a separate subject. In the first example below. (or ‘the woman who is smiling’) Dün akşam seyrettiğimiz programı sevdin mi? Did you like that programme we watched last night? Amsterdam’dan gelen uçak büyük bir rötar yaptı. it is impossible to have somebody other than the woman do the . The thing you ate was tripe soup. Aya ilk ayak basan insan.g. e. The picture you showed me yesterday was very nice. Yediğin şey işkembeydi. the verb is göstermek ‘to show’. In ‘the woman who knows’. The plane coming from Amsterdam is delayed a lot. It is then natural that the ‘X’ is filled with the words for.. That smiling woman is my wife. Bu gülümseyen kadın bizim hanımdır. Bana dün gösterdiğiniz resim çok güzel. The people who were sitting here last night have gone to Bitlis this morning. the forms are: -diğim -diğin -diği that I that you that he/she/it -diğimiz -diğiniz -dikleri that we that you (plural) that they The ‘X’ can of course be anything that the sentence calls for.Page 181 The initial ‘d’ in -diği changes to a ‘t’ it it follows one of the consonants that trigger the same change in the -di-suffix (see Lesson 2). but not the -en-clause. Read through the following examples to see more relative clauses in actual sentences. With the personal endings. Dün gece burada oturan insanlar bu sabah Bitlis’e gitti. This is obvious if you take a closer look again at the two English examples we have been using. (see Dialogue on page 73) The first man who set foot on the moon.

I didn’t like the answer he/she gave. the pronoun has to have the genitive form).‘knowing’. ‘you’. as we mentioned it several times when cautioning against using subject pronouns. that is: a ‘he’ or a ‘she’.. and. The story that John told you isn’t true. if you want to emphasise the ‘you’ in ‘the book you read’. -diğin. I like the pictures you took very much. was done by somebody we refer to with the third person singular. Sizin çektiğiniz fotoğrafları çok seviyorum. if not. Who exactly that ‘he’ or ‘she’ is. must of course be known from the context. such as ben. (You already know this principle. Some more examples: John’un sana anlattığı hikaye gerçek değil. there is no need for anything but the person marker in -diğim. Verdiği yanıtı beğenmedim. the name Meral is followed by the genitive case marker -in (see Lesson 6. etc. The -diği sequence here indicates that the action indicated by ver-. such as second person -in in okuduğun kitap ‘the book you have read’. in general. you can add the personal pronoun in the genitive form and say senin okuduğun kitap (so not sen okuduğun kitap.. etc. ‘we’. we would have said something like: Politikacının verdiği yanıtı beğenmedim.) The following pair of sentences therefore do not mean exactly the same thing: the first one has emphasis on ‘he’ or ‘she’ in the English translation. remember. Onun verdiği yanıtı beğenmedim. etc. I didn’t like the answer the politician gave. sen. Don’t overuse the genitive pronouns though. anybody can have done the ‘reading’. . Here. Page 182 If the subject is not a pronoun such as ‘I’. That is why -diğ is followed by a possessive marker indicating the subject. They are often superfluous. If the subject is a pronoun. page 94 for this case marker). they add emphasis. But in ‘the book that was read’. However. it comes first in the clause and is marked with the genitive case marker: Meral’ın okuduğu kitap for ‘the book that Meral read’. or first person plural in okuduğumuz kitap ‘the book we have read’.

see Lesson 3. 1 Allahım. tape recorder) .Page 183 Exercise 3 Translate into English. see Lesson 6.) 1 Sen onlar yazdığın mektup hiç ellerine geçmedi. page 95). 3 Oturduğun evi çok beğenirim. 4 Çalan kaset Beatles’e benzer. locative (place where. Remember that the subject of a relative clause has the genitive case marker. çalıştığım yer pistir! 2 O hiç giyinmediğim paltoyu Melike’ye vereceğim. see Lesson 6. 7 Kızın bulduğu işi sever mi? 8 Dedikodu yapmadığımız tek kişi sensin! 9 Eser ile evlendiği adamı tanıyor musun? 10 Konuşan kadın kim? pis palto dirty coat durak yakınmak kaset tape Exercise 4 Provide the necessary case forms. 6 Durakta bekleyen diğer insanlar da yakındılar. 5 Bana verdiğin kitaba henüz başlayamadım. Pay particular attention to subjects and objects. you might need the dative (direction towards. -(y)i) cases for other nouns in the sentence. ablative (direction from. resemble çalmak to play (e. locative and ablative. onlara (bus) stop to complain -e benzemek to be like something. The first item has been filled in already. (For dative. -den) or accusative (direct object.g. -(y)e). that is: check carefully who does what in every sentence. Apart from that. for the accusative case. Senin. -de). the one used for possession (-(n)in.

resemble hand stuffed vine leaves joke karşı güldürücü gol across funny goal çalmak to play (e. 7 Yediğin ekmek beğendin mi? 8 Bütün ay aradığım hediye dün buldum. that is: check carefully who does what in every sentence.g. 3 Bu zeytin aldığınız dükkan hangisi? 4 Ahmet söylediği şarkı biliyor musun? 5 Sokak karşı oturan kadın ben güldürücü bir şaka anlattı.2 Anneanne yaptığı yaprak dolmasını çok severim. 6 Durakta bekleyen diğer insanlar da yakındılar. 4 Çalan kaset Beatles’e benzer. el yaprak dolması şaka Page 183 Exercise 3 Translate into English. 7 Kızın bulduğu işi sever mi? 8 Dedikodu yapmadığımız tek kişi sensin! 9 Eser ile evlendiği adamı tanıyor musun? 10 Konuşan kadın kim? pis palto dirty coat -e benzemek to be like something. çalıştığım yer pistir! 2 O hiç giyinmediğim paltoyu Melike’ye vereceğim. 3 Oturduğun evi çok beğenirim. 5 Bana verdiğin kitaba henüz başlayamadım. 6 Maradona attığı gol bütün zamanın en iyisiydi. Pay particular attention to subjects and objects. tape recorder) . 1 Allahım.

the one used for possession (-(n)in. page 95). 2 The bicycle that you got for your birthday. see Lesson 3. Senin. 3 What’s that noise you’re making? .) 1 Sen onlar yazdığın mektup hiç ellerine geçmedi. but you don’t remember what from. Apart from that. ablative (direction from. see Lesson 6. -den) or accusative (direct object. (For dative.durak yakınmak kaset tape Exercise 4 (bus) stop to complain Provide the necessary case forms. The first item has been filled in already. 6 Maradona attığı gol bütün zamanın en iyisiydi. 7 Yediğin ekmek beğendin mi? 8 Bütün ay aradığım hediye dün buldum. -(y)e). page 116. locative and ablative. look at the section on time-telling in Lesson 7 again. for the accusative case. el yaprak dolması şaka hand stuffed vine leaves joke karşı güldürücü gol across funny goal Page 184 Exercise 5 Now translate into Turkish. you might need the dative (direction towards. see Lesson 6. 1 The train that goes to Bursa. -(y)i) cases for other nouns in the sentence. Remember that the subject of a relative clause has the genitive case marker. If the first sentence looks familiar. 3 Bu zeytin aldığınız dükkan hangisi? 4 Ahmet söylediği şarkı biliyor musun? 5 Sokak karşı oturan kadın ben güldürücü bir şaka anlattı. locative (place where. onlara 2 Anneanne yaptığı yaprak dolmasını çok severim. -de).

Translate ‘to buy’ with satın almak. 7 The house we are going to buy. bilmeyen var mı? Senden başka yani? . Belki de okula dönebilirim. Page 185 MUSTAFA: Bilgisayar hakkında birşey biliyor musun? MELİKE: Sen deli misin? Yirmi birinci yüzyıldayız. zaten iş bulmak zor bu zamanlarda. Bıktım aramaktan. MUSTAFA: Öyle mi? Hala bir şey bulamadın mı? Çok üzüldüm. Now try and guess what the following would be. MUSTAFA: Haklısın. SERVET: Demin aklıma geldi: kız kardeşimin çalıştığı büro şey arayordu. Ama o çok pahalı.4 The student who lives across the street is very attractive. Tabii ki biliyorum. 5 Our friends who live in Britain have bought a beautiful new house. MELİKE: Gazetede ilanlara bakıyorum ama. ona telefon edebilirsin. doğum günü gürültü birthday noise sokağın karşısı sevimli across the street cute Dialogue 2 Çok üzüldüm I’m very sorry The next day Mustafa runs into his old friends Melike and Servet on the bus. MELİKE: Benim için yepyeni bir yol olacak. Last time he saw them. SERVET: Belki seninle ilgilenebilirler…İyi bir sekreter olacaksın. Belki telefon ederim. Melike was looking for a job MUSTAFA: Senin iş durumun nasıl şimdi? MELİKE: İşsizim. sekreter. not with almak. 6 I was six the year that you were born. İstersen.

that’s those in Kız kardeşimin bürosunda şey aranıyordu. Görüşürüz! Sözcükler üzülmek ilan zaten bıktım (-den) büro aranıyordu sekreter istersen yepyeni ilgilenmek bilgisayar Exercise 6 to be disappointed ad anyway I’m fed up with… office they were looking for secretary if you want brand new to be interested in computer yüzyıl birazcık neredeyse şirket keşke diş hekimi diş hekim kent inmek century just a little bit almost company if only dentist tooth doctor town to get off (a bus. paying particular attention to the tense endings. burada inmem gerek. Ignore the endings that don’t fit any category. Ha. Melike! MELİKE: Sağ ol. Try to understand why the tense endings were chosen in each particular sentence. MUSTAFA: Kentin orasını iyi bilmiyorum. bilgisayar bilmeyen kalmadı neredeyse. and İlginç olmuş. List every sentence or phrase under one of the following categories.MUSTAFA: Biliyorum vallahi! Birazcık. present tense b Present tense on -iyor c Geniş zaman d Past tense e Future tense . Ama. Kızılay’da. diş hekimine gidiyoruz. bu konuyu tekrar açmayalım…Ne yapacaksınız? Çarşıya çıkıyor musunuz? SERVET: Çıkmıyoruz. haklısın. Funda’ya bizden selam söyle! MUSTAFA: Söylerim. etc. sekreter olacaksın.) Go through Dialogue 2 once more. İyi günler ve başarılar. Maalesef. a Nominal sentences. Keşke şirketimizde boş yer olsaydı.

6 Somebody wishes you a nice holiday (you’re by yourself). Somebody may have told you about it. after all. 5 You want to wish your friend good luck with his exams. the basic past tense. for instance. English doesn’t have a separate tense for this. or you can see that it has taken place without actually having witnessed it. The most important thing about this tense is that it is used to report on things that have already happened (it is. responding to someone’s polite or informal greeting. etc. But there is another past tense: -miş. Meral has changed a lot since she married Ali. because when you use it you are reporting on an action or event you have inferred.Page 186 Exercise 7 Go through all dialogues you’ve read so far in this book. a past tense). Dialogue 1 in this lesson contained the following sentence: Meral Ali’yle evlendiğinden beri çok değişmiş. This tense is often called the ‘inferential’. but that you didn’t see happen. and make a list of greetings and formulas you say when starting a conversation. Language point The past tense in -miş You’re very familiar by now with -di. Turkish adds -miş to the verb stem. 8 You run into a colleague you don’t know very well for the first time today. 3 You want to end a conversation. Then suggest an appropriate greeting for the following situations: 1 You run into an old friend on the street. 4 You want to tell someone you’re pleased to meet her. finishing one. you simply add things like ‘I heard that’ or ‘apparently’. . 7 Somebody wishes you and your partner a nice trip. as opposed to one you have seen or experienced. 2 Someone says ne haber to you.

the important thing is that in both cases it conveys the ‘apparently’ sense. The -miş form is usually more polite: elbisen çok güzelmiş means ‘your dress is beautiful’. she hasn’t actually observed her friend changing. you’re not necessarily implying past tense.Page 187 Funda used -miş here because she infers from Meral’s behaviour that she has changed. The forms There are no surprises here: -mişim -mişiz -mişsin -mişsin iz -miş mişler/ -lermiş NB: The form -lermiş does not occur often. you can add -miş to nouns and adjectives. There are certain things in . when you’re doing this. The sentence çok ucuzmuş can both mean ‘it was cheap’ and ‘it is cheap’. since often both are possible depending on what exactly you want to say. obviously. and is used when you want to avoid sounding jealous. However. Just as you can use -di after nouns and adjectives as well. Use It is difficult to give exact rules for when to use -miş and when to use -di. to express ‘was’/‘were’.

we do not recommend that you set out now to learn this list by heart. the baby was very tired today.English which can make you think -miş in Turkish. 5. Hemen uykuya daldı. According to the government. Apparently. Bebek bugün çok yorulmuş. 2. I have had a terrible headache all day. I’m afraid I drank too much yesterday evening. She immediately fell asleep. it is more important that you start to get an idea of what is common to all of them. he liked to do this. Once you’re comfortable with the basic senses of -miş. this year turned out well. Dün akşam fazla içmişim. Apparently. ‘I’ve heard that…’ Duyduğuma göre Saliha’ya yeni bir iş teklif etmişler. Page 188 3. 4. ‘According to…’ Hükümete göre bu sene iyi olmuş. ‘I’m afraid that…’ Korkarım ki Ülke ona inanmiştir. ‘…must have…’ Bu saatte İngiltere’den ayrılmıştı. He must have left Britain by now. I’m afraid that Ülke believed him. They include the following (again. ‘Apparently…’ Bunu yapmayı beğenmiş. Butün gün başım çok fena ağrıdi. you will find it easier to interpret it when you encounter it. . I’ve heard they offered Saliha a new job. and to use it when it’s called for): 1.

he takes the perspective of the hearer. ‘It looks as if…’ (miş gibi) Yağmur yağmış gibi. All this may look like a dazzling collection of uses at first sight. but it’s really quite convenient to have a tense ending taking care of all these nuances. 9. Page 189 10. Well. ‘Well. I guess Ahmet and his family didn’t come. Note that in this example there’s no question of hearsay: the speaker heard exactly what ‘he’ said: -miş just adds the meaning that he can’t quite believe what he heard. well. ‘I guess…’ Ahmet’gil gelmemiş. whom he expects to be surprised. in a way. 11. rather than all the . 7.…’ Oraya yalnız başına gitmişsin. The speaker uses -miş because.6. I understand that Germany won the football cup again. They say he got very rich in America. ‘They say…’ Amerika’da çok zengin olmuş. ‘I understand that…’ Almanya tekrar futbol kupasını kazanmış. It looks as if it has rained. ‘You won’t believe…!’ Bana ne demiş! You won’t believe what he said to me! NB: This shade of meaning highlights one very expressive use of -miş: surprise. well. you went there by yourself! 8.

The same can be done with -miş—no surprises there. 3 And then the dog bit her.separate words and expressions the learner of English has to learn.) 1 He must have told them. 6 She gave a nice concert. 4 Fenerbahçe easily won the match we went to see. while -di means the same thing whether it’s stuck on to a verb stem or Page 190 . Then give the translations. you saw -miş used with verb stems to give an alternative past tense to the one with -di. Exercise 8 Guess whether the verb in the Turkish equivalents of the following sentences will be marked with -miş or with -di. both are possible. according to the papers. 8 Did he call the insurance company? 9 Do you think he called? 10 Which number did you dial? ısırmak kolayca konser to bite easily concert çevirmek unutmak sigorta to dial to forget insurance ‘Was’. ‘is’ and ‘apparently is’: -miş versus -di Above. 2 It has rained here (said upon arrival). as in doktordu and hastaydım. However. (Sometimes. 7 I guess I forgot. We have seen that -di can be used with nouns and adjectives too. If you can get into the habit of associating -miş with things like uncertainty and surprise. 5 I said to her I didn’t do it. you might just start seeing it as a very convenient aspect of Turkish.

which is then followed by imiş. Hatice iyi bir insanmış. But if you have never met her.’ Hatice iyi bir insan. The confusing bit is that on nouns and adjectives -miş is not a past tense marker. when she was alive. (‘She is apparently not a guest here. There is no vowel harmony in this case: Siz Nursen’in arkadaşı imişsiniz. back when. plus any endings of course. First the easy part: on a noun or an adjective -miş still means ‘apparently’.) (They say she’s a nice person) So this use of -miş has more in common with the normal present tense (Hatice iyi bir insan) than with the past tense. ‘I hear she’s nice’. eskiden (‘in the old days’). They say Hatice used to be a nice person.’) . -miş doesn’t. Like -di. Exercise 9 Fill in the right endings before and after -miş. maşallah! (‘Oh. by paying attention to the relevant portion of the translation. words such as geçen yıl. You say Hatice iyi bir insan when you know her yourself and you know (or you want to let people know that you know) that she’s a nice person. he’s done it!’) 2 Yeterli tuz kullan-……(‘They can’t have used enough salt. Consider the following versions of ‘Hatice is a nice person. etc. as long as some indicator of past tense. my God.’) 4 O yabancı değil-……burada.’) 5 Ondan memnun ol-……(‘They were probably not pleased with that. Hatice iyi bir insandı.’) 3 Uyu-……(‘I must have fallen asleep. you can only have it from hearsay that Hatice is nice. However.on to a noun. given in parentheses 1 Yap-……. For example: Eskiden Hatice iyi bir insanmış. so you say Hatice iyi bir insanmış: ‘they say she’s nice’. etc. ‘she’s supposed to be nice’. ‘she appears to be nice’. (She’s nice. period) (She was nice. the past tense meaning of -miş we encountered above with verb stems is possible. are used alongside it. -miş can also be detached from the noun or adjective. You must be Nursen’s friend.

‘went’. most of the uses of the English participle (‘gone’ in the list above) are expressed by the -di and -miş past tenses in Turkish. 1 that the narrator ran into Emel. 2 that Emel’s sister went to last week’s concert. . It also may be a past participle. you can conjugate any verb you want. ‘chopped tomatoes’.’) 9 Duyduğuma göre sen dün fazla güneşlen-……(‘I heard you were in the sun too much yesterday. excessive When you encounter a form that ends in -miş. This is so for two reasons.Page 191 6 O zaman evde……(‘Was he at home at the time. I prefer freshly harvested apples. If you just learn the right markers for present tense. Turkish does have participles. ‘the bought tickets’. because Turkish is much more regular.’) tuz uyumak Language point The past participle in -miş salt to sleep fazla too much. However. Second. ‘gone’. you have to be aware of one use in which it is not a tense marker. like we do in English with ‘go’. Kaçırılmış bir şanstı bizim için. and they are used as adjectives: ‘a missed chance’. past tense and future tense. First. Yeni toplanmış elmayı daha çok severim.’) 10 O maç Kayseri’de-……(‘That match was apparently in Kayseri. They are third person singular forms on -miş. You may have noticed that we haven’t talked about the verb system in terms of three forms. It was a missed chance for us. Exercise 10 Read the following little text and then indicate whether the actions 1–13 definitely happened or whether you can only infer that. as far as you know?’) 7 Bu ne-……(‘What is this supposed to be?’) 8 Yorul-……(‘You must be tired.

) Page 193 . Emel trene yetişmek durumundaydı. 5 that the narrator has forgotten the place name. Onlar uzun uzun beraber sohbet etmişler. tall to run into (alternative to rastlamak) çabuk yetişmek to chat suddenly fast to catch (a train. Ahmet’in karısı da Almanya’da çalışıyormus. 13 that time went by quickly last night. Almanya’da oturuyormuş. Zaman ne çabuk geçmişti. Bu akşam parkta köpeği gezdirdik. Ahmet de oradaymıştı. 8 that the narrator and Emel talked for a long time. etc. 9 that it was wet in the park. 7 that the dog wanted to go home. 4 that Ahmet lives in Germany. dokuzda ayrıldı. 6 that the narrator (and someone else) went for a walk in the park with his dog. Kız kardeşi geçen haftaki konsere gitmiş. Emel’e rast geldik. Her taraf çok ıslaktı. bir dükkanda. 12 that Emel’s sister and Ahmet had talked for a long time. köpek gezdirmek taraf ıslak uzun uzun uzun -a rast gelmek to take the dog out for a walk sohbet etmek birden side wet for a long time long. Birden tekrar yağmur yağmaya başladı. Biz de uzun konuştuk. Kentin adım unuttum.Page 192 3 that Ahmet was at the concert. too. 10 that Ahmet’s wife is working in a shop in Germany. 11 that at some point it suddenly started raining again.

. Try to see what these have in common.e. burada yüz yıl daha oturabiliriz. Ne diyeceğim? . böyle çürük bir evde nasıl yaşayabilirim? Page 194 YUSUF: Peki. Now we will look at several other types of clause combination. work out what the conditional suffix looks like. güzelim. ZEYNEP: Yalnız küçük bir sorun var. ‘while’) • use signals to structure what you want to say If: conditional clauses In the previous lesson. if… • say that you would do something. i. milli piyangoyu vurursam. çok sağlam bir evimiz var. İstersek. Dialogue 1 Zengin olsam… If I were rich… In this dialogue. bir. You will find some in the following dialogue. First. iki. değil mi? Bir bilet almak için paramız kalmadı. sana sıfır. Zeynep thinks their house desperately needs repair YUSUF: Sevgilim. if… • use temporal clauses (‘when’. Sen işini kaybetmeseydin. you will learn how to express if-sentences (also called conditional clauses.12 Zengin olsam… If I were rich… In this lesson you will learn how to: • say something would happen. üç ev bile alabilirdin… YUSUF: Haklısın. yepyeni bir ev alacağım. we introduced subordinated clauses. Zeynep and her husband Yusuf have a quarrel about the state of their house. ZEYNEP: Bak hele! Yatak odasının duvarlarında çatlaklar var! Aman. since ‘if’ expresses a condition).

and if he is indeed ill. bu işi korumaya çalışacağım… Sözcükler sevgilim sağlam duvar çatlak çürük yaşamak milli piyango my darling solid wall crack rotten to live national lottery vurmak to shoot. In 1. it is added to -iyor. the word ‘if’ is used to convey both meanings. if he had felt ill. This event may be hypothetical (if this happens. if he feels ill. Although Turkish treats open and closed conditions differently. Compare: 1 I’ll give him some aspirin. Exercise 1 1 Find the four conditional verb forms (‘if’ phrases) in the dialogue. In English. is expressed by the suffix -sa (or -se) in Turkish. to strike. or it may not have happened at all (if this had happened. This is called a closed condition. -ar and -ecek. They all have the suffix -se (or -sa) in common. then…). The implication in 2 is that he did not feel ill at all. we don’t know whether he feels ill or not. then…). The reason we mention this difference is that it matters in Turkish. (in this context:) to win (the lottery) sıfır sorun zero (here: very new) problem korumak retain Conditional clauses discuss the consequence of some event. he will get his aspirin. We just speculate about what could happen in the hypothetical case that he does. For open conditions. -di. so there was no reason to give him aspirin. The endings are the same as you use for the formation of the past tense on -di: . 2 Which tense endings do the personal endings of the conditional remind you of? Language point ‘Open conditions’ The concept expressed by English ‘if’. both share the -se suffix. 2 I would have given him some aspirin.ZEYNEP: Şunu diyeceksin: gelecekte bir işim olursa. This type of condition is called an open condition: the possibility remains ‘open’ whether or not some event may happen.

-sam if I -sak if we -san if you -sanı z if you -sa if he/s he/it -lars a if they The suffix can be used in ‘verbless’ sentences. where there is no verb stem to add it to. ‘you have time’. Or take the formulaic expression vaktin var. you add the suffix to the negation değil: ‘if he isn’t sick’ becomes ‘sick not if’: hasta değil-se. You can just add it to the adjective or noun. If you study . You can also add the -se/-sa suffix here: vaktin varsa ‘if you have time’. In negations. English ‘if he is ready’ becomes hazır-sa.

write me a letter! The suffix has to follow a tense ending. as none of the other verb tenses end in a vowel. I’ll lend him mine.this example closely. I’ll catch my train. ‘if we have time’ is vaktimiz varsa. The suffix starts with -y. ‘if I don’t have time’ is vaktim yoksa. If he hasn’t got a computer. I will give him an aspirin. Bu dükkanda yeni deri bir çanta alırsanız. ona benimkini ödünç veririm. aspirin vereyim. Acele edersem. This applies to nouns and adjectives. cüzdan bedava verilir! If you buy a new leather bag at this shop. If he doesn’t feel well. and to the past tense -di. The most common tense in conditional clauses is the geniş zaman. reread the part about the param var type sentences in Lesson 4. why didn’t he come to the meeting? Bilgisayarı yoksa. Page 196 Evdeysen bana bir mektup yaz! If you are at home. alayım. page 64. Thus. -ırsa and -ecekse. niye toplantıya gelmedi? If he isn’t sick. . and ‘if Fadime has time’ is Fadime’nin vakti varsa. trene yetişeceğim. İyiyse. Examples: Hasta değilse.if the word before it ends in a vowel. If I hurry. If it’s good. I’ll take it. For this type of construction expressing possession. I will sue the bus company! Kendini iyi hissetmezse. otobüs şirketini mahkemeye vereceğim! If I don’t catch my plane. so that common sequences are -iyorsa. you’ll see why the -sa part is constant: the person marking is done on the noun vakit. they give a wallet for free! Uçağıma yetişemezsem.

lütfen bana telefon edin! . If Mustafa is our guide. The word ise also means ‘on the other hand’. not -samız. There are two reasons for using eğer: Page 197 1 highlighting the hypothetical nature of the event. If it does. we won’t make it! Sometimes. her husband. in Erzurum. 2 announcing that a conditional form will appear later on in the sentence. Cornwall’a uğrarız. yetişemeyiz! If we don’t run. İngiltere’ye gidersek. If we go to Britain. this canoe trip is not dangerous. bu sandal gezisi tehlikeli olmaz. Examples: Eğer gelirse. Note especially that the first person plural form is -sak. Fatma works in Ankara. vowel harmony does not apply (that is. If he comes. If they are tired.An example with past tense -di plus -sa: Yoruldularsa. we’ll visit Cornwall. the -se part appears as ise. as in: Fatma Ankara’da çalışıyor. they can sleep in our bed. You may start your conditional sentence with or without the word eğer ‘if’. ise is always ise and never ısa). kocası ise Erzurum’da. mostly in written texts. Rehberimiz Mustafa ise. Koşmazsak. on the other hand. in case the conditional sentence is a very long one. as a word on its own. bizim yatağımızda yatabilirler. Eğer yarın Sevil sizi istasyondan almayı unutursa. görüşeceğiz. we can meet.

8 Sorunuz var. 3 Her yaz trenle seyahat eder. 1 Büyük bir şehirde yaşıyorsun. you put the past tense marker -di after the conditional suffix. Don’t worry about the main clause. please call me! Exercise 2 Turn these sentences into conditional ‘if’ clauses.If Sevil forgets to pick you up from the station tomorrow. bu küçük balıkçı köyünun monden bir sahil kentine değiştiğini kendi gözleriyle görebilirler. 6 Kar yağıyor. including verb tense. but without tense marking prior to this suffix. indicate whether the closed condition itself refers to either the present or the past. Büyük bir şehirde yaşıyorsan. 7 Abim mühendis olmak istiyor.… 2 Bu akşam Fatma’nın partisine gideceğim. If the past. Turkish again makes use of the suffix -se here. as has been done for the first item. This means that the present Page 198 tense form consists of the verb stem plus -se plus person marker. You can. as in: Marmaris’e gitseler. . parti seyahat etmek otogar Language point ‘Closed conditions’ party to travel bus station kar yağmak mühendis to snow engineer After closed conditions you can almost hear the word ama or fakat ‘but’ (it didn’t happen). however. 5 Akşamları annem bana bir hikaye anlatır. 4 Otogarda seni beklerim.

It would be fine if you came along later. If you want to express the equivalent closed conditions. the usual verb tense in the main clause is the geniş zaman. If the main clause is. It would be better. we would have helped. meaning ‘if I had the time’ etc. aspirin veririm. I’d have given him some aspirin. More examples: Sen olsan ne yaparsın? What would you have done. . we saw the conditional suffix being used in existential sentences (such as vaktim varsa) and ‘verbless’ sentences (such as iyiyse). iyi olur ‘it would be better’. Daha sonra gelseniz iyi olur. if it had been you? Annesinin çok hasta olduğunu bilseydim. of the type şimdi ne yapsak ‘what shall we do now?’ Evde kalsan daha iyi olur. There is a small exception to the rule that the stem plus -se type of clauses are always closed conditions. occasionally combined with past tense. If you had called (but you didn’t). yardım ederdik. you have to use the verb olmak.If they would go to Marmaris (but they won’t). yanına giderdim. if you’d stay at home. In the examples of sentences with open conditions. The past tense form is verb stem plus -se plus -di plus person. for instance. If he had felt ill. As you can see in the previous examples and in the ones below. I would have gone there.. ama… If I had known her mother was very ill. as in: Telefon etseydiniz. they would be able to see with their own eyes that this small fishing village has changed into a worldly seaside resort. Page 199 Vaktim olsa seyahat ederdim. the conditional part more or less expresses a proposal. but… Hasta hissetse.

sorulara cevap verebilirsin. both usually appear at the beginning of a sentence. I would have bought it. Adjectives and adverbs. you can give the answers. In writing. İyi olsaydı alırdım. compare bilseydim and anladıysan in the following examples: Bilseydim buraya gelmezdim! If I had known I wouldn’t have come here! Bilseydim! or Keşke bilseydim! If only I had known! Dersi anladıysan. Brand new! We saw in Dialogue 1 that Yusuf wanted to buy a yepyeni ‘brand new’ house for Zeynep and himself. you may use keşke or bari. Zengin olsam keşke! Bari telefon etseydiniz! If only I were rich! If only you had called! Don’t confuse the endings -seydi (which is the past tense of closed conditions) and -diyse (the past tense of open conditions). What you do then is simply formulate the if-part without expressing the main clause. although they can also appear at the end. using the form expressing closed conditions. I would travel. Exercise 3 Now turn the sentences in Exercise 2 into conditional sentences. or rather something you long for.If I had the time. both meaning ‘if only’. You can also use this form (stem plus -se) for conveying a wish. If it had been good. Çocuklar yemeklerini bir bitirseler! If only the children would finish their meal! If you want to put extra emphasis on your lamentation. such . Likewise. If you have understood the lesson. There is a difference in meaning between gelseydim (‘if I had come…’) and geldiysem (‘if I came…’).

kendi dükkan zincirinde en gelişmiş. taptaze taze Reading text fresh The following text about the telephone shop Faks Maks (‘Faxes and stuff) contains verb suffixes you have not seen before. can be made stronger in meaning by doubling the first syllable and adding an extra -m. bir sürü cihaz piyasaya getirilmek sayi a number of machine to be introduced on to the market number artmak cep çağrı aleti müşteri yöntem denemek to grow. Rekabetçiler uyanınca. Türkiye’de ilk olarak cep telefonu. Try to grasp the meaning of the text and then answer the questions. Milyar liralık bir reklam kampanyası açan Faks Maks. to rise Pocket buzzer customers strategy to try . -p. biz en yeni cihazları satıyoruz. en hızlı cihazların Türkiye’de en düşük fiyatlara satacağını bildirdi. sayın müşterilerimiz çabuk davranmalarını tavsiye ediyoruz. müşteri çekmek için çeşitli yöntemler denemeye başladı. Telefon dükkanlarının sayısı artarken. bomboş. temiz ‘clean’ and mavi ‘blue’. yepyeni bambaşka Exercise 4 brand new completely different tertemiz masmavi immaculately clean deep blue What do you think the following adjectives mean? kıpkırmızı. tabii ki biz de fiyatlarımızı ona göre değiştirmek zorunda kalacağız. büsbütün. ‘different’.’ diye söyledi. başka ‘other’. modem ve de çağrı aletleri satan Faks Maks.Page 200 as yeni ‘new’. Fiyatlarımız çok düşük. Reklam Son yıllarda Türkiye’de bir sürü telekomünikasyon cihazları piyasaya getiriliyor. Ama. Faks Maks’ın genel müdürü Ali Bakırcıoğlu ‘Rekabetçilerimiz hala Taş Devrinde yaşarken. -r or -s. dosdoğru.

