Learning System for Automation

Hydraulics
Workbook Basic Level

094468 (04/01)

Authorised applications and liability The Learning System for Automation and Communication has been developed and prepared exclusively for training in the field of automation and communication. The training organization and / or trainee shall ensure that the safety precautions described in the accompanying Technical documentation are fully observed. Festo Didactic hereby excludes any liability for injury to trainees, to the training organization and / or to third parties occurring as a result of the use or application of the station outside of a pure training situation, unless caused by premeditation or gross negligence on the part of Festo Didactic. Order no.: Description: Designation: Edition: Layout: Graphics: Author: 094468 TEACHW. HYDRAUL. D.S501-C-SIBU-GB 04/01 30.04.2001, OCKER Ingenieurbüro OCKER Ingenieurbüro D. Waller, H. Werner

© Copyright by Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., D-73770 Denkendorf 2001 The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registrations. Parts of this training documentation may be duplicated, solely for training purposes, by persons authorised in this sense.

TP501 · Festo Didactic

3

Preface
Festo Didactic’s Learning System for Automation and Communications is designed to meet a number of different training and vocational requirements. The Festo Training Packages are structured accordingly:

T Basic Packages provide fundamental knowledge on a wide range of
technologies.

T Technology Packages deal with important areas of open-loop and
closed-loop control technology.

T Function Packages explain the basic functions of automation systems.

T Application Packages provide basic and further training closely oriented to everyday industrial practice. Technology Packages deal with the technologies of pneumatics, electropneumatics, programmable logic controllers, automation with PCs, hydraulics, electrohydraulics, proportional hydraulics and application technology (handling).
Fig. 1: Hydraulics 2000 – i.e. mobile workstation

Mounting frame

U = 230V~

Profile plate

p = 6 MPa

Storage tray

TP501 • Festo Didactic

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The modular structure of the Learning System permits applications to be assembled which go beyond the scope of the individual packages. It is possible, for example, to use PLCs to control pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical actuators. All training packages have an identical structure:

T T T T

Hardware Courseware Software Courses

The hardware consists of industrial components and installations, adapted for didactic purposes. The courseware is matched methodologically and didactically to the training hardware. The courseware comprises:

T Textbooks (with exercises and examples) T Workbooks (with practical exercises, explanatory notes, solutions and
data sheets)

T OHP transparencies and videos (to bring teaching to life)
Teaching and learning media are available in several languages. They have been designed for use in classroom teaching but can also be used for self-study purposes. In the software field, computer-based training programs and programming software for programmable logic controllers are available. Festo Didactic’s range of products for basic and further training is completed by a comprehensive selection of courses matched to the contents of the technology packages.

TP501 • Festo Didactic

independence and organisational skills. T Exercises with exercise sheets and solutions. descriptions of solutions and quipment lists Storage tray. willingness to learn. T Fostering of key qualifications: Technical competence.5 Latest information about the technology package TP501. leading questions. willingness to co-operate. Aim – Professional competence Content Part A Part B Part C Part D Course Fundamentals Solutions Appendix Exercises Reference to the text book Function diagrams. New in Hydraulic 2000: T Industrial components on the profile plate. mounting technology and datasheets TP501 • Festo Didactic . circuits. T Training of team skills. personal competence and social competence form professional competence.

6 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

7 Table of contents Introduction Notes on safety Notes on operation Technical notes Training contents Equipment set for “Hydraulics Basic Level” Component / exercise table for TP 501 11 13 13 14 17 19 24 Section A – Course Exercise 1: Automatic lathe Pump characteristic Exercise 2: Package lifting device Pressure relief valve characteristic Exercise 3: Drawing press Hydraulic resistances Exercise 4: Calender feeding device Single-acting cylinder (basic circuit) Exercise 5: Hardening furnace Single-acting cylinder (measurement and calculation) Exercise 6: Furnace door control Double-acting cylinder Exercise 7: Conveyor tensioning device 4/3-way valve with bypass to pump Exercise 8: Cold-store door Accumulator Exercise 9: Rotary machining station Flow control valve and counter-holding Exercise 10: Painting booth Flow control valve characteristic A-3 A-7 A-11 A-15 A-19 A-23 A-29 A-33 A-37 A-41 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

displacement-step diagram Exercise 19: Assembly device Calculation of pressure and time Exercise 20: Tipping container Electrohydraulics A-45 A-49 A-55 A-59 A-63 A-69 A-73 A-77 A-81 A-85 Section B .Fundamentals TP501 • Festo Didactic .8 Exercise 11: Embossing machine One-way flow control valve and counter-holding Exercise 12: Surface grinding machine Differential circuit Exercise 13: Drilling machine Pressure regulator Exercise 14: Bulkhead door Hydraulic clamping of a cylinder Exercise 15: Ferry loading ramp Flow control valve in inlet and outlet lines Exercise 16: Skip handling Varying load Exercise 17: Bonding press Comparison of pressure regulator and – pressure relief valve Exercise 18: Assembly device Pressure sequence circuit.

9 Section C – Solutions Solution 1: Solution 2: Solution 3: Solution 4: Solution 5: Solution 6: Solution 7: Solution 8: Solution 9: Solution 10: Solution 11: Solution 12: Solution 13: Solution 14: Solution 15: Solution 16: Solution 17: Solution 18: Solution 19: Solution 20: Automatic lathe Package lifting device Drawing press Calender feeding device Hardening furnace Furnace door control Conveyor tensioning device Cold-store door Rotary machining station Painting booth Embossing machine Surface grinding machine Drilling machine Bulkhead door Ferry loading ramp Skip handling Bonding press Assembly device Calculation for an assembly device Tipping container C-3 C-7 C-11 C-15 C-19 C-23 C-27 C-33 C-37 C-41 C-45 C-49 C-59 C-65 C-69 C-73 C-77 C-79 C-83 C-85 Section D – Appendix Storage tray Mounting systems Sub-base Coupling system Data sheets D-3 D-4 D-6 D-7 . TP501 • Festo Didactic ...

10 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

TP500. The Technology Package “Hydraulics”. The basic level hydraulic exercises are designed to be carried out with manual actuation. also possible to use electrical actuation. It is.11 Introduction This workbook forms part of Festo Didactic’s Learning System for Automation and Communications. The basic level package TP501 teaches basic knowledge of hydraulic control technology. while the advance level package TP502 builds on this. This package comprises a basic level and an advanced level. is designed to provide an introduction to the fundamentals of hydraulic control technology. The hydraulic components have been designed to provide the following: T T T T T Easy handling Secure mounting Environmentally-friendly coupling system Compact component dimensions Authentic measuring methods We recommend the following for the practical execution of the exercises: T T T T T Hydraulic components: Equipment set TP501 One hydraulic power pack A number of hose lines A profile plate or a suitable laboratory trolley A measuring set with the appropriate sensors TP501 • Festo Didactic . however.

12 This workbook provides knowledge of the physical interrelationships and the most important basic circuits in hydraulics. Festo Didactic offers the following further training material for hydraulics: T T T T T T Magnetic symbols Hydraulics slide rule Set of OHP transparencies Transparent models Interactive video Symbol library TP501 • Festo Didactic . The exercises deal with the following: T T T T Plotting of characteristics for individual components Comparison of the use of different components Assembly of various basic circuits Use of basic hydraulics equations The following technical equipment is required for safe operation of the components: T A hydraulic power pack providing an operating pressure of 60 bar and a flow rate of 2 l/min T An electrical power supply of 230V AC for the hydraulic power pack T A power supply unit with an output of 24V DC for solenoid-actuated valves T A Festo Didactic profile plate for mounting the components The theoretical background is described in the “Hydraulics Basic Level” textbook TP501. Technical descriptions of the components used are given in the data sheets in Part D of this workbook.

Check that all return lines are connected and all hose lines are securely fitted. T Observe all general safety instructions (DIN 58126 and VDE 100). Cylinders may advance unexpectedly! T Do not exceed the maximum permissible operating pressure (see data sheets). 5. ensure that pressure in hydraulic components has been released: Couplings must be connected and disconnected only under zero pressure! 6. 2. Switch on the electrical power supply first and then the hydraulic power pack. Notes on operation Always work in the following sequence when assembling a hydraulic circuit. Before dismantling the circuit. 1. Switch off the hydraulic power pack first and then the electrical power supply. i.e. TP501 • Festo Didactic . securely snap-fitted or bolted down. The hydraulic power pack and electrical power supply must be switched off during the assembly of the circuit.13 Notes on safety Observe the following in the interests of your own safety: T Exercise care when switching on the hydraulic power pack. 4. 3. All components must be securely fitted to the profile plate.

other components and hose lines are fitted with selfclosing quick-release couplings. 3: Simplified drawing of self-closing couplings Throttle valve Hose Shut-off valve TP501 • Festo Didactic . T The hydraulic power pack PN 152962 incorporates an adjustable pressure relief valve. the non-return valve in the coupling may cause pressure to become trapped in the valve or other component concerned. Exception: This is not possible in the case of hose lines and non-return valves. With an area ratio of 1:1. The pressure relieving device PN 152971 can be used to release this pressure. 60 bar (6 MPa). the pressure is limited to approx.14 Technical notes Observe the following in order to ensure safe operation. T The maximum permissible pressure for all hydraulic components is 120 bar (12 MPa). In the interests of safety. In the interests of simplicity. these couplings are not shown in circuit diagrams. The operating pressure should not exceed 60 bar (6 MPa). T In the case of double-acting cylinders. 2: Pressure intensification T If connections are detached under pressure. Fig. the pressure intensification effect may produce an increased pressure proportional to the area ratio of the cylinder. this increased pressure may be over 100 bar (10 MPa)! Fig.7 and an operating pressure of 60 bar (6 MPa). T All valves. This prevents the accidental spillage of hydraulic fluid.

2/2-way valve 3/2-way valve Fig. 5: Practical assembly Circuit diagram Practical assembly Fig. 4 and 5). T Solenoid-actuated valves can be used in place of hand lever valves (Fig. 6: Directional control valves with various normal positions Fig. 4: Circuit diagram 4/2-way valve 4/2-way valve Fig. the following alternative solutions are possible: T Plugs can be used to change the function of directional control valves (Figs. T Directional control valves with different normal positions can be used (Fig. 6).15 T It is frequently necessary when assembling a control circuit to modify the given circuit diagram. 7). Within the scope of the equipment set in this Training Package. 7: Solenoid-actuated directional control valve TP501 • Festo Didactic .

