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Power is the most vital necessity for industrial and economical growth of any nation. Electricity can bring sea changes in quality of life of its society members. NTPC in its endeavour for becoming most significant entity once again after 30 years of untiring and relentless efforts, reaffirm its commitment towards making India a self-reliant nation in the field of power generation. Having proven excellence in Operation & Maintenance of 200 and 500MW units; for the first time we are going ahead with the commissioning of 660MW units at our Sipat Project. This is a major step towards technological advancement in power generation. In the present time, efficient and economical power generation is the only answer to realise our ambitious plan. It is the need of the hour that available human resources who are the at the whelm of the affairs managing the large thermal power plants having sophisticated technology and complex controls, is to be properly channelised and trained. NTPC management firmly believes that skill and expertise up-gradation is a continuous process. Therefore, training gets utmost priority in our company. Power Plant Simulators are the most effective tools ever created. This has computer based response, creation incorporating mathematical models to provide real time environment, improves retentivity and confidence level to an optimum level in a risk-free, cost and time effective way.To supplement the hands-on training on panel and make the training more effective an operation manual in two volumes has been brought out. The operation manual on 500MW plant provide the information comprehensively covering all the aspects of Power Plant Operation which can be useful for fresh as well as experienced engineers. It provides a direct appreciation of basics of thermal power plant operation and enables them to take on such responsibility far more sincerely and effectively. I am pleased to dedicate these manuals (volume- I & II), prepared by CSTI members which is a pioneer institute covering more than 7000 participants till date, to the fraternity of engineers engaged in their services to power plant. The volume-I deals with the Plant & system description and II covers the operating instruction in a lucid way. I sincerely hope that readers will find these manuals very useful and the best learning aid to them.
I believe that in spite of all sincere efforts and care of faculty members & staff, some area of improvement might have remained unnoticed. Hence, your valuable suggestions and comments will always be well received and acted upon.
( A. CHAUDHURI ) GENERAL MANAGER
CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. 1. 2. TOPIC PLANT SIMULATION AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM BOILER AND AUXILIARIES CONDENSATE AND FEED WATER SYSTEM CONDENSER AND EVACUATION SYSTEM HP AND LP BYPASS SYSTEM STEAM TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM AUTOMATIC TURBINE TEST TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR GENERATOR, ITS AUXILIARIES AND EXCITATION SYSTEM PAGE NO
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
189-209 211-244 245-293 295-319 321-334
PLANT SIMULATION AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
KORBA SIMULATOR 8 .
THE SIMULATOR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE THE HARDWARE: . consisting of Rectifiers. the control systems . West Germany. The system mainly comprises of • • • Two computers for simulation of plant equipments (SIMULATION COMPUTER) One computer for simulation of DAS tasks (DAS COMPUTER) Shared memory systems (for coupling DAS and SIMULATION COMPUTERS) KORBA SIMULATOR 9 . Inverters. Batteries. AC distribution panels. Static By-pass Switch.PLANT SIMULATION AND DAS THE PLANT SIMULATION The 500MW-training simulator is a complete full scope replica of the 500MW coal-fired unit-6 of Singrauli plant of NTPC. The actual plant. the equipments. etc. USA. Computer system and peripherals: .The computer systems supplied are 32 bit digital computers of Encore. The supplied model 32 / 67 is ideally suited for the real time simulation applications.1 FIG-1 SIMULATOR HARDWARE ORGANISATION UPS System: .It is a 55KVA UPS with 100 % stand by capacity.all are replaced by their mathematical models and made to run through a real -time execution process of a computer to represent the exact plant dynamics through its process parameters on the Unit Control Panel. which creates the real time effects of the plant operating conditions on the Unit Control Panel equipments. Stabilizer. The UPS is Supplied by M/S AEG . It provides regulated power supply to the complete Simulator equipments.The simulator system is having the hardware organisation as per fig.
DAS comprises of three color CRTs mounted on UCB-2 panel having assigned as Utility. • • Control Panel: .a Simulator control panel with mounted instruments is replica of Unit -6 of Singrauli Power Plant and is the main hardware of this Simulator. Input Output Processor (IOP) and peripheral controllers. Alarm and Operation CRT. disc drives. Interface (Input / Output) System: . The main function of the I/O sub system is to update the UCB output points with the current simulated value and to report the state of the UCB inputs to the simulation computer. the panels are also equipped with control switches. The computer system is based on a high speed synchronous bus (called as SELBUS) . Set of cables for interconnecting the system and peripherals. associated Control Room Equipment (CRE) power supply and special device interface modules. Graphics systems (colour monitors /controllers) video colour printer etc.The I/O sub-system forms the interface between the simulation computers and the UCB panels. one remote control unit and one special function keyboard with back lighted push buttons for activation of desired function. certain functions can be initiated/stopped during training session without the notice of the trainee and training session transients can be hard copied on video printer for further analysis. This system accommodates 800 / 1600 / 3200 bpi streaming Mag tape units and over two Gigabytes of disk storage. One additional CRT is also provided on Operator‘s desk. floppy drives. It offers 18 Selbus slots and four MPbus slots and peripheral space.Instructor station hardware comprises mainly of Instructor station console and peripherals such as two monitors with keyboards. ‘system consoles. With the help of remote control unit. on which the CPU and / or IPU are residing . I/O sub-system consists of four SIMTROLs catering the all sections of the UCB. Instruments mounted on these panels represent the operation of the real plant processes which are simulated by the computer systems and the computed information is transmitted to these instruments via Input / Output system. hard copy printers. In addition to various monitoring and recording equipments. Data Acquisition System (DAS): . line printers. It comprises of UCB section 1 to 3 and CSSAEP panels. It supports upto 16 MB main memmory. annunciation system and DAS system.• Various peripherals such as magnetic tape drives. For documentation purposes Hard Copy KORBA SIMULATOR 10 . Instructor Station: . one video hard copy printer. indicating lamps.
Hard copy of the information from any of the DAS CRTs can also be obtained on video printer through selector switches.The computers work on a Mapped Program Executive (MPX-32) disk-oriented. arrays and subroutine used in a program.UNISYSTEM is a Software tool for use in the developement of large-scale real time application programs. muliple batch streams and intertask communication. It provides: • A data base to record and describe the variables.2 FIG-2 SIMULATOR SOFTWARE ORGANISATION Computer operating System MPX-32: . THE SOFTWARE: . arrey and subroutine names encountered in the code being compiled. It supports 16 MB physical memory address space. MPX provides memory management. software priorities and task state queues. An intergrated CPU scheduler and a swap scheduler provide efficient use of main memory by balancing the task based on time distribution factors.printers are provided for Alarm and Utility CRT and a Logging line printer for massive and fast documentation.The Simulator system is having the following software organisation as per Fig. terminal support. Simulator Control & Executive System Software UNISYSTEM: . A Modified FLECS compiler that is linked to the database to verify the legitimacy of variable. • KORBA SIMULATOR 11 . multiprogramming Operating system. that supports concurrent execution of multiple tasks in an interactive. batch and real time environment.
Boiler and Flue gas subsystem. are then integrated in a sequential manner to represent the power plant dynamics in totality during all plant operating conditions including pre start-ups checks. 5. start-up (cold. warm and hot). 6. normal operation and specified emergencies. The extent of plant simulation is thorough enough to support the plant operators (the trainees here) to fully participate in plant status evaluation. arrey and subroutine names in programs. These are KORBA SIMULATOR 12 . Application Software for Data Acquisition System (DAS): . The above mathematical models. A real time program scheduler to execute users programs on a real time basis. arrey. actual plant operation and control of unusual transients. Electrical subsystem.The total power plant system is broadly divided into the following subsystems for math modeling purpose: 1. 3. 2. converted in to the form of simulation software models. shut down. These mathematical models are developed based on physical laws of conservation of mass. preheating. energy and momentum. • • Application Software for Plant system Simulator: . power maneuvering.• A data base manager program to handle the declaration of new variable. and subroutine name. It also creats COMMON and EQUIVALENCE statements needed to use the variable. 7. Feed Water subsystem. Condensate subsystem. Each of this subsystem is subdivided into Process interlock and control models based on nature of the model function. Boiler Water and Steam subsystem. A plotting program to display results obtained from execution of user’s programs. 4.Plant computer functions provided by actual plant computers have been duplicated in the simulator. Fuel subsystem. Turbine subsystem.
Performance calculations.Instructor station software is provided with facility for monitoring. Digital Output Updating 5. 2. The tasks running on SIMTROLs perform: 1. alarm displays. 2. It has provision to select all initial conditions and malfunctions and the ability to manipulate external parameters. 3. Analog Input Scanning KORBA SIMULATOR 13 . controlling simulator conditions and monitoring operator (trainee) actions. turbine run-up log etc. Input-Output Transmitting. digital plant signals and group point displays. Table Management 6. Logs such as hourly log. Analog Output Updating 4. 3. • Simulator Instruction Station Software: . Input Transmitting. Misaligned switch checking. Digital Input Scanning 8. Watch Dog 7.The I/O system application software consists of tasks running on Simulation Computers and on SIMTROLs. CRT displays for analog. • • • Analog trend recording of operator selected analog inputs. etc.• Alarm monitoring of analog and digital input signals and indication of abnormal plant operating conditions. Interface (Input/Output) System Software: . SEL Interface. Daily Operational Readiness Test. The tasks running on Simulation Computers perform: 1.
etc.This facility enables the plant simulation status to traverse back all events of operation for the past 60 minutes. the simulation software under execution is stopped and the updation of the simulation variables are suspended thereby creating an effect of freezing of the dynamic plant condition. Freeze/Run: . any one of these stored conditions can be retrieved as an Initial Condition and the training session can be started from that plant status . Slow Time Mode: . Thus the Initialisation facility provides the flexibility in training by starting the session from any one of the 60 stored plant conditions as per the requirement / level of the trainees and saves time by eliminating the repeated exercise to bring the plant to the required condition again to start with.9.This feature enables the instructor to “SNAP” the plant status as a complete record of all the simulation variables that represent the plant dynamics at the time of snapping. simulation session can continue from this backtracked record status to facilitate repeated panel operation or to offer detail explanation to the trainees. The instructor can choose the status / conditions of the running simulator (i. Later on . A total number of 60 SNAPSHOTs can be saved and stored as Initial Conditions providing wide range of flexibility in training.The FREEZE feature helps the instructor to “freeze” the plant simulation and thus to bring the plant dynamics to a standstill condition.The plant operation can be subsequently resumed from the last frozen status by using “RUN” command by the instructor. 60 data sets are available representing the plant status for the preceding sixty minutes. as disk files. the plant) and save them as ICs (Initial Conditions) through a special utility software at Instructor Station .This features enables the Instructor to slow down the dynamic simulation to ten times slower than the real time.. Analog/Digital Output Driving. Backtrack: . Thus in a SLOW MODE Simulation. The instructor can bring the simulator to any of these last sixty plant conditions by BACKTRACKing to the desired problem time or by BACKTRACKing step-by-step from the present 1st record. The simulation data is continuously saved for a period of 60 minutes at the interval of one minute each as 60 disc file records. Snapshot: .. If required. TRAINING FEATURES The following features of the simulator facilitate a very effective training to the power plant operators: Initialisation: .e. A maximum number of 60 such selected plant conditions can be kept stored. a trainee can observe the fast transients or certain critical operations more precisely in KORBA SIMULATOR 14 . can be saved with identifying title.The simulator can be initialised to any one of 60 plant conditions from where the training session can start. Which is the current one saved. This facilitates the instructor detailed explanation on that particular stage of operation without allowing it to go unobserved by the trainees on the panel. Thus at any point of time. When the FREEZE command is issued from the Instructor Station. date & time and can be retreived any time in future as Initial Conditions to commence the training session from that snapped plant condition. These SNAPSHOT records.
The storage can be initiated at any instant of time. each of two hours duration. Fast Time Mode: .The RECORD feature enables the instructor to record the training session under progress for a period of two (2) hours. Thus the instructor can save the valuable panel time by attenuating the time taken in accomplishing lengthy plant operation stages and offer the saved time to the trainees for better utilisation on the panel. raising of condeser vacuum. which supports a realistic operational environment. valves. certain time consuming plant operations like turbine soaking.O. All the changed inputs from the panel and the IS are recorded alongwith time on specified disk files. etc. which are not carried out from main control room.In this mode of simulation. Remote Function: . Both RECORD & REPLAY functions can be paused and stopped in between. A total number of 270 malfunctions are available characterised into two types: 1. which offers the trainees a unique scope for experiencing a large number of malfunctions that occur in a power plant. The instructor can introduce malfunctions in single number or in groups (the selection being dependent on the status of the plant) to simulate the real emergencies as faced by the operators on panel. The manual operations of local equipments (e. activated and reset (cleared) by the instructor without any intimation to the trainees on the panel. Malfunction: .This feature enables the instructor to create false alarms by flashing windows and by making audible cry wolf alarms even though such conditions do not KORBA SIMULATOR 15 . Crywolf Alarm: . Maximum 4 nos of records.This is the most valuable feature of the Simulator. F.order to analyse the dynamic behaviour and study the sequence of events thereby enhancing their knowledge and experience. The REPLAY feature enables to replay the panel status as recorded earlier. The trainees are thus given opportunities to tackle those malfunctions by taking suitable corrective operation steps. The Event type malfunctions: These can set the equipment/component failure at an optional pre-selected time.This function facilitates the instructor to perform any remote (field/local) operations. can be stored. station supply breakers. Any of the four-recorded sessions can be selected for replay.g. otherwise. are made to run ten times faster than the real time. etc) are simulated from the instructor station for providing necessary permissives and also for controlling process parameters. 2. The malfunctions available can be selected. boiler heating. rare events in an actual plant. which are. pumps. Record & Replay: . furnace purging. isolators. Thus the trainees can observe their previous performance on panel alongwith the instructor’s explanation and analysis. The Severity type malfunctions: These can be started at an optional pre-selected time with the degree of severity (0-100%) and the gradient (time to reach that severity effects) choosen by the instructor.
This feature enables the instructor to change the values of certain parameters that are not simulated in the software but affect the plant performance. Trainee Test: .exist in the plant under operation. Exercise KORBA SIMULATOR 16 . At a time. This permits the instructor to continue the training in the event of some instrument failure on which some important parameters are displayed/recorded.Any device on the control panel can be OVERRIDEN with a given value (for analog variables) or with a given status (for digital variables) by the instructor at an optional preselected activation time.Any analog output of the plant simulation can be reallocated to any other meter/recorder on the panel. Trainee’s name & number/Title. calorific value of fuels. Displaying the test parameters with updation by every one second. External parameters (inputs) like the grid voltage. A total number of 80 parameters can be selected. • • • • Identification of the test by Instructor’s name. With this facility trainees’ immediate response/reflexes can be tested. External Parameters Manipulation: . etc can be assigned new values. Monitoring or Evaluation type. These inputs change the plant dynamics and performance. Duration of the test (Run time). A total number of 32 devices can be selected for overide at a time. The instructor can assign the trainee a task on the panel and monitor his/her capacity to control important parameters of the plant with a final assessment printout result if opted for. deleted. The instructor can also change the higher and lower limits of the parameters selected during trend display for better resolution in monitoring. Each test has the following facilities to be selected.This feature is the unique facility in simulator training by which proficiency of operation personnel can be evaluated by the computer.Trends of important plant parameters (simulated variables in engineering units) can be monitored on the instructor’s dedicated console to check the trainee’s performance on control panel for the duration selected. The change will be achieved gradually within one minute. grid frequency. Parameters Monitoring: . maximum four nos. of tests can be conducted in parallel depending upon the plant conditions and the tests selected. Thus it offers the trainees scope of plant operation under different conditions on a single platform. and stopped for monitoring by the instructor to match his requirements. Override Panel Device: . The instructor can thus create maloperation of the instruments on the panel to test the trainees undergoing session. At a time. upto 16 numbers of alarms can be set and reset selectively by the instructor. The value/status of the overridden device remains constant until it is reset to normal operation or overriden with a new value/status. Analog Output Reallocation: . Limits of the selected parameter can be modified for better analysis.
Changing of Hi & Lo limits of the test parameters to monitor within a narrow range. Thus the trainees can get a feedback on themselves after completing the test program. KORBA SIMULATOR 17 . Displaying of the test results on the Video Monitor. Printing of the test results to get a hard copy.• • • • • • Trending of test parameters. Deleting test parameters already selected.
KORBA SIMULATOR 18 .
BOILER AND AUXILIARIES KORBA SIMULATOR 19 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 20 .
• Rapid heating & cooling (start up & shut down): As mentioned in Para 1. Since the available head in NC Boiler is very less. In controlled circulation boilers this is possible because of arrangement of relief tubes inlets to the drum and the internal baffles of the drum from both sides. KORBA SIMULATOR 21 . The internal base plates are arranged in such a way that it guides the steam water mixture from the relief tubes along the whole circumference of the drum. the controlled circulation boiler can be started at a rate two to three times faster than NC boilers. With increase in demand of power in India. the arrangement of relief tubes and baffle plates is only on one side of the drum and this imposes a constraint on uniform heating of drum. Second reason is to commence flow in the riser tubes immediately after light up hot static head is kept as minimum as possible. rise in saturation temperatures is limited to maximum of 110OC/hr. These pump motor assemblies have single suction and double discharge introduction of these pumps in the boiler system have led to the designing of a furnace with lesser diameter tubes and high parameters operating characteristics. new power projects are being constructed with higher capacity and advanced technology for the better economy and reliability of operation. Hence. the controlled circulation boiler does not impose any thermal constraints on the drum and hence rapid cooling and heating of the boiler is possible. efforts are always made to reduce the pressure loss and improve the circulation. The advantages of the controlled circulation boiler over natural circulation boiler are given below: • Uniform drum cooling and heating. The drum is therefore uniformly heated and cooled. Compared to other lower capacity Boilers supplied by BHEL. Similar arrangement of relief as in controlled circulation boiler does not exist in natural circulation (NC) boiler because in that case the relief required to be taken over the drum and fed from both sides. This shall increase the pressure losses in the riser tubes and also the hot static head requirement for start up. Whereas in Natural Circulation Boiler. these 500 MW capacity boiler have incorporated certain special technical features which are detailed here under: CONTROLLED CIRCULATION SYSTEM This is achieved by three numbers of glandless pump and wet motor installed in the downcomer line after the suction manifold.BOILER AND AUXILIARIES SALIENT FEATURES OF 500 MW BOILER. In NC boiler.
the metal tubes constituting the furnace at that zone are exposed to the maximum temperature. Uniform expansion of pressure part and lower metal temperature: This means lesser thermal stresses on the tubes.• Better cleaning of boiler: For effective acid washing. this aspect has been given due importance and certain technical improvements have been incorporated. the acid has to be kept at certain temperature uniformly through the system. • USE OF RIFLE TUBES FOR FURNACE CONSTRUCTION This is one of the extraordinary features of 500 MW capacity boilers. In addition to the above the over fire air is provided which is used as combustion process adjustment technically for keeping the furnace temperature low and thereby low Nox formation. which have ill effect on the ecological system. In this zone. which result in high mass flow rate thereby preventing departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) maintains a lower metal temperature. OVER FIRE AIR SYSTEM FOR NOX (OXIDES OF NITROGEN) CONTROL Industrial growth in the recent years has necessitated the need to have a cleaner and pollution free atmosphere. due to hot static heat. KORBA SIMULATOR 22 . Because of controlled circulation. These are tilting tangential firing and over fire air system. This being a water-cooled furnace. These emissions contain mostly gases and dust particles. the tubes have an internally cut spiral like a rifle bore so that when water flows through the tubes. This prevents the tubes form departure from Nucleate boiling under all operating condition of the boiler and increases the circulation ratio. Because of the excessive heat release in the burner zone of the furnace. kept one above the other and the over fire air is admitted tangentially into the furnace. Power plants are the major sources of the industrial pollution by virture of the stanch emission in the atmosphere. Tangential firing helps in keeping the temperature of the furnace low so that NOX emission is reduced considerably. lower diameter tubes are used. the steam water mixture inside the tubes should effectively carry the heat from the burner zone of the furnace. it takes a screwed path and attains a certain degree of spin by which the watness of the tube is always maintained. This is possible with the assistance of controlled circulation. In the 500 MW capacity boiler design. Each corner of the burner windbox is provided with two numbers of separate over fire air compartments. by controlling the production of industrial wastes with the application of improved technology.
D. FANS Unlike 200 MW units. These mills are also supplied with weld overlay technology. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS: Electro static precipitators are installed in the 500 MW units for minimising the particulate emission from the stack flue gases. The ionised ash particles of the gas are attracted towards the collecting electrode. The emitting electrodes are changed at high-ve voltage DC and the gas while crossing this charged path gets jonised. AIR PRE-HEATER SYSTEM As compared to trisector air pre-heater in 200 MW units. the 500 MW units have been supplied with radial type I. PRIMARY AIR SYSTEM The primary air system delivers air to the mills for coal drying and transportation of coal powder to furnace. Introduction of vane wheel has led to uniform distribution of primary air within the mill and less rejects. There are four ESP passes for one unit of 500 MW and each is independently operated. By introducing axial flow fans. Raymond’s Pressurised bowl mills have been installed. The control of the I. These are similar to the 200 MW mills except that 500 MW mills have vane wheel surrounding the bowl and external lubrication unit. This has resulted in the flexibility and efficient operation and maintenance of the air pre-heaters and the boiler as a whole. 500 MW units have been incorporated with bisector air pre-heaters. This has been done for optimum utilisation of space and also improved system layout. the system efficiency has gone up as the axial flow fans consistently high efficiency at all operating loads. which has increased the minimum wear life of grinding parts to 6000 hrs.The over fire air nozzles has got tilting arrangement and compartment flow control dampers for working in unison with the tilting tangential type burner system for effective control of Nox formation. The 500 MW units have two stage axial flow primary fans as compared to radial fans in 200 MW units. I. fans is achieved through a variable speed hydraulic coupling and motorised inlet damper. KORBA SIMULATOR 23 .D. The ash falls into the hopper. These fans have a lower speed and are less susceptible to wear and tear due to the abrasive flue gases. which is evacuated by the ash handling system and taken out as slurry. MILLING SYSTEM In the 500 MW units at SSTPS. fans. which is maintained at high +ve voltage. D. By introducing variable speed control through a hydraulic coupling the losses in the fan at various load has been minimised and efficiency of the fan has remained high at all operating conditions. The ash collects at the collecting electrode and is periodically tapped to dislodge the accumulated ash.
65 : 3 second : : : : Water Steam cooled Dry Membrane + 660 KORBA SIMULATOR 24 . : Tilting Tangential Minimum load at which the steam generator : 2 Mills at 50% Minimum load at which the steam generator can be operated continuosly with complete flame.E. Residence time for fuel particles in the furnace. Stability with oil support (% MCR) Maximum load for which individual : 20% mill : 50% beyond which no oil support is required FURNACE SPECIFICATION Wall Bottom Tube arrangement Explosion/Implosion withstand capacity (MWG) at 67% yields point. Draft.049 7610 : 63. drum. Controlled Circulation plus. Design) : Balanced Single Type of Firing can be operated continously with complete flame. Dry bottom. Effective volume used to calculate the : 14770 residence time (M3) Height from furnace bottom ash hopper to furnace roof (M) Depth (M) Width (M) Furnace projected area (M2) : : : 15.TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF 500 MW BOILER MAIN BOILER GENERAL SPECIFICATION Manufacturer Type : M/s BHEL (C.289 18.
3 BUTT WELD 45000 204.3 444 51 5.7 220 Rear walls 283 51 5. of tubes Kg/cm2 (ABS) Max.3 417 416 KORBA SIMULATOR 25 .19 63. of tubes Kgs/cm2 (ABS) Design metal Temp o C 417 193.3 416 Roof 142 57 5.54 127 5. pressure of tubes Kg/cm2 (ABS) Design metal temp OC SIDEWALLS.00 5. of tubes (Kgs) Design Pr. REAR WALLS Side walls & ROOF Number OD (MM) Design thickness (MM) Pitch (MM) Actual thickness used Total projected surface area of tubes (M2) Method of joining long tubes.19 63.6 1430 : 14770 : : : : : : : : : : : : 283 51.19 63.5 5.5 5.6 SA 210C 1160 Butt weld 181000 207. of tubes Kgs/cm2 (ABS) Max pr.9 197.3 197.6 930 BUTT WELD 186000 207. BUTT WELD Total wt.5 5.3 277000 207.Furnace volume (M3) WATER WALLS FRONT WALLS Number OD (MM) Design thickness (MM) Pitch (MM) Actual thickness used (MM) Material Total projected surface (M2) Method of joining long tube Total wt.3 192. of tubes (kgs) Design pr.
9 366 192.9 WW outlet 192. without internals (tonnes) : : 10 237.3 WW outlet 5 273 38.00 215.00 KORBA SIMULATOR 26 . of Cyclone separator No. of headers Outside Dia (Dia (MM) Design thickness (MM) Actual thickness (MM) Total wt. Of Secondary driers Shroud material Max permissible temp differential between any two parts of the drum (oC).5 45 37300 204. Lower drum 1 914 86 89 166000 207.4 22070 2130 1778 0.75 6 96 96 Carbon Steel 50 Water capacity at MCR conditions (in seconds) between : normal and lowest water level permitted (up to LL trip) Drum wt. of headers (Kgs.3 Lower drum 197.) Design pressure of headers kg/cm2 (ABS) HEADERS Max working pressure of headers Kg/cm2 (ABS) Material specification DRUM Material specification Design pressure Kg/cm2 (ABS) Design metal temp OC Max operating pressure Kg/cm2 (ABS) Actual thickness used for dished ends Overall length of Drum (MM) OD of Drum (MM) Internal dia (MM) Corrosion allowance (MM) Number of distribution headers No.4 152. with internals (tonnes) Drum wt.WATER WALL HEADERS No.4 SA-299 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SA-106 Gr-B SA-299 204.
BOILER WATER CIRCULATING PUMP Number of pumps CHARACTERISTICS Type Design Pressure : Single suction double discharge : 207.15 M (53 ft) KORBA SIMULATOR 27 . Qty.27 1bf/in2) Suction temp.9oC(660oF) : 0.55 Kg/cm2 (2965 lbf/in2) Design temp NORMAL OPERATING DUTY Sunction Pressure : 193.5993 Kg/cm2 (2761 : 366.s : 348. Specific gravity at pump Suction at pumping temp.2 lit/min (12679 u.708 Kg/cm2 (24.00 ft) : 1.2oC(691oF) : (2 + 1) gal/min) Differerential HEAD Differential Pressure : 28.65 M (94. pumped : 47994.4 1bf/ in2) Minimumm NPSH required above Vapour Pressure Pump efficiency BHP absorbed : 84% Hot duty : 215 Hot duty-358 Cold duty : 16.
T. : 1. Input Power factor Overall efficiency Full load speed Line current @ 6.8 amps Cold duty 88.34OC (650OF) Hot duty 86% 187 0.62 lit/min (534.2% 1450 rpm 23.3 amps 36 amps 190 amps Hot duty 55oC (130oF) 0. MOTOR CHARACTERISITICS Motor efficiency K.P./hr) 200.cold duty H.6% 302 0.hot duty Heat transfer .5 gal/min) 32.P. (120000 B. (115000 B.T.2 kgs (7800 1bs) 9534 kgs (21000 1bs) 13075.7 72.W. cooling water flow Weight (Approximate) Pump case Motor complete Total weight : : : 3541.2 kgs (28800 1bs) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 400 H.7 kg/cm2 (10 1bf/in2) 28980 kcal/hr.6 KV Full load current Motor starting current Heat exchanger H.0 : XLP : 343. Inlet temp (max) Allowable pr.MOTOR CHARACTERISITICS Type: : Wet Stator -Squirrel Cage induction motor Output Service factor Winding Motor case design temp. drop Heat transfer .3% KORBA SIMULATOR 28 .U.P./hr) 30240 kcal/hr.U.805 74.
induction motor. • • • • Pump The pump comprises a single suction and dual discharge branch casing. the stator.BOILER WATER CIRCULATION PUMPS Each Boiler Water Circulation pump consists of a single stage centrifugal pump on a wet stator induction motor mounted within a common pressure vessel. if low-pressure coolant to the heat exchanger fails. An internal filter is incorporated in the circulation system. To minimise diffusion of boiler water. In addition. Motor The motor is a squirrel cage. thus extracting the heat conducted form the pump. a simple restriction in the form of thermal neck is provided. mounted on the end of the extended motor shaft. Hot Water Diffusion. The case is welded into the boiler system pipework at the suction and discharge branches with the suction upper most. a narrow annulus surrounds the rotor shaft. The motor cavity is maintained at a low temperature by a heat exchanger and a closed loop water circulation system. this water circulates through the stator and rotor bearings extracting the heat generated in the windings and also provide bearing lubrication. Renewable wear rings are fitted to both the impeller and pump case. A baffle ring restricts solids entering the annulus. The phase joints and lead connections are also moulded in an insulated material. The motor is suspended beneath pump casing and is filled with boiler water at full system pressure. No seal exists between the pump and motor. To minimise heat conduction. Within the pump cavity rotates a key driven. The impeller wear ring is the harder component to prevent galling. wet stator. fully shrouded. or is inadequate to cope with heat flow from pump case. Motor Cooling. a cold purge can be applied to the bottom of the motor to limit the temperature rise. KORBA SIMULATOR 29 . wound with a special watertight insulated cable. but provision is made to thermally isolate the pump from the motor in the following respect: • Thermal Conduction. motor housing and motor covers. The motor is joined to the pump casing by a pressure tight flange joint and a motor cover completes the pressure tight shell. The vessel consists of three main parts a pump casing. between the hot and cold regions. In emergency conditions. mixed flow type impeller.
• KORBA SIMULATOR 30 .
Brackets are provided on the motor case to mount the heat exchanger. KORBA SIMULATOR 31 . fitted at the base of the reverse thrust plate.The motor shell contains all the moving parts. a combination of convection and conduction. BEARINGS The motor rotor shaft is supported by water lubricated tilting pad type radial and thrust bearings mounted on the stator shell. except for the impeller. INTER FILTER A stainless steel woven wire strainer.connecting pipework is short and direct with the heat exchanger mounted as high as possible to promote good thermo-syphonic circulation when the unit is on hot standby. HEAT EXCHANGER A heat exchanger (cooler) is fitted to dissipate the heat generated by the motor winding. A baffle wear ring-cum sleeve above the baffle forms a labyrinth with the underside of the impeller to limit sediment penetration into the motor. When the motor is stationary. removing any accumulation of foreign matter in the motor cover. filters the liquid in the motor before it is circulated through the bearings after passing through the heat exchanger (cooler). AUXILIARY COOLING CIRCUIT The motor is provided with its own auxiliary cooling circuit. by an auxiliary impeller (thrust disc) at the thrust bearing end of the motor shaft. thus making the motor internals into a separated construction independent of the motor pressure vessel. thermo-syphonic circulation takes place to remove conducted heat from the pump end of the motor. which besides cooling the motor lubricates the bearings. a filter located at the base of the cover end bearing housing strains it out. Should foreign matter manage to pass the labyrinth device into the motor enclosure. The water is continuously circulated through the bearings. Inter . Below the impeller is situated an integral heat baffle which reduces the heat flow. The filter should be cleaned at normal maintenance periods.High-pressure outlet and inlet-raised facings are situated bottom and top of the motor case respectively for connection to high-pressure heat exchanger/motor case stub pipes. down the unit. motor windings and the external heat exchanger. (cooler).
• Circulation pump filling. During normal operation water is taken from the S. Controls for the pumps are located in the Contol room and comprise a SEQUENCE pushbutton. The operating s regime for the boiler water circulation pumps is two-duty/one stanby. and at three points along its length to feed individual circulation pump suctions. spray water is out of service.H. Each discharge pipe is fitted with circulating pump discharge stop/check valves. Water will flow into the open drain. Water will flow through the filter then have its pressure and flow reduced through an orifice plate at the pump inlet. The isolating valve upstream of the drain orifice will be closed and water from the motor cavity will drain through open valves in the drain line downstream of the orifice. Drain lines down stream of the filter and the orifice will be closed. If.H. or a gasket failure between pump and motor occur. which are controlled via sequence equipment to open and close as the pump is taken in and out of service. however all three pumps are out of service. Water will flow from the pumps through two discharge pipes into the front leg of the water wall inlet headers at the bottom of the furnace. If the pumps are to be filled when the S. Circulation pumps emptying. KORBA SIMULATOR 32 . Initiating any pump to restart will cause them all to close again then continue with the in and out of service regime. Circulation pumps purging. can be opened and closed to make the system operate in out modes. Water will flow as described in the filling mode but the orifice bypass line will be opened to augment the flow. The isolating valve downstream of the filter will be closed and drain line at the filter outlet open.PURGE AND FILL PIPING The purge and fill piping is used in association with boiler water circulation pump submerged motors. Pump status is indicated on RUN/STOP lamps on the Firemen' Aisle Panel. or for emergency purging of the cavity to prevent the ingress of hot boiler water should a leak occur in the cooling water system. a temporary connection can be made to take low pressure water from the reserve feed water tank.H. Piping blowdown. & R. ammeter and a DUTY/STANDBY selector. which service each circulation pump. Allowing high temperature boiler water to enter the cavity will damage the plastic insulation on the motor windings. all of the valves will open to enable thermosyphonic circulation to take place. The valves. • • • DRUM DESCRIPTION Connections at both ends to the chemical clean pipework. spray water system then fed via a strainer and cooler before splitting three ways to service each circulation pump. Depending on valve positions it can be used for filling or emptying the motor cavity of water.
KORBA SIMULATOR 33 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 34 .
Orifice size varies for different circuits or groups of circuits depending on the circuit legth. Nearly dried steam leaves the separators and passes through four rows of corrugated plate baskets where by low velocity surface contact the remaining moisture is removed. Furnace wall tubing is manufactured from a combination of both smooth and rifled bore tubing which permits the use of lower tube flow rates whilst still retaining full tube protection. which direct a saturated steam/water mixture in to the steam drum. The required distribution of water to give the correct flow rates through the various furnace wall circuits is achieved and maintained by the use of suitably sized orifices installed inside the water wall inlet headers at the inlet to each furnace wall tube.From the Waterwall inlet headers. Having travelled around this baffle the mixture enters two rows of steam enter the outer edge of the separator where it is separated from the steam.drainable Radiant Nondrainable --PANEL STAGE-II PLATEN STAGE-III KORBA SIMULATOR 35 . The saturated steam/water mixture enters the steam drum on both sides behind a watertight inner plate baffle which directs the mixture around the inside surface of the durm to provide uniform heating of the drum shell. between the submerged and unsubmerged protions. Perforated panel strainers are also located inside the water wall inlet headers to prevent the orifices blicking and to ensure an even distribution of water around the other inlet headers. This eliminates thermal stresses from temperature differences through the thick wall of the drum. water travels upwards through furnace wall tubing via furnace upper front rear and side headers into riser tubes. arrangement and heat absorption. SUPER HEATERS & REHEATERS SH LT PENDENT HORIZONTAL STAGE-1 Type Platen (Drainable/Nondrainable) Pendant (Drainable/NonDrainable) Horizontal Headers (Drainable/NonDrainable) Effective heating surface 12500 area (M2) 1660 1730 Drainable Drainable Drainable Drainable --Convection --Radiant Non.
) 47.00 408 63.5 27.00 254.00 SS 54.00 53.5 762 <------------.Gas flow path area (M2) Max steam side Metal temp (oC) 147 408 --509 286 575 Max gas side metal temp 450 (oC) 570 690 Type of flow (counter or Counter parallel) Mat of tube support OD (MM) Total Number of tubes TUBE PITCH (MM) Parallel to gas flow Across gas flow Method tube Total wt.Butt weld ------------------> <-----------.00 708 Parallel Parallel SS 44. of tubes (T) REHEATERS STAGE-1 RH RADIANT WALL Total heating surface (M2) Max operating pressure (Kg/cm2) Design pressure Kg/cm2 (ABS) Max gas side metal temp oC OD (MM) tube) MM (App) 430 63 53.73 275 (proj.5 444 54.500 Gross length (per one tube) MM 18300 (App) KORBA SIMULATOR 36 .5 SS 51.1177 ---------------------------> STAGE-2 RH FINISHING PLATEN RH INTER PENDENT RH REAR PENDENT 6200 47.68 of joining long 101.000 38000 Mean effecting length (perone 17.73 620 63.6 152.
73 Location (outside/inside gas Out side path) Total Wt. the Backpass Wall and Roof Sections. They are composed of assemblies spaced on centres across the furnace width.68 204. REHEATER The reheater is composed of 3 stages or sections. (Kgs.Total number of tubes Total Wt. The Backpass wall and Roof Section forms the side front and rear walls and roof of the vertical gas pass. tube size and spacing of the Superheater and Reheater elements are shown on the attached “Schematic Flow Arrangement Diagram of Superheater and Reheater”.) 2111300 Out side 67000 SUPERHEATER AND REHEATER The arrangement.2 centres across the furnace width. a Finishing Pendant Platen section. (Kgs. It consists of six front and six rear panel assemblies. The Division Panel Section is located in the furnace between the front wall and Pendant Platen Section. Operating pressure Kg/cm2 (ABS) Design pressure (Kg/cm2) (ABS) 248 644 423300 <----. the Finishing Section the Front Platen Section and the Radiant Wall Section KORBA SIMULATOR 37 .Butt weld ---------> 192. SUPERHEATERS The Superheater is composed of three basic stages of section. a Division Panel Section and a Low Temperature Section including LTSH.9 53.) Method of Joining long tube Headers Max. The Low Temperature Sections and are located in the furnace rear Backpass above the Economiser Section. The finishing Section is located in the horizontal gas path above the furnace rear arch tubes and consists of assemblies spaced on 76.3 47.
First pass roof front (3). During these periods of no steam flow through the turbine.LTSH inlet header (22) .The Finishing Section is located above the furnace arch between the furnace screen tubes and the Superheater Finish.SH DESH (27) .Division Panel outlet header (31) . the “Schematic Flow & Arrangement of Superheater & Reheater”. links and main steam piping. The elements. KORBA SIMULATOR 38 .Backpass bottom headers (9).Backpass screen (13) Backpass roof (14)Backpass SH & Eco.SHSC Rear wall tubes (19).Division panel (30) . adequate flow through the superhteater is assured by means of drains and vents in the headers. After being reheated to the design temperature.Rear (4) . steam is returned to the reheater via the cold reheat lines.LTSH banks (23) (24) .radiant wall tubes (40) (41) reheater assemblies (46) (47) . the reheated steam is returned to the intermediate pressure section of the turbine via the hot reheat line. adequate protection must be provided for the Superheater and Reheater elements.SH DESH link (26) . STEAM FLOW The course taken by steam from the steam drum to the superheater finishing outlet header can be followed on the attached illustrations. The reheater desuperheaters are located in the cold reheat lines. This is especially important during periods when there is no demand for steam.LTSH outlet headers (25) . Reheater radiant wall inlet header (38) (39) .SH outlet header (35). Where parallel paths exist. first one and then the other circuit are numbered. supports (15) SH & Eco. It consists of assemblies.(1) -Radiant roof inlet header (2) .reheater outlet header (48) .SH SCW inlet header side (6) Backpasss side wall tubes (7) & (8) .SH connecting tube . such as when starting up and when shutting down. The Reheater Front and side Radiant Wall is composed of tangent tubes on centers across the furnace width. support headers (16) . The reheat flow is. The main steam flow is: Steam drum . and rear (12) (21) .SH Pendent assembly (34) .SH Rear Roof tubes (18) .Radiant tube outlet header (5) .Reheater load (49). which make up the flow path are essentially numbered consecutively. PROTECTION AND CONTROL As long as there is a fire in the furnace. After passing through the high-pressure stages of the turbine.LTSH support tubes (17) . (10) & (11) Backpass Front. Reheater drains and vents provide means to boil off residual water in the reheater elements during initial firing of the boiler.
ARRANGEMENT OF SUPERHEATER AND REHEATER KORBA SIMULATOR 39 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 40 .
At 588OC actual gas temperature. During all start-ups. • Thermocouples are installed on various superheater and reheater terminals tubes. rustling in a low temperature indication. The firing rate must be controlled to keep the furnace exit gas temperature from exceeding 5400C. NOTE: • Gas temperature measurements will be accurate only if a shielded. when steam is admitted to the turbine at the minimum allowable pressure prescribed by the turbine manufacturer. provide another means of protection by assuring adequate flow through the superheater if the steam demand should suddenly and unexpectedly drop Reheter safely valves. it is advisable to allow another 10 degrees tolerance. If the probe consists of simple bare thermocouple. The 540OC gas temperature limitation is based on normal start up conditions. DESUPERHEATERS Super heater & Reheater temp Control KORBA SIMULATOR 41 . above the furnace roof. A power control valve on the superheater main steam line set below the low set superheater safety valve is provided as a working valve to given an initial indication of excessive steam pressure. the thermocouple reading will be approximately 10 degrees low.Safety valves on the superheater main steam lines set below the low set drum safety valve. Should turbine rolling be delayed and the steam pressure to permitted to build up the gas temperature limitation should be reduced to 510OC when the steam pressure exceeds two thirds of the design pressure before steam flow through the turbine is established. Unless very careful traverses are made to locate the point of maximum temperature. In addition to the permanent thermocouples. serve to give a continuous indication of element metal temperatures during start-ups (superheater) and when the unit is carrying load (Superheater and Reheater). A thermocouple probe normally located the upper furnace sidewall should be used to measure the furnace exit gas temperatures. aspirated probe is used. This valve is equipped with a shut off valve to permit isolation for maintenance. Steam temperature control for Superheater and Reheater outlet is provided by means of windbox nozzle tilts and desuperheaters. care must be taken not to overheat the superheater or reheater elements. located on the hot and cold reheat piping serve to protect the reheater if steam flow through the reheater is suddenly interrupted. on some units temporary thermocouples provide supplementary means of establishing temperature characteristics during initial operation. The relieving capacity of the Power Control Valve is not included in the total relieving capacity of the safety valves required by the Boiler Code. regardless what type of thermocouple probe is used. due to radiation. there will be an error.
/hr. The spray water comes from the boiler feedwater system.43% to 100% of Boiler MCR.800 at 1566. Temperature reduction is accomplished by spraying water into the path of the steam through a nozzle at the entering end of the desuperheater. It is essential that the spray water be chemically pure and free of suspended and dissolved solids. in order reheater and carry-over of solids to the turbine. of stages of attemperator Position in the steam circuit Specification of the Material Spray nozzle Material HEADERS Length mm Design Pr. Max spray water flow rate and corresponding steam : 92. output (Kgs.) Min spray water flow rate and corresponding steam : 47.8 : 196 : One : Before RH Radiant wal : SA-106 Gr-B : SA-213T & SS Tips KORBA SIMULATOR 42 .000 Kg/hr. Reheat Emergency temp control attemperator REHEATER ATTEMPERATOR TYPE : SPRAY No. Spray tube material Super heater steam temp range that can be : 540 oC maintained from 54. containing only approved volatile organic treatment material.000 : 209. 000 Kgs./hr. : 18. : SA335 P12 : SA-213 T11 Specification of material. (Kg/Cm2) (abs) Max Working Pressure (Kg/Cm2)(abs) GENERAL Desuperheaters are provided in the superheater-connecting link and the reheater inlet leads to permit reduction of steam temperature when necessary and to maintain the temperatures at design values within the limits of the nozzle capacity.000 at 1550.SUPER HEATER ATTEMPRATOR Type Stage Position in steam circuit : Spray : One : Between LT pendants and SH panels. out put Kg/hr.
During start up alternate methods of steam temperature control should be considered. Spray water may not be completely evaporated but be carried through the heat absorbing sections to the turbine where it can be the source of considerable damage.6 4.CAUTION: During start up of the unit.8 51. Desuperheating spray is not particularly effective at the low steam flows of start up. if desuperheating is used to match the outlet steam temperature to the turbine metal temperatures.15. The location of the desuperheaters helps to ensure against water carry . ECONOMISER Type Water side effecting heating surface area (M2) Gas side effecting heating Surface area (M2) Gas flow path area (M2) Design pressure of tubes Kg/cm2 OD of Tubes (MM) Actual thickness tubes (MM) Length of Tubes (MM) (App) Pitch (MM) Total Wt. It also eliminates the necessity for high temperature resisting materials in the desuperheater construction. SUPERHEATER DESUPERHEATERS Two spray desuperheaters are installed in the connecting link between the superheater low temperature pendant outlet header and the superheater division panel inlet headers. REHEATER DESUPERHEATERS Two spray type desuperheaters are installed in the reheater inlet lead near the reheater radiant wall front inlet header.000 101.00 KORBA SIMULATOR 43 .00 5. care must be exercised so as not to spray down below a minimum of 100 C above the saturation temperature at the existing operating pressure.6 2.) : : : : : : : : : : Non Steaming 7810 10210 128 209.95.over to the turbine. of Tubes (Kgs.
that is.D.D.D. The furnace extended sidewalls is composed on O. 76. Most efficient heat transfer is. KORBA SIMULATOR 44 . The furnace arch is composed of 63. The backpass walls and roof are composed of 63. counterflow to the hot flue gases. provide a means of ensuring a water flow through the economiser during startups. Feedwater is supplied to the economiser inlet head (1) (2) via feed stop and check valves. The feedwater flow is upward through the economiser.BARE TUBE ECONOMISER The function of the economiser is to preheat the boiler feedwater before it is introduced into the Steam drum by recovering some of the heat of the flue gas leaving the boiler. All tube circuits originate from the inlet header (2) and terminate at oulet headers (4) which are connected with the economiser outlet header (7) through three rows of hanger tubes (6). From the outlet header the feedwater is lead to the steam drum through the economiser outlet links (5) (6). fin welded tubes on 127 centers.0D. fusion welded tubes.5 O. The economiser is located in the boiler backpass. Refer the " Schematic Flow and Arrangement Diagram of Water & Saturated Steam Circuits". It is composed of two banks of 156 parallel tube elemets (3) arragned in horizontal rows in such a manner that each row is in line with the row above and below.4 centers. Some of the tube ends are swaged to a smaller diameter while other tubes are bifurcated where they are welded to the outlet headers and lower drum nipples. accomplished.5" centers. Tubes on 63. fin welded tubes on 154. thereby.5 O. The space between the tubes is fusion welded to from a complete gas tight seal. while the possibility of steam generation within the economiser is minimised by the upward water flow. This helps prevent steaming. The valves in these lines must be open during unit startup until continuous feed water flow is established. The economiser recirculating lines. which connects the economiser inlet lead header (2) with the furnace lower rear drum (14). WATER COOLED FURNACE WELDED WALL CONSTRUCTION The furnace walls are composd of 51.2 (typical) centers.
KORBA SIMULATOR 45 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 46 .
3 mms). Water flows from the drum (7) through the downcomers (8) to the pump suction manofld (9). The front wall tubes (16). In KORBA SIMULATOR 47 . slope down toward the centre of the furnace to form the inclined sides of the bottom.The backpas front (furnace) roof is composed of 51.0 O. often referred to as the dry bottom typ. the front and rear walls. which are attached around the bottom opening of boiler furnace. tubes.0. which is seal. soot blowers. Where tubes are spread out to permit passage of superheater elemets. into a water trough around the top of the ash hopper. rear arch tubes (18). Poured insulation is used at each horizontal buckstay to form a continous band around the furnace thereby preventing flue action of gases between the casing and water walls. The water rises through furnace wall tubes where it absorbs heat. The seal is affected by dipping seal plates.. which feed the furnace wall tubes.D tubes peg fin welded on 152. peg fin welded on 152. All peg-finned tubes are normally backed with a plastic refractory and skin casing. BOTTOM CONSTRUCTION Bottom designs used in these coal-fired units are of the open hopper type. etc. The resulting mixture of water and steam collects in the waterwall outlet headers (23) (24) (25) (26) and is discharged into the steam drum (7) through the riser tubes (27). into the furnace lower front inlet header (13). hanger tubes. rear screen tubes (21). Furnace lower water wall right and left side headers (15) assure proper distribution to the rear heater (14).D. observation ports. The backpass rear roof is composed of 51. Feedwater enter the unit through the economizer elements (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) and is mixed with boiler water in the steam drum (7). rear wall hanger tubes (19). Ash and/or slag from the furnace is discharged through the bottom opening into n ash hopper directly below it. rear tubes (17). welded to form a gas tight envelope. In this type of bottom construction two furnace water walls. The depth of the trough and seal plates will accommodate maximum downward expansion of the boiler (predicated (320. In the waterwall inlet headers the boiler water passes through strainers and then through orifices.4 centers. O. via the pump discharge lines (12).4 centers. the economiser recirculating lines. A seal is used between the furnace and hopper to prevent ambient air being drawn into the furnace and disturbng combustion fuel/air rations. extended sidewall tubes (2) and sidewall tubes (22) from parallel flow paths. the spaces between the tubes and openings are closed with fin material so a completely metallic surface is exposed to the hot furnace gases. The boiler-circulating pump (10) takes water from the suction manifold and discharges it.
Downcoming pipes enter into the furnace lower front inlet header.) into the boiler water so that a phosphate reserve is maintained.P will precipitate any undesirable hardness salts contained in the water into a form of free flowing sludge. NOTES: 1.the steam drum the steam and water are separated (see "Drun Internals"). T. Furnace lower waterwall right and left side headers assure proper distribution to the rear heads.P. The panels are made in sections to facilitate removal and replacement. H. Orifice and screen assemblies retained on subsequent acid cleaning operation and removed for inspection purposes only.S. The panels are secured in the inlet drums with clamps. A marman clamp holds the orifice on the orifice mount. 48 KORBA SIMULATOR . the solution will be transferred by gravity feed to the metering tank ready for injection into the boiler steam drum in quantities determined by chemical analysis. WATERWALL INLET HEADERS The waterwall inlet headers are rectangular ring shaped manifold at the bottom of the furnace.P. 2.S. which feed the furnace wall tubes. The screen consists of a number of panels with 2/16" perforations.P. Chemical dosing is used to inject Tri-sodium Phosphate (T. CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM Intermittent H. Each orifice is installed on the orifice mount adapter tack welded to the drum interior wall. Screens however must be installed 3.P. Initial boiling out and acid cleaning operation to be completed before installing orifices.S. which can be removed by blowdown. When prepared. In the waterwall inlet headers the boiler water passes through screen and then through orifices. A solution of T. the steam goes to the superheater (see "Supergeater and Reheater") and the water is reurned to the waterside of the steam drum to be recirculated. will be made ready in the mixing tank using a motor operated stirrer and make up water as necessary.
Each relief valve discharges into the open drain system. Further monitoring is provided by level switches which initiate an alarm when the level in the metering tank is high / low. KORBA SIMULATOR 49 . FUEL OIL SYSTEM The fuel oil system prepares any of the two designated fuel oil for use in oil burners (16 per boiler. The turbulent swirling action this produces. dosing pumps (one standby) into the steam drum. FUEL FIRING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION The information Contained in this chapter relates to the fuel (oil & coal) system and fuel / combustion equipment under supply of BHEL for 500 MW boilers. A vertical tilt facility of the burner nozzles. promotes the necessary mixing of the fuels and air to ensure complete combustion of the fuel. filters. 4 per elevation) to establish initial boiler light up of the main fuel (pulverised coal) and for sustaining boiler low load requirements upto 15 % MCR load. raised in temperature. The pulverised coal is mixed with a primary airflow. raised in pressure and delivered to the oil burners at the requisite atomising viscosity for optimum combustion efficiency in the furnace. To achieve this the raw coal from overhead hopper is fed through pressurised coal valve.The level of solution in the tanks can be observed through side mounted gauge glasses. oil heaters. Both pump system are indentical and include a suction filter and a discharge pressure relie valve. To achieve this. ensures a constituent reheat outlet steam temperature at varying boiler loads. and gravimetric feeder and into mills where it is crushed and reduced to a pulverised state for optimum combustion efficiency. COAL SYSTEM The coal system prepares the main fuel (pulverised coal) for main boiler furnace firing. steam tracing lines which together ensure that the fuel oil is progressively filtered. Solution is pumped from the metering tank by one of the two 100 % duty H. BURNER NOZZLES Both the oil and coal burner nozzles fire at a tangent to an imaginary circle at the furnace centre. which is controlled by the automatic control system of boiler. Drains from the gauge glasses and tank overflows empty into an open drains system. SECOAL nuclear monitor.P. the system incorporates fuel oil pumps. which carries the coal air mixture to each of 4 corners of the furnace burner nozzles and into furnace.
The coal compartments (fuel air compartment) contain air (intermediate air compartments). Fuel and air introduced to the furnace through four windbox assemblies located in the furnace corners. These ignitors directly light up the oil guns. KORBA SIMULATOR 50 . The tilt drive units in all four corners operate in unison so that all nozzles have identical tilt positions. WINDBOX ASSEMBLY The fuel firing equipment consists of four windbox assemblies located in the furnace corners. They are used by Furnace safeguard Supervisory System to initiate a master fuel top upon detection of flame failure in the furnace. The drive cylinders at each elevation are operated either remote manually or automatically by the Secondary Air Damper Control System in conjunction with the Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System. Optical flames scanners are installed in flame scanner guide pipe assemblies in the auxiliary are compartments. The scanners sense the ultraviolet (UV) radiation given off by the flame and thereby prove the flame. all of which are connected to a drive unit at each corner operated by automatic control. Each set of dampers is operated by a damper drive cylinders located at the side of the windbox. The rotative or cyclonic action that is characteristic of this type of firing is most effective in turbulently mixing the burning fuel in a constantly changing air and gas atmosphere AIR AND FUEL NOZZLE TILTS The air and fuel stream are vertically adjustable by means of movable air deflectors and nozzle tips. 60 degrees. Some of the (auxiliary) intermediate air compartments between coal nozzles contains oil gun. The fuel and air streams from the windbox nozzles are dissected to a firing circle in the centre of the furnace. Provision is given in UCB to know the position of nozzle tips during operation. Combustion air (secondary air) is admitted to the intermediate air compartment and each fuel compartment (around the fuel nozzle) through sets of louvre dampers.TILTING TANGENTIAL FIRING SYSTEM GENERAL In the tangential firing system the furnace itself constitutes the burner. Each windbox assembly is divided in its height into number of sections or compartments. This movement is effected through connecting rods and tilting mechanism in each windbox compartment. (Refer contract assembly drawing for details).Retractable High Energy Arc (HEA) ignitors are located adjacent to the retractable oil guns. which can be tilted upward or downward through a total of approx.
KORBA SIMULATOR 51 .
Air distribution is accomplished by means of the individual compartment dampers. The optimum excess air is normally defined as the O2 at the economiser outlet that produces the minimum opacity. Operation below recommended range will result in excessive black smoke and operation above this range will result in excessive white smoke. To provide proper air distribution for purging and suitable air velocities for lighting off.AIR FLOW CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION Total airflow control is accomplished by regulating fan dampers or fan speed. all auxiliary air dampers should be open during the purge period. TOTAL AIR FLOW In order to ensure safe light-off conditions. the total required amount of air (total air flow) is a function of the unit load. NOTE: The most suitable amount of excess air for a particular unit. the lighting off and the warm-up period. the pre-optional purge airflow (at least 30 % of full load volumetric air flow) is maintained during the entire warm-up period until the unit is on the line and the unit load has reached the point where the airflow must be increased to accommodate further load increase. Excess air can be determined through flue gas analysis (Orsat measurements).air dampers or closing down the auxiliary air dampers increases KORBA SIMULATOR 52 . Proper airflow at a given load depends on the characteristics of the fuel fired and the amount of excess air required (see note) to satisfactorily burn the fuel. Slagging tendency of a particular fuel may dicatate an increase of operating excess air. After the unit is on the line. Windbox compartment damper positioning affects the air distribution as follows: Opening up the fuel . This is best done form observation of furnace slagging conditions. AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION The function of the windbox compartment dampers is to proportion the amount of secondary air admitted to an elevation of fuel compartments in relationship to that admitted to adjacent elevation of auxiliary air compartments. The airflow to the air boxes can be equalised by observing and equalising the reading of the flowmeters located in the hot air duct to windbox. Operation below the optimum excess air will result in high opacity due to unburned carbon where as operation above the optimum excess air will result in high capacity due to excessive H2 SO4 condensation. at a given load and with a given fuel must be determined by experience.
50 %) the over-fire air dampers should open and modulate as a function of unit load until. when firing at low rates and for achieving optimum combustion condition in the furnace at all loads. The fuel air dampers should be closed prior to and during light off. as well as the optimum tilt position of the over-fire air nozzles. The correct proportion of air between fuel compartment and auxiliary air compartments depends primarily on the burning characteristics of the fuel. To provide necessary ignition energy to light-off coal burner 2. which can be kept in the required position during commissioning of the unit. It influences the degree of mixing. the rapidity of combustion and the flame pattern within the furnace. 1. To stabilise the coal flame at low boiler/burner loads 3. The optimum ratio of over fire air to fuel and auxiliary air. The quantity of NO produced can be reduced by limiting the amount of air admitted to the furnace adjacent to the fuel and increasing the quantity of air admitted above the fire (over fire air). The optimum distribution of air for each individual installation and for the fuel used must be determined by experience. KORBA SIMULATOR 53 . at maximum continuous rating (MCR) when upto 15 % of the total air is admitted to the furnace as over fire air. the associated fuel-air dampers should open and be positioned in proportion to the elevation-firing rate. When on automatic controls the system should provide modulation of the auxiliary air dampers as required to maintain a pre-set windbox-to-furnace differential pressure. FUEL OIL FIRING SYSTEM FUELS A coal-fired unit incorporates oil burners also to minimum oil firing capacity of 15 % of boiler load for the reason of. When the fuel elevation is proven in service.the air flow around the fuel nozzle Closing down the fuel air dampers and opening the auxiliary air dampers decrease the air flow directly around the fuel stream. Normally the end air compartments are [provided with manual adjustment. When the unit has reached a predetermined load (app. Proper distribution of secondary air is important for furnace stability when lighting off individual fuel nozzle. As a safe start-up fuel and for controlled heat input during light-off. to produce a minimum NO emission consitent with satisfactory furnace performance must be determined through flue gas testing (i. As the unit increases the quantity of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) Produces in a furnace (due to the oxidation of nitrogen in the fuel) increases and the upper elevations of fuel nozzles are placed in service. The wind-box compartments are normally provided with drive (except end air compartments) so they may be operated by a secondary air damper and over-fire air control system in conjuction with the furnace safeguard supervisory system. measurement of NO) during initial operation of the unit.e. Proper distribution of secondary air also has an effect on the emission of pollutants form coal fired units.
The number of coal nozzle elevations are equivalent to the number of coal mills. The coal fuel and combustion air streams from these nozzles or compartments are directed tangential to an imaginary circle at the centre of the furnace.B. one below the bottom coal nozzle and one above the top coal nozzle. DE . BC..3. The coal burners or coal nozzles are located at different levels on elevations of the windboxes.Auxiliary steam is utilised in boiler for following purposes: • • • For atomising the HFO at the oil gun. C. The coal nozzles are sandwitched between air nozzles or air compartments. from bottom to top. To preheat the combustion air at the steam coil air heater and to warm up the main air heater (this reduces Sulphur-oxide condensation and thus cold end corrosion of main air heater) With above provisions and with proper oil. the bottom end air nozzle as AA and the top end air nozzles as XX. That is. KORBA SIMULATOR 54 . and the top most and bottom most air nozzles as END Air Nozzles. main heating and heat tracing of HFO..2... combustion rate and combustion efficiency. The coal and air nozzles are tiltable ± 30 0 about horizontal.. at all elevations and corners. This creates a turbulent vortex motion of the fuel air and hot gases which promotes mixing ignition energy availability. like AB. The coal nozzle elevation are designated as A.D etc. air nozzles are arranged between coal nozzles. The auxiliary air nozzles are designated by the adjacent coal nozzles. This shifts the flame zone across the furnace height for the purpose of steam temperature control. For tank heating. The four furnace corners are designated as 1. The same elevation of coal nozzle at 4 corners is fed from a single coal mill. steam and combustion air parameters at the burner. The air nozzle in between coal nozzles is termed as Auxiliary Air Nozzles. HFO is safely fired in a cold furnace BURNER ARRANGEMENT In a tangentially fired boiler. etc. in unison. one at each corner of the furnace.. CD. If there are ‘n’ numbers of coal nozzles per corner there will be (n + 1) numbers of air nozzle per corner. and counting front water wall left corner as “1”.. four tall windboxes (combustion air boxes) are arranged. and 4 in clockwise direction looking from top.
a portion is supplied by primary air fans. at all corners. Each oil gun is associated with a high-energy arc ignitor. individual burner load. The dampers regulate on elevation basis. by a series of air dampers. at the air entry to individual nozzle or compartment. KORBA SIMULATOR 55 .Each pair of coal nozzle elevation is served by one elevation of oil burners located in between. there are 16 oil guns arranged in 4 elevations. Each of the coal fuel nozzles and auxiliary and end air nozzles is provided with a knock-knee type regulating dampers. 7 auxiliary air dampers. COMBUSTION AIR DISTRIBUTION Of the total combustion air. in unison. 2 end air dampers and 2 over fire air dampers per corner. The proportioning of air flow between the various coal fuel nozzles and auxiliary air nozzles is done based on boiler load. Heavy fuel oil can be fired at the oil guns of all elevations. at auxiliary air nozzles AB. CD. On a unit with 8 mills there will be 8 fuel air dampers. referred as ‘secondary air’ is provided by FD fans. A portion of secondary air (normally 30% to 40 %) called ‘Fuel Air’ is admitted immediately around the coal fuel nozzles (annular space around the casting insert) into the furnace. The quantity of secondary air (fuel air + auxiliary air) is dictated by boiler load and controlled by FD fan blade pitch. The rest of the secondary air called ‘Auxiliary Air’ is admitted through the auxiliary air nozzles and end air nozzles. The primary airflow rate is controlled at the air inlet to the individual mills by dampers. and the coal / oil burners in service. FURNACE PURGE Traces of unburnt fuel air mixture might have been left behind inside the furnace of some fuel or might have entered the furnace through passing valves during shutdown of the boiler. Each damper is driven by an air cylinder positioned set. For example in a boiler with 8 mills or 8 elevations of coal nozzles. The balance of the combustion air. furnace pressurisation and to explosions at the worst. The Primary Air flow quantity is decided by coal mill load and the number of coal mills in service. This is avoided by the ‘Furnace Purge’ operation during which 30 % of total air flow is maintained for above 6 minutes to clear off such fuel accumulations and fill the furnace with clean air. which go to coal mill for drying and pulverising the coal and carrying it to the coal nozzles. EF. & GH. Lighting up a furnace with such fuel air accumulation leads to high rate of combustion. before lighting up. which receives signal from ‘Secondary Air Control System’.