.) or person markers (such as -im). you may have found -ince in uyanınca. advanced lower to announce general rekabetçi taş devir sayın davranma competitor stone period. As soon as the boy saw the toys. Instead. the exception being -ken. Can you guess what that means? 2 The second newcomer is -ken in artarken and yaşarken. You should already know the meaning of getirmek. age honourable to act. no -iyor. a so-called ‘converb’ is formed. to behave zorunda kalmak to have to. Here in the first sentence. verb endings are used to express whether something happened before.Page 201 milyar liralık zincir gelişmiş düşük bildirmek genel Exercise 5 of one billion liras chain developed. and -ken means ‘while’. ‘as soon as’ and -ken ‘while’ Turkish does not have conjunctions of the type exemplified by ‘while’. Oğlan oyuncakları görünce yüzu gülmeye başladı. to be forced to genel müdürü general manager 1 There are several new verb suffixes in the text. These meanings are not entirely temporal: -ince very often has a causal implication. ‘before’ or ‘when’. What does it mean? Language point The ‘converbs’ -ince ‘when’. In this lesson we’ll look at two converb endings: -ince and -ken. ‘after’. By attaching these endings to a verb stem. after or at the same time as another event. it carries the suffix -il. What might -ken express? 3 Finally. a smile appeared on his face (his face started laughing). ‘as soon as’. -di etc. The form -ince means ‘when’. Page 202 Çoban uyurken koyunları kaçmış. ‘Converbs’ carry no tense markers (so. -ken may express a contrast (as does English ‘while’).

While the girls were playing. When you use -ken with a verb. she starts to play with her friends. More examples. the teacher came outside. öğretmen dışarıya çıktı. it is uyurken and not something like uyuken. kitap okurum. Çalıştıktan sonra eve gelince duş aldı. generally the geniş zaman. And with two separate subjects: Kardeşim gelmeyince polisi çağırdım. I was glad. Kız kardeşim televizyon seyrederken. The suffix -ince follows the rules of vowel harmony. Kız okula gelince. (subject=he) When he came home after work. Both -ince and -ken may or may not have different subjects. If the subjects are different. however.While the shepherd was asleep. (subject=I) When I read this article in the paper. arkadaşlarıyla oynamaya başlar. his sheep escaped. In an article about Tina Turner there is this sentence containing two -ken’s: . I read a book. remains unchanged. Therefore. -ken. I read a book. (subjects: my brother. Kendisini zorla kaldırıma atan yaya elini havada sallarken arabanın ardından ‘Hayvan herif!’ diye bağırıyordu. you have to add a tense. (subjects: my sister. first without a different subject in the subordinated clause: Gazetede bu makale okuyunca çok sevindim. I) While my sister watches television. I called the police. (subject=I) While I watch television. Televizyonu seyrederken. Kızlar oynarken. he took a shower. (subject =the pedestrian=he) While the pedestrian who threw himself with difficulty on to the pavement waved his hands in the air. they should be mentioned explicitly. When the girl arrives at school. I) When my brother did not show up. ben kitap okurum. he shouted after the car: ‘Idiot!’.

Exercise 6 Consider whether -ince or -ken is the most appropriate in the following: 1 Üsküdar’a giderken/gidince. bütün sorunlarım eriyip gider. members of the press woman admiration By using -ken. kavgayı seyredenler çabuk dağıldı. öğrenciler hemen sustu. 7 Polis sahneye çıkarken/çıkınca. babam en çok arabesk sever. 6 Müzik dinlerken/dinleyince. they could not hide their admiration. 4 Öğretmen sınıfa girerken/girince. kardeşi genellikle uçakla seyahat ediyor. Bütün ailemin buraya geleceğini zannederken havaalanında sadece babamı gördüm. you can express a contrast. hayranlıklarını gizleyemediler. While I thought my entire family would come here. corresponding to a similar. 8 Annem halk müziği severken/sevince. yağmur yağdı.Page 203 Sahne o kadar yüksekti ki. specific use of English ‘while’: Komşumuz arabayla tatile giderken. yağmur yağmaya başladı. While our neighbour goes on holiday by car. basin mensupları fotoğraf çekerken bu hatunun bacaklarına 3 metre aşağıdan bakarken. 2 Üsküdar’a gelirken/gelince. The stage was so high that. 3 Saz çalarken/çalınca. televizyonu seyredemem. his brother usually travels by plane. tuvalete koşacağım. 5 Tren istasyona varırken/varınca. sorun problem kavga fight . I only saw my father at the airport. basın mensupları hatun hayranlık reporters. while the reporters took pictures and while they looked from 3 metres below at the legs of this woman.

you cannot cross the street! Daha gencecik bir tiyatro yazarıyken bana da usta yardım etti. While I was still a young playwright. Both make use of the -diği suffix. As long as the teacher is not at school. When First. Paran varken. yüzme dersi almaya başladı. More examples: Seksen yaşına geldiğinde. the master helped me. You may need to review Lesson 11. ders başlayamaz. neden yeni bir ev satın almıyorsun? Why don’t you buy a new house. karşıya geçemezsin! As long as the traffic light isn’t green. to disappear dağılmak sınıf tuvalet class. Trafik lambası yeşil değilken. two ways of saying ‘when’. For expressing ‘when’. Note that the suffix starts with -y if it follows a noun that ends in a vowel. classroom toilet arabesk to disperse ‘Arab-styled’ popular songs halk müziği folk music Page 204 It is also possible to use -ken in ‘verbless’ and existential sentences. Language points The following sections will briefly discuss how to say ‘when’.eriyip gitmek to melt away. ‘without’ and ‘before’. to see how this suffix is used in building relative clauses. now that you have money? Öğretmen okulda yokken. devam ettiğimde means the same as devam ettiğim zaman: ‘when I continued…’. . the lessons cannot begin. you use this format: stem+-diği+person+-de or: stem+-diği+person+zaman For instance.

yirmi yıllık bir süre geçmiş. The opposite is -meden (or -meden önce) ‘before’. çalışmadan sinavı hiç geçemezsin. You’ll never pass the exam without working. he started taking swimming lessons. When I came to the vegetable market. Yatmadan önce. Hiç bir şey yemeden işe gitti. Hamlet İstanbul’da yeniden sahneye konmadan önce. the context must provide you with clues about who and when. Without When you add -meden to a verb stem. Before We already saw -dikten sonra ‘after’ in one of the examples above (Çalıştıktan sonra eve gelince duş aldı ‘When he came home after work. ılık bir duş yapabilirsiniz veya eksersiz yapabilirsiniz. which is placed after the stem. When they returned to Turkey.When he reached the age of eighty. Before you go to sleep. Since there are no personal or temporal markers. Page 205 Türkiye’ye döndükleri zaman bütün komşularının başka yerlere taşındıklarını öğrendiler. He managed to sneak into the cinema without paying. he took a shower’ on page 202). you can take a lukewarm shower or you can do exercises. . He went to work without eating. you have the Turkish version of a subordinate clause which expresses ‘without…-ing’. Sebze haline girdiğimde sergilenmiş pırıl pırıl meyve ve sebzeler gözlerimi kamaştırdı. Para ödemeden sinemaya girmeyi başardı. the sparkling fruit and vegetables that were on display made my eyes dazzle. they found out that all their neighbours had moved to other places.

you have to buy a ticket. 4 Okulda ________ evi yandı. a period of twenty years had passed. 6 Hoşça kal de ________ ayrıldı. ilerlemek içeri Exercise 8 to proceed in. 7 Doğru cevabı bil ________ hemen söyleyin! 8 Sıkıl ________ bize söylersin. inside yanmak to burn Translate: 1 the hand that rocks the cradle 2 the spy who came in from the cold 3 if looks could kill 4 if you leave me now. bir bilet almalısınız. if necessary. you take away the better part of me . Before boarding the train. more than one ending may be possible. 2 Dur ________ ilerliyorduk. 1 Bin ________ tren kalktı. Trene binmeden önce. Add personal or tense Page 206 markers.Before Hamlet was put on stage again in Istanbul. 3 Sizinle konuş ________ içeri girdi. 5 Öl ________ oğlu yeni müdür olacak. Exercise 7 Complete the following subordinate clauses by filling in the proper ending (-ken/-ince/meden/-se/-diği zaman). In some of the items.

. let’s go. Or you may want to say that something happened before or at the same time. that is. They don’t fit into a single grammatical category. for instance). -diği zaman ‘when’. Making a new start in the conversation (or changing the subject): peki/pekala hadi/haydi Hadi gidelim. in chronological order (English. These words focus the attention of the listener on what you are saying. well then (suggests resignation) Peki ne yapacağız? OK. by specifying the order of events): ondan sonra önce ilk önce ilk olarak üstelik and then before first and foremost first. -dikten sonra ‘after’) also belong to this category.g.5 wake me up before you go 6 without leaving a trace sallandırmak beşik casus bakışlar Conversation aids to rock cradle spy looks terketmek benim en iyi parçamı uyanmak iz to leave someone the better part of me to wake up trace Every language has certain words or idioms by means of which you can structure your speech. Well then. ‘and then’. What you in fact do is help the listener understand how one idea leads to another. Important functions of conversation aids are the following: Page 207 1. By using these conversation aids. Neyse. what shall we do? Come one. come on işte neyse you see….. well well. eve dönelim. 2. Saying more about or organising the speech in time (e. let’s head back home. OK. For instance. OK. you may want to point out that the things you are talking about happen one after the other. in the first place moreover kaldı ki hele şu anda şimdi de/da moreover but first at that moment now on the other hand Various kinds of verbal forms we’ve seen so far (-meden önce ‘before’. you lead the listener to a better understanding.

ama… It’s a lot of trouble for you. Adding a ‘mood’ to what you say (e. confirmation. Ondan sonra ambülans geldi. (with negation: ‘not any longer’) but…(at the end of a sentence) so (frustration/anxiety/doubt) come on (expresses emphasis. Let’s first unpack our cases. reinforcement. surprise. The boy fell from the tree. And then came the ambulance. he didn’t believe me! O kadar mutluydum ki…! I was so happy…! O kadar çabuk koştum ki! 1 ran so fast! Gelseydin ya! . 3.g. Hele bavullarımızı açalım. And then the boy was taken to the hospital. frustration. reinforcement) isn’t it? I wonder? Artık uyuyamıyorum. doubt): artık ama… ki… ya değil mi? acaba finally. I cannot sleep any longer. Sana zahmet olur. Ondan sonra oğlan hastaneye götürüldü.Oğlan ağaçtan düştü. but… Page 208 Bana inanmadı ki! God.

he did. Still. better what-do-you-call-it therefore. for that reason therefore. Page 209 . consequently in short so. generalising: kısaca. Try to understand why speakers use these forms in particular situations. it was too late to do anything about it. (literally: ‘the work passed the work’) 5. Still. nevertheless still. Yine de girdi. Reformulating: daha doğrusu şey Exercise 9 in other words.If only you’d come! Güzel. Nasıl olsa. isn’t it? Giriş nerede acaba? I wonder where the entrance is? 4. Summarising. Providing an explanation: bu yüzden bunun için dolayısıyla 6. that is to say… but still still. iş işten geçti. It’s forbidden to enter that place. kısacası yani ancak yine de nasıl olsa… Oraya girmek yasaktır. in spite of all Read the dialogues from Lesson 6 to Lesson 12 and search for conversation aids. değil mi? Nice. for that reason because.

herhalde önemli birşey yapmanız gerek. who own a small hotel. güzel çiçekler için tekrar çok teşekkür ederiz. She is finishing a phone conversation. daha sonra hediyeler için alışverişe çıkmalıyım. MELİKE: Kendinize iyi bakın. birde parkta gezeceğim. and he is talking to a guest who has just given them a nice bunch of flowers in appreciation of the good service HASAN: Bakın. yani bu akşam çarşıya gideceğim. MELİKE: Allahım. HASAN: Peki. Çarşıya çıkıyor musunuz? ARİF BEY: Hayır. HASAN: Affedersiniz. Hoşça kalın! . Ama. Page 210 ARİF BEY: Bir şey değil. beklemeni istemiyoruz. Melike Hanım. sevgili konuğumuz bize bu çiçekleri getirdi. çarşıya gitmeyecektim. are at the reception desk. lütfen masanın üstüne koyar mısınız? Sanırım ki bu günlerde eskisine oranla sayıca daha az terbiyeli insanlar var. sadece yürüyüşe çıkmak istiyorum şimdi. ne güzel! Niçin zahmet ettiniz? Hasan Bey.13 Geçmiş olsun! Get well soon! In this lesson you will learn how to: • use the verb ‘to be’ • translate ‘and’ • express ‘because’ • string together coordinated and subordinated clauses Dialogue 1 Güzel çiçekler Nice flowers Melike and Hasan.

bana söyleyeceğin her şeye inanıyorum artık. telefonda kim vardı? MELİKE: Kız kardeşimdi. Did the guest give the flowers to Hasan. What. do you think. Answer at least the following questions: a. or to both? b. Sözcükler sevgili zahmet etmek masa üstü oranla (-e) sayıca az gitmeyecektim Exercise 1 sweet. to Melike. kocasıyla kavga etti. the couple remain at the desk HASAN: Melike. is the answer? And what is Melike’s reaction? c.ARİF BEY: Görüşüruz! After he’s gone. MELİKE: Doğru. Is the guest going out to the shopping mall? e. What is Hasan’s opinion about the guest? . değil mi? Şuna ne dersin? HASAN: Arif Bey’in iyi bir insan olduğunu sana dedim ya dün akşam. parası da bitti…Niçin gülüyorsun? Durumunu düşün! (laughter) Çiçekler çok güzel ama. What was Melike’s phone call about? d. Melike asks Hasan at some point why he’s laughing. HASAN: Kız kardeşin nasıl? MELİKE: Oh. Bana bir kitabı geri vermek için öğleden sonra buraya uğrayacak. dear to go to the trouble bekletmek geri to make someone wait back to quarrel with as always think of her situation! last night table top compared to… fewer I wasn’t going to go kavga etmek (ile) her zamanki gibi durumunu düşün! dün akşam masanın üstüne on the table 1 Give a brief account of what transpires in this conversation. her zamanki gibi.

And [I] even [saw] Buckingham Palace.Page 211 2 Here are some additional questions. The most English-like is ve. ‘exactly’ expressed in the dialogue? g Which new formula for leave-taking did you find? Add it to the list you established in Exercise 7 of Lesson 11. Exercise 2 There is one occurrence of the particle de/da in this conversation. What does it tell you about its meaning? Language point And The particle de/da has been present in examples throughout the earlier lessons. f How is ‘right’. A typical context in which it is used is when you’re joining two or more nouns or adjectives: Güzel ve temiz. but this option is not used very much. you have seen de/da (the form. so it’s almost like a suffix (that’s why it’s sensitive to vowel harmony). It is not really a separate word: it is pronounced as part of the word that precedes it. meant to point out some useful vocabulary: a How does Melike ask Hasan to put the flowers on the table? Can you think of other ways of asking the question? b Which expression did you find for ‘I think’? c What do you think is the difference between alışveriş yapmak and alışverişe çıkmak? d How does one say ‘I’m broke’ in Turkish? e If you have trouble working out what şuna ne dersin? means. In the Key to Exercise 2. depends on vowel harmony) translated as either ‘and’ or ‘too’. starting with this sentence in Lesson 2: Hem de Buckingham Sarayı. . be aware that the verb is the geniş zaman form of demek. also’. of course. ‘as well. The fact that Turkish has different forms for expressing ‘and’ may be confusing.

Page 212 Another word that is often used for ‘and’ is ile. It is equivalent to the English use of ‘And’ to start a sentence. de/da is a synonym of ama: Bu otel güzel ve temiz de. Now take cases like ‘Ali and Funda’ (assuming they are a couple). It is nice and it is also clean. It was such a beautiful film! Sometimes. If affirmative. ‘bread and butter’. you use biri or birisi. let’s say a hotel room. except that ile tends to be used more when the two things it joins form a unit. .It’s nice and clean. I bought bread and butter at the grocer’s. or ‘salt and pepper’: Ali’yle Funda’yı gördün mü. often in its suffixed form -(y)le/-(y)la. güzel and temiz describe two separate qualities of whatever the sentence is about. In the example above. Tuzla biber uzatabilir misiniz bir zahmet? Could you please pass the salt and pepper? The third major option is de/da. Ne güzel filmdi de! And he didn’t tell me either! We have seen it too. If you hear someone use it at the end of the sentence and you wonder how it could possibly mean ‘too’. for instance. fiyatlar felaket! This hotel is nice and clean. Its uses are similar to ve. it is probably used as an emphasiser. It is often used when there is no clear joining of things. Examples of each meaning: Bana da söylemedi! Biz de onu gördük. but the prices are disastrous! Indefinite pronouns 1 Someone Which word is used to express ‘someone’ depends on whether the verb is affirmative or negative. in the centre of town? Bakkaldan ekmekle tereyağ aldım. the other major function of de/da. çarşıda? Did you see Ali and Funda. You can always use de/da to express English ‘too’. you use bir kimse. if negative.

‘Someone I know’ is tanıdığım biri. Ayşe and Arzu went to the concert. sen olmasaydın! Geçen hafta güzel bir gözlük buldum. 2 Other The basic word for ‘another’ is başka (which also means ‘different’). öbür (historically) comes from o bir. As a way of remembering which is which. ‘that one’. ‘everyone’ and kimse. their conversation soon drifts off into other topics EROL: Oh. the others stayed at home. EROL: Serkan. ‘the other one’. With kimse the verb has to be negative. bulamıyordum. too. şimdi aklıma geldi: akşama kadar gözlükçüye gidip yeni gözlüğümü almam gerekiyor ama bir işimin olması nedeniyle gidemeyeceğim. Turkish instead uses two different words: diğer(ler)i. SERKAN: Merak etme. There is a subtle difference between kimse and hiçbiri in that hiçbiri presupposes a bigger group. Alternatives are hiçbiri and hiç kimse: Page 213 Kimse/hiçbiri/hiç kimse gelmedi. when you want to say ‘the other one(s)’ instead of ‘another’. ‘the other ones’. Sürekli arıyordum. and öbürü. ‘someone I didn’t know’ is tanımadığım bir kimse. Belki formu doldurman gerekecek. from which nobody came (‘none of them came’ would be the most accurate translation of hiçbiri gelmedi). No-one came. so it normally refers to one thing. However. Başka bir telefon var mı burada? Is there another phone here? Dialogue 2 Sen olmasaydın! If it weren’t for you! Serkan and Erol are discussing the day ahead. diğerleri ise evde kaldılar. Parasını ödedim. ben yaparım. The two other words you need here are herkes. A couple of examples: Ayşe ile Arzu konsere gitti. . tam aradığım modeli. Çok sağ ol. ‘nobody’.

İngilizce’yi. Nurettin’e ne oluyor diye sordum. vallahi. Aslında şahane bir ülkedir. Çocukken ben de sporcu olmak istiyordum ama. Turkmenistan. Yalnız. Bu trenden indiğimiz andan itibaren herkesle konuştu ve millet onu anlıyordu. Bir kere yaşlı bir amca bizimle konuşuyordu sonra çok kızdı. bu da güzel. EROL: Nurettin’le Türkmenistan’daydım. Koştuk. EROL: İzmir’de bir tanıdığım altı dil biliyor: Türkçe’yi. İtalyanca’yı. ben korktum. başka zaman sana anlatarım. İngilizce’yi ve İspanyolca’yı biliyorum. evde de az kalsın her gün çalıştım. hayat böyle derler ya. o da bilmiyorum. ama gerçekten biliyor mu? Hadi be. Yıldız Merkezinde.SERKAN: Birşey değil. Hangilerini biliyorsun? SERKAN: Türkçe’yi ve diğer Türk dillerini. ama yanlış bir şey demişim herhalde diye cevap verdi. Page 214 EROL: Hala Beşiktaş’ta oynuyor mu? SERKAN: Oynuyor. SERKAN: Güle güle. yani Türkiye’de. Çok dil biliyorsun. Fransızca’yı. Devam etmek istemedim. EROL: Ne yazık ki! Böyle şeyler olur. SERKAN: Öyle mi? EROL: Gerçekten. Neyse. Fransızca’yı. Gözlüğü alıp getireceğin için çok teşekkürler.… Uzun yıllar antremanalara gittim. bu kadar olmaz. SERKAN: İnanmıyorum. SERKAN: Bir şey değil canım. bıraktım. ama oranın en eski futbolcusu bu günlerde. Allahaısmarladık. Almancam çok kötü. şimdi gitmem gerek. üçte gözlükçüye gideceğim. ama eksikti. ve fena bir futbolcu değildim. Öyleyse. Ne olduğunu hala bilmiyoruz. Özbekçe’yi ve Çerkezce’yi. onun için şimdi Fransızca öğretmenim. son zamanlarda Özbekçe’yi bilen çok buralarda. Vallahi. Biliyor musun kime rastladım bu sabah? Necat! Ben merdiveni çıkarken o indi. İşte. Bir sayfayı yirmi dakikada ancak okuyorum. EROL: Çok iyi. Sözcükler gözlük gözlükçü gidip glasses optician go and neden sürekli bulamıyordum reason for a long time I wasn’t able to find . çok güzel.

2 He is going to pick them up himself. . they are separated from that marker by an apostrophe. Some writers use the apostrophe in this case (with proper names it is always used) and some don’t. It is never wrong to use it after language names. Exercise 3 Are the following statements true or not? 1 Erol has ordered new glasses from a store. Sometimes we have written this without an apostrophe.nedeniyle because. for the reason that merdiven inmek stairs (here:) to go down Page 215 yıldız Yıldız Merkezi Beşiktaş antrenman sporcu eksik ne yazık ki! İspanyolca sayfa ancak tanıdık İtalyanca star Star Centre (a football team) practice athlete not enough what a pity! Spanish (the language) page (here:) really acquaintance Italian (the language) öyleyse Özbekçe Uzbek (the language) Circassian (the language) güle güle OK then goodbye (answer to Allahaısmarladık) Allahaısmarladık Goodbye bir kere yanlış amca konuşuyordu diye sordum alıp getireceğin one time wrong (here:) old man he was talking I asked you’ll take and bring itibaren (-den) herkes millet anlıyordu from…on everyone people they were understanding diye cevap verdi he answered Çerkezce NB: Where names of languages are followed by an accusative case marker in the above text.

14 Serkan is going to pick up the glasses at noon. 4 Erol knows Necat. 10 The friend in Izmir is called Nurettin. 5 Necat is a football player. he thinks. Some of these words have a pretty clear meaning. are typical examples. but grammatical words. 12 Nurettin and Erol had a pleasant conversation with an old man in Turkmenistan. 6 Serkan was a really good player once. rather than to pinpoint the most exact English equivalent. generally referred to as ‘quantifiers’. everything everything something some . much few some everyone always some. It is often better to understand the Turkish equivalents relative to each other. others need some illustration: bir çok az bazı herkes hep biraz one many. ‘some’ and ‘every’ Life would be easy if there were a clear one-to-one relationship between one word in one language and one other word in another language. 7 Erol teases him about his football career. Page 216 13 Erol has no idea what caused the confusion. It is relatively easy to give the translations for concrete nouns and verbs. Quantifiers: words like ‘all’. such as prepositions or articles. The words listed in the heading above.3 They have already been paid for. 11 Nurettin hesitated speaking Turkmenian. 9 Serkan doubts that many people in Turkey actually speak Uzbek. but his German isn’t very good. sometimes have to be translated using various words. 8 Serkan speaks many languages. a little (bit) bütün tüm her hepsi her şey birşey birkaç all all every all.

This is what this section is about. you may have already guessed that her. We suggest you treat them as exactly the same. But bars of chocolate are countable. you might be able to work out when to use hepsi. If you are not aware of the difference. . is followed by a singular. pause for a minute to consider the sentences ‘He ate all the food’ and ‘He ate every bar of chocolate’. i. I spent all day in bed (literally: I laid down all day). We were thinking of the whole evening. All The difference between English ‘all’ and ‘every’ has its uses in coming to grips with the Turkish system. you focus on the total mass of whatever noun follows it (e. not a plural noun. Bunun dışında bütün yemeği yedi. ‘Foods’ is not ‘countable’.g. you cannot have ‘one food’ or ‘three foods’. Between bütün and tüm there is not much difference. can I? Şimdi ben her Türk davet edemem ki! I can’t very well invite every Turk now. so you can use either one. that for some of these concepts. with ‘every’ you focus on the individual elements (e. there are alternative ways of saying it. using the other(s) would be incorrect. Then there’s hepsi. and sometimes the context calls for one of the alternatives: only one is right. Compare the following sentences.g. just like English ‘every’. and her ‘every’ on the other: Page 217 Şimdi ben bütün Türkiye’yi davet edemem ki! I can’t very well invite all of Turkey now. can I? On the basis of phrases like her gün ‘every day’. This difference is relevant for understanding the difference between bütün and tüm (both mean ‘all’) on the one hand.e. Bütün gün yattım. ‘food’).birçok a lot bir sürü a lot The problem is. With ‘all’. which also means ‘all’. Tüm akşamı düşündük. ‘bars of chocolate’).

that is. For example. between ‘all of it’ and ‘everything (there is)’. then you have to use bütün. Hepsini yedi. Her şeyi yedi. The difference between bütün and hepsi is similar to that between ‘all’ and ‘all of it’. Hepsi and her şey ‘everything’ mean pretty much the same thing. I didn’t tell her anything. The first is used as an adjective. All of the children were laughing. Some You have learned two words that express this: bazı and birkaç. while with her şey you don’t have that kind of knowledge. He ate everything (there was). the difference. if you want to specify that it’s food you’re talking about. he ate all the food. which means ‘always’: Seni hep hatırlayacağım. Hepsi. I will always remember you. We recommend you learn bazı as bazı…-lar. that is. with a Page 218 following noun. Choosing the right form for ‘nothing’ is easier. the second is just used by itself (so. is derived from hep. Çocukların hepsi gülüyordular. Note that you can’t use hepsi or her şey when you want to use the word in combination with the thing it goes with. He ate it all. nor hepsi yemeği yedi). since there is just one form (really): birşey (possibly intensified as hiç birşey) plus negated verb: Ona (hiç) birşey anlatmadım. you can’t say bütünü yedi. for ‘he ate all the food’. by the way. that is.Apart from that. as it virtually always co-occurs with the plural ending on the . if you want to say ‘he ate all the food’. the difference is that with hepsi you know exactly what ‘all’ refers to.

But there is more. Remember how this difference between countable and uncountable things was also important for the choice between bütün and her. Consider the following sentence and try to think of the most natural word to fill in the dots with: Yalnız…et yedim. Page 219 You can intensify this by adding the plural marker to dil. see Lesson 6) to the noun.noun. ‘a little’. which means ‘a range’. You’d be right. to give bir sürü dilleri biliyorken. çok. . bazı. Some students got a high mark. hiçbir. The construction ‘some of the…’ is expressed by putting bazıları after a noun and adding the genitive case (the one used to indicate possession and which is formed with -in or nin. In the following example öğrencilerin consists of the noun öğrenciler ‘students’ and the genitive ending -in. You can also use bir sürü. Much. or ‘lots of. herkes. or birçok ‘a lot’. This is not so with birkaç. az. You use bazı with things you can count. birşey. kimse. birisi. for example. Although he knows a lot of languages. Bir sürü dili biliyorken. shoes or days. bütün. he never goes anywhere. bir. and biraz with things you cannot count. such as. For a more challenging version of the same exercise. but that biraz. herşey. cover the alternatives and try to fill in the blanks without looking. many So far. hiç bir zaman bir yere gitmez. hepsi. I just ate a little meat. Öğrencilerin bazıları yüksek bir not aldılar. You may have guessed that neither bazı nor birkaç would fit here. we have consistently used çok for saying ‘many’ or ‘much’. her. Remember to add any necessary case markers. is the better choice. ‘a great many’. such as meat or snow. ‘although he knows lots and lots of languages…’ Exercise 4 Fill in the blanks with one of the following alternatives. biraz 1 Dikkat et! Ayhancık (‘little Ayhan’)…duyur. diğer.

