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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

Relationship Between Space-Vector Modulation and Three-Phase Carrier-Based PWM: A Comprehensive Analysis
Keliang Zhou and Danwei Wang, Member, IEEE
Abstract—This paper comprehensively analyzes the relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based pulsewidth modualtion (PWM). The relationships involved, such as the relationship between modulation signals (including zero-sequence component and fundamental components) and space vectors, the relationship between the modulation signals and the space-vector sectors, the relationship between the switching pattern of space-vector modulation and the type of carrier, and the relationship between the distribution of zero vectors and different zero-sequence signal are systematically established. All the relationships provide a bidirectional bridge for the transformation between carrier-based PWM modulators and space-vector modulation modulators. It is shown that all the drawn conclusions are independent of the load type. Furthermore, the implementations of both space-vector modulation and carrier-based PWM in a closed-loop feedback converter are discussed. Index Terms—Carrier-based pulsewidth modulation, spacevector pulsewidth modulation.

I. INTRODUCTION ULSEWIDTH modulation (PWM) has been studied extensively during the past decades. Many different PWM methods have been developed to achieve the following aims: wide linear modulation range; less switching loss; less total harmonic distortion (THD) in the spectrum of switching waveform; and easy implementation and less computation time. For a long period, carrier-based PWM methods [1] were widely used in most applications. The earliest modulation signals for carrier-based PWM are sinusoidal. The use of an injected zero-sequence signal for a three-phase inverter [2] initiated the research on nonsinusoidal carrier-based PWM [3]–[7]. Different zero-sequence signals lead to different nonsinusoidal PWM modulators. Compared with sinusoidal three-phase PWM, nonsinusoidal three-phase PWM can extend the linear modulation range for line-to-line voltages. With the development of microprocessors, space-vector modulation has become one of the most important PWM methods for three-phase converters [8]–[15]. It uses the space-vector concept to compute the duty cycle of the switches. It is simply the digital implementation of PWM modulators. An aptitude for
Manuscript received November 3, 1999; revised July 6, 2001. Abstract published on the Internet December 5, 2001. The authors are with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (e-mail:edwwang@ntu. edu.sg). Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(02)00933-4.

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easy digital implementation and wide linear modulation range for output line-to-line voltages are the notable features of space vector modulation. The comprehensive relation of the two PWM methods provides a platform not only to transform from one to another, but also to develop different performance PWM modulators. Therefore, many attempts have been made to unite the two types of PWM methods [16], [17]. The relationship between space vectors and fundamental modulation signals was derived in [18]–[21]. Reference [17] suggested the relationship between common-node voltage (zero-sequence voltage) and the space vectors on the basis of a three-phase inverter with a symmetrical Y-connected load. However, the dependence on the load [17] hinders the universal significance of its drawn conclusions. This paper aims to reveal the comprehensive relationship between space-vector modulation and carrier-based PWM. The relationship between modulation signals and voltage vectors, the relationship between zero-sequence signal and space vectors, the relationship between the modulation signals and the vector sectors, the relationship between the sequence of space vectors and the type of carrier, and the relationship between the distribution of zero vectors and different carrier-based PWM modulators are systematically investigated without dependence on the load type. Furthermore, the implementations of these two PWM methods in the feedback closed-loop converter are discussed with corresponding solutions. Simulation results are provided to validate the drawn conclusions. II. CARRIER-BASED PWM A. Basic Properties A carrier-based PWM modulator is comprised of modulation signals and carrier signal. The operation of PWM can be divided into two modes [22], [23]. 1) Linear Mode.—In the linear mode, the peak of a modulation signal is less than or equal to the peak of the caris greater than rier signal. When the carrier frequency 20 modulation signal frequency , the gain of PWM . 2) Nonlinear Mode—When the peak of a modulation signal is greater than the peak of the carrier signal, overmodu. The six-step mode marks the lation occurs with end of the nonlinear mode. The THD of output switched waveforms increases.