If found necessary total airflow may be marginally increased for better flame conditions. Simultaneously. Simultaneously. since no adequate combustion air will be available behind oil burners. 40 mm WC) set point differential pressure between the windbox and furnace. the auxiliary air dampers open in a timed sequence starting with the lowest elevation of dampers. the differential set point is changed to a higher setting (approx. When the unit load is reduced below 30 % loading. for successful burner light up and stable flames. KORBA SIMULATOR 56 .During furnace purge. 30-40 % of total airflow is maintained to have an air rich furnace and to avoid possible unhealthy furnace conditions. to provide required combustion air. The above 100 mm WC differential is the predicted value required to admit the total secondary air at design air velocities with all dampers opened to reasonable percentage. BOILER LOW LOAD OPERATION During initial operations upto about 30 % boilers loading (and also during furnace purge) all the auxiliary and end air dampers modulate to maintain a predetermined (approx. During this period also. BOILER LOAD ABOVE 30 % When the unit load exceeds 30 % MCR. the differential set point change to its lower setting. each elevation of oil burners shall not be loaded more than 10 % MCR (if high capacity provided). the auxiliary air dampers associated with the coal or oil elevations not in service close in timed sequence starting with the upper elevations of dampers and progressing to the lowest elevation. Again all the auxiliary and end air dampers are open to distribute the excessively admitted air away from the operating burners and to pass only the necessary air behind the operating burners at appropriate velocity. under this operating conditions. At boiler load less than 30 % MCR. Whenever one or more oil burners are put into service the associated elevation of auxiliary air dampers modulate as a function of oil header pressure. Around 40 mm of windbox of furnace differential is the pressure estimated as required to admit 30-40 % of airflow with the entire auxiliary and end air dampers modulating with reasonable opening. The other auxiliary air dampers continue to maintain 40 mm windbox to furnace differential. 100 mm WC). all the elevations of auxiliary and end air dampers are opened to have uniform and through purging across the furnace volume.
The auxiliary air dampers associated with the oil elevations modulate as a function of oil header pressure when oil is being fired and opens more and more with increased firing rate. FUEL AIR DAMPERS Its operation is independent of boiler load. for better mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. External mix type steam atomised oil guns suitable for both LFO and HFO have been provided. Fifty seconds after the feeder is removed from service. For satisfactory atomisation the viscosity shall be less than 28 centistokes. which decides the atomisation. the pressure energy of the atomising steam breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. it is necessary to warmup the long oil supply lines from the heater to the burners. results in carryovers and makes the flame unstable due to low rate of heat liberation and incomplete combustion. so that the oil does not get cooled in the pipings and that the oil at correct atomising temperature is available at the KORBA SIMULATOR 57 . spray plate and cap nut. Which takes longer burning time. HEAVY FUEL OIL RECIRCULATION The HFO heater sets are located at a considerable distance from the boiler-burner proper. they open and close with balance of the auxiliary air dampers. All fuel air dampers are normally closed.Before putting in the first burner into service. The fuel air dampers will open fully when both FD fans are off. FUEL OIL ATOMISATION Atomisation is the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist. level. All the auxiliary air dampers maintain the status quo upon a boiler trip and will open fully when both FD fans are off. Otherwise. The bottom end air damper is normally kept open to a fixed predetermined position to reduce unburnt coal dust fall . Poorly atomised furl oil would mean bigger spray particles. Viscosity of the oil is another major parameter. back plate. The atomiser assembly consist of nozzle body welded on to the gun body. It modulates as function of feeder speed. While passing through the spray nozzles of the oil gun. They open fifty seconds after the associated feeder is started and a particular speed reached.out. the associated fuel air dampers close. Atomisers of this type are widely known as J-tips.
Long recirculation is the effective one. KORBA SIMULATOR 58 . During initial commissioning. Before opening the main trip valve or the first burner trip valve. This orifice is sized for a circulation flow rate of about 7 . For the above purpose there are two HFO recirculation loops. prevents solidification of oil at dead ends and ensures uniform temperature in the piping. nears the corner risers. To achieve this the heater oil is circulated upto the burners and back to the oil tank through HFO return lines. This constant recirculation keeps the HFO return line always warm.10 % of maximum oil firing rate.e. large volumes of HFO can be circulated upto the burners and initial warming up of the pipings can be faster. This later loop bypasses the boiler area piping and connects the HFO return line to the HFO supply line before the HFO main trip valve and supply flow meter. which circulates oil right upto the burner valve inlet. The flow metering should be accounted only when HORV is closed. till adequate temperature is reached near the burners.burners. when HORV is shut) still a small amount of hot oil is constantly recirculated through a restricting orifice arranged across HORV. supply ring header and HFO return lines. essentially for warming up the main lines. OIL FLOW CONTROL This is remote manually done by varying oil flow control valve opening. which is through the main trip valve. the short recirculation valve is closed. short recirculation valve is opened when the main trip valve is closed. for better rangeability. One is called the long Recirculation. rather than in the common return line. With this valve open. Long recirculation is not possible if no control power is available and during mater fuel trip. A HFO return trip valve (HORV) is installed in the long recirculation loop. This will enable the operator to cut in the oil gun immediately when required. supply flow meter and flow control valve in the HFO supply line. The amount of oil circulation however is to be restricted to avoid shooting up of tank temperatures and hence the flow control valve may be throttled to reduce the return oil flow rate. The HFO return flow meter is installed across the HORV in series with the constant recirculation orifice. this recirculation flow rate shall be checked and if found necessary orifice size be suitably changed or the regulating valve opening be adjusted. When the boiler is firing on coal or no oil burner is fired it is recommended to open Heavy Oil Main Trip Valve and Return Valve to circulate the oil continuously. The need for varying the oil burner load and the normally adopted practice is described in the following lines. When one or more burners are firing (i. During such occasions the other partial recirculation loop called short recirculation is employed.
1. Oil Flow Control Valve and Minimum Pressure Control Valve Function The oil header pressure is maintained constant at all loads. To start with. the Heavy Fuel Oil Heater Trip Valve and HORV are opened. This can be done by setting the required header pressure and maintaining the same through the pneumatic pressure controller.SYSTEM REQUIREMENT The maximum total output of oil burners is 30 % of the boiler MCR. This meets the turbine synchronisation needs before firing coal burners. KORBA SIMULATOR 59 .5 kg/sq cm2(g) to ensure good atomisation and stable flames. The burners are operated only by pair mode. the heavy fuel oil flow control valve is kept at the predetermined minimum firing opening to restrict the firing rate. For steam atomised oil burner. to have a controlled and gradually increasing heat loading. During cold start-ups of the boiler. Each oil burners capacity is about 2 % of boiler MCR. as dictated by boiler start up curves. For coal burner ignition and coal flame stabilisation a minimum oil burner output. to avoid temperature stresses on pressure part materials. equivalent to 10-20 % of maximum coal burner capacity is required. lower than the maximum rating for reasons mentioned below. This roughly corresponds to 40 to 50 % rating of an oil burner. The burner trip valves are then opened and burners are put into service. The flow control valve essentially does the function of regulating the boiler fuel oil firing rate. Once the temperature at the boiler front is adequate. The minimum pressure control valve ensures a smooth starting up boiler. The oil burners have to be opted at loads. the oil pressure at the oil gun shall not fall below 2. To conserve fuel oil by operating the oil burners just at the “Coal flame stabilisation” requirements. at the upstream of oil flow control valve by a relieving type backpressure control valve installed after the pump. The valve opening can be varied from the remote depending upon the no of burners firing and the firing rate. 2. For the exact capacities refer to performance data sheet (oil burners and ignitors) The oil burner output is a function of oil pressure at the oil gun and the normal turndown range of the oil burner is 3: 1.
KORBA SIMULATOR 60 .
Grade LV-MVHV 7.4 per elevation Elevation AB.When more no of burners are brought into service the heavy fuel oil header pressure will experience a sudden dip. constant pressure. An UCB display of control valve outlet pressure and the number of burners in service are the correct guidance for the operator. it is always a good operator’s practice to increase the header pressure before additional burners are brought into service. If this pressure control loop is not in service.5% MCH heat imput/4 guns 16. auto retractable External mix. OIL FIRING HEAVY FUEL OIL BURNERS Type Burner Oil gun Atomiser Air Nozzle Atomiser designation Atomiser spray angle fuel Design capacity Number off Location Oil Firing rate maximum Oil Firing rate minimum Turn Down Oil pressure at maximum pressure Oil viscosity rating. CD. 1971. The position transmitter or position limit switches mounted on the flow control valve serve to indicate the status of opening of control valve. : 15-28 CST at gun 160 Kg/hr/gun Atomising steam flow at Maximum : : : : : : : : : : : : : : rating : Tilting Tangential. The fuel oil flow meter reading at panel could also be of equal assistance. The header pressure will be automatically maintained by the pressure control loop in the flow control valve. EF & GH 2250 Kg/hr/gun 750 Kg/hr/gun 3 to 1 13 Kg/cm2 (g) at gun KORBA SIMULATOR 61 . corner fired Parallel pipe. Steam atomised Suare to round J 18 90o Fuel oil to IS:1593.
25 Kg/cm2 (q) at the gun. Minimum allowable atomising steam : pressure Atomising steam quality FUEL OIL PUMP Make Type no.Atomising steam flow at minimum : rating Atomising steam pressure : 215 Kg/hr/gun 5. constant at all loads 4. off Rotation Capacity Pressure Speed Pump KW Motor KW Suction Filter Mesh Discharge Filter Mesh IGNITORS Type Output 4 sparks/sec. A spark rod tip which is designed to convert the electrical energy into an intensive spark. The main features of this system are • An exciter unit which stores up the electrical energy and releases the energy at a high voltage and short duration.5 kg/cm2 (g) at the gun 20 to 30oC superheated BORNEMAN Screw 3 (1 standbvy) Clockwise from Motor end 800 lpm at 150 cst. Sparking Time Rating : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : High Energy Arc type electrical ignitors are provided which can directly ignite the heavy fuel oil. • KORBA SIMULATOR 62 . 30 Kg/cm2 1450 rpm 83 KW 90 KW 500 Micron 250 Micron High Energy Arc Ignitor 12 Joules/spark 10 seconds 110 V AC 50 Hz.
it is very much necessary to maintain the following conditions: 1. during the light off period for reliable ignition. clean oil gun tips etc. The time of commencing of all the operational sequences is properly matched. A plugged oil gun tip may result in an unsuccessful start. The spark rod tip is located correctly at the optimum location. All the atomising parameters such as oil temperature. steam pressure. These sparks are effective in lighting of wellatomised oil spray and also capable of blasting off any coke particle or oil muck on the surface of the spark rod. This must be established during the commissioning of the equipment and proper sequence must be followed. For a reliable ignition of oil spray by the HEA ignitor.• A pneumatically operated retract mechanism which is used to position the spark rod in the firing position and retract to the non-firing position. • • • KORBA SIMULATOR 63 .. the burner fittings are well traced and insulated. Each descrete spark provides a large burst of ignition energy as the current reaches a peak value of the order of 2000 amps. 5. The oil gun location with respect to the diffuser and the diffuser location with respect to the air nozzle are maintained properly. 4. 3. 6. The cold legs are minimum. 2. The atomisation is maintained at an optimum level. The atomising steam shall be with 20-degree superheat minimum. A minimum discharge of 300 kg/hr of oil is essential for a reliable ignition. It may become necessary to close the air behind the ignitors. The control system is properly tuned with ignitor operation. are maintained without fail. Too much retraction of spark rod inside the guide tube will interfere with nozzle tilts and may spoil the guide tube. The following facts must be born in mind to understand the ignitors and the system clearly : • The spark rod life will be drastically reduced if left for long duration in the advanced condition when the furnace is hot.
one for. During emergency tripping of the burners or boiler the oil gun is neither scavenged nor retracted automatically. • In the autoprogrammed burner stop sequence. which have been suitably interlocked into furnace safeguard supervisory. auto retractable. Normally such emergency trip may last only for a shot while and the fuel oil guns shall be re-started or local manually scavenged immediately on resuming boiler operation. • BURNER NOZZLE VALVES The burner nozzle valves are of pneumatic diaphragm type. Under such situation it is gun from firing position to save it from possible damage due In the system provided. of an operating oil gun is protected for the hot furnace fuel out / steam which keeps it relatively cool.• A cold oil gun and hoses cause quenching of oil temperatures and may lead to an unsuccessful start. a planned shut down is followed by steam scavenging the oil side for quite sometime. with a stroke length of 330 mm. Once the is no further flow of oil/steam. the oil gun is scavenged with steam to keep the small intricate passages of the atomiser parts clean. STEAM SCAVENGING OF FUEL OIL GUNS Before stopping the oil burner. SYSTEM VENTS AND DRAINS Fuel oil heaters strainers and lines are provided with ventcocks or valves on oil and steam sides to get rid of air locks while charging the system. It is very important to check these valve periodically for any seat leakage. In such cases warming up by Scavenging prior to start is necessary. The opening is slow to avoid a pressure dip in the oil header. another for “Gun advanced” and the third for “Gun retracted” position. “gun engaged” position. It is diven by a pneumatic cylinder and a 4 way dual coil solenoid pilot control valve. system logic’s for safe and sequenced operation. KORBA SIMULATOR 64 . FUEL OIL GUN ADVANCE / RETRACT MECHANISM The atomiser assembly radiation by the flow of burner is stopped there required to withdraw the to over heating. There are three position limit switches. to achieve this requirement. The oil valves are provided with facility to adjust the opening time. The closing of the valves are instantaneous. the oil gun is auto advance.
Warming of the HFO lines and equipment like strainers and pumps before charging with oil is essential for easy flow and melt any solidified oil traces left behind during the prior shutdown. This prevents loss of heat and eventual solidification of HFO in any section of the HFO piping. HEAT TRACING OF HFO LINES The HFO being high viscous and having high pour point. HFO PUMPING SYSTEM: Pressure Maintaining cum Regulating Valve The screw pump is a constant quantity pump and when only a small quantity of oil is fired. The equipment like strainers and pumps have steam heating casing.3 . This may have to be practised only during the winter days.0. the HFO lines are steam traced by running a small bore steam pipe along side and lagging together by insulation.In a heat exchanger air locks reduce the effective heat transfer area and thus the heater efficiency. This is done automatically by pneumatic operated. Set the pressure control valve for maintaining adequate and constant pressure at the upstream of the HFO flow control valve at maximum firing rate. KORBA SIMULATOR 65 . The delivery pressure of oil is maintained constant at the pump outlet. Each section of oil line is provided with a drain valve or plug at the lowest point.5 % towards drain. the excess oil from the constant quantity pump should be by-passed. All drain valves are normally kept closed during operation. then it is necessary to open the respective drain the valves and drain the fuel oil when hot. The formed condensate is let out through steam traps at the end of each tracer or heat jacket. Air venting also helps to avoid the chances of forming fuel vapour air mixtures inside the system. When the oil system is taken out of service for a long duration. Also during shutting down each line or equipment heating helps in draining the system effectively. Portable drip trays are provided near the drain points. All oil lines are run with a slope of about 0. The vapour locks may also lead to eratic performance of the equipment and severe vibration. whatever be the quantity of oil fired. Sometimes the trace heating is continued even during normal burner operation to make up for radiation heat loss from the heated HFO so that the oil temperature does not drop. pressure maintaining cum regulating valve by by-passing the excess quantity through the return oil line to storage tank.
KORBA SIMULATOR 66 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 67 .
Hair pin type. with vent valve and drain valve. Basket strainers of 500 micron filter mesh are provided. The clogged filter element should be cleaned without delay. When the pressure drop across the operating strainer reaches about 0. • HFO SUCTION STRAINERS Oil suction strainers are essential to prevent mechanical impurities reaching the small clearances and intricate passages in the screw pump.3 kg/sq. STEAM HEAT EXCHANGER Type No. HEAVY FUEL OIL HEATING SYSTEM H. condensing type. operation is switched over to the standby section of the Duplex filter. 3 Nos. and will get damaged. for best turndown. The strainers are provide with alarming switches to indicate the operator when the cleaning of the filter is due. Tube. off Heater Area Oil flow rate Oil temperature range Design pressure Hydraulic Test Pressure Design Temperature U. and frictional pressure drop in these lines.M 680 lpm 150OC (oil) 6 Kg/cm2 (g) 24 Kg/cm2 (g) 250OC KORBA SIMULATOR 68 . (including 1 no. O. cm (corresponding to 50 % clogged status). standby) 40 Sq. Static head between flow control valve and top level of burners. Flow control valve pressure drop.The flow control valve upstream pressure required is the sum of the following at maximum firing rate: • • Oil pressure at the gun inlet. F. The running pump will starve of oil if the pressure drop across the suction strainer exceeds the allowable limit. oil on shell side.
The duplex basket type discharge strainers are at the heater outlet. cm (corresponding to 60 % clogged status). with oil on shell side and steam on the tube side. When the pressure drop across the strainer exceeds about 0. prior to admission to the pulverizer. U tube type. the total KORBA SIMULATOR 69 . The fine filtering prevents chocking of lines. to provide the required drying as indicated by the pulverizer outlet temperature. The primary air dries the coal as it is being pulverized and transports the pulverized coal through the coal piping system to the cola nozzles in the windbox assemblies. steam jackets of strainers and line tracers are provided in the system.GENERAL ARRANGEMENT There 150 % duty steam-oil heat exchangers and three duplex strainers are provided for operation in combination. PULVERIZED COAL SYSTEM GENERAL The system for direct firing of pulverized coal utilizes pulverizers to pulverize the coal and a Tilting Tangential Firing System to admit the pulverized coal together with the air required for combustion (secondary air) to the furnace. The HFO temperature control valve and the trap station for heaters. The total primary air flow is measured in the inlet duct and controlled to maintain the velocities required to transport the coal through the pulverizer and coal piping. As crushed coal is fed to each pulverizer by its feeder (at rate to suit the load demand) primary air is supplied from the primary air fans.5 kg/sq. with fine mesh of 250-micron filtration. All these equipment are laid out on the floor. the standby strainer section is put into service and it is taken for cleaning. STEAM HEATERS AND STRAINERS The steam heaters are of fixed tube sheet. A portion of the primary air is pre-heated in the bisector air heater. The exchanger is equipped with the valves needed for air release and draining. The burner trip wearing rate is also reduced. The oil space is protected against exceeding of allowable pressure by low lifting spring loaded safety valve. The hot and cold primary air are proportionally mixed. The drain points are to be suitably piped upto the drain pit from the drain trays. valves and burner atomisers.
COAL FIRING SYSTEM COAL BURNERS Type Make Pulveriser. Fully preheated secondary air for combustion enters the furnace around the pulverized coal nozzles and through the auxiliary air compartments directly adjacent to the coal nozzle compartments. of Burners Turn down ratio PULVERISERS Type of pulveriser No. required for full load Base capacity of Mill : : : : 1003 x RP 8 6 68 Tonnes/hr for a pulverised fuel finess 70% through 200 mesh Index with a 55 HGT raw coal and of grindability. No. Combustion is completed as the gases spiral up in the furnace. A large portion of the ash is carried out of the furnace with the fuel gas. the remainder is discharged through the furnace bottom into the ash pit. of elevation of Burners Total no. of Mills/Boiler No. The pulverized coal and air streams entering the furnace are initially ignited by a suitable ignition source at the nozzle exit. a total : : : : : 8 32 66-77OC 850OC 4:1 : : Tilting Tangential BHEL 4 No. of Coal Burners Temp.primary air flow may constitute from approximately 15 % to 25 % of the total unit combustion air requirement. KORBA SIMULATOR 70 . of Coal Burners feed by each : moisture of not more than 8%. The pulverized coal and air discharged from the coal nozzles is directed toward the centre of the furnace to form a firing circle. of Coal Air Mixture Max allowable temp. Above a predictable minimum loading condition the ignition becomes self sustaining.
Liters/Min. of Oil Coolers/Mill Cooling water requirement for oil : : Immersed in oil bath Two Clean. colourless.A. s Antifriction bearings for main vertical shaft assembly journal shaft assembly and worm shaft assembly.36" Gravimatric (with Mechanical Weighing 71 32OC 140 41OC 170 41 Litres/Min/Mill Cooling water requirement for : journal Hydraulic system Wear Surface : : : : : : : 4000/8000 42 52. venturi vanes and classified Cone inner surface are lined with ceramic liners.S. RAW COAL FEEDER Type : : SECO . bullring segment and liners made of High Quality Ni hard (Comb alloy-N) casting. : Grinding rolls. Cooling System No. Life of rolls/grinding in his rings Speed of pulveriser (RPM) Normal capacity with design coal Max capacity with design coal.00(T/hr) 56. M/S FAST' U.COUPLING Type Supplier Bearings : : : Gear type flexible coupling with spacer assembly between mill & motor.6 T/hr) 60. Oil Temp. Maximum Pressure : : 21OC 106 10 Kg/cm2 clean. Normal capacity with design coal Max capacity with worst coal Max crushed coal size the: mill can accept. oC : : Qty.00 T/hr) 30.5(T/hr) 61. and ammonia Contamination free cooling water at 43oC.00(MM) KORBA SIMULATOR . colourless. and ammonia contamination free cooling water of Qty given below for the respective temp.
As combustion of the carbon progresses it becomes increasingly difficult to bring about contact with the diminishing oxygen supply in the limited time available. and in assisting the natural diffusion of oxygen through the gas film that surrounds the particles.Capacity Supplier : : : : : : Minmum . which is effective in removing the products of combustion from the particles. Heat released by oxidizing the volatile components in the coal accelerates of the fixed carbon to its ignition temperature. resulting in ignition. especially at the outer fringes where eddies form as mixture occurs with the secondary air. Here flame propagation and fuel speeds equalize. As the stream advances in the furnace. SECO.74800 kg/hr. which for this type of firing is in effect greater due to the longer travel taken by the gases.5 KW Stainless Steel/Besalt lined COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL IN TANGENTIALLY FIRED FURNACES The velocity of the primary air and coal mixture within the fuel nozzle tip exceeds the speed of flame propagation. The key to complete combustion consists of bringing a successive stream of oxygen molecules into contact with carbon particles. Stock Equipment Co. 2 in No. As the main part of the gases spiral upward in the furnace.4300 kg/hr. ignition spreads until the entire mass is burning completely. the relatively dense solid particles are subjected to a sustained turbulence. Rack and pinion (pressurised) 0.S. The speed at which the air and coal mixture ignites after leaving the windbox nozzles depends largely on the amount of volatile matter in the fuel. KORBA SIMULATOR 72 .A. Upon the nozzle tip the stream of coal and air rapidly spreads out with a corresponding decrease in velocity. the smallest of which are relatively large by comparison with the oxygen molecules. U. Maximum . The cyclonic mixing action that is characteristic of this type of firing is most effective in turbulently mixing the burning coal particles in a constantly changing air and gas atmosphere. (Upper and Lower) LOCATION Nuclear Monitor COAL VALVES TYPE 36" Pressurised Coal Valves limit torgue operated CHAIN operated BUNKER SHUT OFF GATES: Manufacturer Type Motor rating Material of gate : : : : : : At Raw Coal bunker outlet At Raw Coal feeder inlet.
the temperature of the primary air and coal mixture leaving the classifier should be kept at approximately 77OC for our coals. provide the necessary pressure between the grinding surface and the coal. even when the pulverizer is empty. consists essentially of a grinding chamber with a classifer mounted above it. PULVERIZED COAL DRYING For satisfactory performance. Therefore the best operating conditions for an particular installation must be determined by experience. shutoff gates and valves generally utilized. The hot air shutoff gate is used to shutoff the hot air to the pulverizer. by proportioning the air flow from the hot air and cold air supply ducts. causing the coarse particles to be returned to the bowl for further grinding. The air and coal mixture passes upward the classifier with its deflector blades where the direction of the flow is changed abruptly. The outlet temperature must not exceed 90OC any case. too high temperature may lead to fires in the pulverizer. Rolls revolving on journals that are attached to the mill housing pulverize the coal sufficiently to enable the air stream through the pulverizer to pick it up. outward against the grinding ring (bull ring). The moisture content of coals varies considerably.PULVERIZERS The pulverizer. in turn feed the coal at a controlled rate to the pulverizers title “Gravimetric Feeders” given at the end of this chapter. The fine particles. It must also be interlocked with the KORBA SIMULATOR 73 . remaining in suspension. the pulverizing takes place in a rotating bowl in which centrifugal force is utilized to move the coal. which. Too low a temperature may not dry the coal sufficiently. The hot air gate drive must be interlocked with the pulverizer motor circuit so that the gate will closed any time the pulverizer is not in service. leave the classifier and pass on through the coal piping to the windbox nozzles. Heavy springs. The location of dampers. These dampers also regulate the total primary airflow to the pulverizer. The rolls do not touch the grinding rings. exclusive of its feeder. Tramp iron and other foreign material discharged through a suitable spout. The hot air control damper and the cold air control damper regulate the temperature entering the pulverizer. In order to avoid overloading the pulverizer motor due to overfeeding. FEEDERS The raw crushed coal is delivered form the bunkers to the individual feeders. acting through the journal saddles. an interrupting circuit should be used to reduce the coal feed it the motor should become overloaded and to start the coal feed again when the motor load becomes normal. For details refer to Pulverizer instructions on its operation. delivered by the feeder.
temperature controller to effect closing of the hot air gate when the pulverizer outlet temperature exceeds 900C. Orifice plates are installed in the coal piping leaving the pulveriers. KORBA SIMULATOR 74 . The air flow should be low enough to avoid ignition instability and high enough at avoid setting and drifting in the pulverized coal piping or excessive supillage* of coal form the pulverizer through the trap iron spout. The seal air valve is open whenever the pulverizer discharge valves are closed a vice versa. so that the differential pressure between the filter air outlet and the filter bleed air outlet is zero. normally is assured by installing two booster fans and a filter in the seal air system. the cold air shutoff gate and the seal air shutoff valves are always kept wide open. insufficient heat inputs for drying. By distributing the fuel in this fashion a balanced fire is maintained regardless of which pulverizers are out of service. One fan normally runs continuously. The pulverizer discharge valves. The coal pipe seal air valve is utilized to admit seal air to the coal pipes for cooling when the pulverizer is isolated. with a control valve. to compensate for unequal resistance to flow due to different lengths of piping to the windboxes. Primary air velocity requirements in the pulverizer and coal piping preclude wide variations in system airflows. Therefore a constant airflow is maintained over the entire pulverizer load range. etc. The control valve should be installed so the valve fails open with a loss of instrument air. The filter in this system is an inertial separator type which discharges approximately 90 % of its input as clean air. NOTE: Coal spillage may also be caused by overfeeding. Pulverizer discharge valves are also closed on loaded. idle pulverizers when other pulverizers are being restarted after an emergency fuel trip.. however it may be isolated for maintenance by closing its inlet shutoff damper. They are closed only when isolation of a pulverizer or feeder is required for maintenance. A bleed off system. An adequate supply of clean seal air for the pulverizer trunnion shaft bearing. will control the amount of air being bled from the filter. too low a hydraulic pressure on the rolls or excessive wear of the grinding elements. PULVERIZER COAL PIPING Each pulverizer supplies an entire elevation of windbox nozzles.
FEEDER BODY Feeder design exceeds NFPA Code 85F requirements and will withstand an explosion pressure of 35 KG/cm2. Side skirting is provided to contain the coal on the belt and a levelling bar near the feeder inlet shears the coal column to form a profile conductive to maximum weighing accuracy. A work light mounted above each end door is designed to allow bulb changing from outside the feeder. The pulleys are easily removable for belt changing and bearing maintenance. of coal to the pulverizer per hour while operating on a 415 volt. Tension adjustments can be made with the feeder operating or at rest by turning the two belt take-up screws which protrude through the inlet end access door. Dust-tight doors are provided at both ends and each side of the feeder for access to critical components.GRAVIMETRIC FEEDERS MAIN FEEDER COMPONENT DESCRIPTION The STOCK Model 7736 gravimetric feeder is designed to supply 4366 to 76. six-support roller beneath the feeder inlet.phase. Operation of the principal feeder components is described in the text below. Proper belt tracking is accomplished by crowning the take-up pulley. KORBA SIMULATOR 75 . A counter weighted scraper with replaceable rubber blade continuously cleans the carrying surface of the belt after the coal is delivered to the outlet.408 Kgs. and a weighted idler in the middle of the feeder. in addition. a slotted takeup pulley at the inlet end. The tension roll indicator is found on the drive motor side of the feeder and is visible through the viewing port in the tension roll access door. All parts in contact with active coal flow are fabricated of type 304 stainless steel. Proper tension is obtained when the round protrusion at the centre of the tension roll is in line with the centre indicator mark on the tension indicator plate. 3 . 50 Hertz power supply. BELT AND DRIVE SYSTEM The feeder belt is supported by a machined drive pulley near the outlet. Bullseye viewing ports in the doors permit observation of the feeder interior during operation. Belt tension is applied through downward pressure exerted by the tensioning idler on the return strand of three belts. all three pulley faces are grooved to accept the molded V-guide in the belt.
When the weigh lever is in balance. Coal is deposited on the belt beneath the inlet and formed into a profile conductive to accurate weighing by side skirts and by an adjustable levelling bar on the downstream end. A weight correction timer determines the length of time allowed for weight correction. Operation is controlled by two electronics cards. KORBA SIMULATOR 76 . The weighing roller is equipped with levelling screws to adjust its height relative to the weigh span rollers. and positions the levelling bar to maintain a constant weight of coal per unit length of belt. the system will operate the levelling bar continuously for as long as a correction signal is received. causing the weight correction motor to adjust the levelling bar downward. Uncovering either outboard switch plus the centre switch indicates a serious weighing discrepancy has arisen and generates the alarm signal. The balance switch assembly consist of 3 optical switches attached to a printed circuit board and mounted in an enclosure with a clear plexiglass cover. WEIGHT SENSING AND CORRECTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS Coal weighing is performed on a span of belt downstream of the inlet. causing the weighing roller to move the weigh lever into an unbalanced position. To avoid unnecessary weight corrections for momentary transients. the data conversion card and the balance switch card is energized whenever the weight correction motor is energized: DS3 during an under weight correction and DS5 during an overweigh correction. in order to sense the weight of coal on the weight of coal on the weigh span. is responsible for generating the weight correction signal when the weigh lever connected to it is no longer in balance. which is defined by 2 weigh span rollers. The weighing roller is free to move vertically. 3 optical switches are covered by a shutter. but. all. This time interval is a function of drive pulley speed: the system enters a 12-seconds correction mode for each drive pulley speed is greater than 5 rpm. the coal delivered to the feeder will vary in density. the overweight correction switch in the balance switch assembly will be activated. a pulse must be received from the data conversion card once per turn of the drive pulley at the same time that the balance switch indicates that there is a weight discrepancy before a weight correction signal is transmitted to the weight correction motor. In an underweight condition. located in the weighing compartment. Located midway between these rollers is a weighing roller connected to a weigh lever. the levelling bar is adjusted upward to increase the coal height. Uncovering the outboard switch in either direction generates the underweight or overweight correction signal. The weight correction gearmotor is of the constant speed reversing type. If the coal is heavy. In operation.NOTE : CHANGES IN HUMIDITY OR TEMPERATURE MAY CAUSE VARIATIONS IN BELT LENGTH BELT TENSION SHOULD ALWAYS BE MAINTAINED WITHIN THE TWO EXTREME MARKS ON THE TENSION INDICATOR PLATE. is held in horizontal position by drag links on each side of the feeder. Coal height will be decreased to bring the weigh lever into balance. The balance switch assembly.
a universal counter I. the correct weight of coal will be delivered by each revolution of the drive pulley. With the weigh lever balanced properly. The instrument consists of an input amplifier. All I. totally enclosed.A second constant speed reversing-type gearmotor is supplied to calibre the feeder weighing system. When the feeder mode selector switch (SSF) is in the CALIBRATE position. Continuous operation also prevents a corrosive build up on the links. which may. which do not allow the input to the op amp to exceed the limits established by the power supply. Three principal components in each assembly are described in the following text. The cleanout conveyor is operated continuously with feeder operation to keep the coal in the bottom pan of the feeder at a minimum.adjusted seal air flow. CLEANOUT CONVEYOR Two 18" wide strands of malleable iron drag chain with alternately spaced wing links are used to automatically clean coal from the bottom span of the feeder. which is connected to a KORBA SIMULATOR 77 .. The sources of coal in the cleanout area may be: coal falling from the belt scraper.s are CMOs and the counter is designed to operate up to 50 KHz. self-contained. or coal blown off the belt by an improperly . This prevents interference with the belt and removes stagnant coal. a phase-lock loop. coal removed from the self-cleaning takeup pulley. The out put of this op amp is a square wave. It is 100 % solid state and has no internal adjustments. non-ventilated General Electric drive motor with tropicalized insulation through a reduction gearbox to an operating speed of slightly greater than 2 feet per minute. ELECTRICAL CONTROLS Electrical controls for the gravimetric feeder are housed in a remote located power cabinet assembly and in a control cabinet assembly mounted to the feeder adjacent to the drive motors. after long idle periods. The input to the amplifier is protected by clamping diodes. DIGITAL TACHOMETER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The digital tachometer is a special-purpose instrument for use in the calibration and maintenance of gravimetric and volumetric feeders. and an LED display assembly.C.C. The cleanout conveyor is driven by a 1/4 horsepower. which may otherwise ignite spontaneously. since this coal is not weighed and will introduce an error into the coal feedrate. this motor can be energized to drive the poise weight on the weigh lever in the direction necessary to return the weigh lever into balance. cause binding of the links and subsequent drive overload. It convers an input frequency generated by the tachogenerator in the feeder motor or the output of a 40-or 60. and designed to withstand sever use. coal dust setting out of the air.tooth wheel and reluctance pickup input to the feeder tachometer into a motor rpm reading. The instrument is fully protable.
multiplex display. The operational range of the voltage control oscillator is established by capacitor C%. depending on the selector switch position. in the RPM/12 position. and driving of a 5-digit.Schmitt trigger gate which can be used wither as a direct input to the universal counter when the instrument is measuring frequency. The phase -lock loop measures the difference between the incoming frequency and the output of the VCO divided by the counter and generates a signal proportional to the difference. The frequency counter also drives the displays. frequency counter. and a divider. This signal.1 of an rpm resolution is obtained. in effect. input amplifier. The function of the input amplifier is to accept data from the various input source and normalize the signal amplitude to make it compatible with the instrument logic. U4. The power supply consists of 4-nickel cadmium AA batteries and a diode-resistor circuit to prevent a change current. If this frequency is divided down by a counter. a pulse-to-rpm converter. The function selector is a 4-position switch to select the operating mode of the instrument. The phase-lock loop is used to multiply the input frequency by either a factor of 50 or a factor of 15 to produce 600 pulses /revolution. the output of the voltage control oscillator (VCO) would be the input frequency times the divider of the counter. This.4 mms in height and are operated in the multiplex mode. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The instrument consists of a power supply. PULSE-TO -RPM-CONVERTER The circuit consists of a phase-look loop. A diode is provided to protect the instrument in case a charger or reverse polarity is inserted into the battery-charging jack. U5. a 320 Hz input will be KORBA SIMULATOR 78 . Thus. R12 and C4 are a filter for the output of the phase comparator. does location of the decimal point. in this manner. whose outputs are used to divide the output frequency of the VCO by either 50 (when the switch is in the RPM/12 position) or 15 (when the switch is in the RPM/40 position). utilizing an input from the digit select line. 7-segment. or as an input to a phase-lock loop when the instrument is being used as a tachometer. a display. Four AA nickel cadmium batteries provide power for the instrument supply. The phase-lock loop (PLL) is a circuit element designed to lock the output of an internal frequency generator to the input frequency. whose digits are 4. The output of the phase-lock loop is then connected to the universal counter input when measuring rpm and. The output of the VCO is connected to counter U5. The pulse-to-rpm converter processes the data from the input amplifier by the use of a phase-lock loop and converters frequency counter measures the incoming frequency. Resistors R11. The universal counter is a CMOs chip manufactured by Intersil. ± . and a function selector switch. using a 10 MHZ crystal as a time base reference and containing all the circuitry necessary to do the counting. The selector switch. decoding. Charging power is provided from a standard AC/DC adapter charger with an output or 8 to 10 V @ 100 mA current. operates a voltage control oscillator. utilizing a 10 MHz Crystal for a time base. multiplies the input frequency into the PLL by either 50 or 15. or error.
If the input is 60 pulses per shaft resolution. totally enclosed. VALVE OPERATOR The valve is operated by a Limitorque Model SMB-00 valve operator.1 rpm if measuring speed or 1 Hz measuring frequency. Between the Limitorque operator and the valve body. With the selector switch in the RPM/40 position. To assure closure of the gate without cocking or binding. To keep maintenance at a minimum. The indicators and pushbuttons are mounted to a NEMA 12 control station.1 rpm. the ladder racks and pinions are designed with self-cleaning capability. a decimal point is added to the display and the shaft is indicated with a resolution of . A limit switch is provided to energize the red OPEN and green CLOSED position indicators when the valve has reached its limits of travel. Because the phase-lock loop increases the resolution of the instrument. When KORBA SIMULATOR 79 .497 KW. a pocket sheave-type handwheel with hand chain is provided for emergency manual override of the valve operator. The operator has an automatic handwheel declutching arrangement in which a declutch lever must be pulled down to mechanically disconnect the electric motor before manual operation takes place. A space heater is provided to dissipate moisture from the operator in damp locations. which includes a . which extend down each side of the gate. as well as a STOP pushbutton to de-energize the operator in intermediate positions. 3-phase. a 3:1 gear reducer is provided. The motor is rated for a 15-minute duty cycle. an input of 1200 Hz will be displayed as 1800 rpm. The valve operator is equipped with a torque switch wired into the motor control circuit to stop the operator in a full open (ACWT) or full closed (CWT) position when a predetermined amount or torque output is developed. and the gate is supported in individually greasable roller assemblies to further ensure proper tracking. 50-Hertz operation. This design minimizes potential corrosion from moisture in the coal.displayed as 1800 rpm. The pinions are located above the racks to provide positive tooth engagement. BUNKER OUTLET VALVE VALVE GATE The gate is fabricated in a winged “U” design to keep its supporting rollers. two pinions on the operating shaft engage ladder racks. non-ventilated motor wired for 425 volt. In the event of a power failure. racks and pinions completely out of the coal stream. which causes tripper cams mounted on the worm shaft to release the clutch ring and keys from their manual positions and engages the motor. the phase-lock loop is not used and the resolution of the instrument is in . Valve controls include momentary OPEN and CLOSE pushbuttons. The valve operator will then remain in manual operation indefinitely until the electric motor is energized.
the detector will sense a certain level of radiation. When KORBA SIMULATOR 80 . NOTE : DO NOT DPRESS THE DECLUTCH LEVER DURING VALVE MOTOR OPERATION TO STOP VALVE TRAVEL. The double SECOAL nuclear utilizes two sources and detector assemblies: one located at the STOCK pressurised coal valve and the second located in the downspout above the feeder. the feeder is deenergized and an alarm condition is annunciated. it activates a bunker vibrator in an attempt to restore coal flow. which. and is then detected by the lower nuclear monitor. When the downspout is full of coal. the bunker vibrator is de-energized and the feeder will continue to operate normally pending a future loss of coal detection. Electrical pulses are emitted by the detector unit in proportion to the radiation level sensed. If coal flow in the downspout is re-established before the column is drawn down to the level of the lower nuclear monitor. And because the bunker outlet is essentially at atmospheric pressure. indicating a pluggage or an empty bunker. and when the motor is in operation. the feeder supply it becomes pressurised accordingly. It must be of sufficient height to prevent fluidization of the coal. When the upper unclear monitor detects a void. USE THE STOP PUSHBUTTON FOR THIS PURPOSE. The location of the lower nuclear monitor is critical in that the feeder must be deenergized in time to preserve the head seal above it during a loss of coal condition. The head seal is the actual column of coal in the downspout. the valve motor does not rotate. The radioactive source is located on one side of the downspout and the detector is located on the opposite side. Since the pulverizer operates at greater than atmospheric pressure. caused by an excessive pressure drop over too small a portion of column. SECOAL NUCLEAR MONITOR: The SECOAL Double Nuclear Coal Monitor is designed specifically for application in central power generating stations and industrial boiler houses for early detection of coal voids in industrial boiler houses for early detection of coal voids in the downspout preceding the coal feeder. evenly dissipates the pressure in the feeder to atmospheric at the bunker outlet. When a partial void or pocket exists in the coal a greater level of gamma radiation will reach and the sensed by the detector. These pulses are statistically analysed by the monitor’s electronic circuitry which can distinguish between these radiation level and thus determine that a void or pocket has occurred in the downspout. If the void remains. The basic physical principle used in the SECOAL system is that of detecting gamma radiation generated by a nuclear source when directed radially through the downspout. the head seal is necessary facilitate coal flow into the feeder. the handwheel does not turn. over its height.the handwheel is turned manually.
are Geiger . NOTE : THE SECOAL NUCLEAR MONITOR CAN DETECT AND BE ACTIVATED BY STRAY RADIATION GREATER THAN 0. The motor operates through a multiple reduction gearbox to a total reduction of 149. and for feeder weighing control information. the SECOAL system can reliably sense a void and produce an alarm for the equivalent of a 6 inch loss of coal as viewed radially through the downspuot. Calibration can thus be performed with or without the feeder in operation. The belt drive system consist of a Louis -Allis. and without emptying coal form the downspout. non-ventilated enclosure with class II epoxy coated insulation with-tropical protection. motor speed less than 60 rpm). and a 150 watt space heater wired for 240 V AC operation. A calibration handle at the base of the main frame is used to pivot each source and detector as a unit toward a series of three stationary calibration blocks. mounted opposite the source containers at the same elevation.e.15 mR/hr. for derivation of a pulse signal for data logging. considering its size and material of construction. Rotation of the source and detector in turn to these positions. heavy steel source containers mounted on one side of the valve or downspout at the eleveations at which void detection is required. One revolution of the 81 KORBA SIMULATOR . server duty house down provisions. When rotated to the CALIBRATE position. This data is used for motor speed control feedback information. the radioactive beams are directed through a set of steel plates having a known absorption rate. WHEN ANY KIND OF X-RAY WORK IS GOING ON AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO PIPING OR CONSTRUCTION. The motor is housed in a totally-enclosed. POSITION. A reluctance type magnetic sensor is provided on the motor drive to detect motor speed. POSITION TO AVOID FALSE ALARM INDICATIONS. through proper energization and sequencing of the READY and ALARM indicating lights. The detector assemblies.Muller tubes embedded in plastic inside an aluminium shell. Calibration consists of adjusting a potentiometer to effect the proper monitor sensitivity.properly calibrated. for zero speed detection (i. PLACE THE CALIBRATION HANDLE IN THE CALIBRATE. 5 HP variable speed DC shunt wound motor with a speed range of 100-1750 rpm. Two additional sets of calibration blacks are provided for each detector to simulate an EMPTY and FULL downspout. SOURCE AND DETECTOR ASSEMBLIES The radioactive source material. is hermetically sealed in a multiple capsule and placed in a lead-shielded.6 : 1. Radium 226. verifies the calibration procedure. corresponding to the absorption rate of the downspout.
SCANNER AIR SYSTEM The scanner viewing heads are located in the burners and they are exposed to furnace radiation continuously. When the boiler is shut down it is necessary to keep the cooling air on until the furnace cools down to a safe temperature The scanner air is supplied to the scanners from the header through the flexible hoses. regulates the belt drive motor speed. The filter "can be changed within a short time. The scanner heads cannot with stand high temperatures that will arise due to this exposure. A signal from the combustion control system. The alarm system consists of a stainless steel paddle mounted on one end of a horizontal shaft and a dust tight switch housing on the other end. depending on the number of functions requiring control. as directed by the customer. loss of coal on the belt results in a contact closure of limit switch LSFB. A constant cooling air is required around the scanner heat to cool it to a safe working temperature to ensure a reliable operation and long life. This contact closure also prevents weight correction and operation of the total coal integrator when there is no coal on the belt and prevents calibration when there is coal on the belt. regardless of its density. A paddle type alarm is mounted above the centre of the belt to detect the presence or absence of coal on belt. The switches are actuated by adjustable cams mounted on the end of the shaft inside the switch housing. which can be pulled out easily. This switch can be used to stop the belt drive motor. The scanner head cannot be exposed to a continuous temperature of 175° without cooling air. or simply to indicate a loss of coal to the control room. operating through the speed control. and thereby regulates the coal federate. The filter assembly is also provided with a ' filter element'alarm switch which will no indicate the operator that the filter element is not in line. to the outlet. all The scanner cooling air is supplied through a fine filter to clean out any suspended dust particles. KORBA SIMULATOR 82 . A continuous cooling air quantity of 80 mm3/hr per scanner is required for effective cooling. Multiple single pole switches.feeder belt drive pulley delivers a predetermined weight of coal. The cooling air temperature shall be below 650C. start a bunker vibrator. The filter is made of a catridge construction. The spare filter element should be made available readily near the filter. It is important to ensure that no damage to the hoses are left unrepaired and ' leakage are attended without fail. are mounted in the switch housing. The filter is provided with a switch to indicate the filter plugged condition. During the filter changing period it is permitted to use unfiltered air.
The damper of the operating fan will be in closed condition. The stand by DC powered fan starts automatically when there will be an AC power supply failure. Type of fans Boosting pressure Design capacity of each fan Design temp. driven 100% standby Radial 254 mmwc 3600 M3/hr 50°C 5 KW 1500 rpm KORBA SIMULATOR 83 . Motor rating Speed 2 No.The air pressure after the filter is monitored by a differential pressure switch which will give an alarm when the pressure difference goes below the safe level. SCANNER AIR FAN Nos. When the FD fans trip the suction is taken from the atmosphere through a DC operated pneumatic operated shut off damper.C. One f~n is operated with AC and other by DC supply. Two scanner fans are provided to supply the cooling air. Two number hand operated dampers are also provided at the fan suctions. These are nornlally in open condition only and they are used to isolate the fans during the inspection or maintenance of the fan. The suction of the fans are taken from the cold air duct after the FD fans.is D. Pneumatically operated dampers are provided at the outlet of the fans. One fan will be operating with AC while the stand by fan can be operated by station DC power supply. one is A. driven Other.C.
KORBA SIMULATOR 84 .
D. The flue gas produced in the furnace is evacuated by three number of I. fans of which one ID fan is stand-by. This chapter contains descriptions of draught and air systems associated with the main steam generators. SEAL AIR FAN Manufacturer Type No. Ambient air is drawn into the primary air ducting by two 50 % duty. of Fans per Boiler Mounting Arrangement CAPACITY Flow rate at 100% MCR (NM3/hr) Flow rate at design point (NM3/hr) Max flow rate the fan can handle (NM3/hr) STATIC PRESSURE Pressure at 100% MCR (MMWC) Pressure at design point (MMWC) Source of air suply Normal Speed (RPM) Power consumption at 100% MCR KW/Fan Impeller Dia (MM) PRIMARY AIR/MILL SEAL AIR SYSTEMS The primary air system supplies heated air to the coal mills to dry and convey pulverised coal to the furnace. each capable of providing sufficient air to support 60 % Boiler MCR. motor driven axial reaction fans.AIR AND GAS PATH GENERAL Two forced draught fans and two primary air fans handle airflow to the boiler. KORBA SIMULATOR 85 : : : : : : : : BHEL NDM-6 4 Ground mounted Horizontal Shaft 10200 12800 13920 : : : : : : 390 508 PA Fan Discharge 2880 20 670 . and of the major ancillary equipment’s used in these systems.
bus duct at a pre-set level. KORBA SIMULATOR 86 .A.A. The primary air heater air inlet and outlet ducts are fitted with motor operated.A.The inlet to each fan is silenced and includes pneumatically operated guide vanes to control fan output. both of which are branched to supply hot air to four coal mills. Each strainer is fitted with hand operated inlet and outlet dampers. operated form push buttons in UCB. Hot air first passes through a pneumatically operated isolating gate. is routed to each side of the boiler to form three cold air bus. Flow transmitters located about the venture provide a measured mill P. The hot air regulating dampers modulate under the automatic control loops to maintain the required airflow to the mill under varying load conditions. Seal air fans have hand operated inlet dampers and pneumatically operated outlet damper. During tripping of a mill hot air gate and damper will close automatically and cold air damper will open fully to provide cooling air to mill. The hot air isolating gates are operated through the FSSS interlocks. and a flow venture into the coal mill. and seal air. Both inlet and outlet dampers are operated from UCB through separate push buttons.A. then on through a motor operated regulating damper. header pressure control loop’ to maintain air pressure in the P. The motor operated isolating gates are manually operated from separated OPEN/CLOSE push button stations in the unit control room (UCB). two take cold air to the seal air fans and the hot air duct prior to the mill air flow venture. Each branch has 2x100 % duty parallel mounted strainers (duty/standby) further connected to two mill seal air fans which boost the air pressure to maintain sufficient differential between P. Each branch is fitted with identical equipment.A. bus duct. bus duct. One is standby in each branch. which are.A. The hot air cross over duct extends around to each side of the boiler to form the hot air to mills ducts. biplane dampers.A. Cold air taken direct form the P. The P. flow signal to automatic control loops. Two branches from the cold air bus deliver air to the mill for sealing purposes. Air discharging from each fan passes first through a steam coil air pre-heater then through a motor operated guillotine gate into the P. bus duct has four outlets out of which two direct cold air through the primary air heaters into the hot air cross over duct. The position of guide vanes is controlled by the ‘P. A branch of cold air bus connects to three hot air ducting upstream of the flow venture and includes a motor operated regulating damper which modulates in response to the mill outlet temperature control loop to maintain the mill outlet temperature at a pre-set level.
KORBA SIMULATOR 87 .
When oil KORBA SIMULATOR 88 . bus duct directs air into the scanner air fans. Oil/secondary air dampers. nozzles and hence are involved in the latter stages of combustion.D. This signal is added to the coal mill P. which feed their signal to the automatic total air control loop. Ambient air is drawn into the secondary air system by two 50 % duty. Secondary air dampers. The secondary air heater inlet and outlet ducts are fitted with motor operated biplane dampers. which is controlled by the Secondary Air Damper Control system to maintain optimum secondary air distribution for combustion with varying fuels and firing conditions. One other outlet from F. motor driven axial reaction forced draft fans with variable pitch control. The F. each capable of providing sufficient air to support 60 % BMCR. Flow signals then compared with the airflow demanded by the boiler load control loop. These dampers will be controlled to maintain the desired differential pressure between the secondary air to burner and the furnace. At the sides of the furnace. Air discharging from each fan passes first through a steam coal air preheater then through a motor operated isolating damper into the secondary air bust duct. by two transmitters. Any difference will cause the pitch angle to modulate towards the demanded flow.A. Silencer is provided at the suction. Five basic types of burner box dampers are used: 1. Each elevation is fitted with a pneumatically operated regulating damper. the ducts split to supply air to two corners. which generally fulfill the same requirements as but with additional requirement of providing air for oil burning. which are controlled from separate push button stations in the UCB. 3.F.D. bus ducts direct air through the two secondary air heaters into the cross over duct. 2. which admit air around the coal/air and P. The cross over duct extends around to each side of the boiler furnace to form two secondary air to burner ducts. Coal / air dampers which admit air immediately around the pulverised fuel nozzle and hence are constituent in the primary stages of combustion.SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM The secondary air draught plant supplies the balance of air required for pulverised coal combustion air for fuel oil combustion and over flow air to minimise NOX production. Flow is measured across the venture provided in the discharge ducts. then split again to supply air to each of the nineteen burner/air nozzle elevations in the burner box. The isolating dampers are operated from separate push button stations in UCB.
each capable of supporting 60 % BMCR. PRIMARY AIR FAN P. The fans are equipped with pneumatically operated inlet guide vanes and a variable speed control that are controlled by boiler furnace draught control loop to maintain furnace draught at a preset level. During its passage to the chimney. but utilised to maintain clear conditions in the lower furnace. From the ID fan common duct. the associated damper will modulate according to oil header pressure. fans (one standby). which form part of the secondary air system. FLUE GAS SYSTEM The flue gas draught plant draws hot flue gases from the furnace and discharges them to atmosphere through the chimney. into a common duct to the chimney. which bifurcates into two branches. Each fan has a motor operated guillotine gate for isolation at the inlet. The outlet of two extreme fans has a similar gate whereas the outlet of middle fan. The primary and secondary air heaters gas inlet duct is fitted with biplane isolating dampers. 2300 KW : : M/S SIEMENS. The inlet outlet ducts of each precipitator have motor operated guillotine gates. Bottom tier secondary air dampers. The outlet ducts of corresponding primary and secondary air heaters combine then discharge through a regulating damper. 5. The flue gas ducting starts from boiler down stream of the economiser and directs flow towards three primary and secondary air heaters. is fitted with two guillotine gates. flue gas is passed through an economiser and four air heaters to improve thermal efficiency. 4. into the electrostatic precipitator common inlet duct which directs flue gas through four electrostatic precipitators into the ID fan common inlet duct. Over fire air damper. The gas outlet ducts of all four air heaters are fitted with lower type regulating dampers. FAN MOTOR Manufacturer Motor type driving end Standard Continuous rating at 10oC ambient : temp. which direct air over the coal flame to minimise Nox production. flue gas flows through two of three 50 % duty I.A. and through four electro-static precipitators to keep dust emission from the chimney within prescribed limits.burning is in progress.D. West Germany/BHEL SQ motor CCW Direction of rotation as viewed from non : KORBA SIMULATOR 89 .
5 sec 13 sec NU-232 6232 C4 NU 228 Weight of Motor stator Motor rotor Recommended lubricant Lub oil circulation system of P.Rated voltage Rating for specified normal Condition i.A. Deltaconnection 1500 rpm 50 Hz + 5% BORNEMAINN E4V 045 KIF 215/1. 50OC ambient temperature PERMISSIBLE VARIATION OF Voltage Frequency Minimum permissible starting voltage Rated speed at rated voltage At rate voltage and frequency Full load current No load current Starting time with minimum permissible voltage of 80% of rated value: Without fan With fan For Bearings Type : : 6600 V 2100 KW : : : : : : 6600V ± 10% 50 HZ ± 5% 80% 1494 rpm 212 A 58.e.363 dm3/s 1450 rpm 90 . fan Tank capacity Type Output rating (motor) Supply (motor) Full load speed Frequency Pump Make Type and Capacity Speed KORBA SIMULATOR : : : : : : : : : : : : 7500 kg 2100 kg Grease-Servogem 3 of IOC 400 litres A112 MA-4F 4.00 KW 415V + 10%.5 A : : : 1. 3 Ph..
Suction bend.9 gm/cc P. of oil Less than 0. consisting of shaft. Guide vane housing with guide vanes (stage 2) 6.1g/100 lit. On its impeller side. in order to guide the flow. KORBA SIMULATOR 91 . Fan housing with guide vanes (stage 1) 3. with an inlet and an outlet side pipe for volume measurements.Discharge pressure Lube oil properties Quality Pour point Flash point Water content Contents/solid foreign matter Viscosity at + 40oC Viscosity at + 20oC Viscosity at + 15oC : : : : : : : : : 16 bar L-TD 68 6OC or lower min 205OC Less than 0. Diffuser with an outlet -side pipe for pressure measurements. two impellers with adjustable blades and pitch control mechanism.2-74. Further more. fan housing and diffuser are welded structural steel fabrications.05 gm/100 lit. of oil 61. the guide vanes are connecting the core and jacketing of the housing. components: The fan consists of the following 1. Main bearings (anti-friction bearings) 4. Suction bend. 2. 200 mm2/s max. Guide vanes of axial flow type are installed in the fan and guide vane housings. the suction been is designed as an inlet nozzle. Rotor. The supporting feet are fixed on the foundation in such a way that they slide and without clearance at the sliding supports of suction bend and diffuser. resting on the foundation on supporting feet. 0. 5. A. reinforced by flanges and gusets.8 mm2/s max. FANS There are two primary air fans per boiler.
The servomotor consists of piston. cylinder and control parts. The impellers are fitted to the shaft in overhung position. the non-rotating control slide is moved in axial direction. so that no forces are released to the outside (bearings. Those parts of the pitch control unit. These weights produce moment acting against the restoring moment of the blading. the translational movement of the servomotor piston is converted into a rotational movement of the blade shafts via adjusting levers. centred. To initiate pitch control. Weights are fitted to the blade shafts. The oil pressure in the servomotor maintains equilibrium with the residual moment. The oil-hydraulic servomotor can be connected to any control system. preventing friction and wear. in both directions (towards the inside and the outside). so that the rotor can be removed without having to dismount the servomotor. The shaft runs in antifriction bearings. PITCH CONTROL UNIT An oil-hydraulic servomotor flanged to the impeller and rotating with it adjusts the blades during operation. It moves on a liquid film practically KORBA SIMULATOR 92 . This requires but little force (a few N). The main bearings are accommodated in the core of the fan housing. These weights produce moment acting against restoring moments. Each blade bearing is sealed off by means of several seals. The fan is driven from the inlet side. The control slide is hydraulically. At pitch control. The restoring movement of the blades results from their rotating mass. which partly compensate for the restoring moments. so that the adjusting components are relieved. The centrifugal and the setting forces of the impeller blades are absorbed by the blade bearings. Fan and guide vane housing are horizontally split. It can also be operated by hand. housing. For this purpose the blade shaft is held in a combination of radial and axial antifriction bearings.Suction bend and diffuser are flexibly connected to the fan housing via expansion joints. which are arranged in the guide vane and diffuser cores. so that the blade angles are variable. foundation). This results in a closed flux of force between adjusting forces and oil pressure. are accessible through assembly openings.
if the governor moves the control slide to the right. The pitch control impulse must through be interlocked via the control oil pressure. It is recommended to useturbine oil with a viscosity of 61.8 mm sq./sat 40 deg. LOCK OUT Pitch control is feasible only if there is control oil pressure. The pressure oil flows into this chamber and moves the adjusting piston to the left. Analogously the same happens. C. Simultaneously.The pitch control unit operated in accordance with the follow-up control principle. It transfers the to and from movements of the adjusting piston via slide pads and levers as rotation movement to the blade shafts. Blade positions are shown on graduated plate on machine. the adjusting drive).2-74. via the adjusting disc the blades. This refers to hand and to automatic actuation. until a state of equilibrium is regained. The adjusting disc is firmly connected with the adjusting piston. the blades will stay in their positions and there will be no interference with the pitch control. the oil out of chamber l flows via the control slide into the return piping to the oil reservoir. the right control edge opens the admission to chamber 2. The control oil conveyed by the unit reaches the control slide at constant pressure. The adjusting piston and. The left control edge of the control slide will then open the admission to chamber 1 and the oil pressure will move the adjusting piston to the right. until the control edges are in line again. The control system outside of the machine initiates the actuating motion of the nonrotating control slide via rods (viz. This has the advantage that for both the units the same oil can be used. KORBA SIMULATOR 93 . OIL SYSTEM The main bearings and the hydraulic servomotor are supplied with oil from a common oil reservoir. If the governor moves the control slide to the left and if the slide is kept in that position. Actuation of the second impeller blades is carried out in the same way synchronously via the adjusting bar. If the oil supply is interrupted. This hydraulic adjusting unit and the oil unit form one system. follow up each motion of the control slide.