1 Amerika’da çok zengin olmuş. 8 …sınavı bitirdikten sonra parti var.…arabayla gittiler. consider the following sentences. many times before in this book. 4 Hiç…anlamadım. 3 Az kalsın trafik kazası oluyordu! There was almost a traffic accident! . 15 Şehrimizde yeni…tiyatro yapacaklar.2 Bence Türkçe…zor. 5 Merak etme. and try to get a feeling for what the verb olmak means. If you’re ill. ‘to become’. First. Olmak You have seen the verb olmak ‘to be’. 10 Ben ile Ahmet trenle gittik. 13 Sorunların…için bir çözüm (‘solution’) bulduk. 2 Hasta olursan. 7 …dünya futbolu sevdiğini pek iyi biliyorsun. hap alırsın. It is time we tell you something about this versatile word. you take a pill. gençlerden…bekliyorlar. three of which are taken from previous lessons.…için aynı. 6 Şimdiye kadar Türkiye’de…şey görmedim. 9 Arkadaşım…sonra bana telefon edecek. They say he got very rich in America. 12 Ondan sonra bu kız da…aşık oluyor (‘fell in love with’). 14 Ali’nin onu yaptığına…kızdım. 11 Yaşlı insan bizlerden. 3 Buraya geldiğim zaman hiç…yok.

and think about the possible meaning differences. In the future tense. Compare these future tense examples with their present tense equivalents: Saat kaçta oradasın? Hava sıcak. (Lesson 5) 4 Memnun…(Lesson 1) 5 Hiç belli…(Lesson 9) 6 Biz daha sert…dedi. the meaning would be different. but with the form of olmak blanked out. Provide the right form. Also note the following: in sentences 4 and 5 olmak expresses the future tense. When are you there? The weather is nice. anlat bakalım. (Lesson 9) 8 Bunun iyi…sanmıyorum. Construct 1 and 3 without olmak. 4 and 5. In 2. Exercise 5 Olmak cannot be left out of any of these sentences.Page 220 4 Saat kaçta orada olacaksın? At what time will you be there? 5 Rapora göre hava sıcak olacak. According to the weather report. Exercise 6 Here are ten more sentences from previous lessons. (Lesson 11) 7 Ne…? Hadi. olmak is needed because there are no ‘verbless’ sentences in that tense. the resulting sentence would be ungrammatical. in 1 and 3. 1 Gecmiş…(Lesson 1) 2 Sağ…(Lesson 1) 3 Sokakta bir kaza…ve hemen polis geldi. it will be warm. (Lesson 5) 9 Yemekleri çok lezzetli…(Lesson 9) .

(use a subordinate clause with -diği gibi. which is needed because the verb ceza vermek ‘to punish’ requires it. So you can say Erol hasta ‘Erol is ill’. ‘as’) 2 How much should it be? (use the word olsun ‘should be’ here) 3 In order to be a good student. (add -dir to the form of olmak here) . The second example consists of bunun iyi bir fikir olduğu ‘that this is a good idea’ (using the subordinated clause construction. Here are some more examples: Bunu yapmış olana ceza verilecek. The one(s) who did this will be punished. Instead you use olmak: Erol hasta olacak ‘Erol is going to be ill’. 4 An American firm has become the new owner. again. which means ‘if’. see. The final -a in olana is a dative case marker (see Lesson 3). But in virtually every other context in which you may be tempted to use a verbless sentence. 6 That must have been interesting. 5 You will be a very good employee. Page 221 The suffix -sa. Erol hastaydı ‘Erol was ill’ and Erol hastaymış ‘Erol must have been ill’. But you cannot say Erol hastayacak. using the relative clause construction (see Lesson 11. Bunun iyi bir fikir olduğunu düşünüyor musun? Do you think this is a good idea? In the first example. Lesson 11) and the verb form düşünüyor musun? ‘do you think?’ The final -nu in olduğunu is the accusative case ending (see Lesson 6). This is because such sentences are only possible in the present tense and in the past with -di or -miş. bunu yapmış olan means ‘the ones who did this’. needed because the subordinated clause Bunun iyi bir fikir olduğu is the direct object of the verb form düşünüyor musun? Exercise 7 Translate 1 As it always happens.Olmak is often used where you would expect a ‘verbless’ sentence. it is likely that you need to use olmak. in case you forgot). can also be added without olmak: Erol hastaysa ‘if Erol is ill’. The person who is punished is indicated with this dative ending.

Onu iyi tanıyorsun. bazı kitaplara bakar mısın? Geçen e-mailimde gördüğün gibi. Yarın Kanadalı arkadaşıma. and answer the questions about it.7 Don’t be like that! 8 That can’t be. şehrin dışında oturuyor. Fakat bir kitabevine uğrama fırsatın olmazsa merak etme. 9 The man whose hair is wet. There is a translation in the key. o kadar önemli değil. İngiliz tarihi beni çok ilgilendiriyor bugünlerde. gideceğim. Bütün hafta sonu dinlenmek istiyorum. Eğer günün birinde kitabevine uğrarsan. greeting and leave-taking? 2 Is Kamile having a good day? 3 How does Kamile ask Funda to do something for her? . Dave’e. Page 222 Exercise 8 Read this e-mail. Sevgili Funda. Bundan sonraki gelecek mesajımda adım vereceğim. Kamile Sözcükler kesin tadını çıkarmak kitabevi gördüğün gibi tarih surely to enjoy bookstore as you saw history dinlenmek fırsat dışında öpmek to rest possibility outside to kiss 1 Which fixed expressions are used for addressing. Bugün burada hava çok güzel. değil mi? Maalesef. İstediğim kitapları milli kütüphanede bulamadım. fakat tadını çıkaramayacağım. Sen ne yapacaksın? Hafta sonu için planın var mı? Umarım müzikallerin birine gitmemelisin! Öpüyorum. Sana birşey sormak istiyorum. işimi bitmem gerek. Umarım iyisindir. Londra’da hava nasıl diye sormayacağım. Kesin iyi bir zamanın vardır. 10 If it’s necessary.

do you think? Page 223 14 Sayın öğrencilerimizin dikkat edeceği hususlar Matters to which our respected students should pay attention In this lesson you will learn how to: • say when something will happen in the future • express the way in which things are done • link two events that happen at the same time. the müdür (director) of a large şirket (company) is talking to the mimar (architect). as far as Kamile knows? 8 What’s the Turkish for ‘outside of town’? 9 What is Kamile talking about in her last sentence (before Öpüyorum)? 10 Are Funda and Kamile good friends. şirketimizin yeni binasının inşaatına ne zaman başlayacaksınız? MİMAR: Çerçeveler teslim edildiği gibi başlayabiliriz. The director is anxious to know when the building of a new office will commence MÜDÜR: Mimar Bey. MÜDÜR: İnşallah kıştan önce olacak. Kar yağarsa ne yapacaksınız? .4 Is her request a forceful one? 5 In which library has she looked for the books? 6 Why is she asking Funda. do you think? 7 Does Funda know Dave. or one after the other Dialogue 1 İnşaat Construction In the following dialogue.

MİMAR: Kar yağdığı takdirde. (immediately hands over the paperwork) MÜDÜR: (fills out the forms and signs) Şimdi daha ne kadar sürecek? Çerçeveler ne zaman teslim edilecek? MİMAR: İmzalı kağıtları bugün aldığımız için. o halde altı aydan önce başlayamayız. construction window frame as soon as they are delivered hopefully in the event of making. MÜDÜR: O zaman hepsini hemen doldurayım! MİMAR: Nihayet! Hiç soracağınızı zannetmedim. MÜDÜR: (looks puzzled) Neden ısmarlatamadınız? MİMAR: Siz bütün zorunlu formları doldurmadığınız için. yarın mutlaka teslim edilecekler… Sözcükler mimar inşaat çerçeve teslim edildiği gibi inşallah takdirde yapım ertelenmek endişelenmek Exercise 1 architect building. Page 224 MÜDÜR: Felaket olacak! Her gecikme işlerimizi çok kötü etkiler! Bu çerçeveleri ne zaman ısmarlattınız? MİMAR: Ismarlatamadım. yapım ertelenecek. büyük bir sorunumuz var. building to be postponed to be anxious about o halde etkilemek gecikme in that case to influence delay ısmarlatmak to have something ordered zorunlu necessary soracağınızı that you would ask sürmek imzalı kağıt to last signed paper ertelendiğ zaman when it will be postponed Look at these extracts from Dialogue 1 and answer the questions: . Ertelendiğ zaman. Endişelenirim ki.

1 şirketimizin yeni binasının inşaatına—Work out what the suffixes are and what they mean. however. we). which refer either to things that happened in the past or to something which is happening now. but you translate it with ‘it’. in which you probably recognise the future marker -ecek. For future events. you use -eceği zaman. ‘his’. use the appropriate first or second person markers. Here’s a list of all markers: . or ‘hers’. For other persons (I. you. 2 başlayamayız—What is the suffix immediately after the verb stem? 3 imzalı kağıtları bugün aldığımız için. yarın mutlaka teslim edilecekler—What do you notice about the position of the words bugün ‘today’ and yarın ‘tomorrow’? Page 225 Exercise 2 See if you understood the dialogue by answering these questions: 1 What effect will the winter season have on the building process? 2 Why haven’t the window frames arrived yet? 3 What was the mimar waiting for? 4 How long does it take to deliver the window frames? Language point ‘When’ in the future You’ve learnt how to express English ‘when’ in Turkish by using -diği zaman or -diğinde. literally. So. it says ‘its’. The -i is the third person singular possessive suffix. ‘he’ or ‘she’.

1stsingular -eceğim zaman when I… 2ndsingula r -eceğin zaman when you… 3rdsingular -eceği zaman when he/she/it… 1stplural -eceğimiz zaman when we… 2ndplural -eceğiniz zaman when you… 3rdplural .

we’re going to visit you. The form -eceği (without zaman) is also used as the future equivalent of -diği in basic subordinate clauses: Page 226 Sayın yolcularımızın dikkat edeceği hususlar. Bineceğim tren hangisi? Which is the train I am to take? Bekleyecekleri para henüz gelmedi. don’t forget your dictionary! Türkiye’de tatil yapacağımız zaman. gibi ‘like’ or için ‘for’) you can express other notions for which English uses separate words. sözlüğünüzu unutmayın! When you go to England. as soon as -diği için or -diğinden -diği takdirde because in the event of Tren geç kaldığı için/kaldığından İngiltere vapuruna yetişemedik. (text on a bus ticket) Matters to which our respected travellers should pay attention. The following list gives a basic idea of the kind of forms we are talking about: -diği kadar -diği halde -diği gibi Examples as much as although as. Sana yazmadığımız için bize kızıyor musun? . The money they are expecting hasn’t arrived yet. we could not catch the ferry to England. When we’re in Turkey for our holiday. -diği zaman’s little cousins By changing the word zaman in the -diği zaman or -eceği zaman (both meaning ‘when’) constructions into a number of other words (such as kadar ‘as’. Because the train had been delayed. Don’t forget that the final -i in -diği ‘that’ or -eceği ‘that’ changes with person.Examples: İngiltere’ye gideceğiniz zaman. size geleceğiz.

Giriş sinavını geçmediği halde. üniversiteye girebilirdi. 4 Although Ahmet likes to complain. Yağmur yağdığı takdirde. see for other constructions for ‘to have to’ Lesson 8. take as much as you need. . 135). Because they didn’t tell me anything. she declined the offer. yüzme yarışması yarına kadar ertelenecek. but he couldn’t save the injured lorry driver. the students had to stay in an inexpensive hotel (use zorunda for ‘had to’. I know nothing.Are you angry with us because we didn’t write to you? Bana hiç bir şey söylemedikleri için hiç bilgim yok. İstediği kadar tatlı yiyebilir. Çerçeveler teslim edildiği gibi başladık. In the event of rain. Siz bütün zorunlu formları doldurmadığınız için. He can eat sweets as much as he likes. Because you did not fill out all necessary forms. We started as soon as the window frames were delivered. Although he didn’t pass the entry exam. the swimming contest will be postponed. p. Page 227 Doktor yapabildiği gibi yaptı. 2 Because the conference fee was too high. he was able to go to college. I haven’t heard anything from him. Exercise 3 Translate into Turkish: 1 Although the film star was offered a contract worth one million. fakat yaralı kamyoncuyu kurtaramadı. The doctor did what he could do. 3 Please.

9 As soon as the train arrived. I ran to the theatre. For instance. 7 Should the train be late. 8 Although the train was late.5 Could you give me a call as soon as you arrive at the airport? 6 Because the train was late. the angry teacher shouted. Contrary to most suffixes in Turkish. vowel harmony does not affect -ki. You can also turn an adverb into an adjective: suppose you have an adverb bugün ‘today’ which you want to use as an adjective. except after the words bugün ‘day’ and dün ‘yesterday’: . unless they’re used ‘as a noun’. not after the adjective zengin ‘rich’. For this. But just as easily. 12 ‘Because you haven’t done your homework. you might say zenginler ‘the rich’. 11 As soon as we stopped eating fresh fruit and vegetables. don’t wait for me. zengin is used as a noun. In this example. Word list sinema yıldızı movie star reddetmek çok to decline too bir milyonluk sözleşme a contract worth one million konferans ücreti conference fee Page 228 şikayet etmek aramak tatlı diye tutturmak taze Language point -ki to complain to give a call pester for sweets fresh üşütmek ev ödevi kızgın diye bağırmak to catch a cold homework angry to shout Adjectives and adverbs don’t take suffixes. 10 Although I eat fresh fruit and vegetables every day. when you’ll find -ler after zengin. meaning ‘today’s’ as in ‘today’s newspaper’. you use the suffix -ki. I made it in time to the theatre. I had to run to the theatre. in the case of zengin adamlar ‘the rich men’ the plural suffix comes after the noun adam ‘man’. I cannot continue with the class’. I caught a cold. we caught a cold.

g. too. However. they never occur in Adjective+bir+Noun constructions. these forms can be used in ‘verbless’ sentences. you can also use -ki type adjectives as nouns: bugünküler people nowadays The suffix -ki also forms adjectives from other bases: • after a noun carrying the locative case marker -de (e. Compare the forms on the right and left sides: Page 229 eski kitap dünkü gösteri eski bir kitap kitap eski the old book yesterday’s performance an old book the book is old never: dünkü bir gösteri bilet aldığımız gösteri dünküydü the performance for which we bought tickets was yesterday’s Analogous to zenginler. ‘here’ etc.bugünkü bugünkü toplantı dünkü dünkü Şov TV yayımı today’s today’s meeting yesterday’s yesterday’s Show TV broadcast Other examples with adverbs of time and place (such as ‘tomorrow’.g. senin ‘your’) Before we give any examples. Exercise 4 . Türkiye’de ‘in Turkey’) • after a noun or pronoun carrying the genitive case marker -(n)in (e. try to work out what the forms in Exercise 4 mean.): yarınki radyo yayımı bugünkü gazete dünkü gösteri şimdiki halde buradaki kitaplar tomorrow’s radio broadcast today’s newspaper yesterday’s performance in the present state the books that are here (‘the here books’) Like all adjectives.

is that the latter behave as ordinary adjectives. They cannot appear before a noun (as in ‘the big house’).e. see Lesson 4).What do the following mean: 1 seninki 2 Mustafa’nınki 3 kalem (‘pen’) sizinki mi? 4 onlarınki 5 Türkiye Cümhuriyeti’ninki The difference between these nouns or pronouns marking possession (i. the ones that end in -(n)inki) and words such as günkü ‘today’s’. güzel bisiklet bisiklet güzel güzel(dir) the nice bike never: benimki bisiklet (always benim bisikletim) never: benimki bir bisiklet benimki(dir) it’s mine güzel bir bisiklet a nice bike it’s nice the bike is nice bu bisiklet benimki the bike is mine Page 230 büyük bina büyük bir bina bina büyük büyük(tür) the large building never: hükümetinki bina a large building the building is large it’s big never: hükümetinki bir bina bu bina hükümetinki the building is the government’s hükümetinki(dir) it’s the government’s As the final examples show. but only after a noun (as in ‘the house is big’). Further examples: Öğretmeninki (or: öğretmeninkidir) (it’s) the one of the teacher/the teacher’s Benimki (or: benimkidir) (it’s) mine Orhan’ınki (or: Orhan’ınkidir) . such as güzel ‘nice’ or büyük ‘big’. these nouns or pronouns can be complete ‘verbless’ sentences by themselves (for -dir. and possessive pronouns such as seninki ‘yours’ don’t.

in this particular sentence. It’s not Bülent’s bike (simply expresses who owns the bike. things start to unravel: -lar is followed by the possessive marker -ımız. Komşumuzunkinde ise hava yastığı var. In my neighbour’s (car). of our neighbour our neighbours’. And to prove Turkish is an agglutinative language (the property of adding bits to words to add shades of meaning). Our car is old. This is not Bülent’s (bike)! (implies that Bülent has a bicycle. but this is not it). who doesn’t own it). Our houses are smaller than those of our neighbours. . or. as you know. however. however. the possessive marker -muz. Bu bisiklet Bülent’inki değil. Evlerimiz komşularımızınkilerden daha küçük.(it’s) Orhan’s Seninkiyim I’m yours Ali’ninkiler they’re Ali’s In order to understand in what way -ki differs from simple genitive constructions. the genitive -ın and -ki. As soon as you notice the plural marker -lar. The other example looks. -ki is often used in combination with a noun carrying a possessive marker (which. of our neighbours The first example consists of the noun komşu. a bit more complicated. there are airbags. look at the following examples: Bu bisiklet Bülent’in in değil. Page 231 at first sight. case markers can be added as well: Arabamız eskidir. varies with person) and a genitive (‘of’): komşumuzunki komşularımızınki our neighbour’s. the genitive -un and -ki.

whereas the second one expresses that we are talking about ‘more than one house’. The first one in komşularımızınkilerden refers to ‘more than one neighbour’. Again. In fact. take mine 4 doctors in hospitals are better 5 lokantadaki yemekleri sevmiyor 6 büyükanneminkilerden daha pahalı 7 istasyondaki tarife başka bir hareket saati yazıyordu Page 232 8 şarap tadındaki üzüm suyu yetişkin grown-up büyükanne grandmother . people in jail üstümdeki yorgan (üstümde on top of me) the duvet on top of me Exercise 5 Translate: 1 people in the street 2 yesterday’s child is tomorrow’s grown-up 3 don’t take my uncle’s. the result of the combination is an adjective. ‘at’.) hapishanedekiler those that are in jail. ‘on’ can be followed by the -ki suffix. Finally.The latter example contains the plural marker -ler/lar twice. meaning ‘things never go the way you expect them to be’. which is rare in Turkish. this type of construction with -ki is the only possible time where you can have two similar suffixes in one word. evdeki hesap çarşıya uymuyor the bill you draw up at home doesn’t apply at the market (Turkish proverb. words with -de/-da ‘in’.

be careful that to wake up back çaresizce inevitable üstelemek to repeat. anne!’ dedim. annem bütün gün didinip dururdu. dedim and attım? Page 233 . kalk. insist sıyırmak to take off. ‘Tamam. Do not translate it word for word. Sonra da. to shove away gözkapağı eyelid kırpmak to blink Answer the following questions: 1 Consider dururdu. Sabahleyin erken Early in the morning Evde. başlardı and bakardı in the little story above. didinmek özen göstermek uyanmak sırt Exercise 6 to work hard to make sure that. oğlum’ dedi. but try to get the gist of the story. Sabahları ilk olarak kalkıp kahvaltı hazırlamaya başlardı. olur. Fakat. Sırtımı dönerek ‘Ama uyuyorum. such as dedi. These seem to have a double verb marking. Which two suffixes can you distinguish? 2 Why does the first-person narrator use these forms? 3 And why does he change into using simple past tense forms. gözkapaklarımı kırparak. çaresizce üstelemeden üstümdeki yorganı sıyırıp attım. anne!’ dedim. kardeşlerimi uyandırmamaya özen göstererek ‘Hadi. tam zamanında okula gideceğimize bakardı. Ben bir gün çok erken kalkmalıydım. Annem.hekim amca or dayı Reading text doctor uncle tarife hareket timetable departure Read through the following text in its entirety. Annem gülümseyen yüzüyle bana dönerek ‘Aferin!’ dedi.

a ‘converb’ is the normal form to use. or right after one another. If this sounds a little abstract. is used a few times. formed with the suffix -ip. Common pairs are for instance: kalkıp gitti bakıp gördü kafadan silip attı kapıyı çekip gitti kayıp düştü he got up and left he looked and saw he put it out of his mind (literally: to erase from his head and throw away) he shut the door and went he slipped and fell . kalkıp stands for kalkardı Üstümdeki yorganı sıyırıp attım. which are used to combine two nouns (see Lesson 13): Ahmet ve Zeynep Ahmet and Zeynep Although it is not wrong to use ve. It does not have a tense. this new converb.Language point Expressing two simultaneous or consecutive actions In Lesson 12. nor a person marker. or they are two phases of one action. you were introduced to two ‘converbs’: -ince ‘as soon as’ and -(y)ken ‘while’. For combining two clauses with ‘and’. Turkish uses a similar construction. as in gidince ‘as soon as he went’ and giderken ‘while he is going’. If you have two verbs in a row. This -ip is the normal way of combining and expressing two actions that happen at the same time. Don’t be tempted to use ve or ile. I pushed the duvet on top of me off and threw it away. look again at these examples taken from the story above: Sabahları ilk olarak kalkıp kahvaltı hazırlamaya başlardı. In the story sabahleyin erken above. In the mornings she was the first to get up (literally: she stood up as the first) and started preparing breakfast. sıyırıp stands for sıyırdım Most of the time both verbs (the one with -ip and the main verb) form a kind of conceptual unit. the tense and person markings of the second verb also apply to the -ip verb. You have to mark the tense and person endings on the verb next in line. of which the first one ends in -ip.

. I don’t know whether Ayhan said this or not.. 4 Gidip benim annem ve onunki görüşeceğiz. -ip followed by the the verb durmak ‘to stand’ has a less literal. My mother kept working hard all day.Page 234 Exercise 7 Read the following verb sequences and find out for which suffixes the -ip part is the replacement. 5 Koşup onları yakalarsam…! kurbağa dans oynamak Exercise 8 frog yakalamak to catch to dance (Turkish-style) Translate the sentences from Exercise 7. the negative forms of -diği or -eceği). It means something like ‘continue to do something’ or ‘constantly doing something’. 3 Gidip dans oynayalım. Examples are: Gelip gelmeyeceği emin değilim. Expressions such as ‘it’s not clear if…’. etc. ‘I wonder whether…’. Söylenip duruyorsun. more idiomatic meaning. 2 Kuşlar gelip bahçemizdeki ağaca konunca iyiydi. 1 Çocuk kalkıp kurbağayı aramaya başladi. I’m not sure if he’ll come (or not). are often followed by a choice between a ‘positive’ and a ‘negative’ action (‘I wonder whether he went or not’). This sort of thing is most commonly expressed by means of the combination of an -ip verb with the same verb ending in -mediği or -meyeceği (that is. Ayhan’ın bunu söyleyip söylemediğini bilmiyorum. Annem bütün gün didinip dururdu. You just keep on yacking.

-erek ‘(by) doing’. He was sent to East Turkey as a teacher. He came here on foot (by walking). ‘to become’ is a fossilised form. iflas etmek to go bankrupt The -erek form of the verb olmak ‘to be’. usually translated as ‘as’: İlk olarak kalktı. Sometimes the -erek part contains a reason.’ dedi. Para dökerek iflas etti. my son. She stood up (as) first (literally: being the first). get up. she said ‘Come on. Öğretmen olarak Doğu Türkiye’ye gönderildi.’ Çalışarak Türkçe öğrendim. Garson olarak çalışıyor. I spent the last summer holiday in France. picking grapes. Geçen yaz tatilini Fransa’da üzüm toplayarak geçirdim. Yürüyerek buraya geldi. Examples: Page 235 Kardeşlerimi uyandırmamaya özen göstererek ‘Hadi kalk oğlum. This one. denotes the way or the manner in which something was done. I learned Turkish by working. . Taking care not to wake my brothers and sisters.Manner of actions There is one more converb you should know about. By wasting his money he went bankrupt. He works as a waiter.

Sözcükler (Not all of these appear in the Glossary at the end of the book. weapon to fill with holes contestant quiz master health condition unimportant detail araştırmak değerli dalgın bayram bahane etmek randevu to investigate valuable absent-minded feast to use as a pretext meeting. 3 Hasta sınıf arkadaşımıza uğrayıp/uğrayarak sağlık durumunu sorduk. Page 236 6 Korkan çocuk ödevini bahane edip/ederek dişçiyle randevusunu ertelemeye çalıştı. 5 Dalgın komşumuz bugün bayram olduğunu unutup/unutarak is yerine gitti. 4 Önemsiz ayrıntıları araştırıp/araştırarak değerli zamanını kaybetti. Make sure you’ve checked the translation in the Key to Exercise 9 before you do this. you have seen four different converbs. as they are not all equally useful) silah delik deşik etmek yarışmacı sunucu sağlık durumu önemsiz ayrıntı Exercise 10 gun. 2 Yarışmacı gülümseyip/gülümseyerek sunucunun sorduğu soruya cevap verdi. Two final remarks: .) 1 İki kovboy atlarından indikten sonra silahlarını çekip/çekerek birbirlerini delik deşik ettiler. (In the next exercise you will be asked to choose either the -ip or the -erek form of the verb underlined.Exercise 9 Translate these sentences. each with its own characteristics. appointment Choose whether -ip or -erek is the most logical suffix in the sentences above. Language point Converbs By now.

you always have to add one (mostly the geniş zaman). whereas -ince and -ken may have a subject which is different from the one in the main clause (and are thus more like English subordinate clauses). 4 Daktilosuna kağıdı takıp/takarak/takınca/takarken bir şiir yazmaya başladı. whereas when you use -ken ‘while’. 2 Sınava geç kaldığını anlayıp/anlayarak/anlayınca /anlarken montunu giyip/giyerek/giyince/giyerken sokağa firladı. 6 Yemekten sonra bulaşıkları yapıp/yaparak/yapınca/yaparken yardım etti. 8 Anneler niye çocuklarını hep balkondan seslenip/seslenerek/ seslenince/seslenirken sofraya çağırırlar? Sözcükler düşünmek to think. to refrain from (literally: to cut) to lose weight to wash the dishes e-mail to call out.) 1 Ben bunları düşünüp/düşünerek/düşününce/düşünürken zil çaldı. to contemplate mont fırlamak ocak ısınmak daktilo şiir jacket to rush fireplace to warm oneself typewriter poem şişman kesmek fat to stop. to address dinner table kilo vermek bulaşıkları yapmak e-posta seslenmek sofra . ısındı. you never add a present or past tense suffix. (In Exercise 12 you will be asked to choose whether to use -ip.1 When you use -ip ‘and’ -erek ‘by doing’ or -ince ‘when’. -erek. 3 Ocağin önünde durup/dururken/durarak/durunca. Page 237 Exercise 11 Translate these sentences. 5 Şişman adam tüm tatlıları yemeyi kesip/keserek/kesince/ keserken kilo vermeye çalıştı. -ince or -ken. ‘as soon as’. 2 -ip and -erek always have the same subject as the main verb (and so are not unlike English ‘-ing’ forms). 7 Amerika’ya varıp/vararak/varınca/varırken bana bir e-posta gönderecek.

2. there will also be some forms and suffixes that you have not yet seen. Bilet alirken yanınızda bulunan bavul. there are quite a few words here that are relatively unimportant. Eşyalarınız teslim edilip ve teslim fişine yazılacaktır. 5. nature value double amount by . -ince or -ken is the most logical suffix to use. so you won’t find them in the Glossary. bavul. again. Her hukuk sorumluluk otobüs sahibi aittir. çanta gibi şeylerin kaybolmasından dolayı Otobüs Firması sorumlu değildir. 4. Teslim fişinde vasfı ve değeri belirtilmeyen eşyalar kaybolursa. Besides the odd word you don’t know. kutu. 6. Read the translation in the Key. 7. eşya sahibine bilet değerinin iki kati otobüs sahibi ve şoförü tarafindan ödenir. trunk suitcase parcel to be handed over hukuk sorumluluk vasıf değer iki kat tarafından justicial responsibility characteristics. answer the questions below. -erek. 3. her türlü sorumluluk kazaya karişan otobüs sahibine aittir. taken from a bus ticket from a bus company called Kasırga ‘Hurricane’. Otobüsün herhangi bir kazasindan doğacak sorumluluk KASIRGA firmasina ait olmayıp. valiz ve kutu gibi esyalarınızı göstereceksiniz. Bilet verildiği gün ve saat için geçerlidir. Make sure you’ve checked the translation in the Key to Exercise 11 before you do this.takmak Exercise 12 insert in Choose whether -ip. Teslim edilmeyen ve teslim fişine yazılmayan eşya. if you need. Sayın yolcularımızın dikkat edeceği hususlar: 1. verildiği gün geçerli bavul valiz kutu teslim edilmek day of issue valid suitcase. Make a list of things you don’t understand. Then. Use the word list below the text. valiz. Satılan bilet geri alınmaz. Page 238 Exercise 13 Read through the following text.

who. you should know that most bus companies do not own buses. Add these items to your vocabulary and then proceed to Exercise 14! . which two suffixes are used for the passive? 5 What would dolayı in the sequence -masından dolayı (see husus 3) mean? 6 In husus 7 you see olmayıp. to be bought) occur in this text. alınmaz. in return for using the company name. Which function has -ip here? What does it stand for? Vocabulary lists In order to cool down from the difficult exercise above. you see some examples of clause combining. Page 239 1 Compare husus 4 and 5. Who is responsible for lost luggage? 2 Who is responsible in case of an accident (husus 7)? 3 Throughout this text. they hire them from bus owners. satılan. Instead. edildiği (in husus 1 and 2). In order to understand this text. what does the -ip in teslim edilip stand for? 4 Several passives (to be taken. pay a commission fee.kaybolmak to get lost karışmak to be involved Turkey has a well-organised system of public transport: you can travel almost anywhere by bus. In husus 3. So. here are some easy and handy word lists. For instance.

ocak Janua ry mayı s May eylül Septe mber şubat Febru ary hazır an June ekim Octo ber mart Marc h t emm uz July kası m Nove mber .