0278–0046/02$17.00 © 2002 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Downloaded on July 16,2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

and that output line-to-line voltages are equal to or less than dc-bus voltage . not satisfied. . the possible maximum modulation index is in the linear range. [24]. . and are called fundawhere mental signals that are three-phase symmetrical sinusoidal signals as follows: Fig. When overmodulation occurs.e. the output line-to-neutral voltages (as shown in Fig. Restrictions apply. and we have (7) (1) and are the positive and the negative pulsewidths where is the normalin the th sampling interval.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. for carrier-based twolevel PWM modulators. 1. ne- where . Therefore.ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 187 glecting high-order harmonics. Fig. [21]. where is the modulation index. As shown in Fig. [18]. and . Downloaded on July 16. and are (6) Fig. B.. from . do not appear in the It is clear that the injected harmonics is usually called as zero line-to-line voltages. and According to (2) and (4). and (8) yields sinusoidal PWM. 2 shows a three-phase PWM inverter without consideration of the load type. and the normalized peak value of the carterval ( rier signal is 1. Carrier-Based PWM A universal representation of modulation signals for three-phase carrier PWM modulators is as follows: (3) are injected harmonics. in the linear mode. 2. 2 ) are (5) The output line-to-line voltages . (6). Therefore. (1) and (2) are (4) . In the linear modulation range. Equation (1) is usually referred to as the Equal Voltage—Second principle [14]. we have show In the linear modulation range. the output line-to-neutral voltages satisfy (2) where is the neutral point of the dc bus. (5) . Two-level carrier-based PWM. respectively. can be calculated by sequence signal [14]. i. In the linear range. ized amplitude of modulation signal in the th sampling in). 1. we have and the maximum (4) and (5) and Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Three-phase PWM inverter. .

respectively. all the are cut by . in one sampling interval. one modulation signal will be equal to “ 1” and the corresponding leg is tied to the positive or negative rail of the dc link without switching actions. and is the sampling time. and . (b) Voltage vector space. Thus. compared with continuous PWM schemes. 3). Downloaded on July 16. the zero-sequence or . 2. In terms of the switching characteristics. in the linear modulation range. 1.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. The lengths of vectors the switch states are unity and the lengths of and are zero. the following operation rules are obeyed: (a) (b) Fig. the output voltage vector written as can be (11) are the turn-on time of the vectors . When . according to the equivalence principle. for discontinuous PWM schemes. There are eight switch states (as shown in Fig. the vector is commonly split into the two nearest adjacent voltage vectors and zero vectors and in an arbitrary sector. The voltage-vector space is divided up into six sectors. the upper switch the upper switch is on and the bottom switch is off and the bottom switch is off is on (9) Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. where with reference to point . whereas. in order to reduce the number of switching actions and make full use of active turn-on time for space vectors. is the neutral point of the dc bus. 49. When When is a suitable signal. into According to (10) and (11). nonsinusoidal PWM occurs. and these eight vectors form the voltage-vector space as displayed in Fig. the switch function is defined by (9). “0” denotes inverter output . SPACE-VECTOR PWM For the three-phase two-level PWM inverter as shown in Fig. in each carrier cycle. in each carrier signal period. 3. is and the maximum tops of in the linear range. In one sampling interval. FEBRUARY 2002 output line-to-line voltages are . . Therefore. VOL. The output voltages of the inverter are composed by these eight switch states. For continuous PWM schemes. Define eight corresponding to voltage vectors . Space vectors. in sector I. . each output of the converter legs is switching between the positive or negative rail of the dc link. 3 . “1” denotes at the bottom of the page. from an average view. the decomposition of has infinite ways. shown at the . It shows that suitable can extend the linear modulation range of three-phase RSPWM modulators. NO. However. overmodulation occurs. (a) Eight switching states. . For example. [5] .188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. vector can be expressed as where (12) (10) where . . Restrictions apply. Obcomponent viously. discontinuous PWM schemes can reduce the average switching frequency by 33% and cause less switching loss. In the vector space. Difoutput line-to-line voltages reach leads to different carrier-based PWM modulators ferent for three-phase converters [4]. such as [2]. PWM schemes can be divided into continuous PWM and discontinuous PWM in the linear modulation range. 3. . III.

