Yeshwantrao Chavan College Of Engineering SESSION-2009-10 Question Bank

Artificial Intelligence
1. What is knowledge? With the help of block diagram, explain the different components of knowledge based system 2. What is AI technique? Explain different AI techniques 3. Explain Turing Test with suitable diagram. 4. What are task domains of artificial intelligence? Explain with example. 5. What is knowledge? Give the difference between data and knowledge. With the help of block diagram. Explain the components of knowledge based system. 6. Explain the difference between Data, knowledge, belief and hypothesis. 7. Explain the physical symbol system hypothesis.

1. Explain the characteristics of AI problem with example.


Explain the characteristics of AI problem. Analyse “traveling salesman problem” with respect to seven characteristics.


Write the difference between depth-first search and breadth first search.


What are the steps involved in building a system to solve an AI problem.


What is production system?


Discuss and compare hill climbing and best first search technique.


Explain steepest ascent hill climbing technique.


Write and explain AO* algorithm.


Consider 8-puzzle problem. Construct state space for above mentioned problem. Draw state space diagram. Write some rules, for performing search in defined state space.


State the characteristics of AI problem. Explain first characteristic with suitable example.


Explain A* algorithm.


Explain cryptyrithmetic problem. Apply appropriate heuristics search technique to get solution. Also write and explain algorithm for the same heuristics search technique.


What is state space? Give state space representation for water- jug problem.


Write the algorithm for the following heuristics search techniques:

i) Generate and Test ii) Means end analysis.

1. Write and explain resolution algorithm for predicate logic. Explain with a suitable example. 2. Explain the differences between procedural and declarative knowledge.

3. Write short note on i) Logic programming ii) Forward and backward reasoning.

4. Write and explain unification algorithm. 5. Write short note on: i) Forward and backward reasoning, ii) Unification algorithm iii) Control knowledge iv) Logic programming.


Given the following a knowledge base:a) If x is on top of y, y supports x, b) If x is above y and they are touching each other, x is on top of y c) A cup is above a book. d) A cup is touching a book. i) Represent statement in predicate logic ii) Translate statements 1 through 4 into clausal form iii) Show that the predicate support (book, cup) its true using resolution.


Represent the following statements in predicate logic and convert any one of them

clause form: i) Everyone is loyal to someone. ii) All Romans were either loyal to Caesar or hated him.

8. Construct the following statements in predicate logic: i) All people need water, ii) Sita is a marine engineer and she is also an artist.

9. Write and explain resolution algorithm for predicate logic. Explain its working with suitable example.

10. Explain the term “Inference Engine”.

11. What are the different terms for steps converting WFF to its equivalent clause form. 12. Write set of production rules for following problem: In the midst of the journey, a farmer along with his goat, a wolf and a cabbage to a river that they must cross. There is a boat on the near side of the river, but it is only large enough to accommodate the farmer and one other item. The farmer must contrive a sequence of river crossing that will result in safe crossing. Following symbols are used to represent elements of given system: F,W,G,C States are represented as (<symbols of elements of near side>-<symbols of elements of far side>). State whether forward or backward reasoning is applicable and why i) Fault finding expert system ii) Medical expert system.

13. Consider the following sentences: • John likes all kinds of food • Apples are food • Chicken is food • Anything anyone eats and isn’t killed by is food • Bill eats peanuts and is still alive • Sue eats everything Bill eats a) Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic b) Prove that John likes peanuts using backward chaining c) Convert the formulas of part a into clause form d) Prove that John likes peanuts using resolution. e) Use resolution to answer the question, “What food does Sue eat?” 14. Suppose that we are attempting to resolve the following the following clauses: loves(father(a), a) ¬ loves(y,x) ν loves(x,y) a) What will be the result of the unification algorithm when to clause 1 and the first term of clause 2? b) What must be generated as a result of resolving these two clauses?

15. What problems would be encountered in attempting to represent the following statements in predicate logic? It should be possible to deduce the final statement from the others. • John only likes to see French movies • It’s safe to assume a movie is American unless explicitly told otherwise. • The Playhouse rarely shows foreign films • People don’t do things that will cause them to be in situations that they don’t like. • John doesn’t go to the Playhouse very often. 16. Trace the operation of the unification algorithm on the following pairs of literals: a) f(Marcus) and f(Caesar) b) f(x) and f(g(y)) c) f(Marcus, g(x,y)) and f(x, g(Caesar, Marcus)) 17. Explain Resolution algorithm with suitable example. 18. Explain Unification Algorithm with suitable example.

UNIT IV 1. Explain how knowledge is represented using conceptual dependency. 2. Differentiate between following terms: (a) Conventional software and AI software. (b) Knowledge and Database. 3 Write a short note on conceptual dependency. 4. Write a short note on Semantic net. 5. Explain the properties of Semantic net. 6. Construct semantic net representations for the following: (A) Pompeian(Marcus), Blacksmith(Marcus) (B) Mary gave the green flowered vase to her favorite cousin. 7. Write a short on: (a) Nonmonotonic reasoning (b)Dumpster-Shafer Theory 8. Construct partitioned semantic net for the following: (a)Every batter hit a ball. (b)All the batters like the pitcher.

9. Write a short note on frames. 10. Explain how property inheritance is handled in knowledge representation using frame. 11. Explain dependency of CD. 12 Write a short note on probability and Bayes theorem. 13 Explain CYC. 14 Write a short note on MYCIN. 15 Explain the application of certainty factor and probability theory of representation of uncertain knowledge. 16. What is fuzzy logic? How it is used for decision making under uncertainty?

UNIT V 1. What is learning? 2. Define Learning. 3. Draw and explain the block diagram of general learning model. 4. What are factors affecting learning performance? State its performance measures. 5. Write a short note on Explanation based learning. 6. What are the different types of learning? 7. Write a short note on Rote learning. 8. Explain Induction learning. 9. Explain Winston’s learning program. 10. Write a short note on Version spaces. 11. Explain the algorithm for Candidate Elimination.

12. Write a short note on Explanation based learning. 13. Explain learning by taking advice with suitable example. 14. What is learning by analogy? Explain with suitable example. 15. Explain transformational analogy and derivational analogy. 16. What are the different approaches in concept learning? Explain any one of them. 17. Explain learning by discovery and its different types. 18. Write a short note on rule based AI production system. 19. With the help of block diagram explain the components of a typical Expert System. 20. State the difference between supervised and unsupervised learning. 21. What do you mean by expert system shell? State its advantages. 22. Give applications of Expert System. 23. Explain DENDRAL Expert system 24. Write a short note on generalized learning. 25. Explain learning by discovery. 26. For each of the following task, determine whether the inference engine should use forward backward chaining: a) Designing a layout of a house. b) Diagnosing patient for a disease.

UNIT VI 1. What are the levels of knowledge used in language understanding? 2. Explain overview of linguistics. 3. What are the various approaches to natural language understanding? 4. Write a short note on AI languages.

5. Write short note on : a) Grammars and parsers. b) Top-down versus bottom up parsing c) Augmented Transition networks 6. Explain semantic analysis. 7. Write a short note on a) Lexical processing b) Sentence level processing 8. Explain the interaction between syntax and semantics. 9. Explain the terms discourse and Pragmatic processing. 10. Write a short note on game playing in AI. 11. What is meant by minimax search procedure in AI? 12. “The minimax search procedure is a depth first, depth limited procedure.” Comment. 13. Explain the alpha beta pruning strategy with suitable example. 14. Apply DFID to the water jug problem. 15. How would the minimax procedure have to be modified to be used by a program playing a three- or four- person game rather than a two-person game.

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