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kırmızı red sarı yellow kahver engi brown yeşil green turunç orange gri grey mavi blue portak al rengi orange boz grey pembe pink mor .

as well as October and November. 5 Flowers turn April. 7 September is orange and brown and December is either grey or white. 2 January is white. Try to make sets of four ‘related’ items. is green. diş macunu. 3 February. Page 240 4 March. Can you now guess what they are and what makes them a related set? etek kol diş macunu bıçak tıraş bıçağı kol batı sabun güneşyağı bacak doğu göz arm West batı güney elbise gömlek kuzey çaydanlık tencere tişört ayak tabak . a number of items are listed. bence renk -e ait according to me. tıraş bıçağı and günşyağı. the last three of which contain at least one part (they are compound nouns) that you know. 6 July and August are yellow because of the sun. I think colour belonging to dolayı (-den) because of -a değiştirmek güneş hem…hem de… turn into sun either…or ise on the other hand Exercise 15 Below. are usually grey months. on the other hand. One set is formed by sabun.Exercise 14 Translate: 1 I think every month has its own colour (NB: use ait ‘belonging to‘with dative case’). May and June into pink and blue.

you may ask yourself how much more there is to know about Turkish. -dir. -dur and -dür). so they are best learned as separate words. -dır. However. this is expressed by the suffix -tır (and -tir. -tur. some of the more common verbs have a different suffix. to tell gezdirto show around (also used in ‘to walk a dog’) bitir- . Examples: anlato understand gezto walk around bitanlatto make understand. This lesson is a final attempt to show you a few of those things. Language points Causative The causative suffix is used to express English ‘to let (someone) do (something)’: yapmak to do.Page 241 15 Size öğretip öğretemediklerimiz The things we could and couldn’t teach you In this lesson we will: • show you some other features of Turkish you haven’t yet seen • give you an update of some of the trickier elements of the language • provide you with a number of written texts to improve your reading skills What else is in store? After 14 lessons. But there is more to Turkish than we can show you in this book. -tür. You can manage quite a bit of conversation now. to make yaptırmak to let someone do/ make something Page 242 ölmek to die öldürmek to kill As you see. to explain. and read the odd newspaper item.

Exercise 1 Other suffixes which are used to extend the verb stem are -iş-/-ş-. The queen had the cook prepare the dinner. An example is the the -r. Colloquial matters We would like to draw your attention to a number of features of the language which you do not always find in textbooks. He has the old mechanic repair his car. Erkek kardeşlerim hep dövüşürlarmış. Kerim washed himself and got dressed.to finish pişto boil korkto fear to finish something pişirto cook something korkutto frighten In the following examples. you see that the person who is made to do something is marked with the dative ending (-e. Read these example sentences and determine the basic form of the verbs: Görüşmemizden sonra anlaştık.in the iyor . spoken Turkish that are reflected in spelling. expressing ‘each other’ and -in/-n-. My brothers always seem to be hitting one another. expressing ‘oneself’. There are Page 243 some characteristics of colloquial. the tense endings are usually pronounced rather fast. and may not sound like you would expect on the basis of the written forms. Arabasını yaşlı tamirciye tamir ettiriyor. Kerim yıkanıp giyindi. After our discussion we understood each other. see Lesson 3): Kraliçe aşçıya akşam yemeğini hazırlattı. For instance.

Sometimes you see this written as well. the r is sometimes dropped in the word bir. This tense indicates that something happened earlier than another event. Exercise 2 Give the ‘full versions’ of these verb forms. such as the -mişti pluperfect in yazmıştı ‘he had written’. He was working all night. There are more of these double-marked tenses. We will not devote much time and space to them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 gidecem gidiyon öğrenicez yazcam korkuyodum geliyo diyo gideceğim Similarly. you will probably hear ‘korkuyo’. Other examples: Ne demiştim sana? What had I told you? Bütün gece çalışıyordu. such as the ‘progressive past’ -iyordu in gidiyorduk ‘we were going’ and the future past -ecekti in hepsini anlatacaktım ‘I would tell everything’. Page 244 . which is normally not pronounced.suffix. as they are pretty straightforward in form and meaning. and the plural marker can be pronounced as -ner: bi gün for bir gün bugünnerde for bugünlerde Instead of ile. the form -nen is often used: babasıynan for babasıyla Double tenses one day these days with her/his dad Throughout this book you may have spotted ‘double tenses’. Instead of korkuyor.

Then answer the questions below. İstanbul’da yağmursuz 45 gün (45 days without rain in Istanbul) Yağışsız geçen 43 günden sonra. bugün İstanbul’da havanın parçalı bulutlu olacağını.Neredeyse aynı ayakkabıları alacaktık. Sözcükler düşünmeksizin doğrudan doğruya basit varsayım without thinking directly simple assumption gözden geçirmek idrak etmek varolmak to scrutinise to understand to exist 1 What does the author say about names of countries and languages? 2 Which alternative do you know for the -meksizin suffix in düşünmeksizin? 3 Can you detect the typo in this text? Reading text 2 Read this weather forecast. Reading text 1 Read the following excerpt and try to understand the author’s line of reasoning.tr). İstanbul’da yine güneşli bir hafta sonu yaşandı. Fransizca ve Almanca aynı şekilde Fransa ve Almanya’nin dilidir. taken from the internet version of the newspaper Hürriyet (www. yağışsız 45 gün geçti. sıcaklığın da 30 derece civarında bulunacağını bildirdi. . Bu kadar basit.hurriyet. İngiltere’nin dilidir. We would almost have bought the same shoes. Belçikaca.com. Böylece İstanbul’da son kez yağmur yağan 10 Temmuz’dan sonra. Birçok kişi herhangi bir Avrupa ülkesinde konuşulan dili is mini düşünmeksizin doğrudan doğruya ülkenin ismine bağlar: İngilizce. Page 245 Meteoroloji. Fakat. önceki gün Meteoroloji tarafından verilen rapordan ‘sağanak yağıp beklendiği’ bildirmesine rağmen. bu varsayımdan yola çıkarsak hata yapmış oluruz. diğer ülkeleri ve dillerini gözden geçirdiğimiz zaman birçok devletin ve dilinin bir olmadığını hemen idrak edebiliriz. Avusturyaca veya İsviçrece gibi dillerin varolmadığnı örnek olarak gösterebiliriz.

dative (-e) şu and o) on gibi ile için like with for -e doğru towards -e göre ablative (-den) -den önce before after since because of according -den to sonra -e in spite of -den rağmen beri -den dolayı NB: üzere also means ‘in order to’ The complex postpositional constructions are based on words that mean ‘the inside’. lokantadan ‘from the restaurant’). tarafından. rağmen. others do not: no case marking üzere no case marking or genitive (after personal pronouns and bu. Most of the simple postpositions have been with us throughout this book. lokantaya ‘to the restaurant’. Turkish does not have prepositions. civarında). Pazartesi) Sözcükler sağanak rağmen civar Postpositions cloudburst in spite of surrounding In the last text several postpositions occurred (sonra.(Hürriyet. ‘the outside’. ‘the down side’. etcetera. The equivalents of English prepositions are often case endings (lokantada ‘in the restaurant’. Some of the simple postpositions require a case marker on the word before it. 24 Ağustos 1998. Two types can be distinguished: simple postpositions and more complex constructions. or postpositions. The most important ones are the following: ara alt arka baş dış space between underside back close surroundings exterior iç ön peş üst yan interior front space behind top space beside Page 246 .

5 Your pen has fallen under the table. 2 I went into the house. other case markers may sometimes have to be used instead (see peşinden and üstüne in the examples below).These are followed by a possessive suffix and a case marker. followed by the third person singular possessive and the locative case (place where something is. if you want to say ‘on top of the table’. this form literally means ‘on its top’): masanın üstünde ‘on top of the table’. Benim yanımda durdu. . Here are the same words again. For instance. indicated by -de). Now. This means ‘on top of’. He stood next to me. ‘at’ or ‘on’. becomes üstünde. Arkamızda. 3 What’s behind this wall? 4 The film starts after the news. Evinin önündeler. you need to put this post-position after the word for ‘table’. Put it on the table.in üstünde. However. This word must be suffixed with the genitive case (because of the possessive -ü. but now as complete postpositions. the case used is the locative. Behind us. the word üst ‘top’. which is masa. I ran after him. ara alt arka baş dış iç ön peş üst yan space between underside back close surroundings exterior interior front space behind top space beside arasında altında arkasında başında dışında içinde önünde peşinde üstünde yanında between under behind near outside in in front of after above. They are in front of the house. on next to More examples: Onun peşinden koştum. the one meaning ‘in’. Masanın üstüne koy! Exercise 3 Translate: 1 She’s in the house. 6 There’s a garden between the houses. as this is the one you will encounter most often in these postpositions.

1 2 3 4 5 ders film indirim bulaşık lambayı a b c d e yıkamak çalmak bulunmak pişirmek gitmek . Vocabulary One of the things we will be doing in this final lesson is provide vocabulary exercises with which you can practise your command of all the words you have learned throughout the earlier lessons.Page 247 7 Your brother is a good man just like you. 10 This car is too (fazla) big for our family. the exercises will help your memory. 8 Like my older brother. 9 The car is in front of the house. Note that some of the nouns are case-marked. You’ll have forgotten many of these words. Exercise 4 Connect the opposites. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 doğmak pahalı geçen gelmek soru uzak var geri çalışkan (‘hard-working’) açmak a b c d e f g h i j gelecek yok tembel (‘lazy’) kapatmak ucuz ileri cevap gitmek ölmek yakın Exercise 5 Connect the verbs on the right with the direct objects on the left. I don’t drink beer.

ondan sonra kulübe gidip…ettik 10 Acele et. 8 Sordum. 4 …silmem gerek ama istemiyorum.…kaybetmek istemiyoruz. 2 Ayşe…yapmak için çıktı. . 9 Önce lokantada yedik. 3 …çıktıktan sonra çok yorgundum. 5 Oğlunuz o önemli…geçti mi? 6 Türkiye’deki tatil zarfında beş…aldım. fakat…vermedi. 1 Çocuklar iyice…söylüyor. 12 Abim Türkçe ve iki başka…biliyor. 7 Yeni bir araba için…biriktiriyoruz.6 7 8 9 çözüm kart yer uykuya f g h i göndermek yetişmek söndürmek seyretmek Page 248 10 11 12 13 14 15 indirim bulaşık Exercise 6 gitar çarşıya alışverişe trene söz yemekleri discount dirty dishes j k l m n o vermek yapmak dalmak çalişmak çıkmak bulmak Fill in one of the nouns given at the bottom in the following sentences. 11 İstanbul’da bir…bulmak zor değil.

This is logical if you consider the structure of these sentences. such as saying. They all tend to co-occur with subordinate clauses with -diği. they will be explained below): …X-diğini…söyle-… …X-diğini…düşün-… …X-diğine…inanma-… say that think that not believe that Below are some examples of these patterns. e merdivene. knowing. g camları. The only difference is that almak normally has a simple noun for its direct object. but that düşünmek typically has a whole clause for its direct object. is marked with accusative case. The following sequences are therefore very common (the -ni part in the first two examples is the accusative case suffix and -ne in the last one is the dative case suffix. n bilgi.13 Şimdiye kadar bütün…doldurdunuz mu? 14 Affedersiniz. f dili. d dans. This can have a direct object: the thing you buy. ‘he knows by now’ is a subordinate clause. silmek biriktirmek şimdiye kadar merdiven to wipe to gather already stairs cam sınav ilaç zarfında window exam medication during a kilo. h vakit. Turkish too combines these verbs with subordinate clauses. c şarkı. hearing. wishing. A verb such as düşünmek ‘to think’ can have a direct object too. because one buys a concrete thing. thinking. believing. Note that the -diği-forms are normally marked with case endings. In ‘I think that he knows by now’. l para. Subordinate clauses come before the main clause and the verb often has the suffix -diği. belki siz bana biraz…verebilir misiniz? 15 Annem her gün…alması lazım. let’s say a book. i sınavı. for instance. The verbs we are concerned with here refer to mental activities. such as almak ‘to buy’. you are ready to learn how to say things like ‘I think that…’ or ‘he knows that…’. j ilaçları. That thing. A moment’s reflection on the way in which these types of verbs are used in English will show that they are all used in combination with subordinate clauses. b formleri. as in kitabı aldım ‘I bought the book’. telling. etc. This becomes obvious if you compare typical . m alışveriş. o cevap Page 249 Verbs that require a subordinate clause Now that you know how subordinate clauses are formed (see Lesson 11). a simple verb. k taksi. the Turkish equivalent of English ‘that’. Take.

for instance. I loved that programme we saw on TV last night. Turkish sees both ‘the book’ and ‘that you weren’t going to come anymore’ as the direct objects of ‘bought’ and ‘thought’. see Lesson 11): onun yaptığı Step 3: add ‘I think’: onun yaptığı düşünüyorum Step 4: add the accusative case suffix: onun yaptığını düşünüyorum Everything said here about adding the accusative case suffix (Step 4) applies in exactly the same way when a particular verb requires a dative case suffix. . That means they both need to be marked with the accusative case suffix.English examples of these two verbs: ‘I bought a book’ and ‘I thought that you weren’t going to come anymore’. However. To build up the sentence ‘I think that he has done it’. in building up the Turkish for ‘I don’t believe that he has done it’. Senin biraz deli olduğunu herkes bilir. the same steps are followed: Step 1: first form the clause ‘he has done it’: o yaptı Step 2: turn it into a subordinate clause (adding -diği to the verb stem and the genitive case suffix to the subject. see Lesson 11): onun yaptığı Step 3: add ‘I don’t believe’: onun yaptığı inanmıyorum Step 4: add the dative case suffix: onun yaptığına inanmıyorum In the examples above. requires ‘me’ in ‘Believe me’ to be in the dative form: bana inan! So. -diği forms were not followed by a noun. Consider again the following pair: Geçen akşam televizyonda seyrettiğimiz programı çok beğendim. The verb inanmak ‘to believe’. you go through the following steps: Page 250 Step 1: first form the clause ‘he has done it’: o yaptı Step 2: turn it into a subordinate clause (adding -diği to the verb stem and the genitive case suffix to the subject. respectively. the case marker that is used for direct objects (see Lesson 6).

tebrik ederim! pop music politician to graduate congratulations! sergi davranış bıktım (-den) exhibition behaviour I’m fed up with . Yaptığın çok güzeldi.e. I have heard that you have found a new job! 7 You should thank them for coming. This second structure is also used when the main clause is a ‘verbless’ sentence. 5 He doesn’t believe that I love him. everybody knows’) In the first sentence the clause with -diği is a relative clause that goes with the noun program. It’s certain that they will come. i. 10 I’m fed up with his behaviour! pop müziği politikacı mezun olmak (-den) tebrikler!. 6 Congratulations. 3 Is this what you want? 4 I couldn’t understand what the politician was saying. 8 He told me that he graduated. is certain’) What you did was very nice. (‘That they will come. Page 251 Exercise 7 Translate: 1 Did you know that I like pop music? 2 I told her that I did it.Everybody knows that you’re a bit crazy. 9 What the museum showed in their Van Gogh exhibition was very interesting. (‘That you are crazy. in the second sentence it is a subordinate clause that goes with the verb bilir. where the English equivalent would have a form of ‘to be’: Onların gelecekleri kesin.

We’re arguing because my wife wanted to go and visit her friends again. literally meaning ‘saying’. Literally. so you use the familiar order of things in Turkish. so it’s a form of demek. Page 252 Some more examples: Karım tekrar arkadaşlarını ziyaret etmek istiyor diye kavga ediyoruz. When building a sentence with diye. you start with the clause that would follow ‘because’ in the English equivalent. complete with verb tense and person endings.Diye This is a very common word in Turkish. he says (saying) he likes that kind of music’. It is useful for you as a learner. The word diye combines with other words that refer to some way of saying something (though not with demek itself) to yield the Turkish equivalents of words like ‘answered’. seems so happy. ‘shouted’. What you want to do is build up the sentence according to the above plan: ‘Galatasaray beat Beşiktaş’ becomes Galatasaray Beşiktaşı yendi… Add diye: Galatasaray Beşiktaşı yendi diye… And then ‘he’s laughing’: Galatasaray Beşiktaşı yendi diye gülüyor. Yakında savaş çıkacak diye o ülkeye gerçekten gitmek istemiyor. a so-called ‘Cimbomlu’. This first clause is a normal sentence. Follow this with diye and then add the main clause (the part you would start out with in English). Let’s say you want to explain why your friend. that is. Because there’s a war in the area. This way of expressing ‘because’ may sound a little weird for English-speakers but is really fairly common among the world’s languages. then you start out with the quote (Step 1). because you can use it once in a while instead of a more complex subordinated clause. The word with the more specific meaning follows diye and it contains the tense and person endings. then you add diye (Step 2). ‘asked’ etc. The origin of its use lies in constructions of the sort ‘he goes there often. diye means ‘saying’. So let’s say you want to say ‘I answered “that would be better”’. . and then you add the word for ‘I answered’ (Step 3). he really doesn’t want to go to that place. who is a big Galatasaray fan. but often meaning ‘because’.

söylemek combines with subordinated clauses.Step 1: ‘O daha iyi olur’ Step 2: ‘O daha iyi olur’ diye Step 3: ‘O daha iyi olur’ diye cevap verdim. Page 253 Though diye cannot combine with dedi and other forms of demek. so he said ‘don’t worry. it does combine with its near synonym söylemek. for instance in delisin diye söyledi ‘he said “you’re crazy”’. ‘to wonder about something’: Burada çok sevdiğini bana söyledi. for ‘I complained that I was broke’: Step 1: Param bitti Step 2: Param bitti diye Step 3: Param bitti diye yakındım. like yazmak and merak etmek. as in the first example below. if you wish. He told me he really enjoyed it here. I complained that I was broke. You can then follow this with a new clause. Diye and several other words can be used for short answers of the type ‘because I don’t want to’: Niye Türkçe öğreniyorsunuz? . ‘önemli değil. such as in: Param bitti diye yakındım. I wonder what he will answer to that question. O soruya ne cevap verecek diye merak ediyorum. Without it. She wrote that she would finish her studies next year. I’ll pay for your ticket’. The ‘verbs of saying’ that combine with diye include a few that you maybe didn’t expect. Eğitimini gelecek sene bitirecek diye yazdı. Similarly. biletini ben öderim’ dedi.

His purpose was to get rid of most Arabic and Persian ‘loans’ and constructions by replacing them with öz Türkçe ‘real’ Turkish words. Why aren’t things going so well? Because I’m unemployed. as well as in already dead languages. set in motion after Atatürk started his language reform in order to ‘purify’ or to ‘turkify’ the Turkish language (see the Reading text in Lesson 3). Niye iyi değilsin? İşsizim diye. That’s why I’m learning Turkish. Turkey has been divided into two camps: some prefer language reform and turkification of the language. The answer to the above question could also have been: Sizlerle konuşabilmek için. I read today’s paper. the other Turkic languages are not intelligible to Turkish speakers.Why are you learning Turkish? Sizlerle konuşabilmek istiyorum diye. making borrowings from those languages not much easier than the Arabic and Persian words they had to replace. These real Turkish words were words with a Turkish root or stem. many concepts are expressed by two words. . Other useful words are için ‘in order to’ and onun için ‘that’s why’. Other examples: Bugünkü gazeteyi okudum. That’s why I know already. Because I want to be able to speak with you. In addition. In order to be able to speak with you. these Central Asian languages were not always all that ‘pure’: they contain lots of borrowings from Russian and Chinese. as found in many of the Central Asian Turkic languages. Page 254 Two words. As a result. Unfortunately. I want to be able to speak with you. such as Uzbek or Uyghur. Onun için artık biliyorum. and others stick to the long-established loan words from Arabic or Persian. one meaning For 75 years there has been a kind of language battle going on about Turkish vocabulary. Onun için Türkçe öğreniyorum. Sizlerle konuşabilmek istiyorum.

in the other two. though they are also often purely stylistic variants. Of the pairs below.Examples kent sözcük öneri yanıt şehir kelime teklif cevap both mean ‘city’ both mean ‘word’ both mean ‘proposal’. Maybe it is a fitting conclusion to this book to end with some examples of modern-day loan words. Turkish equivalents are available. there is a strong tendency to ‘turkify’ loan words from other languages (mainly English). Some (and certainly not all) important aspects of Turkish grammar are . for instance in the field of computers. Even nowadays. the borrowed words are much more common. has been dealt with in one of the lessons. bilgisayar/kompüter favours the Turkish variant. ‘offer’ both mean ‘answer’ Using words from either the left column (öz Türkçe) or the right one (loan words) was and sometimes still is a political statement. bilgisayar uzyazım uzyazar kompüter teleks faks Page 255 For other computer terms. To name but a few: kaydetmek yazılım fare imleç silmek sunucu program çalıştırmak save software mouse cursor delete server to run a program e-post e-mail veri güncellemek yüklemek C sürücüsü sanal alem data update download C-drive virtual market-place Page 256 Ready-reference grammar Most of what you read in this ready-reference grammar.

‘come’. An example is gelemediniz ‘you couldn’t come’ consisting of the verb stem gel. tense (past. ‘you’ or ‘they’ or ‘with’) was expressed by one single word ending. The second one can have four different vowels: either i. This process of glueing meaningful parts to other meaningful parts is called agglutination. The vowels of these endings may change. reciprocity (each other). for instance.. u or ü.brought together here. can be followed by suffixes expressing. person. and you will have to choose between e. Agglutination Turkish is an agglutinative language. it is a bit more complicated than that. ı. There are two types of vowel harmony. -di ‘past tense’ and -niz ‘second person plural’. Unfortunately. reflexivity (oneself). i.g.in the stem. Turkish has a feature which is called vowel harmony. present. diminutive.or a. or stem. ı. Turkish is a language in which a lot of meaning is expressed by word endings (suffixes). Two-fold (e or a) after e. small ‘endings’ which are stuck to the ‘root’ of a word. if one particular meaning (e. Whereas English uses separate words to express meanings. There are verbal and nominal roots. The first one has two forms. . It would have been convenient for you as a learner. passive. plus -eme ‘not being able to’. workman book bookseller bakan bakanlık çocuk çocukluk minister ministry child childhood Page 257 Vowel Harmony So. Turkish has a rich system of suffixes. e. those which turn the word into ‘the person working with X’ (-çi) or into an abstract noun (-lik): iş işçi kitap kitapçi work worker. negation. a case marker (see below).g. u. A verbal root. depending on the last syllable of the preceding noun or verb stem. ö after a. A noun can be followed by such suffixes as the plural marker -ler. future). ü. or productive suffixes. which makes it a lot easier to look up particular parts of the grammar for reference. It all has to do with place of articulation in the mouth. o > > e a This means that English ‘to’ can be expressed either by -e or -a depending on the final vowel in the word: ‘to school’ is okul-a and ‘to the hotel’ is otel-e.

the dative the indirect object or goal. and in the second on the present. ‘my name’ is ad-ım. the suffix -le ‘with’ is two-fold. -üm or -um. i after a. conveys already given or known information: speaker and hearer know which particular hediye is referred to. The difference is that in the first sentence emphasis is on Ali. ı after ü. -ım. All three sentences hediyeyi Ali’ye verdim. the emphasis is again on Ali. ü. but affect emphasis: the emphasised or focused element is always in the position before the verb. Other arrangements than subject-objectverb occur as well. but here the word after the verb. ö after u. i. so it can appear as -im. In the third sentence. ı. Cases Turkish has six grammatical cases in the form of suffixes which are attached to nouns and pronouns. The genitive denotes possession. -ım. Examples: the suffix -im ‘my’ is four-fold. The nominative case is the unmarked one (that is. kardeş-im-le arkadaş-ım-la kardeş-ler-im-le with my brother with my friend with my brothers Page 258 Word order The order of the main parts of a normal sentence in Turkish is: subject first. the locative the place at which and the ablative place from which. and the verb in final position Word order is. o > > > > i ı ü u English ‘my’ can be expressed by either -im. hediyeyi.Four-fold (i. so it can appear as -ler or -lar. relatively free. so it can appear as -le or -la the suffix -ler (plural) is two-fold. it’s just the word without an extra suffix) and is used for subjects and indefinite objects of sentences. the accusative the definite direct object. -üm or -um: ‘my bike’ is bisikletim.e. then object of the sentence. nevertheless. ü) after e. ‘my rose’ is gül-üm and ‘my shower’ is duş-um. or cause: . Ali’ye hediyeyi verdim and Ali’ye verdim hediyeyi mean ‘I gave Ali the present’.

the -um part already tells you that the subject is ‘I’. Pronouns are mainly used for emphasis and contrast. -sel): yaş yaşlı Amerika Amerikalı age aged America American din dinsel tarih tarihsel religion religious history historical Comparison of adjectives is expressed by the ablative case -den sometimes followed by daha ‘more’ or az ‘less’. When used in combination with the indefinite article bir. In gidiyorum ‘I am going’. Tarsus is less beautiful than İstanbul. Some suffixes can turn nouns into adjectives (e. yıldırımdan (daha) hızlı faster than lightning Pronouns The information conveyed by pronouns in English is in the form of person markers attached to the verb in Turkish. The . the adjective comes first. The superlative contains the word en ‘most’: güzel daha güzel en güzel beautiful more beautiful most beautiful hızlı daha hızlı en hızlı fast faster fastest Tarsus İstanbul’dan az güzel.nominative genitive dative accusative locative ablative no marking -in or -nin -e or -ye -i or -yi -de -den ev evin eve evi evde house (subject or indefinite direct object) of the house to the house the house (definite object of the sentence) in the house evden from the house Page 259 Adjectives Adjectives always come before the noun. -li. as in eski bir kitap ‘an old book’.g. then bir and finally the noun.

his/her/its plur 1 biz . but I am going’. onu him/ her/it bizi us sizi you onları them loc. we 2 siz you 3 onlar they bizim of us/our sizin of you/your onların of them/ their The third person singular o ‘she’. bana to me sana to you acc. the first one (indicated by the suffix -iyor-) being the default present tense. but with a lot of stress: ‘not YOU. bende on me sende on you abl benden from me senden from you Page 260 nom. ‘that’ (used when you want to focus the listener’s attention). tells you the same. Verbs Turkish has three types of sentences: verbal. For instance. onda on him/ her/it bizde on us sizde on you onlarda on them abl ondan from him/her/it bizden from us sizden from you onlardan from them he/she/it of him/ her/it. and the third type contains a form of ‘to be’. Besides o there are two other demonstrative pronouns: bu ‘this’ and şu ‘this’. or o when object or person are further away. You use şu whenever you want to direct the attention of the listener towards an object or a person not previously mentioned in the conversation. and the second one. beni me seni you loc. ‘it’ also means ‘that’ (both by itself and before nouns). benim of me/my senin of you/your dat. 3o gen. As soon as the listener notices the object or person referred to. ona to him/ her/it bize to us size to you onlara to them acc.pronoun ben in ben gidiyorum ‘I am going’. existential and nominal sentences. Pronouns get case marking: nom. both speakers have to use bu when object or person are nearby. the second the ‘existential’ word var ‘there is’ (or yok ‘there isn’t’). called the geniş zaman (broad tense). There are two forms of the present. the answer to the question şu bina ne? ‘what’s that building?’ is o bina bir kütüphane ‘that building is a library’ and never şu bina bir kütüphane. ‘he’. The first type contains ordinary verbs. . onun dat. however. 1 ben I 2 sen you gen. sing.