10: Connecting up the universal display Battery operation External power supply TP501 • Festo Didactic . 8: Block circuit diagram q Hydraulic motor n Tachogenerator V Universal display q Fig. 3 for this purpose. which produces a voltage V proportional to the rotary speed n. T A tachogenerator. which converts the flow rate q into a rotary speed n. Fig. The universal display should be set to sensor no. hydraulic and electrical Fig. 9: Circuit diagrams.16 Flow rate sensor The flow rate sensor consists of: T A hydraulic motor. T A universal display unit. which converts the flow rate q into l/min.

a bypass circuit to the pump.17 Training contents T Characteristics of valves and other components. Basic physical principles of hydraulics. forces. power and speed. TP501 • Festo Didactic . T Uses of individual valves and other components. T Assessment of energy consumption. T T T T T T T T T Measurement of variables such as pressure. T Comparison of uses and functions of different valves and other components. flow rate and time. Use of basic hydraulics equations. outlet and bypass. Understanding and drafting of circuit diagrams. circuits with counter-holding and bypass circuits with a non-return valve. T Basic hydraulic circuits such as a pressure sequence circuit. a differential circuit. including faultfinding. Drafting of displacement/step diagrams. circuits with flow control valves in the inlet. Calculations of area ratios. Use of symbols in accordance with DIN/ISO 1219. Control of pressure and speed. Assembly and commissioning of control circuits.

18

List of training aims

Exercise
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Training aims
Drawing a pump characteristic. Drawing a characteristic for a pressure relief valve. Measuring flow resistances. Application of a non-return valve. Use of a 2/2-way valve to control a single-acting cylinder. Application of a 3/2-way valve. Determination of times Application of a 4/2-way valve. Determination of times Application of a 4/3-way valve. Use of a pilot-operated non-return valve. Use of a hydraulic accumulator as a power source. Use of accumulator to power advance and return strokes of cylinder after pump is switched off. Application of a 2-way flow control valve. Assembly of a counter-pressure circuit. Plotting of characteristic for a 2-way flow control valve. Comparison between this valve and a throttle valve. Application of a one-way flow control valve. Difference between flow control valve and throttle valve on the basis of a concrete application. Design and mode of operation of a differential circuit. Influence of piston areas on pressures Design of a control circuit with reduced output pressure. Explanation of mode of operation of a 3-way pressure regulator. Hydraulic clamping with a double-acting cylinder. Comparison of circuits with and without counter-holding. Speed control circuit with tractive load. Comparison of circuits with flow control valves in the inlet line and outlet line respectively. Circuit for a double-acting cylinder with a varying load. Specification of pressure for a double-acting cylinder. Choice of either a pressure relief valve or a pressure regulator Pressure sequence circuit. Drawing of a displacement/step diagram Calculation of forces associated with a double-acting cylinder Calculation of advance-stroke time of a cylinder piston. Electrohydraulic control circuit.

9 10 11

12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20

TP501 • Festo Didactic

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Equipment set for “Hydraulics Basic Level”
Description
Pressure gauge Throttle valve One-way flow control valve Shut-off valve Non-return valve, opening pressure 1 bar Non-return valve, opening pressure 5 bar Branch tee Pressure relief valve Pressure relief valve, piloted Pressure regulator Flow control valve Non-return valve, hydraulically piloted Double-acting cylinder Hydraulic motor Diaphragm accumulator Loading weight, 9 kg 4/2-way hand lever valve 4/3-way hand lever valve, recirculation mid-position

Order No.
152841 152842 152843 152844 152845 152846 152847 152848 152849 152850 152851 152852 152857 152858 152859 152972 152974 152977

Qty.
3 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TP501, PN 080246

TP501 • Festo Didactic

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Additional equipment

Description
Stop-watch 4/3-way hand lever valve, closed in mid-position 4/3-way hand lever valve, relieving mid-position Relay, 3-fold Signal input unit, electrical Flow-rate sensor 4/2-way solenoid valve 4/3-way solenoid valve, closed in mid-position 4/3-way solenoid valve, relieving mid-position 4/3-way solenoid valve, recirculating mid-position Universal display Pressure sensor

Order No.
151504 152975 152976 162241 162242 183736 167082 167083 167084 167085 183737 184133

Qty.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Accessories

Description
Profile plate, large Schlauchleitung, 600 mm Hydraulik-Aggregat Hose line, 1000 mm Pressure relieving device Protective cover (for weight, 9kg) Power supply unit, 24 V, 4.5 A Cable set with safety plugs

Order No.
159411 152960 152962 152970 152971 152973 162417 167091

Qty.
1 12 1 4 1 1 1 1

TP501 • Festo Didactic

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Description
Pressure gauge

Symbol

Symbols for equipment set TP501

Throttle valve

One-way flow control valve

Shut-off valve Non-return valve Branch tee

Pressure relief valve

Pilot-operated pressure relief valve

Pressure regulator

Flow control valve

Piloted non-return valve

Double-acting cylinder

TP501 • Festo Didactic

simplified Weight 4/2-way hand lever valve 4/2-way solenoid valve 4/3-way hand lever valve. detailed Diaphragm accumulator. relieving mid-position 4/3-Wege-Handhebelventil mit Umlaufstellung TP501 • Festo Didactic .22 Symbols for equipment set TP501 Description Hydraulic motor Symbol Diaphragm accumulator. closed in mid-position 4/3-way hand lever valve.

recirculating mid-position Hose line Hydraulic-power pack. closed in mid-position Symbol Symbols for equipment set TP501 4/3-way solenoid valve. relieving mid position 4/3-way solenoid valve.23 Description 4/3-way solenoid valve. simplified Pressure sensor Flow rate sensor Hydraulic motor with tachogenerator TP501 • Festo Didactic . detailed Hydraulic power pack.

double-acting Hydraulic motor Diaphragm accumulator Weight 4/2-way hand lever valve 4/3-way hand lever valve recirculating mid-position Hydraulic power pack Hose line. the pilot-operated pressure relief valve can also be used. 1000 mm Stop-watch Pressure sensor Flow-rate sensor Universal display Power supply unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 (2) 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 1 1 5 2 1 6 2 1 5 2 1 1 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 9 2 1 1 4 2 1 12 2 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 2 1 1 5 2 1 1 12 4 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 4 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 1 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 8 2 9 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3 1 5 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 6 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 5 2 1 1 1 1 7 3 2 1 4 2 4 1 5 1 4 2 4 2 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 1 1 1 1 1 12 10 11 2 2 1 2 1 *) If a sufficient number of directly-controlled pressure relief valves is not available. 600 mm Hose line. 5 bar Branch tee Pressure relief valve *) Pressure relief valve. piloted Pressure regulator Flow control valve Piloted non-return valve Cylinder.24 Component / exercise table for TP 501 Exercises Description Pressure gauge Throttle valve One-way flow control valve Shut-off valve Non-return valve. TP501 • Festo Didactic . 1 bar Non-return valve.

25 Electrical equipment for exercise 20 Description 4/3-way solenoid valve. The exercises in Section A are structured as follows: Methodological structure of exercises T T T T T T Subject Title Training aim(s) Problem definition Exercise Positional sketch A worksheet then follows for use in carrying out the exercise. relieving mid-position Signal input unit. 167084 162242 162241 167091 Qty. The methodological structure is the same for all exercises. 3-fold Cable set Order No. with solutions to these in Section C. The solutions in Section C contain the following: T T T T T T Hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly Component list Solution description Evaluation Conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic . electrical Relay. 1 1 1 1 The exercises appear in Section A of the workbook.

26 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-1 Section A – Course Exercise 1: Automatic lathe Pump characteristic Exercise 2: Package lifting device Pressure relief valve characteristic Exercise 3: Drawing press Hydraulic resistances Exercise 4: Calender feeding device Single-acting cylinder (basic circuit) Exercise 5: Hardening furnace Single-acting cylinder (measurement and calculation) Exercise 6: Furnace door control Double-acting cylinder Exercise 7: Conveyor tensioning device 4/3-way valve with bypass to pump Exercise 8: Cold-store door Accumulator Exercise 9: Rotary machining station Flow control valve and counter-holding Exercise 10: Painting booth Flow control valve characteristic Exercise 11: Embossing machine One-way flow control valve and counter-holding Exercise 12: Surface grinding machine Differential circuit Exercise 13: Drilling machine Pressure regulator Exercise 14: Bulkhead door Hydraulic clamping of a cylinder A-3 A-7 A-11 A-15 A-19 A-23 A-29 A-33 A-37 A-41 A-45 A-49 A-55 A-59 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

displacement-step diagram Exercise 19: Assembly device Calculation of pressure and time Exercise 20: Tipping container Electrohydraulics A-63 A-69 A-73 A-77 A-81 A-85 TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-2 Exercise 15: Ferry loading ramp Flow control valve in inlet and outlet lines Exercise 16: Skip handling Varying load Exercise 17: Bonding press Comparison of pressure regulator and – pressure relief valve Exercise 18: Assembly device Pressure sequence circuit.

A-3 Exercise 1 Hydraulics Automatic lathe Subject Title T To teach the student how to draw the characteristic curve for a pump T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Determining the various measured values and entering them into the table Training aim Problem definition T Drawing the characteristic curve for the pump T Drawing conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic .

The pump characteristic curve is therefore to be evaluated. while a hydraulic cylinder is used to execute a feed movement of the workpiece slide.A-4 Exercise 2 Exercise The main spindle on an automatic lathe is driven by a hydraulic motor. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . It has been established that the specified speed is no longer reached during the processing cycle.

A-5
Exercise 1

EXERCISE SHEET

System pressure p Flow rate q

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

bar l/min

Evaluation

Pump characteristic

How does the flow rate change as the pressure increases?