The lube oil flowing back through the return line can be observed by means of a sight glass. Behind the throttle. which allows cleaning the filter insert during operation. The oil is cooled in the oil cooler. In most cases reversing the filter can stop the pressure decline.g. no adjustment is effected). thus serves as vibration damper. Non-return valves prevent the pressure oil from flowing back to the reservoir through the pump being out of operation. therefore this line is not led below the oil level in the reservoir. the oil flow divides in a control and lube oil circuit.indicate the cooling effect. whereas the other one is used as standby machine. We would point to the fact that dirty filters are quite often the cause of the pressure decline of the lube and control oil. One is operated as the main pump. The thermometers-upstream and downstream of the cooler. It is mounted in the control oil piping in front of the oil cooler. but is not required in the circuit (e. in the event the control oil pressure declines. as a result ot the response time of the pressure limit valve. The position of the reversing lever tells which filter chamber is in use. to flow back to the reservoir without pressure. The disconnected filter chamber can be cleaned during operation. In addition. The return line must be let beyond the oil level in the reservoir. which is supplied by the pumps. The oil filter is designed as a twin filter. the lube oil flows to the fan bearings. a double resistance thermometer and a double contact thermometer are arranged downstream of the cooler. Behind the oil filter.Two oil pumps are mounted on the reservoir. The pressure in the system is set and maintained by the pressure limit valve. KORBA SIMULATOR 94 . It. The oil supply system is also equipped with a pressure reservoir. This valve causes the oil. The filter has a differential pressure indicator which optically shows the degree of contamination and which releases an accoustic signal when a very high degree of contamination is reached. Local surveillance pressure gauges. A throttle controls the oil pressure and the oil quantity in the lube oil circuit. The oil cooler is designed as double oil cooler. (at the oil supply unit) of the lube oil pressure is ensured by The lube oil circuit and the main bearings are vented through the lube oil return line. The latter is started via the pressure switch. The function of the pressure reservoir is to absorb pressure peaks occurring when starting and adjusting.
The control oil pressure is shown and monitored by contact pressure gauges. FORCED DRAUGHT FAN F.e. By means of the orifice a counter-pressure against the return flow is produced: pressure fluctuations in the system are thus largely reduced. FAN MOTOR Manufacturer Motor type driving end Standard conditions rating at 40OC ambient : temp Rating for specified normal condition i. The control oil circuit is vented through the leakage oil return line.D. : 50OC Rated voltage Permissible variation of Voltage (volts) Frequency (Hz) Comined voltage and frequency Minimum permissible starting Voltage Rated speed at rated voltage and frequency At rated voltage and frequency Full load current No load current voltage of 80% of rated value Without driven equipment coupled : : 147 A 42. West Germany/BHEL SQ motor CCW Direction of rotation as viewed from non : Starting time with Minimum permissible : KORBA SIMULATOR 95 . In this line as well as in the control oil return line sight glasses are installed allowing the observation of the returning oil.5 A 2 second : : : ± 10% 80% 994 rpm : : : 6600 V 6600 V±10% 50 Hz ± 5% 1400 KW 1670 KW : : M/S SIEMENS.
Ang.F. of medium Fan speed Type of coupling Fan wt. per Boiler Fan design rating Capacity Medium Handled Location Total head developed Temp. NU 248C3 Fan reserve Fan flow Fan pressure Recommended lubricant : : : 36. Lubrication equipment Fan lubrication Motor lubrication Type of fan regulation Bearings Fixed bearings : Cyl.5 tonnes : : Axial reaction API-16/16 Two KORBA SIMULATOR 96 .5 M3/sec Fresh air Ground level 391 mmwc 50OC 1.3% OIL/52 lit/min per motor/IOC Gr. of medium Specific wt.6 per motor 38OC : Cyl-Roller Brg. roller Brg NU 248 C3. permissible inlet water temp : : 70. NU 248C3 : : : Forced oil circulation Grease lubricated Blade pitch control : : : : : : : : : 260.Servo-prime 46 or equivalent Cooling water requirement for CACW motor Quantity required M3/hr Max. FAN Type No.7% 45.D.contact Ball Bearing 07248B Expension bearings Cyl-Roller Brg.046 kg/m3 980 rpm Rigiflex form 11 size 2001 27.
Guide vane housing with guide vanes 7. For this purpose.Pressure of water at inlet to coolers : Upto 7. Diffuser. Suction bend. 6. The Fan shaft is designed in such a way that the maximum operating speed is below the critical speed. of motor rotor : : 5300 kgs. 5100 kgs. reinforced by flanges and gussets. Fan and inlet guide vane housings are split horizontally in such a way that the rotor can be removed while the servomotor remains in place. of water at full load (anticipated value) OC : 43 Wt. 2. Fan housing. FORCED DRAUGHT FANS There are two forced draft fans per boiler. Main bearings (antifriction bearings) 5. fan housing and diffuser are structural steel fabrications. Impeller with adjustable blades and pitch control mechanism. The fan is driven from the inlet side. Suction bend. inlet housing and diffuser are of one-part. of motor stator Wt. with a pipe for volume measurements 4. The shaft runs in the antifriction bearings. fan and guide vane housings of two-part design. Inlet housing 3. The impeller-side end of the suction bend is designed as inlet nozzle. components : Each fan consists of the following 1. The centrifugal and the setting forces of the impeller blades are absorbed by the blade bearings. resting on the foundation on supporting feed. the blade shaft is held in a combination of radial and axial KORBA SIMULATOR 97 . with an inlet-side pipe for volume measurements. The impeller is fitted to the shaft in overhung position. Suction bend. with an inlet-side pipe for volume measurements. The main bearings are accommodated in the core of the fan housing.5 bars over pressure Outlet temp.
14 on Primary Air Fan. FAN MOTOR Manufacturer Type Rated voltage end Rating Water inlet temp. Oil System Details are same as given in Section 2.D. an angular contact ball bearing is arranged at the driving side in order to absorb the axial thrust. These thermometers must be connected to signalling instruments on the site. BHEL SQ-motor 6600V CCW Direction of rotation as viewed from non driving : KORBA SIMULATOR 98 . in both directions (towards the inside and the outside). In addition. Permissible variation of Voltage (volts) : 6600V ±10% : : 3400 KW 38OC : : : SIEMENS. Bearings The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings. Each blade bearing is sealed off by means of several seals. Pitch Control Unit Details are same as given in Section 2. The sliding supports of the feet of suction bend and diffuser are fixed on the foundation in such a way that they slide without clearance.antifriction bearings. which are arranged in the guide vane and diffuser cores. Double contact tele-thermometers and double resistance thermometers are fitted to monitor the bearing temperature.14 on Primary Air Fan. West Germany. are accessible through assembly openings. INDUCED DRAUGHT FAN I. Those parts of the pitch control unit.
796 kg/m3 550 rpm Medium handled Location : No. of medium Sp.D.7 second 2. wt.Frequency (Hz) Combined voltage and frequency Minimum permissible starting Voltage Rated speed At rated voltage and frequency Full load current No.5 second : : : : : Sleeve air cooled Sleeve ring Radial fan double suction NDZV 45 sider BHEL Suction at 45o delivery at bottom horizontal Flue gas Ground level 2+1 standby 533.8 M3/sec 409 mmwc 150OC 0. of medium Speed : : : : : : : : KORBA SIMULATOR 99 . FAN Type Make Orientation : : : : : : 50 Hz + 5% + 10% 80% 596 rpm 379 A 139 A : : 1. load current Starting time with minimum permissible voltage of 80% of rated Without fan With fan Bearings Type: Drive end Non drive end I. off per Boiler Fan design rating Capacity Total head developed Temp.
The bottom part of the housing rests on claws on the foundation.6% 44% damper control. NDZV fans are single -stage. The supporting structure of the housing is formed by parallel lateral walls that are welded to the coating surfaces of the scroll and of the inlets. The scroll skin is equipped with a wear protecting coating on the inside. The box-section scroll with the inlets and the outlet is of two-part welded design. The inlet dampers are accommodated in the inlet damper housing they are commonly adjustable externally. Scroll housing. two operating and one standby. West Germany 100 tonnes : : 25. inlet dampers. KORBA SIMULATOR 100 . double-inlet centrifugal fans. housing. Principal fan elements: speed through plus coupling : : : Hydraulic M/s Voith. The inserts welded into the boxsection scroll and into the inlets guide the flow and moreover reinforce the components. Special supporting bolts. The induced draught fans are NDVZ type. rotor with bearings and shaft seal.Reserve Fan flow Fan pressure Fan drive coupling Type of fan coupling Fan coupling (make) Fan weight Lubrication Fan lubrication Motor lubrication Type of fan regulation : : : Stand oil lubrication Stand oil lubrication Variable Hydraulic Bearings Fixed bearing Expansion bearing : : Dodge sleeve oil RT-20 size-9" Dodge sleeve oil RT-20 size -9" INDUCED DRAUGHT FANS There are three induced draught fans per boiler. inlets and outlet consist of rectangular sections and are equipped with man-holes. ribs and reinforcements stiffen the welded structure.
The bearing housing is sealed towards the outside at the shaft passage by means of auxiliary seal kit. Tightening torque for the screws : 245 Nm. The bent blades are welded into position between the impeller discs. The bearings are lubricated with oil Thermometers are fitted to monitor the bearings temperature. operating speed is below the critical speed. The individual labyrinth sealing rings and the distance rings are held together by screws in the sealing casing. For achieving speed charges a hydraulic coupling is provided Variable speed Turbo Coupling The turbo coupling is an infinitely variable fluid coupling with plain bearings and silumin rotating parts. Impeller and shaft are connected by means of a flange. Shaft sealing The shaft seals are fitted to the bearing pedestals and connected with the box section scroll by means of flexible coverings. The plates are screwed on according to the number order. The fan housing is sealed at the shaft passage to the outside by means of two-part labyrinth seals. KORBA SIMULATOR 101 . According to the required capacity. These are numbered from 1 to 11 to ensure mounting of replacement plates. Regulation The fan is adapted to changing operating conditions bymeans of varying the speed of fan and also by adjustable inlet dampers arranged in front of impeller on either side. The blades are protected by screwed-on wear plates. The shaft is of hollow design. The fan shaft has been rated so that the max.The rotor consists of a centre disc and two cover discs that are reinforced by forged rings. the speed of the fan can be varied and / or the inlet dampers position can be adjusted. Bearings The rotor is placed between oil-lubricated sleeve bearings. This screwing is protected by wear plates. The drive-side bearing is designed as thrust bearing which absorbs the axial thrust of the rotor.
The secondary runner comprising secondary shaft and the secondary wheel is supported in the scoop tube housing. four manually operated isolating valves along with steam traps are provided at inlet and outlet of each SCAPH. For isolation purposes..The oil pump is flanged on below the housing of the turbo coupling. The primary runner. Condensate leaving the SCAPH passes through a isolating valve before entering the SCAPH drain vessel. ensures that lube oil side delivered when the couplings starts up or run down. To achieve average primary air heater gas outlet and air inlet temperatures. During operation the filling pump in the housing delivers the required quantity of working oil and lube oil. primary wheel and shell is supported in the bearing housing and the coupling housing. KORBA SIMULATOR 102 . AIR PREHEATERS STEAM COIL AIR PREHEATER Supplier Nos Size of Steam Coil Air preheaters Installed position Design Pressure Hydraulic Test Pressure Design temperature Weight of Steam Coil air heater Type : : : : : : : : : M/S Patels air temp. The system description of one these circuits are given below. another aux lub pump is installed. the quantity of steam entering the steam air heater is regulated by a temperature control valve.5 kg/cm2g 25 kg/cm2 kg 230OC 1100 kg Modular Design type The duty of steam air heater is to maintain the primary and secondary air heater average combined gas outlet and air inlet temperatures at pre-set values. Pvt Ltd. As standby. An auxiliary lube pump also installed in the housing. comprising primary shaft. Ahmedabad 2/Boiler 4468 x 2990 x 336 Horizontal Duct 16.
Frame 80 flange cum 415 V. 1500 RPM. 415V.1" x 1" NPT (APCO) John Fowler 1" x 1" BSP Universal Heat Exchanger Lovejoy L – 095 : : : : : : : R. per Boiler Auxiliary Drive Air Motor Coupling Rotor Support Bearing: Rotor Guide Brg RTD Oil Capacity of support brg housing Oil Capacity of guide brg housing Oil Circulating System (Support BRG. 1450rpm.M. APC (APCO) 110:1 50 Litres 11.75 KW.5 FCU (Fluid Coupling) Taper lock Bush & Adopter 2 KORBA SIMULATOR 103 . 50 Hz. oil Capacity Coupling Bushings No. : Motor (TEFC) 0. 3 phase GEC. 80 lange cum foot mounted 415 V 50 Hz.S. 50 Hz 5. Bibby Coupling 124-A SKF Spherical Roller thrust Bearing SKF . 3 Phase foot mounted GEC. 3 phase.) Motor (TEFC) : 0.PRIMARY AIR PREHEATER Type: Air Heater size Rotor Drive Motor Speed reducer App.294/500 23060 Spherical Roller Nether land Thermo Electric 1" NPT 150 litrses 20 litres : : : : : : : : Ljungstrom Bisector 27 VI (M) 80" 11KW GEC. : : : : Delaval . Pump: Filter Cooler Coupling Oil Circulating System Guide BRG. 1000 RPM. 400 (APCO) 1" x 1" NPT CHICAGO Pneumatic Air Motor.55 KW.
5 FCU (Fluid coupling) Worthingdon Hub Velgan 256 Series 1" BSP R. 3 phase All Royed 4900:1.5 A (FL) 7 AP. 270 (APCO) Chicaco Pneaumatic Air Morot Bibby Coupling .124 C 294/710 Spherical roller thurst brg. 1450 RPM. 29. 415 V. per Boiler Heater size Rotor Drive Motor TEFC Speed Reducer Oil capacity Couplings Bushing Filter Lubricator Auxiliary Drive Air Motor Coupling Roto Support brg. GEC .5 VI (M) 62" (68") 15 KW. 1" NPT Nether land Thermo Electro 250 litres 25 litres 0. 415 V. 1 3/4 Lovejoy flexible coupling L-075 & L-110 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Two 30. 1450 RPM. RTD Oil capacity of support brg housing Oil capacity of Guide brg. 36:1 98 Litres (approx. 415 V 50 Hz.Pump Filter Cooler Coupling Cleaning Devices Motor (TEFC) Reducer Coupling SECONDARY AIR PREHEATER Nos.71.095 018 kW.1" x 1" NPT (APCO) John Fowler 1" BSP Universal Heat Exchanger Lovejoy L . GEC.M. 3 PHASE.S. 180 M. GEC. 50 Hz.) 11. housing Oil Circulating System (Support BRG.75 KW.) Motor TEFC : : : : : : : Delaval . 1400 RPM. Speed reducer (APCO) 130. KORBA SIMULATOR 104 .
The two streams flow in opposite directions. 3 ph Pump FIlter Cooler Coupling Cleaning Devices Motor TEFC Coupling : : 0. flue gas flows through one side of the regenerator and through the other side flows the incoming air prior to entering the furnace. The rotor is radically divided into twelve sectors. The Air Preheaters contain in a small space. which flow through diametrically opposite segments of the rotor.110 : : : : DELAVAL (APCO) 1" x 1" NTP John fowler 1" x 1" BSP Universal Heat Exchanger Lovejoy. The flue gases and the air flow through the same passages at different times so that unlike the recuperative heat exchanger where heat flows through the passage walls from the flue gases to the air. In the Air Preheaters. in contra flow. The heating elements are arranged in these twelve sectors in two or more layers. are separated form each other by a small blanking section with sealing plates to form a division between them. The regenerator is slowly revolved so that the heating elements pass alternately through the steam of the hot flue gases and through the stream of cold air. heating elements of a large surface area. the heat transfer surface is alternately heated by the flue gases passing through it and cooled by the air passing through it. Basic Construction The rotor is the central part containing the heat transfer matrix. 750 RPM.L . L-095 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AIRHEATERS The Rotary Regenerative Air Preheaters are designed for use on plant where hot air is required for combustion or for fuel saving. as in this project. the heat is absorbed by the regenerative mass from the hot flue gases and then released to the cold air. i. A portion of the heat in the flue gas side is transferred to the air when the elements pass through the airside.075 & L . Lovejoy . In regenerative heat exchangers.50 Hz. In this particular plant the flow arrangement is gas down and air up. Thus the heat in the flue gases is partly recovered and returned to the furnace via the airflow. the process is continuous.e. NGEF. The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct KORBA SIMULATOR 105 . The two streams. This process can be periodic or if the regenerative mass rotates. flue gas and air. so heating the flow of air and thereby cooling the elements.18 MW.
connections at both ends. Heating Surface Elements The heating surface elements in the cold end are manufactured from thin steel sheet adjacently. Rotor Seals Seals are provided at both ends of the airheater to minimise leakage between the airside and the gas side of the preheater. The middle tier termed the “hot end elements” and are both made from carbon steel. KORBA SIMULATOR 106 . The notches run parallel to the rotor axis and space the plates the correct distance apart. Each airheater is provided with a electric motor drive for normal operation and an air motor drive for emergency and also for use during off load water washing. is most susceptible to corrosion due to temperature and fuel conditions. i. gas leaving . The rotor revolves continuously absorbing heat from the flue gases and transferring it to the air for combustion.air entering end of the preheater. The hot end sector plates are automatically deflectable to provide leakage area reduction during transient as well as full load operation. one being undulated and the other being thin sheet steel. the elements are arranged in tiers.forming an air passage through one half of the preheater and a gas passage through the other. The cold end packs are arranged such that they can be withdrawn from the rotor in a radial direction without disturbing the hot end and intermediate packs. The lower or cold end tier of elements is manufactured from corten steel to combat corrosion and is termed “cold end elements”. The bypass seals provide sealing between the periphery of the rotor and sealing surface of the connecting plate and/or the preheater housing. and is adequately sealed by radial and circumferential sealing members . Axial seals are provided vertically in the rotor shell in line with radial seals.e. The seals provided at rotor post are set to operate with minimum clearance with respect to the horizontal sealing surface of the sector plate centre section. The hot and cold end radial seals are attached to each diaphragm of the rotor and are set at a specified clearance from the sector plates which separate the air and gas streams. The weight of the rotor is carried on the underside by a spherical roller thrust bearing whilst at the top a spherical roller guide bearing is provided to resist radial loads. As the cold end. All elements are packed into containers to facilitate removal and handling.
This drive ensures the continued operation of the preheater. An air motor is provided as an auxiliary drive for the airheater. The bearing oil supply is circulated by means of a motor driven pump through an external filtering systems. Water washing and Fire fighting Two fixed multi-nozzle washing manifolds are fitted.The ‘Hot’ and ‘Intermediate’ ends are provided with double undulated type heating elements. A deluge system. KORBA SIMULATOR 107 . To guide the upper end of the rotor a guide trunnion is bolted to the face of the rotor. even if power to the electric motor is interrupted. one the hot end. A pinion attached to the low speed shaft of a power driven speed reducer engages a pin rack mounted on the rotor shell. the other on the cold end for off load water washing of airpreheaters. Soot Blowers Both primary and secondary airpreheaters are provided with twin nozzle swivelling arm type electric driven soot blowers for onload cleaning at gas outlet end only. The load is transmitted to the thrust bearing by a trunnion. The undulations provide high turbulance to the gases and air passing through the preheater. A thermostat is used to limit the operation of the system to temperatures. which will ensure against overloading the pump or motor as a result of high oil viscosities. The air motor may also be used to control the speed of the rotor during water washing of the heating surfaces. Oil Circulating Systems Separate oil circulating systems are provided to supply support bearing and guide bearing with a bath of continuously cleaned oil at the proper viscosity. incorporating headers with special nozzles strategically located in the hot end and cold ends of the airpreheater is provided for use in case of a fire inside the airheater. Rotor Drive Assembly The driving force for turning the rotor is applied at its periphery. bolted to the lower end of the rotor post. Rotor Bearings A spherical roller thrust bearing supports the complete rotor.
Fire Detection Equipment The fire detection equipment is provided to detect any hot spot in the airpreheater rotor during operations. compressed air provision for cleaning the head.5 gm/NM3 FAA .4 x 48125 -2 Four Four Seven 18 MMWC 1. The rotor stop alarm system is provided to give immediate warning that the rotor has stopped so that action can be taken to prevent damage occurring from overheating. and cooling water system for the sensing head.Rotor Stop Alarm The airheater rotor should not be stopped when high temperatures gases are flowing through it. of Gas path per boiler No. These are located in the respective air inlet ducts.2 Sec KORBA SIMULATOR 108 .0 M/Sec 25. drive system to drive the scanning head across heating elements. The system consists of a sensing head. of fields in series in each gas path Pressure drop across the precipitator for design condition Velocity of gas at electrode zone on total area Treatment time Collecting Electrodes No.7 x 36 . of Precipitator offered per boiler No. of rows of colllecting Electrods per field (9 plates are : arranged in each row) Total No. of Collecting plate per boiler : 16380 65 : : : : : : : : : : 980 M3/sec 140OC 73. Two numbers of sensing heads are provided for primary and four Nos. of sensing heads are provided for secondary airheaters. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR Design condition Gas flow rate Temperature Dust Concentration Type No.
Motor for Rapping of Collecting Electrodes Qty.5 Motor RPM. Geared Motor 0.P./2. 50 Hz. of electrodes per boiler. : : 112 Nos.7 MM Dia 54 3456 96768 502226 150 mm 70 kV (Peak) 800 MA 56 Silicon Dicde. 2.P.5 H.33 3 phase. Geared H. Plate wire spacing Rectifier Rating No of rectifier per Boiler Type Location Motor for Rapping Emitting Electrodes Qty Rating : : : 12. Full wave bridge connection : : : : : : : : : : : : Mounted on the top of precipitator. 3 phase.Nominal height of Collecting plate Nominal length of collecting plate Specified collecting area Emitting Electrodes Type Size No.5 Meter 400 MM 164. of electrodes in each field Total No./1/1/2/5 RPM.57 M2/M3/sec Spiral with hooks. electrodes in the frame forming one row No. 0. Total Length of electrodes per boiler. Rating : 28 Nos. and type of Rappers : One drop Rammer per row of collecting having a electrodes KORBA SIMULATOR 109 . 415 V. 50 Hz Rappers For Collecting Electrodes No. 415 V.
collecting 90. Rating : : 4 Geared Motor 0. The frequency of rapping intermediate field can be adjusted between 10 and 1 per hour Drive : according to requirements. Location Rappers for Emitting electrodes No. Casing : On the bottom of side panel of EP casing. of type of rappers Rapper Size Frequency of Rap Drive : : : : One drop hammer per two rows of Electrodes 3.9 Kgs Varying surface of from 10 raps/hr at the inlet field to 1 rap/hr at the exit for the field. KORBA SIMULATOR 110 . : : 4.0 Kgs. Rapper Size Frequency of Rap. 10 raps/hr Geared Electric Motor Controlled by synchronous programmer Location Rapper for Gas Distribution System Qty.0 M2.5 HP : On the top panel of E. Geared electric Motor Controlled by synchronous programmer.P.
KORBA SIMULATOR 111 . To ensure the gases are evenly distributed across the full sectional area of the treatment zones. vertical outlet baffles are located immediately after the final treatment zone. fixed to upper and lower frame assemblies. Seven rapping gear motors for collecting electrodes and fourteen rapping gear motors for emitting electrodes are provided for each stream. Each separate electrical zone. one per zone .1. electric heaters are provided externally at the bottom portion of each hopper. Each stream is having six treatment zones or fields. In order to maintain the required standard of gas distribution within the precipitator. To assist the dust to remain in a free flowing state. The transformer-rectifier sets. which falls under gravity into the pyramid type hoppers. The units are designed to operate on the exhaust gases from each of the 500 MW Steam Generators.D. The respective control panels and L-T distribution equipment’s are located within the control room built at ground level immediate to each precipitator. The exhaust gases to be treated pass along the inlet duct and enter the steel precipitator casing via an inlet funnel. The gas cleaning plant consists of four BHEL make Electrostatic Precipitators type 4xFAA-7x36-4x48125-2. Each treatment zone consists of parallel rows of sheet type collecting electrodes suspended from the precipitator casing with wire type discharge electrodes arranged mid way between them. are arranged at top house access platform level adjacent to each relative zone. 50 Hz. located directly beneath each treatment zone. fans and are hence discharged to atmosphere via the chimney.seven total per stream. comprising of the discharge electrodes. Location : On the G. Each precipitator is designed for two horizontal streams of gas flow.1 RPM at 3 Phase 415 V. Housing side panels of the casing.D. for removal by the ash handling system. The rapping gear operates continuously to dislodge the precipitated dust. After treatment by successive zones within the precipitators the clean gases pass through the outlet funnel and flow along the outlet ductwork connected to the I. is suspended from a discharge suspension arrangement mounted on the casing top plate. splitter plates within the inlet funnel and two rows of distribution screen at the inlet of stream are positioned.
For the safe operation of these precipitators a full safety interlock system is provided. KORBA SIMULATOR 112 . Soot Blower Piping Steam for sootblowing is taken from the division panel outlet header. 88 -Furnace Wall Blowers – Steam 2. 34 .Long Retractable Soot Blowers .Each pair of precipitators is served by an arrangement of access platforms and stairways from ground level for the top housing level.Airheater Soot Blowers for Primary and Secondary Airheaters – Steam The boiler waterwall panels are provided with suitable wall boxes four for future accommodation of an extra sixteen furnace wall blowers and twenty-four long retractable sootblowers for upper furnace. a lifting beam arrangement is provided at the top house roof level on each casing of precipitator. SOOT BLOWING SYSTEM Introduction On load. The supply pipework from superheater of steam source (division panel outlet header) is fitted with a hand operated and motor operated isolating valves followed by a pressure control valve and a spring loaded safety valve as protection against steam over pressure. a separate connection is also provided from the auxiliary steam system. arch and rear pass zone. A single hoist and geared trolley is provided to servo each lifting beam arrangement. gas side cleaning of boiler tubes and regenerative airheaters is achieved using 126 microprocessor controlled sootblowers which are disposed around the plant as follows : 1. 4 . To facilitate removal and replacement of the transformer rectifier sets and other maintenance. the safety valve vents via expansion chamber closed at determined by the operator in relation to boiler load via the sootblower control system. however. From the steam source after the pressure reduction the main line is split into six sootblowing sections. To sootblow the regenerative airpreheaters during boiler start-up.Steam 3. if necessary.
KORBA SIMULATOR 113 .
Operating time per group(2 Blowers) in Min. These drain valves are all operated by the sootblower control system. On request to soot blow. The temperature control valves/drain valves automatically as per the setting maintain steam temperature in each section. in Kg/cm2 (g)(2 Blowers) in Min. pipeline connections are made via motor operated drain valves to the intermittent blowdown tank.87 11.Steam is fed through various Sections at the steam main pressure of 30 kg/cm2 (g).87 11. 1. SOOT BLOWER Source of steam for soot blowing Set pressure on pressure reducing valve Set pressure on safety valve Maximum flow rate Steam pressure for soot flowing Tap off after divisional panel 30 Kg/cm2 39.5 11.5 LRD II E 107 to 120 9200 350 25 12 LRD II E 121 to 138 9200 350 25 9 KORBA SIMULATOR 114 . Further reductions to the blowing pressure are achieved by adjusting the setscrews of the individual soot blower valve heat at the time of soot blows system commissioning. At various points on each section.87 1 to 88 305 26 12 LRD II E 105 & 106 9200 350 32 12. resulting in no condensate being produced. Branches of the section pipelines supply steam to individual soot blowers.5 Kg/cm2 (g) 21000 Kg/hr 26 Kg/cm2 TYPE OF BLOWER WB IE Blower Number Travel in MM Dead Travel in MM Nozzle in MM Blowing pr. the control system will close the drain valve and fully open the inlet-isolating valve thus bringing the pressure control valve into operating and signally commencement of soot blowing sequence operation. Once the piping is proved to be warmed up. the control system will open the sections drain valves and crack open the inlet steam main isolating valve in order to warm up the soot blower pipings and drain any condensate to the intermittent blowdown tank.
Cycle (All. Blowers) in Blowing rate per group 83.3 in Kg/Minutes Consumption per group 116.62 in Kg. Steam consumption per 5131 cycle in Kg. WBIE: LRD II E : : Wall De Slagger Electrically operated Long Retractable Soot blower Electrically operated Steam temp. for Soot Blowing Steam Constumption rate per group of wall Blower Type of wall blower Wall Blowers The blower assembly consist of a stationary body and rack gear housing and a rotary gearbox assembly to which the swivel tube assembly is attached. The swivel tube assembly is supported by bushings at each end of the body casting. The horizontal guide rods are used to assure proper alignment of the rotary gearbox assembly. A stationary electric motor is situated on the right side of the blower. This motor, through a rack gear housing assembly operates a pinion, which drives a horizontal rock assembly, the outer end of which is fastened to the rotary gearbox assembly. When the rotary gearbox approaches the fully extended position a ramp cam attached to the free end of the rack contacts a bearing surface, which is a part of the clevis bracket assembly and bushes the valve stream assembly addmitting steam to the swivel tube. When the blower is started the rack pinion moves the rack and rotary gearbox towards the boiler. Operation of the rack gear housing causes rotation of a shaft extending out from the rack gear housing into a switch box. Located in this switch box are two cam actuated limit switches. One can holds limit switch LSTE in : : : 250oC 500 Kg/hr RW 5E 3349.8 14122 14728 3349.8 2017.45 1636.48 293.33 176.66 143.3
open position when the blower is fully retracted. Extending of the blower moves the cam allowing LSTE to close. the blower is then under its own control. Near the fully extended position, the ramp cam strikes the lever that opens the SBV head valve. The second limit switch cam strikes the LSTS limit switch, which opens the circuit to the traversae motor and closes the circuit to the rotary motor. The rotary motor is attached to the gearbox assembly. When LSTS closes, the motor rotates the swivel tube through a gear train. When the blowing sweep is finished, the cam assembly on the swivel tube contacts and rotates the arm on the limit switch LSTR. The traverse motor begins to retract the blower. Near the fully retracted position the cam again opens the switch LSTE to halt the blower. Long Retractable Sootblower The LRD -IIE model Soot Blower is a boiler cleaning device in which a rotating lance extends into and tetracts from the boiler to make sure that the cleaning medium steam-directed through the nozzles, removes the deposits form tube surfaces. The lance is attached to a carriage housing, which runs on tracks inside the blower housing. The carriage and lance are moved by means of a traversing chain operated by a electric power pack. Rotary motion is applied to the lance through the travelling carriage by a second chain driven by a separate electric power pack. Control movement is by a stop limit switch and a reverse limit switch. The unit can be supplied with different traversing and rotating speeds. Standard traversing speeds are available in various increments from 1.25 to 3.65 m. per minute. Standard rotating speeds are available in various increments from 4.25 rpm to 7.75 rpm. These speed variations are accomplished by changing the power pack and jackshaft drive sprockets. Other speeds are possible for special application by the use of special sprockets. Flow of blowing medium though the retractable soot blower is controlled by the valve mounted at the rear end of the blower. The feed pipe is attached to the outlet of this valve head. This feed pipe passes through packing gland in the travelling carriage and lies inside the lance tube extending to almost the entire length of the blower. The wheels on the travelling carriage run on tracks welded to the inside of the blower housing. A roller on each side of the carriage limits sideways motion, which use the housing sides as guides. The ends of traversing chain are connected to each end of the carriage. The rotary chain is continuous. It passes over sprockets on the carriage and causes rotation through a gear train.
The lance is flanged to the carriage and supported on the boiler end by bearing and yoke plate. The electric gearbox on the right side is for traversing and the electric gear box on the left side is for rotation when viewed from the rear end of the blower. Motion is transmitted from the gearboxes to jack shafts on each side of the blower. Tension on the internal chains is adjusted by adjusting the screws on chain tighteners, which hold the idler sprockets on the outboard end of the unit. The housing completely covers the blower except the traversing and rotating gearboxes. The housing is open at the bottom except for tie bars at intervals. A section of the top of the housing near the rear end of the blower is cut away to allow access to the travelling carriage. The access areas have removable cover. A shot section of the track at the rear is removable to permit removing the travelling carriage for major maintenance. The soot blow valve head is operated by a trip pin on the top of the travelling carriage which engage a trip cam and through the trip rod linkage and valve lever causes the head valve to open or closes. The length of the trip rod governs the stroke of the head valve. To change the valve stroke, loosen the join nuts where it screws into the rod connection and turn the rod. One end of the rod has a right hand thread, the other end in left hand. When the desired length is attained tighten the join nuts. The spring on the trip rod should be adjusted to eliminate all looseness in the assembly. Airheater Sootblower The cleaning device consists of an electric motor coupled to a gear driven crank mechanism, which oscillates the swivel header carrying the twin nozzle pipes. The cleaning medium is conveyed through the swivel heads and respective nozzle pipe, to the nozzle at the end. A rotary point in the supply line permits free motion of the swivel header while connected to the source of supply. The arc traversed by the nozzle and the rotation of the rotor subject the entire area of the rotor to the action of the cleaning jet.
KORBA SIMULATOR 117
To maintain the desired steam pressure at nozzle an orifice plate is provided in the supply line. Drain connections are provided in the steam piping at suitable locations for removing condensate from the piping system while the device is idle, and just before it is placed in operation. The steam supply line to cleaning device has to be supported in such a way to avoid axial and side thrust being applied on to the rotary swivel joint. If care is not taken in this regard, heavy leak may occur in this joint. DA head valve is provided to reduce the inlet steam pressure to the required blowing pressure. PROGRAMMABLE SOOTBLOWER CONTROLLER Introduction The Programmable Soot Blower Controller, herein after referred to as the PSC, is essentially a mini computer programmed to carry out system logic decisions. The logic decisions are accomplished through a set of digital instructions, called the executive software, stored in the memory of the minicomputer. All permissive limits and interlocks are programmed into the executive software together with other system parameters, such as the number and types of soot blowers programmed to operate upon each program step are placed under software control into the memory system of the PSC by means of the program panel. The PSC is divided into four functional parts: the control panel, consisting of display and operator switch inputs; the controller input/output cabinet, containing the output drivers, receiving circuits and computer components, a program panel which is connected whenever a program change is desired; and other optional peripheral equipment as dictated by job application, such as data logging, analog to digital conversion equipment, and alarm annunciation. The PSC is capable of opening all soot blowers in the system, constrained within limits permitted by the executive software. It has an expansion capability of up to 510 soot blowers. With its emergency backup control system, complete display capability and remote manual soot blower operation is possible should the computer become disabled. These features and more provide a modern, versatile and reliable controller needed for efficient boiler cleaning. Component Description Display and Control Cabinet The display and Control cabinet, normally located in the control room for use by the PSC operators contains the panels for graphic display and for control of the soot blowers.
The graphic display panel, located in the half of the cabinet, shows individual soot blower operating status and the following general system indicators : • • • • • • • • • Control Power Failure Controller Operating Low Header Pressure Motor Overload Soot Blower in Service Soot Blower Blowing No Blowing Medium Blower Start Failure Time Exceeded
And others as required by the job. The control switch panel, located in the lower half of the cabinet, contains the control pushbuttons. The functions of these controls are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Program Selection Program Start Cascade Start Program Stop Program Reset Program Cascade Program Operating Display Program Check Sequence Check Error Acknowledgement Soot Blower Manual Start Soot Blower Retract Soot Blower Status Check Soot Blower Enable/Disable
and others as required by the job. Normally, the control switch panel is separated into two parts; one for independent control of the retracts, and the other for independent control of the wall blowers. Both panels open from the front to reveal the interior circuitry and hardware. Located on the control switch panel cabinet are the emergency override key switch, power supplies, power supply monitoring meters, and program panel socket. Behind the graphics panel are contained the required unit light driver circuitry. The graphics display consists of a multicoloured film negative through which the light from replaceable L.E.D.S is illuminated. A light driver located on light driver cards drives each of the L.E.D.s. Each light driver card has the capability of energizing sixteen
KORBA SIMULATOR 119
L.E.D.s. The card cage in which the light driver cards are located has the capacity for sixteen light driver cards; providing a total capability of 256 light drivers with each card cage. Each card cage contains one display decoder control card. The function of this card is to decode the unique blower address signal and energise the light driver for that blower. The control panel contains the necessary, push-button switches for starting, stopping, cascading, and resetting soot blowing programs; enabling, disabling, and starting of individual blowers; verification and status checks for both programs and blowers; and the Emergency Override keyswitch and Program Panel socket. The control switches are mounted to printed circuit cards located immediately behind the front panel. The cards condition the signals for input to the computer. Inside the display cabinet are the two power supplies required by the control and display panel plus and interface card cage that contains an array of multiplexing modules for sharing of the switch control signals. Also located on the card cage is power supply metering, and the multiplex control card, designated the DMC card. This card processes the graphics control information, energizes the switch multiplex array, and serves as the emergency control centre in the emergency override mode. Soot Blower Program Panel The Soot Blower Program Panel (or box) is used to create programs (soot blowing routines). Connected to the display and control panel via an umbilical card, the Program Panel in conjunction with the graphic display allows the PSC operator to set up the various programs.
CONDENSATE AND FEED WATER SYSTEM
KORBA SIMULATOR 122 .
2 KW 41.6 KV 4 1480 rpm . 899.10.991 4. Guaranteed power consumption with a flow rate of : : : : : : : : : : : 10 litre/min 2-4 ata 30-50OC 350 T/hr 350 microns 4 Nos.4 ata 307 meters 398 meters 1480 rpm.00 Kg/hr 43.CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP SPECIFICATIONS Type of first impeller Number of stages Design flow rate Inlet – Temperature Inlet .0% 75. Sealing Water requirement Flow Pressure Temperature Minimum flow for continuous stable operation Suction stainer size Radial Bearings lubrication with Water Motor Specification Output Voltage Number of poles Speed Cooling water Requirement for one motor KORBA SIMULATOR 123 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Double Suction 5 8.1OC 0.37% 776 KW.Specific Gravity NPSH required Discharge pressure Total Dynamic Head Shut off Head Pump Speed Power Consumption at Design Condition Power input at the motor Losses in the motor Power input to the pump Efficiency of the pump alone Overall efficiency of the pump motor 605.1 meter 30.8 KW 79.000 kgs/hr. 1120 KW 6.4 KW 857.
W. design temperature C. temperature Back pressure at MCR Temperature rise max. Max. Inlet temp.0 Kg/cm2 40OC Grease Rigid Type 1500 HP 360 mm Twinnest. Motor inner bearing lubricated with Coupling Rating Size Condenser Type Area of cooling surface Number of xooling tubes Lenth of each tube Size of tube-(OD x thickness in mm) Tube material .0 to 7.W.45 mm of 10.W. KORBA SIMULATOR 124 .304 640 MT 180 MT 55017 m3/hr 2.W. Terminal temperature Difference Head loss on C.17OC 6. velocity C.56OC 3. side Fouling factor Condenser tube cleaning system Name of the supplier No.3 MWC 0. Single shell 3253 M2 24710 14730 mm 28.W.Stainless Steel tubes Weight of empty condenser Weight of tubes C.Motor upper Bearing-Thrust Bearing Flow Pressure Max.13 M/s 28OC 35OC 60.9 TAPROGGE 2 800 Nos.575 x 0. of Balls Strainer Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Oil lubricated 30 litres/min 2. flow C. of Cleaning systems No. Double pass.7112 SS.
double suction. 2 column pipes.8 bar Siemens 415V/50 Hz 5. PUMPS The pumps are of the direct driven by a constant speed motor through a rigid coupling. 30OC 10 mm 7. diffuser type. The pump consists of internal assembly. Water is admitted into the casing from the suction barrel through the suction bell and first stage casing and discharged through the column pipes by the energy imparted by the impellers. Type Normal capacity Normal discharge pressure Pump motor Operating voltage Rated output Full load speed : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 Nos. a guide vane.DESCRIPTION Each condensate extraction pump which is driven by a 1120 KW induction motor. The discharge assembly comprises a discharge head with a stuffing box to seal the pump shaft and is installed on the suction barrel. The suction barrel is installed on the pump floor. multi stage. delivers 810. discharge assembly and suction barrel.639 kg/s Motor operated 1 per unit KWPK-80-250 45 m3/hr 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 125 . The internal assembly comprises of 5 stage casing. a suction bell and shaft and is submerged in water in the suction barrel.5 KW 24 CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP . vertical barrel.E. five impellers.000 kg/hr of condensate water against 307m. Of total dynamic head at the rated condition.Quantity per TCS Slope of Screen Width of Gap Cooling water Actuation Ball recirculating pump No. CONSTRUCTION OF C.
KORBA SIMULATOR 126 CONDENSATE SYSTEM .
suction strainer of pump will be clogged frequently. 5.Internal bearings (Leaded bronze bearings) installed in a column pipe and the top casing are provided for supporting the pump shaft against the radial load. Check the water level in the condenser is adequate. Balance valve. 1. Upper and lower bearings (leaded bronze) are installed in the stuffing box and suction bell. The impellers are driven by a 1120 KW vertical shaft induction motor mounted on the discharge head. Check that lub. Suction valve 2. Adjustment nut is provided at the top of the drive shaft to facilitate adjustment of the axial location of the rotating part. In this process air vent valves shall be fully opened to purge air completely. oil is filled up to the mark. Turn on circuit breakers of respective equipment’s and auxiliary devices. Suction strainer shall be kept installed during initial operation and remove it after system gets cleaned. Sealing water inlet valve 3. Iso. The coupling spacer is furnished between the pump and motor in order to remove the gland and seal ring seal without removing the motor. The weight of the pump rotor and the hydraulic thrust acting on the rotor in the axial directions are supported by the thrust bearing in the motor. Valves of respective coolers 4. Check that the condenser is cleaned up. Open suction valve fully and fill pump with water. KORBA SIMULATOR 127 . Pump’s Recirculation valve. If the condenser is dirty. Ensure that the following valves are opened. Gland packings are used for shaft sealing. Start up Checks Check that there is no foreign material in pump. Keep the pump’s disch valve closed.
Over current shall be carefully checked. 5. 5. 3. 1 to 3 kg/cm2 Max. Gland sealing water pressure 6. Pump bearing temperature ELECTRICAL 1. Motor winding temperature to be within limits. trip the pump. 3. care shall be taken on the following : 1. Pump discharge valve will be completely closed and selected to auto.Once the pump is started and reaches full speed. Restart the pump Check the condition of gland leakage. Space heaters should remain switched on. Over load conditions shall be checked which will badly effect motor service life. Motor input power shall be checked. Ascertain that all indicators show proper value under pump running condition. It should be just in continuous drips. discharge pressure etc. Power source voltage fluctuation shall be checked. Check that there is no abnormal noise etc. CHECKS DURING OPERATION MECHANICAL 1. vibrations. 4. 80OC KORBA SIMULATOR 128 . SHUT DOWN When the pump is shut down for standby duty. 4. Sufficient care shall be taken for abnormal noises. 3. 2. 2. Observe bearing temperatures. Switch off the motor 2. Do not operate the pump with the discharge valve closed for more than a few minutes.
balance valve.LONG PERIOD SHUT DOWN 1. condensate will be transferred to and from the condensate storage tank as required. The condensate in the deaerating feedwater heater is warmed by extraction steam during normal operation and auxiliary steam & cold reheat steam are utilised as the heat source during start-up & turbine shut down condition. 3. operate the pump for approximately 30 minutes. Pump Discharge and suction valves. Space heaters should be kept on. CONDENSATE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM The purpose of this system is to store an adequate quantity of demineralized water to meet the make-up requirements for normal cycle fluctuations and for abnormal operating conditions when supply of demineralized water is interrupted. this system will transfer condensate to and from storage tanks as needed to satisfy main cycle requirements. Isolate the cooling water system and drain it. The low pressure feedwater heaters receive extraction steam from the turbine. The condensate absorbs heat from the extraction steam as it passes through the feedwater heater. The condensate extraction pumps normally deliver the condensate through the three low pressure feedwater heaters. When the pump is not used for more than one month. on low KORBA SIMULATOR 129 . the deaerating feedwater heater to the deaerating storage tank. which is the beginning of the feedwater system. In case of fluctuations in the cycle. ISOLATION Isolate the motor electrically. The deaerating feedwater heater further preheats the condensate prior to its entry into the deaerating storage tank. Cooling water system should remain isolated. In addition. 2. The main cycle flow and thermodynamic requirement is maintained by transporting the condensate collected in the condenser hotwell through various stages of feedwater heating and other equipment to the deaerating feedwater heater. The normal make up to the condenser is supplied from the demineralizing plant through the make up pumps. Normally. to keep the equipment in good condition. will be closed as the pump will be drained. Pump’s sealing water system will be isolated.
low NPSH and minimum flow conditions. KORBA SIMULATOR 130 . to insure that the non-operating pump(s) stays completely flooded.) through’ 0. however. condensate will flow from condensate storage tank to hotwell by static head in the tank and differential pressure due to condenser vacuum. The suction piping to the pumps is vented back to the condenser.5-5 secs delay or a trip of the running pump. Approx. returning to the condenser via a flow control valve and a locked open shut-off valve. delay or if the CEP disch. A three position selector switch inscribed with ‘LEAD-NORMAL-LAG’ has been provided to select the pump for Auto Starting. A strainer is placed at the suction of each condensate Extraction pump to collect debris during commissioning. Header flow exceeds one pump capacity (810 T/Hr. the condensate. integral with the condenser shell. The shaft seals of these pumps are the water-injected type fed from a header to prevent the suction of air. These lines from a common discharge line and enters the turbine gland steam condenser. transfer pump will supplement the flow. Pressure switches provides actuating signal for stand by pump to start.). The Condensate Extraction Pumps are protected by safety interlocks to prevent eventualities like dry running.level in the condenser hotwell. Condensate collected in the hotwell is pumped by 3 x 50 % Condensate Extraction Pumps to the feed storage tank through feedwater heaters placed in series. Each condensate extraction pump’s suction strainer is provided with differential pressure switch. SYSTEM CONTROL Three 50 % Condensate Extraction Pumps shall be controlled from the Central Control Room (UCB). The condenser hotwell is condensate collection vessel.1 kg/cm2 approx. A minimum flow (350 T/Hr) recirculation line for each pump is provided. The pumps are provided with Auto starting feature. make a common header where from three lines are connected at the suction of three Condensate Extraction pumps. This make up is sprayed into the steam space above the tube bundles. and located in a pit below the ground floor. These vent lines include manual valves on the vent for each pump. Any pump can be selected for Auto start either in ‘Lead’ or ‘Lag’ position. should this flow be inadequate. particularly the pump that is not operating while the condenser is under vacuum.) through’ 0-15 secs. The pump on standby duty is streamlined to automatically start in the event of decreasing discharge header pressure below 30 ata (approx. One discharge line emerges out from each condensate extraction pump with one check valve and one motor operated stop valve placed in series. Two lines from hotwell. These switches actuate control Room alarm in the event of high differential pressure (0. The first pump to be started on ‘Auto’ shall be selected in ‘Lead’ position and the second stand by pump shall be selected in ‘LAG’ position.
sensed by level switches. receiving input from the controller. In the event this level control valve is unable to maintain normal level.The condensate extraction pumps are also provided with level switches that monitor condenser hotwell level.2 & 3. sensed by flow transmitters. condensate passes through the LP heaters 1. The condensate spill control valve is also provided with a motor operated. position automatically to maintain the Deaerator level. to ensure minimum flow through the gland steam condenser. The return to normal operation must be initiated by operator action. the sum total of condensate and Heater drain flow is fed. Either of the two 100% flow control valve. This level control valve is automatically positioned by the hotwell level controller when a high hotwell level condition develops. During normal operation. the individual bypass valve opens and inlet-outlet motor operated isolation valves in each heater gets closed. Normal level is maintained by level control valve LCV 0508 sensed by flow transmitter LT 0508. a minimum flow recirculation line and control valve is connected from the discharge header before Deaerator level control block valve back to condenser. But even with above flow the hotwell level becomes low (sensed by level switch) then the condensate transfer pump shall start and its discharge valve shall open automatically. Condensate spill control valve is provided in the line that connects the discharge header (after gland steam condenser) to condensate storage tank. For this reason motor operated. The condenser hotwell is normally maintained by the operation of two level control valves. Normally the emergency make up will flow from condensate storage tank to hotwell by gravity. bypass valves are placed across LP Heater respectively. control loop is employed to maintain Deaerator level. Full closing of this valve would cause auto stopping or associated condensate transfer pump. However. Restoration of the heater level to normal will not automatically restore the heater to service. This input is fed to a controller where signal from feed flow as well as Deaerator input flow i. The level switch protects the Condensate pumps from operating under very low (-1290 mm) suction head conditions. the emergency make up control valve LCV 0509 comes into action. When the hotwell level is restored to normal level the above valve shall close automatically. Beside above.e. in the event of very high level in individual heater the condensate is automatically bypassed by interlock action. In the event of very high water level in each LP Heater. KORBA SIMULATOR 131 . Deaerator level is sensed by level transmitter A & B. One level switch provides a pre-alarm for a low level (-1140 mm) condition. Bypass valve which can be operated manually from UCB in the event of controller malfunction. Condensate is then transferred to the condensate storage tank until the hotwell level returns to normal. A three element (Deaerator level. sensing low level in the hotwell by flow transmitter LT 0509. Deaerator input flow & feed flow). Each condensate extraction pump is equipped with individual recirculation control valve which ensures minimum flow through condensate pump when individual pump discharge flow falls below 350 T/Hr. Low suction conditions are usually encountered during start-up or transient plant operations.
the unit regeneration shall be started by manual intervention. sensed but level switch. The drain valve shall close automatically when the Deaerator level falls below the high level.In the event of high level in Deaerator.1/us/cm. the level is restored by opening automatically the Deaerator high level drain valve. then Deaerator level control block valves (on main condensate line) shall close automatically. On restoration of normal level above block valves have to be opened manually from remote. sensed by level switches. When conductivity at the outlet of each vessel of the condensate polishing unit becomes more than 0. If the rise in level still persists and reaches very high level (+440 mm). KORBA SIMULATOR 132 .
901 Design 0.5 1242 164.6 8. Spring loaded carbon face pressing against a silicaon carbon seat.60 120 30. Ltd Double thrust M8112/2P/2P 4" Crane type 8B1.900 Design 0.5 148 7. 9.6 9.27 10.5 1080.76 12.35 115 30.1 11.2 17.5 1242 0. Ltd : : : : For Motor Driven BFP Weir Pumps Ltd FATE 64 Anticlockwise For Turbine Driven BFP Weir Pumps Ltd FATE 64 Anticlockwise Mechanical Seal for Booseter Pump of BFP KORBA SIMULATOR 133 . Motor Driven Runout Specific gravity of Feed water : at suction temperature Suction temperature oC Suction pressure bar Discharge pressure bar Differential pressure bar Differential head m NPSH above impeller eye-M Flow rate m3/hr : : : : : : : 164.BOILER FEED PUMP & AUXILIARIES Booster Pump for BFP Manufacturer Type Direction of rotation Anticlockwise(Viewed on drive end) Thrust Bearing Manufacturer Type Size Type Seal Pressure Temperature Shaft speed Seal cooling Operating Detail : : : : : : : : : The Glacier Metal Co.17 17.67 20.918 Turbine Driven Runout 0.67 Bar 164.5 1080.55 10.93 135 13.918 The Glacier Metal Co.6oC 1494 rpm Closed loop recirculation via pumping ring through a heat exchanger.3 148 8.06 134 13.17 20.
1 ata 10.6 5690 6765 Specified initial steam pressure Exhaust pressure Permissible deviation in initial pressure at No load Instantaneous deviation (12 Hrs/Annum) Max.901 164.5 1419 395 82 1494 436 Motor Driven 79.3 1080. output Normal Speed Speed range : : : : : : 80.32 184. wheel chamber pressure permissible at : KORBA SIMULATOR .Efficiency % Speed rpm Power KW Boiler Feed Pump Manufacturer Type No.4 5705 6830 : : : : : : : Steam : : K 1401-2 5589 KW 9123 KW 5330 rpm 2000-6030 rpm 7.83 204.3 270 81.6 19.82 182.901 164.15 ata 134 Direction of rotation viewed : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0.49 2088 50. bar Differential Head m NPSHA above impeller eye m Flow rate m3/hr Leak-off flow m3/hr Efficiency % Speed rpm Power KW Turbine of BFP Type Design output Max.68 ata 12.3 270 81.182 ata 0.82 2103 50.6 20 205.5 1494 450 31 1515 514 Turbine Driven Weir Pump Ltd FK 4 E 36 4+1 Kicker Stage Anticlockwise 0. of stages on drive end SG at suction temperature Suction temperature oC Suction pressure bar Discharge pressure bar Differential pr.2 1080.02 ata 10.
thrust bearing. of control valves No. 1 No.3m3 0 meter level and : 350OC : : : : 300. Reaction By balance piston side at steam thrust admission bearing. 1 No. of stop valve Aux. Control valve Hydraulic speed senser Electric speed sensor Rotor Support : : : : : : 5 Nos.full load Specified initial steam temperature Deviation without limitation Permissible deviation for longer period Permissible deviation for 400 Hrs. Permissible deviation for 80 Hrs/annum for not more than 15 minutes at a time Specified cooling water temperature Start up time No.6OC 322OC 336OC 336OC KORBA SIMULATOR 135 .per annum for not more than 15 minutes at a time. Journal Bearing (Front & Rear) 1 Over speed trip speed Ist critical speed Direction of rotation of steam flow : : : No. No. Primary oil pump Hall probes 2 Nos. of stages Type Axial thrust balance : : : : : 33OC 38 minutes 14 Nos. (Front Pedestal) 6330 rpm 7550 rpm Anticlockwise (from direcion of steam flow) Turbine Auxiliaries Main oil tank capacity Location : : 6.
136 .25 m3/hr 2.C. Three phase motor D 180 M 600/415V 22 KW. 60 m3/hr 9 ata Motor +ve drive pump 1 No. : : Lub. 16. lub. pump : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 Nos. Oil Pump Nos.5 ata Centrifugal pump 1 0. Discharge flow Head Drive Pump BFP motor Speed Gear ratio – I Gear ratio – II Primary speed Full load slip geared turbo coupling.Auxiliary oil pump Discharge flow Rated head Drive Pump D.6% 5906 rpm 4:1 downwards 2500 litres Together driven as gear tooth system drive via the pump shaft. Discharge flow Rated head Type Jacking Oil Pumps Nos. output speed of the variable speed : : : Filling pump Centrifugal pump)and Lub. 50 Hz 3000 rpm Voith Variable Speed Geared Coupling for Motor Driven BFP Max.54 m3/hr 100 ata Motor +ve drive pump 1419 rpm 128/37 63/51 4908 rpm 2. Regulating range Oil tank filling pump (Gear pump) Aux. oil flow Boiler Feed Pump Drive Motor KORBA SIMULATOR : 388 litres/min.
0 Kg/cm2 is called control oil which is used as governing oil.) Lubrication Bearing Lubrication Type Oil requirement for both TDBFP TECHNICAL DETAILS Turbine driven BFP uses a turbine of 14 stage connected to condenser Turbine is coupled with main pump having an engage/disengage unit called Power pack unit using oil pressure for above function. : : Oil ring and oil circulation 62 litres : : : : : : : Asynchroonous Squirrel cage rotor 9800 KW 1493 rpm 6.6 KV 987 amps 50 Hz + 2 mm motor with KORBA SIMULATOR 137 . In the lub oil system provision is there to adjust the lub oil pr. by changing the recirculation flow. In 500 MW unit there are two similar TDBFPS located on turbine floor. During barring of TDBFP same lub oil at pr.0 Kg/cm2 is used as power fluid in barring gear impellers. Lub oil pressure is maintained at 3. It has two AC AOPs.0 Kg/cm2 on throttling after the pump oil at discharge pressure which is 9. DC AOP discharge oil is used on failure of AC AOPs bypass the coolers. Lub oil after passing through coolers is led to various bearing of TDBFP system.Specifications Type Rating Speed Stator voltage Stator current Frequency Limited Axial clearance (Max. one JOP AC and one DC AOP connected to tank. TDBFPS have a big LCP (Local control panel) having facility for all operations of TDBFP. 4. Between turbine and Booster pump gear assembly is there. Various system of TDBFP are discussed below : LUBE OIL SYSTEM Lub oil system of both TDBFPS are provided with one Main Oil Tank each in which oil level is separately maintained.
speed of Turbine has to be adjusted and for that we need perfectly efficient governing system. In the Governing system separate governing filter is used.IPLP cross-over steam. CRH steam is a automatically cut off. Seals drain is collected as clean drain into drain tank and dirty drain flows into common drain header.CRH 3. Drain tank level is maintained separately with gland drain pumps. steam. steam is used for rolling of TDBFP for initial boiler filling. For BFP side constant seal injection pressure around 18 Kg/cm2 is maintained with the help of control valve. Once steam is insufficient for increasing the speed beyond 3500 rpm. The discharge of the Booster pump is fed to BFP suction. Governing system is using the control oil at 9. From this line small pipe provides water in the exhaust steam as exhaust hood spray. Drains & vents are provided in FW system for initial charging and venting of BFP during rolling. will develop Secondary oil and Aux. Extraction steam parameters are maintained at 4. low DC seal quench pump takes start and provides seal water from CST for safe coasting down of pump. CRH steam is used for further speed pick up. GOVERNING SYSTEM For having the required flow through BFP. GLAND SEALING OF TURBINE Downstream steam from main turbine gland sealing is used for TDBFP sealing. Filters are also provided in this line. economizer and finally reaches the boiler drum. Aux. Before opening of Exhaust valve of TDBFP gland sealing should be done as this line is connected to condenser.SEAL INJECTION SYSTEM Mechanical seals are provided on BP side for which continuous cooling is done by CEP water. Governing is achieved with the help of two governors namely Hydraulic and Electrohydraulic KORBA SIMULATOR 138 .0 Kg/cm2 which in turn depending on the position of starting device and speeder gear.0 Kg/cm2 & 300OC. secondary oil pressure for operating the 4MCVs and one ACV thereby adjusting the steam flow speed change is effected. In case of seal injection pr.Auxiliary steam 2. From the discharge of the BFP the feed water passes through two numbers of high-pressure heaters. During cold start when CRH or IP/LP steam is not available. STEAM SYSTEM For TDBFP there are three sources for steam namely 1. After IP . FW SYSTEM Water from Dearator is taken to the Booster pump. after closure of ACV.LP cross over steam is sufficiently available then Aux.
FW line charging Recirculation valve lining up Seal injection. Barring speed is @ 200 rpm Line up extraction steam lines All drains provided in UCB and local to be opened. 6. Speeder gear is made 100% Hydraulic Governor is selected from console of starting device positions. Starting device position is increased slowly at 42% stop valve opens & indicated on the console. Electro hydraulic Governor can be taken out of service. Hence EHC is active EHC is selected through key (key in released condition) Pump venting is done at 1000. TDBFP speed Governing can be done either from UCB or from LCP or manually operating the Starting device or Speeder gear. 11. 9. 16.governors having EHG control and HG follows it up. 10. 8. 2000. At 56% MCV starts opening Speed refrence should be kept manual. Ensure that EHC output is less than HG. turbine trip condition should persist. 17. starting of AOPs & JOP. First TDBFP resetting is done by making starting device 0% and ensuring that no. 2. 139 KORBA SIMULATOR . 18. 3. 14. 4. Barring valve Gearing. 13. 5. 12. On isolation of fluid line to EHG. TDBFP OPERATION Steps: 1. Increase speed reference to 1000 rpm as soon as TDBFP picks up speed. 3000 rpm Ensure that the TDBFP is running normal. 7. In this condition speed set point is automatically generated and feed water flow is maintained as per the requirement from Drum level controller. exhaust hood spray charging Gland sealing Charging of lub oil system. TDBFP speed control can be put on auto if EHG is selected. 15.
This will lead to change of speed and a new balance is reached between the set point of the speed governor and the actual speed. Then the oil is supplied to the starting device. Low vacuum protection. high axial shift or by manual operation it blocks the oil flow to the system at the same device it is required to keep it lifted till pressure is build up on the down stream side. This change will result in the change of servomotor position and consequently governing valve opening. & flow is monitored. high pressure protection. amplifier (s) nonreturn extraction valve (if present). low lube oil protection and over speed tester are incorporated between the solenoid valve and the tripping device. Feed water master can also kept on Auto. Subsequently. In the working condition tripping device allows the oil to flow through it. This movement will result in a change of secondary oil pressure. low lube oil or high back / extraction pressure corresponding protection gets actuated and they prevent the flow of oil to the system at the same time connecting the downstream side to drain. The solenoid valve allows the flow of oil through it in the normal condition as per the specific requirement. Reengaging of the tripping device is possible remotely by providing additional equipment. 20. By adjusting the feed water master output TDBFP speed can be put on auto with the help of key. SPEED CONTROL The speed governor compares the set point of the speed with the actual value and give an output in the form of displacement of the lever which holds the sleeve of the amplifier. By further operating the starting device after opening the stop valve. In the event of low vacuum. When the tripping device trips due to overspeed. It can be kept in either normally open or normally closed condition. STARTING Turbine is started by operating the starting device which opens the stop valve first without opening the control valves. Pressure on the downstream side will keep the tripping device in operating condition. After attaining the rated speed and the speed governor has taken over starting device is taken to the extreme position. KORBA SIMULATOR 140 . control valves open thus starting the turbine. Oil after passing through these protections will pass through the overspeed tester and reaches the tripping device.19. When the solenoid valve is actuated due to any fault condition this will obstruct the flow of oil to the system connecting the down stream at the same time to drain. Further speed reference is increased to pressure requirement. OIL SUPPLY Oil is supplied to the tripping device through a filter and a solenoid valve.
the trip oil will be directed also to the space in front of the piston disc while the space behind the piston is connected to the oil drain. During this operation the sliding guide bush on the amplifier is displaced. in this position the rectangular block “a” in the functional diagram is shifted such that it is situated across the oil ducts shown in the diagram. also of an auxiliary slide valve. the rectangular block “a” of the emergency trip gear will be shifted into the position opposite the oil connections. INCREASING THE TURBINE SPEED If the pilot valve of the starting device is brought into position “d” the sliding guide bush of the amplifier will be lowered further. trip oil is allowed to flow through the starting device into the space behind the piston of the emergency stop valve where it is fulfils the function of pressure oil for starting up. the starting device will be moved further in the upward direction.e. Such a control can be achieved with the help of the KORBA SIMULATOR 141 . In this way.GOVERNING SYSTEM OPERATION OPERATION Adjust reference value of speed governor to minimum turbine speed. and the turbine rotor is picking up speed. When the TDBFP is being put into operation. After the hydraulic protection devices provided in the control circuit have been switched into their respective free passage positions. speed control of the turbine will be taken over by the speed governor. raise the pilot valve of the starting device right to the ultimate position at the top and block it there. so that the pressure behind piston is going to drop. If the handwheel is now being turned in counter clockwise direction. Before the turbine speed is increased further by means of the speed governor. As soon as sufficient pressure has build up in front of the piston disc. thus preventing secondary oil pressure being build up. This brings about an increase in secondary oil pressure with the result that the steam control valves are opened correspondingly. DEVICE FOR REMOTE OPERATION OF EMERGENCY TRIP GEAR FROM THE CONTROL ROOM PURPOSE Starting a turbine from the control room requires in addition to the distant operation of the starting device. the pilot valve of the starting device will be moved slowly upwards as represented by position “C” of the functional diagram. The piston will be tightly pressed upon the piston disc without allowing any leakage of oil.. remote control of the emergency trip gear and as the case may be. i. After having attained its set minimum speed. The resulting pressure differential will push the piston disc together with the piston upon which it is being pressed onto the ultimate position to the right. moves pilot valve of starting device downwards until it comes to a stop.