(15) From (14) and (15). or or both..[3]. both and . . (14). and are in all six sectors is called zero vectors. For space-vector modulation. IV. we have (16) Therefore. there is a degree of freedom in the choice of zero vectors in one switching cycle. the switching sequence is . is. that tion range.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore.. 4 and (20). For discontinuous space-vector schemes. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARRIER-BASED PWM AND SPACE-VECTOR PWM A. for active It is shown that the turn-on times vectors are identical in a different space PWM modulator. Decomposition of shown in Table I.. From Fig. Equations (12) and (13) are the commonly used formulation of the space-vector modulation modulator. in the linear modulaand are used in one switching cycle. then we have (13) Thus. 4.. of . There are not separate modulation signals in each of the three phases in space-vector modulation technique [3]. the boundary between the linear modulation range and the overmodulation range is the hexagon [3]. a voltage vector is processed as a whole [8]. [15]. Restrictions apply. i. and for zero vectors yields The different distribution of different space-vector PWM modulators. the trajectory of when the length becomes the inscribed circle of the hexagon and the maximum amplitude of sinusoidal line-to-line voltages is the dc-bus voltage . [15] in Fig.ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 189 TABLE I SPACE-VECTOR-MODULATION ALGORITHM Let the length of be .e. it should be should pointed out that the trajectory of voltage vector be circular while maintaining sinusoidal output line-to-line voltages. Modulation Signals and Space Vectors Comparison between the two-level carrier-based PWM and the space-vector modulation in sector I [18] is illustrated in Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. for space-vector PWM. the overmodulation region for space-vector modulation is outside the hexagon. where The length and angle of are determined by vectors that are called active vectors. Moreover. as calculated from becomes greater than and unrealizable. in the linear moduor only is used in one switching cycle. 4. In the six-step mode. only or . that is. Furthermore. the boundary between the linear modulation range and the overmodulation range in vector sector I is Fig. If the voltage vector exceeds the hexagon. whether For continuous space-vector schemes. Thus. providing several useful overmodulation strategies for space-vector modulation. Downloaded on July 16. Modulation range for space-vector modulation. Instead. (14) .... lation range. in the linear modulation range. [12]. The linear modulation range is located within the hexagon.

5. B. 49. The representations of in the other five sectors are listed in Table II. Restrictions apply. 1. an arbitrary carrier-based PWM modulator can be easily transformed into an equivalent space-vector modulation modulator. VOL. we have (19) (20) Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Based on the Equal Voltage-Second principle and Fig. Equations (18) and (19) are of universal significance. FEBRUARY 2002 Fig. It seems that (19) is the same as the formulation for common-node voltage in [17]. the zero-sequence signal by is calculated According to (6) and (17). a symmetrical Y-connected load with a common node is connected with the inverter in [17]. Therefore. 5. NO. 5. TABLE II ZERO-SEQUENCE e (t) AND SPACE VECTORS Fig. Carrier-based PWM and space-vector modulation in sector I. Transformations Between Modulation Signals and Space Vectors (18) From (8) and (18). . However. Equations (18) and (19) represent the relationship between the modulation signals and the space vectors.190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. we have (17) Thus.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Downloaded on July 16. Equation (19) is independent of this assumption.