Conclusion

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-6
Exercise 2

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-7
Exercise 2

Hydraulics Package lifting device

Subject Title

T To teach the student how to draw the characteristic for a
pressure relief valve

Training aim

T T T T T

Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Setting a maximum pressure of 50bar Establishing the opening pressure of the pressure relief valve Determining the various measured values and entering them into the table

Problem definition

T Drawing the pressure/flow rate characteristic T Drawing conclusions

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-8
Exercise 2

Exercise

Owing to a change in the production process, a package lifting device is now required to lift heavier packages than those for which it was originally designed. It has been observed that the stroke speed is now lower. Using the pressure/flow rate characteristic for the pressure relief valve, determine the pressure at which flow diversion of the pump output begins.

Positional sketch

1A

TP501 • Festo Didactic

5 45 47.5 50 bar l/min Evaluation Characteristic for pressure relief valve How great is the difference between the opening pressure and maximum pressure? Conclusion TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-9 Exercise 2 EXERCISE SHEET Working pressure p Flow rate q 35 40 42.

A-10 Exercise 2 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-11 Exercise 3 Hydraulics Drawing press Subject Title T To teach the student how to measure flow resistances T T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Setting a constant flow rate Measuring the flow resistances Drawing conclusions Training aim Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

the workpieces are no longer dimensionally accurate.A-12 Exercise 3 Exercise A drawing press is used to shape metal workpieces. The reason for this may be that the required press pressure is not being reached. Following modification of the hydraulic system. Use a special test set-up to measure the hydraulic resistance of the components used. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic .

fully open Throttle valve. P –> A 4/3-way valve. fully open 4/2-way valve.A-13 Exercise 3 EXERCISE SHEET p0Z3 = Pressure upstream of component p0Z4 = Pressure downstream of component Component Flow rate q l/min Pressure p0Z3 bar Pressure p0Z4 bae Pressure difference ∆p bar Evaluation Values table Pressure relief valve. P –> A 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 How does the pressure difference change when the flow rate is doubled? Conclusion TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-14 Exercise 3 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-15 Exercise 4 Hydraulics Calender feeding device Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the applications of a non-return valve T To show the activation of a single-acting cylinder using a 2/2-way valve Training aim T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Evaluation of this circuit Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A non-return valve is used to ensure that the pump is protected against the oil back-pressure. is fitted in a branch line leading to the tank. When the hydraulic power pack is switched on. A pressure relief valve is fitted upstream of the non-return valve to safeguard the pump against excessive pressures. which is closed in its normal position. the pump output flows directly to the cylinder.A-16 Exercise 4 Exercise Rolls of paper are lifted into a calender by a lifting device. The lifting device is driven by a plunger cylinder (single-acting cylinder). Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . A 2/2-way valve.

A-17 Exercise 4 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Qty.A-18 Exercise 4 Components list Item no. Description Conclusion What is the disadvantage of this circuit? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-19 Exercise 5 Hydraulics Hardening furnace Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the applications of a 3/2-way valve T To show how to determine times. pressures and forces during the advance and return strokes of a single-acting cylinder Training aim T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Determining the necessary components Practical assembly of the circuit Measuring the travel pressure and travel time for the advance and return strokes Problem definition T Calculating the required advance-stroke pressure T Calculating the advance-stroke speed and time TP501 • Festo Didactic .

The cylinder is activated by a 3/2-way valve.A-20 Exercise 5 Exercise The cover of a hardening furnace is to be raised by a single-acting cylinder. resistances and back pressure T Advance-stroke time and speed Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . load pressure. Measure and calculate the following values: T Travel pressure. A 9 kg weight is attached to the cylinder to represent the load.

load pressure p res = How great is the back pressure in relation to the hydraulic resistance? Conclusion TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-21 Exercise 5 EXERCISE SHEET Direction Advance stroke Return stroke Travel pressure Travel time Evaluation Characteristic data required for calculation: Applied load: Piston area: Stroke length: Pump output: FG = 90 N APN = 2 cm 2 s = 200 mm q = 2 l/min FG A PN Load pressure: pL = pL = Hydraulic resistance = Travel pressure .

A-22 Exercise 5 Advance-stroke speed: v adv = v adv = q A PN Advance-stroke time: t adv = s v adv t adv = Conclusion Do the calculated and measured advance-stroke times agree? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

pressures and forces during the advance and return strokes of a double-acting cylinder Training aim T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Determining the necessary components Practical assembly of circuit Measuring the travel and back pressures and transfer time for the advance and return strokes Problem definition T Calculation of advance and return-stroke speeds T Comparison of calculated and measured values TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-23 Exercise 6 Hydraulics Furnace door control Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the applications of a 4/2-way valve T To show how to determine times.

A-24 Exercise 6 Exercise A furnace door is opened and closed by a double-acting cylinder. The cylinder is activated by a 4/2-way valve with spring return. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . This ensures that the door opens only as long as the valve is actuated. the door closes again. When the valve actuating lever is released.

A-25 Exercise 6 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

0 cm APR = 1.2 cm q = 2 l/min α= A PN A PR 2 2 s = 200 mm α= Advance-stroke speed.: v adv = Vadv = q A PN Advance-stroke time: t adv = t adv = s v adv Return-stroke speed: v ret = Vret = q A PR TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-26 Exercise 6 Evaluation Advance stroke Travel pressure p1S1 Back pressure p1S2 Travel time tadv Return stroke Back pressure p1S1 Travel pressure p1S2 Travel time tret Characteristic data required for calculation: Piston area: Piston annular area: Stroke length: Pump output: Area ratio: APN = 2.

and return-stroke speeds and times with the area ratio.A-27 Exercise 6 Return-stroke time: t ret = t ret = s v ret Ratio of travel speeds: Vadv = Vret Ratio of travel times: t adv = t ret Compare the advance. What is the relationship between these? Conclusion TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-28 Exercise 6 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-29 Exercise 7 Hydraulics Conveyor tensioning device Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the applications of a 4/2-way valve T To show how to use a piloted non-return valve T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Determining the necessary components Practical assembly of the circuit Measuring travel and back pressure and the system pressure in all valve positions with different mid-positions Training aim Problem definition T Calculating the power balance for circuits with various 4/3-way valves TP501 • Festo Didactic .

This device consists of a steel roller fixed at one end and movable at the other by means of a double-acting cylinder. closed in mid-position. calculate the required drive power for circuits firstly with a 4/3-way valve.A-30 Exercise 7 Exercise Parts are fed through a drying oven on a steel chain conveyor belt. It must be possible to correct the tracking of the belt by means of a tensioning device to ensure that the belt does not run off its rollers. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . The clamping station causes a continuous counter force to act on the cylinder. Hydraulic power must be available continuously. The hydraulic system must switch to the recirculating (pump bypass) condition when the directional control valve is not actuated. For the purposes of comparison. A piloted non-return valve is used to prevent creepage of the piston rod of the positioning cylinder as a result of oil leakage losses in the directional control valve. recirculating in mid-position and secondly with a 4/3-way valve.

A-31 Exercise 7 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-32 Exercise 7 Evaluation Direction Valve position System pressure p0Z2 Travel and back pressure p1S1 p1S2 Advance stroke Return stroke Mid-position Calculation of drive power:: PDR = p⋅q η Characteristic data required for calculation: PDR = Required drive power p q η = System pressure supplied by pump: = Flow rate of pump: = Pump efficiency: Maximum 50 bar Constant 2 l/min Approx.7 Drive power with closed mid-position: PDR = Drive power with recirculating mid-position: PDR = Conclusion What is the advantage of a recirculating (bypass) circuit? TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0.

A-33 Exercise 8 Hydraulics Cold-store door Subject Title T To show the use of a hydraulic accumulator as a power source T To show how to use the accumulator to power advance and return strokes of the cylinder after the pump is switched off Training aim T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Determining the necessary components Practical assembly of the circuit Determining the number of working cycles possible after the pump is switched off Problem definition T Drawing conclusions T Explaining the design and mode of operation of a diaphragm accumulator T Naming possible applications of an accumulator TP501 • Festo Didactic .

This valve should be connected up in such a way that the piston rod is advanced with the valve in its normal position. It is essential to relieve the accumulator pressure via a flow control valve! Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-34 Exercise 8 Exercise A heavy cold-store door is opened and closed by a hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic accumulator is to be installed to allow the door to be closed in the case of an electrical power failure. After switching off the control system. A 4/2-way valve is to be used to activate the cylinder. Be sure to follow the operating instructions for the accumulator. This will permit the cold-store door to be opened and closed a number of times. No provision will be made here for the safety cut-out which is essential to prevent persons from becoming trapped in the door. This cut-out function is normally provided by an electrical control device for the hydraulic system. do not dismantle the hydraulic components until you have relieved the pressure in the accumulator and isolated this from the control system by means of the built-in shut-off valve.

A-35 Exercise 8 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

TP501 • Festo Didactic . Name examples of applications of accumulators.A-36 Exercise 8 Evaluation System pressure 20 bar 50 bar Opening Closing Conclusion What is the effect of fitting an accumulator to this circuit? Explain the design and function of a diaphragm accumulator.

A-37 Exercise 9 Hydraulics Rotary machining station Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the use of a 2-way flow control valve T To show how to assemble a counter-holding circuit T T T T Understanding of a hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Commissioning a circuit with a flow control valve and counter-holding Adjustment and measurement of inlet and outlet pressures and cylinder travel time outlet pressures Training aim Problem definition T Comparison of cylinder advance-stroke times for various inlet and TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-38 Exercise 9 Exercise Several stations on a rotary machining station are driven by a hydraulic power pack. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . This effect will be studied on a drilling station. As individual stations are switched on and off. they produce pressure fluctuations throughout the hydraulic circuit. The fluctuations in pressure and the tractive forces created during drilling must not affect the feed of the drilling station. while a pressure relief valve is to be used as a counter-holding valve to compensate for the tractive forces. A flow control valve is to be used to ensure a smooth adjustable feed rate.

A-39 Exercise 9 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-40 Exercise 9 Evaluation Measure the following: p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of flow control valve p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of flow control valve p1Z4 = Pressure at counter-holding valve t→ = Advance-stroke time of cylinder p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar Fluctuating inlet pressure p1Z3 p1Z4 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ Fluctuating outlet pressure p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z3 p1Z4 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar t→ Conclusion How does the travel change as the pressures at the inlet and outlet vary? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-41 Exercise 10 Hydraulics Painting booth Subject Title T To show how to plot a characteristic for a 2-way flow control valve T To show how to make a comparison between a 2-way flow control valve and a throttle-type flow control valve Training aim T T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Measurement of pressure and flow rate Plotting the characteristic of the 2-way flow control valve Comparison with a throttle valve Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

It must be determined whether this can be achieved by fitting a flow control valve. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . however. and if so which type is suitable. The chain is driven by a hydraulic motor via a right-angle gear unit.A-42 Exercise 10 Exercise An endless chain conveyor feeds workpieces through a painting booth. Due to changes in the production process. the weight of the workpieces passing through the painting booth has changed. remain the same as before. The speed of the conveyor should.