Both the amplifier and the bush are provided with discharge pots which. owing to a decrease in turbine speed (actual speed change). As the servo piston is going downwards or upwards. The control piston in the servo valve (actuator) is going upwards under the influence of the increased KORBA SIMULATOR 142 . thus providing a path for the pressure oil to flow either to the upper side or to the underside of the servo piston in the actuator. Any deviation of actual speed from a given reference value will therefore cause a deflection of the comparator lever which is functionally connected to the traducer. The control characteristic of the governor is of the proportional plus derivative type. depending on the degree of their overlap. This causes an increase in secondary oil pressure so that the amplifier is going to follow the displacement of the slidable bush until the flow section of the discharge port will once more conform to the oil volume corresponding to the altered pressure ratio at the throttle. secondary oil pressure will increase. The force which the transducer exerts on the comparator lever is counteracted by a reference value spring. The pressure of the primary oil thus generated by this transmitter will be a square function of turbine speed and forms the input signal (actual speed value) for the transducer. The pressure of the secondary oil discharged at the governor output side forms the input signal that acts on the control piston of the servo valve.following apparatus. the slidable bush will be displaced. SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM PURPOSE The pressure oil governor Type SR IV controls the turbine speed and maintains it at a constant value in accordance with the functional relationship represented by its characteristic line. The pressure change depends on the stroke of the amplifier and on the characteristic of the tension spring. the turbine control valves will be actuated accordingly. When. Momentarily. Solenoid valve pressure switch . and an automatically opening control switch whose actuation will be blocked in the open position by an interlocking mechanism. OPENING OR CLOSING OF TURBINE CONTROL VALVES When. owing to a decrease of primary oil pressure (Change in actual speed) the comparator lever is going down. The balance previously determining the volume of discharged oil will thus be disturbed. Mode of operation The signal transmitter for the speed governor is situated on the turbine rotor. the control piston will assume a position which is determined by secondary oil pressure. Under steady state conditions the spring force will equal the transducer force. The functional relationship between the stroke of the amplifier and secondary oil pressure is roughly proportional. the balance at the comparator lever is disturbed. e. The comparator lever is with its one end acting on the amplifier by means of a slidable bush. control the discharge of larger or lesser quantities of oil. This results in a smaller amount of overlap whereby the flow section for the oil discharge is reduced. Secondary oil pressure is acting via a damping device as input signal for the control piston of the servo valve (actuator).g.
Depending on the value of secondary oil pressure and thus also on the position of the control piston in the servo valve (actuator) . Depending on the model of speed setter provided. In this way. The slope of the characteristic. A feedback element on the actuator will restore the control piston the initial position represented in the diagram. A steady and adequate supply of oil to the radial holes in the impeller is ensured through the excess oil being collected by a collar and redirected to the housing. but with the opposite effect. 65 % and 107 % of rated speed for compressor drives and of 85 % to 107 % for generator drive sets. or the output alone with interconnected operation. the piston is pressed downwards. i. and the bearing flange. MODE OF OPERATION The oil for bearing lubrication and for the impeller is supplied by the main oil pump via a screw valve and the appropriate channels and grooves in the housing the insert. SPEED SETTING The speed of the turbine can be adjusted within the limits of approx. Changing the force exerted by the reference value spring (change in consequence that both the speed and the output is altered when the turboset is operated as an isolated unit.secondary oil pressure until a new balance between secondary oil pressure and the force of spring has been established. If the turbine control valves have to be closed.e. thereby opening the turbine control valves. The oil whose pressure has been thus boosted is supplied to the underside of pressure capsule in the hydraulic governor. the adjustment can be effected either by hand. and hence the field of proportional response. The governor impeller is supplied with oil by a pump drawing from an oil tank. or by means of a pneumatically operated actuator. the described sequence of steps will be followed in an analogous way. can be changed through appropriately. adjusting the feedback element in the valve actuator. The pressure compartment surrounding the impeller is tightly sealed by the oil sealing rings which are held in position by retaining rings. pressure oil. thus stabilising the position of the actuator piston. The additional pressure imparted to the oil by the impeller is a function for the turbine speed. although some what restricted by the effect of the throttle. will be admitted to the space above the actuator piston while the space underneath it is connected to the oil drain line (see the functional diagram : the rectangular block “c” will be displaced so that it is situated across the two oil connections). GOVERNING SYSTEM .SPEED GOVERNOR PURPOSE The oil pressure set up by the governor impeller (primary oil pressure) serves for the control of the turbine speed via an hydraulic governor. or by an electric motor. Raidally drilled holes in the impeller are setting up a speed dependent pressure in the oil. The cover carrying the impeller housing is flangemounted to the front end of the front KORBA SIMULATOR 143 . when primary oil pressure is going up.
which is bored and has elongated side ports. Only slight modifications in the design of the shaft stub at the front end of the impeller and of the cover make it possible to mount devices for remote indication of the turbine speed.calibrated pressure gauge (pressure gauge type tachometer) is provided for hydraulically measuring the turbine speed on the machine.bearing pedstal. KORBA SIMULATOR 144 . The reference value relay is linked hydraulically to a 3/2 way solenoid valve (see also Governing System Diagram). The step change piston is forced downwards as far as the adjusting screw permits and becomes one with it. The spur wheel and a spray nozzle for lubricating the gears are projecting into the bearing pedstal compartment.g. When needed the solenoid valve is opened so that pressure oil can flow to the reference value relay. After changeover the reference value relay is reduced slowly until the feedwater regulator can hold the lift signal for the reheater valve with no major disturbance (through adjustment of the speed reference). The turbine control valves move to maximum lift and the steam throughput is now regulated by the reheater valve. The reheater valve therefore receives a lift signal for the same steam flow that the turbine was receiving before the disturbance. HYDRAULIC REFERENCE VALVE RELAY FUNCTION The turbine which drives the feed water pump is fed with steam from the main turbine. The pressure oil enters the body and passes through the control piston. Since the feedwater regulator cannot perform the required alteration of the speed reference value as rapidly as needed. It will be screwed into the tapped hole. CONSTRUCTION AND MODE OF OPERATION The body of the reference value relay is incorporated in the governor housing and forms the link between the electrical reference setter and reference spring. to the top of the step change piston. The changeover to reheater operation must be performed without a major drop in speed in order to maintain the supply of feedwater. emergency trip) the feed pump turbine takes its steam from the boiler reheater. SPEED TELEMETERING A speed . At the same time the reference spring of the speed governor is tensioned through a rod connected to the step change piston. If the main turbine suffers an outage (e. a step increase in the speed reference value is made.
OPERATING CONDITION The initiating command for opening of the solenoid valve is a signal from the generator circuit breaker (tripped). This helical wheel is arranged on the threaded portion of handwheel spindle and is fixed axially by inset and gear case. respectively. that sleeve and therefore spindle cannot turn and the spindle is moved in the axial direction when the helical wheel starts to rotate. In the two stop positions thrust rings act as a slipping clutch. In this case handwheel spindle and helical wheel rotate simultaneously without the handwheel spindle being moved in the axial direction. A conical follow up cam has been shrunk up on this piston rod and is secured by a pin. Spindle is connected with sleeve which is free to rotate in cover by feather key in such a force thrust rings which are guided in insert so tightly against sleeve. Even in the event of a fault.After a pre-set delay the solenoid valve is deenergized and the oil spaces of the reference value relay are opened to drain. i. AMPLIFIER PURPOSE The amplifier serves for converting the output signals from the speed governor and the extraction pressure controller into distinct values of secondary oil pressure which are passed on as input signal to the pilot valves of the respective control valve actuators. which the frictional resistance becomes too high.e. STARTING DEVICE SPEEDER GEAR AND SPEED CHANGER It is operated either manually or remotely by means of an electric motor. Depending on the direction of rotation of helical wheel handwheel spindle can be moved in both directions until it bears against feather key and stop nut. the upper end of the piston rod is screwed into the turnbuckle which also serves for attaching the tie rod which transmits the stroke of the piston to KORBA SIMULATOR 145 . The rotary movement of shaft is transmitted via worm. the device acts as slipping clutch and protects the electric motor against overload. PISTON The piston slides in a separate cylindrical housing of the actuator and is mounted on the piston rod. The signal is interlocked if the check valve in the main turbine steam line to the feed pump turbine is closed and the reheater valve is already in an appropriate position (this is possible on overload during normal operation). By means of a throttle the pressure is reduced slowly so that the feedwater regulator can perform the travel set by the reference value rely (step change) without difficulty. to helical wheel.
the action of the bell crank lever on the compression spring goes in a direction opposite to the movement of the pilot valve. the return oil from these spaces is allowed to drain. KORBA SIMULATOR 146 . In the region of the pressure oil inlet connection. the valve piston is thus going to assume an intermediate operating position. The spaces above and below the piston are connected through internal ducts in the housing with the il passages of the pilot valve. The cam follower mounted on the one arm of the bell crank lever is pressed against the conical follow up cam. In this way. MODE OF OPERATION Any change in pressure of the secondary oil results in an axial displacement of the valve piston. At the same time. A pin on the top of the valve piston serves for locating a deep groove ball bearing intended for taking up the thrust. PILOT VALVE The piston of the pilot valve is slideably mounted in a sleeve which is tightly inserted into the actuator housing. any movement of the actuator piston will be transmitted to the bell crank lever. the relative position of the grooves on the valve piston surface with respect to the corresponding annular recesses in the valve sleeve will be altered with the result that pressure oil is admitted to the space below or above the actuator piston. The core of the valve piston is drilled out and has access to annular grooves on the periphery which coincide with corresponding annular recesses in the valve sleeve.the control valve leverage. FEEDBACK SYSTEM The feedback system serves the purpose of stabilising the control movement. Above this thrust bearing a compression spring is provided which can be tensioned in conformity with the position of the bell crank lever by means of an adjusting screw. while at the upper end the oil is able to escape through radial passages which have been drilled into the wheel disc in a spider like configuration. The actuator piston will consequently make an appropriate movement and will operate the control valves by their leverage. Owing to the follow up cam. four radial holes have been drilled from the periphery right down to the core of the valve piston. At the bottom the valve piston core is sealed by a screw plug. Under the influence of the spring force. The other end of the bell crank lever is connected to the adjustment screw of the pilot valve and thus is under the influence of the compression spring. The piston rod is positively connected with the pilot valve via a bell crank lever.
Such a displacement will after the interdependence between actuator piston stroke and compression spring preload while maintaining the direct proportionality between these two quantities. The lever system lifts or lowers the control valves of the turbine in such a way that the steam flow will always be adequate to the present or required turbine output. MODE OF OPERATION Any change in secondary oil pressure brings about a corresponding stroke of the pilot piston. piston stroke relationship will always a linear function. it will be possible to provide also for non linear control characteristics through an appropriately shaped cam profile of the reset bar. By its resulting downward stroke. The action of that lever on the compression spring goes in a direction opposite to the pilot piston stroke. the secondary oil pressure vs. with the design of reset bar here under consideration. The resetting mechanism serves for stabilising the control action. the actual servo power for positioning the control valves is derived from the pressure of the oil which flows either to the top or to the underside of the actuator piston. The functional chain extends between the piston rod and the pilot piston. The other arm of the follower is connected with the lever and. respectively. The preload on compression spring can be adjusted by means of the adjusting screw prior to such adjustments the cap has to be removed. The pilot valve of the actuator receives its control impulses from the secondary oil circuit. it transmits its motion to the compression spring. in cases where control requirements warrant it. PURPOSE The actuator serves for transmitting the positioning impulses for the control valves to the valve operating leverage. the piston stroke is fed back to the lever via a bellcrank follower. the piston is thus opening the control valves through the lever system. that with increasing secondary oil pressure the pilot piston is moved upwards thus opening the pressure oil arriving at connection a channel for flowing to the upper side of the servo piston. The functional relationship between secondary oil pressure and piston choke can be changed by adjusting the inclination of the reset bar to the desired position with the help of a set screw. However. Hence. KORBA SIMULATOR 147 . Such adjustments will affect only the amount of proportional gain while.ACTUATOR ADJUSTMENTS The functional relationship between secondary oil pressure and piston stroke can be changed by rotating the conical follow up cam about its axis. The pressure roller carried by one arm of the bell crank follower is pressed the reset bar. through the adjusting screw. these parts are interconnected by the bell crank follower and the lever. However. By means of a reset bar. The annular grooves and oil pockets in the pilot and sleeves. are arranged in such a manner. the pilot piston is going to yield to the spring force and returns to its neutral position.
Select the hydraulic governor with EHTC/Hydraulic selection switch. C. 13. Open the stop valve with starting device. 11. Speed set point zero for energising Plunger coil. Increase the speed of the machine till the BFP C set point becomes active i.The stroke of starting device is 0 . 4. 10. Oil supply to control oil system. Increase the speeder gear position to maximum. Observe the manual set point tracking the BFP C controller set point 14. B. 3. Raise the starting device position to 53 %. The manual valves to EHC and output of follow up piston are open. manual set point is more than BFP C set point.START UP PROCEDURE FOR BFP DRIVE TURBINE 1. Select the speed reference by BFP C with speed reference manual BFP C set point ref.e. Increase the speed of the machine as per the start up curve manually. Increase the speed set point such that EHC position is more than starting device position. 8. D. 9.5 kg/cm2. Slowly bring down the EHC < HG in small steps. 12. Ensure : A. observe that the electronic governor is active and starting device position is following the EHC position. 6. 7. Select the EHTC with selection switch EHTC/Hydraulic. KORBA SIMULATOR 148 . Selection switch. Turbine trip reset. E.53 % for opening stop valves and bring main control valve secondary oil pressure to 1. No faults on EHTC. Raise/Lower speed reference push buttons till it is just below the BFP C set point. To take the control from BFP C set point to manual set point. 5. Increase the stroke of starting device and observe that speed of the turbine should not increase. 2.
5 mm KORBA SIMULATOR 149 .0 kg/cm2.Alarm 6. C. A. When HG < EHC observe the hydraulic governor active lamp glows. Turbine differential Expansion high alarm +/. 15. D.2. (-) Steam inlet side 7.0. Inlet steam pressure high alarm 7. Governing oil pressure very low .5 mm.0. Axial shift high Alarm +/. INTERLOCK AND PROTECTIONS OF TDBFP TURBINE 1.5 kg/cm2.7 mm. stand by pump start At 4. Trip 10. Trip 75µ 6. Trip +/.e. Eccentricity high Alarm 75µ PP. 5. Trip 75µ P. B. B. Change over to hydraulic governor.A. (+) Exhaust side.5 kg/cm2. 4. Emergency trip from Control room LCP Local i. Select the hydraulic governor. Increase the speed set point to maximum to enable to operate the hydraulic governor 100%. Exhaust steam temperature high trip Trip 120OC Alarm 110OC 3.0 kg/cm2. Turbine vibration very high (displacement). 2. Decrease in small step the manual reference such that manual set point becomes active. 8. from Governing rack and turbine front pedestal all above trips can be resetted from UCB & LCP Please note that mechanical trip can be resetted mechanically only by pressing emergency speed Governor testing device lever downward. Decrease the starting device position in small steps. Select the manual set point.P. Alarm 75µ.
0 kg/cm2.less than 100 rpm. Seal quench water pressure low tripping has been provided from main header pressure. BARRING GEAR 1. However pump will take start on auto when engage or disengage command is given and conditions are fulfilled. DISENGAGABLE COUPLING • • Engage . KORBA SIMULATOR 150 . turbine can be rolled. (Barring gear PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWINGS All TDBFP protections will trip the turbine. trip1.6 kg/cm2. JOP has to be stopped manually. Lub oil pressure low. JOP will take start when barring gear valve. In the same reference it is advisable to engage and disengage the coupling at zero speed only. in event of similar next tripping. 2. Emergency seal quench water pump start/stop knob (at MDBFP LCP) should be turn towards ‘OFF’ side after every tripping of Boiler feed pumps on seal quench water pressure low. Barring gear valve opens on auto when speed is < 100 rpm. Otherwise pump (ESP) will not take start on auto. stops) BFP Alarm1. Therefore seal quench water pressure trip or permissive will not come into the picture if seal quench water to the Boiler feed pumps are isolated from their controller end.Zero speed & lub oil Pressure adequate. In both the cases power pack motor has to be stopped after completion of engage / disengage operation. Barring gear valve close on auto when turbine speed reaches 300 rpm. For example if turbine has been resetted and after that some one closes recirculation valve. Turbine can be resetted after getting all permissives for BFP and No turbine trip. But once turbine has been resetted it can be rolled even if any one of BFP permissives are not there. Disengage .9. BFP suction valve limit switch are not provided therefore it has been bypassed.
DW 3A.TDBFP OPERATION 1. MSD 46. MSD . MSD-77. DW 2A. MSD-83.81.from LCP or control room. DW 6A (from LCP). Charge gland seal of Turbine and open Ex-21 (Exhaust to condenser) KORBA SIMULATOR BFP TURBINE GLAND STEAM FLOW DIAGRAM 151 . MSD 68) 2. (In case of TDBFP 6B open MSD 82. Open drain valves. MSD-67 . MSD-66. MSD-66. MSD-32.
Close Ex-21 TDBFP A 3. Barring gear can be stopped after achieving casing temperature less than 100oC (It can be reensured by touching the turbine glands with hand). Turbine drains after attaining full speed and watching turbine parameters. Steam and CRH steam to Turbine one after other by opening ASL 004 & Ex-20 (Ex 19 for TDBFP 6B) Atmospheric drain valves may be open to observe the draining of condensate in the Aux and CRH lines. Roll the turbine according to start up procedures. 4. Isolate the gland steam to turbine seals when vacuum comes to 0. 6.2 kg/cm2. Line drains . Open MV 78 and Ex 50 for heating the steam line upto ESV (Manual isolating valve before ESV should be full open). MV . 5. Charge Aux.looking into steam parameters. 2. 6. 4. Steam and water side isolations are to be done when shut down is for longer period. KORBA SIMULATOR 152 . SHUT DOWN OF TDBFP 1. Water in the booster pump is to be ensured while running the machine on barring. Isolate the steam lines. II.3.78 EX 50 before rolling. Disengage the coupling at zero speed and put the machine on barring. Booster pump and BFP are to be lined up according to the procedure followed in case of MDBFP. 7. Closing drains & vents I. 5. Open the BFP vents and recirculation line vents to restrict suction/discharge differential temperature. Watch steam inlet parameters and then open ESV for chest heating. 7. III.
KORBA SIMULATOR 153 BFP TURBINE EXTRACTION DETAILS .
GOVERNING SYSTEM OF TURBINE DRIVEN BOILER FEED PUMP INTRODUCTION The main requirement of a boiler feed pump drive turbine (BFPT) governing system is to maintain speed depending on a signal from feed water controller which in turn depends on boiler feed pump delivery pressure and flow. The turbine speed is being controlled by an Electro hydraulic governor (EHG) which is constantly backed up by an another hydraulic governor. Speed control gangue of EHG is from 20 % to 110 % and that of Hydraulic governor (HG) is 50 % to 110 % of rated speed. The hydraulic governor comes into action immediately when the Electronic governor fails. For smooth change over an electronic tracking device is provided. The steam to BFPT is supplied from one of the bled steam line of main 500 MW steam turbine. During start up and shut-down of main turbine, steam is being supplied from cold reheat line. The BFPT governing system has a feature of starting the BFPT through steam from cold reheat line and then automatically switching on to bled steam supply as soon as it is available without any discontinuity. The other special features of BFP TURBINE governing system includes a quick closing stop valve, over speed trip, low lubrication oil protection, low vacuum protection, axial motion protection, remote tripping and remote engagement of emergency tripping device. HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR The hydraulic governor mainly consists of a governor impeller, hydraulic governor and hydraulic amplifier. The governor impeller is driven by BFPT shaft through gear wheels and it is supplied with a small quantity of oil from the main oil pump. Depending on the speed of BFPT, the governor impeller builds up a pressure on its periphery. This oil pressure called as primary oil pressure acts on a hydraulic governor bellow. The governor bellow is connected to a lever through a tappet. The force exerted on the bellow by primary oil pressure is transmitted to the lever through the tappet. A compression spring is mounted on the top of the lever which is pre-compressed by speeder gear. The signal from feed water controller through electronic governor determines the precompression of the speed set spring which balances the primary oil pressure acting on the bellow. The travel of the tappet is transmitted to the lever which is pivoted at one end through a joint. At its free end the pivoted lever is connected to the control sleeves. The control sleeves and follow-up pistons (amplifiers) are provided with ports. The overlap of these ports is dependent on primary oil pressure and speeder gear position. The follow-up pistons are held in a certain position by a spring. The pressure oil from trip oil circuit is admitted into the follow-up pistons through an orifice. The secondary
oil pressure for servomotors depends upon the gap between the follow-up pistons and control sleeves. Any variation in control signal from feed water controller will change the precompression of the speed set spring and thus disturbing the equilibrium of the tappet. This will change the port opening between follow-up pistons and control sleeves. The subsequent increase or decrease in the secondary oil pressures result in a displacement of servomotor pilot valves which determine the position of servopistons. The spindle of servopiston is connected to the control valves through a lever system. The feed back lever resets the pilot valves to the position corresponding to the required load even before the control action is completed. The follow-up pistons amplify the small pressure changes which are produced by governor impeller on a change in speed or due to feed water controller signal. It also reverses the direction of action of pressure in the secondary oil circuit. An interruption of this secondary oil leads to an immediate closure of control valves. The total control action of hydraulic governor can be summarised as follows : For examples, let signal from speed reference is increased, the control signal will try to compress the speed set spring and tappet will move down, which will result in increase in secondary oil pressure. The increased secondary oil pressure through servomotor opens the control valves more, allowing more steam to flow into the BFPT. As a result the speed of BFPT will increase till the primary oil pressure force and speed set spring force are again in balance. ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR The speed of BFPT is sensed by three hall probes. This speed signal through a pulse converter is fed to a speed governor which also receives another signal from a set point setter. Any change in speed of BFPT or set point, speed governor will give signal to an electronic amplifier. The output signal of electronic amplifier is given to the moving coil measuring system of a electro-hydraulic converter. EHC converts the electric signal into a hydraulic signal. The feed back action of EHC is effected by a differential transformer mounted on EHC power piston and feed back amplifier. The power piston EHC through levers move control sleeves of two hydraulic amplifiers. The construction and action of these hydraulic amplifiers are exactly same as that described under hydraulic governor. The output of these hydraulic amplifiers i.e. secondary oil pressure is connected in a parallel with the output of the hydraulic
KORBA SIMULATOR 155
governor amplifiers. Thus the secondary oil pressure leading to servomotors is controlled both by hydraulic governor and electronic governor (Function of a low signal selector). A fail safe is provided in the electronic governor to hold the last signal to electronic governor from BFPT controller. In case the signal from BFPT controller fails, and therefore the turbine speed will be maintained at that operating point. BFPT SPEED CONTROL BY ELECTRONIC AND HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR In the present governing system, hydraulic governor acts as secondary governor to electronic governor. As mentioned earlier that the output of both the governors controls the secondary oil pressure. But as a fact the governor which gives less secondary oil pressure will control the final secondary oil pressure. Since the hydraulic governor is designed to follow the electronic governor constantly, the hydraulic governor is set at slightly higher secondary oil pressure. Therefore always electronic governor will be controlling the secondary oil pressure and hydraulic governor will follow. The controlling range of electronic governor is from 20 % to 100 % and that of hydraulic governor is from 50 % to 110 % when electronic governor fails in the range of 50 % to 110 % the speed of the turbine will rise momentarily corresponding to hydraulic governor setting and then hydraulic governor will hold the speed and further speed can be controlled manually. In case the electronic governor fails in the range of 20 % to 50% of speed, the speed will be immediately set automatically to 20 % through the starting device. On the top of starting device a hydraulic reference valve relay is mounted, which receives the pressure oil through the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve gets energised only when BFPT set speed is less than 50 % and electronic governor fails. This signal is also given to the starting device motor, which slowly moves towards 20% speed setting. Through the solenoid valve and hydraulic reference valve relay the starting device is set immediately to 20 % speed, when starting device motor has moved to 20 % speed setting, the actuating signal to solenoid valve and motor are disconnected and turbine runs at 20 % speed as long as it is not disturbed. Further control of turbine can be achieved by operating the starting device manually. STARTING OF BFPT During normal running, the steam to BFPT is supplied from one of the bled steam line of main 500 MW turbine. During starting and shut-down of 500 MW turbine, the steam to BFPT is supplied from the cold reheat line.
TDBFP GOVERNING SCHEME
Steam into turbine enters through main stop valve and main control valves. The auxiliary control valve and servomotor are located in the cold reheat line before the main stop valve. The main stop valve is of quick closing type. The valve is actuated by means of a starting device. The stop valve consists of a spring loaded piston and piston disc, which is connected to the valve cone through a spindle. For opening the stop vlave, start up oil (from starting device) is admitted to the space above the spring loaded piston, by operating the starting device. Due to start-up oil pressure, the piston moves towards the piston disc and they from a tight seal against each other. Oil from trip oil circuit is then admitted to the space under the piston disc and the space above the piston is connected to oil drain. The trip oil now forces both piston disc and piston to the outer position thereby opening the stop valve. As long as the trip oil pressure is maintained the piston and the piston disc cannot be separated by spring force. The stop valve is closed only when the trip oil pressure drops substantially. On a loss of trip oil, the trip oil pressure, the pressure of secondary oil tapped from trip oil circuit, drops to zero, thus causing the main control valves and auxiliary control valve to close. This arrangement provided a two fold protection against steam entering the turbine. Provision is made for on load testing of stop valve. To admit the steam into the turbine, HP control valves must open since during start, is no bled steam available, steam is to be supplied from cold reheat line and for this Aux. Control valves is to be opened. The arrangement and design is such that aux. Control valve will open only when main control valves are fully opened. With the help of starting device the hydraulic governor is manipulated to increase first the main secondary oil pressure then aux. secondary oil pressure. During this time electronic governor is set at 20 % or speed. Once the aux. control valve is open, steam from cold reheat or Aux. Steam line is available to turbine and after picking up the speed, electronic and hydraulic governor will take over. When bled steam is made available, aux. control valve will close automatically if available steam from IP, LP cross over is sufficeint and turbine will be operating on bled steam supply. DISTURBING PROCESS SIGNAL UNIT (DPSU) When main turbine is tripps bled steam to drive BFPT will not be available and BFPT has to derive the steam from cold reheat line. As soon as the bled steam supply is stopped, the turbine (BFPT) governing system will open the control valves more and more. Thus main control valves immediately open fully and then aux. control valves starts opening till the required steam quantity is met through cold reheat line. In process, when main control valves open, very fast response from electronic governor is expected and will interfere with the hydraulic governor which is comparatively slow. To avoid this interference, a disturbing process signal unit is used to set the hydraulic governor to the maximum valve opening position as soon as 500 MW turbine is tripped. 500 MW turbine trip signal is given to a solenoid valve cylinder of D.P.S.U. The downward movement of the piston compresses the speeder gear to maximum
speed setting and thus building maximum secondary oil pressure corresponding to full valve opening. FEED WATER HEATERS INTRODUCTION A feedwater heater is a special form of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed for the unique application of recovering the heat from the turbine extraction steam by preheating the boiler feedwater. Its principal parts are a channel and tubesheet, tubes, and a shell. The tubes may be either bent tubes or straight tubes. Feedwater heaters are defined as high pressure heaters when they are located in the feedwater circuit upstream from the high pressure feedwater pump. Low pressure feedwater heaters are located upstream from the condensate pump which takes its suction from the condenser hotwell. Because the discharge pressure from these pumps differs greatly, the physical and thermal characteristics of high and low pressure feedwater heaters are vastly different. Typically low pressure feedwater heaters are designed for feedwater pressures between 27 kg/cm sq. and 56 kg/cm 2, high pressure feedwater heaters range from 112 kg/cm2 for nuclear heat sources to 335 kg/cm2. for super critical boilers. Regardless of the actual design pressure, the classification depends upon the cycle location relative to the feedwater pumps. The design pressure is specified sufficiently high so as to not over-pressure the channel side of the heaters under any of the various operating conditions, particularly cat pump shut-off. Each feedwater heater bundle will contain from one to three separate heat transfer areas or zones. These are condensing, desuperheating and sub-cooling zones. Economics of design will determine what combination of the three is provided in each heater. A condensing zone is present in all feedwater heaters. Large volumes of steam are condensed in this zone and most of the heat is transferred here. The desuperheating zone is a separate heat exchanger contained within the heater shell. This zone’s purpose is to remove superheat present in the steam. Because of the high steam velocities employed, condensation within the desuperheating zone is undesirable. The sub-cooling zone, like the desuperheating zone, is another separate counter flow heat exchanger whose purpose is to sub cool incoming drains and steam condensate.
HEATER OPERATION The following are precautions that should be adopted when operating these feedwater heaters. START - UP Feedwater heater operation should not be undertaken if any of the protective devices are known to be faulty. Feedwater heaters are not to be operated at fluid temperature higher than those shown on the specification sheet. Feedwater heaters must not be subjected to abrupt temperature fluctuations. Hot fluid must not be introduced rapidly when the heater is cold, not cold fluid when the heater is hot. Prior to opening the feedwater valve, the channel start-up vents are to be opened and remain open until all passages have been purged and feedwater begins to discharge. To remove air from the shellsides of a heater which does not operate under vacuum, the shell start-up vent valves should be opened prior to the admission of steam to the feedwater heater. The extraction lines must be free of all condensate to prevent damage to the heater internals by slug flow. When the drains outlet valve is opened, the shell start-up vent valves are to be closed and the operating air vent valves are to be opened. Continuous venting of air and other non-condensibles is assured by keeping the shell operating vent valves open. On initial plant start-up of horizontal feedwater heaters, having integral drain coolers, the liquid level is to be kept just below the high level alarm point. This will avoid the possibility of flashing at the sub-cooler inlet and the possible tube damage that can result. During initial start-up phases, the drains approach temperature (difference between drain cooler and feedwater inlet temperatures) should be monitored. Approach temperatures in excess of 8OC indicate the probability of flashing at the sub-cooler inlet. In this case, the liquid level should be raised until the drains approach temperature approached the specified value. The various turbine extraction’s are charged as follows : • • LPH – 1, Always in service. LPH - 2 & 3, These extractions are charged when the unit load is around 50 MW. Deaerator Extraction is charged when IP exhaust pressure is > 3.5 kg/cm2. (around 40 % of unit capacity) HPH - 5 & 6 These extractions are charged when unit load is around 50 to 60 % of unit capacity.
KORBA SIMULATOR 160
Also. Failure to run individual vent lines from each heater has resulted in inadequate or no venting of a heater operating at a lower shell side pressure than other heaters. Multiple operating air vent connections on the same heater can be manifolded downstream from the vent orifices and exhausted through a single vent pipe. When there is no desuperheating zone in a given heater. Vent flow control is best accomplished through the use of properly sized sharp edged orifice constructed of stainless steel or other suitable erosion/corrosion resistant material. as identified on the Setting Plan drawings. Note that the intent is to control the operating air vent flow by assuring critical flow through the vent orifices. is no greater than 50 % of the shellside operating pressure. Isolation valves in vent piping should either be locked in the open position or some other suitable means provided to assure that such valves cannot be closed during normal operation. deduct 0. A sharp distinction must be drawn between start-up vents and operating air vents. Vent lines of heaters operating at a different shell pressure must not be piped to a common manifold. The venting system in a feedwater heater is designed to assure that all points where non-condensable gases could collect are vented. Failure to utilise all of the operating air vents can lead to corrosion damage and/or loss of performance due to air blanketing. tubing adjacent to an air removal connection has failed due to erosion caused by blow back of condensed vapour fed into the heater from a manifold which also served a heater operating at a higher shellside pressure. and in no event are start up vents to be piped up to a manifold serving the operating air vents. piped into a common manifold. All operating air vent connections must be piped to permit continuos venting. KORBA SIMULATOR 161 . Vents should not be cascaded. this shellside operating pressure may be considered as equal to the steam inlet pressure. If a desuperheating zone is employed. at the discharge of the vent orifices. The manifold must be sized to handle the total flow from all vents and discharged into a pressure lower than the vent pressure. Vent piping should be sized to assure that the back pressure. Start up vents must be closed during operation. 35 kg/cm2 from the steam inlet pressure to obtain the approximate shellside operating pressure for the purpose of sizing vent piping.VENTING Proper venting is necessary on feedwater heaters.
if it is operated for any significant period or time with the next lower heater’s feedwater flow by passed. This is accomplished by spraying the water through self adjusting spray valves which are designed to produce a uniform spray film under all conditions of load and consequently a constant temperature and uniform gas removal is obtained at this point. When a heater is by-passed. In the case of heaters with desuperheating zones. which in turn can cause condensation. The condensate flowing at high velocity can lead to severe tube erosion. In the first stage the water is heated to within 2O of steam saturation temperature and virtually all of the oxygen and free carbon dioxide are removed. This next higher heater will come close to making up the duty of both heaters.FEEDWATER BY . DEAERATORS PRINCIPLE OF DEAERATION The deaerating heater utilises steam by spraying the incoming water into an atmosphere of steam in the preheater section (first stage). This single heater will tend to draw a total amount of extraction of steam approximately equal to the flow to both heaters. The steam passes into this stage and it is mixed with the preheated water. the increased steam load due to bypassing the previous heater can cause an excessive pressure drop in the desuperheating zone. (Second stage). Condensation in the desuperheat zone and high velocity impingement.PASSING A feedwater heater may be severely damaged by erosion and/or vibration. its normal feedwater is passed on to the next higher heater. Deaeration is accomplished at all rates of flow if conditions are maintained in accordance with design criteria. Here the water is in intimate contact with an excess of fresh gas/free steam. Excessive steam flow to a heater. From the first stage the preheated water containing minute traces of dissolved gases flows into the second stage. Flows which cannot be adequately handled by the drain control valve. resulting from by-passing the feedwater side of the previous heater. This section consists of either a distributor or several assemblies of trays. can result in : • • • Localised high velocity leading to vibration of the tubing. Very little steam is condensed here as the incoming KORBA SIMULATOR 162 . It then mixes this water with fresh incoming steam in the Deaerator section.
KORBA SIMULATOR 163 DEAERATOR AND FST CONNECTION .
4. The condensate pressure just before the entry to Deaerator shall be atleast 3 psi more than the Deaerator steam pressure. 10. The gauge should read 2 to 3oF below saturation temperature at the existing pressure. Open the Deaerator vent valves or open orifice bypasses to atmosphere. 7. The final position is determined in conjunction with oxygen tests during operation.water has a high temperature caused by the preheating. 5. When a strong flow of steam issues from the vents. Flush out all lines and tanks with water until there is no apparent indication of foreign matter or rust. Check to see that all instruments are operating and indicating correctly. After making certain that adequate steam pressure is available. 6. OPERATION OF THE DEAERATOR 1. start throttling the vent and check feed storage tank temperature. Throttle back vent valves to operating positions. Admit condensate water and slowly increase from 15 % to 30 % of design inlet flow fate. The steam then rises to the first stage and carries small traces of residual gases. open steam valve slowly admitting steam into the Deaerator. The water which leaves the second stage falls to the storage tank where it is stored for use. Manually check all controls to see that each is working freely. 8. A very small amount of steam is also discharged to the atmosphere which assures that the deaerating water is adequately vented at all times. KORBA SIMULATOR 164 . 9. 3. Spray nozzles should be free from all foreign material. Put one boiler feed pump in service with recirculation to Deaerator. At this time the water is completely deaerated and is heated to the saturated steam temperature corresponding to the pressure within the vessel. 2. In the first stage most of the steam is condensed and the remaining gases pass to the vent where the noncondensable gases flow to the atmosphere.
the high pressure bypass desuperheater and HP fill & purge SGCW pump cooler. The control must assure that the rate of temperature change of the metal in the shell or the water box does not exceed 400oF per hour with instantaneous changes not greater than 50OF per minute for a total excursion of 150oF. To avoid a severe thermal shock it is recommended that cold start ups be preceded by a warm up steam with the vents open and no flow in to the water box. Accelerated cooling is often desirable for repair work. Cold start-up can severely stress a Deaerator. KORBA SIMULATOR 165 . When the entire vessel and its contains are heated. The steam flow should be regulated to permit the steel shells to heat at a rate of 50OF per minute upto about 200oF. FEED SYSTEM OPERATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The purpose of the Feedwater System is to provide an adequate flow of properly heated and conditioned water to the boiler and maintain boiler drum level compatible with the boiler load. feedwater flows from the outlet nozzles of the Deaerator storage tank. through the boiler feed booster pumps (BFBP). From the discharge of the boiler feed pumps. Under normal operating conditions. Water in the storage tank should also be heated to the same value. This system also conveys water to the boiler reheater at temperators.RECOMMENDED NORMS FOR TEMPERATURE CHANGES Changing cold or hot water admission to the water box must be accomplished in a controlled manner. Once the metal is at or below 250OF. cooling of 60OF to 70OF may be used. superheater at temperators. Accelerated cooling can be accomplished using a cooling fluid which is 100OF to 150OF lower than the metal temperature until the metal has cooled to about 250OF. the steam supply should be shut off and any remaining steam vapour should be vented. to the boiler feed pumps (BFP). The rate of change of metal temperature should stay in the 100O F/Hr range. Feedwater is heated to achieve an efficient thermodynamic cycle. auxiliary steam desuperheaters. A bypass line around the heaters is provided for removal of either or both heater strings from service. the flow continues through both high pressure feedwater heater strings to the boiler economiser inlets.
A flow element has been located in each of these lines. which can be regulated by a motor operated globe valve. The boiler feedwater flows through individual suction line to the Booster Pumps of 2 x 50 % turbine driven boiler feed pump ( A & B) and 1 x 50 % motor driven boiler feed pump (C). The feedwater temperature is initially raised by passing through the low pressure feedwater heaters and Deaerator feedwater heater. These heaters are associated with the condensate system. feedwater flows through the suction of BFP. a check valve and an isolation valve prior to entering into the economiser.The high pressure feedwater heaters receive extraction steam from the cold reheat line and the IP turbine. as required. The low-load feed control valve (FCV0657) together with one motor-operated control valve bypass and two motor operated control valve inlet -outlet isolation are located parallel to the above common header. From the discharge of booster pump.The reheater attemperator supply line has been taken from an intermediate stage of each BFP which join into a common line prior to entering into the spray control station. This line also contains a flow element. A hand operated isolation valve followed by a temporary start up strainer have been located in each booster suction line. The feedwater temperature is further raised in high pressure feedwater heaters. Each feed pump discharge is provided with an automatic modulating recirculation valve and two locked open isolating valves. located before the discharge check valve. The bypass line located between heaters 5A-6A string and heaters 5B-6B string and is sized to accept full feedwater flow. The arrangement for superheater attemperator supply line is identical to the above one. Thereafter. The feedwater absorbs heat from the extraction steam as it passes through the heaters. At the suction line of booster pump C (Motor driven BFP) there is provision for introducing hydrazine and ammonia which could be dozed during a wet lay pump operation. This ensures that the feed pumps are each protected by maintain the minimum recirculation flow corresponding to its speed. to accommodate thermal expansion of the feedwater when a heater is isolated. excepting that the line is taken from the kicker stage of each BFP. 5A-6A & 5B6B) and a common bypass line for both strings. KORBA SIMULATOR 166 . The feedlines to HP feedwater heaters each contain two motor operated isolation valves: one on the inlet side of HP feedwater heater 5A/5B and one on the outlet side of HP feedwater heater 6A/6B. The balance leak-off line of each BFP is always open and ensure a return flow path to the pump suction. The outlet header from each string the joins into a common header. this header contains a flow element. Pressure relief valves are provided on the tube side of heaters. These lines then form a common discharge line. The common discharge header of BFPs ultimately splits into three lines: one for each string of high pressure feedwater heaters (HP Htrs. One 275 mm inner dia discharge line merges out from each BFP with one check valve and one motor operated stop check valve placed in series. and recirculate feedwater back to the Deaerator feedwater storage tank.
KORBA SIMULATOR 167 HP HEATER CONNECTIONS .
The standby pump should be cleaned as soon as possible. minimum flow conditions. the suction strainer should be thoroughly cleaned.5 kg/cm2. The emergency lube oil pump shall start automatically when lube oil pressure falls to 1. These pumps can be controlled either from UCB or from LCP. The standby pump should be placed in service. Press. Under normal operating conditions. the above valve can only be opened either automatically or manually provided the lube oil pressure is 2. the main feedwater flow continues through each of the two turbine-driven BFBP discharges to the BFP associated with a particular BFBP. nor is there any isolation valve between the discharge of the BFBP ‘s and the suction of the BFP’s. sensed by the pressure switch PSL 3. to 6. KORBA SIMULATOR 168 . The opening of the valve is so controlled that during turning gear operation the turbine speed remains around 100 rpm. In the event of high differential pressure (0. Each TD BFP has been provided with two x 100 % Main / Auxiliary Oil Pump and one Emergency Lube Oil Pump. There is no cross connection between BFBP’s. Switch (PDS-0601.SYSTEM CONTROL Two x 50 % turbine driven boiler feed pumps can be controlled either from the Unit Control Room (UCB) or from the Local Control Panel (LCP). steam to BFP turbine is supplied from auxiliary steam or cold reheat steam. However. Steam to BFP turbine is normally provided from the IP turbine exhaust. etc. lubrication failure. that unit will trip out and cause its companion pump to also trip. B & C). during unit start-up or during main turbine tripped condition. This alarm indicates that the suction strainer is dirty and should be cleaned as soon as possible. These pumps are used during normal operation.1. Under normal operation.5 kg/cm2 (PSL 3. if there is a malfunction with either a BFBP or BFP. low NPSH. Each BFP is protected by safety interlocks to prevent eventualities like dry running. Thereafter. Control of ID TD BFP turning gear has also been provided on LCP. another 50 % motor driven boiler feed pumps has been provided for start-up and standby operation. Suction strainer of each BFP is provided with a diff. 0612 & 0623). The jacking oil pump control has been provided on LCP. the motor driven BFP will be brought up to system performance level by operator intervention. sensed by pressure switches (PSL 3.5 kg/cm2 ) these switches actuate control room alarm. Further. This pump can also be controlled either from UCB or from LCP. at the same time. This pump shall start automatically when turning gear motor operated valve is open.0 kg/cm2. which is to be controlled from the Central Control Room.2A. The standby auxiliary oil pump shall start automatically in the event of either the tripping of the running oil pump or fall in pump discharge header pressure. Turning gear motor operated valve shall open automatically when BFP turbine speed is less then 210 rpm and shall close automatically when BFP turbine speed is greater than 240 rpm.11) or more. In addition.
depending on the feedwater controller signal. When the quench pressure to BFP seals falls to 10 kg/cm2.2 atg. Seal water pressure is maintained by actuating the diff. c) between seal water supply header and Booster pump A/B/C suction line. The control of auxiliary oil pump has been provided on UCB only. Once started. b. This valve opens automatically when differential temperature of feedwater across BFP suction and discharge increase 10OC. EHG can be controlled from both UCB and LCP. ESP shall be stopped after 5 minutes. EHG is actuated to maintain turbine speed depending on a signal from feed water controller. The MDBFP has been provided with one auxiliary oil pump and one shaft driven oil pump associated with the hydraulic coupling. sensed by pressure switch and MDBFP is running. The Gland Drain Pump shall start automatically when gland drain tank level becomes high and shall stop automatically when above level becomes low (both level sensed by LS 162. This pump shall start automatically under any of the following conditions : a. pressure control valve CI-7. Gland seal drains of all BFPs is collected in a gland drain tank. The control of ESP is located on the LCP. The GDP is controlled from the LCP. which is backed by a hydraulic governor.Each BFP turbine has been provided with Electro hydraulic governor (EHG). KORBA SIMULATOR 169 . MDBFP utilises the auxiliary lube oil system until the BFP’s associated shaft driven oil pump has developed an acceptable discharge pressure. c. When MD BFP rotates in reverse direction during standby condition. In the event of tripping of MD BFP for a duration of 5 to 10 minutes. When start command is initiated to MD BFP. This pump shall stop automatically when lube oil pressure increases to 3 kg/cm2. a common Emergency DC Seal Water Pump (ESP) for all BFPs has been provided to supply water to BFP seals in the event of normal supply failure. b. When lube oil pressure falls to or below 1. where from the drain is transferred by 2 x 100 % Gland Drain Pump (GDP) to Condenser via LP Flash Tank. The auxiliary lube oil pump is then placed in standby.244a. 13 & 19 depending on the different pressure signal (sensed by DPT . Over and above this supply. sensed by pressure switches . all BFP shall trip and ESP shall start automatically. d. sensed by pressure switch. Speed of MDBFP is maintained by actuating the scoop tube of the hydraulic coupling. Seal water for both MD and BFP’s is normally supplied from CEP discharge header.) Recirculation Control Valve of each BFP modulates automatically to ensure minimum recirculation flow (sensed by flow transmitters corresponding to the operating speed through the pump.
Dissolved Oxygen at BFBP suction and dissolved Oxygen. On BYPASS position of the control switch both heater strings get bypassed. These strainers and their associated instrumentation are temporary and should be removed prior to KORBA SIMULATOR 170 . irrespective of level condition in each heater.AUTO . sensed by level switches. with low level alarms at a higher level. This system has provisions for an automatic trip of all feedwater system pumps in the event of every low level in the Deaerator. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS FOR FEED WATER DESCRIPTION A 3 element Deaerator feedwater storage tank level control with condensate flow matched to the feedwater flow trimmed from the Deaerator level error system. When the load increases and exceeds 20 % MCR. Analysers and recorders are provided in the steam and water analysis system panel.The boiler feed pumps each discharge through a motor operated discharge valve. However. in the event of very high water level in any HP feedwater heater. and as such.BYPASS control switch for HP feedwater heater bypass arrangement has been provided on UCB. Restoration of the heater level to normal will not automatically restore the affected string into service. Full opening of this valves has been provided on UCB. For this reason motor operated bypass valve is placed across two strings of HP feedwater heaters. operate simultaneously and in the same mode as their respective BFP’s. When both the string of HP feedwater heaters get bypassed. as explained above.outlet motor operated valves of the affected string. On AUTO position of the control switch. The feedwater header is then directed to the economiser inlet header. l Element drum level control remains in service and the low load feed control valve. FW-015. Full opening of FW-014 shall cause closing of inlet-outlet motor operated valves of the string in service. the bypass valve opens around 50 %. isolating valves open automatically. the feedwater reaches the feed control station. The return to normal operation must be initiated by operator action with the help of SERVICE position of control switch. The BFBP’s are driven by the same drives as that of the BFP’s. FW-014 opens full and maintains normal feedwater flow. During normal operation FW passes through the HP feedwater heaters. During start-up and low load (20 % MCR) condition. 3 element drum level control comes into service and the bypass valve opens automatically. Full opening of these valves shall cause closing of feed control station bypass valve. is supplied. Opening of FW-014 to 50 % position shall cause closing of inlet . Conductivity & residual hydrazine at economiser inlet are monitored. gets bypassed. one string of HP feedwater heaters. PH. in the event of very high level in individual heater. Differential pressure across the BFBP suction strainer is monitored. A common SERVICE . After passing through the HP feedwater heaters.
SINGLE ELEMENT VERSUS 3 . During low load (around 20 % MCR) conditions. KORBA SIMULATOR 171 . The flow will then be directed through the main discharge line with the control transferred to the normal 3-element feedwater control signal which will modulate the hydraulic coupling scoop tube for the motor-driven pump or the turbine governor for the turbine driven pumps. feedwater flow to the economiser and main steam flow. the low load feed control valve is provided to prevent an inability to control the pump during start-up. the system is regulated only by drum level (single element control) by modulating the low load feed control valve.F. the control will transfer. Therefore. When the 20 % load index is reached. There are no control valves in the main discharge piping from the BFP to the boiler. Control valves are provided in recirculation lines from each pump discharge to the Deaerator. TURBINE . PUMP OPERATION Either of the turbine -driven pumps has the capability to be used for starting up the plant. A high differential pressure across the strainer will initiate an alarm in the control room so that the pump in question can be taken out of service and the strainer cleaned. The low-load feed control valve will regulate flow to maintain drum level. and the low-load feed control valve is to be closed manually. Feedwater heaters 5A-6A & 5B -6B all have automatic bypassing on very high level incorporated in their controls.DRIVEN B. The flow through each BFP is measured in the pump suction line. since the Feedwater flow is controlled by the BFP turbine speed or in case of the motor driven pump by the hydraulic coupling scoop tube position. to insure the minimum flow through each pump corresponding to its speed. An auxiliary steam supply to each pump has enabled either pump to run up to a point where sufficient flow is available to the boiler.commencement of commercial operation. MOTOR DRIVEN PUMP If the motor driven pump is used for start-up. there is no back pressure available through the boiler and the hydraulic coupling has only a 4:1 turndown capability.ELEMENT CONTROL A common nominal 20 % low load feed control valve has been installed in parallel to the common pump discharge header which will operate from a single element drum level signal. The speed of each BFP turbine is regulated by the 3-element feedwater control which is regulated according to boiler drum level.
1. through LP flash tank.The inlet and outlet motor operated block valves (MOV) on each string of heaters and the heater bypass MOV are interlocked to prevent complete shut off of feedwater flow to the boiler. The operating vent lines from all feedwater heaters are fitted with orifice plates for flow control. except heater no. both start-up and operating. divides into two branches. which can be used in the event of controller failure. which is also routed to the condenser. Vents and drain of HP/LP flash tanks are finally connected to the condenser. 6A-6B. The deaerating feedwater heater vents.1. 1. 5A-5B and on to the Deaerator where in the drains are incorporated in the feedwater flow. and cascade the condensate to the next lower pressure heater. LPH-3 & LPH-2 and deaerating feedwater heater are provided with manually operated modulating valves. which are routed to the HP flash tank manifold. Each branch contains a modulating type control valve located near the inlet of the receiving vessel. is provided with shell operating vent alone. The normal operating flow path is from heater nos. 3 the drains cascade to heater nos. through a modulating control valve. The drain line from the drain cooler section of each heater. 1 has a separate drain line to the LP flash tank. HEATER DRIP AND VENT OPERATION DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM The purpose of the Heater Vents and Drains System is to remove condensate that has accumulated in the shell side of the closed feedwater heaters from their heat source the extraction steam. 2. From heater No. however. 6A-6B to No. through the drain cooler and into the condenser. 5A5B. Normal drain from each closed feedwater heater except LP heater 1 has also been provided with a local manually operated level control bypass valve. Likewise. LP feedwater heater no. KORBA SIMULATOR 172 . are piped to atmosphere. which are directly routed to the condenser along with LP Flash Tank vent line. All HP feedwater heaters 6A-6B & 5A-5B are provided with shell operating vents and shell start-up vents. LP feedwater heaters 2 & 3 are provided with shell operating vents and shell start-up vents. one leading to the next lower pressure heater and the other to HP/LP Flash Tanks. This system also removes any non-condensable feedwater heaters. Very high level in either heater in a particular string (5A/6A or 5B/6B) will initiate isolation of that string and opening of the bypass to 50 % positions. The start-up vent lines from feedwater heater nos. The heater drain system transfers the shell drains from each closed feedwater heater to the next lower stage of heating and ultimately to the condenser through HP/LP Flash Tank. where from drain and vent are connected to the condenser. The drain from heater no.
2 or 3. With the loading of the turbine. provides control room annunciation of high condensate level in the heater. Keep the heater drains in service. one for each drain flow path. b. 5A-5B. The “high high” level switch which has a set-point above the “high” level switch provides control room annunciation in addition to the following: a. as the extraction steam flow increases.2 or 1. located in the cascading drain line to the next lower pressure feedwater heater. The “low” level switch. the “high” level switch will open the modulating control valve in the emergency drain line of the affected heater. Opens the condensate bypass valves and closes the isolation valves for LP feedwater heater nos. deaerating feedwater heater. LP feedwater heater nos. 1. Opens the feedwater bypass valves and closes the isolation valves for HP feedwater heater strings 5A-6A or 5B-6B. 3. which has no means of extraction steam side isolation. c. Each feedwater heater is provided with “low”. START UP The heater vents and drains system remains in service at all times and would normally be in service throughout the unit start-up. are provided with open/close position indicating lights as well as manual over-riding control switches in the control room. “high” and “high high” level switches. Each heater drain control valves. depending on which string is experiencing the high level condition. 1. set below the lowest pneumatic level controller set point. which is located in the line branching off the cascading drain and connected directly to the HP/LP flash tanks. Closes control valve on the incoming cascade drains to HP feeder water heater nos. by providing an appropriate control signal for the modulating drain control valve. set above the highest pneumatic level controller set point. and provides a control signal to an alternate modulating drain control valve. The normal operating level of each feedwater heater is specified by the heater manufacturer and this define the set point for the normal level control. the heater levels are established. The second controller is set at a level higher than normal. initiates an alarm in the control room so as to indicate the normal level controller malfunction. The “high” level switch. KORBA SIMULATOR 173 . One controller is set to maintain normal water level in the heater. Closes the non-return valve and motor operated isolation valve in the extraction steam lines to the particular heater concerned with the exception of Heater no.SYSTEM CONTROL All feedwater heaters are provided with two field mounted pneumatic level controllers. Also. d.
and this vent will remain open at all times. STEADY STATE OPERATION The heater drains and vents are designed to operate primarily in the automatic mode over the range of system design loads.state operation has been reached. and heater drains have to be diverted through the emergency drain line. normal drains would remain ineffective. KORBA SIMULATOR 174 . The heater no. the drains will be diverted to the condenser. Venting is regulated by the orifices in the vent lines to the condenser (or atmosphere in the case of the Deaerator). which are to be closed when steady . Shell operating vents of all the heaters would always remain open.During start-up sufficient differential pressure for cascading would not be available in the low pressure heaters.1 has to be vented manually to the condenser during startup. The heaters have to be vented through manually operated shell start-up vent valves during start-up. As a result. At low load conditions. wherein sufficient differential pressure for cascading might not exist in the low pressure heaters. Heater levels are maintained by the inherent balancing characteristics of the cascaded system and heater level is maintained by proper positioning of the forward level regulating valves or the bypass valves.
CONDENSER AND EVACUATION SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 175 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 176 .
8 mm : Hq abs in place of 25.025 Kg/cm2 0. 4.4 mm Hq abs pressure and sub cooled to 4.cm2 0. : 36oC : : 12. : : : : 1240 kg 1690 kg 1465 kg 2 Nos of 100% each 50 Nm3/hr.3oC 24.57 T/hr 2 Nos.4 mm Hqabs Discharge pressure Cooling water inlet temperature For 1 above For 2 above Design TTD (Difference of saturation temperature cooling water inlet temperature. of Blowers Blower rating Gland Steam Condenser Parameter (Design Temperature) Shell side Tube side Hydraulic test pressure (Shell side) Weights Empty Flooded Operating Vacuum Raising System conditions with pump operating at saturated in take condition of 25. 85 Nm3/hr.5oC : 1.0 KW max.21 Kg.17oC below temperature corresponding to absolute suction pressure Capacity as above but absolute suction pressure 50.GLAND STEAM CONDENSER SPECIFICATIONS Pressure drop a cross gland steam condenser Condensate side Steam side Capacity of gland steam condenser No.033 Ksc abs. Capacity of Vacuum pumps in free dry air at Standard : KORBA SIMULATOR 177 . : : : Design Value 350oC 100Oc 60 kg/cm2 : : : : : 0.
0. 155 kW.4 mm Hq abs 80 kW 14 mins.OBL 4 200 mm NB : : : : : : 120 kW 80 kW 92 kW 0.82 Squirrel cage. 50 Hz.4 kV.9 m/sec : : 51 mm Hq abs 30 mm. Pump model No. induction motor.5oF under cooling Inlet pressure Power at motor terminal box at 25. Hq. 3 phase 590 rpm 280 Amps 0.0 KSC (g) 2120 m3 : : One 21.Blank off pressure with CW temperature 36oC at Pump suction Ejector suction 36oC No of stages Pump rated speed Power required (at pump) Maximum As per condition 1 As per condition 2 Sealing water pressure Cooling water pressure Volume of condenser steam space to be evacuated Pump detail.4 mm abs Pump running time to evacuate initial condenser volume Motor Standard Continuous rating Rated speed Full load current Power factor at rated load Type : : : : : : : : 25. : : 2BE 1 353 . Abs 65 mm Hq abs Minimum suction pressure at pump inlet (allowed) at : KORBA SIMULATOR 178 .8 mm Hq abs and water vapour to saturate : in addition to 7. 85 Nm3/hr.2 KSC (g) 6. Suction and discharge size Heat Exchanger Capacity at 50.
KORBA SIMULATOR 179 CONDENSER COOLING WATER SYSTEM .
Pressure pressure Capacity as above but absolute suction pressure : 50.5OC 13.033 KG/Cm2 abs. temperature corresponding to absolute suction Design TTD (Difference of saturation temp . : 1.4 mm of Hg abs. 120 KW 80 KW 92 KW 75 Nm3 /hr.9OC 65 mm of Hg abs.9 m/sec.17OC at standard intake conditions of 25. 32 Nm3 /hr. Each of 100% cap.4 mm of HG abs Discharge pressure Cooling water inlet temperature For conditions 2 above For conditions 3 above : : 12. In place of 25.3OC 24. 0. For each unit of 500 MW.cooling : water inlet temperatur Minimum suction pressure at pump inlet (allowed) : at 36OC cooling water temperature Number of stages Pump rated speed Rotor /vane tip speed Power required (at pump) Maximum As per condition 2 above As per condition 3 above Cooling water required Sealing water flow (closed circuit) Sealing water pressure Cooling water pressure : : : : : : : : : : one 590 rpm 21.2 KG/Cm2 (g) 6. and sub cooled to below 50 Nm3 /hr.VACUUM PUMP SPECIFICATION OF VACUUM PUMP NO. 85 Nm3 /hr. Capacity of vacuum pumps in free dry air at : standard conditions with pump operating 4.8 mm of hg abs.0 KG/Cm2 (g) KORBA SIMULATOR 180 . OF PUMPS : : 2 Nos.
saturate in addition to 7.82 Squirrel motor. 0. 25.8x3810 150 mm 1600 litres. 85 Nm3 /hr. which penetrates into the condenser of power station. 3 Phase.5OF under cooling Inlet pressure Power at motor terminal box at 25. And water vapour to : : : Pump running time to evacuate initial condenser : : : : : : DESCRIPTION OF THE VACUUM PUMP ELMO-F Vacuum pumps are the modern discovery for deaerating steam turbine condensers in to-days power stations. 2BE 1 353 . Abs.4KV. cage. reduces its efficiency. KORBA SIMULATOR 181 . Pump model No. Vacuum pumps are used • • To extract this air before the condenser is put into operation (hogging operation) To evacuate continuously the leakage air which flows into the condenser during holding operation in order to permit good heat transfer and thus optimum condenser pressure is maintained.4 mm abs volume Motor standard continuous rating : Rated speed Full load current Power factor at rated load Type : 2120 M3.Volume of condenser steam space to be evacuated Pump details. The air.OBL 4 Suction and discharge size Heat exchanger Tube size ODX thickness x length in mm Air ejector size Separator size Guaranteed performance.8 of Hg abs. 155KW. : : : : : 200 mm NB 9. 590 rpm 280 amps.5x0. 80KW 14 mins. 0. 50 Hz.4 mm of Hg. induction Capacity at 50.