bidirectional transforplane and mations between fundamental signals in the plane are derived as follows: active space vectors in the (26) and With the help of (19). . Modulation Signals and Space-Vector Sectors The relationships between the modulation signals and the space-vector sectors are displayed in Fig. For space-vector modulation. Equation (21) shows the relationship between the fundamental signals and the space vectors in sector I. and can be expressed as (25) Therefore. A unified representation for the distribution of and in sector I can be written as 1 (28) . (21) Equation (20) shows the direct relationship between the line-to-line voltages and the space vectors in sector I. Fig. Here are some typical examples. Relationship between vector sector and fundamental modulation signals. . whereas. Restrictions apply. and are calculated as follows: From Table I. the cormined by (22). not the zero vectors. Downloaded on July 16. we have . D. due to there are infinite different ways to distribute and . yields sinusoidal carrier1) Continuous PWM: in based PWM with maximum modulation index the linear modulation range as shown in Fig. Different and yield different space-vector moduladistributions of tion modulators.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. C. respectively. a carrier-based PWM modulator is determined by its unique zero-sequence signal and a unified representation for (29) (24) Thus. 6. and the opposite is true. 6 and Table IV. 3 where Comparing (14) with (22) leads to the relationship between of and modulation index of the threelength coefficient phase carrier-based PWM as follows (23) As shown in Fig.ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 191 TABLE III FUNDAMENTAL SIGNALS AND SPACE VECTORS Thus. Distribution of Zero Vectors and Zero-Sequence Signal (22) is defined as shown in Fig. It also indicates that the output line-to-line voltages are determined by the active vectors. 7(a). Equations (26) and (27) are the well-known 3/2 transformation and 2/3 transformation. The relationships between the fundamental signals and the space vectors in all six sectors are listed in Table III. When responding space-vector PWM modulators have been discussed in [18]. it is easy to find an equivalent zerosequence signal for an arbitrary distribution of zero vectors. its equivalent distribution of (30) (27) leads to third harmonics injection PWM (HIPWM) [2] with maximum modulation index Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Because of the symmetry of space sectors. the above transformations can be extended to all other five sectors. according to (21) and (25). 3. . and are deterwhere . According to and in sector I is (19).

7(b). NO. FEBRUARY 2002 TABLE IV SPACE-VECTOR SECTORS AND FUNDAMENTAL MODULATION SIGNALS (a) (a) (b) (b) (c) Fig. . (b : Fig. [20] with maximum modulation in the linear modulation range as shown index and in sector I are in Fig. Modulation signals of continuous PWM (m HIPWM.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore.192 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. 49. (a) SPWM. 1. 8. Modulation signals of discontinuous PWM (m = 1:0). VOL. Downloaded on July 16. (c) = 1 0). 7(c). (c) SYPWM. (c) DPWMMIN. Its corresponding (32) (31) Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. (a) DPWM1. Restrictions apply. in the linear modulation range as shown in and in sector I are Fig. 7. Its corresponding brings symmetrical PWM (SYPWM) [18]. (b) DPWMMAX.

8(a). Fig. 8(b)]. Equivalent switching patterns for double-edge carrier-based PWM. the relationship between carrier type and switching pattern of space-vector modulation is discussed. voltage-second average over that interval) which contributes fundamental components in the line-to-line voltages. The main function of the space-vector modulation strategy is to determine the pulsewidth for active vectors within each sampling interval (i. 10. 2) Discontinuous PWM (DPWM): For DPWM1 [24] as can be expressed by shown in Fig. . its equivFor DPWM with and alent distribution of zero vectors is in all six space-vector sectors [as shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 11. (DPWMMAX) its equivaFor DPWM with and lent distribution of zero vectors is in all six space-vector sectors [as shown in Fig. For example. 8(c)]. 9 shows all the possible transitions between different switching states. (33) DPWM1’s equivalent distribution of I are and [14] in sector E. every single arrow representing one switching to needs action only. [17] . Transitions between different switching states. a carrier affectsthe superior performance of the modulator. 12. (DPWMMIN). while the transition to needs at least three switching actions [3]. a carrier-basedPWM modulator is frequency determined. The optimal sequence of the pulse within the sampling interval leads to a superior-performing space-vector modulation modulator.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore.. Fig.e. However. In this section. Restrictions apply. Fewer switching actions leads to less switching loss. Switching Pattern of Space-Vector Modulation and Carrier Type Whenthemodulationsignalswithfrequency andacarrierwith are determined. It from shows that the switching pattern of the space-vector modulation (34) . The maximum for all DPWM modulators is in modulation index the linear modulation range. a transition from state switching action of at least one bridge leg. Instantaneous feedback CVCF PWM inverter. Downloaded on July 16. Fig. The leading feature of DPWM is that the switching actions of a DPWM modulator are 2/3 as much as those of a continuous PWM modulator with identical carrier frequency. The main performance of a carrier-based PWM modulator is determined by its modulation signals. Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. too. Equivalent switching patterns for single-edge carrier-based PWM.ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 193 Fig.