Arabam var ‘I have a car’ is literally ‘my car is there’. 2 gelsen 3 gelse plur 1 gelsek . is the simple past tense. Negation is done by means of the suffix -me (gelmiyorum) and question by means of the question particle mi (gelmiyor muyum?). ‘ability’ (-ebil) and ‘necessity’ (-meli-). -di. Existential sentences contain either the word var ‘there is’ or yok ‘there is not’. . …’). for instance. 1 geliyoruz 2 geliyorsunuz 3 geliyorlar conditional I sing 1 gelsem . -miş.carrying the connotation of habitual actions (‘I always…’) or future plans. ‘to possess’ sentence. used without a tense marker when the condition is open.carries an inferential meaning (‘it seems that. There are also various combinations of moods. 1 geliyorum I come 2 geliyorsun 3 geliyor plur. see Lesson 12). you will frequently encounter the pluperfect -mişti. 2 gelseniz 3 gelseler present II gelirim I come gelirsin gelir geliriz gelirsiniz gelirler conditional II gelirsem past I geldim I came geldin geldi geldik geldiniz geldiler past II gelmişim I came gelmişsin gelmiş gelmişiz gelmişsiniz gelmişler future geleceğim I’ll come geleceksin gelecek geleceğiz geleceksiniz gelecekler imperative pluperfect subjunctive/ optative gelmiştim geleyim I had come let me come gelmiştin gelmişti gelmiştik gelmiştiniz gelmiştiler gelelim If I were to come If I come gelirsen gelirse gelirsek gelirseniz gelirseler come! gel gelsin gelin/geliniz gelsinler Other verb moods and tenses are the conditional -se (used with tense marker when the condition is closed. the sentence is equivalent to an English ‘to have’. For instance. the subjunctive (‘let me …’) and the imperative. If the word in front has a possessive marker. Page 261 present I sing. tenses and verb suffixes possible. The first one. There are two distinct pasts as well. the second one. There are separate suffixes denoting. The -ecek suffix stands for the future tense.

have two types of postpositions: simple postpositions and postpositional constructions. hastanenin yanına taşındık ‘we moved next to the hospital’. Page 262 Postpositions Turkish does not have prepositions. Some of the simple postpositions require a case marker on the word before. followed by the third person singular possessive and the locative case.Verbless sentences are formed with the help of the Turkish equivalent of ‘to be’. becomes üstünde. Some case endings are used for the equivalents of English prepositions (lokantada ‘at the restaurant’. Similar constructions can be made with the words: ara ‘space between’. Turkish does. arkamızda ‘behind us’. alt ‘underside’. the word üst ‘top’. Other examples are onun peşinden koştum ‘I ran after him’. others do not: no case marking after nouns or genitive (-in or -nin) after pronouns and bu. şu dative marking ablative marking and o (-e/-a) (-den/-dan) -e doğru ‘towards’ -e göre ‘according to’ -e rağmen ‘in spite of’ -den önce ‘before’ -den sonra ‘after’ -den beri ‘since’ -den dolayı ‘because of’ Postpositional constructions are based on spatial nouns with a possessive pronoun plus a case marker. lokantaya ‘to the restaurant’. For instance. lokantadan ‘from the restaurant’). no case marking üzere ‘on’ gibi ‘like’ ile ‘with’ için ‘for’ . as in masanın üstünde ‘on top of the table’. which is expressed by means of a suffix: güzelim güzelsin güzel(dir) I am pretty you are pretty he is pretty güzeliz güzelsiniz güzeller(dir) we are pretty you are pretty they are pretty The word değil ‘not’ is used for negation of these sentences (güzel değilim ‘I’m not pretty’). baş ‘close surroundings’. however.

-k means ‘we’). what’s up? —ne haber?. nasılsın. ön ‘front’. -iniz means ‘you’ (plural)). bitişik ‘next to’. Exercise 4 2 kadınlar 3 arkadaşla 4 kişiler 5 dostumla 6 evim 7 adamlarla 8 Türkler 9 adım 10 öğretmenlerimle Exercise 5 Nasılsın. see you—görüşürüz. ‘opposite’ (see Lesson 15). bulduk ‘we found’ (-d(i) expresses past tense. teşekkür. Page 263 Key to exercises Lesson 1 Exercise 1 thanks—teşekkürler. -e means to). I’m fine—iyiyim Exercise 2 dostum ‘my friend’ (-um means ‘my’). görüşürüz Page 264 Exercise 6 . ailene ‘to your family’ (-n means your. yes—evet. -im means ‘my’) Exercise 3 You may say things such as: Bu kocam. pleased to meet you—memnun oldum. OK—tamam. geldiniz ‘you came’ (-d(i) expresses past tense. Jim.dış ‘exterior’. babam ‘my father’ (-m means ‘my’). hello—merhaba. annem ‘my mother’ (-m means ‘my’). dip ‘underside’. Etc. Carol. kardeşlerim ‘my younger brother and sister’ (-ler expresses plural. nasılsın ‘how are you?’(-sın means ‘you are’). iç ‘interior’. goodbye—iyi günler. how are you?—nasılsın?. iyiyim. Bu eşim. and karşı ‘other side’.

He’ll come in a moment. My dad is a bit ill. I haven’t seen him for a year or so. biraz rahatsız ‘a little ill’. how are you? HALİL: I’m fine.e. i. Uncle Halil. fena değil ‘not bad’. HALİL: Good recovery! (literally: may it be past). veriyorlar Page 265 . So. HALİL: And your mum and dad. büyümüş ‘has grown’ Lesson 2 Exercise 1 1 suffix 2 -di 3 -iyor 4 suffix 5 -di 6 -di 7 -iyor 8 -iyor 9 suffix 10 suffix The rule of thumb is that you don’t need a ‘real’ verb. my sister! HALİL: Is that so? She has grown a lot! tesadüf ‘coincidence’. Are your brothers fine? CINGİZ: They are. thank you. uncle. I swear. How are you? CENGİZ: Not bad. thank you.1 Öğretmenim 2 Dostum 3 Biliyoruz 4 Tanıştırıyor (no visible ending for third person singular!) 5 Ailem 6 Konuşuyorsunuz 7 Öğreniyorlar 8 Yardım ediyorum Reading text HALİL: What a coincidence! (literally: Look at the coincidence) CENGİZ: Hello. Exercise 2 2 gelmek ‘to come’. In fact we are waiting for Ali. gitti ‘he/she/it went’ 6 vermek ‘to give’. who’s this beautiful girl? CENGİZ: Don’t you recognise her? This is Müjgan. birazdan gelecek ‘in a while he’ll come here’. if in English the only verb is ‘to be’. kaldık ‘we stayed’ 4 seçmek ‘to choose’. HALİL: Is that so? Let’s wait together then. seçiyorsunuz ‘you choose’ 5 gitmek ‘to go’. how are they? CENGİZ: My mother is fine. one that is suffixed with -iyor or -di. geliyorsun ‘you come’ 3 kalmak ‘to stay’.

reach’. vardınız ‘you arrived’ 10 yardım etmek ‘to help’. When did you come? I came this morning. çıktın ‘you went out’ 9 varmak ‘to arrive at. Did you come here on holiday? Yes. 4 Akşamları okula gidiyor. 8 Dün akşam geç geldiler. but I can’t speak it well yet. emerge’. Exercise 8 sergi ‘exhibition’. You speak Turkish well. kazasız belasız ‘safe and sound’ (literally: without (-sız) accident (kaza) or harm (bela)). Thanks. İngiltere’ye geldiğimde ‘when I came to England’. gezi ‘trips’. 7 Bankada çalışıyorum.‘they give’ 7 satmak ‘to sell’. 6 Dün yaptım. Exercise 5 1 yazıyor 2 geldin 3 kalıyoruz 4 seçtiniz 5 gidiyor 6 verdiler 7 sattık 8 çıkıyorsun 9 varıyorsunuz 10 yardım ettik Exercise 6 2 yaptım 3 gidiyorlar 4 geldi 5 çalıştın 6 gördüm 7 istiyorum 8 veriyor 9 yapıyoruz 10 yaptın Exercise 7 1 Eve erken gittim. satıyoruz ‘we buy’ 8 çıkmak ‘to go out. kitap ‘books’ Page 266 Reading text abi ‘older brother’. 3 Bana hediye verdi. -ya ‘to’. arabalar hep sol taraftan gider ‘cars always (hep) drive on the left (sol) side (taraf)’. söyleşi ‘talks’. yardım ediyoruz ‘we are helping’ Exercise 3 1 yazdım (‘I wrote her a letter’) 2 başlıyor (‘Which day does autumn start this year?’) 3 seviyor (‘Ali really likes cloudy and cold weather’) 4 kalkıyor (‘What time does your train leave?’) 5 yürüdün (‘Did you walk?’) 6 ettik (‘Yesterday we danced all evening’) 7 söyledim (‘I told you so’) 8 aldınız (‘What did you buy in the shopping mall?’) 9 buluşuyoruz (‘We’re meeting at ten’) 10 yedik (‘We ate in a crowded restaurant’) Exercise 4 Where do you live? I live in New York. on holiday. Do you like Turkey? I like it a lot. 2 Türkçeyi iyi konuşuyorsunuz. 5 Newcastle’da oturuyoruz. kraliçe ‘queen’ .

Lesson 3 Exercise 1 1b 2g 3f 4h 5i 6c 7a 8d 9e Exercise 2 1 mi (O filmi gördün mü?) 2 kim-type (Sinemaya ne zaman gittik?) 3 kim-type (Bu filmde baş rolü kim oynadı?) 4 mi (Televizyonda mıydı?) 5 mi (Aktör müsünüz?) Exercise 3 2 çalışıyor muyuz? 3 gidiyor musunuz? 4 Türkçe konuşuyor mu? 5 yardım ediyor muyuz? 6 Ankara’ya geliyor muyum? 7 ailemi biliyor musun? 8 anlıyorlar mı? 9 İngilizce öğreniyor mu? 10 Türkiye’yi beğeniyor musunuz? Exercise 4 2 Öğrenci misiniz? 3 Kimi gördün? 4 Ne zaman gitti? 5 Türkiye’yi beğeniyorlar mı? 6 Nereye gittiniz? 7 Onu biliyor muyuz? 8 Yardım ettiler mi? Exercise 5 1 ’da 2 ’de 3 de 4 ta 5 ’ta 6 de 7 da 8 ’te Exercise 6 1 e 2 köpeğe 3 ya 4 ye 5 a 6 ye 7 ’ya 8 sancağa Page 267 Exercise 7 1 ’den 2 ’dan 3 ’dan 4 ’den 5 den 6 ’ten 7 ’tan 8 ’dan Lesson 4 Exercise 1 2 parktalar 3 şoförüm 4 memuruz 5 gelinsin 6 Türkçe öğretmeniyiz 7 hastanede 8 arkadaşlardır 9 polisim 10 öğrencisiniz Exercise 2 2 parkta değiller 3 şoför değilim 4 memur değiliz 5 gelin değilsin 6 Türkçe öğretmeni değiliz 7 hastanede değil 8 arkadaş değiller 9 polis değilim 10 öğrenci değilsiniz .

So I was a student.Exercise 3 1 öğretmen yakışıklı (‘man’)/güzel (‘woman’. emin değilim. My friend was very famous.e. Often. O zaman onu televizyonda gördüm. Arkadaşım öğrenci değildi. See also 10 of this exercise and the example önemli bir kişi ‘an important person’ in Lesson 1. My friend was not a student. şoför müsün?. ‘A handsome man’ becomes ‘Handsome a man’. gazeteci misiniz?. Yani bir öğrenciydim. O bir gazeteciydi. şofördün. I often went to the theatre or the cinema. Gazete için röportaj yazdı. i. Bazen televizyon için bir röportaj yaptı.) 9 bina yüksek 10 o. güzel bir öğretmen Exercise 4 Ankara Üniversitesinde okudum. In Lesson 9. 4 Nasıllar? 5 Şimdi iyiler. şofördüler Exercise 6 1 Kazayı gördun mü? 2 Evet. Onunla beraber sık sık sinemaya tiyatroya gittik. My best friend lived in the same street. gördüm. Arkadaşım çok ünlüydü. Exercise 5 gazeteciydim. the construction Adjective+bir + Noun is explained. he/she made reports for television. Then I saw him/her on TV. Yaralılar var mıydı? 3 Evet. vardı. Şoförler hastanedeler (or: hastanededirler). gazeteci değildik. I studied at Ankara University. He/she was a Page 268 journalist. Her gün üniversiteye gittim. Her akşam çok yorgundum. En iyi arkadaşım aynı sokakta oturdu. He/she wrote articles for the newspaper. With him/her. Exercise 7 1 verbless (to be) 2 existential (var/yok) 3 existential (var/yok) 4 verbless (to be) 5 existential (var/yok) 6 existential (var/yok) Exercise 8 . işsiz elektrikçi 7 elektrikçi işsiz 8 işsiz elektrikçi yakışıklı bir adam (Note that the order of words differs from English. şoför. 6 Emin misin? 7 Hayır. Every evening I was tired. pretty) 2 güzel öğretmen o değil 3 müze eski 4 eski müze kapalı 5 yüksek binadasınız 6 o. Every day I went to the university.

8 Bunlar kütüphanede mi? Page 269 Lesson 5 Exercise 1 Hello. here it means ‘too bad’. won it. fifty elli. ninety doksan. We had five more children. six altı. From 1923 till 1927 I went to the rüştiye school. eight sekiz. In 1916. 5 Bu Aylin. Exercise 3 1f 2i 3a 4c 5h 6g 7k 8j 9d 10e 11b NB: though üzgünüm literally stands for ‘I’m sad’. As I said. It was a girl. sixty altmış. forty kırk. I went to school for the first time. and got an award. I was very happy until 1960. hundred yüz. Our first child was born two years later. After that I met my wife. Exercise 2 three üç. 3 Yesterday. two iki. 7 O patlıcan mutfakta. seven yedi. seventy yetmiş. one bir. thirty otuz. My dad found a good job there. ten on. That year my wife died. five beş. Exercise 4 2 Uğramak 3 Açmak 4 Yaşamak 5 Batmak 6 Pişirmek 7 Yıkamak 8 Kazanmak 9 Sevmek 10 Dinlenmek Exercise 5 . there wasn’t such a book in the library. And my biggest success was in 1931. I worked until 1973. I entered the Ankara wrestling competition. Four years later our family moved to Ankara. nine dokuz. Eser was a good woman. her name was Sumru. 2 This good book is now in the library. eighty seksen. We got married in 1935. four dört. 4 Those are books. Now I live with one of our daughters.2 Bunlar mı? 3 Kahve istiyor musun? or: Kahve mi istiyorsun? 4 Bir tane kavun aldık mı? (or: Bir tane kavun mu aldık?) 5 Hiç mi çay yoktu? (or: Hiç çay yok muydu?) 6 Ankara’da mıydılar? 7 Ankara’da var mı? 8 İngiltere’de mi oturuyoruz? (or: İngiltere’de oturuyor muyuz?) Exercise 9 1 This book is good. I was born in Kars in 1910. twenty yirmi. 6 O kız Aylin değildir. thousand bin. my life was good. The last one was born in 1949. My name is Orhan.

berbat ‘terrible’ Reading text ismini unuttum ‘I forgot its name’. aşk ‘love’. şarkıcı ‘singer’. black olives. apples. 7 Evet. (also: tanıdığım yok. 8 Üç dil biliyorum. Exercise 9 peppers. 6 Evet. borçlar Exercise 8 1 Would you like to drink something? 2 Which novel are you reading now? 3 Amerika’da doğdum. 3 Evet. 8 Burada ne oldu? 9 Evde dört köpeğimiz var. ayaklar. but she bought them instead of the peppers. The aubergines she finally bought probably were not on her list. mı 3 nasıl 5 misiniz 6 var mı 7 ne kadar Exercise 7 sorular. evdeyim. bread. 12 Dahil. biber ‘pepper’. insanlar. or Hayır.Some sample answers: 1 Evet. ekmekler. beer. 2 Avustralya’dan geldim. chickpeas. cottage cheese. 10 Hollandalıyım.) 6 Do you read Turkish newspapers? 7 I didn’t do anything. üşüyor musun? ‘are you freezing?’. piece’. 4 Futbol oynadık. kadeh ‘glass’. kilolar. vaktim yok. Türkiye’de kimseyi tanımıyorum. rastladım ‘ran into’. yok. var. şişe ‘bottle’. 4 I bought this T-shirt in 1990. peynirler. Page 270 Exercise 6 1 mı 2 mu. tane ‘loaf. dans ettik. aylar. 5 Görüyorum. 9 Aldım. chicken. 10 There was an accident on the street and the police came immediately. çok seviyorum. 11 Kusura bakmayın. fincan ‘cup’. hava nasıl oralarda ‘how’s the weather over there?’. 5 Hayır. baktım ‘I looked’. using the word tanıdık ‘acquaintance’. saç ‘hair’ Lesson 6 Exercise 1 . dinlendik. şarkının konusu ‘the topic of the song’. sonunda ‘in the end’. dolmalık biberler.

10 Kahvesi. This only happens if the suffix starts with a vowel. From her answer to Ömer’s preceding line. The suffix in both 5 and 6 can mean ‘his’ as well as ‘her’. combine the verb stem taşın-. 9 Yemeğiniz. He even thinks that something may have happened to him. you can gather that the discussion is about whether to start without Ali or not. The final -k is changed to -ğ. So acelen means ‘your hurry’. so that we end up with ‘we moved’. ‘to move’. Exercise 2 2 Evin. leaving only -n. The verb stem kalk-. If plural meaning is obvious from the context (you can’t say ‘he’s never late for our meeting’). Exercise 4 2 Arabanın anahtarı 3 Biberin fiyatı 4 Kitabın ismi. 2 mı indicates a question. ‘we’. or to one person who is addressed politely (as with French vous). Şehir is shortened to şehr. 4 -nız is the form of ‘your’ (plural or singular-polite) that comes after a word that ends in a vowel (otherwise it would be -ınız). Odanız means ‘your room’. Ömer offers the information that Ali is never (hiç) late for toplantımız. 5 In the Glossary you can read that a kira is ‘a rental’. Page 271 means ‘leave’. Note that there is no -lar in toplantımız. plus past tense. ‘our meetings’. you don’t need -lar. finally. 6 See 4. 4 Kedileri. 8 Şehrimiz. The suffix -da is the locative case. with ‘your’ referring to more than one person (here the couple that got the new house). 6 Odası. 7 İşiniz.when a suffix is added. with -dık. 5 Kız kardeşi. -tı indicates past tense and the absence of a further suffix indicates 3rd person. 5 Günün sonu Exercise 5 1 A sure sign of a discussion is the exclamation—git!—in Nursen’s first line. 2 No. eviniz is ‘your house’. Exercise 3 1 Possessive 2 Personal 3 Possessive 4 Personal 5 Possessive 6 Personal 7 Possessive 8 Possessive 9 Possessive 10 Personal Note that there could only be potential confusion in 6 and 7. so kalktı mı? means ‘has it left?’ 3 Again. 3 Hediyen. A vowel is dropped from the suffix.1 The ending -n indicates ‘your’. and there only if the rest of the sentence is ignored. . Note the changed form of isim.

However. It doesn’t. If she were living by herself. Ömer whispers to the others that the jeton düştü: ‘the penny has dropped’. Page 273 . This was a tricky question as it involves a characteristic of Turkish we haven’t dealt with yet. Exercise 8 The words indicated force the use of the accusative case: 1 the 3 his 4 that 6 the 7 Fatma 8 your 10 that What you couldn’t really know is that 5 also gets an accusative case marker. but you may have guessed it from the plural -ler after the name Nursen. When he finally realises that. Note the double genitive ‘in his school’s teachers’. When you want to say ‘at Nursen’s place’ you have to say Nursen’lerde. Try and remember that this is how you say this kind of thing. ‘at the Nürsens’ if she lives with people.Page 272 3 Three. you could have expected that maybe Turkish would use the same construction as for ‘the centre of the city’ and say someting like bizim üçü. 5 From the way the conversation went. for example with her family. You could have found this where Ömer says Uçümüz: ‘the three of us’. Exercise 7 1 Aylin’in parası (‘Aylin’s money’) 2 Bu bakkalın ekmeği (‘this baker’s bread’) 3 Üniversitenin yabancı öğrencileri (‘the university’s foreign students’) 4 Türkiye’nin başkenti (‘Turkey’s capital’) 5 Onun okulunun öğretmeni (‘his school’s teachers’). she doesn’t live by herself. Ali clearly understood it as ‘at your house’. you may have gathered that there was a misunderstanding and that Ali thought that the meeting was going to be at his place. This is because beklemek requires one: one is always waiting for a specific (definite) person. 6 Bu bankanın memuru (‘the employee of this bank’) 7 Bizim evin banyosu (‘the bathroom of our house’) 8 Firmanın eski müdürü (‘the firm’s old director’). Ömer would have said Nursen’in evinde or Nursen’de. 4 No. Exercise 6 Probably they had been talking about Nursen and so Ömer thought it would be enough to just say evinde ‘at her house’.

toplantılar-ımız. üç-ümüz. In compound nouns: alışveriş liste-si. GenitivePossessive: Ali’nin fikir-leri. o-nun ev-i. 4 Filiz’s American friend is arriving today. 7 Ahmet’in kız arkadaşı İstanbul’da çalışıyor. hepimizin fikir-leri. ev-iniz. Nursen’ler-in ev-i. The specific form—amıyorum will be dealt with later and means ‘I can’t’). and it requires dative. In compound nouns: yatak oda-sı. After Dalaman we came to Fethiye. Genitive-Possessive: yatak oda-ları-nın bir-i Dialogue 2. case on its object. sen-i. benim tren-im.Exercise 9 1 kediyi 2 adamı 3 kadını 4 bisikleti 5 mektubu 6 bunu 7 evi 8 pencereyi 9 seni 10 kitabı 11 arabayı 12 çocuğu 13 ziyareti 14 onu 15 eskisini (after a possessive ending the case ending is preceded by -n-) 16 lambayı 17 otobüsü 18 gazeteyi 19 beni 20 kız arkadaşını (see 15) Exercise 10 1 I called your brother last night. Exercise 11 Dialogue 1. 8 (Senin) Abinin adresini arıyorum (an abi is an older brother). It’s very nice here and the streets are lively. Accusatives: Ali’yi. alışveriş listesini. Possessives: baş-ı(na geldi). 3 Pervin’s tea is the best. Possessives: acele-n. koçu-m. ev-imiz. 5 Bu patlıcanın fiyatına inanamıyorum (inanmak is ‘to believe’. Tomorrow we’ll go to the world’s cleanest coast. We’ll do some . 6 Geçen hafta Rahime’nin arkadaşı evlendi. we’ll go to ‘Ölüdeniz’. biz-i. bahçe-miz. tren-im. oda-nız. rather than accusative. sen-in ev-in Lesson 7 Exercise 1 2 ödeyeceğim 3 gireceksiniz 4 söyleyecekler 5 soracaksın 6 tanışacağız 7 iyi bir öğrenci olacaksın 8 kapatacağım 9 tamamlayacaklar 10 deneyeceksiniz 11 uyacak 12 uyuyacaklar Page 274 Exercise 2 Hello John. 2 We’re going to Azerbaijan for our holiday this year.

After the holiday. since it is used for future plans or intentions and not for proposals. Exercise 4 1 Yarın plaja gidiyorum/gideceğim. see Unit 3). That şart means something like ‘important’ should be clear from the context. so the Turkish says something like ‘good neighbours are a condition (for a pleasant life)’. However. a good neighbour is important. It does not refer to a Page 275 common action. Compare: Kütüphaneye gidelim mi? ‘Let’s go to the library’ (meaning: ‘now!’ with Kütüphaneye gidecek miyiz? ‘Shall we go to the library?’ (meaning: ‘do we have the intention to go there one day?’) Exercise 7 1 kahve içelim mi? 2 havaalanına dönelim mi? 3 Türkiye’yi gezelim mi? 4 oturalım mı? 5 paketi açalım mı? 6 işkembe çorbası deneyelim mi? 7 doğru cevabı verelim mi?/doğru . it should be obvious that sonra (-den). Greetings from Fethiye. that in the mind of the speaker should take place immediately afterwards. we’ll invite all our neighbours. ‘To make friends’ is olmak ‘to become’. means ‘after’. 2 Gelecek hafta benim evime gelecekler/geliyorlar. If taşındıktan sonra means ‘after we have moved’. combined with arkadaş and the third person possessive marker -ı. the -dıktan sonra part must mean ‘after we…. Ertuğrul Exercise 3 Next week we’ll move to Ankara. literally şart means ‘condition’. 3 Süt alacak mısın(ız)? 4 Ona hediye vermeyeceğiz. and make new friends. on the other hand. Exercise 5 1 Bu lafları/saçmalığı dinlemeyeceğim. we’ll go see Saklıkent. 5 Hesabı ödemeyecekler mi? Exercise 6 You cannot use -ecek in such a context.sunbathing. 4 Mutlaka partine geleceğim. 5 Bu akşam çalışacaksın. I hope that our neighbours will turn out to be nice. -elim. that is: sonra preceded by the ablative case (‘away from’.’ From tatilden sonra and its translation. 3 Kutlay yarın gelecek/geliyor. To be able to feel at home in a place. and some swimming. our child will go to a new school. 2 Ülkü Amerikalı komşumuzla İngilizce konuşmayacak. After we have moved. The day after. does.

on biri on bir geçiyor. biri yirmi altı geçiyor. 6 Ondan sonra. 10 yirmi bir kırk dokuz. altıyı yirmi yedi geçiyor. 7 iki otuz iki. saat yarım. 2 Cuma günü saat dokuz buçukta Kavaklıdere’de Sevdiğim Mevsim filmini seyretmek istiyorum. 4 on iki otuz. üçe yirmi sekiz var. beşe iki var. dokuza on yedi var. saat dokuzda Kavaklıdere’de Yeniden Tanık filmini seyretmek istiyorum. biri bir geçiyor. 6 dört elli sekiz. 2 yirmi üç yedi. Saturday: 3 Cumartesi günü saat yarımda Kavaklıdere’de Taş Yıllar filmini seyretmek istiyorum. 5 on üç bir. Exercise 11 Ali’s daily schedule may look like this (but other arrangements are OK as well): . on biri yedi geçiyor. 9 on bir on bir. Page 276 Exercise 10 Friday: 1 Cuma günü saat altıyı çeyrek geçe Megapol’da Türk Tutkusu filmini seyretmek istiyorum. ona on bir var. Sunday: 5 Pazar günü Megapol’un Mavi Salonunda saat üçe çeyrek geçe Böcek filmini seyretmek istiyorum. 8 on sekiz yirmi yedi.yanıtı verelim mi? 8 sinemaya gidelim mi? 9 yürüyüş yapalım mı? 10 akşam yemeğini beraber yiyelim mi? Exercise 8 Exercise 9 1 on üç yirmi altı. 4 Ondan sonra saat üçte Megapol’un Kırmızı Salonunda Boğmacı filmini seyretmek istiyorum. 3 sekiz kırk üç.

m.00–8.30 : saat yediden yedi buçuğa kadar giyindi ‘between seven and seven thirty he got dressed’ 7.00–7. he watched TV’ : saat ondan on bire kadar kitap okudu ‘from ten to eleven p.00 17. he read a book’ : saat on birde yattı ‘at eleven o’clock he went to sleep’ Page 277 Lesson 8 Exercise 1 1 oturur 2 çağırır 3 biter 4 söyler 5 döker 6 çimdikler 7 kaşır 8 seçer Exercise 2 2 çağırırız 3 bulurlar 4 söylersin 5 dökerler 6 veririm 7 kaşır 8 sanırsınız Exercise 3 1 promise 2 qualities/profession 3 habit 4 request 5 promise 6 qualities/profession 7 qualities/profession 8 promise By the way.00 19.00 : saat yedide kalktı ‘he got up at seven’ 7.7.30 18. has a more usual variant: araba tamircisiyim.30 17.30 : saat sekizden sekiz buçuğa kadar arabayla iş yerine gitti ‘between eight and eight thirty he went to his work by car’ 8.m.m. he worked’ : saat beşten beş buçuğa kadar evine döndü ‘between five and five thirty he returned home’ : saat beş buçuktan altıya kadar parkta koştu ‘between five thirty and six he ran in the park’ : saat altıdan altı buçuğa kadar yemek hazırladı ‘between six and six thirty he prepared dinner’ : saat altı buçuktan yediye kadar yemeğini yedi ‘between six thirty and seven he had dinner’ : saat yediden ona kadar televizyon seyretti ‘from seven to ten p.30– 18.00 18.00 : saat yedi buçuktan sekize kadar kahvaltı yaptı ‘between seven thirty and eight he had breakfast’ 8.30– 17.00– 18.00– 23.00 22.00 23.30– 19.00– 22. as mentioned in 7. araba tamir ederim.00– 17. Exercise 4 .30–8.00 : saat sekiz buçuktan beşe kadar çalıştı ‘between eight thirty and five p.

stirring. . Add the peppers and bulgur and sauté for another 5 minutes. 7 Araba tamir etmem. When the vet is speaking about birds. stirring. Page 278 Exercise 6 1 Anneni ziyaret etmelisiniz. The oil polluted the sea. 5 Şimdi gitmeliyiz! 6 I have to prepare more food. Today she and I are trying (‘together with her we are trying’) to be of help to the birds.’ After a couple of present tense sentences. a large tanker sank. 3 Öğrenciler bu kitapları almalılar. Last week.My grandmother lives in an enormous white villa. Sauté onions on medium heat. 4 Bana bir mektup yazmaz mısınız? 5 Arabanı tamir etmez. he gives them some background information about birds in general. 6 Türkçeden Almancaya çeviri yapmam. Exercise 5 2 Ablası İngilizce dersi vermez. Then add the tomatoes. This situation harmed the birds. In order to rescue the birds we generally use a scoop. 3 Her gün dokuza kadar çalışmazsın. the expression geçen hafta triggers the use of past tense. As every summer. you’re able to wash them. and therefore uses the geniş zaman. sigaranızı söndürür müsünüz? 4 Sus! Susun! Susar mısınız? 5 Sebzeleri yiyin! Sebzeleri yer misiniz? Bulgur pilavı Clean and rinse the bulgur thoroughly. Therefore. Exercise 7 You could have said the following (ranging from impolite to more polite ways): 1 Benimle pastaneye git! Pastaneye gidelim mi? Benimle pastaneye gider misin? 2 Benimle sinemaya git! Sinemaya gidelim mi? Benimle sinemaya gider misin? 3 Sigaranızı söndürün! Lütfen. After the birds regain some strength. He said: ‘Some birds cannot fly after coming into contact with polluted water. broth and salt. bring to the boil. 8 Şu mektubu İngilizceye çevirmem. until yellow. 8 You should never leave him. Take off the heat and let stand for 10 minutes before serving. in a bay very close to us. 4 He needs to listen to the radio. 2 You must not disturb me. stirring vigorously and let it boil for 10 minutes on high heat. then drain well in a colander. I am staying this summer at my grandmother’s. 7 Bunu kabul etmemelisiniz/bunu kabul etmemeniz gerek. I rang the vet this morning. We didn’t know what we should do. Put the pan on the heat and add the butter and onion.