The cooling of this operating water is undertaken in the heat exchanger. On discharge side. acids etc. The liquid recedes from the hub of the rotor and the gas being pumped is drawn through the suction port. The operating water is heated by the steam. KORBA SIMULATOR 182 . There is. suitable clearances and automatic control of the required operating liquid flow. ELMO-F liquid vacuum pumps are the obvious choice for our modern power plants. the rotor. The operating liquid supplied at atmospheric pressure and the quantity is controlled automatically internally. which has been drawn. the ring of liquid approaches the hub again and discharges the compressed gas through the discharge port. The rotation of the rotor causes the working liquid in the casing to form a ring which rotates with the rotor.Three types of vacuum pump systems are most frequently used now a day in power plants. The rotor of the vacuum pump is arranged off-centre in the casing. practically no wear during continuous operation and the pumps require little maintenance. In all 500 MW. This results in a very high specific suction capacity at low power demand. in the condensing and by compression process. Thus liquid ring ELMO-F vacuum pump comes out to be cheapest installation for evacuating the condenser. Part of this water is discharged with the compressed medium and is separated from the air in a separator attached to the pump and led-off. the steam portion which has been drawn in. the flat port plates. The pump material is selected according to the plant conditions. condenses in the operating water. This water must be replaced with fresh and cool water. The comparatively cold operating water from heat exchanger is drawn in by the ELMO-F vacuum pump at the rotor hub and thus seals the gap between the non-contact rotor and the flat port plates. which rotates in the casing without contact. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION & DESIGN FEATURES In vacuum pump gas flow enters the compression chamber from both sides(double flow system). Thermal loads. Because of their high reliability. Water jet vacuum pumps 2. The working fluid is normally water but in special cases solvents. therefore. The ELMO-F vacuum pump is popularly known as ‘Energy Saver’ with ELMO-F vacuum pumps. ELMO-F liquid ring vacuum pumps. any back pressure and bubble of water on the suction side have no detrimental effect due to the single stage design.These are 1. may be used. Single stage ELMO-F liquid ring vacuum pumps have only one moving part. the ELMO-F liquid ring vacuum pumps are used to evacuate steam turbine condensers. Steam jet vacuum pumps 3. flexibility and lowest operating cost..
The butterfly valve (19 a) remains closed. The typical vacuum pump casing is elliptical. The vacuum pump serves this purpose. compared to when dry air is being extracted. Power requirement do not increase. the air must be extracted (Hogging operation) and also during actual operation (holding operation). Major studies on ELMO-F vacuum pumps reveal that condensing effect depends substantially on how the operating liquid is supplied and the design of the impeller. The air sucking capacity of vacuum pump is a function of suction pressure and the mixture of sub cooling. Hogging operation 2. It is clear that the size of the pump is affected significantly by the sub cooling and the suction pressure for which it is designed. results in the water vapour condensing in the vacuum pump. reduces its efficiency. The given mixture subcooling. The air. during holding operations. The rotor is normally sealed with readjustable stuffing box packing and the sealing sections are fitted with replaceable wearing sleeves. Hence.The direct contact between the cooling liquid ring and the water vapour/air mixture being compressed. The air ejector is idle. which penetrates into the condenser of a power station. Again leakage air mass flow depends on the condenser steam mass flow at rated load. Before the condenser is put into operation. The size of the vacuum pump in condenser operation is determined by: 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 183 . The required suction pressure 3. Holding operation HOGGING OPERATION In hogging operation both vacuum pumps operate in parallel and air extracted from the condenser into the suction pipe of both the vacuum pump units via the butterfly valve (16 a & 16 b). size of the vacuum pump is determined after giving due considerations to all these above factors. This condensation increases the suction capacity of the ELMOF pump considerably. Vacuum pump works under two modes 1. The designed leakage air mass flow 2.
Air leakage measurements can only be taken during holding operation. The separator is provide with a water level indicator (23). KORBA SIMULATOR 184 . the delivered ISKAMATIC will decide whether the operation with or without air ejector is favourable. feed regulator (22 a ) with bypass valve (24 b). Under special conditions such as • low partial load • • fouled heat exchanger (13) unexpected high pressure loss in the suction piping from condenser to vacuum pump. To measure air leakages the valve (18 c) must be closed. and flow meter (20 b) with shut off valve (20 a). The separated liquid is recirculated to the vacuum pump through a heat exchanger (13) in which the waste heat is removed. overflow regulator (22b). The check valve (18 c) is equipped with a hand lever to keep the valve disk closed during air leakage measurement. drain valve (24 a). At operation without air ejector (2) the air is extracted from the condenser to the vacuum pump directly via the butterfly valves (16 a and 16 b).unit.The Vacuum pump can achive a suction pressure of approximately 10mbar withan air ejector with improved capacity. During air leakage measurement valve (20 a) must be open. Together with part of the working fluid.The suction pressure is indicated on the vacuum gauge (1 b). At operation with air ejector (2) on signal from Iskamatic the butterfly valve (19 a) will be opened and the bypass valve (16 b) will be closed. The suction capacity can be improved with the air ejector (2) installed upstream. During start up and hogging operation it is important that valve (18 c) is open. Based on the measured values of the pressure transmitter PT (1Z) and the resistance thermometer TE (45). the air is passed via the wet pressure line (17) to the separator (8) where the liquid is mechanically separated form the air. is reached. The air thus flows through flow meter (20 b). Hogging operation ends when a suction pressure of about 120 mbar abs. Operating air flows to the air ejector (2) via pipe (19) and air from the condenser flows to the vacuum pump via butterfly valve (16 a) and air ejector (2) making the air ejector operative. The air leaves the unit at atmospheric pressure via check valve (18 c) at discharge connection. The function of the pressure switch (47) is the cutting in/out of the standby . HOLDING OPERATION In holding operation only one vacuum pump remains in operation shutting down of the standby unit.
AUTOMATIC CONTROL FOR AIR EJECTOR OPERATION (ISKAMATIC) The automatic control is cutting in/out the air ejector. PD is increasing the air ejector will be cut off. The shut-off valve (24 a) is used for complete draining of the separator (8). The operating liquid is required to make up the liquid ring in the pump. The overflow regulator (22 b) drains off excess water through the pipe (24). By monitoring the temperature of the water ring and the suction pressure. the feed regulator (22 a) supplies fresh water to the set into the separator and the pump and continues to do so until the desired level is attained. then fed to the heat exchanger (13) and after cooling returned to the pump through pipe (28). By hooking up the fresh water supply with dirt trap (22 h). The pressure switch (47 a) is installed to cut in/out the air ejector (2) in case of ISKAMATIC failure. Will the actual suction pressure. The liquid level in the separator is shown by the water level indicator (23). The heat due to compression and also the heat resulting from condensation of the vapour drawn in with the air are thereby drawn off from operation liquid and dissipated. when a difference pressure of 30 mbar between condenser and pumpside is reached.pressure switch (47 b) is to open the system inlet valve (16 a). Line (28) is provide with temperature indicator (42) to monitor the operating liquid temperature and the Vacuum pump is provided with pressure indicator (48) to monitor the operating liquid pressure. The cooling water inlet to the heat exchanger (13) is equipped with a duplex filter (32f). KORBA SIMULATOR 185 . It is drawn out of the separator (8) via pipe (26). the ISKAMATIC will decide whether the operation with or without air ejector is favourable. This pressure will be compared with the actual operating pressure PD. The pressure P limit for an operating pressure range without problems will be calculated by means of the recorded water ring temperature.The function of the difference . the moment P limit and a given hysteresis is passed. The typical characteristic line of suction pressure and water ring temperature has been given in the attached sheet. The heat exchanger (13) is completely drained through the shut -off valve (24 e) and the pump through shut off valve (241). recorded by an absolute pressure transmitter fall short of the tolerable pressure at the actual water ring temperature a signal generated by the automatic control will be utilised to cut in the air ejector.
) in ECW system. The ECW being DM water the choking problem is eliminated. The seal water temperature is maintained 3-5OC less as cooling media flow increased due to high pressure (5-7 kg/cm sq. In addition to this. • Clogging of heat exchanger tubes. KORBA SIMULATOR 186 . When condenser pressure is < 120 mbar then standby pump stops. invariably in summer season. the seal water temperature was maintaining at very high value (45-50 deg.PD PD < P limit < + P hysteresis ejector ON ejector OFF HOGGING AND HOLDING LOGIC • • • • When both pumps are ON and condenser pressure > 200 mbar then Hogging operation. As korba is located in the tropical zone. Thus. the CW temperature in summer seasons is maintained high. When standby pump is off then holding operation with one pump. the cooling water for the surface heat exchangers was raw cooling water taken from ARCW pump discharge. The equipment cooling water after being cooled in plate heat exchangers is used for cooling the seal water in heat exchanger of vacuum pump. the other problems faced due to this raw cooling water were • frequent choking raw water duplex filters. the cooling media for surface heat exchangers was changed to equipment cooling water (DM water) from raw cooling water. seal water temperature problem. MODIFICATION IN THE VACUUM PUMP AT KSTPS In the original package unit. When holding operation is going on with one pump and condenser pressure > 200 mbar or running pump has tripped then standby pump takes auto start. Due to these problems performance of liquid ring vacuum pump was getting deteriorated frequently. C). Hence.
KORBA SIMULATOR 187 VACUUM PUMP FLOW DIAGRAM .
AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF AIR EJECTOR OPERATION KORBA SIMULATOR 188 .
HP AND LP BYPASS SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 189 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 190 .
The M.P. Parallel operation with turbine on load rejection. Steam is Bypassed from main steam line to cold reheat line through HP-Bypass and from hot reheat line to condenser through LP Bypass. KORBA SIMULATOR 191 .1 and BPE -2 combined with valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuators. • • • • The HP-Bypass system consists of two parallel branches that divert steam from the M. of pressure reducing valves BP-1 and BP-2 combined with valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuator. Raising of steam parameters to a level acceptable for T. Turbine loading while steam flow gets transferred to the turbine.S.P. line to C. below 345OC. The steam is de-superheated in order to keep the steam temperatures in cold reheat line within limits.HP/LP BYPASS SYSTEMS H.R. The spray water is available from the BFP discharge line.Bypass station is maintained by 2 nos.G. there is also one no. Allowing boiler operation following turbine trip-out provided boiler load is less than 60 %.H. Bypass system in co-ordination with LP-Bypass enables boiler operation and loading independent of the turbine. Preventing safety valves opening at raised steam pressures. line. at a relatively faster rate than otherwise is possible. pressure ahead of the turbine is maintained by two nos. spray water pressure control valve combined with the valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuator. The steam temperature downstream of the HP . The HP Bypass valve can handle a maximum of 60 % of the full load turbine steam flow. The possible phases of operation of HP Bypass station can broadly be classified as follows: • • Boiler start-up with TG set on Barring Gear . The steam pressure on the valve upstream side can be maintained at the desired level. This allows quick raising of steam parameters to a level acceptable to turbine for rolling during start up. of spray water temperatures control valves BPE.S. rolling. BYPASS SYSTEM The H.
KORBA SIMULATOR 192 HP BYPASS SYSTEM .
which is controlled from an analogue-positioning amplifier or from a manual desk control. An intermediate yoke connects this cylinder with the valve. A safety relief valve protects the system against over pressure. and functions as follows: An electric motor driven axial-piston oil pump sucks the hydraulic fluid through a suction strainer and pumps it through a pressure filter and via a non-return valve into the accumulator. KORBA SIMULATOR 193 . SERVOVALVE The two stage servo valve actuated by the torque motor. The accumulator supplies the system with pressurised oil and covers all peak supply requirement. From the supply manifold the oil is fed through the pipework and the 3-micron pressure filters to the appropriate control valves and the actuators. The accumulator is of the bladder type and consists of a steel pressure vessel containing a nitrogen filled rubber bladder. From the accumulator the oil is fed through the supply manifold with pressure reducing valve and the pressure is set and controlled. The pressure switch monitors the oil pressure in the accumulator and provides the signals to switch on the oil pump motor. The torque motor moves the control fork (of the servovalve) and operates the pilot stage (1 st stage). which controls the position of the control piston (2 nd stage). A mechanical override acting directly on the control piston permits local manual operation of the valve. A feedback transmitter unit is mounted onto the coupling yoke and is connected to the valve stem by a linkage system. It closes off both ports to the actuator if electrically deenergised or with insufficient oil pressure. which separates the oil from the gas.HP BYPASS SYSTEM HYDRAULICS Oil Supply Unit The oil supply unit provides the hydraulic actuation energy for the complete actuating system. and holds the piston of the actuator (disregarding some leakage drift) in its last position. The oil pump therefore. and a solid coupling connects the valve stem with the piston rod. BLOCKING UNIT The electro hydraulically pilot-operated blocking unit is mounted between the servo valve and the actuator. A mechanical override on the blocking unit permits also local manual deblocking. is sized only for the mean supply requirement and it is switched off when the accumulator is fully charged. ACTUATOR The actuator consists of a double acting cylinder with piston and piston rod.
HP BYPASS: ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 194 .
Operating gas Bladder material Available Oil Pressure The controlled system pressure 25 to 120 bar (set with the pressure reducing valve) The max.on Pump motor .TECHNICAL DATA Oil Pump Supply capacity Speed Motor (Standard Motor) Nominal power Voltage Frequency Phase No load rpm Oil Tank Oil tank volume Useable volume Hydraulic Accumulator (Standard) Nominal volume Pressure rating approx.off Pressure too low Pressure too high 50 to 180 bar 10 200 15OC 65OC Nitrogen only Perbunan (synthetic rubber) 30 Litre Bars 45 20 70 50 Litre Litre 4 380 50 3 1500 7. Ambient min. Ambient max. approx. oil pressure (limited with the pressure relief Value) Pressure Switch 4 micro-switches for the set points Pump motor .5 380 50 3 1500 Rpm KW V Hz OV 16 12 1500 OV32 24 1500 UNIT l/min Rpm KORBA SIMULATOR 195 .
if taken from CRH. to retain the boiler under fire in case of turbine load rejections and to follow boiler control system during certain operation. This will result in opening of the valves. Depending upon the initial pressure condition at the time of boiler firing the pressure ahead of Bypass valve minus a bias pressure. The temperature set point can be adjusted from UCB.25 Amp at 250 V AC 0. The steam temperatures at the downstream of valves are automatically controlled to the given set value. Before admission of steam into turbine. Consequent upon steam admission in the turbine. the set point needs to be manipulated in the same manner to allow flow sufficient through R. The pressure set point can be adjusted from UCB. further loading of the set can be achieved by increasing the firing rate. The process shall continue till the set pressure up stream is reached.H. shall be possible till the maximum flow capability of the valve is reached at any particular pressure and temperature at upstream. With this. the HP Bypass shall be set to maintain the relevant steam pressure ahead of valves plus a bias pressure. the HP Bypass station would automatically open and balance the discrepancy between steam generation and consumption acting out of load rejection under normal operation of the unit. As the firing rate increases. The pressure controller would then maintain the set pressure by allowing a flow matching with the steam flow. adequate steam in CRH for auxiliary steam consumers. This would result in proportional closing of Bypass valve during pressure controller action. Upon reaching the target steam parameter for turbine rolling.Electrical Rating 20 Amp at 488 V AC 10 Amp at 125 V AC 0. After this. This however.5 Amp at 125 V AC MODE OF OPERATION HP Bypass system is intended to ensure reheater protection. the Bypass set point shall be raised to live steam pressure plus a bias pressure of 2-5 ata. the boiler firing rate will be maintained at the level. The operation of the HP Bypass station is manipulated by the pressure and temperature set points and is independent of LP Bypass operation. The control system is designed to maintain the steam pressure ahead of Bypass valve to the given set value. The control loop for the steam temperature at downstream of HP Bypass valve can be operated by modulating set point as required for different mode of start-ups governed by boiler/turbine characteristic as well as warm-up requirements of steam pipings. the pressure ahead of Bypass valve would tend to fall in view of constant firing rate. minimum superheater safety valve lifting under emergency conditions. Thereafter. KORBA SIMULATOR 196 .
unit it is balanced by the BPE valve position feed back until it is balanced by the BPE valve position feed back signal. The temperature measuring signal from transmitters is compared at the PI controllers with the common temperature set point. after passing through PI controller produces the valve position demand signal.CONTROLS AND INTERLOCKS PRESSURE CONTROL The signal for the HP Bypass station is sensed from the main steam and converted to proportional current signal by transmitters. The temperature deviation. In order to ensure proper spray cooling on BP-1 and BP-2 under different steam flow rates the spray water control valves BPE-1 and BPE-2 are reset to a constant pressure feed water supply through the feed water pressure regulating valve BD. TEMPERATURE CONTROL The control positioners for the Bypass spray temperature valves are designed in the same way as those for the HP Bypass valves. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER (BPE VALVES) & POSITIONING LOOPS The purpose of this controller is to reduce the HP Bypass steam temperature by injecting water into the BP valves. The valve position and the control deviation are indicated on the desk. independent of the temperature signal. from the position transmitter fitted on the actuator. Manual operation of the Bypass spray water temperature valve is effected by means of push button modules. PI action controllers drive hydraulic actuators to move the valves to maintain the steam temperature downstream of the BP valve at the preselected value. Thus. a certain amount of water is injected during the opening of the Bypass valve. To off-set the time delay of temperature measurement and to achieve favourable conditions when reaching on the spray water cooling system (rapid adjustment to temperature input of the injection value controller by the associated Bypass valves positioning monitor. The electro-hydraulic actuators make it possible to attain short positioning time for the spray water temperature control valves and then allow the temperature control to intervene fast enough in the event of quick opening of the HP Bypass valves. which drives the proportional controller of the positioning loop. In addition PI controllers are also connected upto the control positioners. in accordance with the reheater inlet temperature. KORBA SIMULATOR 197 . The actual pressure is displayed at the desk by indicators. According to particular control deviation the PI controller forms a rated signal for the control positioners of the associated temperature valves. The set point can be varied from the desk by a push button module and is indicated on the console itself.
TEMPERATURE HIGH An alarm is given when the attemperated steam temperature rises above a pre-set limit. This signal drives the summing amplifier of the positioning loop until it is balanced by the BD valve position feedback signal coming from the position transmitter. to counteract the measurement lag associated with temperature measurement. But the controllers of these loops are put on Auto only when the actual temperature is greater than an adjusted value. The first one is proportional to the BP valve position. KORBA SIMULATOR 198 . it serves to maintain the spray water pressure at a constant value to achieve favourable conditions for injection. Secondly. This will ensure immediate opening of the spray valve as the BP valve opens. The resultant control deviation is fed to a PI controller which produces valve position demand signal. an alarm is given and the BP control will be put on manual. THERMOCOUPLE BREAKAGE If the thermocouple breakage is detected in the transmitter. SPRAY WATER PRESSURE CONTROLLER. BPE AUTO INTERLOCK As the BP valves start to open. the BD valve serves as an isolating valve when the BP valves are closed to eliminate any dribbling of spray water into the BP valves. The downstream pressure signal is compared at the input of the controller with the “desired value” signal coming from the set point formation. the other one is a fixed value which is given as soon as the fast opening device of the corresponding BP valve is activated. also putting it on manual. BD VALVE The purpose of this controller is two fold. First. to protect the condenser. TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH If the temperature rises still further and exceeds the set value.OVERRIDES AND INTERLOCKS BPE OPENING SIGNALS Two anticipatory signals are given to the P part of the PI-P temperature controller. an auto signal is given to the BPE positioning loops. a closing override will be given to the BP control.
the BP controller will transfer itself from AUTO to MANUAL. The following will activate the ‘Fast Opening’ Signal :1. This is to ensure correct attemperation when BP valves start opening. the control of spray water pressure control valves and temperature control valves BPE1 & BPE 2 shall be changed to ‘AUTO’ mode irrespective of their initial conditions. 3. So it can be summarised as follows : 1. Depressing of the ‘FAST OPEN’ push button from UGB. 4. Generator breaker open.P. The controls for LP-BYPASS system are essentially a combination of electrical and hydraulic system. HP Bypass valve BP-1 opening less than 2 % will automatically close the spray water pressure control valve (BD valve). Turbine load shedding relay operated 3. This is to prevent any spray water from entering the system. If the steam temperature downstream of the BP valves becomes 380 deg C. Pressure controller deviation more (+) 10 %. In this case. AUTO INTERLOCK : When the BD valve closing override is removed.OVERRIDES AND INTERLOCKS CLOSING OVERRIDES : this override is given when the BP valves are closed (below 2 %) and the PI output is less than 2 %. If BP valves position drops 2 % open. It opening of either of the Bypass valves BP-1 or BP-2 is above 2 %. BYPASS SYSTEM Low pressure Bypass system enables to establish an alternative pass for dumping the steam from reheater outlet directly into condenser at suitable steam parameters. The LP KORBA SIMULATOR 199 . it will receive an auto close command to ensure positive shut-off. a signal is sent to put the controller on Auto. OPENING SIGNALS : Anticipation signals proportional to BP valve positions are given to P part of the PI-P controller. The control of LP Bypass system is hooked up by the same control which is used for turbine governing system. 4. 2. 2. This is to ensure immediate opening of the BD valve when BP valves start opening. Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuators and the electrical system. L. the closing signal for these valves are initiated accompanied with an alarm.
Condenser temperature protection (CTP) KORBA SIMULATOR 200 . Actuation of reheat safety valves. Tracking unit. four injection water valves are provided for desuperheating purpose. two steam pressure control valves. the LP Bypass stop and control valves are combined in a common body. Automatic control interface.Bypass valves are two in number. The double shut-off arrangement separates the reheater from the condenser during normal operation. In addition to these. LP BYPASS SYSTEM THE LP TURBINE BYPASS CONTROLLER (LPB) LPB COMPRISES OF : • • • • • • Pressure control loop. Valve position control loop. This injection water is taken from the discharge of the condensate extraction pumps.
Set point derivation equipment. The LPB can be transferred in the control room from governing to manual control by depressing the “controller on/off” push button. the lift of the LP turbine Bypass control valves is governed by the position of the servopistion in the electrohydrualic converter. The variable setpoint is obtained with the aid of a pressure transducer upstream of the HP blading (referred to as wheel chamber pressure).PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP The pressure control loop consists of : 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 201 . During start-up and shut-down the variable setpoint is suppressed by a fixed setpoint. The fixed setpoint can be adjusted between 0 and 120 % of the maximum reheat pressure from the control room. A PI action pressure controller acts on the deviation between the actual pressure and the higher of the variable and fixed setpoint signals. It is thus possible to adjust the valves directly by depressing the OPEN and CLOSE push buttons. 2. VALVE POSITION CONTROL LOOP The pressure controller output signal acts as the setpoint signal for the connected valve lift controller. Pressure controller. One is the fixed set point and the other is the variable setpoint. This subordination improves both the stability and the dynamic response of the control system as a whole. There is also automatic transfer from governing to manual control during certain fault conditions to prevent incorrect control actions. Actual pressure derivation equipment. The valve lift controller acts as a slave controller for the pressure control loop. The spray valves and the LP Bypass valves are actuated in accordance with pre-set characteristics. The input signal for the valve lift controller is the deviation between the actual valve lift and the valve lift setpoint received from the pressure controller. 3. Actual pressure is obtained by means of a pressure transducer in the reheater outlet (hot reheat line). This provides a load dependent setpoint and hence reflects the dependence of the actual pressure signal on steam flow. The variable setpoint is limited to an upper value by an adjustable limiting function which is kept well below the response pressure of the reheat safety values. Two pressure setpoints are derived for the LPB and are gated in an auctioneer.
However. zero deviation between the pressure setpoint and the actual pressure would be required for bumpless transfer from manual control to automatic governing.LP BYPASS CONTROLLER TRACKING UNIT Continuous tracking of the controlling variable which is not in action is provided to ensure bumpless transfer between control system and manual at all times. the manual setpoint adjuster is automatically tracked to the controller output signal. In the “manual mode” the valve lift controller signal is automatically tracked to the manual setpoint. KORBA SIMULATOR 202 . In the “automatic governing” mode. If the transfer is made in spite of an existing control deviation. which repositions the control valves as appropriate. this is compensated subsequently by the controller.
When ACI is switched on. The fixed set point of +12 bar is reached at unit shut down also. The variable setpoint takes over from the fixed setpoint through the auctioneer and thus governs the reheat pressure setpoint. This is referred to as “Hold process”. The fixed setpoint is thus maintained at + 12 bars. +3 bar above the actual pressure as soon as the “Light up” signal is given at the start up sequence. In this manner. A minimum aperture of 25 % is applied which causes the desuperheating spray. This is to ensure minimum flow through reheater. Bypass stop and control valves to be opened during start-up. 35 % is reached. To achieve a rapid pressure build-up.LPBP EHC POSITION Vs VARIOUS VALVE OPENING AUTOMATIC CONTROL INTERFACE This acts as a centralised control for the proper operation of the LP Bypass controller. the Bypass valves are retained at this aperture till the actual reheat pressure crosses + 12 bars. the ACI for the fixed setpoint is switched off. In this process the fixed setpoint is automatically tracked to the actual pressure (tracking mode). When a Bypass valve lift of approx. the fixed pressure setpoint is set to a value of approx. Control is transferred to automatic governing only when the reheat pressure is above + 12 bars. sufficient flow through KORBA SIMULATOR 203 .
If the steam pressure downstream of LP Bypass valves is greater than 19 kg/cm2. Protective Closing Of Bypass System (Condenser Back-Up Protection) The LP Bypass valves will close automatically under the following normal conditions to prevent damage to the condenser.4 kg/cm2 abs) 3. Condenser vacuum is low (0. as also optimum raising of the reheat pressure is achieved. KORBA SIMULATOR 204 .Thermocouples output temperature signals are passed to an interlock circuit which locks out the LP turbine Bypass station.reheater is ensured at all time. Spray water pressure is low (10 kg/cm2 or both condensate pumps off). 4. 2. Condenser wall temperature is high (90OC). LP BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM CONDENSER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION The purpose of the condenser temperature protection is to protect the condenser from excessively high steam inlet temperatures. 1.
3. 1. thereby opening them. Control fluid a1. for solenoids SV-1 and SV-2 have to be depressed to reset the TRIP command. This increases the signal oil pressure in KA02 (follow-up pistons). its jet pipe swings to right and its piston KA07 moves to upper position.back mechanism stabilises the amplifier piston for a given voltage change. releasing LPSVs and LPCVs to open. KORBA SIMULATOR 205 . due to rising oil pressure in follow-up pistons KA02 (assuming piston KA07 of Bypass limiting regulator is in upper position). 5. 4. Control fluid above control piston of differential pressure relay ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTER FOR LP BYPASS LP Bypass stop valves (MAN 11+12 AA001) open up with a slight time delay after injection valves are opened. A feed . LP Bypass control valves (MAN 11 + 12 AA002) open up due to hydraulic feed back between actuator pistons and pilot values . the ‘RESET Bypass TRIP’ . In case of condensate water pressure low and condenser pressure high the reverse action takes place and the spring of KA02 is detensioned to such an extent that LP Bypass valves are unable to open. 2. 6. In case of condenser wall temperature protection operating. Electric LP bypass governor Plunger coil measuring system Jet pipe Adjusting spring Adjusting screw Jet pipe regulator a. LP Bypass limiting regulator (LPLR) has priority over (EHC).High exhaust hood temperature will automatically switch on the exhaust hood spray water.RB. The sleeves (KA04) of followup piston valves (KA02/KA03) also move down increasing the signal oil pressure to slide valve of water injection valves (MAN 11+12 AA003). Control fluid under control piston of differential pressure relay a2. As soon as condensate at required pressure is available with sufficient vacuum in condenser. With increasing signal voltage the jet pipe of the converter moves towards right and the amplifier piston (KA-08) moves down. LP BYPASS CONTROL (HYDRAULIC) Due to difference between set and actual HRH pressure the electro-hydraulic LP Bypass governor (EHG) generates a proportional signal voltage in the moving coil of the converter (EHC). in the beginning of control operation.
6. Jet pipe Jet pipe regulator Adjusting spring Adjusting screw Corrugated measuring system Adjusting spring Corrugated measuring Corrugated measuring Adjusting spring a. HIGH CONDENSER WALL TEMPERATURE At a pre-set condenser wall temperature the two thermocouples mounted in steam dome opposite to bypass steam inlet transmit a switching pulse to the associated solenoid valves (MAX53AA021+022). 9. 2. Bypass operation is restored in the reverse sequence when injection water pressure becomes normal. 5. LOW INJECTION WATER PRESSURE A pressure switch (MAN 01AA011) is installed in the signal oil line from KA02 to spool valves KA02 and KA05 of LPBypass valves. the valve of the safety device moves downwards due to increasing pressure above it. If the injection water pressure drops below a pre-set value. Bypass operation is restored in reverse sequence when the pre-set vacuum has built up. Control fluidunder control piston of limit pressure amplifier k. the valve of the pressure switch (MAN 01AA011) moves down. Condensate from hydraulic pressure switch of injection water pressure monitor lI.1. The solenoid values block off the depressive KORBA SIMULATOR 206 . blocking off the signal oil line and depressuring the oil thereby closing the LP Bypass valves due to low condensate water pressure. Control fluid a1. The valve thus block off the signal oil thereby closing the LP Bypass stop and control valves. Vacuum signal from bypass steam piping behind bypass control valve LP BYAPSS LIMITING REGULATOR PROTECTION DEVICES LOW VACUUM SAFETY DEVICE A low vacuum safety device (MAG 01 AA016) is installed on the signal oil line from follow-up piston KA02 to Bypass valve’s pilots and if vacuum drops below a pre-set value. As vacuum increases. 7. Control fluid above control piston of limit pressure amplifier a2. 8. 4. to protect the condenser in the event of water injection failing. 3.
Capnut Adjusting csrew Cover Compression spring Diaphragm Valve Valve sleeve Casting Can Lever a Bypass signal oil from converter a1 Signal oil to bypass valve c Oil drain l Vacuum from condenser LOW VACUUM SAFETY DEVICE KORBA SIMULATOR 207 . 5. solenoid valve (MAX53AA041) & slide valve when the steam pressure upstream at the expansion orifice exceeds value corresponding to 45 % of maximum Bypass flow. This arrangement opens the injection valves (MAN11+12 AA004) via the pressure switch (MAN01CP001).signal oil and close bypass valves in the event of high condenser wall temperatures. 10. 3. 2. 4. 1. the injection water demanded from CEPs is staggered in two stages. 6. 8. TWO STAGE WATER INJECTION To prevent undue overloading of condensate pumps under normal shut-down/start-up conditions. 9. 7. The bypass valves can be opened from the control room manually one after the solenoids are manually reset after the temperature become normal.
5. Solenoid 2. Main valve 8. 8. 17. 3. Compression spring 5. 2. 11. 12. Compression spring 7. 10. Compression spring 3. 15. 6. Compression spring 9. 13. 14. 4. Hood Bellos Pushrod Knife edge lever Cam shaft Compression spring Fitted key Shaft Scale Cylindrical pin Nozzle Slide valve Valve bushing Compression spring Bearing bushing Torsion spring Lever a Control oil a1 Control oil a2 Control oil to pilot valve of bypass valve c Return flow l Injection water pressure LOW INJECTION WATER PRESSURE PROTECTION 1. Limit switch for injection a Control oil b Signal oil to Stop and Control valve operator of bypass SV/CV c Drain HIGH CONDENSER WALL TEMPERATURE KORBA SIMULATOR 208 . 16. 9. 7.1. Solenoid 6. Solenoid valve 4.
P. BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM . trip close command will be issued for LP bypass. e) The injection water reaches the expansion orifice and is available for cooling the Bypass steam flowing to the condenser. KORBA SIMULATOR 209 . Remember. the L.P. c) The sleeves of the follow-up pistons connected to the actuator move downwards causing the oil pressure in the following piston to rise. Spray water pressure > 25 Kg/cm2 3. Condenser Vacuum should be > -0. Bypass stop valves also open fully when the oil pressure in the follow-up pistons rises provided the piston of the limit pressure controller is in the upper end position. b) On an increase in voltage.L. 1. if any of the above conditions is not present during LP bypass operation. Following points are to be kept in mind before charging LP bypass. f) After a short delay.P. d) At the beginning of the opening (control) sequence. the jet pipe is deflected to the left (as shown) and the piston of the actuator is moved downwards. g) Next the control valves open to a position depending on the oil pressure as determined by the feed back between servo pistons and pilot valve. Bypass controller (proportional action) controls the plunger-coil arranged on the right side of the converter.MODE OF OPERATION a) The electro-hydraulic L.7 kg/cm2 2. the rising pressure in the follow up piston opens the injection water valves via the pilot valves (iii) and the actuators for the water injection valves. Temperature solenoids should be in reset condition given on the turbine console.
KORBA SIMULATOR 210 .
STEAM TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES KORBA SIMULATOR 211 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 212 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 213 .
286 0.8 32. 0884 Temperature oC 537 537 342.5 LP 84.6 43. Cylinder Exhaust WEIGHT (TONNES) : Rotor Cylinder Assembled Reheat stop & control valve : : : HP 11.5 45 19.57 2.0 10 17 IP 21. 500 MW 536. reheat.79 45 40.42 0. IP 14x2 Nos. Pressure (at) kg/cm2 170 151.P. LP 6x2 Nos.5 428. WEST GERMANY Three Cylinder.8 67.6 86.5 537 342.0 : : : : : : : : : : : KRAFTWERK UNION.1 STEAM PRESSURES & TEMPERATURE (RATED VALUES) Main stop & control valve : KORBA SIMULATOR 214 . Condensing turbine HP 18 Nos.8 188.3 302 197.TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES TURBINE SPECIFICATION OF MAIN TURBINE Make Type No of stages Nominal rating Peak Loading Rated Speed Max/Min Speed Speed exclusion range : : : : : : : : : Initial steam First Stage Pressure HP cylinder exhaust IP stop valve inlet Extraction 6 Extraction 5 Extraction 4 Extraction 3 Extraction 2 Extraction 1 L.76 1.7 MW 3000 rpm 3090/2850 rpm 400 to 2850 rpm.52 7.6 80.
6 22981. Turbine Rear : : : + 30 oC + 30 oC + 30 oC < 0.0 LIMITING VALUES CASING TEMPERATURE (0C) Alarm HP Turbine Exhaust Outer Casing of LP cylinder (SPRAY WATER TO LP CYLINDER MUST BE SWITCHED ON AT 900C) TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (0C) (BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER CASING SECTION) Alarm HP Turbine Middle I.15 ms/cm Machine must be shutdown at + 45 oC + 45 oC + 45 oC : : 480 oC 90 oC Machine must be shutdown at 500 oC 110 oC STEAM PURITY (KWU RECOMMENDED VALUES) Conductivity at 35oC Alkaline method Silica Acid (SiQ2) Total iron (Fe) Total COpper Sodium (Na) : : : : < 0. Turbine Front L.005 mg/kg < 0.010 mg/kg < 0.02 mg/kg : BEARING TEMPERATURES (OC) Alarm Normal operating temperature below 75oC Normal operating temperature above 75oC : 100oC 120oC : 90oC M/C must be shut down at.MOMENT OF INERTIA (KG-M2) Rotor of HP cylinder Rotor of IP cylinder Rotor of LP cylinder : : : 713.P.P.0 2145. 120oC KORBA SIMULATOR 215 .010 mg/kg <0.
VIBRATION (ABSOLUTE VIBRATION) Bearing Housing Nominal Value for alarm Limit value for tripping Limit value for tripping manual DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSIONS H.P. Turbine I.P. Turbine L.P. Turbine CASING H.P. Outer Casing/Barrel : Casing H.P Blade carrier I.P. Casing L.P. Casing SHAFTS H.P. Shaft I.P. Shaft L.P. Shaft MOVING BLADES H.P. Turbine first stage I.P. Turbine stages L. P. Turbine stages FIXED BLADE H.P. Turbine first stage I.P. L.P : : : x 22 Cr MoV 121 x 22 Cr MoV 121/x 20 Cr. MO 13 x 20 Cr 13/x20 Cr MO 13 x 20 Cr 13/x 20 Cr MO 1320Mn5/ x 7 Cr MO 13 H.P. Turbine other stages : : : : x 22 Cr. MoV 121 x 20 Cr. 13/x22 Cr. MoV 121 x 20 Cr. MO 13/ x 20 Cr 30 x 20 Cr. 13 H.P. Turbine other stages : : : : 28 Cr. MoNi 59 30 Cr. MoNiV 511 26 Ni Cr. MoV 145 : : : GS 17 Cr MoV 515 GS 22 MO 4 Outer St. 37 - 2N Inner I-GS 22 MO 4, H II, 15 MO3 GS 17 Cr MoV 515 : : : + 5mm + 8mm + 30mm - 3mm - 2mm - 3mm : : : 35 mic. 45 mic. Shaft 30 microns above normal level 120 microns 200 microns.
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
CASING JOINT BOLTS H.P. Cylindder IP L.P : : : 21 Cr MoV 57 21 Cr MoV 57 St.50/24 Cr. Mo 5
STEAM TURBINE - DESCRIPTION GENERAL 500 MW Turbine at NTPC singrauli is of Kraftwork Union, West Germany design. The turbine is 3 (three) cylinder, reheat, condensing tandem compound, horizontal and single shaft machine. It has got 3 cylinders such as high pressure(HP), intermediate (IP) and low pressure (LP) parts. The HP is a single cylinder 18 stages turbine and IP and LP are double flow cylinders having 14 X 2 and 6 X 2 number of stages respectively. The turbine rotors are rigidly coupled with each other and with generator rotor. HP turbine has throttle control. The steam is admitted through 4 combined stop and control valves and these stop and control valves are 5/6 meters away from turbine. The lines leading from HP turbine exhaust to reheater have got two cold reheat swing check NRVs. The steam from reheater is admitted to IP turbine through 4 combined Stop and Control valves. Two cross-over pipes connect IP and LP cylinder. BLADING The blading of the HP and IP turbine consists of several drum stages and all stages having 50 % reaction. The moving blades of HP,IP and front rows of LP have inverted T roots and are shrouded. The last stages of LP turbine are twisted; drop forged moving blades with fit-tree roots. Highly stressed guide and moving blades of HP and IP are provided with T-root which determine the distance between the blades. BEARINGS The TG limit is mounted on seven (7) bearings. HPT rotor is mounted on two bearings, a double wedged journal bearing at the front and combined journal and thrust bearing adjacent to front IP rotor coupling. IPT and LPT rotors have self-adjusting circular journal bearings. The bearing pedestals of LP are fixed on base plates where as HP front and rear-bearing pedestals are free to move axially.
KORBA SIMULATOR 217
HP TURBINE The HP turbine casing is designed as a barrel-type casing without axial joint. An axially split guide blade carrier is arranged in the barrel-type casing. The barrel type casing remains constant in shape because of rotational symmetry and leak proof during quick changes in temperature (e.g. on start up and shut down, on load change and under high pressure. The space between timer and outer casings is filled with the main steam.
a. TURBINE ROTOR b. OUTER SEAL RING c. BARREL TYPE CASING IP TURBINE
d. GUIDE BLADE CARRIER e. THREADED RING f. CASING COVER
The IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell and double flow construction. Steam from the HP turbine enters the inner casing from top and bottom through two inlet nozzles flanged to the mid section of the outer casing. This arrangement provides
opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensate axial thrust. centre flow prevents the steam inlet temperature IP TURBINE
1. Turbine Rotor 2. Outer Casing Upper Part 3. Outer Casing Lower Part 4. Inner Casing Upper Part
5. Inner Casing Lower Part 6. Extraction Zone 7. Inlet Nozzle
from affecting the support brackets and bearing sections. The inner casing arrangement means that the steam inlet conditions are limited to the inlet section of the inner casing, where as the joint of the outer casing is only subjected to the lower pressure and lower temperature prevailing at the outlet of the inner casing. The joint
flange can thus be kept small and material accumulations reduced to a minimum in the area of the flange. In this way difficulties arising from deformation of a casing with flap joint due to non-uniform temperature rises e.g. on start-up and shut-down, are avoided. LP TURBINE: The LP turbine is of double flow and triple shell welded casing. The outer casing consists of the front and rear walls, the two lateral longitudinal support beams and the upper part. The front and rear walls, as well as the correction areas of the upper part one reinforced by means of the longitudinal beams on the base plates of the foundation, steam admitted to the LP turbine from IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides through steam inlet nozzles before the LP blading. Expansion joints are installed in the steam piping to prevent any undesirable deformation of the casings due to thermal expansion of the steam piping. The inner casing of LP turbine is a double shell construction and consists of the outer port and the inner port. The inner shell is suspended in the outer shell to allow thermal movement and carries the front guide blade rows. The rear guide blade rows of the LPT stage are bolted to the outer shell of the inner casing. The complete inner casing is supported in the LPT outer casing in a manner permitting free radial expansion, concentric with shaft, and axial expansion from a fixed points on LP turbine. FIXED POINTS - CASING AND ROTOR EXPANSION In designing the supports for the turbine on the foundation, attention has been given to the expansion and contraction of the machine during thermal cycling. The fixed points of the turbine casing on the foundation are as follows: The bearing housing between the IP and LP turbines. From this point the IP and HP casings expand towards the front bearing housing of the HP turbine. LP turbine The rear bearing housing of LP turbine. The front baseplate support of each longitudinal beam member of the LP turbine. From these points the members and the LP outer casing bolted to them expand towards the generator. The thrust bearing in the rear bearing casing of HP turbine
1. Outer Casing Upper Part 2. Diffusor, Upper Half 3. Outer Shell, Upper Half 4. Inner Shell Upper Half CASING EXPANSION
5. Inner Shell Lower Half 6. Outer Shell Lower Half 7. Diffusor Lower Half 8. Outer Casing Lower Half
The front bearing housing of the HP and LP turbines can slide on their base plates in an axial direction. Any lateral movement perpendicular to the machine axis is prevented by fitted keys. The bearing housings are connected to the HP and IP turbine casing by guides which ensure that the turbine casings maintain in their central position while at the same time allowing axial movement. Thus the origin of the cumulative expansion of the casings is at the front bearing housing of the LP turbine. The separate casings of the LP turbine are located axially by fitted keys at the front supports of their longitudinal beam members on the baseplates. Free lateral
KORBA SIMULATOR 221
expansion is allowed. The centre guides for these casings are recessed in the foundation crossbeams. There is no restriction on axial movement of the casings. At the rear supports of the longitudinal beam members the casing is free to expand horizontally in any direction. Hence, when there is a temperature rise, the outer casing of the LP turbine expands from its fixed points towards the generator. Differences in
TURBINE ANCHOR POINTS AND EXPANSIONS
1. HP Front Pedestal 2. HP Rear Pedestal 3. LP Front Pedestal 4. LP Rear Pedestal 5. HPT Outer Casing 6. IPT Outer Casing 7. LPT Outer Casing 8. HP Front Pedestal Base Plate 9. HP Rear Pedestal Base Plate 10. LP Front Pedestal Anchor Point
11. LP Rear Pedestal Anchor Point 12. LP Outer Casing Anchor Point 13. HPT Inner Casing 14. IPT Inner Casing 15. LP Inner Outer Casing 16. LP Inner-Inner Casing 17. HP Inner Casing Anchor Point 18. IP Inner Casing Anchor Point 19. LP Inner Outer Casing Anchor Point 20. LP Inner-Inner Casing Anchor Point
EXPANSION OF TURBINE ROTORS DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION Differential expansion between the rotors and casing results from the difference between the rotor expansion originating from the thrust bearing and the casing expansion originating from the rear bearing housing of IP turbine (Bearing No. The rotor and casing of the LP turbine expand towards the generator in a similar manner. Since from this point. Since this bearing housing is free to slide on the baseplate the shafting system moves with it.expansion between the outer casing and the fixed bearing housings to which the housings for the shaft glands are attached are taken by bellows type expansion joints.3 KORBA SIMULATOR 223 . EXPANSION OF TURBINE CASING ROTOR EXPANSION The thrust bearing is incorporated in the front bearing housing of the IP turbine. both the rotor and casing of the HP turbine expand towards the front bearing of the HP turbine.
These measurements are monitored continuously by contactless measurements. This is the case particularly during start-up and in case of major load changes. This means that the maximum differential expansion of the HP and IP turbine occurs at the end furthest from the thrust bearing. The other end of the rope is connected to a rotatable measuring device.4 respectively.3 and pedestal No. IP & LP TURBINE ABSOLUTE EXPANSION Measurement of absolute expansion is carried out both at the front pedestal as well as at the middle-bearing pedestal.housing). When the steam turbine is running relative displacement occurs between the rotor of the turbine and their casing due to their different thermal inertia. which forms magnetic return path for the two sensor coils. The figures below elaborate the location of sensors for measurement differential expansion HP. Differential expansion the rotors and casing of the LP turbine results from the difference between the expansion of the shafting system originating from the thrust bearing and the casing expansion originating from the fixed point point of LP turbine casing on the longitudinal girder. pedestal No. CASING AND ROTOR EXPANSION LOCATION OF DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION SENSORS OF HP. The displacement senser is mounted on the foundation and connected to the casing via a rope. IP & LP turbine. which are fitted in front pedestal. KORBA SIMULATOR 224 .
The rotor blade fastening is of the fir-tree type which engages in milled axial grooves in the rotor and is then secured. The last four stages of the LP turbine have twisted blades. HP & IP BLADING These blades have a 50 % reaction component and both fixed and moving blades have the same profile. Thus the air gap between measuring device and the coil depend on the angle of rotation BLADING In steam turbines. the blades transform the thermal energy into mechanical energy. The fixed blades of the last two stages are hollow. TWISTED BLADES FOR THE IP TURBINE. The opportunity is also taken to carefully check the root fastening of the blades. They are fabricated from sheet steel and slots are provided in the blade surface through which any water passing over the surface of the blades may be drawn away to the condenser. NON-TWISTED BLANDES FOR THE LP TURBINE. with high aero-thermodynamic efficiency having sufficient mechanical strength to with stand the steam forces.The rotating measuring device rotates eccentric to the two sensor coils. which creates different air gaps and thereby different inductances. and hence the designed width of blade passages. Particular care is taken to avoid resonance and to ensure that the natural frequencies of unshrounded free stand rotor blades are compatible with the rotational frequency of the machine. Fixed blades are of the same type as the moving blades with an inverted T-root and integral shroud. A final accurate check is made when the blades have been fitted into the rotor. The blade roots are made of appropriate size to give the required blade spacing. The fixed blades are of the same type as the moving blades with an inverted T-root and integral shroud. Appropriate blade profile. without the necessity for spacer-pieces. they are caulked into position with brass wire. The difference between the circumferential velocity at the rotor blade root and tip is quite considerable and is taken into account by twisting the blade along its length. it is obvious that blading has got direct impact on the efficiency and reliability of turbine. are determined after extensive research. The trailing edge of the blades is very thin inorder to avoid any stall patches and the formation of stream of water. Each rotor blade is milled from a single piece of material complete with inverted T-root and integral shroud. The axial distance between the final stages is kept at KORBA SIMULATOR 225 . After they have been fitted in the rotor grooves.
The setting strips which are caulked into the casing and shaft opposite the blade shrouding are of stainless steel. Great attention is paid at the design stage to achieve a large resonance free range of operation. the blading is skimmed on a lathe. these consists of a series of sealing strips alternatively caulked KORBA SIMULATOR 226 . The complete rings of shrouding on all rotor blades. Various arrangements of tip sealing employing three or four rows of sealing strips are used.optimum value to facilitate the break-up of any water droplets which may still remain. This amount is a loss and inorder to keep it as small as possible it is essential to provide proper sealing at this point. Thus. This will reduce the relative velocity between the drop-lets and the leading edges of the moving blades. Seal strips from the fixed or moving components project into the steps turned on the shrouding. The leading edges of the final stage rotor blades are flame hardened to give protection against erosion. SHAFT GLANDS Labyrinth-type glands seal the shaft where it passes through the casing. In the case of HP and IP turbine. the new ones could be fitted within a short time to restore correct clearances at the next overhaul. The sealing strips are easy to replace. The number of rows of sealings strips chosen depends on the stage pressure and the differential axial expansion between the rotor and the casing at the particulars section of blading involved. When the rotors and guide blade carriers have been completely built. and on guide blades are built up from the individual sections of shrouding which are machined integrally with each blade fitted to butt tightly together. the amount of heat generated by them and transmitted to the rotor or casing in the event of their rubbing shall not be sufficient to cause deformation of the components. The blades are free-standing and have neither lacing wires nor shrouding. This pressure differential between the inlet and outlet sides of the blades also causes steam to flow over the tips of the fixed and moving blades. the steps being machined on integral shrouding. there is a drop in pressure across both the fixed and moving blades. both fixed and moving blades have continuous shrouding in which steps have been turned to produce a labyrinth seal. If contact occurs between the fixed and moving components at any time and the sealing strips wear out. BLADE TIP SEALING In reaction turbine stages. On one hand they are strong enough to with stand the maximum pressure which will exist across them and on the other hand.
bearing cap spherical block. gland steam valve is closed and leakage steam valve is opened. BEARING COUPLING AND TURBINE GEAR In 500 MW turbine generator consists of 3 cylinders e. Pipings are so sized that the leak off steam from front and rear end of HP turbine goes to the condenser through the leakage steam valve. one generator and one exciter and all are coupled to each other by solid couplings. Essentially. IP & LP glands. sealing strips are fitted in the stationary rings only. for initial sealing purpose steam from auxiliary source through the gland steam valve is taken to seal all the HP. JOURNAL BEARINGS The function of the journal bearing is to support the turbine rotor. Each segment is held in position against a shoulder by two coil springs so that a fixed reference for the clearance of the shaft is provided. The rotating part of each component is supported in bearings and the axial position of the shaft is determined by a thurst bearing and there is only one thrust bearing. The leakage of steam and air from the last chambers of each rotor is sucked into a gland steam condenser. The turbine glands are self-seal type beyond approx. The sliding surfaces of this bearing are machined and additional scrapping is neither necessary nor permissible. the affected segments will move away radially.into the shaft and into the stationary rings. The bearing shells are provided with a babbit face. which determines the entire axial position of the turbine generator. Both bearing shells are fixed by means of taper pins and bolted together. while steam from the front and rear ends of IP glands is utilised for sealing the LP glands. 40 % load. The number of sealing strip rings used depends on the pressure drop required. thus proper temperature matching is ensured. White metal journal bearings are used because of high loading capacity. In the case of the LP turbine. During this period the leakage steam valve connecting this header to condenser is kept closed. After approx. The pressure of the steam leaking through the gland is reduced by converting the pressure energy into velocity energy.g. If flexible couplings were used then a thurst bearing was required for each loosely connected shaft. High Pressure. Each ring consists of six or eight segments and is carried in grooves in the casing or inner casing to allow radial movement. the journal bearing consists of the upper and lower shells. In the event of the shaft coming into contact with the strips in the segments. sperical seat and the keys. A possible slight contact between the shaft and the thin strips will generate only a small amount of heat which cannot lead to deformation. which is then dissipated as turbulence as the steam passes through large number of strips. intermediate pressure and low-pressure turbine. 40 % load. The long life of the bearing is due to the KORBA SIMULATOR 227 . reliability and the absence of wear.
since the entire shaft expands away from the thurst bearing. At the same time there is a limit to the length of turbine shaft that can economically be made. since the natural curve of the shaft must be maintained at all times. in this way the differential expansion at the inlet end of the cylinder is minimised. to lift the shaft when starting from rest. in this way the differential expansion of the two cylinders and rotors is minimised. SHAFT ALIGNMENT A long shaft bends naturally under its own weight. THRUST BEARING It provides a positive location for the rotor relative to the casings (bearing no. this not only enables our oil film be established and so prevent wear when starting but it also reduces the starting torque on the barring motor. In 500 MW turbine thurst bearing is situated between the high pressure and intermediate pressure cylinders.fact that when the shaft is rotating at speed. Oil guards and oil throwers prevent oil from passing along the shaft and reaching the glands. the high torque is to be transmitted so the use of flexible couplings become impractical. So rigid couplings are used between the turbine shafts. The continuous supply of lubricating oil is must to flush the bearing remove frictional and conducted heat. The presence of this oil ensures that no metallic contact takes place and consequently no wear occurs. So there is need for couplings to join the individual cylinders (rotors) together to transmit the driving torque to each other and the generator rotor. It revolves about its curved centre line and because of this the positioning of the bearings is vital to ensure that the shaft runs smoothly. On large turbines. with the aid of coupling checks it is possible to align the journal bearings in such a way as to make the entire shaft assembly follow the continuous deflection curve and KORBA SIMULATOR 228 . so that the entire shaft behaves as one continuous rotor. Annular recesses at each side of the bearing collect the side leakage of oil from these recesses the oil drains to the pedestal and flows out through the sight glass boxes. 2 is only thrust bearing) and with stands the unbalanced thrust caused by blade reaction and steam pressure acting on unbalanced areas. COUPLING There is limit to the length of the individual cylinders forming the complete turbine. High pressure jacking oil is admitted through small holes at the bottom of the bearing over come break away torque and prevent dry friction. the majority of the oil is used for this purpose. a continuous high pressure wedge of oil is automatically formed between the white metal and the shaft. The use of solid couplings means that only one thurst bearing is not practicable. This in turn has led to the practice of reversing the high pressure cylinder so that the steam flow away from the thrust bearing.
In 500 MW machines hydraulic turning gear system is provided backed up with manual turning gear. at the same time. Remove cover 2. This oil passes via a check valve into the nozzle box and then into the nozzles which conduct the oil jet in front of the blading. After passing the blading. Another advantage of training gear is that the necessity for suddenly admitting a large flow of steam. the oil drains into the bearing pedestal and flows with the bearing oil into the return flow piping. provide some measure of circulation of the air with in the casings after shut down particularly at the low pressure end. It is therefore of prime importance that whenever a turbine generator is to be started or while it is hot after being shut down. TURNING GEAR Turning Gear is provided to rotate turbines shafts slowly during the pre run up operation and after shut down. 3. Then latch and attach a bar to lever. the uneven heating or cooling would lead to bending between the fixed and moving with possible fouling between the fixed and moving parts. in order to start the turbine from rest is avoided.this measurement is performed by using dial gauges. How to operate Manual Turning Gear : Following steps to be done 1. and this therefore prevents server temperature gradients occurring. MANUAL TURNING GEAR A manual turning gear is provided in addition to the hydraulic turning gear which enables the combined shaft system to be rotated manually in the event of a failure of the normal hydraulic turning gear. After barring is completed return lever to its position and secure the lever by means of KORBA SIMULATOR 229 . the turning gear should be in service. to prevent uneven heating or cooling of the shafts. HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR During turning gear operation. micro meters etc. the shaft system is rotated by a double row blade wheel which is driven by oil provided by the auxiliary oil pump. so contributing to their uniform cooling. The turning gear spread is chosen to ensure satisfactory lubrication of the bearings and. Barring lever will rotate the combined turbine shaft.
latch then replace the cover. The injectors produce pressure at the suction connection to the main oil pump sufficient for all types of operation. which is situated in the bearing. The full . The pressure oil is cooled in the oil coolers and reduced to lubricating oil pressure in the throttle. The oil for the turning gear is also extracted from the pressure oil system. Two injectors aid the suction of the main oil pump. OIL SYSTEM Under normal operating conditions the main oil pump. Driving the hydraulic turning gear during interruptions to operation.. Oil is admitted to the nozzles by opening the shut-off valve. Check valves behind the auxiliary pumps and in the suction line of the mian oil pump prevent oil from flowing back via pumps that are not in operation.c. 3.load submersible auxiliary oil pumps are situated on the oil tank and draw in oil directly. OIL SUPPLY SYSTEM The oil system fulfils the following functions: 1. 2. pedestal and coupled directly to the turbine shaft draws oil from the main oil tank and conveys it to the pressure oil system. The throttle is adjested on initial start-up. Jacking up the shaft at low speeds (turning gear operation. The amount of oil required for each bearing is adjusted on start-up by means of the oil throttles. The amount of oil required for driving is extracted form the pressure oil circuit and adjusted by means of the throttle .O. Manual barring can only be done after the shaft system has been lifted with J. full . one of the two three-phase a. KORBA SIMULATOR 230 .load auxiliary oil pumps supplies the pressure oil system and takes over the function of the main oil pump when this as not in operation because the turbine in running too slowly. start-up and shut-down) . This guarantees that the main oil pump takes over the safe supply of oil and cavitations that could occur due to greater suction heads are avoided.P. Lubricating and cooling the bearings. on startup and shut-down . Full-Load Auxiliary Oil Pumps During turning gear operation and start-up and run-down operation.
KORBA SIMULATOR 231 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 232 .
A loop in the return oil piping behind the seal oil reserve tank prevents H2 gas reaching the main oil tank when there is a disturbance in the seal oil system. The capacity of the tank is such that the full quantity of oil is circulated not more than 8 times per hour. This pump supplies oil directly to the lubricating oil line. 7 to 8 minutes from entry into the tank to suction by pumps. OIL RETURN SYSTEM The lubricating oil from the bearings is returned to the main oil tank via a header. EXTRACTION OF OIL VAPOUR The main oil tank is designed to be air tight. the lubrication oil supply is maintained by a d. bypassing the oil cooler and thus preventing damage to the bearing shells.c. FILTERS Oil for the thrust bearing is passed through the duplex oil filter switched over and cleaned during operation. This results in a retention time of approx. The pressure switches are set in sequence so that the pumps can be started in succession if necessary. Oil returning to the tank from the oil supply system first flows through a submerged inlet into the riser section of the tank where the first stage deaeration takes place as which can be KORBA SIMULATOR 233 . The extractors produce a slight vacuum in the main oil tank and the bearing pedestals to draw off any oil vapour. MAIN OIL TANK The main oil tank contains the oil necessary for the lubricating and cooling of the bearings and for the lifting device. PARTIAL CONTROL OF THE AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS The full-load auxiliary oil pumps and the emergency oil pump are automatically started by the partial control as soon as the pressure switch limit has been reached. This time allows sedimentation and detainment of the oil. It not only serves as a storage tank but also for deaerating the oil. driven emergency oil pump.EMERGENCY OIL PUMP When main and full-load auxiliary oil pumps fail.
1 2 nos sonar level . the rely in the active current circuit is attracted. When the sensor immerses in the fluid. cooling the shaft journals and as primary and test oil. the relay drops. which maintains a steady suction flow to main oil pump. 1. The main oil pump is driven direct from the turbine shaft via the coupling. Transistorised control device 2. : : : : : : 2 nos. Main oil tank has the following mountings : AC auxiliary oil pump DC emergency oil pump Shaft lift oil pumps Oil injector Oil vapour extractor Oil level indicator FLUID LIMIT SWITCH Fluid limit switch consists of two component groups. Hydraulic speed transmitter operates on the same principle as centrifugal pump impeller.limit switch KORBA SIMULATOR 234 . Individual sensor which monitors the level of the fluid in the tank The sensor has a magneto strictively stimulated diaphragm the vibration of which is dampened when it is immersed in the fluid.the oil rises to the top of the tank. This pump also conveys oil in the suction branches of the main oil pump for oil injectors. The hydraulic speed transmitter is supplied with control oil supplied from the control equipment rack. The variation of the pressure in the primary oil circuit due to a speed variation serves as a control impulse for the Hydraulic speed governor. The suction of the pump is always flooded and hence maintains an uniform suction pressure. The relay switches valves. MAIN OIL PUMP WITH HYDRAULIC SPEED TRANSMITTER The main oil pump is situated in the front bearing pedestal and supplies the entire turbine with oil that is used for bearing lubrication. Oil overflows from the riser section through the oil strainer into the adjacent section of the tank where it is then drawn off on the opposite side by the suction pipe of the oil pumps. 1 3 nos. control lamps or alarm devices. In the normal state when the sensor is not immersed in the fluid.
Oil strainer ELECTRICAL SPEED PICK UP A non magnetic disc of the electrical speed transmitter in which small magnets are inserted around the circumference gives impulses to the electrical speed pick up.When the disc rotates with the pump running. Cover of entrance to riser section 14. Inspection hole 13. Main section drain 8. Inspection hole 15. This current is KORBA SIMULATOR 235 . Oil inlet 2. Oil strainer cover 16. JOPs 7. Connection for fluid limit switch (SONAR) 12. Suction pipe(injector) 3. an electric current arises due to the alternating effect between the magnets and the hall generators.MAIN OIL TANK 1. AC AOP 4. AC standby AOP 5. DC EOP 6. Oil vapour exhauster 10. Riser section drain 9. Connection for oil tank level indicator 11.
This is driven by a D. OIL VAPOUR EXHAUSTER The function of oil vapour exhauster is to produce a slight negative pressure in the main oil tank and in the bearing casing and thus draw off the oil vapour. DC BEARING OIL PUMP This is a vertical. the grooved ball bearing via lube line. The pump shaft has a sleeve bearing in the pump casing and a grooved ball bearing in the bearing yoke. It is fixed to the cover of the oil tank and submerges into the oil with the pump body. motor. DUPLEX OIL FILTER (FOR JOURNAL AND THRUST BEARING): It is provided to filter the oil before supply. the sleeve bearing via a bore in the casing. It is driven by an electric motor that is bolted to the cover plate of the main oil tank. The filter bodies are designed according to pressure stage and the relevant codes. The motor is bolted to the cover of the casing. The exhauster and the motor attached to it with flanges are a closed unit. centrifugal submerged type and serves for lubrication and cooling of the bearing during emergency conditions when one of the other pump fails. The bearings are lubricated from the pressure chamber of the pump.C. and the filter itself is designed to provide safety. taking into account the differential pressure which are to be seen on the service panels. The duplex filter consists of two filter bodies and is fitted with a changeover device. The pump supplies the oil to lift the turbine rotor at low speeds.forwarded as a signal to the electrical speed pick up. which enables the filters to be switched as desired. SHAFT LIFT OIL PUMP The lift oil pump is self-priming screw-spindle pump with three spindles and internal bearings. AUXILIARY OIL PUMP The auxiliary oil pump is a vertical one stage rotary pump with a radial impeller and spiral casing. The filter is provided with a differential pressure guage to give visual indication of variation in the differential pressure due to increase in filter contamination. KORBA SIMULATOR 236 . The casing is constructed as a spiral with aerodynamic features and is provided with supports for the exhauster.