The typical carrier for the double-edge carrier-based PWM is the triangle carrier.194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. The number of switching actions for pattern II is only 67% of that of pattern I. there are four switching actions in one sampling interval. Pattern I which adopts and in one sampling interval is corresponding to both continuous PWM. Downloaded on July 16. In Figs. Closed-loop feedback PWM modulator implementation. = 1 0). state. All transitions between arbitrary two successive space vectors for the optimal switching pattern need only one switching action (as shown in Fig. Fig. 49. in one sampling interval does affect the number of switching actions. two kinds of optimal switching pattern of space vectors in sector I are displayed. It shows that. 9). there are three switching actions for the three legs of the inverter during one sampling interval. 10 and 11. 1. VOL. In pattern I. 15. The overall switching frequency of pattern II is only 67% of that of pattern I. 11 shows the equivalent switching patterns for the back-to-back single-edge carrier-based PWM with a carrier . either Fig. at the . 13. [26] . Restrictions apply. (a) : (b) Fig. (a) (a) (b) Fig. FEBRUARY 2002 Fig. 10 shows the equivalent switching pattern of space-vector modulation for the center-pulse double-edge carrier-based PWM with a carrier frequency . In pattern I. Simulation results of two implementation methods (m Conventional SYPWM. 14. NO. The typical carrier for the single-edge carfrequency rier-based PWM is the sawtooth carrier. Furthermore. Fewer switching actions leads to less switching loss. (a) Nonsinusoidal carrier-based PWM modulator. Conventional nonsinusoidal PWM modulator implementation. (b) Feedback SYPWM. In pattern II. is corresponding to discontinuous PWM. Pattern II which uses only one zero switching or . 11 is 1/2 as much as that of corresponding pattern I (or II) in Fig. In pattern II. Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. there are two switching actions in one sample action. . (b) Space-vector PWM modulator. there are six switching actions for the three legs of the inverter during one sampling interval. the switching actions of pattern same sampling frequency I (or II) in Fig. 10.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. the center-pulse switching pattern results in minimization of the harmonic distortion of the inverter currents [5].

. VI.” IEEE Trans. Ind.. REFERENCES [1] S. Lipo. 1002–1009. Bowes. pp.e. 122./Dec. [16] J. . between the modulation signals and space-vector sectors. and between the switching pattern of space-vector modulation and the type of carrier were discussed and established. C. CO. and F.” IEEE Trans. 26–34. Kerman. 1989. S. Kolar. such as HIPWM./Apr. Blasko. G. pp. [7] P. Hava. and S. 1115–1121. In this inverter. “The general relationship between regular-sampled pulse-width-modulation and space vector modulation for hard switched converters. A. 523–531. It indicates that the possible maximum for all PWM modulators is modulation index in the linear modulation range.. Hava. Ogasawara. W. Fig.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 1994. May/June 1997.” IEEE Trans. Orlando.” IEEE Trans. WA. Blasko. Akagi. pp. Holtz. July 1998. pp. “The relationship between space-vector modulation and regular-sampled PWM. Power Electron.. Furthermore. vol. Lai. 1986. CONCLUSIONS In this paper.. July 1996. Ind. 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China.E degree from Wuhan University of Transportation. Danwei Wang (S’88–M’89) received the B. Downloaded on July 16. Singapore. where he is an Associate Professor.S. VOL.E. He has authored publications in the areas of manipulator/mobile robot dynamics. Restrictions apply.196 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. iterative learning control. and applications. and 1989. he has been with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.E. path planning. and the M. Ann Arbor. Wuhan. . in 1970. He received the B. Wuhan. and their applications to industrial systems. FEBRUARY 2002 Keliang Zhou was born in Hubei. NO. Since 1989. degree from South China University of Technology. degrees from the University of Michigan. Guangzhou. 49. 1. in 1992 and 1995. China.E. control theory. Nanyang Technological University. both in electrical engineering.S.2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. respectively. and Ph. and the M. His research interests are in the fields of power electronics and electric machines. China. His research interests include robotics. Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. advanced control theory. China. degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology. and adaptive control. respectively. He is currently working toward the Ph. and applications. Singapore. in 1982. 1985. robust control.D.D degree at Nanyang Technological University.

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