A-43 Exercise 10 EXERCISE SHEET Measure the following: p1Z1 p1Z2 qTWFCV qTV = Pressure upstream of valve = Pressure downstream of valve = Flow rate through 2-way flow control valve = Flow rate through throttle valve p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar Evaluation p1Z2 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar qSRV 2 l/min qDV 2 l/min Fluctuating load pressure p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar p1Z2 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar qSRV 2 l/min qDV 2 l/min Fluctuating inlet pressure TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-44
Exercise 10

Flow control valve characteristic

Conclusion

Which valve is suitable for this application and why?

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-45
Exercise 11

Hydraulics Embossing machine

Subject Title

T To familiarise the student with the use of a one-way flow control valve T To show how to explain the difference between a flow control valve
and throttle valve on the basis of a concrete application

Training aim

T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Commissioning a circuit with a one-way flow control valve and
counter-holding

Problem definition

T Adjustment and measurement of inlet and outlet pressures and cylinder advance-stroke time

T Comparison of advance-stroke times with those in exercise 9

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-46
Exercise 11

Exercise

A special machine is used to emboss graphic symbols on metal foil. The foil is fed through the embossing machine with an adjustable cycle time. The downward motion of the stamp must be capable of being varied in accordance with the feed speed. The return motion must always be executed as a rapid traverse. A one-way flow control valve is used to control the speed of the stamp, while a pressure relief valve is used to prevent the weight of the stamp from pulling the piston rod out of the cylinder. A 4/2-way valve is used to switch between upwards and downwards motion.

Positional sketch

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-47
Exercise 11

EXERCISE SHEET

Circuit diagram, hydraulic

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-48 Exercise 11 Evaluation Measure the following: p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of one-way flow control valve p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of one-way flow control valve p1Z4 = Pressure at counter-holding valve t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar Fluctuating inlet pressure p1Z3 p1Z4 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ Fluctuating outlet pressure p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z3 p1Z4 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar t→ Conclusion How does the travel time change as the pressures at the inlet and outlet vary? What is the difference between this circuit and the one with the 2-way flow control valve (see exercise 9) and what is the reason for this? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

speeds and travel times T Understanding a hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Measuring advance and return stroke times and travel and back pressures Problem definition T Calculation of ratios for area and force T Calculation of the flow rate through the flow control valve T Comparison of this circuit with the one in exercise 6 TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-49 Exercise 12 Hydraulics Surface grinding machine Subject Title T To familiarise the student with the design and mode of operation of a differential circuit Training aim T To show how to explain the influence of pressures. forces.

the hydraulic control circuit must be designed to provide compensation for the difference in volume of the two cylinder chambers.A-50 Exercise 12 Exercise The grinding table of a surface grinding machine is driven by a hydraulic cylinder. Since the speed is required to be the same in both directions. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . A differential circuit is suggested with a 3/2-way valve and a flow control valve for speed adjustment.

A-51 Exercise 12 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-52 Exercise 12 Evaluation Measure the following: p1Z1 = Pressure on piston side of cylinder p1Z2 = Pressure on annular side of cylinder p0Z2 = System pressure = 50 bar t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time approx.2 cm s = 0. 4 s Direction Advance stroke Return stroke Values table p1Z1 p1Z2 t Cylinder dimensions: Piston area: Piston annular area: Cylinder stroke: Area ratio: α= A PN = A PR APN = 2.0 cm APR = 1.2 m 2 2 Time ratio: t adv = t ret F1 A PN ⋅ p1Z1 = = F2 A PR ⋅ p1Z 2 Force ratio: Flow rate during advance stroke: Piston side: qPN = A PN ⋅ s t adv s t adv = Piston annular side: qPR = A PR ⋅ = TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-53 Exercise 12 EXERCISE SHEET Flow control valve component: qFCV = qPN − qPR = Flow rate during return stroke: Piston annular side: qPR = A PR ⋅ s t ret = When the 3/2-way valve is activated. the same pressure is present at both cylinder ports. Why does the piston advance despite the fact that the travel pressure is lower than the back pressure? What force can the cylinder exert during its advance stroke? TP501 • Festo Didactic . the pressures in the two cylinder chambers are different. Why does the piston advance? Conclusion During the advance stroke.

Advance-stroke time tadv 4. Advance-stroke speed vadv 2.A-54 Exercise 12 What is the difference between this differential circuit and a simple cylinder control circuit (one connection to each of P and T as. What is the value of the return-stroke time tret in comparison with the advance-stroke time tadv? Vergleich System 1. Return-stroke time tret Simple cylinder control circuit Differential circuit Conclusion What area ratio results in identical advance and return stroke speeds (using a differential circuit)? TP501 • Festo Didactic . in exercise 6)? 1. What are the factors governing the advance-stroke speed vadv? 2. for example. Return-stroke speed vret 3. What are the factors governing the advance-stroke time tadv? 4. What is the value of the return-stroke speed vret in comparison with the advance-stroke speed vadv? 3.

A-55 Exercise 13 Hydraulics Drilling machine Subject Title T To teach the student how to design a control circuit with reduced output pressure Training aim T To show how to explain the mode of operation of a 3-way pressure regulator T T T T T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Measuring the travel and back pressures Setting a counter pressure Assessment of the effect of using a pressure regulator Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

It must also be possible to vary the closing speed by means of a one-way flow control valve.A-56 Exercise 13 Exercise A drilling machine is used for work on various hollow workpieces. The workpieces are hydraulically clamped in a vice. Positional sketch 1A TP501 • Festo Didactic . It must be possible to reduce the clamping pressure to suit the design of the workpiece.

p1Z3 = 20 bar. End position p1Z1 p1Z2 p1Z3 Return stroke TP501 • Festo Didactic . End position 5. Piston advance stroke with shut-off valve closed 6. Advance stroke with counter pressure 4. End position 3. Piston advance stroke with counter pressure setting. Piston advance stroke 2. Piston advanced to end position 5. Advance stroke 2. Return stroke with pressure regulator 6. Advance stroke with pressure regulator 6. Return stroke with counter pressure 4. End position Evaluation p1Z1 p1Z2 p1Z3 Advance stroke Cases of examination 1. Piston advanced to end position with setting p1Z2 = 15 bar. Return stroke 2.A-57 Exercise 13 EXERCISE SHEET Measure the following: p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of flow control valve p1Z2 = Pressure upstream of cylinder p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of cylinder Study the following cases: 1. 4. 3. Piston advanced to end position with shut-off valve closed Cases of examination 1. End position 5. End position 3.

A-58 Exercise 13 Conclusion When is it appropriate to use a pressure regulator? What possible disadvantage may result from the use of a pressure regulator? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-59 Exercise 14 Hydraulics Bulkhead door Subject Title T To familiarise the student with a circuit for the hydraulic clamping of a bulkhead door Training aim T To demonstrate a comparison of circuits with and without counterholding T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Measuring the cylinder advance-stroke time with and without a load and with and without counter-holding Problem definition T Comparison and assessment of results TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Closing must be carried out smoothly and at a constant adjustable speed. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-60 Exercise 14 Exercise A double-acting cylinder is used to open and close a bulkhead door. A pressure relief valve must be fitted to provide counter-holding and prevent the heavy door from pulling the piston rod out of the cylinder during the closing operation. The speed is adjusted by means of a one-way flow control valve.

A-61 Exercise 14 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-62 Exercise 14 Evaluation Measure the following: t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 = Cylinder travel pressure p1Z2 = Cylinder back pressure p0Z2 = System pressure The applied load and counter-holding should now be varied. When dismantling the circuit. Values table Load and counter-holding Without load or counter-holding With load without counter-holding With load and counter-holding Without load with counter-holding 10 bar 10 bar p0Z2 50 bar p1Z1 p1Z2 t→ 5s Conclusion How does the travel time vary as the load changes? Which circuit is more suitable? TP501 • Festo Didactic . Initial settings should be such as to achieve an advance-stroke time of 5 s with a system pressure of 50 bar but without an applied load or counterholding. ensure that no pressurised fluid is trapped (p1Z2 = 0 bar). 10 bar back pressure should subsequently be set.

A-63 Exercise 15 Hydraulics Ferry loading ramp Subject Title T To familiarise the student with a speed control circuit with a tractive load Training aim T To compare circuits with flow control valves in the inlet line and outlet line respectively T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Measuring the cylinder advance time and travel and back pressures with flow control valves in the inlet line and outlet line respectively Problem definition T Comparison and assessment of results TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . A flow control valve is to be used to adjust the speed.A-64 Exercise 15 Exercise The loading ramp of a car ferry must be capable of being set to different heights. The ramp is raised and lowered by a hydraulic cylinder. This motion must be carried out smoothly and at a constant speed. This must be installed in such a way as to prevent excessive pressures from developing within the system.

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-65 Exercise 15 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram.

without an applied load or counter-holding and with a flow control valve in the inlet line. When dismantling the circuit. TP501 • Festo Didactic . T Then use a flow control valve in the outlet line to provide counterholding. make settings to obtain an advance-stroke time of t –> = 5 s with a system pressure of p0Z2 = 50 bar. T Then set a counter pressure of p1Z2 = 10 bar. ensure that no pressurised fluid is trapped (p1Z2 = 0 bar).A-66 Exercise 15 Evaluation Measure the following: t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 = Cylinder travel pressure p1Z2 = Cylinder back pressure p0Z2 = System pressure Vary the following: T Applied load T Counter-holding T Flow control in inlet and outlet lines Settings: T First.