Note that almam. Finally. she’ll be coming by bus. so they can gossip a bit. Exercise 2 You may have found the following: almak. maybe she’ll give her friend Eser a call. Exercise 4 All sentences on the left mean ‘I have to return to London’. gitmesi. you take the infinitive: gitme. Hülya needs a new skirt and also has to look for a present for her friend. gitmemiz. Lesson 9 Exercise 1 The two sisters are going shopping and discuss what they want to buy. both yemekleri and yemeğine look like infinitives. she answers that she doesn’t know yet. when Hülya asks her sister about her plans for that evening. 3 Yapma+-sı+gerek results in bunu yapması gerek. When the waiter comes. who is giving a party next week. you add gerek. bakmak. but the word yemek is also a noun. after explaining they are waiting for their mother. they order tea. meaning ‘food’. gitmek. for instance. In yemeğine. the dative is used because the verb bayılmak takes this case. Londra’ya dönmemelisin. Fatma. İlknur has to go to the travel agency to change a reservation for her trip to Athens. They comment on the clothes people outside are wearing. Almam. the more urgent going to London (on the left) or the fact that the speaker shouldn’t go to London (on the right) becomes. dedikodu yapmak Well.Note: If you cannot find tomatoes or peppers. means ‘my buying’. . apparently. then you add the possessive: -m. The further down in the list they are. almam. who is. 4 Yazma+mız+gerek results in bir mektup yazmamız gerek. Since she is visiting her friend Ayşe. yemekleri. Exercise 3 1 First. gitmemiz and gitmesi contain a short infinitive on -me plus possessive suffix. Maybe she’ll read a book. değiştirmek. Finally. especially of köfte. so that you end up with gitmem gerek. Londra’ya dönmeliyim. and Hülya is wondering how their Page 279 mother is coming to town. Similarly with the others: 2 Infinitive okuma plus possessive -n (‘your’) plus gerek results in bunu okuman gerek. prepare it without pepper and tomato. a very good cook. yemeğine. and those on the right ‘I don’t have to go to London’. which results in gitmem.

one might say. Page 280 Exercise 5 1 kaybetmek 2 çekmek 3 uçmak 4 atmak 5 göstermek 6 unutmak 7 sevmek 8 göndermek 9 koymak 10 taşımak Exercise 6 I My sister is going to town (in order) to buy a dress. to the point of obsession. etc. 2 It was very bad (kötü). belediye binası. and the second one ‘“The counter will now close” he said’. 4 Yes. Londra’ya dönmek gerekli. Literally. Londra’ya dönmen gerekmez. Londra’ya dönmem gerekiyor. 3 The verb you should have found is demek ‘to say’. as things Hasan will or will not eat. 2 They wanted me to look at their holiday pictures. 5 He told me to wait here. 3 He’s beginning to understand the problem. 6 Did you come to see me? 7 Ayşe wants us to go to the Black Sea this year. Exercise 7 1 Şehir merkezi. but it’s more common to use istemek with third person subjects. NB: This is the most common way of expressing ‘want to’ or ‘she’s hoping that…’. carrots. Londra’ya dönmen gereksiz. the first quote is: ‘To the employee “Can you help me” I said’. the idiomatic phrases umarım and umarız are used. They do not refer to particular (‘definite’) kebabs. Londra’ya dönmen gerekli değil. 5 He won’t eat meat anymore: etsiz yiyecek! 6 He’s quite upset. however.Londra’ya dönmem lazım. Londra’ya dönmem gerek. . These are straightforward geniş zaman forms of the verb ummak ‘to hope’. Londra’ya dönmen lazım değil. ‘you’re right’. In the first person. and calls the employee a fool. which appears here in the forms dedim ‘I said’ and dedi ‘he said’. 8 You will have to get used to seeing them together. park müsaadesi. she says Haklısın. 7 yemek kitapları and yemek tarifleri 8 They are used ‘in the abstract’. Londra’ya dönmene gerek yok. courgettes. 4 I’m thinking of going there.

as Turkish for ‘plastic bag’ is poşet. he is still wondering what to serve Hasan and Aylin when they come over for dinner next Saturday. which is reserved for direct objects. Exercise 9 2 eski bir havaalanı 3 beyaz bir elbise 4 tarif kolay 5 inek deli 6 lokanta yeni 7 boş bardaklar 8 ucuz tavuklar 9 yüksek fiyatlar Exercise 10 The following are compounds: 1 evening dinner (akşam yemeği) 2 mad cow disease (deli dana hastalığı) (dana means ‘calf’) 3 fatigue syndrome (yorgunluk sendromu) 5 homework (ev ödevi) 6 Persian rug (Fars halısı) (Fars forms compounds. it could have been naylon çanta. since there is no clear topic? How about: ‘Sükran and İmdat argue about the wisdom of a decision a friend of theirs has made’. Exercise 8 Araba is the subject in this sentence. isn’t it. and subjects never get accusative case. 10 No. ‘what’s it to you?’. asking him why he’s so angry and suggesting he let it drop. Page 281 12 Hard to do. Lesson 10 Exercise 1 . Which culminates in sana ne?. borrowed from French. However. 11 Right at the end of the conversation she is wondering how İmdat’s grandfather is doing.9 She first says Allah bilir! Ama neden öyle kızıyorsun? Boş ver!. Then she asks him what he was saying earlier (demin). meaning it’s a normal adjective) And one was a trick question. of course there was no way you could actually know that Fars belongs to this select group of country names) 7 Turkish government (Türk hükümeti) (Türk forms compounds) Adjective+Noun combinations: 4 gold watch (altın saat) (altın is a material adjective) 9 Dutch football player (Hollandalı futbolcu) (Hollandalı ends in -li.

is about ‘money’ in general. the possessive suffix -in makes the plate definite → tabağını. -nda (‘in’) 6 -ıyor (Present). 2 Bu beyaz araba seninki mi? 3 Eğlencede üstünde yeşil bir etek vardı. 8 No. this sentence can only really mean ‘Open the lid’ → kapağı aç! 5 Yes. 9 Yes. -de (‘in’) 3 -dü (Past). 6 No. 7 No. 2 İki köpeği var. Exercise 3 1 Param yok. is about ‘time’ in general. -den (‘from’) 8 -du (Past). is about ‘milk’ in general. 4 Onlar çok normal insan. 4 Yes. Yes. -k (‘we’) 4 -i (‘its’) 5 -umuz (‘our’). indefinite (offer a job). 11 No. 5 Galatasaray yeni iyi bir futbolcu istiyor. -un (‘of’). ‘often’ cannot refer to one particular (definite) strike. indefinite (reach a conclusion). Exercise 5 1 Compound: ev anahtarı 2 Compound: karayolu 3 Adjective: yaşlı adam 4 Simple noun: hapishane 5 Not a compound: işveren (‘who gives work’) 6 Compound: yaz ayları 7 Compound: saat beş treni 8 Adjective: açık çay 9 Genitive construction: günün yemeği 10 Compound: yemek listesi 11 Adjective: etsiz yemek 12 Compound: mercimek çorbası 13 Adjective: Finli kayakçı 14 Compound: Türk kahvesi Exercise 6 1 hotel room 2 Turkish coffee 3 teacher of German (as opposed to Alman öğretmen ‘German teacher’) 4 Sea of Marmara 5 Turkish-Greek friendship 6 girls’ school 7 kitchen cupboard 8 bus ticket 9 Japanese car (literally ‘Japan car’) 10 thriller 11 Hemingway’s novels 12 lamb meat/meat of lambs 13 the month of . which letter is specified by annenin çöplüğe attığı (‘the one your mother threw away’). 10 Yes. so it is definite → mektubu. Exercise 4 1 No. 2 No. is about this word → sözcüğü. -la (‘with’) 2 -iniz (‘your’). it’s not a particular postcard. -n (‘you’) Page 282 Exercise 2 1 Demin iki tane kocaman kuşu gördüm. mu (Question). 3 No. 5 Yunanistan’da yemek iyi. the offering is specified (‘by them’) → teklif edeceklerini 12 Yes. the possessive makes the boys definite → oğlanlarını. -sunuz (‘you’) 7 -n (‘your’). 3 Sizin ne güzel eviniz var! 4 Burada kalmayı gerçekten çok beğendim.1 -m (‘my’). -sı (‘his/her’).

SABAHAT: Üç yıl oldu. baş ağrım. 11 When I was a kid. uzman doktor. plural plus accusative: 8 Ali told funny stories. It’s upstairs. kadın doktoru. sekiz ay sonra yine bir kursa başladım. The speakers used a lot of pronouns. I hated the piano lessons. BAHAR: Ben yedi. 3 These girls love their mother(s) very much. Çin mutfağı. BAHAR: Sabahat. Exercise 9 The text is an almost literal rendition of a conversation one of the authors has on tape. Amerikan firması. Compare the used pronouns with your expectations. more than would normally be expected. sen Kayseri’den geleli kaç sene oldu? Ben Bursa’ya geleli üç yıl oldu. Türk mutfağı.Page 283 May 14 children’s room/the room of the child 15 balcony door/the door of the balcony 16 cow’s milk 17 Second World War 18 novel writer/writer of novels Exercise 7 ev kadınıyım. ‘their’+plural: 4 Do you know their children? (can also be ‘their child’) 5 We first painted the girls’ rooms. ‘his’/or ‘her’+plural: 9 So she gave me her clothes. etli nohut. the traffic lights are always red. o da . Ankara treninde. ‘they have’: 6 Some children didn’t have shoes on their feet. Türk mutfağından Exercise 8 ‘their’+singular: 2 Ahmed and Hassan are in their room. meyva bahçemiz. pirinç pilavı. The fact that there were three people present increased the use of pronouns. 10 I think his thoughts are dangerous. the first one on the left. 12 Have you seen the mosques? plural compound noun plus accusative: 1 In this town. o dükkanın sahibi. portakal suyunuz. Here is the transcript. because often it was necessary to specify who exactly the speaker was talking to. yaşlı dükkan sahipleri. 7 And then the teachers had an excellent proposal. zavallı babam. bilgisayar programcısı.

Dinlemek and duymak bear the same relationship to each other that ‘listen’ and ‘hear’ do in English. SABAHAT: Bursa’yı ben sevemiyorum. but they also imply slight differences. but de/da is perhaps translated more precisely with ‘and…too’.Page 284 Kuzey Bursa’daydı. A dost is a closer friend than an arkadaş Note that okumak can mean ‘to study’. BAHAR: Çünkü sen Almanya’da büyüdün. bu yıl yine başlamıştım oraya. Bir tek ben konuşuyorum. sekiz ay devam ettim. AYHAN: Ben eğer burdan gitsem ben oraya ayak uyduramamki. Finally. while bitirmek means ‘to finish’. onlar susuyor. For instance. you just stop doing it. Exercise 11 1i 2l 3f 4g 5k 6j 7a 8e 9b l0d 11h 12c Exercise 12 1 beğeniyorum 2 dedi 3 Şahane! 4 Acaba 5 üzerine 6 Haklısın 7 Karım 8 gideceksiniz 9 yanlışlık oldu (also cross out biri and yapmış) 10 niçin 11 nefis 12 bitirebildiniz mi? 13 sene . Siz seviyor musunuz? AYHAN: Ben önceleri sevmiyordum. they share a lot of meaning. Bursa’lıyı? BAHAR: Mesela Ayhan dönüş yapmak isterse ben hemen dönerim. there’s a difference in style: merhaba is more informal than günaydın. yok. ondan sonra da tekrar buraya geldin. Ama diğer öğrencileri beğenmedim. the job is actually done. ama. bırakmak means ‘to stop doing something’. In bitirmek. SABAHAT: Sen hiç uyduramazsın. Bitti. extended from its basic meaning in the same way as English ‘to read’ in ‘I’m reading English literature’. de/da and ve both mean ‘and’. With others. Exercise 10 1c 2l 3g 4h 5i 6j 7b 8k 9e l0a 11d 12f Not all of these pairs involve exact synonyms! Most of the time. sen nasıl buluyorsun Bursa’yı. Ondan sonra da buranın hayatına alışmaya çalışıyorsun. AYHAN: Ben hiç uyduramam artık. while in bırakmak. Buranın havasından çalışamıyorum. Oraya altı ay.

‘her problem’. 7 Compare the two: the verb yoruldum and the ‘to be’+adjective-construction ‘I am tired’. Note that literally the idiom says: ‘do this. 3 The countries that shouldn’t be made a düşman are the ticaret yaptığımız memleketler: countries one trades with. because the result is that one is tired now. that is. don’t do that’. The form -diğinden beri means ‘since’. Türkler. -ki biz. not yours’. do that’). 8 The following clauses were used. 4 ‘We’. The ‘that’ in the translation is what is expressed by o in the Turkish sentence. Although some are subordinate in the English equivalents. that’s her problem. hence the past tense ending. şunu yapma demek ‘to say do this. The combination -diğinden beri is the same one. not yours’. It is easiest to just learn the whole phrase yoruldum as equivalent of ‘I’m tired’. and that. -bunu yap. 5 After she married Ali. The English construction focuses on the present state of tiredness. He says: ‘don’t worry. don’t want other countries to tell them bunu yap. -Ali’yle evlendiğinden beri. You know the combination -den beri ‘since’ (for example yazdan beri ‘since summer’). who works in a bank.Page 285 Lesson 11 Exercise 1 1 She works bankada: in a bank. The sequence Ali’yle evlendiğinden beri means ‘since she got married to Ali’. the Turks. therefore. except that now ‘since’ combines with a whole clause. ‘since she married Ali’ Page 286 . while the Turkish construction profiles the process of becoming tired. not with a simple noun such as ‘summer’. they contain ‘ordinary’ verbs). 6 Onun meselesi. şunu yapma (‘do this. they had to be daha sert: tougher. do that’ (not subordinate in Turkish). 2 She had asserted that Turks don’t govern themselves. The grammar of this sentence will be the focus of much of this lesson. kendi kendimizi yönetmiyoruz ‘that we Turks do not govern ourselves’ (not subordinate in Turkish). -bankada çalışan. It refers to something like ‘that she has become so different after her marriage’ as in ‘That she has become so different is her problem. -biz daha sert olmalıyız ‘we must be tougher’ (not subordinate in Turkish). -ticaret yaptığımız ‘that we trade with’. is preceded by O. these are not regarded as such in Turkish (that is. That obviously happened in the past.

In addition. ‘people’ is the subject of ‘are staying in’. were completely devoid of human life. ‘the surprise’ is the object of ‘intended’. ‘the umbrella’ is the object of ‘had’. 6 The other people who were waiting at the bus stop complained too. so you need to use -diği: yeni aldığı ev. Exercise 3 1 My God. 4 The tape that’s playing sounds like the Beatles. ‘the streets’ is the subject of ‘are deserted’. so you need to use -en: boş olan sokaklar.Exercise 2 When I went out last night to see the house that Jerry and Jill bought. The choices for -diği and -en are as follows (don’t worry about unfamiliar Turkish here. that are usually deserted at this time of night. the place where I’m working is filthy! 2 I’ll give that coat I never wear to Melike. so you need to use -diği: niyet ettiğim sürpriz. so you need to use -en: içeride bulunan insanlar. All those people who were staying in turned out to be quite right. 3 I really like the house you’re living in. such as the dative on onlar in 1. You may want to note down the word for ‘umbrella’ though: şemsiye): 1 In ‘the new house that Jerry and Jill have bought’. şarkıyı 5 Sokağın karşısında. The umbrella I once had was not to be found. so I had to depend on my raincoat. Apart from that. 5 In ‘all those people who were staying in’. forced by the verb yazmak. That is: you write to someone. The streets. as neither Jerry nor Jill turned out to be home. so you need to use -en: sığınan kedi. this ‘to’ is expressed by the dative case ending -a in onlara. ‘the house’ is the object of ‘bought’. or benim sahip olduğum şemsiye. A cat that was sheltering under a car was the only living creature I saw. 4 In ‘a cat that was sheltering under a car’. 2 Anneannenin 3 zeytini 4 Ahmet’in. not about useful vocabulary. 2 In ‘the umbrella that I once had’. 7 Does your daughter like the job she found? 8 The only person we didn’t gossip about is you! 9 Do you know the guy that’s married to Eser? 10 Who is the woman who’s talking? Page 287 Exercise 4 The most important thing about this exercise is to make sure you put the subject of the relative clause in the genitive case. this is an exercise about the structure of relative clauses. 5 I haven’t yet started the book you gave me (‘have not been able to start’). because when I got to the house. so you need to use -diği: benim olan şemsiye. indicated by bir) 6 Maradona’nın 7 ekmeği 8 hediyeyi . some other case forms were needed. ‘a cat’ is the subject of ‘was sheltering’. 3 In ‘the streets. it was raining pretty hard. the surprise I had intended for my friends backfıred. bana (no ACC on şaka because it’s indefinite. I was completely soaked. 6 In ‘the surprise I had intended’. that are usually deserted at this time of night’.

bilmeyen var mı? Biliyorum vallahi! Page 288 Çarşıya çıkıyor musunuz? Çıkmıyoruz. 6 Senin doğduğun senede ben altı yaşındaydım. Sen deli misin? Yirmi birinci yüzyıldayız. Exercise 6 a. NB: için does not require a case marker on the preceding noun. b. Gazetede ilanlara bakıyorum ama (‘I’m looking’ (these days. yeni bir ev satın aldı. i. Öyle mi? Zaten iş bulmak zor bu zamanlarda. not right now). but that may have already made you uneasy.: ‘I’ve looked’). because by now you should know enough to translate that as ‘the house we bought’. 5 Britanya’da oturan arkadaşlarımız güzel. NB: karşı requires the preceding word to have genitive case.e. This form will be discussed in the next lesson. Ama o çok pahalı. For future versions of the relative clause. Belki telefon ederim. Bilgisayar hakkında birşey biliyor musun? Tabii ki biliyorum. you use -eceği instead of -diği. bir comes after the last adjective. c. Nominal sentences. Geniş zaman Ona telefon edebilirsin galiba. Belki de okula dönebilirim. 3 Yaptığın iğrenç gürültü nedir? 4 Sokağın karşısında oturan öğrenci çok sevimli. Bilgisayar bilmeyen kalmadı neredeyse (‘There’s almost no-one left who doesn’t know computers’). Kızılay’da. Past tense Hala birşey bulamadın mı? Çok üzüldüm. with the future tense form -ecek contained in it. Present tense on -iyor. Haklısın. . Belki seninle ilgilenebilirler…Söylerim. 7 You probably first tried satın aldığımız ev. so doğum günün is not marked. present tense. Note that not all of these are necessarily translated by an ‘-ing’ form in English. Kentin orasını iyi bilmiyorum. diş hekimine gidiyoruz. 2 Doğum günün için aldığın bisiklet. Note that all of the following sentences have ‘is’ in their English translation. NB: when two adjectives precede one noun. Senin iş durumun nasıl şimdi? İşsizim.Exercise 5 1 Bursa’ya giden tren. Demin aklıma geldi (another fixed idiom). The right translation is: satın alacağımız ev. Görüşürüz! d. Keşke şirketimizde boş yer olsaydı (‘if only there was’). Bıktım aramaktan (this is a fixed expression and it happens to be past tense).

ne haber?—iyilik. iyi gezmeler—sağ ol. memnun oldum —ben de memnun oldum. buyurun?—…(e. İyi bir sekreter olacaksın. not through an adjective). 7 Unutmuşum.g. e. 5 Yapmadığımı ona söyledim. sen nasılsın?. Exercise 10 1 sure 2 inferred 3 inferred 4 inferred 5 sure 6 sure 7 inferred 8 sure 9 sure 10 inferred 11 sure 12 inferred 13 sure .e. maşallah! 2 kullanmamışlardır 3 Uyumuşum. nasılsın?—iyiyim.g. 5 Memnun olmamışlar. alo—alo/merhaba. There aren’t many options for ‘thank you’. kahve) lütfen. başarılar—teşekkür ederim. hoş geldiniz—hoş bulduk. görüşürüz—görüşürüz. so teşekkür ederim and sağ ol occur frequently. buyurun—teşekkür ederiz. Future tense Benim için yepyeni yol olacak. 4 Seyretmeye gittiğimiz maçı Fenerbahçe kolayca kazandı. 6 Gazeteye göre güzel bir konser vermiş. yorulmak. 9 güneşlenmişsin 10 Kayseri’deymiş. günaydın—günaydın. teşekkür ederim/sağ ol. merhaba—merhaba.…(any request)—tamam 1 merhaba 2 iyilik 3 görüşürüz (NB: you may have to precede it with something explaining why you’re ending the conversation. 2 Burada yağmur yağmış. oturun—teşekkür ederim. teşekkür ederim—bir şey değil. iyi günler—iyi günler. did he call?’) 9 Telefon etmiş mi sence? (or: aramış mı sence?) 10 Hangi numarayı çevirdin? Exercise 9 1 Yapmış. 4 Yabancı değilmiş. gitmem gerekiyor) 4 memnun oldum 5 başarılar! 6 sağ olun/ teşekkür ederim 7 sağ olun/teşekkür ederiz 8 günaydın Exercise 8 1 -miş 2 -miş 3 either one 4 -di 5 -di 6 -miş 7 -miş 8 either one 9 -miş 10 -di Page 289 1 Onlara anlatmış olmalı. 3 Ondan sonra köpek onu ışırdı (‘you saw it happening’) or ışırmış (‘so you were told’). 8 Sigorta şirketine telefon etti mi? (‘did you see him do it?’) or etmiş mi? (‘as far as you know. Ne yapacaksınız? Exercise 7 The following pairs have all been in the dialogues somewhere. 6 evde miymiş? 7 neymiş? 8 Yorulmuşsun (recall that ‘tired’ is expressed through a verb.

…5 Akşamları annem bana bir hikaye anlatsa. very fresh Exercise 5 1 The -il. 2 -ken expresses ‘while’.… 6 Kar yağsa. with a difference in meaning: çalarken ‘the period during which I play the saz.suffix is used to indicate the passive.… Exercise 4 very red. the k in istersek and istedik) Exercise 2 2 Bu akşam Fatma’nın partisine gideceksem. totally empty. by the way. bir işim olursa ‘if I have a job’. 3 -ince means ‘as soon as’ and is also a converb.…3 Her yaz trenle seyahat etse.… Page 290 Exercise 3 1 Büyük bir şehirde yaşasan. it was raining all the time) 2 gelince (as soon as I came there) 3 both are possible.Lesson 12 Exercise 1 1 The text contains the following conditional verb forms: istersek ‘if we want’.…7 Abim mühendis olmak istiyorsa.…2 Bu akşam Fatma’nın partisine gitsem. Getirmek means ‘to bring’.…8 Sorunuz olsa. altogether.…8 Sorunuz varsa.…’ 4 girince 5 varınca 6 dinlerken 7 çıkınca 8 severken (notice. kaybetmeseydin ‘if you hadn’t lost’. that in the final sentence of this exercise the subject of the converb (‘annem’) is different from the subject of the main clause (‘babam’)) Exercise 7 .…4 Otogarda seni beklersem.…3 Her yaz trenle seyahat ederse.…4 Otogarda seni beklesem.…’ and çalınca ‘as soon as I play the saz.…7 Abim mühendis olmak istese.…6 Kar yağıyorsa. 2 The endings are the same as used for the past tense -di (compare. In the remainder of Lesson 12 converbs will be dealt with. straight ahead. so getirilmek means ‘to be taken’. It is one of the so-called ‘converbs’—the equivalents of English subordinated clauses.…5 Akşamları annem bana bir hikaye anlatırsa. for instance. vurursam ‘if I win’. Exercise 6 1 giderken (indicating that during the period the first person narrator was on his way to Üsküdar.

. our dear guest has brought us these flowers. we don’t want to keep you waiting. HASAN: All right. you probably have something important to do. I only want to go out for a walk. thank you again for the beautiful flowers. HASAN: Melike. Page 291 3 bakışlar öldürebilse. 4 okuldayken 5 ölünce 6 demeden 7 bilirseniz 8 sıkılırsan Exercise 8 1 beşiği sallandıran el. you will first find a translation of the dialogue. just walk around in the park. ARİF BEY: No problem. please? I think that these days there are fewer well-educated people than there used to be. how nice! Why did you go to all that trouble? Hasan could you put them on the table.1 binince 2 durmadan 3 konuşurken or konuşmadan (depending on whether he talked to you (-ken) or not (-madan)). HASAN: Look. so this evening I will go to the centre. Melike. ARİF BEY: See you. right now. Lesson 13 Exercise 1 Below. MELİKE: Take care. She’ll come by this afternoon to return a book to me. The specific questions in 1 and 2 will be dealt with subsequently. Goodbye. who was that on the phone? MELİKE: That was my sister. I’m not going to the centre of town. But later I must go out to do some shopping for presents. Are you going out to the centre of town? ARİF BEY: No. benim en iyi parçamı götürürsün. 2 soğuktan içeri gelen casus (although this also can mean ‘the spy who came in because of the cold’). HASAN: Excuse us.…4 beni şimdi terkedersen. 5 gitmeden önce. beni uyandır! 6 bir iz bırakmadan. MELİKE: Oh dear.

the phrase is ‘she’s broke’: parası bitti. No. Hoşça kalın! Exercise 2 . He thinks Arif is a good person. The Turkish way of saying this is ‘my money is finished’: param bitti. MELİKE: You’re right. çıkmak means ‘go out’. from now on I will believe everything you tell me. aren’t they? What do you say about that? HASAN: I told you last night that Arif is a good human being. and lack of money. g. She uses the polite question form of the geniş zaman of koymak ‘to put’. the same as always. c. indicating motion towards somewhere. d. Alternatives you have learned before in this book are the more informal question form koyar mısın? ‘do you put?’ or the polite imperative koyun lütfen! ‘put!’. she quarrelled with her husband. Hasan says bize ‘to us’ in his first line. in alışverişe).HASAN: How is your sister? MELİKE: Oh. therefore. Kendinize iyi bakın. he’s going out for a walk in the park. Combined with alışveriş ‘shopping’. but perhaps a bit too formal in this congenial setting. e. A literal translation of the English polite request. d. the latter is said when you want to focus on the act of going out of the house in order to do the shopping (note the dative ending -e. 1: a. c. yapmak means ‘do’. In the dialogue. şuna ne dersin? means ‘what’ (bu) ‘do you think/say’ (der-) ‘about’ (the dative case ending -na) ‘that’ (şu)? f. The short imperative koy! ‘put!’ is quite unacceptable in this situation. Her sister called to say she was going to bring back a book that afternoon. b. The construction. He has given the flowers to both Melike and Hasan. she’s broke…Why are you laughing? Think of her situation! But those flowers are beautiful. He is laughing because Melike’s Page 292 sister apparently always (her zaman gibi ‘as always’) has the same problems: quarrel with her husband. is para plus Possessive ending plus bitti. 2: a. e. as he had told his wife the night before (dün akşam ‘yesterday evening’). the former is the normal word for ‘to do shopping’. koyabilir misiniz? ‘can you put?’ is possible. koyar mısınız ‘do you put?’. Doğru. b. Melike jokingly (as it is followed by laughter) begs him to be more considerate (durumunu düşün! ‘think of her situation’). sanırım. In the dialogue it is appropriate because the guest is poised to go out of the hotel right that minute.

the others went by car. 14 I got very angry that Ali had done that. 3 When I came here. which is not listed among the languages the friend from Izmir speaks. In Sentence 3. 12 false. 6 false. 3 true. 14 false. he started to speak Turkmenian to people. He knows he wasn’t good enough: ama eksikti ‘but it wasn’t enough’). Exercise 3 1 true. 8 true. Nurettin comes up later as speaking Turkmenian. the addition of da adds the idea of a list: the sister is mad at her husband and she’s out of money. 2 false. 8 After all classes have finished. The meaning of ‘become’ in the original is contributed by olmak. Exercise 5 Sentence 1 becomes Amerika’da çok zenginmiş. Exercise 4 1 herşeyi 2 biraz 3 birşeyim 4 kimse 5 herkes 6 hiçbir 7 Bütün 8 Her 9 az 10 diğerleri 11 hepsini 12 birisine (aşık olmak requires the dative ending -e). Serkan doesn’t need to say anything about who Necat is. He will pick them up at 3 (üçte). As soon as he (bu) got off the train (trenden indiğimiz andan itibaren). the meaning difference is much more subtle. 13 true. 9 My friend will call me in a little bit. He has something to do (bir iş ‘a job’). This one means ‘There was almost a traffic accident’. there will be a party. 15 They are going to build a new theatre in our town. ‘as well’. He needs to go and pick them up. The basic translation of de/da seems to be ‘and’. 11 false. (çok kötü ‘very bad’). 9 true. ‘too’. 6 Until now I haven’t seen a thing in Turkey. it’s the same for everybody. while the . (olmaz ‘can’t be’). 2 I think Turkish is a bit difficult. He is compassionate (ne yazık ki ‘what a pity’). he must have been very rich’. 7 You know very well that the whole world loves football.The particle is used in parası da bitti. 11 The old people expect everything from us young people. 5 true. 13 We found a solution for some of the problems. (ödedim ‘I paid’). Erol asks whether Necat is still playing for Beşiktaş and Serkan says that indeed he is (oynuyor ‘he is playing’). 4 true. 10 Ahmet and I went by train. 5 Don’t worry. ‘also’. 10 false. 12 And then this girl fell in love with someone. He still (hala) doesn’t know what happened (ne olduğunu). which becomes Az kalsın bir trafik kazasıydı. 7 false. 13 bazıları 14 çok 15 bir The translations of the sentences are: 1 Watch out! Little Ayhan hears everything. I had nothing. That this creates a problem for picking up the glasses is clear from the context and from the fact that he Page 293 starts his sentence with ama ‘but’. which means ‘In America. The man got mad (kızdı). Melike could just as well have said parası bitti. 4 I didn’t understand anybody.