MAIN OIL PUMP 2. Oil Pipe 5. Coupling 18. Hydraulic Speed Transmitter KORBA SIMULATOR 237 . Oil Line 16. Turbine Shaft 17. Pump Casing Upper 3. Pump Shaft 21. Pump Casing Lower 23. Electrical Speed Transmitter 19. Impeller 8. Seal Ring 7. Combined Journal & Thrust Bearing 11. Oil Tube a. Journal Bearing 4. Test Oil 14. Feather Key 9. Spacer Sleeve 22. Feather Key 10. Over Speed Trip. Ring 12. Oil Inlet Vessel 1. Permanent Magnet 20. Vent Pipe 13. Threaded Ring (Governor Impeller) 15. Bearing Bushing 6.
The pump shaft is guided by a sleeve bearing in the suction casing and by ball bearings in the bearings in the bearing support. The small intermediate plate is smaller in diameter than the inner shell and leaves an annular gap. The water box with a cooling water inlet branch is bolted to the lower type plate. All lubricating oil flows through the by-pass piping. The oil to be cooled enters the oil cooler and flows to the inner shell. This arrangement serves to achieve a cross-flow pattern forcing the oil flowing to the outlet branch to flow through the middle of the large plates. Between every two large plates there is a small intermediate plate which is held by the short tubes placed into the steel rods. This shell supports the large baffle plates which are provided with an opening in the centre. Possible oil flow paths for regulating the oil temperature : 1. Oil cooler consists of the tube nest. The inner oil shell with the large plates is attached to the lower tube plate into which the finned cooling tubes are expanded. KORBA SIMULATOR 238 . HP CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM HP CONTROL FLUID PUMP The extraction or dual pressure pump is a vertical rotary pump in multiple stages. The bearings and the bevel gear coupling are lubricated from the first stage pressure chamber. the inner. outer shell and water boxes. the sleeve bearing via a passage in the casing. After one stage oil is delivered to LP control fluid circuit and the HP control fluid is taken after 4 stages of the pump. All lubricating oil flows through oil cooler 2.OIL COOLER Function of oil cooler is to cool the lubricating oil supplied to the bearings of turbine. The tube nest is free to expand upwards in response to any thermal effect. while passing round the edge of the short ones. Lubricating oil flows through oil cooler and by-pass piping 3. It is attached to the cover of the fluid tank and submerges in the control fluid. Driven by a electrical motor located on the cover plate of the tank. the bearings and the bevel gear coupling via the lubricating pipe. The tube nest through which the cooling water flows is surrounded by the oil space formed by the outer shell. THREE-WAY CONTROL VALVE The three-way control valve is electrically driven and has the function of regulating the lubricating oil temperature at 450C.
It is 0. CONTROL FLUID INDICATOR The control fluid tank is provided with a local fluid level indicator  and level switches  with which the maximum and minimum levels of the control fluid can be transmitted. They draw from the deepest point in order to conduct control fluid that is as free of air as possible. The tank is designed so that the entire contents can be circulates a maximum of 8 times per hour. The control fluid then drops through the strainer (5) into the adjacent chamber and flows to the control fluid pumps which conduct the fluid to the governing system. A constant amount of fluid is conducted through a fuller’s earth filter and a mechanical filter by a circulating pump and returned to the tank.2) are situated on the control fluid tank and immerse with the pump bodies into the control fluid in the tank . This results in the control fluid remaining approximately 7 to 8 minutes in the tank in which time any air in the fluid can be separated and any ageing materials deposited.CONTROL FLUID TANK FUNCTION The control fluid tank contains the fire resistant control fluid necessary for the governing system of the turboset.28 mm wire mesh and can be exchanged by opening the hatch (12). and the tank cover. FLOW OF CONTROL FLUID IN TANK The control fluid returning from the governing system enters the tank through the control fluid inlet (8) and flows into the riser chamber of the tank where the first deaeration takes place. A storage space is provided between the operating level of the control fluid. CONTROL FLUID STRAINER The control fluid strainer (5) is a basket strainer installed in the tank. which corresponds to the nominal contents of the tank. The driving elements of the pumps are fixed to plates on the cover of the tank. A part from its function of storing. REGENERATING CIRCUIT The control fluid is cleaned and regenerated in a separate circuit. CONTROL FLUID PUMPS The control fluid pumps (1. it also deaerates the control fluid. KORBA SIMULATOR 239 .
Water Indicator 12. Strainer Body 6. Fluid Limit Switch 15. Ventilation Of Drain Piping 4. Observation Hole 17. Main Chamber Discharge 7. Ventilation Of Tank This can accommodate the fluid in the entire control fluid system when the turbine is KORBA SIMULATOR 240 . Electrically Driven Control Fluid Pump 2. Control Fluid Inlet 9. Strainer Hatch 13. Electrically Driven Stand By Pump 3. Heater 14. Fluid Level Monitor 5. Man Hole Chamber 11.FRF TANK 1. Observation Hole 10. Riser Chamber Discharge 8. Water Indicator 16.
shut down. The KORBA SIMULATOR 241 . The US strainer number 30/60 mesh is the granular size to be used (or this must correspond to the details from the fluid manufacturer). Any acids and ageing products are removed during operation by the continuous filtering through Fuller’s earth and mechanical filters.7) at the deepest points. The Fuller’s earth needed for regenerating the fire resistant fluid must be dry (at 150OC the amount of expellable water must only be 1 % of the weight). The efficiency of the regenerating plant is to be controlled by an exact record of the neutralisation and the degree of purity. PROTECTION DEVICE Special electrodes (11. The amount of earth must not be too little and must be stamped or shaken to avoid the formation of gaps and channels which would reduce the effectiveness of the Fuller’s earth. Fire resistant fluid systems for KWU turbines are provided with a bypass regenerating plant. The mode of operation of this natural earth treatment is based on a ion-exchange reaction. the only ones suitable for use with KWU turbines are phosphoric esters of the group HS-D which have a low water and chlorine content. The floor of the tank is sloping with discharge facilities (6. The design of this plant is made to the specifications of the fluid manufacturer.15) signal immediately any undesired penetration of water. The dust proportion of the granulate must not be used. Their chemical composition and structure necessitate certain measures and alterations compared with an oil system. continuous care is taken that any solid particles are separated by the fine filter so that they can not speed up the reaction. In addition to the precautions against acidifying of the fluid. CONSTRUCTION OF REGENERATING PLANT The filter group consists of 2 Fuller’s earth filters (6) and a mechanical filter (7). REGENERATING PLANT Of the various types of the fire resistant fluid. The fine filter of this plant retains particles of Fuller’s earth as well as providing the essential cleanliness of the whole system and increasing the life of the filters.
Control Fluid Pump 32/8 Bar 3. Circulating Pump 5. Shut-Off Valve 6. Control Fluid Approx. Control Fluid Tank 2. ARRANGEMENT OF REGENERATION PLANT 1. When the filter is contaminated there is an increase in the fluid pressure. 32 Bar C. Return Flow C1. Main Room Drainage FULLER’S EARTH FILTER The Fuller’s earth filter contains three sections with a special granulate which binds the acid present. A spring safety valve (3) is installed to protect the system against an excessively high increase in pressure. Riser Room Drainage C2. KORBA SIMULATOR 242 . 8 Bar A1. Fuller’s Earth Filter 7. Safety Valve 4. A pump (4) conducts a constant amount of fluid through the filter group into the tank (1).cleaning and deacidifying takes place in a separate circuit. Strainer a. Two filters work in parallel and can not be switched over. Control Fluid Approx.
Drain filter Loosen cover bolts Lift cover . the filter material must be changed. the granulate is exhausted and must be replaced earlier than originally intended. The acid content must be checked by examining the fluid in the laboratory at certain intervals.MECHANICAL FINE FILTER Following the Fuller’s earth filters is a fine filter with textile inserts of finest mesh. These inserts retain the finest particles of dirt. The fine filter also separates water particles and other ageing materials which would make it necessary to renew the control fluid too soon. Observe pressure increase on pressure gauge. EXCHANGING THE EARTH FILLING • • • • • • • Switch off pump Open filter drain (6). If there is a constant increase in the acid value. both metallic and non-metallic impurities. The differential pressure indicators installed in the system show optically the degree of contamination. • • The increasing contamination of the filter can be measured by the constant increase in pressure. COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE OF THE FILTER PLANTS • • • The filter are to be continuously deaerated by slightly opening the vent valves.do not damage seal Loosen drain pipe screws and lift basket cover Extract filter basket (7) carefully and centrally Clean inside of filter casing KORBA SIMULATOR 243 . In this way the fine filter also serves the safety of the control fluid system by trapping any particles of granulate that may be circulating. When the white-red segments are only showing red.
so that the sections are filled compactly in order to prevent later settling of the earth and the possible formation of channels. The earth must be carefully pressed down-without force. Insert clean basket cover and tighten well with screw so that no Fuller’s earth can escape.• • • Clean filter basket (7) After cleaning care must be taken that the parts are completely dry. Fill filter basket and insert. Replace cover carefully and tighten uniformly by means of screws (pay attention to seal) Switch on pump (4) • • • • KORBA SIMULATOR 244 . Close drain (6).
TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 245 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 246 .
The follow-up piston and the sleeve have ports which at normal overlap allow sufficient fluid to escape to produce equilibrium between the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure and the force of the tension spring (3). the link (11). the link (11) and the sleeve (5) sliding on the follow-up piston (4) are moved downwards by the speed setting spring (13) so that the overlap of the ports in the sleeve and the follow-up piston is reduced. the leakage oil can be drained off via connection c1. This causes the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit to rise and the follow-up piston follows the movement of the sleeve against the increasing force of the tension spring (3) unit normal overlap of the ports and equilibrium are restored. The sleeve (5) which can slide on the bottom end of the follow-up piston is held against the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure (connection b) by the tension spring (3). CONSTRUCTION The principal components of the speed governor are the bellows (8). An additional bellow (9) prevent primary oil getting into the control fluid circuit should there be a leakage in the governor bellows (8). The arrangement and functioning of the governor within the overall governing system is described in the section on governing. Each steady-state position of the link (11) and hence of the sleeve (5) corresponds to a specific force from the tension spring and hence to a specific secondary fluid pressure which in turn determines the position of the control valves. KORBA SIMULATOR 247 . A fire resistant fluid is used as the hydraulic fluid in the governing system. the control fluid that has leaked in will also be drained off via connection c1. the speed setting spring (13). The speed setting spring (13) opposes the primary oil pressure. Conversely. MODE OF OPERATION If the primary oil pressure falls (as a result of increasing load and the resulting drop in speed). The primary oil pressure (connection a1) is dependent on the speed and determines the position of the link (11) via the bellows (8) and the pushrod (10). The lift of the control valves is increased in this manner by the increased secondary fluid pressure. Its pre-compression can be varied either by hand or remotely by the motor (16). a rise in primary oil pressure causes the lift of the control valves to be reduced. Should a leak in the bellow (9) occur. The primary oil supply from the hydraulic speed transmitter is available at connection a1. the sleeve (5) and the follow-up piston (4).TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM HYDRAULIC SPEED GOVERNOR FUNCTION The function of the hydraulic speed governor is to operate the control valves to give the appropriate turbine steam through put for the particular load condition. In this case.
HYDRAULIC SPEED GOVERNOR WITH STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE When the pre-compression of the speed setting spring (13) is varied with the reference KORBA SIMULATOR 248 .
This causes the bellows to be compressed via the lever (6) and the pin (7) until the governor assumes the position “control valves closed”. Upstream of circuit is termed as Aux secondary oil circuit. The sleeve position determines the drain of trip oil through the aux. Accordingly the trip oil pressure. hydraulic governor comes into action after 2800 rpm. With the valve (21) in the bottom limit position control fluid from connection a can flow simultaneously to the auxiliary starting fluid circuit (connection u1) and as starting fluid via connection u to the stop valve to prepare these for opening. Hence Aux. follow up pistons. follow up pistons are said to control Aux secondary oil pressure. Further upward movement of the valve (21) causes the pin (7) to release the bellows as with falling primary oil pressure and the control valves are opened. upstream of these valves changes.e. Lever (12) allows the link (11) to be depressed by hand to give a lift signal to the governor. This opens the stop valves. the pilot valve (21) is brought to its bottom limit position either by hand or remotely by the motor (20). e. The sleeves of the valves are attached to the speeder gear bellow link. to provide a second means of overspeeding the machine for testing the overspeed trips in addition to the overspeed trip tester. The zero position of speeder gear corresponds to 2800 rpm i. The trip oil is supplied through orifices to the aux.speed setter it changes the relationship between the primary oil pressure and the secondary fluid pressure and hence the relationship between speed and power output. STARTING AND LOADING LIMITING DEVICE Before start-up. When the valve (21) is moved back the auxiliary starting fluid circuit is depressurized and subsequently the starting fluid connection u is opened to the return c.g. follow up valves. AUXILIARY FOLLOW UP PISTONS Auxiliary follow up pistons are two in number and are connected parallel. The KORBA SIMULATOR 249 .
i. MAIN TRIP VALVE. thereby closing the main and reheat stop and control valves and thus shutting off the admission of steam to the turbine. lift of the main steam control valve.e. Start-Up Medium KORBA SIMULATOR 250 . The function of the main trip valve is to open the trip oil circuit in the event of abnormal conditions. Trip Medium III: Drain Medium IV: Control Medium V: Aux. LOAD LIMITING. This can be done either manually or by motor of starting and load limit device.reheat steam control valves to an adjustable value. The start-up and load limit device acts mechanically on the bellow of the hydraulic speed governor. allowing it to function as load limiting device as well.release of the bellows can be limited by the pin (7) so that the control valves do not open any further despite a further reduction in primary oil pressure. MAIN TRIP VALVE 1: Limit Switch 2: Spring 3: Piston 4: Body I: Trip Medium II: Aux..
REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID Remote trip solenoids are two in numbers and are connected in Auxiliary trip fluid circuit in parallel. trip oil is blocked in the reset position. The aux.RESETTING MAIN TRIP VALVE AFTER A TRIP OUT. Compression Spring 2. As the pilot of the main trip valve is raised to normal (resetting) position. Start-up oil also act at the piston (A & B) of the over speed trip device and thrust brg. During normal operation the remote trip solenoids blocks the passage of Auxiliary trip fluid medium to drain. When any electrical trip condition of the turbine comes then the remote trip solenoids gets energised and connects the Auxiliary trip fluid medium to drain. control oil flowing via main trip valve. generates trip oil and aux. which acts at the bottom of the main trip valve for lifting the pilot. Magnet System 3. the pilot of starting device as Aux. trip device for resetting. Body 4. trip oil through main trip valve. REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID 1. When the starting device is lowered to minimum position (0 %). Vent Hole I: Auxiliary Trip Fluid II: Drain Medium KORBA SIMULATOR 251 . The aux. Start up oil. control oil flows via.
In this case the reference speed of the electro-hydraulic controller is at the “maximum speed” position.OPENING OF STOP VALVES STEP-I. If on the other hand. IV servomotor. Piston and piston plate set slowly moves up while the trip oil above the piston slowly drains via test valve. start up is to be effected with electro-hydraulic controller. The main stop valves and control valves are still closed. the tension of the spring in the follow up piston is released by a lever system by means of hand wheel or motor of the start-up and load limit KORBA SIMULATOR 252 . • • • STEP -II. Servo piston is pressed down to rest over piston plate against compressible spring Oil in between piston and piston plate as well as below piston is connected to drain via test valve. When • Starting device is lowered to 0 % position. The speeder gear is set at the “minimum speed” position. At 42 % position of Starting device HP Stop valve opens and at 56 % position of Starting device IP Stop valve opens. Test valve pilot moves upwards. The turbine is started and brought upto synchronisation speed by means of main steam control valves and reheat steam control valves. Stop valve slowly opens to 100 % position. if it is intended to operate the turbine with the hydraulic speed governor. the speeder gear is set at “maximum speed” and the reference speed of the electro-hydraulic controller at “minimum speed”. When • • • • Starting device is raised control oil supply line gets blocked and start up oil line is connected to drain. Next Trip oil flows to the top of ESV. First. trip oil flows to the bottom of servo-motor piston. CONTROL SYSTEM. Starting procedure. since the trip fluid circuit is not yet pressurised. start up oil (via. Starting Device) generated from control oil presses the test valve pilot down.
and operation of the speed changer leads to corresponding load change on the turbine. The auxiliary start up fluid lifts the positions of the main trip valves thereby allowing the trip fluid to flow to test valves of the main steam stop valves and reheat steam stop valves. fluid pressure now holds the main trip valves below the stop of differential piston.device (By turning hand wheel clockwise or by operating motor in “closed” direction). by turning back the handwheel or by operating the motor of the startup and load limit device in the “Open” erection. The pressure fluid is first discharged from auxiliary start up fluid circuit and then from the start up fluid circuit. The start up fluid flows into the space above test valve and forces them downward against the spring load. causing increase in the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure. The trip fluid can now flow to space above the pistons of the main steam stop valves and reheat steam stop valves. which in turn results in an increase of speed. KORBA SIMULATOR 253 . pressing them onto the lower piston disc. will enable the speed governor diaphragm to move downwards. Turning of the handwheel of the speeder gear or operation of its motor causes the speeder spring to be compressed further. The pistons of the test valves move upward by springs and as a result trip fluid builds up in the space below piston and is slowly discharged from the space above piston. so that no secondary fluid pressure build up in the follow up piston. Subsequently. Operation of the start up and load limit device is continued until it attains lowest position. When turbine is in grid. The converter for speed governing along with follow up piston is now in the “control valves closed” position. At this time hydraulic speed governor will cut in and maintain this speed. This would cause the opening of control valves through various systems and enable the turbine to reach upto 85 to 90 % of rated speed. Further increase of speed. Thus there is no secondary fluid pressure build up. When the “open” position of main steam stop valves is reached. the pilot of the starting and load limit device is moved further downward. when the main trip valves are latched in. the system determines the turbine speed. By further turning of the handwheel. The resulting differential pressure permits both pistons to move together to the upper limit position thus causing main steam stop valves and reheat steam valves to open. and the pressure fluid is first admitted into the start up fluid circuit and then into the auxiliary start up fluid circuit. An electric speed transmitter continuously measures and indicates the turbine speed. paralleling and loading of the turbine are done by speed changer. further turning of handwheel or operation of the motor in the “open” direction after a certain amount of backlash. The start up and load limit device is then set at “Fully open” position.
Travel of diaphragm may be limited by starting and load limiting device. Amplifier piston Follow-up piston Sleeve Shaft Lever Feedback lever Pilot valve Compression spring Adjusting screw a : Control oil b : Secondary oil b1 : Aux. The position of “Auxiliary follow up pistons” is held in balance by a spring against fluid pressure. Sec oil c : Return oil HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER KORBA SIMULATOR 254 . which provides primary oil pressure. The change in absolute pressure can be taken as proportional to small changes in speed (with in limits of steady state characteristics). 9. 4. 2. 6. Depending upon port opening fluid pressure gets stabilised corresponding to initial displacement of the piston and initial spring tension.HYDRAULIC SPEED CONTROL. The auxiliary secondary fluid pressure provides a signal to “Hydraulic Amplifier” through its pilot. The movement of diaphragm is transmitted by link mechanism to “Auxiliary follow-up piston”. which is compressed by speed changer. This primary oil pressure acts on diaphragm of “Hydraulic speed governor” against the force of speed setting spring. The fluid is essentially trip fluid fed from trip circuit and drained from a port formed between the piston and the sleeve. 1. 7. On the shaft of main oil pump. 3. 8. the “ Hydraulic speed transmitter” has been provided. 5.
A secondary fluid pressure corresponding to the position of the sleeve and related spring tensions is built up in the “Follow-up Pistons” of the “Hydraulic Amplifier” in a similar fashion to Auxiliary follow-up pistons. FOLLOW UP PISTONS: The trip oil is supplied to the follow up pistons through orifices and flows in the secondary oil circuits to control valves. The movement of the amplifier is transformed into rotation of a camshaft through a piston rod and a lever assembly. the control pilot valve. The varying HP/IP Secondary fluid pressure in the follow-up pistons of Hydraulic Amplifier operates the control valves. A feed back system has been foreseen for quickly stabilising the position of the pilot valve and the piston of Hydraulic Amplifier. secondary oil pressure. The secondary fluid circuit is also fed from trip fluid circuit through reducing valves.HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER It consists of a pilot valve and an amplifier piston.Three follow up pistons are provided for HP Control valves and three follow up pistons for IP Control valves. The position of the pilot valve spool depends upon the aux. With a view to avoiding sticking of pilot spool and increase sensitivity pilot spool is kept rotating due to reaction of fluid leakage through tangential holes. Electro-hydraulic converter consists mainly of permanent magnet plunger coil system with sleeve. The other side of the amplifier piston is connected to the drain. The sleeve slides on the upper part of pilot valve and decides the position of pilot valve as in the case of follow-up pistons. the power piston the follow piston and an electrical feed back system. The movements of Hydraulic amplifier through lever assembly mentioned above actuates the sleeves of the follow up pistons (6nos.) via. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC CONVERTER The electro-hydraulic converter is used as the connecting link between electrical and hydraulic parts of the turbine governing system.The control signal from electrical governor actuates the sleeve through plunger coil system. Link .sec oil pressure. Depending upon the pilot spool position. Any change in the position of link results in proportional change of secondary fluid pressure in the follow-up pistons of Hydraulic Amplifier. It converts electrical signals from electrical governor into hydraulic signals and amplifies them for actuation of control elements. the control oil is admitted either to the top or the bottom of the amplifier piston. A feedback linkage mechanism stabilises the system for one particular aux. Pilot valve and KORBA SIMULATOR 255 .
The secondary fluid flows to control valve servomotors for control purpose. The pilot valve rotates due to the flow of control fluid through tangential holes in one of its bobbins. When electrical signal is given for closing the control valves the process occurs in the reverse order. Each position of power piston corresponds to a definite position of sleeve and that of follow-up piston.This means the governor with lower reference set point. CONTROL PROCESS WITH ELECTRICAL GOVERNOR.is effectively in control. Thus the control fluid supply is available at the bottom of power piston while its top is connected to drain. The feedback of movement of power piston is provided through differential transformers to control pilot valve. The position of follow-up piston determines the secondary pressure. Follow-up piston and sleeve have slots through which secondary fluid flows depending upon the overlap. The sleeve moves back to such an extent that in the new position of power piston. In steady condition the pilot valve is in the middle position. The port area changes due to movement of sleeve and therefore secondary fluid pressure in follow-up piston also changes such that it follows the movement of sleeve. The initial tension of follow up piston springs can be adjusted with the help of adjusting screw. The secondary fluid pressure depends upon the tension of spring which balances the secondary fluid pressure on follow-up piston. SELECTION OF GOVERNORS: Both Hydraulic and Electro Hydraulic converter follow up pistons are generating HP/IP secondary oils.This is also termed as Hydraulic minimum selection of governors. When electrical governor gives impulse for opening of control valves.They constitute a minimum gate for both the governors. the sleeve of plunger coil system moves up and drain area through sleeve reduces. The power piston moves and actuates sleeves through the lever which causes movement of corresponding follow-up pistons. control fluid flows at the top of bottom of power piston and the opposite side is connected to drain. Secondary fluid circuit is supplied by trip fluid circuit through throttles.When pilot valve moves from its middle position.sleeve have ports through which trip fluid from inlet drains depending upon the overlap. It increases the sensitivity of pilot valve and ensures its free movement. Trip fluid pressure and spring force are in balance. The upward movement of piston moves the sleeves through levers downwards and reduces the drain area between sleeves and follow-up pistons such that the pressure in the follow piston and so in secondary fluid circuit increases. The pressure under the pilot valve increases and results in upward movement of pilot valve. KORBA SIMULATOR 256 . The balance is again achieved in the tension of spring and new secondary fluid pressure. the pilot valve takes its middle position and balance is again achieved between pressure under pilot valve and spring force.
As earlier pointed out. meaning that the system with the lower reference value is always the controlling one. Amplifier Casing 3. KORBA SIMULATOR 257 . changeover from one control system to the other one is possible during normal operation of the turbine since the two systems are brought into parallel connection after associated follow up pistons which represent a minimum value selection. Pilot Valve 7. Grooved Ball Bearing 8. Compression Spring 10. Differential Transformer 2.1. Casing Support 12. Speed” which prevents the Electro-hydrualic system from coming in action. Spring Disc 9. Piston Rod 5. Sleeve 11. Moving Coil System a Control Fluid X Trip Fluid ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTER CHANGEOVER FROM HYDRAULIC TO ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONTROL.If turbine is to be run under hydraulic control the reference speed of the electrical controller is at “Max. Valve Bushing 6. Amplifier Piston 4.
This is an indication that hydraulic speed governor has taken over the KORBA SIMULATOR 258 . When this occurs. This changeover is done in the reverse sequence mentioned above. The speed changer of the hydraulic speed governor is then set at maximum speed.When bringing in the electro-hydraulic control system the reference speed of the electrical controller should be reduced slowly until the secondary fluid pressure drops FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES WITH HYDRAULIC AND ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONVERTER AND TRIMMING DEVICE slightly. speed changer is actuated in the “decrease” direction until secondary fluid pressure drops slightly. First. CHANGEOVER FROM ELECTRO HYDRAULIC TO HYDRAULIC CONTROL. the electro-hydraulic converter has taken over. operation of turbine may immediately be continued by means of hydraulic speed governor. The electrohydraulic converter is now fully effective and can operate over the entire output range. In this case. The hydraulic speed governor also acts as a speed limiter in the event of electrical controller developing a fault.
After the main stop valves have been opened. i.When start up oil pressure is reduced the test valves moves up draining trip oil above the servomotor piston and building the trip oil pressure below the disc.In their bottom most position the trip oil pressure starts building up above the stop valve servomotor piston while the trip oil pressure beneath the disc gets connected to drain. however. compressing the springs. Just before the valve disc seats.e. In order to reduce fluid leakage past the bell-shaped part of the piston when the valve is open. To open the valve. When trip fluid is admitted to the space above the bell-shaped part of the piston. The edge of the bell-shaped half of the piston is designed to produce an fluid-tight seal with the piston disc. Now the hydraulic speed governor is fully effective. simultaneously.start up oil pressure is supplied to the associated test valves which moves their spool downwards against the spring force. and hence in the space below the piston disc. by admitting trip fluid from the trip fluid circuit to the space above the piston to press it down against the piston disc after overcoming the resistance of the springs.A hand wheel is also provided for manual operation of test valves. prepared for opening. the space above the bell-shaped half of the piston is opened to drain. When the valve is tripped.The test valves facilitate supply of trip oil pressure beneath the servomotor disc(stop valve open condition) under normal conditions. it moves this half of the piston downwards. and can operate over the entire load range. SERVOMOTOR FOR MAIN STOP VALVES AND REHEAT STOP VALVES The operative part of the servomotor consists of a two part piston the lower discshaped part of which is connected via piston rod to the valve stem. fluid from the trip circuit is admitted to the space below the piston disc and. the turbine is started by the control valves. The other part of the piston is bell-shaped and moves within the housing which is in the form of a cylinder. Before the main stop valves can be opened. falls with the result that the springs separate the two halves of the piston and the piston disc connected to the valve stem move to close the valve.control. the pressure in the trip fluid circuit. Two spiral springs are placed between the two valves of the piston at the lower end a spring plate is interposed between the springs and the piston disc. This causes both halves of the piston to move together in the direction which opens the valve. a back seat is provided in the housing against which the collar of the piston can seat. they must be “pressurised”.The test valves have got port openings for trip oil as wall as start-up oil. the piston disc enters a part of the cylinder where the KORBA SIMULATOR 259 . until it seats against the piston disc. TEST VALVE: Each of the HP/IP stop valve servomotors receive trip oil through their associated test valves.For the purpose of resetting stop valves after a tripping. thus opening the stop valves. The secondary fluid pressure is transmitted to the actuators of the HP & IP control valves and controls their opening. Then reference speed limit of electric controller is set at “maximum”.
All operation can be controlled by means of the test valve and the starting and main trip valve. The control valve is moved by the piston. Since large operating forces are required the servomotor is of high-pressure type (approx.This arrangement restricts the flow of fluid past the piston disc and so produces a braking action which causes the valve disc to seat gently. All fluid connections are routed through a test valve. x Trip fluid to space below the piston x1 Trip fluid to space above the piston c return STOP VALVE SERVOMOTOR MAIN AND REHEAT CONTROL VALVE SERVOMOTOR The flow of steam to the turbine is regulated by varying the limit of control valves by means of their servomotors. Control valves have been provided for HP turbine and IP turbine. which is loaded by disc springs on one side and by hydraulic fluid pressure on the other side.diametrical clearance is reduced. KORBA SIMULATOR 260 . which is determined by the governor. which directs control fluid from connection ‘a’ to the appropriate side of the pilot piston. All the control valves are operated by their individual servomotors. The secondary fluid supply at connection ‘b’ controls the position of auxiliary pilot valve. 32bar and has a pilot control system. which are actuated by the high-pressure control fluid supply at 32-bar approx. The position of the valve is determined by the secondary fluid pressure.
The degree of proportionality of the pilot control system can be adjusted by altering the pivot position of the feed back linkage. MAIN CONTROL SYSTEM The movement of the pilot piston deflects the main pilot valve from its centre position by means of lever so that either the control fluid from connection ‘a’ is allowed to enter the under side of piston. when the load decreases. the force exerted by the spring is balanced by the secondary fluid pressure acting on the auxiliary pilot valve. Just before the control valve disc actually comes into contact with the valve seat piston enters a recess provided in the servomotor casing and throttles the flow of fluid draining from the underside of the piston.The pilot piston operates the main pilot valve through lever so that when the control valve is being opened. In either case. The movement of the pilot piston returns the auxiliary pilot valve to its centre position by means of feed back linkage. This action is reversed. while the other side of the piston is opened to drain. thus opening the control valves. When the load increases. thus giving proportionately between secondary fluid pressure and pilot piston travel. the control fluid at connection ‘a’ is directed to the underside of the piston. thus producing good linearity of the steam flow characteristics. The spring preloads the linkage and prevents any slackness or erratic movement at the pivots. the auxiliary pilot valve is deflected from its centre position. Feed back cam mounted at the end of the piston rod brings the main pilot valve to its centre position by means of a lever system. In this position. control fluid from the under-side of the piston drains through the main pilot valve. control valve will also be steady at a particular value of valve lift corresponding to the load and the auxiliary pilot valve will be in the centre position as shown in the figure. which gives two degrees of proportionality. KORBA SIMULATOR 261 . PILOT CONTROL SYSTEM When the turbine is running at steady load. When the control valve is being closed. The slope of the feed back cam is in two stages. thus opening the control valve or the underside of piston is opened to drain thus closing the control valve by the force of the disc springs. to flow to one side of the pilot piston. This slows down the motion of control valve at the time of closing and thus the closure of the valve takes place smoothly. the secondary fluid pressure gets increased by the action of the governor. This allows control fluid at connection ’a’ .
KORBA SIMULATOR 262 .
HYDRAULIC SERVOMOTOR FOR MAIN CONTROL VALVE KORBA SIMULATOR 263 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 264 . dyanmic stability and simple representation of complicated functional relationship. speed. The processed electrical signal is introduced at a suitable point in the hydraulic circuit through Electrohydraulic converter. speed. SPEED CONTROLLER The speed controller is used for starting the turbine upto synchronisation and block loading.e. It can also operate over the full load range during emergency such as generator tripping from full load to house load operation or during rapid load throwoffs and / or severe frequency fluctuation. The speed controller is always kept in readiness for operation even when it is not directly controlling the turbine by tracking the signal generated by the other controller in service. load and boiler pressure are supper imposed to main steam control valve position loop. The hydraulic controls provide the advantage of continuous control of large positioning forces for control valves.ELECTRO . These signals are then fed to various control loops where they are processsed as per requirement of the operator (reference value signal set points) and the turbine conditions (monitoring signals). load and turbine throttle pressure are measured and converted into electrical signals by means of suitable transducers. The control is converted into hudraulic signals for actuating the hydraulic operated controller basically consists of the subsidiary controllers for main steam control valve lift (valve position controller).HYDRAULIC GOVERNING SYSTEM. The turbine is equipped with Electro-hydrualic Governing system to facilitate the operation of the Turbo-set in an inter-connected grid system measuring and processing of signals offer the advantages such as felxibility. Excellent operational reliability and dependability Safe operation of the Turbo-set in conjunction with the Turbine stress evaluator (TSE) ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC CONTROLLER The parameters to be controlled i. The integration of electrical and hydraulic system offers the following advantages: • • • • • • Exact load frequency droop with high sensitivity Reliable operation in case of isolated power grids Dependable control during load rejection Low transient and low steady-steady-state speed deviations under all operational conditions.
The integrator can again be enabled after the TSE influence is switched off and master set point release push button is reset. KORBA SIMULATOR 265 . one with a range of 0-3300 rpm and other with range of 2700-3300 rpm (for finer adjustment). As shown in the fig. “Stress evaluator limitation off”. The subsequent intergrator responds to a very small imbalance of the imputs of DC amplifier. Output of the integrator is NRTD/NRLIM which chages like a ramp. to facilitate exact adjustments. The emergency is memorised in a biased memory. the speed reference value is tracked with an offset (Nact-120) r. NR is fed to a highgain DC amplifier. The freezing of the speed reference value (when Nact > 2850 rpm) can occur for the following two cases:a) If TSE becomes faulty the reference value is blocked and integrator stops. The resetting is effected manually or by means of “increase” command for speed reference value.m. The memory is reset by command.p. Above a speed of 47 Hz (2830 rpm) a reducing gear box lowers the speed of potentiometer to 1/4th. The speed reference value is tracked depending on two operating conditions:a) As soon as the Load Controller or pressure controller has taken over within a frequency band of 49 Hz-51Hz (adjustable). Speed controller tracks the actual grid speed with an offset of 15 rpm so as to take care of house load operation in case of opening of generator breaker. SPEED CONTROL LOOP Speed reference value is set by means of potentionmeter operated from remote (UCB control panel) or manually (control cabinet) normally in the range of 0-3000 rpm (09V). b) As soon as emergency stop (turbine trip) acts. (d) Synchroniser equipments.. (c) ATRS. The TSE influence is introduced between DC amplifier and the integrator to limit the input voltage to the integrator to the level up allows a rise of turbine speed at highest possible rate consistant with the conservative permissible operation of turbine on account of the level of thermal stresses. The gradient of signal NRTD however is modified according to available TSE margins. The control device for the speed reference value generates the time dependent speed reference value NRTD/NRLIM which influences the speed controller. Since the stress evaluator monitors the dynamic margin on fault detection. the fault is stored in the turbine governor. (b) control cubicle. of speed. The speed reference value is indicated on two instruments.The speed reference value can be chaged from(a) desk.
KORBA SIMULATOR SPEED CONTROLLER 266 .
Each one of the square wave voltages of impulse conversion device per channel is subsequently processed in the speed KORBA SIMULATOR 267 . The output of probes is transmitted to an impulse conversion device which contains three signals processing channels and furnishes three times. So for a changing of + 150 rpm of reference or speed. of electromagnetic digital pick-ups. a control error exists between the actual value & the reference value. The speed reference value control is also stopped in an analogous manner to that described above when the unit is operating in pressure control mode. These comprises axial. an air gap separates the magnets and sondes. The NRTD signal is transmitted to the final speed controller where it is compared with actual measured speed signals and thus generate final controller output of speed controller. NO-LOAD SPEED CORRECTION As a result of proportional control behaviour of the speed controller. stationary sondes utilising hall effect and a non-magnets disc rotating with turbine shaft carrying small permanent magnets with alternative polarity in equally spaced hole arranged in concentric circles. The reference value is blocked at Nref . SPEED MEASUREMENT AND PROCESSING Rotational speed of turbine is measired digitally with the help of 3 nos. If the speed set point control is in action.Nact > 50 rpm in order to prevent occurance of excessive control deviation (N). STOPPING OF SPEED REFERENCE VALUE CONTROL If stress evaluator fault occurs and the generator circuit breaker is “open” and NR<NRTDthe speed reference value control is stopped.5 Hz above and below 50 Hz. the speed controller ouput will vary from 0 to + 10 volts. a transition period occurs as a result of undermodulation of the speed by speed controller. three electrically segregated perfect square wave voltages + 10%.e. When the generator circuit breaker is “closed” stoppage of the speed reference value control is inhibited. the test function of the stress evaluator is suppressed. 2. DROOP OF SPEED CONTROLLER 5% i.b) On tranistion from turning speed to control by electric speed controller. A feed forward signal which is influenced as a function of boiler pressure is provided to achieve identical speed at synchronising point. (Hall Probes) which are mounted on turbine shaft inside front bearing pedestal.
LOAD CONTROLLER The load controller is used for controlling turbine output during load operation. It blocks any further rise in speed and brings back the speed reference to 600 rpm. which show that the load controller is in service.e. The load controller must be switched ON if it has to come into action. The speed controller exhibits PDP response i. to obtain actual value of rotational speed. 1”. this is incorporated to avoid low acceleration rates when the turbine speed lies in the critical speed rage 2850 rpm). In case of failure of the control circuit continues to operate without interruption measurement control failure of EHC. Second device processes the pulse frequency in two ranges 0-6 Hz and 0-60 Hz for the equipment generating analog signal as “Acquisition of actual speed channel no. Frequency Influence and Pressure Influence are considered and a final reference PR is developed. a pulse amplifier.controller module. then DN/DT monitoring operates giving appropriate alarms in the UCB. TSE influence.). for final load control. The output of speed controller remains proportional to control deviation during stationary operations. measured speed anyone channel. several factors like load Reference (PR). if. The first device consists of F/V converter and operates in the range of 0-60Hz. Actual values are continuously monitored for failures. speed controller is a PD Controller with sloping characteristics. a F/V converter.e. less than 108 rpm/min. DN/DT MONITORING During rolling of the turbine. Load Limiter Set point (PRmax. for selecting the load controller a push button module LOAD CONTROLLER. This arrangement results in better load sharing by several turbo sets connected to the same grid as compared with purely mechanical and hydraulic governor. a circuit for evaluation of difference between the frequency standard and measured grequency. The power reference value can be changed by:a) Manually from desk b) From the CMC control desk KORBA SIMULATOR 268 . the device operates between 45 Hz and 55 Hz and is required for formation of droop. between the speeds 600 rpm to 2829 rpm the rate of speed rise is very low i. Third speed measuring device comprises a quartz frequency standard. ON/OFF is provided. a measuring adapter and limt signalling circuit. case of speed is switched off The reliable pulse frequency thus obtained is fed into three speed mesuring devices. the tracking controller automaticlly. an indication “LOAD CONTROLLER ACT” is provided on the turbine control panel when this lamp glows.
Under certain switching conditions limitation by stress evaluator is suppresed. This signal rises during start-up at a rate (MW/min) selected through load gradient setter until the final load reference value PR has been reached. Limitation by means of upper release margin can lead to reduction of turbine output. Control device for load reference value generates time dependent load reference value (PRTD/PRLIM) which influences the load controller.Limitation by means of lower release margin can result in turbine unloading being stopped. On account of this addition the response of the device is proportional to small changes of load reference value and for large changes it is proportional integral. The device for the load reference value contains proportional (P) channel parallel to I-channel. it acts so as to limit power changes to the upper and lower release margin. by means of motorised potentiometer and the output of reference setter PR is displayed by the UCB desk indicator. Isolated power system operation is based on power control deviation. LIMITING BY STRESS EVALUATOR When the stress evaluator is switched on.c) From the control cubicle The loading and unloading gradients are influenced by a) Turbine stress evaluator or b) Rate of power change of reference value from desk The load controller is designed for two modes of operation a) Power operation characteristics. in conjunction with power system with PI control b) Isolated grid operation with P control characteristic based on the frequency of the isolated power system. LOAD CONTROL LOOP Load reference value is set from reference setter module on the turbine panel. If the rate of rise of PRTD is limited by load gradient setter the proportional channel is automaticlly switched off and the response of PRTD is purely integral. The rate of change of PRLIM is also subjected to the additional limits because of influence of TSE margins if the same is in switched-on condition. The indications of PRLIM and gradient setter are provided on the UCB panel. KORBA SIMULATOR 269 .
KORBA SIMULATOR LOAD CONTROLLER 270 .
the output of load limiter (PRMAX) limits the sum of reference values (PR) transmitted to load controller to the preselected value.e. proportional of the load controller as well as a speed dependent correction of the load control deviation. The load controller is equipped with a ‘Load Limiter’ Module. If the load gradient limit is effective. The load controller consists of two plug-in modules :a) The first module accommodates the isolated grid detection and the indicating system. tracking to the value (PRPact) is effective in order that the load controller be capable of taking over control of the turboset independent of the actual reference value which has been set. The output of load limiter PRMAX is adjusted by means of a setter on UCB and also indicated on the console. The output signal of the integrator is continuously compared with P-act (actual power output) by means of an automatic circuit as long as the generator circuit breaker is not closed. This provisions facilitate smooth transition from speed control mode to load controller mode. If the actual power falls below the station auxiliary load. This gradient is limited by means of stress evalutor or by load gradient limit. The reference value control has PI control action. the load controller as well as the tracking inputs (the o/p signal of the load controller is tracked according to KORBA SIMULATOR 271 . If the turboset is not synchronised with the power system. i. Stress evaluator limiting is effective irrespective of the type of control action.LOAD REFERENCE VALUE CONTROL By means of the reference value control. small change in reference value leads to proportional action and larger change to proportional integral action. Even the reduction in grid frequency cannot cause the turboset to exceed the preset power level. b) The second module houses the dynamic systems. the proportional action is switched off. the maximum permissible gradient for the turboset is introduced. the reference value of the power controller is tracked to match the output of the speed controller so the later assumes control of the turboset.
the PRADS signal component is switched off. load reference (PRDF) value can be connected and disconnected by means of a push button switch inside controller cabinet. the load controller automaticlly switches to a proportional response with 5% droop. The load reference and PRTD which have been matched automaticlly to PRADS while on standby. The proportional component of load control may be adjusted during operation of turboset in steps of 0. In case of failure of quartz frequency “Normal”. a monitoring cirucit automaticlly disconnets the frequency influence signal.5% and 8%. The status of operation mode (frequncy influence on/off) is displayed on the desk. The required dependence of load on frequency in accordance with the frequency versus load charateristics is achieved by means of additional load reference value PRDF furnished by frequency unit. If the power plant together with a section of the power grid becomes isolated during load control. the sensitivity of the response with respect to the chage in power greid grequency is less than 5 milli Hz. The unit is highly linear. This arrangment permits safe operation of the turboset these conditions.e. the load controller automaticlly switches isolated during load control. The total load reference vaue as it’s limited by load limiter is displayed on the control desk in megawatts as PR. In case of fault in CMC. speed or pressure controller). The signal component of CMC (Co-ordinated Master Control). An indication displays the PRDF in MW.5% between 2. PRADS which is load reference for control device from ALDS (Automatic Load Despatch Signal) is limited by maximum and minimum load limits on CMC console and is displayed on the desk in MW. The frequency dependent KORBA SIMULATOR 272 . The status of operation of load controller under these conditions described above is displayed on the control desk. TRACKING OF POWER CONTROLLER The tracking is dependent on the operating mode.o/p singnal of active controller controlling the load i. a) On load shedding to less than station auxiliary load or generator circuit breaker “off” or power controller off : (following above) speed controller controls the reference value of the power controller irrespective of the setting of pressure controller. assume control of turbo-generator. All load reference values described so far are totalled in summing amplifier of the load controller.
(i. LIMIT PRESSURE MODE In the limit pressure mode the boiler storage capacity is utilised. is released. Load increase above this level is blocked. In initial pressure mode. pressure controller tries to maintain initial pressure (Turbine inlet throttle pressure). The D P is displayed on the desk. The pressure controller influences the turbine CVs to support boiler pressure control only if a preset main steam pressure deviation is exceeded. during a quick load increase) large pressure drop. Pressure Influence Signal HRPC is generated by a proportional integral (PI) pressure controller and affects directly the lift of the main steam control valves via a selection circuit. The power controller operates under the speed controller. Load dependent valve lift reference signal HRPC supplied by the load controller affects the position of the steam control valves via a selection circuit. There are two modes of operation on pressure controller INITIAL PRESSURE MODE It may be selected from control panel under certain conditions. The pressure controller controls the turbine load with respect to the main steam pressure deviation. This provision allows the load controller to handle small.b) Generator circuit breaker “ON” and speed controller effective: (following low).g. load controller o/p < speed controller o/p).e. the speed controller is effective as soon as HREF power controller < HREF speed controller tracking. KORBA SIMULATOR 273 . (e. quick load variation unitl pick up limit pressure control is reached. This pick up limit is seldom reached in the usual frequency supported load control mode since boiler pressure control hods pressure deviation within narrow limits. The operation status and faults are displayed on the desk. It reduces the difference between set (reference) pressure and actual pressure to zero. by sacrificing load. and prevents. the EHC supplies the signal corresponding to combined reference values PRLIM PRDF to the equipment for boiler load control as an analog signal. PRESSURE CONTROLLER The signal for the actual pressure and the reference pressure furnished by boiler load control system. The power delivered by the turbo-set is determined by the boiler capability upto a maximum of power level set by load controller.
The output from this is fed to the valve position controller. load controller and pressure controllers are super imposed and selected to give an output to the valve position controller. VALVE POSITION CONTROLLER The outputs from the speed controller and the load controller are compared in a MAXMIN selectro and the output from this is again compared with the pressure controller output in a MINIMUM selector. additional load increase is blocked by means of the control unit for reference value load.e. The feed back signal from the valve lift controller (i.If the alarm “Limit pressure engaged” is present. the signals from the speed controller. KORBA SIMULATOR 274 . Therefore. the actual valve lift signal) is derived from the differential transformers which are housed in the electro-hydraulic converter and measure the position of the power piston in the amplifier.
KORBA SIMULATOR CHANGE OVER SCHEME AND ADMISSION CONTROLLER 275 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 276 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 277 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 278 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 279 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 280 .
PROTECTIVE DEVICES MAIN TRIP VALVES FUNCTION The function of the tripping device is to open the trip fluid circuit in the event of abnormal conditions.6) and forced tightly against the assemblies (10). Control fluid flows into the body (11) via connection a and. The fluid supply to the secondary fluid circuits is also shut off. the valves (12) are lifted by the start up fluid (connection u 1) against the force of the springs (5. This valve blocks the draining of auxiliary trip fluid when it in it’s normal position.g. into the trip fluid circuit via connection x. with a tripping device latched in ( in the position shown). Via passages drilled in the body (11) (Section A-A) fluid flows to the auxiliary trip fluid circuit which leads to the hydraulic protection devices. The valves (12) are designed as differential pistons being forced tightly against the body assemblies (10) by the rising pressure of the fluid. CONSTRUCTION The tripping device consists in the main of the two valves (12) that slide in the casing (11) and are loaded by the springs (5. Should the fluid pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit drop below a specific value for any reason (e. Trip fluid and actuates the emergency tripping device thereby tripping the unit. The pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit keeps the valve in the position shown while the start up fluid drains through the start up device. EMERGENCY TRIP VALVE The emergency trip valve enables the turbine to be manually tripped from the governing rack. The trip fluid circuit leads to the stop valves and the secondary fluid circuits. In this way pressure is built up in the trip fluid circuit (x) and the auxiliary trip fluid circuit (x1). it drains the aux. thereby closing the valves and thus shutting off admission of steam to the turbine. thus causing the control valves to close. OPERATION When starting the unit. KORBA SIMULATOR 281 . This depressurizes the trip fluid circuit which causes the main and reheat stop valves to close. The limit switches (1) transmit electrical signals to the control room.6). The two valves (12) work independently of each other so that even if one valve fails the function of the tripping device is not impaired. by tripping of a protection device) the valves (12) move downwards due to the spring force and their own weight. thus connecting connections x and x1 with the fluid back flow c. But when this valve (ball head) is pushed down.
All remote tripping commands actuates this solenoid valve only. KORBA SIMULATOR 282 .MAIN TRIP VALVES SOLENOID VALVE FOR REMOTE TRIP OUT The solenoid valve is installed in the auxiliary trip fluid line to the automatic trip gear and when operated electrically causes the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to be opened and the turbine stopped the solenoid valve is remote controlled.
trip fluid causes the turbine to trip.OVERSPEED TRIP The turbine is fitted with two overspeed trips which trip the turbine. trip fluid from getting drained during starting and testing. Each over speed trip consists of an eccentric bolt fitted in the shaft with its centre of gravity displaced from axis of rotation and held in position against centrifugal force by a spring. In general. which results in turbine trip. strike the lever catch which releases pilot valve of releasing device. and their tripping by the springs. this value is around rated speed KORBA SIMULATOR 283 .. The auxiliary trip fluid circuit is connected to drain thereby tripping the main trip valve. resulting in depressurisation space of below right hand valve. However the aux. when its speed exceeds rated speed by a certain value. Deterioration of vacuum inside condenser causes the pilot valve in the low vacuum trip to be moved from its upper position downwards by the pretension spring.The mechanism for tripping is similar to that of overspeed trip releasing device. trip fluid whenever the condenser back pressure increases beyond the permissible limits. The range in which the vacuum safety device operates can be varied by adjusting the initial tension of the spring provided in the safety device. THRUST BEARING TRIP The thrust bearing trip opens the auxiliary tripping circuit in the event of axial displacement of the rotor which can be caused by excessive wear of the thrust bearing pads. Aux. The right hand valve is moved to the lower end position by spring. the machine is intercepted by a load shedding module before it can reach trip out speed. hence opening auxiliary trip fluid circuit. pilot valve is released as soon as the speed of the machine attains certain value by connecting primary oil line to the auxiliary pilot valve and thus enabling the vacuum trip device to come into operation.e. all stop and control valves close. trip fluid. LOW VACUUM TRIP The purpose of the low vacuum trip is to operate the trip valve by draining the aux. On load shedding i. This draining of the aux. In order to prevent aux. (when vacuum is not there) an auxiliary pilot valve cuts off the draining of the aux. When trip fluid circuit is open to drain. The speed at which turbine stabilises after load shedding corresponds to governor droop and the pre-set reference speed. trip fluid drains are connected back to control fluid tank and is prevented from getting mixed up with bearing lub oil. This causes a reduction in the pressure of fluid below differential pistons of main trip valves. SOLENOID VALVE FOR LOAD SHEDDING RELAY. which can be adjusted between 10 to 12 %. At the adjusted value of overspeed centrifugal force overcomes the spring force and the eccentric bolt fly out suddenly to extended positions. when the set is suddenly disconnected from the grid.
secondary fluid acting through extraction valves relay also get closed.P. These valves are operated by a load shedding relay when the rate of change of load exceeds a certain value.up pistons of IP control valves . secondary fluid lines.P.P.draining IP secondary oil.The control oil is supplied to trim device via an energised solenoid valve.The I. secondary fluid and Auxiliary Secondary fluid circuits directly.P.The trim device is connected to the follow up pistion of IP control valves by a lever . the solenoid valves are reclosed and secondary fluid pressure corresponding to reduced load builds up in the H. HP control valves are closed due to draining of Auxiliary secondary fluid before the Hydraulic amplifier. SEQUENCE TRIMMING DEVICE In order to avoid excessive heating of HP exhaust. control valves and one in Auxiliary secondary fluid line inorder to prevent the turbine reaching trip speed in the event of the turbine suddenly loosing load. secondary fluid circuit causes the reheat valve to close without any significant delay. The trim device trips under spring pressure. the solenoid is deenergised cutting out the control oil supply to the trim device.Upon tripping the trim device alters the spring tension of follow.P. COLD REHEAT SWING CHECK VALVE The swing-check valve installed in the steam system between the HP cylinder and the reheater closes the cold reheat line on load shedding or tripout to prevent steam from flowing back to the HP cylinder from this line. One solenoid valve has been incorporated in the secondary fluid line of I.since load governing is cut in at a low load level. the reference speed can be decreased to rated value. It consists of a spring loaded piston assembly which is supported by control oil pressure from beneath.P/I. The extraction check valves controlled by I. KORBA SIMULATOR 284 . by the second solenoid. The solenoid valves drain the I. This device comes into operation if HP exhaust pressure exceeds a pre-set value and load drops to a set valve(20%).P. during HP/LP by pass operation a “Sequence Trimming Device” has been provided. After an adjustable time(approximately 2 sec). Operation of this device further reduce the opening of IP control valves with respect to HP control valves inorder to allow more flow through HP turbine.under normal conditions.control valves openings are trimmed down. After load shedding. When the turbine load is less than 20% and HP Exhaust pressure exceeds a preset value. Direct draining of I.
Seal Ring 5. Bearing Bush 14. Valve Plate Lever 8. Casing 10.1. Drainage Connection 11. Plug 6. Clack 9. Locking Ring (Split) 3. Cover 2. Gland Packing 13. Connecting Piece SWING CHECK VALVE COLD REHEAT LINE KORBA SIMULATOR 285 . Shaft 7. Cap Nut 12. Spacer Ring 4.
The position of the swing. When the pilot valve operated by the transformer of the speed governor admits control fluid via connections d to the inner space of the servomotor.check valve is indicated in the control room via a limit switch. If. the adjacent connections d1 of the servomotor are at zero pressure. Below this preset point the clack (8) is returned into the steam path by the hydraulic actuator and because of the absence of steam the swing-check valve is closed by the torque of the actuator. the latter is moved by the actuator flanged to the side of the casing (9) and connected to the shaft (6).MODE OF OPERATION Depending on the secondary fluid pressure in the changeover valve controlling the swing-check valve. The swing-check valve opens when the main steam stop valves have reached a specific valve lift. MOVING VANE SERVOMOTOR FOR CRH LINE SWITCH CHECK VALVE MOVING VANE SERVOMOTOR FOR SWING CHECK VALVE The function of the moving vane servomotor flanged to the swing-check valve is to open or close the swing-check valve fitted in the cold reheat line. the steam pressure opens the valve against the secondary fluid pressure. The control fluid then flows into the two chambers situated KORBA SIMULATOR 286 . when the turbine is started and the secondary fluid pressure is insufficient. the steam pressure before the swing-check valve is higher than behind the valve.
at which turbine load. Trip fluid is admitted through connection x on the body (10) (section A-B). The valve (16). This is made possible by the fact that the pressure reduction below the valve is retarded by the ball (15) and the pressure in the accumulator (connection b) until the equilibrium is re-established between the pressure in the accumulator and the new pulse fluid pressure (connection b2) via the equalising passage in the cover (12). MODE OF OPERATION (connection x1). On a reduction in load. thus cutting off the trip fluid supply to the check valves and opening the fluid return.e. the check valves open or receive an impulse to close. The lift of the valves is limited by a collar at their lower end. the check valves receive a closing impulse and close at reduced or reversed differential steam pressure. i. 6) causes the swing-check valve to close. the valve is held in the lowest position by the force of the spring (7). swing-check valve via the coupling halves (5. As a result of this. By appropriately setting the springs (14) to the valves. the swing-check valve is opened when control fluid is admitted from the connection d1. It can be ascertained at which secondary fluid pressure. As the pressure above and below the valve (11) are equal under normal conditions. thus causing the rotary vane (2) attached to the control shaft ( 16) to be turned to the stop at the segments (1 ). The check valves are then free to open. Conversely. the valve (11) is forced upwards against the action of the spring (7). the pressure above the valve (11) is reduced accordingly while the pressure below the valve is retained for a while.diagonally opposite each other. (section C-D) are acted upon from below (connection b1) by the loaddependent secondary fluid pressure of the control valves. This rotary movement which is transmitted from the control shaft (16) to the spindle (3) of the.as soon as these valves have been switched to the upper position by secondary fluid from follow-up piston of reheat control valves on to the changeover valves of the extraction check valves KORBA SIMULATOR 287 . With this position of the valve. If the secondary fluid pressure exceeds the value set by adjusting the springs these valves are forced upwards against the action of the springs and open the path for the trip fluid to the changeover valves of the extraction check valves. the trip oil x can flow to the other valves and . The auxiliary valve serves several check valves (1). Secondary fluid from follow-up pistons of main control valves is admitted to the spaces above and below the valve (11) through connection b2. AUXILIARY VALVE (FOR EXTRACTION CHECK VALVES) FUNCTION The auxiliary valve controls the fluid supply to the extraction check valve actuators and its function is to give the check valves a signal to close in the case of a drop in load or trip-out so that steam can not flow out of the bleeder lines back to the turbine. as mentioned above. Owing to the brief differential surge.
the bleed valves thus receiving an impulse to close. Two free-swinging check valves are installed in each of the extraction lines A3.If the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit drops. A4 and A5. 14 Spring 15 Ball 16 valve b2 Signal fluid (Secondary fluid) from follow-up piston of the main control valve C Return fluid X Trip fluid X1Trip fluid to change-over valve of extraction check valve AUXILIARY VALVE EXTRACTION SWING CHECK VALVE Extraction swing check valves are provided to prevent the backflow of steam into the turbine from the extraction lines and feedwater heaters. whereby actuator KA01 assists the closing movement of the first check valve. The mechanical design of the swing check valves is such that they are brought into the free-swinging position by means of the trip medium pressure via actuator KA01 KORBA SIMULATOR 288 . In the event of flow reversal in the extraction line. the valves are pushed downwards by the force of the springs and the inlet ports from the trip fluid circuit are cut off. the valves close automatically.The fluid in the line to the changeover valves can drain off through the opened fluid return c.
as the swing check valve will open even without the release action if the steam pressure difference exerts a greater force then the closing spring. AUXILIARY VALVE The trip medium supply to actuator KA01 is controlled by extraction valve relay MAX51. the swing check valve is moved into the steam flow by means of spring force acting via the lever. By suitable adjustment of the springs of valve KA02. And solenoid valves MAX51 AA028. Extraction valve relay MAX51 AA011 actuates the swing check valves in proportion to the secondary medium pressure. AA048.and the disc lever. and are then opened by the differential pressure present. If trip medium pressure falls. hinge pin and disc lever. In the event of major output drops beyond the opening setting of the swing check KORBA SIMULATOR 289 . AA011. The opening release setting cannot be arbitrarily adjusted towards greater turbine output. the turbine load at which the swing check valves are released for opening or assisted in closing can be set. changeover valves MAX51. and closes when differential pressure is either lowered or reversed. MAX51 AA051 etc. MAX51 AA031 etc.
the associated swing check valves can be closed within the bounds of the effectiveness KORBA SIMULATOR 290 . In normal operation. there is a danger of induction of steam into the turbine form the feedwater heaters. In this case. EXTRACTION LINE SWING CHECK VALVE WITH ACTUATOR Due to the resulting pressure difference. closure of the swing check valves is assisted by a short duration close signal transmitted by valve KA01 of extraction valve relay MAX51 AA011. MAX 51 AA051 etc. whose closing movement is assisted by the spring force of actuator KA01. After a sudden load reduction. The pressure beneath valve KA01 is slowly reduced via a flow restrictor. By turning the handwheel on changeover valves MAX 51 AA048. The valve moves back into its original position to open a way for the trip medium to release the swing check valves. whereas depressurisation beneath the valve is delayed by a check valve and the pressure in accumulator MAX 45 BB001. the valve moves up to interrupt the trip medium supply to the swing check valves. the pressure above valve KA01 drops. valve KA01 passes trip medium to valves KA02.valves..
The control KORBA SIMULATOR 291 . the ventilation of the turbine blading is increased. The position of all swing check valves is indicated via differential transmitters CG002A. It is switched back manually using the close key in this case. MODE OF OPERATION OF VACUUM BREAKER When the magnet is not excited. thereby further assisting the closing movement of the swing check valves.of the spring. the solenoid valve is switched to open. it can not go into the closing position until the close key provided for closing is used. However. VACUUM BREAKER FOR REDUCING THE RUNNING DOWN TIME OF THE TURBINE FUNCTION With normal shut down or tripping of the machine. ELECTRICAL CONTROL OF TOTAL VACUUM BREAKER So that the vacuum can also be broken without limitation due to condenser pressure. This differential pressure switch energises solenoid valves MAX 51 AA028 and MAX51 AA031 if the steam flow drops below a preset rate (differential pressure). the total vacuum breaker is employed. TOTAL VACUUM BREAKERS In special cases requiring a rapid shut down of the turboset. a manual key is provided. the function of the vacuum breakers is to cause an increase in condenser pressure by conducting atmospheric air into the condenser together with bypass steam flowing into the condenser from the Bypass station. This key opens the vacuum breaker valve. AUTOMATIC CONTROL The vacuum breaker is also actuated automatically by the turbine fire protection system to shut the turboset down more quickly. which causes the turboset to slow down so that the running down time of the turboset and the time needed for passing through critical speeds are shortened. When the pressure in the condenser increases. The extraction swing check valves in extraction line A4 can also be triggered by differential pressure switch LBS42 CP002. This control enables a complete equalisation of condenser and ambient pressure.
When the pressure drops the vacuum breaker is opened by spring force OPENING PROCESS When the magnet is excited the control medium is without pressure so that the control medium in front of the solenoid valve is connected with the drain c. CLOSSING PROCESS When the magnet is not excited the valve is closed by the control medium arising.). VACUUM BREAKER KORBA SIMULATOR 292 . The piston (3) and thus the valve disc (19) are moved upwards by the force of the spring (5) (fig. The pressure of the control medium a via the piston (3) presses seal ring (17) arranged in the valve disc (19) on to the valve seat (20) against the force of the compression spring (5).medium arising holds the vacuum breaker valve in the closed position by means of the power piston.