A-67 Exercise 15 EXERCISE SHEET Load and counter-holding Without load or counter-holding With load without counter-holding With load and counter-holding Without load with counter-holding p0Z2 50 bar p1Z1 p1Z2 t→ 5s Flow control valve in inlet line 10 bar 10 bar Load Without load With load p0Z2 50 bar p1Z1 p1Z2 t→ 5s Flow control valve in outlet line How does the travel time change as the load is varied? Conclusion Which circuit is more suitable? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-68 Exercise 15 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-69 Exercise 16 Hydraulics Skip handling Subject Title T To develop a hydraulic circuit for a double-acting cylinder subject to a varying load Training aim T T T T Drawing the circuit diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Commissioning of control circuit Description of mode of operation of control circuit Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . Each cylinder must therefore be hydraulically clamped on both sides. The skip should be raised and lowered at a slow constant speed.A-70 Exercise 16 Exercise The loading and unloading of skips from a skip transporter is carried out using two double-acting cylinders. Each cylinder is subject to varying loads – tractive load during unloading and compressive load during loading.

A-71
Exercise 16

EXERCISE SHEET

Circuit diagram, hydraulic

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-72
Exercise 16

Conclusion

How is hydraulic clamping produced on both sides?

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-73
Exercise 17

Hydraulics Bonding press

Subject Title

T To teach the student how to specify the pressure for a double-acting
cylinder

Training aim

T
To show how to choose either a pressure relief valve or a pressure regulator

T Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram T Practical assembly of the circuit T Measurement and comparison of system pressure, travel pressure
and final pressure

Problem definition

T Assessment of the suitability of a pressure relief valve and pressure
regulator

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-74
Exercise 17

Exercise

A bonding press is used to stick pictures or lettering onto wood or plastic panels. The working pressure must be adjustable to suit the base material and adhesive used and must be capable of being maintained for a long time while the directional control valve is activated. Develop and compare two circuits. The first should use a 3-way pressure regulator to adjust the press pressure, while the second should incorporate a pressure relief valve connected into the bypass line for this purpose. A 4/3-way valve should be used for activation in both cases.

Positional sketch

TP501 • Festo Didactic

A-75 Exercise 17 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-76 Exercise 17 Evaluation Carry out the following settings: p0Z2 = System pressure p1Z2 = Pressure upstream of cylinder = 50 bar = 30 bar Conclusion With which circuit does the system pressure vary as the cylinder advances? When is it advantageous to use the pressure relief valve? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-77 Exercise 18 Hydraulics Assembly device Subject Title T To familiarise the student with a pressure sequence circuit T To teach the student how to draw a displacement-step diagram T T T T Development of hydraulic circuit diagram Drawing the displacement-step diagram Practical assembly of the circuit Systematic commissioning with setting of pressure and flow rate Training aim Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Cylinder 1A1 presses a workpiece into the housing. The drill is driven by a hydraulic motor. When the pressure in cylinder 1A1 has reached 20 bar (workpiece pressed into place). After the drilling operation. a hole is drilled through the workpiece and housing. Cylinder 1A1 is retracted only when the drill has withdrawn from the housing.A-78 Exercise 18 Exercise An assembly device is used to press workpieces together for drilling. This operation should be carried out slowly at a constant speed. Positional sketch 1A1 1A2 TP501 • Festo Didactic . the drill is switched off and retracted (1A2).

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-79 Exercise 18 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram.

3. TP501 • Festo Didactic . 6.A-80 Exercise 18 Displacement-step diagram Components Designa tion Time Step Description Signal Conclusion What are the points to note when commissioning the control circuit? 1. 2. 4. 5.

A-81 Exercise 19 Hydraulics Calculations for an assembly device Subject Title T To enable the student to calculate the forces associated witha double-acting cylinder Training aim T To enable the student to calculate the advance-stroke time of a cylinder piston T Writing a problem description T Calculating the press-fitting force T Calculating the press-fitting time Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

The operating sequence is described in exercise 18. Determine the press-fitting force using the given data. the resistances of the lines and directional control valve cause an opposing pressure to act on the annular piston side. Our objective here is to check the pressing operation of cylinder 1A1 mathematically.The flow rate is kept constant by a flow control valve. thus reducing the actual force available. This together with the cylinder stroke is used to calculate the travel time for the press-fitting operation.A-82 Exercise 19 Exercise An assembly device is used to press workpieces together for drilling. while the press-fitting pressure is available as specified. Positional sketch 1A1 TP501 • Festo Didactic . Note that.

A-83 Exercise 19 EXERCISE SHEET Characteristic data of control system: Cylinder: Piston diameter Piston rod diamete Stroke Hydraulic system: Flow rate Press-fitting pressure Counter pressure q = 5 l/min p1 = 50 bar p2 = 6 bar D = 50 mm d = 25 mm s = 250 mm Evaluation Schematic diagram TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-84 Exercise 19 Piston force: F1 = A PN ⋅ p1 = Counter force: F2 = A PR ⋅ p 2 = Press-fitting force: F = F1 − F2 = Press-fitting time: t= V = q TP501 • Festo Didactic .

A-85 Exercise 20 Hydraulics Tipping container Subject Title T To familiarise the student with an electrohydraulic circuit T Development of hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams T Assembly of control system Training aim Problem definition TP501 • Festo Didactic .

i. The piston rod of the cylinder is advanced while the container is in position to receive swarf. A double-acting cylinder is used for this purpose. To enable the hydraulic power pack to be switched off during this time. activated by a solenoid-actuated 4/3-way valve. the piston rod of the cylinder must be protected by hydraulic means against undesired retraction (caused by leakage in the valve). it is emptied into a truck.e. Positional sketch TP501 • Festo Didactic . When the container is full. the cylinder must move only when the “Up” or “Down” pushbuttons are pressed.A-86 Exercise 20 Exercise A conveyor belt transports metal swarf into a tipping container. The electrical activation of the valve must be manually controlled.

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .A-87 Exercise 20 EXERCISE SHEET Circuit diagram.

A-88 Exercise 20 Circuit diagram.electrical S1 = “Up” pushbutton S2 = “Down” pushbutton Conclusion What measure ensures that the cylinder maintains its position and does not move even if the “Up” and “Down” pushbuttons are accidentally pressed simultaneously? TP501 • Festo Didactic .

B-1 Fundamentals Section B – Fundamentals The theoretical fundamentals for the “Hydraulics” training package are summarised in the textbook: Hydraulics Basic Level TP501 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

B-2 Fundamentals TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-1 Section C – Solutions Solution 1: Solution 2: Solution 3: Solution 4: Solution 5: Solution 6: Solution 7: Solution 8: Solution 9: Solution 10: Solution 11: Solution 12: Solution 13: Solution 14: Solution 15: Solution 16: Solution 17: Solution 18: Solution 19: Solution 20: Automatic lathe Package lifting device Drawing press Calender feeding device Hardening furnace Furnace door control Conveyor tensioning device Cold-store door Rotary machining station Painting booth Embossing machine Surface grinding machine Drilling machine Bulkhead door Ferry loading ramp Skip handling Bonding press Assembly device Calculation for an assembly device Tipping container C-3 C-7 C-11 C-15 C-19 C-23 C-27 C-33 C-37 C-41 C-45 C-49 C-59 C-65 C-69 C-73 C-77 C-79 C-83 C-85 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-2 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic Practical assembly. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-3 Solution 1 Automatic lathe Circuit diagram.

31 2. 1 1 1 1 3 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Shut-off valve Flow sensor Hose line Solution description Once the hydraulic circuit has been assembled.22 2.28 2.20 Pump characteristic TP501 • Festo Didactic .24 2.29 2. Now close this valve slowly to set the first p value as shown on the pressure gauge 0Z2. The maximum attainable pressure is 60 bar. Evaluation System pressure p Flow rate q 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 bar l/min 2. governed by a pressure relief valve built into the pump which is set to this value.33 2.26 2.C-4 Solution 1 Components list Item no. valve 1V should be fully opened. 0Z1 0Z2 1V 1S Qty.

Conclusions For technical reasons. which become greater as the pressure increases The ratio of the measured pump delivery and theoretical pump delivery is the effective volumetric efficiency of the pump. In theory. The pump is dimensioned for a maximum pressure of 250 bar (see data sheet). This would not.The decrease in pump delivery is due to internal leakage losses. TP501 • Festo Didactic . An electric motor with an appropriately high rating would be required to achieve this. the actual value recorded in this exercise is the power consumption of the electric motor or the premature opening of the pressure relief valve. the characteristic curve for the pump should be a straight line. since the exercises are carried out with a maximum pressure of 60 bar.C-5 Solution 1 As the pressure rises. however. the pump delivery falls slightly. be meaningful.

C-6 Solution 1 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-7 Solution 2 Package lifting device Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) (Shut-off valve 1V1 closed) Measured value q in l/min Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) Components list Item no. 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Shut-off valve Pressure relief valve Flow sensor Hose line Branch tee TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0Z1 0Z2 1V1 1V2 1S Qty.C-8 Solution 2 Practical assembly.

At the same time. a flow rate of 2. Now fully open shut-off valve 1V1 and close it again in steps to set the pressures specified in the table.15 bar l/min Evaluation Pressure relief valve characteristic Maximum pressure Opening pressure TP501 • Festo Didactic . Solution description Remark Working pressure p Flow rate q 35 0 40 0 42.17 50 2. at 50 bar pressure. this indicates that the pressure relief valve fitted directly to the pump is already starting to open. evaluate the associated flow rates. Switch on the hydraulic power pack and close the pressure relief valve until the pressure gauge 0Z2 indicates 50 bar.2 47.C-9 Solution 2 Once the hydraulic circuit has been assembled and checked. observe the pressure at which the valve begins to open.5 1. If. valve 1V1 should be closed and the pressure relief valve 1V2 fully opened.3 l/min is not measured at the pressure relief valve.5 0 45 0.

the entire pump delivery is discharged via the pressure relief valve.C-10 Solution 2 Conclusions Every pressure relief valve has a certain opening pressure at which point diversion of the flow through the valve begins. Due to the low flow rate. The difference between opening pressure and maximum pressure is 5 bar in this case. A piloted pressure relief valve can also be used to record the characteristic. the same shape of characteristic curve will be obtained. When the preset maximum pressure is reached. TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-11 Solution 3 Drawing press Circuit diagram.