7 What happened? Come on. not really. tell us! 8 I don’t think this is good. 6 It’s English history that Kamile is interested in. 2 No. . 4 Pleased to meet you. 4 Amerikan firması yeni sahibi oldu. 2. 3 Sana birşey sormak istiyorum.one with olmak has more of an ‘immediate experience’ feel to it. for instance. but (fakat). she thinks Funda knows him quite well. The weather is nice. Öpüyorum. 4 No. 9 Her dishes are very tasty. as in ‘Boy. and Funda is in London at the moment. that it’s not important. 6 İlginç olmuştur. the e-mail message is informal: there are no -siniz forms. 9 Saçı ıslak olan adam. ‘public library’ (literally ‘national library’). 9 Kamile knows London is famous for its musicals and she apparently hates musicals. she has too much work. she tells Funda not to worry. She says she hopes Funda doesn’t have to go to one of those musicals. Umarım iyisindir. 1 olsun 2 ol 3 oldu 4 oldum 5 olmuyor 6 olmalıyız 7 oldu 8 olduğunu 9 oluyor The translations are: 1 Get well! 2 Thank you! 3 On the street an accident happened and the police came right away. 6 She said we have to be stronger. 8 şehrin dışında. 7 Yes. Exercise 8 1 ‘Dear’. Exercise 7 1 Her zaman olduğu gibi. Sevgili. In 6. oldu is more likely than olmuş because of the following geldi (makes it sound as if the speaker saw the accident). 10 Gerekli olursa. ‘Greetings’. 10 Yes. 7 Böyle olma! 8 Olmaz. 5 İyi bir işçi (or better: eleman) olacaksın. you have to build the familiar structure with -malı. In 3. 5 Nothing is certain. Page 295 Here is a translation of the text: Dear Funda. sanmak calls for a -diği form. 2 Ne kadar olsun? 3 İyi bir öğrenci olmak için. 4 and 7 are fixed expressions. In 8. that was a narrow escape!’ Page 294 Exercise 6 The forms in 1. just to do it if she happens to plan a visit to a bookshop. ‘I hope you’re well’. 5 The milli kütüphane.

2 başlayamayız: the suffix immediately after the verb stem is -yama. I can’t find the books I want in the public library. 3 The mimar was waiting for the director to sign. could you look for some books? As you saw in my last e-mail. Tomorrow I’ll visit my Canadian friend. in case there’s snow. -ı possessive suffix 3rd person singular ‘its’. I won’t ask how the weather is in London. If you visit a bookshop one of these days. in the second sentence. but I can’t enjoy it. But if there is no opportunity to go to a bookshop. I’m sure (literally: ‘it’s sure’) you’re having a good time. 2 Because they’re not ordered yet. it’s not that important. Lesson 14 Exercise 1 1 şirketimizin yeni binasının inşaatına. I have to finish my work. -nın genitive case ‘of’. I’ll give the names in my next message. don’t you? Unfortunately.I hope you’re well. . Dave. In fact. I want to rest the whole weekend. yarın ‘tomorrow’ is followed by mutlaka ‘surely’. don’t worry. he lives outside of town. I want to ask you something. which means that it is emphasised. I am quite interested in English history these days.which is the negative form of -(y)ebil and which means ‘not be able to’ (see Lesson 8. Today the weather is very nice here. the section on Permission and Obligation). 4 It takes only one day to get the window frames delivered. -imiz possessive suffix 1st person plural ‘our’. -sı possessive 3rd person singular ‘its’. because of the verb başlamak ‘to begin with’. -in genitive case ‘of’. The thing you begin with (in this example inşaat ‘building’) always has the -e/-a ending. 3 Bugün ‘today’ appears right before the verb. Kamile. which takes the emphasis. The whole stretch means ‘with the building of a new office of our firm’. And that is because the director hasn’t signed the right papers yet. What are you going to do? Do you have plans for the weekend? I hope you don’t have to go to one of those musicals! Love. Page 296 Exercise 2 1 The winter season might cause a delay of six months. -na dative case. You know him well.

12 Kızgın öğretmen ‘Ev ödevinizi yapmadığınız için. öğrenciler ucuz bir otelde kalmak zorundaydılar. 5 Havaalanına vardığın gibi beni arar mısın? 6 Tren geç kaldığı için (kaldığından) tiyatroya koşmam gerekti. 2 dünkü çocuk yarınki yetişkin. 2 The first part of the story contains general remarks of the narrator about his mother: what she used to do. beni beklemeyiniz! 8 Tren geç kaldığı halde. 10 Her gün taze meyve ve sebze yediğim halde. benimkini al (when the uncle is your mother’s brother). Since he also refers to things that happened in the past (things his mother used to do when he was small). derse devam edemem’ diye bağırdı. istediğiniz kadar alın. dedim and attım. teklifi reddetti. 3 Lütfen. Exercise 7 The items in this exercise show you that -ip can replace more verb tenses and verb forms than just a simple past or present tense suffix: . 3 amcamınkini alma. 5 he doesn’t like food from restaurants. kendisine bir milyonluk sözleşme teklif edildiği halde. the past tense suffix has been added. 11 Taze meyve ve sebze yemeyi bıraktığımız gibi. 9 Tren vardığı gibi tiyatroya koştum. At that point the main story line starts. 6 they are more expensive than my grandmother’s. Exercise 4 1 (It’s) yours 2 (It’s) Mustafa’s 3 Is the pen yours? 4 (It’s) theirs 5 (It’s) the Turkish Republic’s Exercise 5 1 sokaktakiler. or: dayımınkini alma. Exercise 6 1 The verb foms dururdu. see Lesson 8) suffix and a past tense Page 297 suffix -di. The appropriate form to use for this kind of habitual behaviour is the geniş zaman. 4 hastanedeki doktorlar daha iyi. benimkini al (when the uncle is your father’s brother). such as dedi. tiyatroya tam zamanında vardım. 2 Konferans ücreti çok yüksek olduğu için (olduğundan). 3 He changes into using simple past tense forms.Exercise 3 1 Sinema yıldızı. because at that point in the story he switches from general remarks to a specific episode in the past. 7 Tren geç kaldığı takdirde. üşüttüm. 7 the station’s timetable gave a different departure time. başlardı and bakardı have both a geniş zaman (the ‘broad tense’. 8 grape juice tasting of wine (‘in wine taste’). üşüttük. 4 Ahmet şikayet etmeyi sevdiği halde. ondan hiç bir şey duymadım.

But. A better one would be ‘the contestant smiled and answered the question asked by the quizmaster’).1 kalkıp stands for kalktı ‘he got up’. 5 Forgetting that it was a holiday today. the bell rang. giyip 3 durarak 4 takıp 5 keserek 6 yaparak 7 varınca 8 seslenerek Exercise 13 1 According to husus 4. 5 If I run and catch them…! Exercise 9 1 After the two cowboys got off their horses. according to husus 5. 2 gelip stands for gelince (that is. 8 Why do mothers always call their children for dinner (‘to the table’) by shouting to them from the balcony? Exercise 12 1 düşünürken 2 anlayınca. 2 The contestant. 3 By standing in front of the fire. 4 gidip stands for gideceğiz ‘we’ll go’. 3 Let’s go and dance. Page 298 Exercise 10 1 çekip 2 gülümseyerek 3 uğrayıp 4 araştırarak 5 unutarak 6 bahane ederek Exercise 11 1 While I was contemplating these things. Exercise 8 1 The boy got up and started looking for the frog. all . 4 By investigating unimportant details. she lost valuable time. 7 As soon as he arrives in America. 4 He inserted paper into his typewriter and began to write a poem. smiling. he’ll send me an e-mail. (Well. 2 As soon as the birds came and landed on the tree in our garden. the bus company is not responsible for lost luggage which was not handed in and for which no receipt was given. it was all right. they drew their guns and filled each other with holes. she put on her jacket and rushed out into the street. 3 gidip stands for gidelim ‘let’s go’. 2 When she understood that she was late for her exam. answered the question the quizmaster asked. he helped by washing up. 6 The scared child tried to postpone his visit to the dentist by using the excuse of homework. 5 The fat man tried to loose weight by refraining from eating sweets. that’s a rather literal translation. 3 We went to see our ill class mate and asked about his condition. 5 koşup stands for koşsam ‘If I run’. at the same level as konunca) ‘as soon as they came’. she got warm. 6 After dinner. (see Lesson 7 for ‘let’s’) 4 We’ll go and meet my mother and hers. our absent-minded neighbour went to work.

5 Dolayı means ‘due to’. elbise. The responsiblity arising from any accident of the bus dose not lie with the KASIRGA company. hem de ekimle kasım genellikle boz rengi aylar. bıçak. Exercise 14 1 Bence her aynı kendine ait bir rengi var. mayıs ve hazıran pembe ve maviye değistiriyorlar. and all responsiblity lies with the bus owner involved in the accident. güneşyağı (are all things you buy at the chemist’s). 3. the double value of the bus ticket is paid to the owner of these goods by the bus owner and driver.justicial responsibility lies with the bus owner (not the bus ‘company’. 7 Eylül portakal ve kahverengi. All justicial responsibility lies with the owner of the bus. aralık ise hem boz rengi hem de beyaz. etek. 2 Ocak beyaz. Page 299 Translation: Matters to which our respected travellers should pay attention: 1. parcels or bags that were not handed over. Sold tickets are not taken back. tişört. When goods of which the nature and value are not stated on the receipt are lost. gömlek (are all articles of clothing). You need olmak because such sentences are only possible in the present tense and in the past with -di or -miş. 4. Your goods are to be handed ver and registered on a receipt. 5. Ait olmayıp ‘not belonging to’ is the negative form of ait. 4 Mart ise yeşil. çaydanlık. 6. 3 Teslim edilip derives its endings from yazılacaktır ‘they will be registered/written’ and therefore stands for teslim edilecektir ‘they will be handed over’. 7. tencere. Tickets are valid on day and time of issue. When are vaild purchase the tickets. the bus company is not reponsible. . 5 Çiçekler nisan. you show your goods such as trunks. Exercise 15 sabun. suitcases. suitcases and parcels which you. 6 -ip stands at the same level as aittir ‘belonging to’. 4 The passive suffix is either -in or -il. by the way…). Remember from Lesson 13 that olmak is used in cases where you would expect a verbless sentence. 3 Hem şubat. 6 Temmuz ve ağustos güneşten dolayı sarıdır. diş macunu. 2 Responsibility lies with the bus owner (and again not with the KASIRGA bus company). For the loss of things such as trunks. 2. tıraş bıçağı. ‘on account of’.

güney (are all directions). 8 Abim gibi bira içmem. 7 Erkek kardeşin senin gibi iyi bir adam. dövmek ‘to hit’ Exercise 2 2 gidiyorsun 3 öğreneceğiz 4 yazacağım 5 korkuyordum 6 geliyor 7 diyor Reading text 1 1 The author says that people often tend to think that in one country there’s one language. 2 -meden as in düşünmeden. 3 It says varolmadığnı instead of varolmadığını. yıkamak ‘to wash’.tabak (all belong to household equipment). giymek ‘to wear’. bacak. you can derive the name of the language. ayak. doğu. 5 Kalemin masanın altına düştü. göz. kol (are all body parts). Page 300 Lesson 15 Exercise 1 anlamak ‘to understand’. kuzey. 3 Bu duvarın arkasında ne var? 4 Haberden sonra film başlıyor. 9 Araba evin önünde. 10 Bu araba ailemiz için fazla büyük. 6 Evlerin arasında bir bahçe var. and that if you know the name of the country. 2 Evin içine gittim. Exercise 3 1 Evin içinde. batı. Exercise 4 1i 2e 3a 4h 5g 6j 7b 8f 9c 10d Exercise 5 1m 2i 3k 4a 5h 60 7f 8c 91 10b 11e 12n 13g 14j 15d The translations: 1 to do a lesson 2 to watch a film 3 to give a discount 4 to do/wash the dishes 5 to turn off the light 6 to find a solution 7 to send a card 8 to be found/situated 9 to fall asleep 10 to play guitar 11 to go to the shopping centre 12 to go out shopping 13 to catch a train 14 to promise (‘give the word’) 15 to cook the dishes/food .

I was very tired. NB: Words in this part are ordered according to the Turkish alphabet: a b c ç d e f g ğ h ıijklmnoöprsştuüvyz abi abla acaba acele acele etmek açık older brother older sister I wonder hurry (noun) to hurry weak (e. 11 To find a taxi in Istanbul is not difficult. Exercise 7 1 Pop müziğini sevdiğimi biliyor musun? 2 Benim onu yaptığımı ona söyledim. after that we went to a club and danced. 12 My brother knows Turkish and two other languages. tea) akşam akşam yemeği evening dinner akıllı aklıma gelmek aklına kaçırmak clever.Page 301 Exercise 6 1c 2m 3e 4g 5i 6a 7l 80 9d 10h 11k 12f 13b 14n 15j The translations: 1 The children are singing well. 3 After I had climbed the stairs. yeni bir iş bulduğunu duydum. such as -e or -den. 7 Onların geldikleri için teşekkür etmen gerek. 9 Müzenin Van Gogh sergisinde gösterdiği çok ilginçti. 2 Ayşe is going out to do shopping.g. 5 Onu sevdiğime inanmıyor. For example. 6 Tebrikler. 8 I asked but he didn’t answer. 13 Have you filled in all the forms already? 14 Excuse me. 3 İstediğin bu mu? 4 Politikacının dediğini anlayamadım. 8 Onun mezun olduğunu bana söyledi. kadar (-e) ‘until’ is always used with the dative case ending (-e or -a): yarına kadar means ‘until tomorrow’. which means that they are always used with another word carrying this particular case. 9 First we ate in a little restaurant. smart to come to mind to lose one’s mind . 4 I have to clean the windows but I don’t want to. 7 We are saving money for a new car. maybe you could give me some information? 15 My mother has to take her medication every day. we don’t want to lose time. 5 Did your son pass that important exam? 6 During the holiday in Turkey I gained five kilos. 10 Hurry. 10 Davranışından çok bıktım! Page 302 Turkish-English glossary Some Turkish words are accompanied by case markers.

ache weight to hurt August oh! oh dear! family belonging to aktör alışmak (-e) alışveriş Allah! Allah Allah! Allah bilir! Allahım almak Alman Almanca Almanya alo altı altın actor/actress to get used to shopping Oh god! Gosh! Oh no! for heaven’s sake! Lord knows! My God! to buy. motorway but still. on the other hand. atmak old man Avrupa ay America. really ayak ayakkabı aynı ayrılmak ayrıntı az az kalsın. az kaldı baba Amerika an anahtar anayol ancak Amerikalı American . US moment key freeway. to take German German (the language) Germany hello (on the phone) six gold aday göstermek to propose a candidate Allah aşkına Allahaısmarladık Goodbye aşçı aşık olmak (-e) aşk at Atina chef to fall in love love horse Athens to throw Europe month foot shoes same to leave detail less almost father my goodness! ambülans ambulance uncle (from father’s side).açmak ad ada adam aday adres aferin! affedersiniz ağaç ağır ağırlık ağrımak Ağustos ah! aile ait (-e) Page 303 altında altmış ama aman! amca under sixty but to open name island man candidate address well done! excuse me. I’m sorry tree pain.

members of the press head success to manage to do something beyefendi to run into problems bıktım (-den) I’m fed up with… . grocer baklava to look now look here! fisherman balcony bank bathroom glass (for drinking) at least simple araştırmak to investigate arkasında behind beraber berbat beri (-den) beş beşik …Bey beyaz bıçak together terrible since five cradle Sir… white Sir knife reporters. to go up actually aspirin below bakışlar bakkal baklava bakmak baksana! balıkçı balkon banka banyo bardak bari basit looks grocery store. please? (to waiter in restaurant) antrenman practice aptal araba arabesk aralık aramak arasında ardından arkadaş armut artık artırmak artmak aslında aspirin aşağı Page 304 basmak bastırmak basun mensupları baş başarı(lar) başarmak başına gelmek to step. pretext garden let’s see minister can you help us. to tread to press stupid car arabesque December to look for between after friend pear from now on.anlamak anlatmak anne anneanne to understand to tell mother grandmother (your mother’s mother) bacak bagaj bağırmak bahane bahçe bakalım bakan bakar mısınız? leg luggage to shout excuse. finally to cause to rise to rise.

… suddenly somebody to gather. near other chairperson capital to begin beginner(s) main role to apply west to sink suitcase to enjoy.başında başka başkan başkent başlamak başlayan(lar) baş rolü başvurmak batı batmak bavul bayılmak bayram bazen bazı bebek bedava beğenmek (-i) beklemek (-i) bekletmek bela belediye belki belli ben bence benzemek close to. to save birkaç birlikte (ile) Page 305 birşey something cami mosque some together (with) . to leave something pepper. etc.) one. many sometime beer a little. a bit in a little bit each other a lot you know. manner to announce even. paprika way. resemble bırakmak biber biçim bildirmek bile bilet bilgi bilgisayar bilmek bin bina binmek bir bir kere bir kimse bir sürü bir zaman bira biraz birazdan birbirleri birçok birde birden biri (or: birisi) biriktirmek to stop. a one time somebody a lot. actually ticket information computer to know thousand building to get on (train. to really like feast sometimes some baby for free to enjoy to wait to make someone wait trouble state maybe certain I according to me to be like something.

to ring (bell). purse fast tent to shout. to call out buzzer pocket knife cigarette lighter hard-working to work. love spy pocket courage answer punishment lively mosquito net machine.bisiklet bitirmek bitmek biz bizim hanım boktan herif bol borç boş boş ver! boyamak boz bozuk bölüm böyle bu bu arada buçuk buğday bugün bulaşık bulmak buluşmak bulutlu burada buralar buraya buyurun! bicycle to finish to finish we my wife idiot full debt empty never mind! to paint grey broken part such this meanwhile half wheat today dirty dishes to find to meet with cloudy here these places to here there you are! what can I get you? camları silmek canım casus cep cesaret cevap ceza cıvıl cıvıl cibinlik cihaz civar cumartesi günü cüzdan çabuk çadır çağırmak çağrı aleti çakı çakmak çalışkan çalışmak çalmak wash the windows dear. to try to play (instrument. to knock (door) ceza vermek to punish cuma günü Friday buyurmak to order someone in çanta büro butün hüyük office all. market Wednesday . equipment surrounding Saturday wallet. tape recorder). whole big çaresizce çarşı çarşamba günü bag inevitable centre.

[that] means just now. to turn into crazy to say. very. much/many soup rubbish bin solution because rotten too. to pull chin C sürücüsü C-drive to shut one’s mouth window frame Circassian (the language) variety. on the other hand denemek deniz deniz kıyısı deri demin deli demek . kind.büyükanne grandmother büyüklük büyümek cadde cam Page 306 çenesini kapatmak çerçeve Çerkezce çeşit çeşitler çevirmek. white cheese. to dial quarter (¼) to go out flowers Chinese shepherd shepherd’s salad (tomatoes. çevir yapmak çeyrek çıkmak çiçekler Çin çoban çoban salatası size to grow street window çatlak çay çaydanlık çekiç çekmek çene crack tea teapot hammer to draw. sort various to translate. a little while ago to try sea coast leather dede dedikodu yapmak defa değerli değil değişmek değiştirmek çocuk çok çorba çöplük çözüm çünkü çürük da/de child very much. olives) dans etmek to dance (nonTurkish style) dans oynamak to dance (Turkishstyle) davet etmek davranış davranma dayı to invite behaviour action uncle (your mother’s brother) granddad to gossip time (as in iki defa ‘twice’) valuable not to change to change.

to stand situation shower to take a shower wall to hear shop yesterday world enemy to fall low (price) thought to think sir if party October team bread business. correct east birthday born ninety doctor duş almak duvar duymak dükkan dün dünya düşman düşmek düşük düşünce düşünmek efendim eğer eğlence ekim ekip ekmek dokuz dolap nine cupboard ekonomi to stop. age state Foreign Office outside outside. flat minute typewriter to snooze. economics dokunmayınız! please don’t touch! .dağ dağılmak mountain to scatter. disperse ders devam etmek devamlı lesson to continue over and over. to dive. still in other words included apartment. to watch out durmak durum duş dil dinlemek dinlenmek direnmek diş diş macunu diş hekimi dişçi doğmak doğru doğu doğum günü doğumlu doksan doktor language to listen to rest to resist tooth toothbrush dentist dentist to be born right. to plunge didinmek diğer dikkat et! devir devlet Dış İşleri dışarıya dışında Page 307 dikkat etmek to pay attention to. apart from to work hard other watch out! daha daha doğrusu dahil daire dakika daktilo dalmak more. repeatedly period.

husband meat skirt to influence with meat meatless house gazete gazeteci newspaper journalist futbol maçı futbolcu galiba gar garson gayrı football match football player probably train station waiter at last. consequently to fill out stuffed pepper pepper for stuffing friend friendship to pour. to turn eksersiz eksik el el feneri elbise elektrikçi eleman elli elma e-mail emin emir vermek en exercise not enough hand flashlight dress electrician employee fifty apple e-mail certain to give an order most dolayı (-den) dolayısıyla doldurmak dolma dolmalık dost dostluk dökmek dönmek dört dövmek dur be! durak endişelenmek to be anxious about enflasyon four to hit. to fight hold on! (bus) stop e-posta erkek erkek arkadaş inflation e-mail boy boyfriend eriyip gitmek to disappear Page 308 erkek kardeş erken ertelemek ertelenmek ertesi gün eski eskiden esnasında eş et etek etkilemek etli etsiz ev brother early to postpone to be postponed the next day old in the old days during wife. to sprinkle to return. to roam.dolaşmak to wander. from now on fotoğraf makinesi Fransa Fransız Fransızca camera France French French (the language) . to walk around because (of) because.

youth youth Youth Park (park in Ankara) general in general in general wide true really necessary genel genelde genellikle geniş gerçek gerçekten gerek necessary to be necessary back. previous past (in time-telling) to pass get well soon! bride developed to come young. firm price form to take a picture gece gece gündüz gecikme geç geçe night night and day delay late at…past… (in timetelling) eylül fabrika fakat fare fark etmek fark etmez! farklı Fars fazla felaket fena fırlamak fırsat fikir filan film fincan Finli firma fiyat form fotoğraf çekmek Page 309 gerekli gerekmek geri getirmek geçen geçiyor geçmek geçmiş olsun! gelin gelişmiş gelmek genç gençlik Gençlik Parkı last.evet evlenmek evli evvelki gün yes to marry married the day before yesterday September factory but mouse to notice never mind! different Persian too much disastrous bad to rush out possibility idea and so film cup Finnish company. backwards to bring grev gri gücü toplanmak strike grey to regain strength .

condition güneşlenmek güneşyağı güney güreşme gürültü güzel to laugh to smile day hello to update agenda sun to sunbathe sun-block. fine. good göndermek to send görmek (-i) to see . excursion to walk. to appear hala discussion see you! performance.gezdirmek to walk some-thing (e. beautiful. window person behind the desk gülmek gülümsemek gün günaydın güncellemek gündem güneş come on! guitar to go clothes to get dressed to wear to hide goal lake shirt according to function to look. yet. drive. demonstration to show to take (with) eye eyelid halı halk halk müziği hamam hangi? …Hanım hanımefendi hap just. state. south wrestling noise nice. güç a dog) güldürücü güle güle strength funny goodbye (answer to Allahaısmarladık) gezi gezmek gibi giriş girmek gişe gişe memuru git (ya)! gitar gitmek giyecek giyinmek giymek gizlemek gol göl gömlek göre (-e) görev görünmek görüşme görüşürüz gösteri göstermek götürmek göz gözkapağı trip. travel around as entrance to enter booth. not yet rug people folk music Turkish bath which? Madam… madam pill haber hadi! hafta hafta sonu hakkında haklı hal news come on! week weekend about right market.g.

things government lukewarm to warm oneself to bite wet hoş geldin(iz) husus hükümet ısınmak ısırmak ıslak airways.gözlük gözlükçü Page 310 harika! hasta hastane hata hatırlamak hatun hava hava yastığı hava yolları havaalanı havuç hayat hayır hayırlı işler! hayranlık hayret! hayvan hazır hazır olmak hazırlamak haziran hediye hekim hele hem de hem…hem de hemen hemen hemen henüz hep glasses optician hapishane hareket jail departure great! ill hospital mistake to remember woman weather. airlines ılık ısmarlatmak to have something ordered light inside for within (alcoholic) drink to drink to go bankrupt order two medication ad and ahead to go forward to be interested in hayırlı olsun! congratulations! ışık admiration wow! animal ready to be prepared to prepare June present. air airbag airport carrot life no have a nice day! hissetmek Hollandalı hoş bulduk to feel Dutch thank you (said in reply to hoş geldiniz) welcome! matters. always içeri için içinde içki içmek iflas etmek ihale iki ilaç ilan ile ileride ilerlemek ilgilenmek idrak etmek to understand . gift doctor but first and even either…or… immediately almost yet all.

job worker kamaşmak kamp yapmak kamyoncu Kanadalı kaldı ki kaldırım kalem kalite kaliteli kalmak kalkmak . fool everyone bill fast none. relation first first and foremost in the first place spring cursor signed to believe discount cow English English (the language) England kadar (-e) kadeh kadın kafa until (wine) glass woman head. all probably idiot. remind to get up.).hepsi her herhalde herif herkes hesap hızlı hiç hiçbiri hikaye Page 311 İngiliz İngilizce İngiltere inmek everyone every. to leave to dazzle to go camping lorry driver Canadian to get off (a bus. etc. construction kalabalık hopefully but. title Spanish (the language) station wish to want required. human being kahverengi kala insan inşaat inşallah ise isim İspanyolca istasyon istek istemek istenilen İsveçli iş işçi building. however name. ever nobody story ilginç ilişki ilk ilk önce ilk olarak ilkbahar imleç imzali inanmak indirim inek interesting contact. to go down kağıt (stairs) kahvaltı kahve people. never. wanted Swedish work. mind paper breakfast coffee brown at…to…(in timetelling) busy moreover pavement pen quality of high quality to stay.

işkembe çorbası işsiz işsizlik işte işveren İtalyan İtalyanca tripe soup unemployed unemployment well… employer Italian Italian (the language) kapak kapalı kapanmak kapatmak kapı kar yağmak karanlık karar vermek lid closed to be closed to close door to snow darkness to decide undecided motorway brother. the other side postcard tape November to scratch fight itibaren (-den) from…on iyi iyi günler iz Japon jeton kabak kabul etmek kaç kaçırmak kaçmak Page 312 kavga etmek (ile) kavun kayakçı kaybetmek kaybolmak kaydetmek kaymak kaza kazanmak kedi kelime to quarrel (with) honeydew melon skier to lose to get lost to save (files) to slip accident to win (something) cat word good. sister wife across. splendid hello trace Japanese token courgette to accept how many? to miss to escape kararsız karayolu kardeş karı karşı kartpostal kaset kasım kaşımak kavga kilo vermek kim? kimse kira kiraathane kiralamak kirletmek kirli kişi kitabevi kitap koalisyon koca kocaman to lose weight who? nobody rental cafe to rent to make dirty dirty person bookstore book coalition husband huge .

kemerlerinizi bağlayın! kendi kendine kendisi kent kepçe kesin kesinlikle kesmek keşke kırk kırmak kırmızı kırpmak kısaca kış kıyı kıymalı et kız kız arkadaş kız kardeş kızdırmak kızgın kızmak ki kibrit kilo almak Page 313 köfte fasten your seatbelts! oneself (him/her)self town scoop. usually with mahvetmek ground lamb makale malzeme mama to damage article (in paper) equipment cat food supermarket March table köpek köprü kör dog bridge blind market mart masa . cola.… winter coast minced meat girl girlfriend sister to annoy angry to get angry that matches (to light) to gain weight koçum! kol kola kolay kolayca koltuk komik komşu konferans konmak konser konu konuk konuşmak konuya gelmek korkmak korku filmi korkutmak korumak koskoca koşmak koymak koyun ‘mate’ (term of address) arm coke. to settle concert topic guest to talk. pepsi easy easily chair funny neighbour conference to be put. to speak to come to the point kontrol etmek to check to be afraid horror film to frighten to keep large to run to put sheep grilled meat dish. shovel surely for sure to cut if only forty to break red to blink in short.

civil servant to worry lentils stairs hello centre (of town) message problem season fruit to graduate people national architect guest model worldly jacket purple assistant cake shop kitchen surely happy director. manager kurbağa kurmak kurs kurtarmak kusura bakma! kuş kutu kuzey kuzu küçük kütüphane lacivert laflar lahana lahmacun lamba lazım (-mesi) lezzetli lise liste lokanta Londra lütfen maalesef mahkemeye vermek (-i) Page 314 frog to erect. little library blue nonsense cabbage Turkish pizza lamp must delicious secondary school list (little) restaurant London please unfortunately to sue merak etmek mercimek merdiven merhaba merkez mesaj mesele mevsim meyve mezun olmak (-den) millet milli mimar misafir model monden mont mor muavin muhallebici mutfak mutlaka mutlu müdür .körfez kötü köy köylü kraliçe kullanmak kupa bay bad village peasant queen to use cup (e. to put up course. in sports) mavi mayıs mektup memleket blue May letter country memnun oldum pleased to meet you memnun olmak to be pleased memur officer.g. class to save I'm sorry! bird box north lamb small.

ouch! boy school to study as situation OK more or less to become.mühendis müsaade müşteri müze müzik müzikal nasıl? nasıl olsa nasılsın? ne? ne haber? ne kadar? ne var. actor next. the other . ne yok? ne yazık ki! ne zaman? neden nedeniyle nefis nerede? nereden? neredeyse nereli? nereye? neyse niçin? nihayet nisan niye? nohut normal not engineer permit customer museum music musical how? what kind of? still. be Olympic Games ten and then they therefore there yonder.… how are you? what? how are you?. in the end April why? chickpeas normal marks (at school) o zaman ocak oda of oğlan okul okumak olarak olay oldu oldukça olmak olimpiyat oyunları on ondan sonra onlar onun için orada oradaki oralar oranla (-e) orası oraya orta şekerli otel otobüs otogar oturmak otuz oynamak oyuncak oyuncu öbür then January room oof!. well then why? finally. what's new? how many? what's new? what a pity! when? why?. reason because. thereabouts compared to there. that place to there with (normal amount of) sugar hotel bus bus station to live. in spite of that. to sit thirty to play toy player. for the reason that tasty where? from where? almost from where? where to? anyway. over there up there.

