Chapter 15 Point Mutations: Mutations are spontaneous and occur without exposure to known mutagen and the rates

are very low Point mutations are induced and occur with exposure to known mutagens Radiation and chemicals Types: Single-nucleotide substitutions: -transitions: purine to purine or pyrim to pyrim transversions: purine to pyrimidine A-T indels: insertions or deletions Origins of spontaneous mutations- the Lurin-Delbruck experiments are advantageous mutations induced by environmental conditions, or are they random? Large bacterial culture plated aliquots and 20 plates 20 small bacterial cultures and plated each of those both were inoculated with phage If induced: no difference in mean or variance of resistant colony nums If spontaneous: little plate to plate variation in large culture and lots of plate to plate variation in small cultures. The scientists found that the mutations were spontaneous. Sources of mutations- spontaneous depurination [complete removal of purine base] Also, sponataneousdeamination [methylated C to U DNA repair mechanisms

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