C-12 Solution 3 Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

0Z3. 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 3 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Flow control valve Shut-off valve Pressure relief valve Throttle valve 4/2-way valve 4/3-way valve Flow sensor Hose line Branch tee Components list Once the hydraulic circuit has been assembled and checked. Switch on the hydraulic power pack and close the pressure relief valve until the pressure gauge 0V1 indicates 50 bar. TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0Z4 0V1 0V2 0V3 1V4 1V3 1V2 1V1 1S Qty. the shutoff valve 0V3 should be closed and the pressure relief valve 0V1 fully opened. Adjust the flow rate by means of the flow control valve 0V2 and measure it with the flow sensor 1S. 0Z1 0Z2.C-13 Solution 3 Item no. Now carry out the series of measurements specified in the table. Solution description Pressure sensors are recommended for the measurement of pressures at items 0Z3 and 0Z4.

P –> A 4/3-way valve.5 1. This pressure loss means a loss of power.8 0.C-14 Solution 3 Evaluation p0Z3 = Pressure upstream of component p0Z4 = Pressure downstream of component Values table Component Flow rate q l/min 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Pressure p0Z3 bar 4.0 2.5 0.2 2.9 4. fully open Throttle valve.1 0.2 2.3 1.7 1.8 Pressure p0Z4 bar 2.9 1.7 Pressure relief valve. the pressure difference increases by even more than this.5 1. The hydraulic resistance increases. fully open 4/2-way valve. TP501 • Festo Didactic .5 1. P –> A Conclusions When the flow rate doubles.8 0.6 1.9 4.1 Pressure difference ∆p bar 2.3 1.9 4.5 1.7 1.0 1.

C-15 Solution 4 Calender feeding device Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-16 Solution 4 Practical assembly.

This ensures that the hydraulic power pack is switched off during lengthy standstill periods. It can be demonstrated by briefly opening the shut-off valve that the non-return valve prevents the weight from lowering further and that return flow of hydraulic fluid during the return stroke can take place only via the 2/2way valve 1V.C-17 Solution 4 Item no. The piston rod can retract only when the pump is switched off. Solution description Conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic . the cylinder is bolted onto the base plate on the left of the profile plate and loaded with the weight. Once the circuit has been assembled. Now switch off the hydraulic power pack. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 4 Description Hydraulic power pack Non-return valve (5 bar) Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve Cylinder. double-acting Loading weight Hose line Branch tee Components list For this exercise. 0Z1 0V1 0Z2 0V2 1V 1A 1Z Qty. The piston rod will then travel to its upper end position. the PRV 0V2 should first be fully opened. When the cylinder is connected up. This is arranged intentionally in systems like the one shown here. Continue to close the PRV until the pressure gauge 0Z2 indicates 50bar. it is essential that the upper connection is connected to the tank. The hydraulic power pack should then be switched on and the PRV 0V2 slowly closed.

C-18 Solution 4 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-19 Solution 5 Hardening furnace Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-20 Solution 5 Practical assembly.

the pump delivery to the cylinder will be throttled. 0Z1 0Z2. When the cylinder is connected up. The hydraulic power pack should then be switched on and the PRV 0V2 slowly closed until the pressure gauge 0Z3 indicates 50 bar. the full cross-section of the valve is not immediately opened. manually operated Cylinder. it is essential that the upper connection is connected to the tank. which will cause the piston rod of the cylinder to advance. as this is slowly reversed. 0Z3. the cylinder is bolted onto the base plate on the left of the profile plate and loaded with the weight. Direction Advance stroke Return stroke Solution description Travel pressure 8 bar 0 bar Travel time 1.C-21 Solution 5 Item no. The design of the valve means that. The 4/2-way valve 1V can now be slowly reversed. Once the circuit has been assembled. the piston rod of the cylinder will return to its lower end position.1 s 1. Initially. 1Z1 0V1 0V2 1V 1A 1Z2 Qty. with one connection blanked off. a 4/2-way valve is now used. As soon as the valve is returned to its initial position. 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 7 3 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Non-return valve Pressure relief valve 4/2-way valve. The values specified in the tables can now be measured. the PRV 0V2 should first be fully opened. double-acting Loading weight Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Components list For this exercise.4 s Evaluation TP501 • Festo Didactic . In place of a 3/2-way valve.

C-22 Solution 5 Characteristic data required for calculation: Applied load:: Piston area: Stroke length: Pump delivery: FW = APN = q= 90 N 2 cm 2 s = 200 mm 2 l/min FW 90 N 45 N = = = 4. The reason for this may be that the delivery of a new pump is somewhat greater than 2 l/min. The value of the back pressure depends on the hydraulic resistances.5 bar = 3. 1. 2000 cm 3 l 60 s q = = min = 2 A PN 2 cm 2 cm 2 2 cm m = 0.load pressure pres = 8 bar .17 s s 0..2 m = 12 s .17 s Advance-stroke speed: v adv v adv = 16. is slightly less than the calculated time. These are very low when fluid is discharged into the tank. m 0. TP501 • Festo Didactic .67 Advance-stroke time: t adv = s v adv = Conclusions The measured advance-stroke time.4.5 bar 2 A PN 2 cm cm 2 Load pressure: pL = Hydraulic resistance = Travel pressure .1 s. A cylinder motion can take place only if this case applies.5 bar Conclusions The back pressure is considerably lower than the hydraulic resistance.

C-23 Solution 6 Furnace door control Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

1 1 2 1 1 1 6 2 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure sensor Pressure relief valve 4/2-way valve. 1S2 0V 1V 1A Qty. 0Z1 0Z2 1S1.C-24 Solution 6 Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) Components list Item no. manually operated Cylinder Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Pressure sensors should be used to measure the travel and back pressures. the piston rod will immediately return to its retracted end position. When the lever is released.8 s Characteristic data required for calculation: Piston area: Piston annular area: Stroke length: Pump output: α= APN = APR = q = 2. the piston rod should be advanced and retracted several times to expel any air which may have entered the piston-rod chamber during the previous exercises. When the hand lever of the 4/2-way valve is actuated.2 cm 2 2 s = 200 mm 2 l/min Area ratio: A PN 2 cm 2 = = 1667 .17 s s Vadv = 16. Advance stroke Travel pressure p1S1 2.4 bar Solution description Back pressure p1S2 2 bar Travel time tadv 1. Before the pressures and times are measured. the piston rod of the cylinder will advance until the lever is released or the piston rod runs against the stop.3 bar Travel pressure p1S2 11 bar Travel time tein 0. Advance-stroke speed: v adv 2000 cm 3 l 60 s q = = min = 2 A PN 2 cm 2 cm 2 2 cm m = 0.2 s Evaluation Return stroke Back pressure p1S1 5. the hydraulic power pack should be switched on and the system pressure set on the pressure relief valve 0V to 50 bar. A PR 12 cm 2 .67 TP501 • Festo Didactic . Pressure gauges are sluggish in operation and would give incorrect readings.C-25 Solution 6 Once the circuit has been assembled and checked.0 cm 1.

t ret 0. = = 17 . cm m = 0.17 s Return-stroke speed: v ret 2000 cm 3 l 2 60 s q min = = = 2 A PR 12 cm 12 cm 2 .28 s s v ret = 27.7 s m v ret 0. The speed ratio is equal to the reciprocal of the area ratio.C-26 Solution 6 Advance-stroke time: t adv = s v adv = 2m = 12 s . m 0.7 s Travel time ratio: Conclusions The travel speed ratio is equal to the area ratio α of the cylinder.6 = m Vret 0.2 m = = 0.28 s Travel speed ratio: m 0. .78 Return-stroke time: t ret = s 0.28 s t adv 12 s . TP501 • Festo Didactic .17 Vadv s = 0.

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-27 Solution 7 Conveyor tensioning device Circuit diagram.

C-28 Solution 7 Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

since in its mid-position the 4/3-way valve 1V1 discharges the flow of hydraulic fluid to the tank. Recirculating mid-position Pilot-operated non-return valve Cylinder Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Components list After the circuit has been assembled and tested. When this valve is brought into its mid-position. Switch on the hydraulic power pack and close the PRV 0V1 until the pressure gauge 0Z1 indicates 50 bar.C-29 Solution 7 Item no. 3 bar. 0Z1 0Z2 1S1. 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 9 3 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure sensor Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 4/3-way valve. The piston rod can be brought into any desired position by actuating the 4/3-way valve. manually operated. 1S2 0V1 0V2 1V1 1V2 1A Qty. the piston rod immediately halts. The non-return valve prevents the piston rod from being pushed back by a counter force. the shut-off valve 0V2 should be closed and the pressure relief valve 0V1 opened. Observe when doing this that the pressure gauge 0Z1 shows an immediate drop from the set pressure of 50 bar to approx. Solution description TP501 • Festo Didactic . The shut-off valve 0V2 can now be opened.

4 bar 17. The 4/3-way valve with recirculating mid-position. Evaluation Direction Valve position System pressure p0Z2 Advance stroke 8 bar Travel and back pressure p1S1 2. The internal leakage losses resulting from the design of this valve will also cause the nonreturn valve to close.2 bar 9.6 bar Return stroke 2.1 bar 1. included in the equipment set.7 TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0.6 bar 1.7 bar Calculation of drive power:: PDR = p⋅q η Characteristic data required for calculation: PDR = Required drive power p q η = System pressure supplied by pump: = Flow rate of pump: = Pump efficiency: Maximum 50 bar Constant 2 l/min Approx. a 4/3-way valve with a mid-position “A and B connected to T” and “P closed” should be used in order to depressurise the pilot line and supply line to the piloted non-return valve.9 bar Mid-position 3.C-30 Solution 7 In conjunction with the pilot-operated non-return valve. The non-return valve can close reliably only when depressurised. can also be used for these exercises.2 bar p1S2 1.

1⋅ 2 ⋅ 100 Nm = 15 W s 0. Conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic .7 0.7 ⋅ 60 Drive power with bypass to pump: 3.7 0. The disadvantage of using this valve is that it is not possible to operate any further hydraulic circuits.7 ⋅ 60 cm ⋅ s 0. the pump delivery is discharged to the tank at maximum system pressure.7 ⋅ 60 PDR = The 4/3-way valve with recirculating mid-position is mainly used in cases where a cylinder or motor is driven by a constant-displacement pump. which results in pronounced heating of the fluid (= energy loss).1 bar ⋅ 2 l min = 3. which means that the temperature rise remains small. In the case of valves with a closed position for connection P.C-31 Solution 7 Drive power with closed mid-position: 50 bar ⋅ 2 l 3 3 min = 50 kp ⋅ 2 dm = 50 ⋅ 10 N ⋅ 2 ⋅ 1000 cm 0.7 cm 2 ⋅ 60 s PDR = PDR = Ncm 3 Nm 50 ⋅ 2 50 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10000 = ⋅ 100 = 238 W 2 s 0.7 cm ⋅ 60 s 0. hydraulic fluid is discharged to the tank at almost zero pressure. In the recirculating mid-position.