not almak o o halde o şekilde Page 315 to take notes that. before important unimportant proposal. behind gasoline cheese sparkling picnic rice dish rice dirty to cook to boil lottery piano to be introduced on to the market öyle öyle mi? öyleyse Özbekçe özellikle özen göstermek pahalı paket palto para parça such really? OK then Uzbek (the language) in particular to take care that Plaj plan polis politikacı pop müziği portakal expensive parcel coat money part. yuk! öğleden sonra afternoon öğrenci öğrenmek öğretmen öldürmek ölmek önce önemli önemsiz öneri önümüzdeki önünde öpmek öte yandan student to learn teacher to kill to die earlier. piece portakal suyu poşet program orange juice plastic bag programme portakal rengi beach plan police politician pop music orange orange (the colour) . suggestion before us in front of to kiss on the other hand pembe dizi pencere perşembe günü peşinden petrol peynir pırıl pırıl piknik pilav pirinç pis pişirmek pişmek piyango piyano piyasaya getirilmek soap opera window Thursday after. he/she/it in that case that way ödemek ödev ödünç vermek öf to pay homework to lend ugh!.

documentary delay Russian hour. meeting pasta pastane patates patlıcan pazar pazar günü peki radyo rağmen rahat bırakmak rahatsız rahatsız etmek rakı randevu pazartesi günü Monday all right. OK. ill to disturb rakı appointment. you’re welcome! to ask for novel article. clock sebze seçenek rötar Rus saat seçim seçmek sefer vegetable choice election to measure time sancak sandal saniye sanmak saray sarı satın almak satmak savaş sayfa sayı sayıca az sayın rica etmek roman röportaj saz sanal alem virtual marketplace flag canoe second to believe palace yellow to buy to sell war page number fewer honourable saz (Turkish lute) . well Page 316 rapor rast gelmek rastlamak reddetmek rehber rehberlik yapmak rekabetçi renk resepsiyon reservasyon resim rica ederim report to run into to run into to decline guide to work as a guide competitor colour reception desk reservation picture I beg you!.park parti park party (also political) cake lunchroom potatoes aubergine market Sunday program çalıştırmak programcı to run a program programmer radio in spite of to leave in peace upset. please!. not well.

only thank you cloudburst solid health really? seaside owner stage Tuesday to wave to rock living room sekiz sekreter seksen selam! sen sene sergilenmiş seslenmek sergi sert sevgili sevgilim sevimli sevmek (-i) seyahat seyahat acentası eight secretary eighty hello! you year on display to call out. to push away cigarette insurance gun sözcük sözleşme sözlük spor spor salonu sporcu su sularında sunucu susmak süre word contract dictionary sport sports centre athlete water about. around (with time) server to be silent period. dear my darling pretty to love travel travel agent mind your own business (rather seyahat etmek to travel rude) seyretmek (-i) to watch sıcak warm Page 317 sıfır sığır sıhhatli sık sık sıkılmak sınıf sırt sıyırmak sigara sigorta silah zero beef healthy often to get bored classroom back to take off. to address exhibition strong sweet. time span sigara içmek to smoke .sabah sabun saç saçmalık sadece sağ ol! sağanak sağlam sağlık sahi mi? sahil sahip sahne salı günü sallamak sallandırmak salon sana ne? morning soap hair nonsense just.

to wipe out exam cinema mosquito black you (pl. opportunity wine song to sing singer condition to be confused city sugar form. shape umbrella thing poem healthy now company bottle fat. polite) dinner table cold street left end autumn after conclusion in the end to ask question responsibility problem to extinguish to say to talk about to give the word to sürekli sürmek sürü süt şahane şaka şans şarap şarkı şarkı söylemek şarkıcı şart şaşakalmak şehir (şehri-) şeker şekil şemsiye şey şiir şifalı şimdi şirket şişe şişman şoför şöyle for a long time to last range milk great.). to wash. fantastic joke chance. you (sing. to phone phone number television . overweight driver such sinav sinema sivrisinek siyah siz sofra soğuk sokak sol son sonbahar sonra sonuç sonuçta sormak soru sorumluluk sorun söndürmek söylemek söz etmek söz vermek sipariş etmek to order sohbet etmek to chat şikayet etmek to complain şimdiye kadar already Page 318 şu şu anda şubat tabak tabii tadını çıkarmak that right now February plate of course to enjoy tekrar tekrarlamak telefon açmak telefon etmek telefon numarasi televizyon again to repeat to call up to call.silmek to delete.

to recognise to get to know. vacation sweet. (time)table history stone to carry to move taste holiday. single to offer little boat tembel temiz temizlemek temmuz tencere terbiyeli tereyağ terketmek tesadüf teslim etmek teşekkür ederim teşekkürler teyze tıraş bıçağı ticaret tip tişört tiyatro toparlanmak toplamak toplantı trafik ışıkları trafik kazası trafik lambası tren turist turistik turunç tuş tuvalet tuz tüm lazy clean to clean July saucepan well-behaved butter to leave someone coincidence to deliver thank you! thank you! aunt razor-blade trade character T-shirt theater to regain strength to harvest. dessert to recommend rabbit chicken fresh congratulations! congratulations! dangerous only. right OK to finish something to repair mechanic piece acquaintance to know. to meet to introduce My god! side recipe. to collect meeting traffic lights traffic accident traffic light train tourist tourist (adj.) orange (the colour) button bathroom salt all .tahmin etmek taksi tam tamam tamamlamak tamir etmek tamirci tane tanıdık tanımak tanışmak tanıştırmak Tanrım taraf tarife tarih taş taşımak taşınmak tat tatil tatlı tavsiye etmek tavşan tavuk taze tebrik ederim! tebrikler! tehlikeli tek teklif etmek tekne Page 319 to guess taxi exactly.

just by oneself yalan söylemek to lie . close to some time soon to complain handsome about.Türk Türk Hava Yolları Türkçe Türkiye türküaz ucuz uçak uçmak uğramak (-e) umarım unutmak usta uyanmak (ayak) uydurmak uygun uyku uyku tulumu uymak uyumak uzak uzatmak uzman uzun uzun uzun ücret ücretsiz üç ülke üniversite ünlü üretim üretmek ürün Turkish. Turk Turkish Airlines Turkish (language) Turkey turquoise cheap plane to fly to look up I hope that to forget master to wake someone to adapt fit. I swear boat there is to arrive to exist countryman and vegetarian data to give vet or etcetera to shoot. tall for a long time fee for free three country university famous production to produce product üşütmek üzerine üzgün üzülmek üzüm vakıf vakit ( vakti-) vallahi vapur var varmak varolmak vatandaş ve vejetaryen veri vermek veteriner veya vs. to hand over excellent long. to strike foreign stew. (ve saire) vurmak yabancı yahni yakalamak yakın yakınlarda yakınmak yakışıklı yaklaşık yalan yalı yalnız yalnız başına to catch a cold about sad to be disappointed grape foundation time really. capable sleep sleeping-bag to satisfy to sleep far to pass. more or less lie (wooden) house. sauce to catch near. villa only.

nevertheless twenty there. to make stuffed vine leaves yeniden yenmek yepyeni yer yeşil yeterli yetişkin again to win brand new place green enough grown-up to catch (a train. way traveller journey. isn’t or road. prohibited yetişmek yetmiş yıkamak yıl yıldız yine yine de yirmi age to live aged. trip to travel duvet tired to get tired to govern strategy upstairs to have someone do something wounded to help to be of help half tomorrow contest forbidden. old bed bedroom to lie down pedestrian broadcast to publish meadow summer writer yok yoksa yol yolcu yolculuk yolculuk etmek yorgan yorgun yorulmak yönetmek yöntem yukarıda . on to wear yanında yanıt yani with. etc. that is wrong mistake to burn task to do. at the side of answer so.) seventy to wash year star again still.üstelemek üstelik üstünde üstünde…var Page 320 yanlış yanlışlık yanmak yapım yapmak yaprak dolması yaptırmak yaralı yardım etmek (-e) yardımcı olmak yarım yarın yarışma yasak yaş yaşamak yaşlı yatak yatak odası yatmak yaya yayım yayınlamak yayla yaz yazar to repeat moreover above.

Amerikan .yazık yazılım yazmak yedi yeğen yemek yemek yemek unfortunately software to write seven nephew food. hakkında and yaklaşık üstünde ve and even. more or less above biraz üzerine. to eat to eat (used when what is eaten isn't specified) Yunan Yunanistan yüklemek yüksek yürek yürümek yürüyüş yapmak yüz yüzmek Greek Greece to download high. girl! (form of address) new yüzyıl zahmet etmek to go to the trouble to be a lot of trouble to think during anyway poor rich olives zil zincir ziyaret ziyaret etmek zor zorla zorunda (-mek) zorunda kalmak bell chain visit pay a visit difficult with difficulty to be obliged to have to Page 322 English-Turkish glossary a little about about. face to swim century yenge yeni Page 321 zahmet olmak zannetmek zarfında zaten zavallı zengin zeytin aunt. then ondan sonra American Amerikalı. and …too hem de and then. tall (not for people) heart to walk to go for a walk hundred.

gayrı patlıcan her zaman.geçe telling) at that/the moment şu anda almost always hemen hemen. to get answer kızmak (-e) (verb) cevap vermek. hep. tüm angry. sanmak. hepsi.accept accident according to acquaintance across actually ad address adult after. (noun) cevap. work at…to…(in timetelling) zaten elma başvurmak (-e) nisan kol varmak (-e) olarak gibi soru sormak ödev kala alcoholic drink içki at…past… (in time. yine karşı (-e) yaşlı gündem hava hava yastığı havaalanı bütün. later afternoon again against aged agenda air airbag airport all kabul etmek kaza göre tanıdık karşı aslında ilan adres yetişkin sonra öğleden sonra tekrar. az kaldı at last aubergine artık. in the way of as ask assignment. yanıt anyway apple apply April arm arrive as. daima. (in something) inanmak (-e) zil ait (-e) back (backwards) geri . her. August Ağustos hep aunt (from father’s yenge side) Page 323 aunt (from mother’s side) autumn awful baby back (part of the body) teyze sonbahar berbat bebek sırt bell belonging to beginners behaviour behind believe başlayanlar davranış arkasında zannetmek.

first. tuvalet körfez şaşakalmak bitmek doğmak olmak kapanmak between bicycle big bill bird birthday bite black Black Sea blind blue boat arasında bisiklet büyük hesap kuş doğum günü ısırmak siyah Karadeniz kör mavi vapur kitap sıkılmak şişe kutu oğlan erkek arkadaş ekmek gelin köprü getirmek bozuk kardeş ilgilenmek (-ile) book korkmak (-den) bored. earlier before us begin Page 324 bus stop abi erkek kardeş kahverengi kurmak bina yanmak otobüs durak chili biber . bridge dolayısıyla. be become quiet bed bedroom beef beer before.bad bag balcony bank bathhouse bathroom bay be surprised be used up be born be. office burn bus brother or sister (younger sibling) become. become be closed be interested in be afraid be disappointed be late be pleased beach beautiful because kötü. diye bring broken olmak susmak yatak yatak odası sığır bira önce önümüzdeki başlamak (-e) brother (older) brother brown build up building. to get üzülmek (-e) geç kalmak bottle box memnun olmak boy (-den) boyfriend plaj güzel bread bride çünkü. fena çanta balkon banka hamam banyo.

etc. telefon etmek choose. çarşı yüzyıl emin. ülke vatandaş cesaret kabak capable. if but still but butcher butter buy cafe. measure cigarette cinema city city council classmate clean clear clever clock close close to.:) yetişmek (-e) clothes cloudy coffee coffee-house coincidence coke cold collect.busy but. fakat kasap tereyağ almak. elect. near closed seçmek sigara sinema şehir (şehri-) belediye sınıf arkadaşı temiz açık akıllı saat kapatmak yakın (-e) kapalı giyecek bulutlu kahve kahvehane tesadüf kola soğuk toplamak renk gelmek hadi! bilgisayar hayırlı olsun! devam etmek (-e) aşçı pişirmek doğru memleket. (phone:) aramak. harvest colour come come on! centre century certain certainly chain chairperson chance change chat cheap check merkez. fit capital car careful! carrot carry cat catch uygun başkent araba dikkat et! havuç tutmak. belli kesinlikle zincir başkan şans değişmek sohbet etmek ucuz kontrol etmek computer congratulations! continue cook (noun) cook (verb) correct country countryman courage courgette . plane. taşımak kedi yakalamak. satın almak pastane pasta çağırmak. lunchroom cake call kalabalık ise ancak ama. (a train.

pis tartışmak görüşme rahatsız etmek yapmak doktor.cheese chef chicken chickpeas child Page 325 cute dad dance (nonTurkish style) peynir aşçı tavuk nohut çocuk cow cup cupboard customer cut inek fincan dolap müşteri kesmek sevimli baba election seçim ilkokul elementary dans etmek school empty boş bitmek düşman İngiltere İngilizce İngiliz bayılmak. (food:) tadını çıkarmak dance (Turkishstyle) dangerous day December dentist departure dial dictionary die different difficult dinner director dirty discuss discussion disturb do doctor dog doll door dans oynamak tehlikeli gün aralık dişçi hareket çevirmek sözlük ölmek farklı zor akşam yemeği müdür kirli. eğlenmek. hekim köpek bebek kapı end enemy England English (the language) English (the people) enjoy enough enter (a competition) enter entrance Europe even evening eventually. finally everyone yeterli katılmak girmek giriş Avrupa bile akşam nihayet herkes . beğenmek (-i).

gayrı meyve bol . drop fall in love family famous tam sınav uzman bahane affedersiniz pahalı söndürmek göz gözkapağı yüz fabrika düşmek aşık olmak aile ünlü uzak hızlı kemerlerinizi bağlayın! şişman bayram şubat hissetmek. duymak vapur az elli dövmek doldurmak film bulmak bitirmek ilk France French (the language) French (the people) fresh Friday friend friendly friendship frog from where? (origin) from…on from now on fruit full of Fransa Fransızca Fransız taze cuma günü arkadaş. measure Page 326 far fast fasten your seatbelts! fat. first early earn east easy eat eight eighty elect. pretext excuse me expensive extinguish eye eyelid face factory fall. dost dostça dostluk kurbağa nereli …(-den) itibaren artık. choose.dress dressed. to get drink driver earlier. before. overweight feast February feel ferry few fifty fight fill out film find finish first elbise giyinmek içmek şoför önce erken kazanmak Doğu kolay yemek yemek sekiz seksen seçmek exactly exam excellent excuse.

happy glass komik. to get up. before fisherman fit. to get used to.first. apartment flower fly folk music follow foot football match for free for for a long time forbidden foreign Foreign Affairs forget form four forty Page 327 good-tasting gossip government grades (in school) grandfather grandmother grape önce balıkçı uygun beş sancak el feneri daire çiçek uçmak halk müziği takip etmek ayak futbol maçı ücretsiz için sürekli yasak yabancı Dış İşleri unutmak form dört kırk function. etc.) get on.) get to know. capable five flag flashlight flat. güldürücü bahçe inmek (-den) binmek (-e) tanışmak kalkmak alışmak (e) kız kız arkadaş vermek mutlu (water) bardak. to girl girlfriend give glad. earlier. spectacles gözlük go out go good good morning good recovery! çıkmak gitmek iyi günaydın geçmiş olsun! nefis dedikodu yapmak help here yardım etmek (-e) burada yüksek kaliteli tarih dövmek tutmak dur! hükümet notlar dede anneanne üzüm high high quality history hit hold hold on! . to (bus. position görev funny garden get off. etc. (wine) kadeh glasses. to (train.

not rahatsız well Page 328 ill hasta language dil . selam honour honourable hopefully horse hospital hotel hour. eş ben bıktım (-den) kusura bakma! fikir boktan herif eğer keşke. işitmek yürek merhaba. (verb:) acele etmek koca. upset. collect have something ordered have breakfast head headache health healthy hear heart hello Yunanistan Yunan yeşil gri. şifali duymak. buçuk el yakışıklı. misafir saç yarım. konuk. harika! (as in: I’m feeling great!) bomba gibiyim holiday. güzel mutlu çalışkan toplamak ısmarlatmak kahvaltı etmek baş baş ağrısı sağlık sıhhatli. bari Greece Greek green grey grilled (lamb) meat grocer ground meat grow guest hair half hand handsome happy. vacation homework honeydew melon tatil ev ödevi kavun ödül sayın inşallah at hastane otel saat ev ev kadını nasıl? kaç? ne kadar? kocaman yüz (noun:) acele.great şahane. boz köfte bakkal kıymalı et büyümek yabancı. clock house housewife how? how many? how much? huge hundred hurry horror movie korku filmi husband I I'm fed up with… I'm sorry idea idiot if if only ill. glad hard-working harvest.

like this/that (hold:) tutmak listen little boat anahtar öpmek mutfak bıçak live live. water su (protect:) korumak. hareket etmek in short. sit little key kiss kitchen knife . (someone:) ayrılmak. (latest:) son in a little bit birazdan last (verb) late in particular özellikle in spite of in the old days in the past included interesting introduce invite rağmen eskiden geçmişte dahil ilginç tanıştırmak davet etmek. (from:) kalkmak. genelde last (previous:) geçen.important in front of in general önemli önünde genellikle. after laugh learn leather leave sürmek geç sonra gülmek öğrenmek deri (something:) bırakmak.… kısaca investigate araştırmak juice. (few:) az yaşamak oturmak in that case o halde later. çağırmak left is that so? island jail January Japanese joke journalist July June just just now keep öyle mi? ada hapishane ocak Japon şaka gazeteci temmuz haziran hala demin lend lesson letter library lid lie down lie life light lighter (for cigarettes) like sol ödünç vermek ders mektup kütüphane kapak yatmak yalan söylemek hayat ışık çakmak gibi böyle/öyle dinlemek tekne (small:) küçük.

bilmek göl kuzu lamba lively living room long look for look cıvıl cıvıl salon uzun aramak bakmak (-e) kaybetmek sevmek (-i) düşük bagaj cihaz mom moment Monday money month anne an pazartesi günü para ay ay daha oldukça üstelik sabah cami sivrisinek en anne anayol dağ yayla low (e. close to move (house) taşınmak müze gerek. çarşı evli evlenmek (-ile) usta kibrit husus mayıs belki demek morning mosque mosquito most mother motorway mountain mountain meadow museum must My god! name national near. price) luggage machine Madam hanımefendi. to get master matches matters May maybe mean (as in: [that] means) anayol yapmak kirletmek adam bir sürü mart pazar.knock (door) know lake lamb lamp Page 329 lose love çalmak tanımak.g. (+last name:) moon first name +Hanım more more or less moreover main road make make dirty man many March market married married. isim milli yakın (-e) . lazım (+infinitive) Allah Allah! ad.

öbür. hala hiç fark etmek kasım şimdi ekim pass palace paper parcel part party owner page paint outside other süt bakan dakika yanlışlık. self noise nonsense North not not yet nothing notice November now October gürültü saçmalık. mecbur. yooo!. diger (place:) dışında. (date:) randevu never nevertheless new news milk minister minute mistake Page 330 niece night nine ninety no yeğen gece dokuz doksan hayır. lazım. zorunda (-mek) need neighbour nephew meeting (official:) toplantı. laf Kuzey değil henüz. (with:) buluşmak (-ile) necessary gerek.meanwhile meat medicine meet bu arada et ilaç tanışmak. yok. (there isn’t:) yok over and over own. (direction:) dışarıya devamlı kendi sahip sayfa boyamak/boya yapmak saray kağıt paket bölüm eğlence. görüşmek. (also political:) parti geçmek . hata newspaper next. gerek (-e) komşu yeğen hiç bir zaman yine de yeni haber gazete gelecek yanında güzel başka. coming next to nice gerekmek.

(instrument:) çalmak oyuncu lütfen dokunmayınız! cep çakı şiir polis recently really gözlükçü filan veya. (I swear!:) vallahi. öte yandan. (nation:) millet biber dolmalık biber kişi telefon etmek piyano resim. da/de. fotoğraf piece optician or so or orange (colour) orange juice Page 331 play player please please don't touch! pocket pocket knife poem policeman oynamak. yoksa portakal rengi pill pink place plane plastic bag portakal suyu plate tane hap pembe yer uçak poşet tabak ancak. a one time only open tabii büro sık sık aman! Allahım yağ tamam eski zeytin Olimpiyat oyunları ancak. gerçekten. sadece (adj. (verb:) açmak past (in timetelling) pay pay a visit pear pen people pepper pepper (for stuffing) person phone.:) açık. my God oil OK old olives Olympics on the other hand one. ise bir bir kere yalnız. son zamanlarda recognise tanımak red remain kırmızı kalmak remember hatırlamak .of course office often oh dear Oh. (really?:) sahi mi? yakınlarda. call piano picture geçiyor ödemek ziyaret etmek armut kalem insan.

(verb:) kiralamak. üstelemek repeatedly devamlı. study ready Page 332 seaside season second secretary sahil mevsim saniye sekreter mor koymak (-e) çeyrek kraliçe soru çabuk tavşan yağmur yağmak okumak hazır smart smile smoke snow akıllı gülümsemek sigara içmek kar . herhalde sorun. student öğrenci purple put quarter queen question quick rabbit rain read.poor possibility postcard postpone potatoes pour precisely prepare present price probably problem produce product programme prohibited pull punish punishment zavallı fırsat kartpostal ertelemek patates dökmek tam hazırlamak hediye fiyat galiba. demek okul deniz restaurant lokanta right away hemen ring (bell) çalmak pupil. doğru nehir yol dolaşmak oda çöplük koşmak Rus tuz aynı cumartesi günü tencere söylemek. tutmak repeat tekrarlamak. republic resemble return rice rich right river road roam room rubbish bin run Russian salt same Saturday saucepan say school sea cumhuriyet benzemek (-e) dönmek pirinç zengin haklı. mesele üretmek ürün program yasak çekmek ceza vermek ceza rent (noun:) kira.

durum. olay altı altmış etek uyku so. a few some time soon somebody someone something sometimes song sorry? south speak sports spring (season) sprinkle stage stairs stand star state station stay step on still stone stop story straight strategy street strike. (avenue:) cadde vurmak shoot. (+last name:) first name+Bey abla kız kardeş oturmak hal. bazı yakında bir kimse biri (or: birisi) birşey bazen şarkı efendim? güney konuşmak spor ilkbahar dökmek sahne merdiven durmak yıldız devlet istasyon kalmak basmak henüz. strike vurmak student. pupil öğrenci . that is so much soap solution some. yine de taş bırakmak hikaye doğru yöntem sokak. own sell send September seven seventy shape sheep shirt shoes shop shopping shout show side simple since sing singer single sink sir/madam Sir sister (older) sister sit. daha.see you! see self. live situation six sixty skirt sleep görüşürüz! görmek (-i) kendi satmak göndermek eylül yedi yetmiş şekil koyun gömlek ayakkabı dükkan alışveriş bağırmak göstermek taraf basit (…-den) beri şarkı söylemek şarkıcı tek batmak efendim beyefendi. shoot yani o kadar sabun çözüm birkaç.

sanmak. read eğitim okumak stuffed pepper stuffed vine leaves stupid success such suddenly sugar suitcase summer sun sunbathe Sunday supermarket surely sweet swim T-shirt table take take. zaman . no there you are! there there is therefore these days they thing think Allaha şükür şu o evvelki gün ertesi gün tiyatro ondan sonra o zaman yok buyurun! orada var onun için. sefer first time’) time vakit.sleep sleeping bag Page 333 uyumak uyku tulumu studies study. and then then there isn’t. zannetmek otuz bu bin üç atmak perşembe günü bilet gişe thirty this thousand three throw Thursday taste tasty tea teacher teapot tat lezzetli çay öğretmen çaydanlık ticket ticket booth time (as in ‘the defa. uzun boylu (for persons) Thank god! that/this that. he the day before yesterday the day after tomorrow theater then. buy take pictures take a shower talk about tall dolma yaprak dolması aptal başarı(lar) böyle birden şeker bavul yaz güneş güneşlenmek pazar günü market mutlaka tatlı yüzmek tişört masa götürmek almak fotoğraf çekmek duş yapmak söz etmek yüksek (not for persons). bu/o yüzden bu günlerde onlar şey düşünmek.

(verb. sağ ol(un)! Page 334 tomorrow tongue too toothpaste topic tourist town toy train train station tree try Tuesday Turkey Turkish (the language) yarın dil da/de diş macunu konu turist. çalışmak (-e) salı günü Türkiye Türkçe wall wander want war warm wash watch duvar dolaşmak istemek savaş sıcak yıkamak (noun:) saat. şehir oyuncak tren istasyon. (watch out!) dikkat et! vegetarian very much vet village visit visit someone wait waiter wake up walk vejetaryen çok veteriner köy ziyaret uğramak (-e) beklemek (-i) garson uyanmak yürümek. gezmek (-i) Turkish Airlines Turkish pizza Turkish turn into twenty two Türk Hava Yolları lahmacun Türk değiştirmek (-a) water yirmi iki we weak (tea) su biz açık . TV) seyretmek. name today together toilet token tarife yorgun yorulmak isim bugün beraber. to get title. gar ağaç denemek.:) turistik kent.television tell ten tent televizyon anlatmak on çadır timetable tired tired. (with:) birlikte (-ile) tuvalet jeton thank you (said in hoş bulduk! reply to hoş geldiniz) thank you teşekkür ederim. (adj.

eş yenmek kazanmak. anyway. next to . (verb:) çalışmak. (hard:) didinmek işçi dünya merak etmek yazmak yazar yanlış bahçe yıl. neden? geniş karı. niçin.) siz worker world worry write writer wrong window pencere. garden year şarap kış istek lezzetli yanında yellow yes yesterday yet you wine winter wish with good taste with. sene. (with age:) yaş sarı evet dün henüz. (glass:) cam yard.typewriter uncle (from father’s side) uncle (from mother's side) undecided under understand unfortunately unimportant university until upstairs US use value vegetable Page 335 white who who cares? why wide wife win win daktilo amca dayı kararsız altında anlamak önemsiz üniversite (…-e) kadar yukarıda Amerika kullanmak değer sebze weather Wednesday week weekend welcome! West what can I do for you? what’s new? what-do-youcall-it? whatever. (pl. kelime (noun:) iş. polite) siz. at the side. when where? which hava çarşamba günü hafta hafta sonu hoş geldin(iz)! Batı buyurun! ne? ne haber? şey! neyse ne zaman? nerede? hangi? yazık. hala sen. maalesef what beyaz kim? boşver! niye. (lottery:) vurmak word work sözcük. (sing. at.

with within without stopping woman ile içinde devamlı kadın. 233 articles 12 as soon as 201 asking questions 40. 66 . 161 adjective 259 adjective +bir+ noun 159 comparison 51 intensifiers 199 material 156 word order 154 adverbs of time 31 agglutination 256 all 216 alphabet 3 and 211. (derogatory:) karı young youth zero genç genç sıfır Page 337 Index ablative case 50 accusative case 99. 60. 41. 45.

155. 164 locative 48. 55 nominative 258 causative 241 closed conditions 197 colloquial matters 242 commands and suggestions 137 comparison of adjectives 51 compound nouns 151. 236 erek 234 ince 201 ip 233 . 161 dative 49 genitive 94. 162 conditional clauses 193 converbs 201.before 205 bir 84 broad tense 123 form 123 meaning 126 cases 258 ablative 50 accusative 99.

miş 189 diği gibi 204 diği halde 204 diği için 204 diği kadar 204 diği takdirde 204 diği zaman 204 diğinden 204 direction (from) 50 direction (to) 49 diye 251 double tenses 243 ecegi zaman 225 ecek 107 ecekti 243 endings 10 . 107 demonstratives 68 desire 112 di past tense 26 di vs.ken 201 conversation aids 206 dative case 49 days of the week 32.

132 genitive case 94 genitive-possessive constructions 164 gerek 144 greetings 6 have to 144 if 193 imperative 136 indefinite pronouns 212 infinitive 142 infinitive plus case endings 146 influencing people 136 intensifiers 199 introducing people 8 . 131 meaning 126. 107 Page 338 geniş zaman 123 form 123.every 216 existential sentences 63 past tense 65 future 104.

ip 233 iyor 14. 146 mek 143 mi questions 42. many 218 negation 80 numbers 74 expressing age 77 . at. 45 miş (past tense) 186 miş (participle) 191 miş vs. 26 iyor vs. geniş zaman 129 iyordu 243 ki 228 lazım 144 leri/ları 166 let’s… 111 location (in. 55 me 143. on) 48 locative case 48. di 189 mişti 243 much.

259 indefinite 212 pronunciation 3. genitive 97 plans and intentions 104 plural 85.ordinals 86 obligation or need 135 olmak 219 open conditions 195 ordinal numbers 86 other (one) 213 past tense di 26 past tense miş 186 past tense participle miş 191 permission and obligation 134 personal pronouns. 91 postpositions 245. 262 constructions 245 simple 245 present tense iyor 26 pronouns 169. 114 quantifiers 216 . 158 possession 64.

question particle 41. 54 negation: değil 56. 45 question words 40 questions/answers 81 relative clauses 178 some 218 someone 212 spelling 34 subordinate clauses 174. 157 syllable reduction 21 time telling 114 to be 21. 177 verbs that require 249 suffixes 10. 160 var/yok 21. 63 past tense 65 Page 339 questions 66 . 59 past tense 58 questions 60 to have 64. 98. 42.

204. 45 . 55 negation: değil 56. 260 vowel harmony 12.verb endings 14 verbless sentences 54. 59 past tense 58 questions 60 verbs 23. 257 when 201. 225 while 201 without 205 word order 258 adjectives 154 yes/no questions 41.

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