First close the particular line control valve using ATT gearbox handle. OPERATOR ACTION IN CASE ONE ESV OR IV CLOSES When stating device > 56% and all stop valves open: Close the test valve manually and open it slowly. It is mainly used during the commissioning stages and inspections. Vacuum Breaker Valve 5. It is not a continuous measuring device. The shaft position measuring devices can be engaged and disengaged by means of a lever provided in it. Pressure Switch 3. Water Injection Valve c Drain d Steam From Ip Turbine d1 Bypass Steam k Condensate l Atmospheric Air FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM OF VACUUM BREAKER SHAFT POSITION MEASURING DEVICE The function of the shaft position-measuring device is to measure the difference between the axial expansions of the turbine casing and rotor.1. Solenoid Valve 4. from the valve room (first locate the test valve of the particular stop valve). Condenser 6. KORBA SIMULATOR 293 . Lp Turbine 2. When unit is running. next open the stop valve later control valve. Condensate Pump 7.
KORBA SIMULATOR 294 .
AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTING SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 295 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 296 .
The stop and control valves can be tested manually from the location but this test does not cover all components involved in a tripping. Also manual testing always poses a risk of mal operation on the part of the operator. Protection of turbine during testing provided by special test protective devices. Monitoring of all programme steps for execution within a predefined time.AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Under the present crunch of power crisis. during testing. upon selection of a test. is the criteria for the satisfactory functioning of devices. during normal operation. A fully automatic sequence for testing all the safety devices has been incorporated which ensures that the testing does not cause any unintentional shutdown and also provides full protection to turbine during testing. of the substitute devices that protect turbine during that test. Automatic functional pre-testing. Automatic reset of test programme after a fault. The steam stop valves and control valves along with all the protective devices on the turbine must be always maintained in serviceable condition for the safety and reliability. Testing of the protective devices during normal turbine operation can only be performed if the pretest has run without fault and protection of the turbine during testing is assured. Also. • • • • Automatic Turbine Testing extends into trip oil piping net work where total reduction of trip oil pressure due to actuation of any protective device. which might result in loss of generation or damage to machine components. During testing general alarm of the case of tripping are also initiated so that this part of alarm annunciation system also gets tested. two electrically formed values of 3300 rpm take over protection of turbine against over speed. SALIENT FEATURES The Automatic Turbine Tester is distinguishable by following features: • • • Individual testing of each protective device and stop/control valve assembly. KORBA SIMULATOR 297 . Interruption if the running time of any programme step is exceeded or if trip is initiated. This warrants testing of equipments and protective devices at regular intervals. the economy dictates long intervals between turbine overhauls and less frequent shutdowns.
Whenever any tripping condition (hydraulic/electrical) occurs. trip fluid circuit is isolated and changed over to control fluid by means of test solenoid valves and the changeover valve. the other subgroups are blocked. KORBA SIMULATOR 298 . The subgroup remains in the ON position until switched off when the program has been completed. 3. 2. the protective device concerned is actuated. During normal operation. trip fluid. protective devices act on the stop/control valves via the main trip valves. During testing. 5. Thrust bearing trip device. AUTOMATIC TESTING OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES ATT sub group for protective devices covers the following devices.The testing system or ATT is sub divided in two functional sub-groups. While the protective devices subgroup program is running. It drains the aux. Over speed trip device. However. TEST PROCEDURE The test begins with the selection of the Protective devices subgroup. closing the main trip valves. Protective device sub-group is selected by pressing the subgroup ON/OFF pushbutton. Each sub-group contains the device and all associated transmission elements for initiation of a trip. causing stop/control valves to close. Remote trip solenoid-2. Hydraulic low vacuum trip device. 1. 4. The ON/OFF pushbutton is also used to acknowledge alarms. Remote trip solenoid-1. This control fluid in trip circuit prevents any actual tripping of the machine. The closure of main Trip Gear drains the trip fluid. all alarm/annunciation gets activated as in case of an actual tripping.
Test solenoids de-energised and drop of control oil pressure is monitored. The reset program has priority over the test program. KORBA SIMULATOR 299 . Reset programme.SELECTION After the subgroup has been switched on. Hydraulic test circuit establishment. During preliminary test. b. If all steps are executed within a specified time pre-test is said to be successfull. CANCEL PUSHBOTTON This pushbotton can be used to terminate the test program running at any time and to initiate the reset program. Main test programme. Preliminary test programme. Build-up of control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve is monitored. d. LAMP TEST PUSHBOTTON All the signal lamps on the control panel can be tested by pressing the Lamp Test pushbotton. following steps are performed. Test solenoids become energised. TEST PUSHBUTTON The automatic test program is started by pressing the Test Pushbutton. c. A separate selection pushbutton is provided to each protective decive. PRELIMINARY TEST In preliminary test programme. Only one selection may be made at a time. ATT for protective devices broadly incorporates the following sub programmes: a. If any fault is present further testing is inhibited. the protective device to be tested is selected by pressing the selection pushbutton for the individual device. Selection of a further test is possible only once all other programs have ended. the turbine is fully protected against any inadvertent tripping during ATT. the substitute circuit elements and the circuit are tested for their healthiness.
ATT OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES KORBA SIMULATOR 300 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 301 ATT OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES .
Main Test During main test programme. draining control fluid from the bottom of the change over valve and change over valve moves to bottom position (i. HYDRAULIC TEST SIGNAL TRANSMITTERS The function of the hydraulic test signal transmitters is to activate the protective devices (with the exception of the remote trip solenoids). Due to draining of auxiliary trip fluid Main trip valves operates and trip fluid pressure drains and associated alarms flash. which have tripped from their normal positions. At this moment solenoid for change over valve gets energised.HYDRAULIC TEST CIRCUIT ESTABLISHMENT If no fault is present during preliminary test command is automatically given to establish hydraulic test circuit (substitute circuit). The protective device under test operates and drains the aux. With changeover valve in its test position. KORBA SIMULATOR 302 . and for testing the thrust bearing trip. The test solenoids valves are again energised building up the control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve. in which individual devices can be checked. a control medium signal is passed to the test piston. start-up fluid circuit to reset main trip valves and protective devices.e test position). the associated hydraulic test signal transmitter with the exception of remote trip solenoids provides the necessary signal to actuate protective devices. trip fluid pressure can be built-up and monitored. control fluid flows in the trip fluid piping and main trip valve gets isolated from the trip fluid header as the port for trip fluid coming from the main trip valve gets closed in the change over valve. the associated test signal transmitter builds up a test pressure relatively slowly and press it to the overspeed trips'for testing the low vacuum trip an air pressure signal is introduced to the device via an orifice. If fluid pressure is satisfactory then change over valve solenoid gets de-energised and change over valve moves to normal position. After successful establishment of hydraulic test circuit command goes to initiate the main test. Each protective device has an associated test signal transmitter. The reset solenoid valves energise and supply control fluid in aux. Once they return to their normal position. The test signals to remote trip solenoids MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002 turbine tester goes by itself and not by a test signal transmitter. deactivating hydraulic test circuit. trip fluid. trip fluid and aux. For testing the overspeed trip device. Reset Programme The resetting programme automatically starts after the main test is over. After this reset solenoids along with test solenoid valves de-energised. The hydraulic test circuit is responsible for the supply of control fluid in trip fluid circuits.
Compression Spring 2.1. If a protective device is actuated. Coil 3. At the same time. as they are constructionally and functionally identical. It must respond in the course of every successful protective device test. Control medium KORBA SIMULATOR 303 . Auxiliary start-up medium pressure forces piston 3 into its normal operating position. OPERATION Each main trip valve is kept in its operating position by auxiliary trip medium pressure. Valve Disc FOR THRUST BEARING TRIP I: Test Medium To Releasing Device II: Drain Medium III: Control Medium FOR LOW VACUUM TRIP I: Vacuum To Low Vacuum Trip II: Vacuum From Condenser III: Air At Atmospheric Pressure HYDRAULIC TEST SIGNAL TRANSMITTER MAIN TRIP VALVES MAX51 AA005 and MAX51 AA006 Only one of the two main trip valves is described in the following. limit switches 1 are actuated. the auxiliary trip medium circuit is depressurized and the main trip valve is activated. FUNCTION The function of the main trip valve is to amplify and store the hydraulic or mechanical (manually initiated local) trip signal. This connects the trip medium and auxiliary trip medium circuits to drain and shuts off the control medium supply to the turbine valves.
Pressure switches MAX48 CP201 AND MAX48 CP202 monitor the auxiliary start-up medium circuit to ensure that the pressure collapses when the main trip valves latch-in nominal position. as the test procedure is the same for both. Trip Medium III: Drain Medium IV: Control Medium V: Aux. Start-Up Medium MAIN TRIP VALVE IV is then free to pass through to build up the pressure in the trip medium and the auxiliary trip medium circuits. REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002 The twin electrical remote trip feature consists of the two-solenoid valves MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002.1: Limit Switch 2: Spring 3: Piston 4: Body I: Trip Medium II: Aux. FUNCTION The function of the remote trip solenoids is to depressurize the trip medium circuit in the shortest possible time. One trip channel is described here. thereby bringing main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and KORBA SIMULATOR 304 .
For testing. OVER SPEED TRIPS MAY10 AA01/MAY10 AA002 FUNCTION The two overspeed trips are provided to protect the turbine against overspeeding in the event of load coincident with failure of the speed governor. The reset program is then started. In addition. Trip initiation is monitored downstream of the main trip valves by pressure switch MAX51 CP209 and MAX52 CP211 in the auxiliary trip medium circuit. the solenoid valve is switched over by the automatic turbine tester so that the auxiliary trip medium circuit is connected to drain. in the event of a malfunction requiring electrical trip initiation. Compression Spring 2. REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID 1. During normal operation the remote trip solenoid blocks the passage of auxiliary trip medium to the drain.MAX51 AA006 into their trip positions. Magnet System 3. As they are particularly KORBA SIMULATOR 305 . the limit switch of each main trip valve must annunciate successful completion of the test. Vent Hole I: Auxiliary Trip Fluid II: Drain Medium LATCHING-IN On successful completion of testing. solenoid valves MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002 are de-energized. Body 4.
The loss of auxiliary trip medium pressure causes the main trip valve to drop. Piston I: Test Oil II: Auxiliary Start-Up Medium III: Auxiliary Trip Medium IV: Drain Medium 6. KORBA SIMULATOR 306 . Turbine Shaft 2. is needed. which in turn causes the trip medium pressure to collapse. as the test routine performed by the automatic turbine tester requires. the eccentric flybolt 2 each overspeed trip activates piston 5 and limit switch annunciator 6 via pawl 4. this force is exterted by the test oil pressure. they can also be locally tested by hand during turbine operation at rated speed with the aid of overspeed trip test device (hydraulic test signal transmitter) MAX62 AA001. Pawl 5. equivalent to the increase in centrifugal force between rated speed and present trip overspeed.important to the protection of the turbine. To activate the overspeed trip at rated speed. For testing. and can therefore be used to check whether the overspeed trip responds at the desired setting. This connects the auxiliary trip medium circuit to drain thereby de-pressurising it. a specific force. Compression Spring 4. OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE 1. the test oil pressure is a reproduceible measure for the trip speed. Limit Switch OPERATION When the preset overspeed is reached. Eccentric Shaft Fly Bolt 3. acting on the head of bolt 2. On the bais of the existing defined geometry.
thereby activating the main trip valve via pawl 4. Premature response of the overspeed trips is annunciated. After a cetain idling time. Valve For Test Oil 4.OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE HTT 1. Limit Switch (Normal Position 2. KORBA SIMULATOR 307 . and the annunciation from limit switch 6. Limit Switch (Test Position) 3. the test oil pressure builds up to act on the two overspeed trip bolts 2. has to be selected. A slow build-up of pressure is required for this operation. Limit siwtch 6 must respond within the pressure range between the settings of pressure switches MAX62 CP211 and MAX62 CP212. equivalent to the running time of the actuator. they will fly outwards into the trip position when the defined pressure is reached. The two overspeed trips are monitored for actuation at the given test oil pressure by observing the two pressure switches MAX62 CP211 and MAX62 CP212 in the test oil line. Pressure switches MAX62 CP211 and MAX62 CP212 are preset to respond at a certain level (approx. which is why a relatively long monitoring period. slide valve 5 and the auxiliary trip medium circuit.15 atm) below and above the test oil reference pressure respectively. If the two bolts are functioning correctly. 0. Actuator I: Control Medium II: Test Oil III: Auxiliary Trip Medium IV: Auxiliary Start-Up Medium V: Control Oil VI: Drain Oil TEST SEQUENCE The test oil pressure is produced using the hydraulic test signal transmitter which is also used for manual testing First the command is given to the actuator motor to go into the trip position (down). This test reference oil pressure is determined empirically during commissioning and entered in the operating log.
piston 5 is brought back into its nominal position by pressure of auxiliary start-up medium II and latched in with pawl 4. the spring moves valve 6 downwards. set to a specific tension. is energized. Subsequently by. This blocks off the vacuum line and simultaneously connects the space above diaphragm 4 to the atmosphere. the actuator of the hydraulic test signal transmitter is driven back until the integral limit switch annunciates that normal position has been reached. after completion of testing. If the vacuum is too weak to counteract the spring tension. thereby closing all turbine valves. so auxiliary trip medium III can build up pressure. While test oil pressure is being dispersed. so that air is free to flow in via an orifice (connection II) to weaken the vacuum. the top side of which is subject to the vacuum. fitted in the vacuum carrying signal line.LATCHING-IN Once the trip has been initiated. This double check-back of the hydraulic test signal transmitter having returned to normal position ensures that. In addition. monitoring must be continued until the test oil pressure at pressure switch MAX62 CP213 is less than 0. the turbine condenser is too weak for condensation to be properly effected. OPERATION In each trip device.5 atm. compression spring 3. the overspeed at which the turbine will trip is not reduced due to test oil pressure remaining effective and that the overspeed trip will not be set off prematurely in the event of load reduction. pushes downwards against diaphragm 4. the auxiliary start-up medium can be depressurized. Once this has been done. Compression spring 3 presses down valve 6 to KORBA SIMULATOR 308 . TEST SEQUENCE First. piston 5 shuts off drain channel IV. test signaller (solenoid valve) MAG01 AA201. the two overspeed bolts spring back into their normal positions at a pressure well above 0. The resultant depressurization of the auxiliary trip medium circuit actuates main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and MAX51 AA006. if the vacuum in 4. LOW VACUUM TRIP MAG01 AA011 FUNCTION The function of the low vacuum trip is to operate the main trip valve during normal operation. At the same time.1 atm. The pressure beneath valve 7 is thereby dispersed and the auxiliary trip medium circuit is connected to drain.
Valve I. thereby opening the passage for the control medium to flow to valve 7. Limit Switch 6. Control Medium LATCHING-IN When test signal transmitter MAG01 AA201 has been de-energized and the connection between low vacuum trip and the condenser re-established. Adjusting Piston 2. Primary Oil II. LOW VACUUM TRIP DEVICE 1. Compression Spring 4. Stem (Adjustable) 3. Drain Medium VI. Valve 6 moves into its upper end position.connect the auxiliary trip medium circuit to drain via valve 7 when the preset limit is reached The low vacuum trip is monitored for operation within the specified vacuum range by observing pressure switches MAG01 CP202 and MAG01 CP201. Auxiliary Trip Medium V. When valve 7 is in its upper end position. Valve 7. Diaphragm 5. Restoration of normal operating configuration is annunciated by the limit switch of the low vacuum trip and by pressure switch MAG01 CP201. the auxiliary trip medium circuit is closed again. vacuum builds up again above diaphragm 4. Vacuum III. Atmospheric Pressure IV. KORBA SIMULATOR 309 .
THRUST BEARING TRIP DEVICE 1. Limit Switch I: Auxiliary Trip Medium II: Auxiliary Start-Up Medium III: Drain Medium IV: Test Medium KORBA SIMULATOR 310 . Pawl 4. Valve Piston 7. Compression Spring 8. Tension Spring 6. Shaft 2. Test Piston 5. Tripping Cam 3.
equivalent to the permissible shaft displacement. Both solenoid valves are energized in the course of the reset program conducted after each subtest. Thereby pawl 3 latches in and holds valve piston blocks off drain III. Once this has been done.THRUST BEARING TRIP MAY10 AA011 FUNCTION The function of the thrust bearing trip is to monitor the shaft position in the bearing pedestal and. the auxiliary start-up medium is depressurized again. The pressure of test medium IV is monitored by pressure switch MAX61 CP211. fitted in the auxiliary start-up medium line. RESET SOLENOIDS MAX48 AA201 AND MAX48 AA 202 FUNCTION The function of the reset solenoids is to restore the tripped protective devices to their normal operating positions during the ATT reset program. If the axial displacement of the shaft exceeds the permissible limit. which then deflects pawl 3 against the force of spring 5. the associated hydraulic test signal transmitter MAX61 AA202 is energized. LATCHING-IN After the pressure of test medium IV has dropped again. TEST SEQUENCE To test the thrust bearing trip. OPERATION The reset solenoids are two 3-way solenoid valves (2 ports open at any time). The combined force of the auxiliary trip medium and of compression spring 7 drives piston 6 into its trip position. the thrust bearing trip is returned to its normal operating position by applying the pressure of start-up auxiliary medium II to valve piston 6. if a fault occurs. to depressurize the auxiliary trip medium and thus the trip medium circuit in the shortest possible time. the cams engage pawl 3. Test medium IV is then free to pass to test piston 4. which releases piston 6 to de-pressurize the auxiliary trip medium circuit and at the same time to actuate limit switch 8. so that auxiliary start-up medium KORBA SIMULATOR 311 . thus moving the piston against the force of compression spring 7. OPERATION The two rows of tripping cams 2 which are arranged on opposite sides of turbine shaft 1 have a specific clearance. thereby tripping the turbine. relative to pawl 3 of the thrust bearing trip.
The testing of these valves in conjunction with testing of the protective devices. RESET SOLENOID 1. as well as the protective devices. Coil 3. Dispersion of the auxiliary start-up medium pressure is monitored by pressure switch MAX48 CP201. and the trip medium and auxiliary trip medium pressure can build up again. KORBA SIMULATOR 312 . When the protective devices have latched in again. The use of two reset solenoids ensures that main trip valves MAX 51 AA005 and MAX 51 AA006 will always be sure to be actuated if either one of the two reset solenoids is deenergized. should function reliably. ensures that all elements which must respond on turbine trip are tested for their ability to function reliably.line II is supplied with control medium III. The control medium pressure forces all protective devices back into their normal operating positions. reset solenoid MAX48 AA201 is deenergized first to shut off the control medium supply through this valve. Compression Spring 2. This is monitored by pressure switch MAX48 CP202. The second reset solenoid MAX48 AA202 is then de-energized to disperse the pressure between the two solenoid valves. Valve Disc I: Auxiliary Start-Up Medium II: Auxiliary Devices III: Control Medium Start-Up MediumTo Protective ATOMATIC TURBINE TESTER FOR STOP AND CONTROL VALVES GENERAL The stop valves and the control valves of the turbine are the final control elements governed by the protective the final control elements governed by the protective devices and it is therefore equally important that these.
respectively. To enable initial pressure to be maintained constant. This means that the steam pressure acting against the spring closure force (steam lift) is greater than is the event of normal trip. For the same reason. the closing time of the control valves is relatively long. as the ATT does not interrupt the secondary medium circuit and the KORBA SIMULATOR 313 . regardless of the stage which the test has reached. Thus closure of the valves cannot be impeded in the event of a trip during testing. the electro-hydraulic turbine controller must be in operation prior to testing. testing is only permissible when the turbine output is below a certain value.Each stop valve is tested together with its associated control valve. The automatic turbine tester intervenes in the medium circuits normally used to control the valves and uses only trip medium both for operation of test valves MAX47 AA011 to 014 and MAX47 AA021 to 024 and for resetting and opening of the stop valves. as the action of the protective devices is simulated by solenoid valve MAX61 AA211 to 214 or MAX61 AA221 to 224.AA002M acting on relay piston KA06 parallel to pilot valve KA05. This also applies to the control valves. The steam side conditions during testing are somewhat more severe than during actual trip. This constant slow closing movement is also necessary in order to enable the associated controller to keep the output or initial pressure constant. as the pressure downstream of the stop valve connot drop off during closure because the control valve is closed. which are held in the open position by trip medium pressure during normal operation. TEST REQUIREMENTS To avoid turbine output changes and initial pressure variations due to the closing of the tested control valve during testing. SPECIAL CONDITIONS DURING TESTING During testing one of the control valves MAA10 to 40 AA002 or MAB10 to 40 AA002 is closed completely by means of a motor-operated positioner . Thus the conditions for actuation of the valve are the same during testing as during normal actuation by the controller. The automatic turbine tester is designed so that only one valve assembly may be selected and tested at any time. are subjected to exactly the same hydraulic conditions during testing as would be the case in the event of actual turbine trip. The stop valves. This results in a closing movement simulating that which occurs when the associated secondary pressure drops.
secondary medium can thus be depressurized in the normal manner in the even of a trip. ATT OF STOP/CONTROL VALVES KORBA SIMULATOR 314 .
FEATURES OF THE AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTER • The automatic tester is distinguished by the following features: KORBA SIMULATOR 315 .
main stop and control valve. TEST PUSHBUTTON KORBA SIMULATOR 316 . TEST SELECTION UNITS There are 4 combined main stop and control valves and 4 combined reheat stop and control valves.g. each of which is tested as a separate unit and has a separate selection push button in the ATT control panel. to be tested is selected by pressing the selection pushbutton for the individual valve assembly. Reheat stop and control valve. While the valve test subgroup program is running. This is performed by pressing the subgroup ON/OFF pushbutton. the other subgroups are blocked. Main stop and control valve. Protection of the turbine during testing provided by special test protective devices. SELECTION If the test requirements have been fulfilled and the balve test subgroup switched on. The On/Off pushbutton is also used to acknowledge alarms.• • • Individual testing of each valve assembly Monitoring of all program steps for execution within a certain time. Main stop and control valve. Reheat stop and control valve. The subgroup remains in the ON postion until switched off when the program has been completed. TEST PROCEDURE: START OF TESTING The test begins with the selection of the valve test subgroup. Reheat stop and control valve. Reheat stop and control valve. Selection of further test is possible only once all other programs have ended. Main stop and control valve. Automatic reset of the testing program after a fault. Only one selection may be made at a time. A separate selection pushbutton is provided for each valve assembly. They are: • • • • • • • • Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: Main stop and control valve. the valve assembly (e.
When the pressure at this pressure switch has dropped slightly below the break-away pressure of piston disc KA02.CG001E annunciated entry of the valve into its closed position. CLOSURE OF CONTROL VALVE If all the test requirements have been fulfilled and the selection and Test pushbottons pressed. 238 or MAX51 CP248. During this time. 228. which moves into its upper end position and connects the space below piston disc KA02 with the drain. OPENING OF STOP VALVE Next. 253. thus making it possible to monitor the valve closing action for completion within the maximum running time. If the control valve is functioning properly. control valve MAA10 to 40 AA002 or MAB10 to 40 AA002 of the valve assembly selected is closed by means of its associated valve test positioner (test motor. -AA002M). 258. The pressure in this space drops rapidly and is monitored by the pressure switch MAX51 CP223 CP223. with a slight delay to achieve a ceratin overtravel. the controllers compensate for the effects of closure of the valve being tested on the initial pressure or turbine output by opening the other control valves. Operation of positioner -AA002M is continued until limit switches CG002C on the control valve and -AA002 MS72 and -AA002 MS73 on the actuator are actuated to annunciate. The running time for closure of the control valve is monitored. monitoring of the stop valve closure time starts. it will close within the pre-set running time. respectively. Limit switch . CANCEL PUSHBUTTON All the signal lamps on the control panel can be tested by pressing the Lamp Test pushbutton. that the control valve being tested is in closed position. solenoid valve MAX47 AA211 to 214 or MAX47 AA221 to 224 is energized (test position) and trip medium is admitted to the control surface of the piston in test valve KORBA SIMULATOR 317 . This allows trip medium to flow to the space below changeover slide valve MAX61 AA011 to 014 or MAX61 AA021 to 024. solenoid valve MAX61 AA211 to 214 or MAX221 to 224 is energized. 233.The automatic program is started by pressing the Test pushbutton of the valve test program tile. CLOSURE OF STOP VALVE If the control valve has closed properly.
after a certain amount of further travel. Again the initial pressure and output are kept constant by the appropriate controller. 237 or MAX51 CP242. 252. 256. The motor of positioner--AA002M is operated in the opening direction. slowly connects the space above piston KA01 with the drain. 226. 246. This is monitored by pressure switch MAX51 CP223. solenoid valve MAX61 AA211 to 214 or MAX61 AA221 to 224 is de-energized (operating position). The spontaneous pressure rise when piston KA01 has made contact with piston disc KA02. 227. The resultsant pressure difference causes the tensioned piston relay to open the stop valve. and thus on completion of the spring tensioning action. 233. 258 and by limit switch . it will open within the pre-set running time. 257. so that trip medium is once again able to flow to test valve MAX47 AA011 to 014 or MAX47 AA021 to 024 and the drain is blocked off again. 232. Testing of the stop valve is now completed. Test valve MAX47 AA011 to 014 and MAX47 AA021 to 024 switches over. RE-OPENING OF CONTROL VALVE If the conditions are fulfilled within the specified monitoring period.MAX47 AA011 to 014 or MAX47 AA021 to 024. being equal to the spring force acting against it. the control valve is re-opened. the selection is automatically canelled and the program shut down. admitting trip medium to the underside of piston disc KA02 and. This piston is forced downwards by the pressure of the medium. 253. 236 or MAX51 CP241. The build-up of trip medium pressure monitored by pressure switch MAX51 CP221. The piston moves into its lower end position against the spring force. This position is detected by limit switch -AA002 MS61 or -AA002 MS62. 228. If all conditions are fulfilled within this relatively long monitoring period. the full trip medium pressure builds up. Operation of positioner -AA002M is continued until. thereby tensioning the spring between piston KA01 is relatively low. 248. thus permitting trip medium to flow to the space above piston KA01 of the stop valve. When the pressure is sufficiently high. If the control valve is functioning properly. CANCELLATION OF SELECTION On conclusion of testing of each valve assembly. 251. 238 or MAX51 CP243. 231. after a certain amount of overtravel. the stop valve is opened by de-energizing solenoid valve MAX47 AA211 to 214 or MAX47 AA221 to 224 (operating position). KORBA SIMULATOR 318 .CG001D. As soon as open position is reached. 247. Positioner -AA002M moves the control valve into its original position in the reverse sequence to the closing action. it has positively ceased to influence the controller. is detected by pressure switch MAX51 CP222.
If the Fault in ATT alarm is displayed. All equipment associated with the automatic turbine tester is automatically returned to its normal position. the fault lies in the automatic tester itself. KORBA SIMULATOR 319 .INTERRUPTION DUE TO RUNNING TIME EXCEEDED The reset program is automatically initiated if the running time for any step is the test program is exceeded. If any running time is exceeded during the reset program. all solonoid valves are de-energized and positioner -AA002M is returned to its extreme position and the program cancelled. the alarms Fail signal and Time Overrun are generated. In either case. INTERRUPTION DUE TO TURBINE TRIP If electrical turbine trip is initiated during testing. the program is halted.
KORBA SIMULATOR 320 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 321 .
TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR KORBA SIMULATOR 322 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 323 .
(Surface and midwall. 4. 2. which are the appropriate operating instructions. In case of HP shaft and IP shaft.) HP Shaft Temp. loading. shutdown) of the turbine. are displayed by means of an indicating instrument. As thermal stress becomes major consideration from turbine side. and in turn turbine metal is subjected to those temp changes. (Surface and midwall. INPUTS TO THE TSE Actual Speed (Hall Probe) Actual Load Temperatures Of Turbine Metal Parts : 0 -3600 rpm : 0 -600 MW : MSV. HPC.) HP Casing Temp. (Surface and midwall. 5. Main ESV Temp. HPS. IPS TSE gets inputs from 5 points of turbine to compute limits for operation: 1. it is to be ensured that turbine is never subjected to undesirable thermal stress. (Surface and midwall. Turbine Stress Evaluator measures and calculates the relevant temperature values and evaluates them in an analog computing circuit and determines the allowable conditions of operation so that useful life of the turbine shall not be unduly reduced. temperature is measured at the casing where thermal behavior of shaft and casing is supposed to be same. 3. (Surface and midwall.) Temperature at various points are measured at surface (96% depth) and inside (54%) with the help of thermocouples placed at proper places. MCV.) IP Shaft Temp. The mean internal (mid metal) shaft temperature can be calculated with an adequate degree of accuracy by means of the following mathematical equation. KORBA SIMULATOR 324 .TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR Steam parameter varies with the condition throughout the operating range with every change (start up. The results of TSE.) MCV Temp. Thus it allows the operation of the turbine at the highest possible rates of load/ speed change while limiting the stresses within permissible values. Differential Temperature in the material should always be kept within the permissible limits. The resulting T in the turbine material is a measure of thermal stress subjected to that part. The optimum balance between longevity on the one hand and max flexibility of operation on the other is achieved when the permissible range of material stress can be utilised to the full.
The calculated temperature difference is compared against the permissible temperature difference (∆Tp). CALCULATION CIRCUIT The milli-volt output from thermocouple is fed into the signal conditioning cabinet where the transducers give out 4-20 mA signals as temperature signals.177 e 2408. we get upper margin and the –ve side we get lower margin. Power supply for the TSE indicator is ± 24 V. After the KORBA SIMULATOR 325 .31 457. Two partly These discs are controlled by means of three electrical servomotors equipped with feedback potentiometers. Comparing ∆Ta against ∆Tp on the + ve side. which is derived from function generator for each computing channel. Ts Tm t : : : -t/T1 + 0. . The smallest of the respective upper and lower temperature Margins computed for admission and turbine areas are selected for display on the TSE indicator and used for further processing. partly calibrated in Speed . The circular scale is controlled by the actual value for either Speed or Load. The module for control of the potentiometer-equipped servomotor is located in the TSE indicator and receives three impressed currents of ± 1 mA for the computing circuits.and Load coloured glass discs. or the load is below 2% MCR the actual speed and temperature margins are displayed on the left side of the display. The thermal stress is proportional to this temperature difference. The difference between ∆Tp and ∆Ta is called MARGIN. For calculation purpose we have one analog computer located in the controller cabinet having five computing channels for above five inputs.131 e T1 T2 Tk -t/T2 + 0.08 56. Before the generator is synchronised. TSE DISPLAY The indicator is divided vertically into two sections one for starting and one for load operation.One Circular Scale disc. The lower red coloured disc is controlled by the lower available margin either for the temperature or the load. The upper red coloured disc is controlled by the upper available margin either for the temperature or the load. It comprises of three discs.(0. Each computing channels determines the temperature difference (∆Ta) between surface and mid metal temperature.Tm = Ts [ 1.692 e Where.62 -t/Tk )] Surface Temperature Mid metal Temperature Time in minutes : : : Time constants Various constants used in the above equation are derived from the shaft diameter and thermal diffusivity of the rotor material.
KORBA SIMULATOR TSE BLOCK DIAGRAM 326 .
Additional LEDs located above and below are the symbols for HP and IP turbine in the turbine related window and indicate from which turbine upper margin (Upper LED) and the lower margin (Lower LED) is originated. The appropriate LEDs then show a red light. The effective section is illuminated according to the operating mode. The red window in the middle is the fault alarm. KORBA SIMULATOR 327 . The row of alarm windows located across the top of the two section of the indicator shows which computing channel is on line.generator is synchronised and load is greater than 2%. the actual load and load margins are displayed on the right side. Illumination of the appropriate chosen window indicates whether the displayed margins are being supplied by admission or turbine channel.
The turbine is operating within the permissible stress as long as the actual temperatures. speed and temperature margins are displayed on the left hand section. The opaque red section between the discs covers the prohibited range. During load operation. the lower boundary indicates lower margins (for decreasing load and shut-down). The actual load is shown on a rotating disc marked in MW. Speed is indicated on a circular moving scale. KORBA SIMULATOR 328 . the right hand section displays the actual load and the load margins. while the white indicates the permissible zone of operation. Two rotating red discs indicate the permissible load range. These screens have two zones in different colour. The upper boundary of the transparent sector indicates the upper margins (for start-up and increasing load).During start-up. load values are located within the transparent region between the discs. The upper and lower temperature margins are covered on the screen. the red area represents a warning or prohibited range.
Two red discs indicate the permissible load change. When changeover has been affected. the TSE indicator can be switched manually by means of two push buttons on the control desk to indicate the respective margin either from the admission or from the turbine channels as desired. When the unit is synchronised. which displays the load margins calculated from the temperature margins. KORBA SIMULATOR 329 .Changing Section of the TSE Indicator During speed operation. if the non-illuminated green alarm window flashes. During speed operation. this indicate that the temp margins originating from one of the channels related to the flashing window has been reduced to less than 100K. the TSE indicator automatically changes over to the right hand section. the green alarm window changes the flashing to steady light. The flashing lamp instructs the operator to changeover to the range with the smaller margins.
If the upper load or speed margin is consumed then the following methods can be adopted to restore the lost margin.K..600 DEG. OUTPUTS ATRS EHC CMC TSE TEMP. Inputs to these are from the same thermocouple that are used for TSE KORBA SIMULATOR 330 . If the lower margin gets consumed then the following methods can be adopted • • Stopping of further unloading & soaking the turbine.IMPORTANCE OF TSE MARGINS The temperature margin is a measure of the degree of thermal stress. is subjected to. If the margin is consumed. this means that the component is being stressed to its permissible limits. : + 150 DEG. Reduction of steam temperatures in case boiler firing rate had been rapid. : + 150 DEG. Increase the steam temperatures. 0 TO 600 MW All metal temperature criteria come from curve generators/LVRs. • • • Avoidance of further loading of turbine.K : 0 . This condition is indicated by either of upper or lower red disc reaching horizontal position.K. during speed rising before synchronization. which a turbo set. Soaking the machine for sufficient time period. which the turbine can withstand without being over stressed.C.K : + 30 DEG. The load margin is the greatest step change in load based on the instantaneous stress condition. RECORDE TSE MARGIN RECORDER TSE INDICATOR TO ATRS : : + 30 DEG. It is worthwhile to mention here that before synchronization turbine should have temperature margin more than 300 K available so that minimum load on the set can be achieved immediately after synchronization.
SPEED CONTROLLER: Only upper margin is used. In case of fault last margin is frozen so that rolling does not get affected till 2850 rpm. Lower margin is not used. TSE fault does not switch off ATRS SGC Turbine program. 10V input is used for clamping the max gradient allowable. If TSE influence is made off. these margins determine the gradient at which PRTD varies – If TSE influence is OFF. as coasting down is natural. In case of TSE fault TSE influence is to be made off and then reset the fault. EHC Only temperature margins are taken and not load margins. Then switch on TSE influence otherwise the set/reset memory may not reset properly. It is not from UCB but from EHC panel. In SGC Turbine step 15 TSE margin more than 30O K. In set point controller. LOAD CONTROLLER: Both lower and upper margins used. TSE margins determine the gradient at which NRTD varies. SGC Turbine program goes OFF. criteria is checked.• • • • In SGC Turbine step 14 TSE Test programme block command is given.Negative upper temperature margin can unload the machine but loading the machine is left to desk engineer. KORBA SIMULATOR 331 . STOP REFERENCE (LOAD/SPEED): TSE fault is one of the conditions for stop reference. 10 volt is fed at TSE margin input to minimum gate so that UCB gradient controls the P rtd rate.
shown on centre window of the TSE display in red colour 332 KORBA SIMULATOR . TSE fault alarms is initiated on following condition. For testing known input data can be introduced for each channel to give rise to display of certain predetermined results. stop will come. CMC and ATRS. ALARMS 1. All lamps in TSE indicator will go off. Margin spent alarm is initiated.24 V SUPPLY OFF TO TSE PANEL: Discs will close on TSE indicator. the indicator must show specific values for each computing channel. This facilitates rapid localization of defective computing channel. If there is deviation from the tolerance test values. Test program is available for display not for kompensograph. it is probable that there is a fault in the evaluator. TSE INDICATOR SUPPLY UCB OFF : TSE discs will close. If TSE is functioning correctly.e. TSE influence switching off facility is there to be used under fault condition. CMC release will come if the controllers are balanced i. TSE release will be absent for EHC and load ref. These circuits keep watch on temperature requisition and nature of kompensograph ensures if a pre-set gradient is exceeded i. Testing is possible only when enable signal from EHC is present. characteristic gradient is noticed. ATRS SGC turbine programme step-14 output should be absent. TSE fault occurs. TSE TEST Release should be present from EHC.e. kompensograph will not affected. All lamps will go OFF in the TSE indicator. the dynamic monitoring loop responds and associated lamplights up with fault indication. TSE testing will be blocked. On exceeding the limits computed by TSE. TSE test is carried out in order to check the healthiness of various computing channel and display channels. which are coming to TSE display. In case of loss of supply for display. 2. otherwise. Power supply is separately available for display and kompensograph. Dynamic monitoring system is based on the principle of detecting change as a function of time. EHC. For healthiness of computing channels dynamic monitoring system is also active. Each channel generates the gradient for its curves. Testing can be dome if TSE influence is OFF in the absence of these releases. there is no variation between actual and set values.
• • • • Enabling signal for test Transducer fault Fault detected by dynamic monitoring Hardware fault DISPLAY RESULTS FROM THE TEST PROGRAM Main steam stop valve (MSV) Main steam control valve (MCV) HP Turbine Casing (HPC) Variable-speed range Power output range Top screen Bottom screen Top screen Actual power Bottom screen HP Turbine Shaft (HPS) Variable Speed range Power output range Top screen Top screen Top screen Actual power Bottom Screen IP Turbine Shaft (IPS) Variable speed range Power output range Top screen Bottom screen Top screen Actual power Bottom screen 96 + 1 k 56 + 1 k 451 + 6 mw 401 + 6 mw 152 + 6 mw 29 + 1 k 43 + 1 k 503 + 6 mw 401 + 6 mw 104 + 6 mw 58 + 1 k 28 + 1 k 554 + 6 mw 400 + 6 mw 206 + 6 mw Top screen Bottom screen Top screen Bottom screen 30 + 1 k 70 + 1 k 61 + 1 k 35 + 1 k KORBA SIMULATOR 333 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 334 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 335 .
GENERATOR AND GENERATOR AUXILIARIES KORBA SIMULATOR 336 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 337 .
of terminals brought out Resistance in Ohms at 20OC : BHEL : THDF 115/59 : IEC 34-1.stator winding Stator core .0672 KORBA SIMULATOR 338 .0014145 : W-Z 0.85(LAG) : 21 KV : +5% : 3000/50 : 16200 : 4 Kg/Cm2 : 0.0014132 Stator Winding between terminals Rotor Winding : V-Y 0. : 588 MVA : 500 MW : 0.GENERATOR & ITS AUXILIARIES GENERAL DESIGN FEATURES Make Type Code Cooling .0014132 : F1-F2 0. VDE 0530 : Directly water cooled : Directly hydrogen cooled.48 : 4040 A : MICALASTIC (similar to class F) : 6 : U-X 0.rotor Rating Apparent power Active power Power factor Terminal voltage Permissible variation in voltage Speed/Frequency/Hz Stator current Hydrogen pressure Short circuit Ratio Field Current(calculated value) Class and Type of Insulation No.
The hydrogen coolers are arranged vertically inside the turbine end stator end shield. The losses in the remaining generator components. phase connectors and bushings and direct hydrogen cooling for the rotor winding.000kgm2 : 14.8rps(S-GEN) . Critical Speeds : : 3780 KW : 6300 A : 600V : 65 KVA : 195 A : 220 V(1+10%) : 400 Hz Maximum short circuit torque of stator at line to : 1488 kpm line single phase short circuit Moment of inertia of generator shaft Critical speed (calculated) nk1 nk2 nk3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The two-pole generator uses direct water cooling for the stator winding.4 rps(V-GEN) : 30.1rps(V-EXC) : 39. The generator frame is pressure-resistant and gas tight and equipped with one stator end shield on each side. are also dissipated through hydrogen.Main Exciter Active Power Current Voltage Pilot Exciter Apparent power Current Voltage Frequency Torque. such as iron losses windage losses and stray losses. The generator consists of the following components : Stator Stator frame End shields Stator core Stator winding KORBA SIMULATOR 339 : 10.
KORBA SIMULATOR 340 . HYDROGEN COOLING CIRCUIT : The hydrogen is circulated in the generator interior in a closed circuit by one multistage axial-flow fan arranged on the rotor at the turbine end. FLOW PATH I Flow path I is directed into the rotor at the turbine end below the fan hub for cooling of the turbine end half of the rotor. particularly to the copper conductors. where it is recooled and then divided into three flow path after each cooler.Direct cooling essentially eliminates hot spots and differential temperatures between adjacent components which could result in mechanical stress.Hydrogen coolers Rotor Rotor shaft Rotor Winding Rotor retaining rings Field connections Bearings Shaft seals The following additional auxiliary systems are required for generator operation :Oil system Gas system Primary water system Excitation system COOLING SYSTEM The heat losses arising in the generator interior are dissipated to the secondary coolant (raw water.) through hydrogen and primary water. Hot gas is drawn by the fan from the air gap and delivered to the coolers. condensate etc. insulation rotor body and stator core.
KORBA SIMULATOR 341 .
The heat removal capacity is selected such that approximately identical temperatures are obtained for all conductors. The first cooling zone consists of the rotor end winding and the second one of winding portion between the rotor body end and the mid point of the rotor. To dissipate the higher losses in the core ends. The hydrogen flows through each individual conductor in closed cooling ducts. The cooling water flow through the hydrogen coolers should be automatically controlled to maintain a uniform generator temperature level for various loads. and cold water temperatures. Cold gas is directed to each cooling zone through separate openings directly before the rotor body end. These ventilating ducts are supplied with cooling gas directly from the end winding space. The hot gas of the second cooling zone is discharged into the air gap at mid-length of the rotor body through radial openings in the hollow conductors and wedges. cold gas is directed to the rotor end windings at the turbine and exciter ends. Another flow path is directed from the stator end winding space past the clamping fingers between the pressure plated and core end section into the air gap. the cooling gas slots are closely spaced in the core end sections to ensure effective cooling. The gas of the first cooling zone is discharged from the coils at the pole centre into a collecting compartment within the pole area below the end winding.FLOW PATH II Flow path II is directed form the coolers to the individual frame compartments for cooling of the stator core. A further flow path passes into the air gap along either side of the flux shield. cold gas is admitted to the individual frame compartments via separated cooling gas ducts. From these frame compartments the gas then flows into the air gap through slots in the core where it absorbs the heat from the core. Each oil quarter is divided into two cooling zones. The three flows mix in the air gap. The rotor winding is symmetrical relative to the generator centre line and pole axis. FLOW PATH III Flow path III is directed to the stator end winding space at the exciter end through guide ducts in the frame for cooling of the exciter end half of the rotor and of the core end portions. COOLING OF STATOR CORE For cooling of the stator core. COOLING OF ROTOR For direct cooling of the rotor winding. From there the hot gas passes into the air gap through pole face slots at the end of the rotor body. The gas is then returned to the coolers via the axial-flow fan. KORBA SIMULATOR 342 .
The pump is supplied with hot primary water from the primary water tank and delivers the water to the generator via the coolers. i. The stator frame accommodates the electrically active parts of the stator. To ensure that the cold gas directed to the exciter end cannot be directly discharged into the air gap. etc. The gas is then returned to the coolers via the axial-flow fan. Relative movements due to different thermal expansions between the top and bottom bars are thus minimised. FLOW PATH I Flow path I cools the stator windings. the water is passed through similar hoses to another water manifold and then returned to the primary water tank. The secondary water flow through the primary water cooler should be controlled automatically to maintain a uniform average generator temperature level for various loads and cold water temperatures.All the flows mix in the air gap and cool the rotor body and stator core surfaces. Both the gas ducts and a large number of welded circular ribs provide for the rigidity of the stator frame.). condensate. Ring shaped supports for resilient core suspension are arranged between the circular ribs. The six bushings and the phase connectors arranged in a circle around the stator end winding are hydraulically interconnected. At the turbine end. Since a single pass water flow through the stator is used. The cooled water flow is divided into two flow paths as described in the following paragraphs. STATOR FRAME The stator frame consists of a cylindrical centre section and two end shield which are gas tight and pressure resistant. This flow path first passes to a water manifold on the exciter end of the generator and from there to the stator bars via insulated hoses. The generator cooler is subdivided into cooler sections arranged vertically in the KORBA SIMULATOR 343 . The bushings and phase connectors consists of thick walled copper tubes through which the cooling water is circulated. an air gap choke is arranged with in the range of the stator end winding cover and the rotor retaining ring at the exciter end. only a minimum temperature rise is obtained for both the coolant and the bars. Each individual bar is connected to the manifold by a separate hose. PRIMARY COOLING WATER CIRCUIT IN THE GENERATOR The treated water used for cooling of the stator winding phase connectors and bushing is designated as primary water in order to distinguish it from the secondary coolant (raw water. The stator end shields are joined and sealed to the stator frame with an O-ring and bolted flange connections. Inside the bars the cooling water flows through hollow strands. FLOW PATH II Flow path II cools the phase connectors and the bushings. The primary water is circulated in a closed circuit and dissipates the absorbed heat to the secondary cooling water in the primary water cooler.e. the stator core and the stator windings.
The water manifolds are insulated from the stator frame. pressure plates and non-magnetic trough type clamping bolts which are insulated from the core. The mica tape is built up from larger mica splitting which are sandwiched between two polyester backed fabric layers with epoxy as an adhesive. After bending. After impregnation KORBA SIMULATOR 344 . all the solid strands are jointly brazed into a connecting sleeve and the hollow strands into a water box from which the cooling water enters and exits via teflon insulating hoses connected to the annular manifolds.turbine side stator end shield. several half-overlapped continuous layers of mica tape are applied to the bars. The bars consists of hollow and solid strands distributed over the entire bar cross section so that good heat dissipation is ensured.. STATOR CORE The stator core is stacked from insulated electrical sheet steel laminations and mounted in supporting rings over insulated dovetailed guide bars. The bars are dried under vacuum and impregnated with epoxy resin which has very good penetration properties due to its low viscosity. The supporting rings form part of an inner frame cage. the stator end shields contain the shaft seal and bearing components. the end turns are likewise bonded together with backed synthetic resin fillers. STATOR WINDING Stator bars. the thickness of the insulation depends on the machine voltage.e. The flux shields are cooled by a flow of hydrogen gas directly over the assembly. The pressure plates and end portions of the stator core are effectively shielded against stray magnetic fields. i.VOLTAGE INSULATION High-voltage insulation is provided according to the proven Micalastic system. Axial compression of the stator core is obtained by clamping fingers. The electrical connection between top and bottom bars is made by a bolted connection at the connecting sleeve. At the bar ends. The stator is firmly connected to the foundation with anchor bolts through the feet. MICALASTIC HIGH . Feet are welded to the stator frame and end shields to support the stator on the foundation. With this insulating system. In addition. the bars are composed of separately insulated strands which are transposed by 540O in the slot portion and bonded together with epoxy resins in heated moulds. phase connectors and bushings are designed for direct water cooling. i.e. In order to minimise the stray losses. the water manifolds are grounded. two vertical supporting springs on both sides of the core and one horizontal stabilising spring below the core. During operation. The number of layers. permitting the insulation resistance of the water-filled winding to be measured. This cage is suspended in the outer frame by a large number of separate flat springs which are tangentially arranged on the circumference in sets of three springs each. The springs are so arranged and tuned that forced vibrations of the core resulting from the magnetic field will not be transmitted to the frame and foundation.
magnetic steel below the generator at the exciter end. the bars are inserted with a side ripple spring. BAR SUPPORT SYSTEM To protect the stator winding against the effects of magnetic forces due to load and to ensure permanent firm seating of the bars in the slots during operation. Slot pitch is selected so that the two solid poles are displaced by 180 deg. and a top ripple located beneath the slot wedge. The bars are clamped to the support ring with pressure plates held by clamping bolts made from a high-strength insulating material.under vacuum. and the two shaft journals. a hot-curing slot bottom equalising strip. KORBA SIMULATOR 345 . The impregnated bars are formed to the required shape in moulds and cured in an oven at high temperature. mechanical and thermal properties in addition to being fully water proof and oil resistant. Approximately two-thirds of the rotor body circumference is provided with longitudinal slots which hold the field winding. For radial support. The rotor shaft consists of an electrically active portion. the bars are subjected to pressure.free and is characterised by its excellent electrical. the so-called rotor body. all bars are provided with an end corona protection to control the electric field at the transition from the slot to the end winding and to prevent the formation of creepage spark concentrations. with nitrogen being used as pressurising medium. ROTOR Rotor Shaft The high mechanical stresses resulting from the centrifugal forces and short-circuit torque call for a high quality heat-treated steel. The support ring is free to move axially within the stator frame so that movements of the winding due to thermal expansions are not restricted. Hot-curing conforming fillers arranged between the stator bars and the support ring ensure a firm support of each individual bar against the support ring. Current transformers for metering and relaying purposes can be mounted on the bushings. the end windings are clamped to a rigid support ring of insulating material which in turn is fully supported by the frame. Integrally forged flange couplings to connect the rotor to the turbine and exciter are located outboard of the bearings. In addition. a final coat of semiconducting varnish is applied to the surfaces of all bars within the slot range. The high-voltage insulation obtained is nearly void . Therefore. The gaps between the bars in the stator end windings are completely filled with insulating material and cured after installation. To minimize corona discharges between the insulation and the slot wall. the rotor shaft is forged from a vacuum cast steel ingot. Comprehensive tests ensure adherence to the specified mechanical and magnetic properties as well as homogeneous forging. The stator winding connections are brought out to six bushings located in a compartment of welded non .
ROTOR WINDING The rotor winding consists of several coils which are reinserted into the slots and series connected such that two coil groups from one pole. The enlargement of the conductor rigidity. After completion. To reduce these vibrations.Due to the non-uniform slot distribution on the circumference. KORBA SIMULATOR 346 . The rotor wedges act as a damper winding in the area of the winding slots. Each coil consists of several series. One cooling zone includes the slots from the centre to the end of the rotor body. The hot gas in then discharged into the air gap between the rotor body and the stator core through radial openings in the conductors and the rotor slot wedges. different moments of inertia are obtained in the main axis of the rotor. This is turn causes oscillating shaft deflections at twice the system frequency. The cooling gas for the end windings is admitted into the hollow conductors at the ends of the rotor body. while another cover. The solid poles are also provided with additional longitudinal slots to hold the copper bars of the damper winding. The cooling gas passages are arranged at different levels in the conductor assembly so that each hollow conductor has its own cooling gas outlet. the deflections in the direction of the pole axis and the neutral axis are compensated by transverse slotting of the pole.connected turns. COOLING OF ROTOR WINDING Each turn is subdivided into eight parallel cooling zones. At the end winding. It flows through the conductors approximately up to the pole centre for being directed into a collecting compartment and is then discharged into the air gap via slots. the rotor is balanced in various planes at different speeds and then subjected to an overspeed test at 120 % of rated speed for two minutes. one hollow conductor passage of each bar is completely closed by a brazed copper filler section. each of which consists of two half turns which are connected by brazing in the end section. half the end winding. The cooling gas for the slot portion is admitted into the hollow conductors through milled openings directly before the end of the rotor body and flows through the hollow conductors to the centre of the rotor body.
and are used as KORBA SIMULATOR 347 . The field winding are inserted into the longitudinal slots of the rotor body. The individual conductors are bent to obtain half turns. To obtain the required creepage paths between the coil and the frame. The coils are insulated from the rotor body with L-shaped strip of glass fibre laminate with Nomex filler. The coils are wound around the poles so that one north and one south magnetic pole are obtained. The individual coil of the rotor winding are electrically series-connected. The hollow conductors have a trapezoidal cross-section and are provided with two cooling ducts of approximately semi-circular cross-section. thick top strips of glass fibber laminate are inserted below the slot wedges. CONDUCTOR MATERIAL The conductors are made of copper with a silver content of approximately 0. The slot wedges are made from a copper-nickelsilicon alloy featuring high strength and good electrical conductivity.1 %. the series-connected turns of one slot constituting one coil. The seat of the retaining ring is silver plated to ensure a good electrical contact between the slot wedges and rotor retaining rings.The rotor winding consists of silver bearing de-oxidised copper hollow conductors with two lateral cooling ducts. INSULATION The insulation between the individual turns is made of layers of glass fibre laminate. the winding is secured in the slots with wedges. This system has long proved to be a good damper winding. LOCATION OF PARTS IN THE ROTOR WINDING ROTOR SLOT WEDGES To protect the winding against the effects of the centrifugal force. L-shaped strips of laminated epoxy glass fibre fabric with Nomex filler are used for slot insulation. silver-alloyed copper features high strength properties at higher temperatures so that coil deformations due to thermal stresses are eliminated. All conductors have identical copper and cooling duct cross-sections. these turns are combined to form full turns. The slot wedges are made of highconductivity material and extend below the shrink seat of the retaining ring. After insertion into the rotor slots. As compared to electrolytic copper.
One end of each ring is shrunk on the rotor body. which prevent coil movement. ROTOR RETAINING RING The rotor retaining rings contain the centrifugal forces due to the end windings. while the other end of the ring overhangs the end windings without contacting the shaft. The shrunk on end ring at the free end of the retaining ring serves to reinforce the retaining ring and secures the end winding in the axial direction at the same time. ensures adherence to the specified mechanical properties.damper winding bars. Comprehensive tests.The rings acts as short-circuit ring to induced currents in the dampers windings. The slot wedges extend below the shrink seats of the retaining rings. the shrink seats of the retaining rings are coated with nickel. penetrate The retaining ring shrink-fit areas act as short-circuit rings to induced currents in the damper system. FIELD CONNECTIONS The field connections provide the electrical connection between the rotor winding and the exciter and consists of : • • • Field current lead at end winding Radial bolts Field current lead in shaft bore KORBA SIMULATOR 348 . This ensures an unobstructed shaft deflection at the end windings. A snap ring is provided for additional protection against axial displacement of the retaining ring. To reduce the stray losses and retain strength. END WINDING BRACING The spaces between the individual coils in the end winding are filled with insulating members. such as ultrasonic examination and liquid examination. the rings are made of non-magnetic. aluminium and silver by a three-step flame spraying process. To ensure low contact resistance. cold-worked material.
Cooling hydrogen is admitted into the hollow conductors via the radial bolts. and the other end is screwed to a radial bolt. This seal consists of an insulating ring which is pressed between the shaft and radial bolt with a threaded ring. To augment the cooling of the rotor winding. The radial bolt is made from forged electrolytic copper. the pressure established by the fan works in conjunction with the gas expelled from the discharge ports along the rotor. All contact surfaces are silver-plated to attain a low contact resistance. KORBA SIMULATOR 349 . FIELD CURRENT LEAD SHAFT BORE The leads are run in the axial direction from the radial bolt to the exciter coupling.FIELD CURRENT LEAD AT END WINDING The field current lead at the end winding consists of hollow rectangular conductors. One end of each field current lead is brazed to the rotor winding. They are secured against the effects of centrifugal force by steel wedges. RADIAL BOLTS The field current leads located in the shaft bore are connected to the conductors inserted in the shaft slots through radial bolts which are secured in position with slot wedges Contact pressure is maintained with a tension bolt and as expanding cone in each radial bolt. They consists of two semi-circular conductors insulated from each other and from the shaft by a tube. The field current leads are connected to the exciter leads at the coupling with Multikontakt plug-in contacts which allow for unobstructed thermal expansion of the field current leads. ROTOR FAN The generator cooling gas is circulated by one axial-flow fan located on the turbineend shaft journal. The hot gas discharged into the air gap together with the gas used to cool the end winding. The hollow conductors are inserted into shaft slots and insulated. Contact pressure increase due to centrifugal force during operation. The seal between air and hydrogen spaces is located close to the radial bolt.
The bearings have provisions for fitting vibration pickups to monitor bearing vibrations. BEARINGS The sleeve bearings are provided with hydraulic shaft lift oil during startup and turning gear operation. The fan hubs are shrink-fitted to the shaft journal spider. while the attachment at the lower water channel permits them to move freely to allow for expansion. Shutoff valves are installed in the lines before and after the cooler sections. The temperature of the bearings is monitored with thermocouples embedded in the lower bearing sleeve so that the measuring points are located directly below the babbitt. while the hydrogen is passed around the finned tubes. The cooler sections are solidly bolted to the upper half stator end shield. Controlling the cooling water flow on the outlet side ensures an uninterrupted water flow through the cooler sections so that proper cooler performance will not be impaired. SHAFT SEALS The points where the rotor shaft passes through the stator casing are provided with a radial seal ring. The gap between the seal ring and the shaft is sealed with hydrogen side and air side seal oil. To eliminate shaft currents. The heat removed from the hydrogen is dissipated through the cooling water. all bearings are insulated from the stator and base plate. The seal ring is lined with babbitt on the shaft journal side. The hydrogen side seal oil KORBA SIMULATOR 350 . The seal ring is guided in the seal ring carrier which is bolted to the seal ring carrier flange and insulated to prevent the flow of shaft currents.The moving blades of the fan are inserted into T shaped grooves in the fan hubs. respectively. The required cooling water flow depends on the generator output and is adjusted by control valves on the hot water side. The cooler sections are parallel connected on their water sides. The cooling water flows through the tubes. The hydrogen cooler is subdivided into identical sections which are vertically mounted in the turbine-end stator end shield. HYDROGEN COOLER The hydrogen cooler is a shell and tube type heat exchanger which cools the hydrogen gas in the generator. Measurement and any required recording of the temperatures are performed in conjuction with the turbine supervision.
This ensures free movement of the seal ring in the radial direction. the seal oil pressures in the annular gap are maintained at a higher level than the gas pressure with in the generator casing.Full capacity KORBA SIMULATOR 351 .5 KW : 141A : IP54 : 2 Nos. Inside the seal ring this seal oil is fed to the hydrogen side annular groove in the seal ring and from there to the sealing gap via several bores uniformly distributed on the circumference.is supplied to the seal ring via an annular groove in the seal guide. SEAL OIL SYSTEM Seal Oil Pump 1 & 2 Air Side Kind of Pump Type Capacity Discharge pressure Pump motor -Type Rating Current Type of enclosure No. The oil drained on the air side is returned to the seal oil storage tank together with the bearing oil. pressure oil is supplied laterally to the seal ring via an annular groove. To ensure effective sealing.3 DM3/S : 15 bar : 1LA3-133-4AA90 (Siemens) : 7. The oil drained on the hydrogen side of the seal rings is returned to the seal oil system through ducts below the bearing compartments. OIL SUPPLY FOR BEARINGS AND SHAFT SEALS BEARING OIL SYSTEM The generator and exciter bearings are connected to the turbine lube oil supply.3 DM3/S : 15bar : Screw Pump : SNH210-R46 (Allweiler) : 3. the air side seal oil pressure being set to approximately the same level as the hydrogen side seal oil pressure. On the air side. The air side seal oil is supplied to the sealing gap from the seal ring chamber via radial bores and the air side annular groove in the seal ring. Seal Oil Pump Air Side Kind of pump Type Capacity Discharge pressure : Screw pump : SNH210-R46 (All weiler) : 3.
17 DM 3/S : 15 bar : ILA3 133-6AA90 (Siemens) : 4 KW : 7. full capacity : Screw pump : SNH 210R46 (All Weiler) : 2.5KW : 220V. Seal Oil Pump H2 Side Kind of pump Type Capacity Discharge pressure Pump motor Rating Current Speed Type of enclosure No.17RPS : IP54 : 1 No.9 MA (BOLL+MIIRCH) : 3. full capacity SEAL OIL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION The shaft seals are supplied with seal oil from two seal oil circuits which consists of the following principal components. Air Side and H2 Side Kind of filter Type Volume flow rate Degree of filter ation No. DC : 51A : 24.62. of air side No.2 A : 15. Seal Oil Filter. of H2 side : 1 HA 4165-5JL20 (Siemens) : 8. KORBA SIMULATOR 352 .3 DM3/5 : 100 Microns : 2 Nos. Full capacity : Strainer Type : 2.Pump motor drive Ranting Voltage Current Speed Type of enclosure No. full capacity : 2 Nos.8 RPS : IP54 : 1 No.
The high level float operated valve drains excess oil into the seal oil storage tank. Two float operated valves keep the oil level at a predetermined level. The hydrogen side seal oil pressure required downstream. thus preventing gas from entering the suction pipe of the seal oil pump (hydrogen side). The associated seal oil pump returns the oil to the shaft seals via a cooler and filter.HYDROGEN SIDE SEAL OIL CIRCUIT • • • • • • • • Seal oil tank Seal oil pump Oil cooler 1 Oil cooler 2 Seal oil filter Differential pressure valve C Pressure equalising valve TE Pressure equalising valve EE. The low level float operated valve compensates for an insufficient oil level in the tank by admitting oil from the air side seal oil circuit. AIR SIDE SEAL OIL CIRCUIT • • • • • • • • • Seal oil storage tank Seal oil pump 1 Seal oil pump 2 Standby seal oil pump Oil cooler 1 Oil cooler 2 Seal oil filter Differential pressure valve A1 Differential pressure valve A2 HYDROGEN SIDE SEAL OIL CIRCUIT The seal oil drained towards the hydrogen side is collected in the seal oil tank. of the pump is controlled by differential pressure valve C according to the preset reference value. The hydrogen side seal oil pressure required at the seals is controlled separately for each shaft seal by the Exciter end or Turbine end pressure equalising valve. i. Oil drained from the hydrogen side is returned to the seal oil tank via the generator prechambers.e. according to the preset pressure difference between the hydrogen side and air side seal oil. the preset difference between air side and hydrogen side seal oil pressures. The hydrogen entrained in the KORBA SIMULATOR 353 .