C-32 Solution 7 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-33 Solution 8 Cold-store door Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-34 Solution 8 Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

It is possible to advance and retract the cylinder several times more by actuating the 4/2-way valve 1A. The accumulator can now be charged. Be sure to switch off and depressurise the accumulator before dismantling the circuit! Solution description System pressure 20 bar 50 bar Opening 2x 4x Closing 1x 3x Evaluation TP501 • Festo Didactic . adjustable Diaphragm accumulator 4/2-way valve. 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 3 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Non-return valve One-way flow -return valve. Following this. Allow the cylinder to advance and retract several times and then switch off the hydraulic power pack.C-35 Solution 8 Item no. 0Z3 0V1 0V2 0V3 0Z4 1V 1A Qty. the accumulator should first be switched off and the pressure relief valve 0V1 fully opened. the accumulator pressure will fall slowly. 0Z1 0Z2. Now switch on the hydraulic power pack and set the system pressure to 50 bar. as indicated by the pressure gauge 0V3. manually operated double-acting Cylinder Hose line Branch tee Components list After the circuit has been assembled and checked.

When the fluid pressure falls. a diaphragm is clamped into place in the pressure vessel to act as a divider between the hydraulic fluid and the gas cushion (nitrogen). the pressure in the gas cushion rises until the gas and hydraulic fluid are at the same pressure. the gas forces fluid back into the hydraulic system. the door will remain in its instantaneous position after a power failure and it will no longer be possible to move it. the more times the door can be opened and closed. A non-return valve must be fitted upstream of the pump to prevent stored fluid from being discharged via the pump when this is switched off.In addition to diaphragm and bladder accumulators. A closure head is fitted to the diaphragm or a shut-off valve to the gas inlet to prevent the diaphragm from creeping into the gas inlet as the gas is discharged and becoming damaged. The accumulator used here has an 3 initial gas pressure rating of 10 bar and a nominal volume of 0. At the same time. This diaphragm accumulator allows the door to be opened 2 x and closed 1 x with a system pressure of 20 bar and opened 4 x and closed 3 x with a system pressure of 50 bar. as appropriate to their capacity. Accumulators are used for the following: Design Mode of operation Examples of applications T T T T Compensation for leakage losses Energy reserve in emergencies Compensation for peaks in flow rate demand Cushioning of switching jolts TP501 • Festo Didactic . piston accumulators are also available if large capacities are required. The higher the hydraulic pressure with which the accumulator is charged. A gas valve is fitted at the top to allow the accumulator to be pressurised with gas via a filling device. All accumulators must be fitted with a lead-sealed safety pressure relief valve and a shut-off valve. this causes a corresponding reduction in the volume of the gas. In the case of a diaphragm accumulator. Comprehensive manufacturers’ tables are available for use when sizing accumulators.32 cm .C-36 Solution 8 Conclusions Without the accumulator fitted. When hydraulic fluid is forced into the accumulator.

hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-37 Solution 9 Rotary machining station Practical assembly.

Open the flow control valve approx. the pump requires approx. The pressure as indicated on the pressure gauge 1Z4 must be set during the advance stroke. TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-38 Solution 9 Components list Item no. 2 turns so that the piston rod moves into its forward end position in approx. In the case of table 2. 1 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 12 6 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 4/3-way valve. 1Z3. 1Z2. 1Z1. the specified values of 50 bar cannot be fully reached due to the resistances present. 1V4 0V2 1V1 1V3 1V2. The two non-return valves 1V2 and 1V5 are fitted to allow these to be bypassed. use the pressure relief valve 0V1 to set the values in table 1 (check these on the pressure gauge 1Z1). 5 sec. 1Z4 0V1.. 1-2 sec. The time should therefore be measured not from the moment the 4/3-way valve is actuated but from the moment the piston rod starts to move. As soon as the piston rod reaches the forward end position with the 4/3-way valve actuated. manually operated 2-way flow control valve Non-return valve Cylinder Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Solution description Assemble and check the circuit. when the 4/3-way valve is actuated. Flow is not possible through the flow control valve and pressure relief valve in the opposite direction. 0Z1 0Z2. using the pressure relief valve 1V4. Now open the pressure relief valve 1V4 and the shut-off valve 0V2. Close the shut-off valve 0V2 and set the desired pressure by means of the pressure relief valve 0V1. Do not make any further changes to the flow control valve setting. In the case of settings p1Z1 = 50 bar and p1Z4 = 40 bar (in tables 1 and 2). 1V5 1A Qty. to build up a counter pressure of 40 bar.

The cause of this can be identified by systematic observation of the pressure-gauge readings. The pressure reached on the piston rod side is then 48 bar. The flow rate will be inadequate only if the supply pressure is too low. the advance-stroke speed falls only when the counter pressure reaches approx. Conclusions This exercise is also suitable for practice with fault-finding. TP501 • Festo Didactic . If the nonreturn valves are installed incorrectly. The pressure intensification effect becomes noticeable with higher counter pressure. the piston rod will not retract.C-39 Solution 9 p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of flow control valve p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of flow control valve p1Z4 = Pressure at counter-holding valve t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar Evaluation p1Z3 7 bar 7 bar 7 bar 7 bar 7 bar p1Z4 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ 4s 4s 4s 4s 6s Fluctuating inlet pressure p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z3 7 bar 13 bar 20 bar 26 bar 32 bar p1Z4 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar t→ 4s 4s 4s 4s 4s Fluctuating outlet pressure Even with modified pressures at the inlet and outlet. the piston advancestroke times remain constant. 70 bar.

C-40 Solution 9 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-41 Solution 10 Painting booth Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .

1Z2 0V1. 0Z1 0Z2. 1Z1. 1V1 0V2 1S 1V2 1V3 Qty.C-42 Solution 10 Practical assembly. 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 6 2 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve Flow sensor Flow control valve Throttle valve Hose line Branch tee TP501 • Festo Didactic . hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) Components list Item no.

Now open the shut-off valve 0V2. the differences will be readily apparent in the tables of values. If the pressure gauge 1Z1 shows less than 50 bar. The load pressure should be varied by means of the pressure relief valve 1V1 in accordance with the specified values. re-adjust the pressure relief valve 0V1 slightly. Fully open the pressure relief valves 0V1 and 1V1 and close the shut-off valve 0V2. Open the flow control valve 0Z2 approx. The flow control valve 0V2 can now be set to the desired flow rate of 2 l/min.7 l/min 0. the pressure relief valve 1V1 should be fully opened and the system pressure varied by means of the pressure relief valve 0V1.The hydraulic power pack can now be switched on.8 l/min 1.3 l/min 0.1 l/min Fluctuating load pressure TP501 • Festo Didactic . If the same exercise is carried out using a throttle-type flow control valve. The system pressure/flow rate characteristic for the flow control valve can then be plotted.C-43 Solution 10 Assemble and check the circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram. 2 turns.2 l/min qDV 2 l/min 1. For the second half of the measurements. p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of valve p1Z2 = Pressure downstream of valve qFCV = Flow rate through flow control valve qTV = Flow rate through throttle valve p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar Solution description Evaluation p1Z2 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar qSRV 2 l/min 2 l/min 2 l/min 2 l/min 1. The system pressure of 50 bar required for the exercise should be set on the pressure relief valve 0V1 and checked on the pressure gauge 0Z2.

Operation of the pressure compensator does. Reason: In the case of the flow control valve. In the case of the throttle valve.C-44 Solution 10 Fluctuating inlet pressure p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar p1Z2 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar qFCV 2 l/min 2 l/min 2 l/min 2 l/min 1. The throttle valve is a simple restrictor. the flow rate varies as a function of pressure. This gives a constant flow rate. require a certain minimum pressure.8 l/min 0.3 l/min 0.4 l/min Flow control valve characteristic Conclusions Only the flow control valve offers a suitable means of setting a constant speed with different pressures. which produces a flow rate as a function of the pressure difference.5 l/min qTV 2 l/min 1. the built-in pressure compensator keeps the pressure difference constant. which can then be adjusted with a throttle valve. however.6 l/min 1. TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-45 Solution 11 Embossing machine Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

1Z4 0V1. Open the pressure relief valve 1V3 and the shut-off valve. double-acting Non-return valve Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Solution description Once the circuit has been assembled and checked. manually operated One-way flow control valve Cylinder. 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 14 4 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 4/2-way valve. 1Z2. 1V3 0V2 1V1 1V2 1A 1V2 Qty. using the pressure relief valve 0V1. The pressure specified in table 1 of 10 bar. 5 sec. 1Z3. Now adjust the one-way flow control valve 1V2 in such a way that the piston rod reaches its forward end position in approx. after the 4/2-way valve 1V1 is reversed.C-46 Solution 11 Components list Item no. 0Z1 0Z2. TP501 • Festo Didactic . using the pressure relief valve 0V1. Do not make any further changes to the setting of the one-way flow control valve. 1Z1. can be set only during the advance stroke. The pressure p1Z1 should be set by means of the pressure relief valve 0V1 as soon as the 4/2-way valve is reversed and the piston rod has reached its forward end position. close the shut-off valve 0V2 and set a pressure of 50 bar. as indicated by the pressure gauge 1Z4.