KORBA SIMULATOR 354 .
seal oil comes out of the oil and is extracted by the bearing vapour exhauster for being vented to the atmosphere above the power house roof. i. the high level float-operated drain valve is usually open to return the excess air side seal oil. In the event of a failure. Upon failure of seal oil pump 2. The gas system consists of : • • • • • • • • • • H2 supply CO2 supply N2 supply Pressure reducers Pressure gauges Miscellaneous shut off valves Purity metering equipment Gas dryer CO2 flash evaporator Flowmeters. Air Side Seal Oil Circuit The air side seal oil is drawn from the seal oil storage tank and delivered to the seals via a cooler and filter by seal oil pump 1. the gas system includes a nitrogen (N2) supply. i. The air side seal oil pressure required at the seals is controlled by differential pressure valve A1 according to the preset value. GAS SYSTEM General The gas system contains all equipment necessary for filling the generator with CO2.e. the seal oil is taken from the air side seal oil circuit. the required pressure difference between seal oil pressure and hydrogen pressure. In the event of a failure of the seal oil pump of the hydrogen side seal oil circuit. to the air side seal oil circuit. and for operation of the generator filled with hydrogen. the standby seal oil pump is automatically started and takes over the seal oil supply to the shaft seals.e. when the seal oil for the seals is obtained from the standby seal oil pump. The seal oil drained from the air side of the shaft seals is directly returned to the seal oil storage tank. which flowed to the hydrogen side via the annular gaps of the shaft seals. differential pressure valve A2 takes over this automatic control function. In the event of a failure of seal oil pump 1 of the air side seal oil circuit. During normal operation. KORBA SIMULATOR 355 . In addition. seal oil pump 2 automatically takes over the seal oil supply. hydrogen or air and removal of these media.
For more KORBA SIMULATOR 356 . the hydrogen in the generator is pressurized. effective cooling.HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM HYDROGEN (H2 ) SUPPLY GENERATOR CASING The heat losses arising in the generator are dissipated through hydrogen. The heat dissipating capacity of hydrogen is eight times higher than that of air.
PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM GENERAL The primary water required for cooling is circulated in a closed circuit by a separate pump. the generator must be filled with an inert gas (CO2 ) prior to H2 filling and H2 removal. • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2 ) SUPPLY As a precaution against explosive hydrogen air mixtures. from the generator. NITROGEN (N2 ) SUPPLY Nitrogen is required for removing the hydrogen or air during primary water filling and emptying procedures. Each pump is driven by a separate motor. compressed air must be admitted into the The generator must be filled with The compressed air must be clean and dry. To ensure that the primary water in the pump suction line is at a pressure above atmospheric pressure so as to avoid pump cavitation. KORBA SIMULATOR 357 . For this reason. COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY To remove the CO2 generator. In the event of a failure of one pump. To ensure uninterrupted generator operation. the standby pump is immediately ready for service and cuts in automatically.PRIMARY WATER TANK Nitrogen environment is maintained above the primary water in the primary water tank: • • To prevent the formation of a vacuum due to different thermal expansions of the primary water. two full-capacity pumps are provided. To ensure that the primary water circuit is at a pressure above atmospheric pressure so as to avoid the ingress of air on occurrence of a leak. a compressed air filter is installed in the filler line. (CO2 ) until it is positively ensured that no explosive mixture will form during the subsequent filling or emptying procedures.
KORBA SIMULATOR 358 .
the electrical conductivity should be maintained below a value of approximately 1 mmho/cm. the conductivity will rise very slowly.All valves. As illustrated in the diagram. The resins can be replaced during operation of the generator. The ion exchanger resin material requires replacement at infrequent intervals. the primary water admitted to the pump from the tank is first passed via the cooler and fine filter to the water manifold in the generator interior and then to the bushings. pipes and instruments coming into contact with the primary water are made from stainless material. erection and transport. PRIMARY WATER TANK The primary water tank is located on top of the stator frame on an elastic support. a small quantity of the primary water should therefore be continuously passed through the ion exchanger located in the bypass of the main cooling circuit. thus forming the highest point of the entire primary water circuit in terms of static head. PRIMARY WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM The direct contact between the primary water and the high-voltage windings call for a low conductivity of the primary water. The gas pressure above the water level in the primary water tank is maintained constant by a pressure regulator. since with the water treatment system out of service. After having performed its cooling function. STATOR To facilitate manufacture. In order to maintain such a low conductivity it is necessary to provide for continuous water treatment during operation. The primary water system consists of the following principal components: • • • • • Primary water tank Primary water pumps Primary water coolers Fine filter Ion Exchanger. During operation. the stator consists of the following main components : • Stator frame KORBA SIMULATOR 359 . the water is returned to the primary water tank.
Manifolds are arranged inside the stator frame at the bottom and top for filling the generator with CO2 and H2. which are sealed gas tight by pressure-resistant covers. The generator terminal box is flanged to this opening. The connections of the manifolds are located side by side in the lower part of the frame housing. In the lower part of the frame at the exciter end an opening is provided for bringing out the winding ends. The natural frequency of the frame does not correspond to any exciting frequencies. Due to the rigid design of the supports and foot portion the forces due to weight and shot-circuit will not result in any over-stressing of the frame. Additional openings in the housing. Dimensioning is also dictated by vibrational considerations. two flanged rings and axial and radial ribs. and stator winding is the heaviest component of the entire generator. This results in a minimum distance between bearings and permits the overall axial length of the Turbine end shield to be utilised for accommodation of the hydrogen cooler sections. resulting partly in greater wall thickness than required from the point of view of mechanical strength. A rigid frame is required due to the forces and torque’s arising during operation. while the remaining frame parts are fabricated from structural steel.• • End shields Bushing compartment The stator frame with flexible core suspension components. The end shields are horizontally split to allow for assembly. Access to the end winding compartments is possible through manholes in the end shields. core. Housing and ribs within the range of the phase connectors of the stator winding are made of non-magnetic steel to prevent eddy current losses. afford access to the core clamping flanges of the flexible core suspension system and permit the lower portion of the core to be inspected. The end shields feature a high stiffness and accommodate the generator bearings. shaft seals and hydrogen coolers. the use of hydrogen for the generator cooling requires the frame to be pressure resistant up to an internal pressure of approximately 10 bar (130 psig). Cooler wells are provided KORBA SIMULATOR 360 . The arrangement and dimensioning of the rib are determined by the cooling gas passages and the required mechanical strength and stiffness. In addition. Two lateral supports for flexible core suspension in the frame are located directly adjacent to the points where the frame is supported on the foundation. The end shields contain generator bearings. STATOR END SHIELDS The ends of the stator frame are closed by pressure containing end shields. The welded stator frame consists of the cylindrical frame housing.
Six manholes in the terminal box provide access to the bushing during assembly and overhauling. Inside the bearing compartment the bearing saddle is mounted and insulated from the lower end shield. since the end shields must be lowered into the foundation opening for rotor insertion. The bearing compartment is sealed on the air side with labyrinth rings.in the end shield on both sides of the bearing compartment for this purpose. GENERATOR TERMINAL BOX The phase and neutral leads of the three-phase stator winding are brought out of the generator through six bushings located in the generator terminal box at the exciter end of the generator. The seal oil drained towards the hydrogen side is first collected in a gas and oiltight chamber below the bearing compartment for defoaming and then passed via a siphon to the seal oil tank of the hydrogen side seal oil circuit. KORBA SIMULATOR 361 . This material reduces stray losses due to eddy currents. The terminal box is a welded construction of non-magnetic steel plate. Welded ribs provide for the rigidity of the terminal box. One manhole in both the upper and lower half end shield provides access to the end winding compartments of the completely assembled machine. The oil for the shaft seal is admitted via integrally welded pipes. On the hydrogen side the bearing compartment is closed by the shaft seal and labyrinth rings. The seal oil drained towards the air side is drained together with the bearing oil. The bearing oil is supplied to the bearing saddle via pipe permanently installed in the end shield and is then passed on to the lubricating gap via ducts in the lower bearing sleeve. The bearing drain oil is collected in the bearing compartment and discharged from the lower half of the end shield via a pipe. The static and dynamic bearing forces are directly transmitted to the foundation via lateral feet attached to the lower half end shield. The feet can be detached from the end shield. The bearing saddle supports the spherical bearing sleeve and insulates it from ground to prevent the flow of shaft currents.
On the outer circumstance the segments are stacked on isolated dovetail bars which hold them in position. the cooling ducts are wider and spaced more closely to account for the higher losses and to ensure more intensive cooling of the narrow core sections. The stepped arrangement of the laminations at the core ends provides for an efficient support of the tooth portion and in addition. To remove the heat. the laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated during the stacking procedure when certain heights of stack are reached. Each lamination layer is made up from a number of individual segments. To reduce the transmission of these dynamic vibrations to the KORBA SIMULATOR 362 . One dovetail bar is not insulated to provide for grounding of the laminated core.5 mm (0. contributes to a reduction of eddy current losses and local heating in this area. The segments are punched in one operation from 0. carefully deburred and then coated with insulating varnish on both sides. For protection against the effects of the stray flux in the coil ends. resulting in a revolving and nearly elliptical deformation of the core which sets up a stator vibration at twice the system frequency. The segments are staggered from layer so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform permeability to magnetic flux is obtained. Stacking guides inserted into the winding slots during stacking provide smooth slot walls. The clamping fingers are made of non-magnetic steel to avoid eddy current losses.) thick electrical sheet-steel laminations having a high silicon content. The stator frame is turned on end while the core is stacked with lamination segments in individual layers. the entire core is built up of thin laminations. The clamping fingers extend up to the ends of the teeth thus ensuring a firm compression in the area of the teeth.STATOR CORE In order to minimise the hysteresis and eddy current losses of the rotating magnetic flux which interacts with the core. placed at intervals along the bore length. The pressure is transmitted from the pressure plates to the core by clamping fingers. SPRING SUPPORT OF STATOR CORE The revolving magnetic field exerts a pull on the core. The clamping bolts running through the core are made of non-magnetic steel and are insulated from the core and the pressure plates to prevent the clamping bolts from short-circuiting the laminations and allowing the flow of eddy currents. spacer segments. In the core end portions. The complete stack is kept under pressure and located in the frame by means of clamping bolts and pressure plates. To obtain the maximum compression and eliminate undue settling during operation. the pressure plates and core end portions are shielded by gas-cooled rings of insulation-bonded electrical sheet-steel.02 in. divide the core into sections to provide radial passages for cooling gas flow.
CONNECTION The three-phase stator winding is a fractional-pitch two-layer type consisting of individual bars. The lower spring prevents a lateral deflection of the core. The entire vibration system is turned so as to avoid resonance with vibrations at system frequency or twice the system frequency. This arrangement and the shape of the bars at the ends result in a cone shaped winding having particularly favourable characteristics both in respect of its electrical properties and resistance to magnetically induced forces. The clamping ring consists of two parts which are held together by two clamps. STATOR WINDING GENERAL. The slot bottom and top bars are displaced from each other by one winding pitch and connected at their ends to form coil groups. CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTION The bar consists of a large number of separately insulated strands which are transposed to reduce the skin effect losses. The flat springs are resilient to radial movements of the core suspension points and will largely resist transmission of double frequency vibration to the frame. For firm coupling of the ring sets to the core. KORBA SIMULATOR 363 . since each coil consists of only one turn. Tightening the clamps reduces the gap between the ring segments so that the supporting ring is pressed firmly against the core.foundation. The core is supported in several sets of rings. Each stator slot accommodates two bars. the generator core is spring mounted in the stator frame. The bars afford maximum operating reliability. the supporting ring is solidly pressed against the core by the clamping ring. Each ring set is linked to the frame by three flat springs. The core is supported in the frame via two vertical springs in the vicinity of the generator feed. Each ring set consists of two supporting rings and two core clamping rings. The coil group are connected together with phase connectors inside the stator frame. In the tangential direction they are however. sufficiently rigid to take up the short-circuit torque of the unit. The structural members to which the insulated dovetail bars are bolted are uniformly positioned around the supporting ring interior to support the core and to take up the torque acting on the core. This makes the turn insulation and themaaiiin insulation identical.
The alternate arrangement of one hollow strand and two solid strands ensures optimum heat removal capacity and minimum losses. This protection consists of a wear-resistant. the bar ends are bent with a special device which shapes the involutes over a cone shell. To ensure that the strands are firmly bonded together and to give dimensional stability in the slot portion. At the Roebel crossover points. This ensures a uniform spacing of the bars over the entire length of the end turns after installation. In the course of manufacture. On top of this. At transition from the slot to the end winding portion of the stator bars. highly flexible coating of conductive alkyd varnish containing graphite. This ensures uniform control of the electric field and prevents the formation of corona discharge during operation and during performance of high voltage tests. the bars are subjected to numerous electrical and leakage tests for quality control. several layers of semi-conductive end corona protection coating are applied in varying lengths. The current flowing through the conductor is thus uniformly distributed over the entire bar cross-section so that the current-dependent losses will be reduced. a semiconductive coating is applied. the bars are cured in an electrically heated press. The current exist. CORONA PROTECTION To prevent potential differences and possible corona discharges between the insulation and the slot wall. the insulation is reinforced with insulating strip inserts. Prior to apply the bar insulation.The strands of small rectangular cross-section are provided with a braided glass fibber insulation and arranged side by side over the slot width. The transposition provides for a mutual neutralisation of the voltages induced in the individual strands due to the slot cross field and end winding flux leakage and ensures that minimum circulating currents exist. The individual layers are insulated from each other by a vertical separator. A final wrapping of glass fabric tapes impregnated with epoxy resin serves as surface protection. the slot sections of the bars are provided with an outer corona protection. In the straightslot portion the strands are transposed by 540 deg. Contact sleeves for electrical connection of the bars and water boxes with the cooling water connections are brazed to the bar ends. KORBA SIMULATOR 364 .
COMPONENTS FOR WATER COOLING OF STATOR WINDINGS GENERAL Two separate water cooling circuits are used for the stator winding and the phase connectors and bushings. and a minimum head loss. WINDING COOLING CIRCUIT The end windings are enclosed by an annular water manifold to which all stators bars are connected through hoses. one side of which is connected to ground. grounding is removed by opening the circuit outside the stator frame. This permits the insulation resistance of the water-filled stator winding to be measured. The cooling water is admitted to three terminal bushings via a distribution water manifold. The fittings are made from non-magnetic stainless steel. The water manifold is mounted on the holding plates of the end winding support ring and connected to the primary water supply pipe. during inspections. the thermal expansions of the stator bars are completely uniform. flows through the attached phase connectors and is then passed to the distribution water manifold for water outlet via the terminal bushings on the opposite side. The cooling primary water flows through the stator bars. from the exciter end to the turbine end of the generator. KORBA SIMULATOR 365 . The water connections are equipped with O-rings of Viton and Belleville washers to prevent loosening of the connection. which are hydraulically connected in parallel. For measurement of the insulation resistance. The hoses. a minimum water velocity. consists of a metallic section to which the measuring potential is applied for measurement of the insulation resistance of the water-filled stator winding. Moreover. The water manifold is grounded during operation. e. The parallel-connected cooling circuits are checked for uniform water flows by a flow measurement system covering all three phases. All water connection between ungrounded parts and the distribution manifolds & water manifolds of the cooling circuits are insulated teflon hoses.g. This ensures a minimum temperature rise of the stator bars.
The voltage regulation is effected by using thyrism 04. one side of which is connected to ground. Since the rotating rectifier bridge is mounted on the rotor. The current feedback is utilised for active and reactive power compensation and for the limiters. Brushless exciter consists of a 3 phase permanent magnet pilot exciter the output of which is rectified and controlled by the Thyristor Voltage Regulator to provide a variable d. The parallel-connected cooling circuits are checked for uniform water flows by a flow measurement system covering all three phases. brushless excitation system is provided.PHASE CONNECTOR COOLING CIRCUIT Phase connectors and terminal bushings are supplied with cooling water through pipes arranged outside the generator at the terminal bushing and generator terminal box and connected to the cooling water inlets and outlets of the cooling circuit through Teflon hoses. The hoses. the slip rings are not required and the output of the rectifier is connected directly to the field winding through the generator rotor shaft.C. The flexible expansion joints and the hydraulically series-connected phase connector sections are connected by Teflon hoses.2. flows through the attached phase connectors and is then passed to the distribution water manifold for water outlet via the terminal bushings on the opposite side. KORBA SIMULATOR 366 . current for the main exciter. an automatic voltage regulator. leads in the rotor shaft. There are two independent control systems right up to the final Thyristor element-an auto control and a manual control.c. The 3 phases are induced in the rotor of the main exciter and is rectified by the rotating diodes and fed to the field winding of generator rotor through the D. EXCITATION SYSTEM 500 MW INTRODUCTION In 500 MW Turbo-generator. The feedback of voltage and current output of the generator is fed to the AVR where it is compared with the set-point generator volts set from the control room.c. The cooling water is admitted to three terminal bushings via a distribution water manifold. input to the main exciter. the rotor of the main exciter and permanent magnet rotor of the pilot exciter. The control is effected on the 3 phase output of the pilot exciter and provides a variable d. A common shaft carries the rectifier wheels. consists of a metallic section to which the measuring potential is applied for measurement of the insulation resistance of the water-filled stator winding.
KORBA SIMULATOR 367 .
The second part will describe the voltage regulator. its Basic mode of operation along with the limiters.5 secs. The first part will deal with the basic design features and will illustrate the Basic Arrangement of Brushless Excitation System with rotating diodes along with the constructional details of the system. In cases of defects in the automatic control system the excitation automatically changes over the manual regulation through protective relays. In the event of a failure of the electronic de-excitation through inverter operation. The main advantage of rotating diode excitation system is that it eliminates the use of slip rings and carbon brushes which pose constant maintenance problems. De-excitation of the machine is effected by driving the thyristors to inverter mode of operation causing the thyrister to supply maximum reverse voltage to the field winding of the main exciter. under excitation limiter. The manual control system consists of an excitation controller which control the excitation as set on the manual set-point from the control room. The shaft is rigidly coupled to the KORBA SIMULATOR 368 .5 seconds by field suppression resistors. de-excitation would be effected with a delay of 0.There are 3 limiters. over excitation limiter and U/Hz limiter which act on the AVR. The three-phase pilot exciter has a revolving field with permanent magnet poles. Following chapters deal with the design features. A common shaft carries the rectifier wheels. constructional details and basic operation of the excitation system. In order to ensure a bumpless transfer follow up circuit controls the manual channel so that it follows the auto channel continuously. the rotor of the main exciter and the permanent magnet rotor of the pilot exciter. after de-excitation command is received two field suppressions contractors connect field suppression resistors in parallel to main exciter field winding and following this a trip command is transmitted to the field circuit breaker via its trip coil. The three phase AC induced in the rotor of the main exciter is rectified by the rotating rectifier bridge and led to the field winding of the generator rotor through the DC leads in the rotor shaft. The three-phase ac generated by the permanent magnet exciter is rectified and contributed by the TVR to provide a variable de current for exciting the main exciter. Approximately 0. A power system stabiliser is also envisaged for damping oscillations in the power system. A field forcing limiter allows field forcing during emergency upto the capability of the main exciter.
The direct current from the rectifier wheels is fed to the dc leads arranged in the centre bore of the shaft via radial bolts. Two diodes each are mounted in each aluminium alloy heat sink and thus connected in parallel. The exciter shaft is supported on a bearing between the main and pilot exciters. Diode 5. Fuse 6. Associated with each heat sink is a fuse which serves to switch off the two diodes if one diodes fails (loss or reverse blocking capability). The contact pressure for the silicon wafer is produced by a plate spring assembly. Multikontakt plug -in-bolt For suppression of the momentary voltage peaks arising from commutation. Mechanical coupling of the two shaft assemblies results in simultaneous coupling of the dc leads in the central shaft bore through the Multikontakt electrical contact system consisting of plug-in bolts and sockets. Following are the basic elements of rectifier wheels: 1. Rectifier wheel 2.generator rotor. Three phase lead 3. The insulated and shrunken rectifier wheels serves as DC buses for the negative and positive side of the rectifier bridge. The two wheels are identical in their mechanical design and differ only in the forward directions of the diodes. RECTIFIER WHEELS The main components of the rectifier wheels are the silicon diodes which are arranged in the rectifier wheels in a three phase bridge circuit. The arrangement of the diode is such that this contact pressure is increased by the centrifugal force during rotation. The three-phase alternating current is obtained via copper conductors arranged on the shaft circumference between the rectifier wheels and the three-phase main exciter. Heat sink 4. The generator and exciter rotors are thus supported on total of three bearings. The conductors are attached by means of banding clips and equipped with screw-on KORBA SIMULATOR 369 . This contact system is also designed to compensate for length variations of the leads due to thermal expansion. This arrangement ensures good accessibility to all components and a minimum of circuit connections. each wheel is provided with six RC networks consisting of one capacitor and one damping resistor each which are combined in a single resin-encapsulated unit.
THREE-PHASE PILOT EXCITER The three-phase pilot exciter is a 16 pole revolving-field unit. 2.lugs for the internal diode connections. Arranged in the stator frame are the poles with the field and damper winding. The connections are made on the side facing the rectifier wheels. At the pole shoe bars are provided their ends being connected so as to form a damper winding. The rotor consists of a hub with mounted poles. the complete rotor is shrunk on to the shaft. A journal bearing is arranged between main exciter and pilot exciter and has forced oil lubrication from the turbine oil supply. The cooling air is circulated in a closed circuit and recooled in two cooler sections arranged along side the exciter. KORBA SIMULATOR 370 . The frame accommodates the laminated core with the three-phase winding. Between two poles a quadrature-axis coil is fitted for inductive measurement of the exciter current. COOLING OF EXCITER The exciter is air cooled. and the end turns of the rotor winding are secured with steel bands. The winding ends are run to a bus ring system to which the three-phase leads to the rectifier wheels are also connected. THREE-PHASE MAIN EXCITER MAIN COMPONENTS OF 3 PHASE EXCITER ARE : 1. The rotor hub is shrunk onto the free shaft end. After full impregnation with synthetic resin and curing. Each pole consists of 10 separate permanent magnets which are housed in a non-magnetic metallic enclosure. Rotor Stator Magnetic pole Sliprings for ground fault detection Bearing housing The three-phase main exciter is a six-pole revolving-armature unit. The rotor consists of stacked laminations which are compressed by through bolts over compression rings. The magnets are braced between the hub and the external pole shoe with bolts. One three-phase conductor each is provided for the four diodes of a heat sink set. The three-phase winding is inserted in the slots of the laminated rotor. 3. The winding conductors are transposed within the core length. The field winding is arranged on the laminated magnetic poles. 4. 5.
KORBA SIMULATOR 371 . Permanent-magnet rotor 3.The complete exciter is housed in an enclosure through which the cooling air circulates. Main parts of permanent Magnet pilot exciter are: 1. The warm air is then returned to the main enclosure via the cooler sections. The main exciter enclosure receives cool air from the fan after it passes over the pilot exciter. The volume of air extracted from the cooling air circuit is replaced via the filters located at the top of the enclosure: When the generator is at rest the air dryer of the exciter unit discharges dry air inside the exciter enclosure. The air leaves the exciter enclosure via the leakage air filter and the leakage air outlet at the shaft as well as via the bearing vapour exhaust system if this system is in service. In such an emergency. The air enters the main exciter from both ends and is passed into ducts below the rotor body and discharged through radial slots in the rotor core to the lower compartment. housed in their own enclosure draw the cool air in at both ends and expel the warmed air to the compartment beneath the base plate. flaps in the hot and cold air compartments are automatically operated by actuators admitting cold air from outside the exciter enclosure and discharge the hot air through openings in the base frame.The rectifier wheels.While volume inside the exciter enclosure requires an air change rate of 125 m the generator is running the air leaving the exciter enclosure via the bearing vapour exhaust system and the leakage air outlet in the foundation provides for a pullthrough system. Stator winding REPLACEMENT OF AIR INSIDE EXCITER ENCLOSURE When the generator is filled with hydrogen (operation or standstill) an adequate replacement of the air inside the exciter enclosure must be ensured. The air 3/hr. EXCITER DRYING GENERAL A dryer (dehumidifier) and an anticondensation heating system are provided to avoid the formation of moisture condensate inside the exciter with the turbine generator at rest or on turning gear. EMERGENCY COOLING OF EXCITER Emergency cooling is provided to permit continued operation in the event of cooler failure. Stator 2.
MODE OF OPERATION The dryer dehumidifies the air within the exciter enclosure. A shutoff valve in the dry air outlet line prevents that contaminated air from the power house which will be drawn during load operation of the exciter: OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF ADSORPTION DRYER The dehumidification takes revolutions per hour). After regeneration. the wheel is provided with a system of tubular ducts. the accumulated moisture is removed from the dryer wheel by the heated regeneration air. The inlet side of the dryer wheel is available for regeneration and 3/4 for the adsorption KORBA SIMULATOR 372 . On its inlet side. The adsorption of moisture and regeneration of the dryer wheel material take place simultaneously. i.e. The moisture absorbed by the dryer wheel is removed in a regeneration section by a stream of hot air directed through the wheel in the opposite direction of the inlet air and then discharged to the atmosphere. lithium chloride. The alloy containing crystalline subdivided so that 1/4 is section. REGENERATION SECTION In the regeneration section of the dryer wheel. using separate air streams. place in a slowly rotating dryer wheel (approximately 7 honeycomb dryer wheel consists of a magnesium silica lithium chloride. the surfaces of which are impregnated with a highly hygroscopic material. ADSORPTION SECTION The air to be dehumidified passes through the absorption section of the dryer wheel. The tubular ducts are dimensioned so that a laminar flow with low pressure loss is obtained even at high air velocity. which ensures a continuous drying of the air. The moisture is removed as a result of the partial pressure drop existing between the air and the adsorbent material. the dryer wheel material is again capable of absorbing moisture. The dryer wheel is made of a non-flammable material. with part of the moisture contained in the air being removed by the adsorbent material.
C. It is therefore an essential requirement that even simple ground faults should activate an alarm and protective measures be initiated. The heaters are controlled through rod-type thermostats located in the exciter interior.voltage from station battery for conductor & : 220V KORBA SIMULATOR 373 . with very high currents flowing through the faulted part. if possible. AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR VOLTAGE REGULATING SYSTEM Type Maximum output voltage Output current for field forcing Output current for rated generator load sets drives Power input continuously Power input short time : < 0.400 Hz Auxiliary voltage from pilot exciter for thyristor : Three phase supply D. If the insulation resistance between the exciter field circuit and ground either suddenly or slowly drops to the generator electrical protection is tripped (2nd stage). ANTICONDENSATION HEATING SYSTEM An anticondensation heating system to support the dryer is installed in the exciter baseframe. The heaters are rated and arranged so that the temperature in the exciter interior is maintained above the dew point level. an alarm is activated at . because a double fault causes magnetic unbalances. before the fault can fully develop. resulting in its destruction within a very short time. The generator is thus automatically disconnected from the system and de-excited.1KW : < 1KW : Thyrisiem 04-2 : 250V : 152A : 88A 220 V. This is very important for safe operation of a generator. GROUND FAULT DETECTION SYSTEM The field ground fault detection system detects high resistance and low-resistance ground faults in the exciter field circuit. the field ground fault detection system consists of two stages and operates continuously. For this reason.Continuous rotation of the dryer wheel ensures continuous dehumidification of the air within the exciter. If the field ground fault detection system detects a ground fault.
6A Negative : 120V : 2 VA : 5A : 6.DC current from station battery 2 X 24 V for : Max. 374 or : ± 0-10% • KORBA SIMULATOR . a open-loop control system for the signal exchange between the regulator and the power station control room and other plant components is provided as well as power supply equipment. limiting the set-point for the above excitation current regulator. The main components of the voltage regulator are two closed-loop control systems each followed by a separate gate control unit and Thyristor set and a de-excitation equipment. The stationary value of this limitation determines the maximum possible excitation current set-point (field forcing limitation).5 VA (plus losses in connecting leads) : better than ± 0. this equipment acts onto the output of the generator voltage control.5% : + 5-10%of nominal Gen. 15A positive control and regulation Rated secondary voltage Power input of voltage transformer per phase Rated secondary current Power input of current transformer per phase Accuracy of control Setting range of voltage set point potentiometer Setting range of droop compensation compounding Max. controlling the field current of the main exciter (= output current of the co-ordinated Thyristor set) Circuit for automatic excitation build-up during start-up and field suppression during shut-down. Limiter for the under-excited range (under excitation limiter). Control system 1 for automatic generator voltage control (AUTO) comprises the following : • • • Generator voltage control. rotating rectifiers and a permanent magnet auxiliary exciter. voltage dependent on the setting of the potentiometer and proportional to reactive current BASIC MODE OF OPERATION The THYRISIEM 04-2 voltage regulator is designed for excitation and control brushless generators. The block diagram shows the circuit configuration. the output quantity of this control is the set-point for a following Excitation current regulator. In addition to this (but not shown). The machine set consists of the generator and a direct coupled exciter unit with a three phase main exciter.
The delay time depends on the amount by which the rated value has been exceeded. changeover to the MANUAL control system is possible without delay. because for constant generator voltage manual re-adjusting of the excitation current set-point is required when changing the generator load. The set-point adjuster of the excitation current regulator for MANUAL is tracked automatically (follow-up control) so that. power supply and output sides.• Delayed limiter for the over excited range (over excitation limiter). Separate equipment is also provided for supplying power to either control system. Normally. Automatic changeover is initiated by some special fault conditions. when the voltage regulation calls for maximum excitation. this maximum permissible value is 1. The excitation current regulator permits plotting of generator characteristics and setting of protective relays during no-load and short-circuit runs of the generator during commissioning and maintenance work. The field forcing limitation limits .e.5 times the rated excitation. Control system 2 (MANUAL) mainly comprises a second excitation current regulator with separate sensing for the actual value. The two separate Thyristor sets for automatic voltage regulation (AUTO) and excitation current control (MANUAL) have the same ample dimensioning regarding rated current and blocking voltage. In the under-excited range. the automatic voltage regulator is in service even during start-up and shut down of the generator set. Automatic changeover to the MANUAL control system is possible without delay. Normally. This control system is also called Manual control system.practically undelayed . The system can also be used for setting the generator excitation during normal operation when the automatic voltage is defective. the under excitation limiter ensures that the minimum excitation required for stable parallel operation of the generator with the system is available and that the under-excited reactive power limited accordingly. KORBA SIMULATOR 375 . in the event of faults. The Thyristor set for automatic voltage regulation can be switched off by means of an isolator with contacts in the gate-control. Each Thyristor is fused separately. Either control system is co-ordinated with a separate gate-control and Thyristor set. This instrument can also be used for manual matching. active current and terminal voltage and can be matched to the generator and system data.the output current of the thyristor sets to the maximum permissible value. The over excitation limiter ensures delayed reduction of the excitation current to the rated value in the over excited range. These limiters protect Thyristor sets and machines against over excitation with too high values or too long duration. Correct operation of the follow-up control circuit is monitored and can be observed on a matching instrument in the control room. i. The response characteristic is formed on the basis of the generator reactive current. between rated excitation and maximum excitation.
KORBA SIMULATOR 376 .
the Thyristor set for automatic voltage regulation is equipped with a current-flow monitoring system for detecting failure of firing pulses or fuses. Approximately 1/2 sec. Off (de-excite) commands are issued from the generator protection and from the emergency pushbutton (via the generator protection) at the 220 V level. To de-excite the generator during shutdown or when the generator protection system has picked up. the Thyristor sets are fed with auxiliary power from a 220V. 400 Hz. Subsequently an off command is issued to the field breaker via its tripping coil. de-excitation would be achieved with a delay of 1/2 sec. Only one set of pushbuttons KORBA SIMULATOR 377 . driving the Thyristor set being in service to maximum negative output voltage. The generator de-excitation following is a function of the relevant effective generator time constant.C. The pushbutton “MATCHING” which is used for manual matching during AUTOMANUAL changeover and the associated signal lamps. The output side of the Thyristor sets feeds the field winding of the main exciter with variable D. On the input side. The latter is issued if one or both of the trip voltages for the field breaker are faulty.C. The voltage regulator issues the checkback signals “Field breaker Off/On” and “Control voltage fault” to the control room. or 15 V D. current. a command is transmitted to the outputs of both control systems. open and closed-loop control circuits. The negative voltage (inverter operation) de-excites the main exciter in less than 1/2 sec.This isolator in conjunction with corresponding arrangement and design of the Thyristor set enables an exchange of thyristors and fuses during operation if necessary whilst operation is continued by means of the excitation current regulator (MANUAL). The THYRISIEM 04-2 voltage regulator equipment is arranged within the cubicle group selected according to the power circuits and the 24 V D. two field suppression contractors (one being redundant) switch a field discharge resistor in parallel to the main exciter field winding. to reset the Iscamatic control module in these cases. after receiving the de-excite command. CONNECTION Closing of the field breaker from the control room or from a functional group equipment is controlled by an Iscamatic control module AS11. The signal exchange between the power circuits and the electronic circuits is via voltage isolating transducers. Permanent magnet auxiliary exciter. transformers and coupling relays. Automatic changeover to the current regulator (MANUAL) is initiated by this system. The closed-loop control systems are made up of modules of the simadyn C system whereas modules of the simatic c1 system are used for the electronic open-loop control and the alarm system.via the field discharge resistors. speed criteria cause the field circuit breaker to be tripped (de-excitation). When the generator is being shut down. The Off pushbutton in the control room normally is only provided. In addition.C. In the event of failure of the electronic field suppression by inverter operation.
A twin supply from the 220 V battery.or over-excitation limiter is in action.LOWER/RAISE is provided for the control of the set-point adjusters. the triggering individual alarms appear on indicator modules in the regulator cubicle. for the under-excitation protection system) at terminals protected by low-rated MCB’s. also during matching. The alarm “Autom.g. The alarm “AVR fault” is a group alarm. 400 Hz auxiliary power for the Thyristor sets is fed to the regulator via a power cable. in case of twin channel generator protection one trip loop each to be assigned to the power supply and the trip command of the two protection channels. The alarms Excitation Low/High appear when the under . The position of both set-point adjusters is qualitatively indicated by two instruments. Short-circuit protection of the voltage transformers is ensured by an MCB connected to the secondaries. Changeover to MANUAL” is issued if due to a fault criterion within the regulator automatic changeover to excitation current control (MANUAL) takes place. The instrument “MATCH” is necessary for manual matching. The output voltage of the Thyristor sets is available for measuring purpose (e. the matching instrument must indicate approximately zero. The power supply inputs of both trip loops are wired to terminals. KORBA SIMULATOR 378 . The 24 V power supply for open-loop and closed-loop control circuits is also a twin supply. To eliminate the load current dependent voltage drop on the cable from the measured value in case of large distances between the machine set and the regulator cubicle. The commands go automatically to the set-point adjuster depending on the mode of operation selected. this offers the possibility. The input “AUTO command” and checkback signal “AUTO” are required to set the regulator to the AUTO-mode by the functional group control equipment prior to automatically starting up turbo-set. The voltage of the auxiliary exciter is largely proportional to the speed and is used as speed criterion in the voltage regulator. During steady-state operation. It also enables the automatic follow-up to be checked. available for a functional group control. LOWER/RAISE command also come from the synchronisation unit. This is used for supplying the field breaker motor drive and the two field breaker trip loops. The 220 V. an unloaded cable for the 400 Hz measuring are fused on the machine side and monitored for undervoltage on the regulator side. A checkback signal “Generator voltage > 90%’’ is formed in the regulator for used as a enabling criterion. Tripping of this MCB initiates automatic changeover to MANUAL.
In addition to this. 0. During excitation current control (MANUAL). this initiates together with the status “Generator not loaded”. as well as the check-back signals “Field breaker Off/On” and “Control voltage fault” through a Iscamatic control module AS11. the speed value n < 2790 rpm is provided from a speed limit monitor as a redundant criterion. FIELD BREAKER CONTROL. a breaker to feed the station supply bus from the generator terminals is to be taken into account accordingly EXCITATION CONTROL DURING START-UP AND SHUTDOWN. if available. For this reason. the lower limit of the setpoint adjuster is interlocked instead to ensure that zero excitation is obtained after closing. The run-up command is stored by a memory with remnant relay. With the field breaker being closed and the speed limits exceeded the pulse blocking signal to the gate control set disappears. Furthermore closed-loop control of the generator voltage to the rated voltage would not be permissible at low speeds since the generator and unit transformer would become saturated. When the speed drops below the limit values during shutdown. In both cases the command passes.95 times rated speed. the power supply of both tripping channels must be available and the key operated switch for blocking the excitation during commissioning and maintenance work (arranged in the voltage regulator cubicle) must be set to the position “Excitation not blocked”.In addition to the speed criterion derived from the auxiliary exciter voltage. DE-EXCITATION Excitation and voltage closed-loop control are not necessary for speeds under approx. the ramp function generator runs up thus building up the generator excitation provided that automatic voltage control (AUTO) has been selected. KORBA SIMULATOR 379 . The field breaker is to be switched on after reaching the speed limit required by a manual command or from a functional group control system. If applicable. Closing of the field breaker is interlocked with the criterion “Ramp function generator lower limit” to ensure that the generator voltage builds up slowly without overshooting. functions are provided for enabling excitation during start-up and for blocking excitation during shutdown of the generator. The speed criteria are used for enabling the excitation during start-up and for automatic de-excitation of the generator during shutdown. In addition to this. The criteria Generator loaded/not loaded are required for enabling or inter-locking some control and monitoring functions. The speed is detected via the largely speed-proportional voltage of the auxiliary exciter. redundant speed criteria n< and n> are used from a speed limit monitor.
• • •
field breaker OFF command pulse blocking signal to the gate control set run-down of ramp function generator.
Run-down of the ramp function generator may also be initiated during rated speed by the OFF state of the field breaker, when the breaker is tripped from the generator protective system. The speed criteria are monitored with respect to their importance. Presence of the criterion n< or absence of the criterion n > while the generator is loaded will be alarmed. Under excitation current control (MANUAL), no automatic excitation build-up is effected during start-up. When the field breaker is closed, the excitation current is at its lowest possible value = zero value approx. The desired excitation can be set on the set-point adjuster (lower/Raise pushbutton in UCB). During shut down of generator the field current set point adjuster receives a continuous LOWER command on tripping of the field breaker so that the set-point adjuster is set to the lower limit position. The tripping circuits for the de-excitation are provided twice for redundancy reasons. This should be complemented by corresponding safety in the power supply for the trip circuits; A de-excitation command from the generator protection system or a “Field breaker OFF” command from the control room energises relays K12 (system 1)/K22 (system 2) which seal in and start the time relays K13/K23, set to 0.5 s. Via relays K12/K22 the Thyristor set operating is driven to inverter operation thereby reversing the main exciter field winding voltages and thus reducing the Thyristor set output current to zero in less than half a second. The field discharge contractors K14/K24, energised by time relays K13 or K23 respectively, switch a field discharge resistor in parallel to the field winding of the main exciter and trip field breaker Q1 via its tripping coil. The field discharge resistor ensures that proper de-excitation is achieved even in the event of failure of the electronic de-excitation circuit. The field breaker is automatically tripped during generator shutdown by speed criteria as described above if not tripped earlier by the reverse power protection system. In emergencies, the field breaker can also be tripped manually via the generator protection system by actuating the emergency pushbutton on the control desk. In this case, also a turbine trip command is transmitted to the turbine control equipment. The OFF pushbutton for the field breaker is normally only connected for reset of the Iscamatic control module AS11 in the above cases. Should the OFF pushbutton be required to really trip the field breaker, interlocks must be provided with the generator
breaker and possibly with the station service supply breaker(s) to prevent de-excitation of loaded generator. Local non-electrical (mechanical) tripping of the field breaker is not permissible as the other essential de-excitation functions (field discharge by resistors, field suppression by overeater operation) are not tripped in this case. For emergency de-excitation a push-button or switch is locally provided (in the cubicle). Emergency de-excitation is possible also by tripping the MCB’s for the pulse power supply of the Thyristor sets. Mechanically closing of the field breaker is to be avoided also, as the sealed in relays in the tripping circuits would not drop out in this case. During short-circuit operation of the generator for setting of the generator protective equipment, the degree of excitation is adjusted by means of the excitation current regulator (MANUAL). During this mode of operation, a “MANUAL faulted” criterion available in the alarm system of the regulator can provisionally be used for tripping the field breaker. CHANGEOVER AUTO-MANUAL The THYRISIEM 04-2 voltage regulator includes a control system for automatic voltage control (AUTO) and an excitation current control system (MANUAL). The excitation current control system is provided for taking generator characteristics during commissioning and maintenance, for short-circuit operation of the generator during commissioning and for adjusting the excitation current in case of the automatic voltage regulator being faulty. This means that changeover from AUTO to MANUAL and vice versa is only required in exceptional cases. The manual changeover command is normally issued from the control room. Pushbuttons are also provided in the voltage regulator cubicle for commissioning and maintenance purposes. Push buttons AUTO, MATCH and MANUAL are provided for manual changeover. The MATCH pushbutton must be actuated prior to manual changeover. Following this, the RAISE, LOWER pushbuttons must be actuated for matching the output value of the set-point adjuster for MANUAL (on transition to MANUAL) or of the set-point adjuster for AUTO (on transition to AUTO) to the actual excitation state or to the generator voltage actual value. When the matched state is reached, the matching instrument in the control room indicates zero. Since different controlled variables are associated to the MANUAL to AUTO modes of operation, matching must not be effected by balancing the set-point adjuster position which are also indicated in the control room. Changeover to MANUAL or AUTO is only possible after the MATCH condition has been selected (interlocking circuit). Changeover to MANUAL or AUTO is also blocked from the regulator alarm system when the excitation current regulator or the automatic voltage regulator is faulty.
Automatic interrogation and evaluation of the matching stage and associated interlocking circuits have purposely not been provided since, in the event of faults changeover required for maintaining generator operation might be restricted inadequately. When all conditions for changeover are fulfilled, changeover is initiated by actuating pushbutton MANUAL or AUTO. The stored commands MATCH and MANUAL or AUTO are cancelled by the checkback signal “Gate control set MANUAL ON” or “Gate control set AUTO ON”. Changeover from AUTO to MANUAL and vice versa is initiated by a remanent relay module in the gate control set. Certain fault conditions in the automatic voltage control system initiate automatic changeover to MANUAL; This requires continuous automatic follow-up control of the excitation current set-point adjuster, i.e. on manual transition to MANUAL, a more or less balanced state already exists when MATCH is selected. Manual fine matching may still be carried out if necessary since automatic matching is blocked when MATCH is selected. FAULT INDICATIONS The following alarms are issued from the voltage regulator to the control room AVR fault; AVR, automatic changeover to MANUAL, AVR, loss of alarm voltage. The group alarm “AVR fault” collects the individual alarms; The initiating individual signal (s) is are stored and can be identified locally (in the voltage regulator cubicle) by means of LED’s. The indications are :Power supply Auto; Generator voltage actual value; Thyristor set AUTO; Faulty over excitation. Cause automatic changeover to MANUAL unless changeover is not blocked due to a fault in the excitation current control (MANUAL). Changeover can also be checked if components of MANUAL or AUTO are not ready for operation. This blocking takes effect both for automatic and manual commands. Fault conditions initiating automatic changeover also cause the alarm “AVR’ automatic changeover to MANUAL” to be given. The Power Supply AUTO” alarm initiating automatic changeover occurs in the event of undervoltage in the stabilised 15 V power supply for the automatic voltage control and the associated gate control set. The alarm “Generator voltage actual value” is initiated either by tripping of the voltage transformer MCB for the generator voltage actual value or by the generator voltage actual value monitor.
Response of the current flow monitoring system initiates the “Thyristor set AUTO” alarm. AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATION [AUTO] The potentiometer R1 fed from the + 10 V stabilised voltage presets the base reference value, the standard corresponding 85 % rated voltage. Added to this is the variable value from the set-point adjuster as standard 0- 20 %, corresponding to a total setting range of 85 to 105 %. The output voltage of the subsequently arranged amplifier N2 amounts to 8.0 V at rated generator voltage. The comparison of the set-point with the actual value takes place at the input of the proportional amplifier N4. Furthermore the output of the amplifier N3 which sums up the influencing factors of the compensation (reactive current effect) and of the under and over excitation limiters, is also switched to this junction point. The result of these influences is that of an additional set-point. The inputs for the limiters as well as further free inputs of the amplifier N3 can be individually switched to this point (the switches are not shown). The compassion can be set to between 0 and approx. 10 % by a potentiometer. A cascade of a proportional - integral (PI) voltage regulator (amplifiers N4, N7) and a following excitation current regulator (amplifiers N14,N15) serves for dynamic is determined and amplified by amplifier N4; the gain is set at potentiometer R4. The integral function is provided by amplifier N7 and adjusted at potentiometer R7. The feedback resistor R8 determines the static gain. The amplifiers N9, N10 with high proportional gain (about 100) limit the positive and negative output voltage of the amplifier N8 and thus the input signal to the excitation current regulator, depending on the setting of the potentiometers R9, R10. Negative output voltage of the P1 voltage regulator (output of N8) results in a positive set-point value to the input of the excitation current proportional (P-) regulator N 15. This P-regulator compares the positive set-point value against a negative actual value signal from amplifier by potentiometer R15. Under steady-state conditions, the setpoint and actual value signals have approx. The same amount, the difference setting to a value which multiplied by the gain of N15 result in the required signal going to the gate control set (output of N15). Negative voltage to the gate control set generates firing angles < 90 deg. Thus supplying power to the field winding of the main exciter (controlled rectifier operation) Positive voltage generates firing > 90 deg. Thus reversing the Thyristor set output voltage and drawing power from the field winding of the exciter, resulting in the current falling towards zero (inverter operation).
The relay K15 switches a positive voltage to a limiting input of amplifier N15 during de-excitation resulting in an equal positive constant input voltage to the gate control set. The Thyristor set output current then drops in less than half a second to zero, the generator voltage - or generator current in the case of a short-circuit - follows with a delay corresponding to the relevant generator time constant. As soon as the current reaches zero the Thyristor are blocked and the reversed voltage on the field winding disappears. This de-excitation process by inverter operation is shown below. The excitation current actual value = output current of the Thyristor sets is sensed by two transducers connected to separate shunt resistors, i.e. one combination each of shunt resistor plus transducer is provided for the automatic voltage regulator (AUTO) and for the MANUAL control system. The matching amplifier following the transducer for automatic voltage control transmits the current actual value to the input of amplifier N14. FIELD FORCING With the automatic voltage regulation calling for maximum excitation of the generator, the Thyristor set initially supplies a higher voltage to the field winding of the main exciter than that actually required under steady-state conditions, until the actual current in the main exciter field winding has reached the excitation current set-point coming from the PI-voltage regulator (output of N8). Overdriving the voltage to the field winding of the main exciter reduces the time required for building up the corresponding current in same field winding and thus improves the exciter response, for a large control action. The overdriving function - also refereed to as field forcing also becomes effective in the case of smaller control operations. This effect is achieved by the proportional excitation current regulator N15 together with proper setting of the control limits.
The maximum possible output voltage of the Thyristor set UA MAX is determined by a limit set as required in the gate control unit; i.e. the minimum delay angle for rectifier operation. Because of the high gain of the current regulator N15, a small increase of the set point is sufficient to reach UA MAX. The maximum output current IA MAX is determined by the maximum possible excitation current set-point from the PI-voltage regulator; this set-point is limited by amplifier N10 with respect to a reference voltage coming from ramp function generator N11, the function of which is explained below. This reference voltage is corresponding with the setting on potentiometer R11. Overdriving also becomes effective in case of downward control actions. The maximum possible reversed output voltage again is determined by a limit set (to a standard value) in the gate control unit, i.e. the maximum delay angle for inverter operation,. The positive signal from the PI-voltage regulator to the excitation current regulator is limited by amplifier N9 according to the setting of potentiometer R9 to a small value; this (standard) value is selected to make possible maximum reversed Thyristor output voltage during downward regulation through the whole current range, i.e. also at small actual current values. At the beginning of a generator start-up cycle, the output voltage of the ramp function generator N11 is zero so that the Thyristor set output current is limited to zero. When a speed value just short of synchronisation is reached, the ramp function generator gets its input voltage to run up to its maximum value within approx. 20. Thus due to the gradual enabling of the current, the generator receives its voltage within a few seconds without overshooting. On shutdown of the machine the ramp function generator runs back to output zero after removing the run-up command. Failure of diodes in the rotating rectifier between the main exciter and the generator field winding reduces its load capacity. The control panel in the regulator cubicle includes a switch by means of which the normal field - forcing value IA MAX of 1.5 times rated excitation can be limited to 1.1 times rated output by means of which the field - forcing limitation is reduced. The limitation to 1.1 times rated excited also becomes effective when the generator is not loaded; Field -forcing limitation, i.e. limitation of the Thyristor set output current to IA MAX ‘ is monitored by a limit monitor which senses the output current of the Thyristor set and its pick-up value being adjusted to 1.1 x IA MAX. Response of this limit monitor initiates automatic changeover to the MANUAL control system.
CONTROL OF SET-POINT ADJUSTERS Each of the two control systems AUTO and MANUAL has its own 24 V d. Two separate output drivers are provided for supplying the motor in both directions of rotation. In addition. Potentiometer R3 is set in accordance with the Thyristor set output voltage actually required (approx. motoroperated set-point adjuster. The current actual value for the control system is transmitted via a shunt from transducer U1 and matching amplifier N6. 1.c. 106 %). the current regulator would maintain the excitation current on a level corresponding to the preceding load operation which would result in generator over voltage. 100) limit the positive and negative output voltage of amplifier N2 and thus the input signal of the gate control set in accordance with the setting of potentiometers R2. The set-point and actual values are compared at the input of proportional amplifier N1. the positive output voltage is changed over from potentiometer R2 to amplifier N4 by means of relay K1 thus ensuring an equal positive constant input voltage of the gate control set. The set-point KORBA SIMULATOR 387 . In addition to this. The set-point value is supplied by a motoroperated potentiometer with a setting range which normally goes from the remanence value to 1. N4 with high proportional gain (approx.1. value which corresponds to the station supply load. Amplifier N5 limits the generator overvoltage to a response value pre-set by potentiometer R4 this response value must be slightly higher than the maximum generator voltage to be expected during operation (e.Potentiometer R2 for the maximum inverter voltage is set to a standard value.R3. This control system is provided for commissioning and maintenance work (particularly for operating the generator short-circulated) and maintaining operation when the automatic voltage regulator is disturbed. This is prevented by two measures.1 times rated excitation. the output voltage of the set-point potentiometer blocks the relevant driver by a limit value monitor.MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM The MANUAL control system incorporates a proportional action amplifier for closedloop control of the Thyristor set output current = excitation current of the main exciter. On tripping of the generator from the grid. times rated excitation). Amplifier N3. The range is adjusted by a potentiometer R6 of matching amplifier N6.g. The output of amplifier N1 supplied the input voltage for the gate control set via amplifier N2 (gain = +1). For de-excitation. the drive is protected by a slip-clutch. When one of the end positions is reached.
U5 when the generator is disconnected from the grid and during deexcitation. the setting of the excitation current set-point adjuster must be matched to the actual excitation state before changeover to MANUAL. Furthermore . The LOWER or RAISE signals transmitted from the control room act on the OR function in the driver input. only the commands to the set-point adjuster to be matched are enabled.potentiometer can also be adjusted manually without electric control by means of a knob provided on the module front panel. MATCHING FOLLOW UP CONTROL OF THE EXCITATION CURRENT SET-POINT ADJUSTER The excitation current regulator (MANUAL) is mainly used during commissioning and maintenance work and in exceptional cases when faults occur in the automatic voltage control system. It must be taken into consideration that the excitation current may be subject to considerable transient variations during faults. the matching and follow circuits ensure. the corresponding commands from the automatic synchroniser and the local control panel in the regulator cubicle are applied through or gates. The activity of limit monitor U5 during shutdown of the generator was provided to assist the operator who must carry out a fine adjustment in accordance with the generator voltage. the set-point adjuster is moved to the lower end position. KORBA SIMULATOR 388 . The LOWER/RAISE commands are transmitted to both set-point adjusters to support follow-up control. Limit monitor U5 reduces the set point value to a value which approximately corresponds to the station-service power requirements of the unit. response of the under excitation limiter blocks the RAISE driver of the AUTO set point adjuster. For this purpose. In some special fault cases. a clear design of the matching and follow-up control circuits is more essential than high accuracy. The driver are mutually interlocked via blocking inputs. Furthermore. Under steadystate conditions. Changeover from control of the generator voltage (AUTO) to the excitation current regulator (MANUAL requires the excitation current set-point adjuster to be set to a position in which a set point corresponding to the actual excitation current is supplied. For this reason. Together with the LOWER / RAISE commands from the control room. changeover to manual is initiated automatically. that the sustained and transient change of the excitation caused by changeover practically are to be neglected. Therefore matching is to be carried out continuously by means of an automatic follow-up control system. During matching. During de-excitation. The inputs of the drivers for the MANUAL set point adjuster are also influenced by the follow -up control system (refer to chapter 11).
The set-point value of the excitation current regulator is suitably adjusted for changeover when the difference signal at the outputs of amplifiers N1 and N2 is zero. The instrument reading is to be adjusted to zero by LOWER/RAISE commands from the control room. The difference value which just initiates response of the three-term controller is determined by the proportional gain of U1N1. whereas the output voltage of integrator N7* is essentially to be adjusted to the excitation current actual value. This means that the AUTO set-point adjuster must be so adjusted that the output voltage of amplifier N4* becomes zero. KORBA SIMULATOR 389 .e. the output voltage of amplifier N4* is zero and the output voltage of integrator N7* delivering the set-point to the excitation current regulator of the AUTO system. The excitation current set-point value is made up by two components: • • The voltage of a proportional amplifier N4* and The voltage of an integrator N7* During steady-state conditions. the difference signal behind amplifier N2 is monitored by limit monitors. To prevent disturbing changes in excitation during changeover from MANUAL to AUTO. the LOWER /RAISE commands from the control room are simultaneously transmitted to the AUTO and MANUAL set point adjusters.The output values of the excitation current regulators for AUTO and MANUAL are compared for that purpose by amplifier N1. The input of the limit monitors U1U1/U1U2 for Lower/Raise outputs with fixed response thresholds are connected to the output of amplifier U1N1. When the generator is connected in parallel with grid. In the case of larger differences. The difference signal acts on the matching instrument in the control room and on the input of the three term controller U1 for follow-up control of the excitation current set-point adjuster. the excitation current set-point delivered by the generator voltage regulator must be adapted to the excitation current actual value. and on the other hand the switching frequency of the set-point potentiometer is sufficiently limited. The difference signal at the output of amplifier N2 is connected to a proportional amplifier U1 N1 with adjustable gain and substantial smoothing in the three term controller. The first task is solved by applying the output voltage of amplifier N4* to the input of amplifier N2 feeding the matching instrument. Response of a monitor initiates delayed signalling. The values of the gain and smoothing time constant of amplifier U1N1 are selected so that on the one hand sufficient accuracy and fast correction of the deviation is ensured. This reduces the setting time of the follow-up control system. refer to the AVR diagrams “response mode” and “response time”. The circuits of the three-term controller are shown simplified without the components which ensure a minimum pulse time and stabilisation of the follow-up control (feedback). the output voltage of the generator voltage regulator must be adjusted according to the actual excitation level i. the response time of the limit monitors is shortened as a function of the increasing difference. For monitoring of the follow-up control system.
KORBA SIMULATOR 390 .
Major system voltage reductions may result in a thermal overloading of the exciter and generator KORBA SIMULATOR 391 . e. since the rotor displacement angle increases rapidly in this case. OVEREXCITATION LIMITER Reduction of the system voltage due to increased reactive power requirements. 1 illustrates the response value for a generator with an assumed maximum rotor o displacement angle of 75 . switching operation or disturbances cause the voltage regulator to increase the generator excitation in order to maintain a constant generator voltage. The final value of the rotor displacement angle on clearance of the fault is the decisive factor for maintaining stability. Fig. The safety margin allows for transient phenomena due to major system disturbances and switching operations. This angle will increase with increases of the steady-state initial value of the rotor displacement angle or decreases of the excitation. This response value includes an adequate safety margin above the stability limit. A reduction of the excitation may also result from a faulty operation.g. A reduction of the excitation may.UNDEREXCITATION LIMITER The underxcitation limiter automatically prevents too low excitation of the generator. This safety margin is of particular importance in the event of short-circuits occurring close to the generator terminals. for instance. the tapping switch of the main transformer. occur under influence of the automatic voltage regulator when the system voltage rises during low-load operation.
2).u. The action of the V/Hz limiter is frequently restricted to operation with the generator being disconnected from the grid.u. The resulting signal in the input amplifier of the voltage regulator causes the excitation to decrease accordingly. The voltage regulator keeps the generator voltage constant independent of the generator frequency. The stabilizer has the function of damping any turboset power fluctuations following power supply failures or in service switching operations in order to increase operational reliability KORBA SIMULATOR 392 . This means that the excitation equipment permits excited operation of the generator with frequency deviations up to 0.e.1 p.u. For this purpose the V/Hz limiter includes an element for measuring the frequency. The maximum under frequency value mentioned above may cause a rise of the unit transformer flux.rotor unless the operator presets a lower set-point for the generator voltage or changes the ratio of the unit transformer. comparing the frequency value against the generator voltage value and evaluating a correction signal. The overexcitation limiter has a response time inversely proportional to the difference between the actual value and the response value. approx. below nominal frequency. proportional to the ratio terminal voltage/frequency. The conditions described above basically also apply to the magnetic flux of the generator. Excessive magnetic flux increases thermal stressing of the unit transformer and of the generator. POWER SYSTEM STABLISER GENERAL The power system stabilizer is an integral part of the voltage regulator. i. Excitation of the generator with excessive under frequency values is prevented by speed-dependent enabling of the excitation at a speed value of 0.95 p. When the excitation current exceeds the set-point value. In such a case the overexcitation limiter limits the generator excitation by automatically reducing the generator voltage. The magnetic flux of the unit transformer is directly proportional to the terminal voltage and inversely proportional to the frequency. The shortest response time should be coordinated with the time setting of the backup protection of the generator (Fig. or by blocking at a speed value of less than 0. The excitation current if is measured through a current transformer with shunt and compared with a set-point.u. A further increase is possible depending on the permissible setting range of the generator voltage and even higher magnetic flux values are obtained when fault conditions of the voltage regulator are taken into consideration. approx. a signal appears at the output of the overexcitation limiter. by 0.1 p. The function of the V/Hz limiter is to issue a signal to the voltage regulation loop when a present V/Hz limit value is exceeded and to reduce this value to the permissible limit. as against the nominal value.90 p.
5 Hz. system by inputting an additional damping signal in the proper phase relation. Such signals to improve the stability of the turboset on line must pass through various existing control elements and thus be exactly matched in their time response. the inherent damping in the damping circuits of the generator. Control action influencing the generator excitation system is however a significantly better means of increasing damping. For reasons of technology. reduction of the ratio of power system short circuit current to generator output and less effective damping of the large generators. The output signals in cross-connected opposed-phase pairs are fed via matching elemets to one summing KORBA SIMULATOR 393 . consequently the rotor dimensions did not increase in proportion to output. The stabilizer for power systems of differing structures operates on signals derived from active power changes (actual power values) and acts on the generator excitation.05 Hz to 2.and security of supply. This is understandable in view of the fact that the damping torques are largely dependent on the geometry of the rotor. whereas the increased output of the generators was primarily achieved by more intensive cooling of the rotor. can frequently produce small power system short circuit currents. the higher utilization factor (increased output) of modern generators with correspondingly high excitation responses reduces the inherent damping of generators on line. the monitored output power is fed to the inputs of two 2-point vector identifiers. Additional damping through feed forward to the signal comparison circuit of the generator voltage regulator with its integral power system stabilizer can be made large enough to override disturbances in other control circuits. These two trends. A system stabilization of turbo sets can as a rule be achieved through reduction of the proportional gain of the turbine governing system. which is proportional to slip. each having one in phase and one phase-shifted output. lead as a whole to a greater tendency toward fluctuation of the overall generator power supply system. and also disturbances in the power supply. The power system stabilizer increases oscillation damping in a frequency range from 0. Mode of Operation Given power system structures in combination with certain generator output levels. For this purpose. In addition. cannot directly be increased by inputting additional damping signals. Simultaneously the stabilizer generally attains smoother turboset behavior in normal power supply operation.
element per pair. KORBA SIMULATOR 394 . The resultant output signal is transmitted via a noise suppression element and a limiter as an additional input to the signal comparison circuit of the voltage regulator. the output signals from the two summing elements are fed through one matching element per signal to an additional summing element.
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