5 s 5s 6.8 bar p1Z4 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ 4s 5s 7.5 s 7s Fluctuating outlet pressure TP501 • Festo Didactic .5 bar 9.C-47 Solution 11 p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of one-way flow control valve p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of one-way flow control valve p1Z4 = Pressure at counter-holding valve t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 50 bar 40 bar 30 bar 20 bar 10 bar Evaluation p1Z3 9 bar 9 bar 9 bar 9.5 s 12.5 s 57 s Fluctuating inlet pressure p1Z1 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z3 9 bar 15 bar 22 bar 28 bar 35 bar p1Z4 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar 40 bar 50 bar t→ 4s 4.

in fact on both the supply and load pressures. The flow rate is thus not dependent on the supply and load pressures. The flow rate through the throttle valve is thus dependent on pressure. Reason: The throttle valve varies only the cross-section of the line through which flow passes. In the case of the circuit with a flow control valve (exercise 9).C-48 Solution 11 Conclusions In the case of a circuit with a throttle valve. The flow control valve incorporates a pressure compensator which maintains the internal pressure difference at a constant value. the travel speed remains constant. TP501 • Festo Didactic . the travel speed falls both as the inlet pressure is reduced and as the counter pressure increases. The flow rate produced is dependent on the difference in the pressures upstream and downstream of the restriction.

C-49 Solution 12 Surface grinding machine Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

57 s TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0Z1 0Z2. 4 s Direction Advance stroke Return stroke Evaluation Values table p1Z1 3. double-acting Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Solution description Assemble and check the circuit. 1Z2 0V1 0V2 0V3 1V 1A Qty.31 s 6. 1Z1. Now open the shut-off valve 0V2 and also open the flow control valve until the piston rod advances. Now switch on the hydraulic power pack and set a system pressure of 50 bar by means of the pressure relief valve 0V1. 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 7 4 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 2-way flow control valve 4/2-way valve.5 bar 0 bar p1Z2 5 bar 4.C-50 Solution 12 Components list Item no. p1Z1 = Pressure on piston side of cylinder p1Z2 = Pressure on annular piston side of cylinder p0Z2 = System pressure = 50 bar t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time approx.5 bar t 4. manually operated Cylinder. The measurements can now be carried out. Close the shut-off valve 0V2 and the flow control valve 0V3.

.31 s = = 0.6 s min min s t adv = 12 cm 2 ⋅ .2 m α= A PN 2 cm 2 = = 167 ≈ 17 .28 cm 3 cm 3 l = 557 ≈ 0.C-51 Solution 12 Cylinder dimensions: Piston area: Annular piston area: Cylinder stroke: Area ratio: APN = 2. Flow rate during advance stroke: Piston side: qPN = A PN ⋅ s t adv = 2 cm 2 ⋅ 20 cm 4.65 cm cm 3 l = 219 = 0.31 s qPN = 9. 20 cm 4.0 cm APR = 1.31 s Annular piston side: qPR = A PR ⋅ qPR = 5.57 s qPR = 3.2 = qFCV min min s TP501 • Festo Didactic .656 t ret 6. F2 A PR ⋅ p 1Z 2 12 cm ⋅ 5 bar .57 cm 3 cm 3 l = 334 ≈ 0.57 s Force ratio: F1 A ⋅p 2 cm 2 ⋅ 3. 2 2 Time ratio: t adv 4.5 bar = PN 1Z1 = = 12 < α . 20 cm 6. A PR 12 cm 2 .2 cm s = 0.3 min min s Flow rate during return stroke: Annular piston side: qPR = A PR ⋅ s t ret = 12 cm 2 ⋅ .

F1 > F2. the piston will advance. Mathematical proof: F1 A ⋅p = PN 1Z1 F2 A PR ⋅ p 1Z 2 Für F1 = F2 gilt p 1Z 2 A = PN = α p 1Z1 A PR As long as p 1Z 2 < α . causing the piston to stop. Mathematical proof: Given p 1Z1 = p 1Z 2 and p 1Z1 = F1 F und p 1Z 2 = 2 A PN A PR we optain F1 A PR = =α F2 A PR it follows: F1 = α ⋅ F2 Since α > 1. Only when the ratio of travel pressure to back pressure becomes equal to the area ratio a is an equilibrium of forces achieved. p 1Z1 TP501 • Festo Didactic . The lower travel pressure p1Z1 acts on the larger area APN. and the cylinder advances. this produces a larger force (F1).C-52 Solution 12 Conclusions If the same pressure acts on a larger area (APN). producing a greater force F1.

the advance-stroke and return-stroke speeds are the same. During the return stroke. The return-stroke speed is produced by this. TP501 • Festo Didactic . During the advance stroke. F = (7 kp − 6 kp) = 1 kp = 10 N A comparison of a simple cylinder control circuit and a differential circuit reveals the following differences: System Simple cylinder control circuit Adjustable on FCV ≈ qFCV Differential circuit General comparison 1.5 bar) − (12 cm 2 ⋅ 5 bar) . The advance-stroke and return-stroke speeds can be the same only when the area ratio α = 2. Reason: The flow rate required on the piston side is double that necessary on the piston rod side. Advance-stroke time tadv 4. this flow rate is supplied from the pump and the annular piston side. Return-stroke speed vret 3.C-53 Solution 12 The available cylinder force is: F = F1 − F2 = (A PN ⋅ p 1Z1 ) − (A PR ⋅ p 1Z 2 ) F = (2 cm 2 ⋅ 3. only supply from the pump is available. Advance-stroke speed vadv 2. Return-stroke time tret Greater than set on FCV > qFCV Greater than advance-stroke speed > vadv Adjustable on FCV ≈ qFCV Less than advance stroke speed < vadv (with α < 2) Less than set on FCV < qFCV Less than Advance-stroke time < tadv Greater than Advance-stroke time > tadv (with α < 2) With an area ratio of α = 2.

C-54 Solution 12 Below is the mathematical proof of this: Simple cylinder control circuit and differential circuit APN APR APN APR vadv vadv qPN qPR vPN qPR qFCV qFCV Basic equations: α= A PN A PR Area ratio: Speed: v= q A s v Travel time: t= TP501 • Festo Didactic .

TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-55 Solution 12 1. Advance-stroke speed v adv = q qPN = FCV A PN A PN qPN A PN Simple cylinder control circuit: With differential circuit: v adv = Flow rate on piston side: qPN = qFCV + qPR Given qPN A = PN = α qPR A PR we obtain: qPR = 1 ⋅ qPN α 1 ⋅ qPN α It follows: qPN = qFCV + qPN ⋅ (1 − qPN ⋅ 1 ) = qFCV α α −1 = qFCV α α ⋅ qFCV α −1 qPN = The advance-stroke speed with a differential circuit is thus: Vadv = q α ⋅ FCV α − 1 A PN qFCV . A PN For α = 2 Vadv = 2 ⋅ and is thus twice as high as with the simple cylinder control circuit.

v ret > v adv With differential circuit: v ret = q q qPR = FCV = α ⋅ FCV A PR A PR A PN v ret v adv qFCV A PN = α −1 = α qFCV ⋅ α − 1 A PN α⋅ v ret = (α − 1) ⋅ v adv For α = 2. Return-stroke speed Simple cylinder control circuit: v ret = q q qPR = FCV = α ⋅ FCV A PR A PR A PN v ret = α ⋅ v adv Since α > 1.C-56 Solution 12 2. v ret = v adv TP501 • Festo Didactic .

C-57 Solution 12 3. t ret = t adv TP501 • Festo Didactic . Return-stroke time t ret = A ⋅s s = PN q α ⋅ qFCV α ⋅ FCV A PN A ⋅s s = PN q α ⋅ qFCV α ⋅ FCV A PN Simple cylinder control circuit: With differential circuit:: t ret = t ret t adv A PN ⋅ s α ⋅ qFCV 1 = = α − 1 A PN ⋅ s α − 1 ⋅ α qFCV t ret 1 = t adv α − 1 With α = 2. t adv = 4. Advance-stroke time t= s v A PN ⋅ s qFCV In general:: Simple cylinder control circuit:: t adv = s qFCV A PN = With differential circuit:: t adv = s α qFCV ⋅ α − 1 A PN 1 A PN ⋅ s ⋅ 2 qFCV = α − 1 A PN ⋅ s ⋅ α qFCV With α = 2.

Advance-stroke speed vadv 2. Advance-stroke time tadv 4. Return-stroke speed vret 3. Return-stroke time tret Simple cylinder control circuit qFCV A PN α ⋅ v adv A PN ⋅ s qFCV 1 ⋅ t adv α Differential circuit α qFCV ⋅ α − 1 A PN (α − 1) ⋅ v adv α − 1 A PN ⋅ s ⋅ α qFCV 1 ⋅ t adv α −1 Alternative solutions giving identical advance-stroke and return-stroke speeds: Differential circuit with 4/3-way valve with special mid-position Equal-speed cylinder controlled by 4/2-way valve TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-58 Solution 12 The evaluation can thus be expressed as follows: Mathematical comparison System 1.

hydraulic TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-59 Solution 13 Drilling machine Circuit diagram.

C-60 Solution 13 Practical assembly. hydraulic System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

manually operated Pressure regulator Non-return valve Shut-off valve Cylinder. double-acting One-way flowcontrol valve Hose line Branch tee Components list TP501 • Festo Didactic . 0Z1 0Z2. 1Z2. 1Z1.C-61 Solution 13 Item no. 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 5 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve 4/3-way valve. 1Z3 0V 1V1 1V2 1V3 1V4 1A 1V5 Qty.

causing the pressure regulator to switch from A . In practice. This prevents the high pressures which would arise upstream of the one-way flow control valve due to pressure intensification during the advance stroke of the piston.A. Due to internal leakage within the valve. the pressure falls to 0 bar. This is demonstrated by task 2 (piston in forward end position). TP501 • Festo Didactic . the pressure regulator will close. The valves 1V3 and 1V4 provide a bypass of the pressure regulator to allow a faster return stroke to be achieved. a flow pressure of only 12 .15 bar is achieved. In task 5. With the piston in this position. the travel pressures are measured. A oneway flow control valve has been used in this case to simplify the circuit configuration. as in task 3. as in task 6. This task also shows that the pressure regulator maintains a pressure of 15 bar even without through-flow. If the advance stroke is opposed by a resistance. As no pump delivery is reaching the line to the pressure regulator via the 4/3-way valve. Excessive pressures cannot arise in this case due to the fact that the system is being operated with reduced pressure. the 15 bar pressure is initially maintained. the inlet pressure can be set to 15 bar (as shown on p1Z2) only after the piston has reached its forward end position or is opposed by a resistance.T to P . a pressure relief valve with bypass must be used in place of the one-way flow control valve 1V5. the piston will then stop. despite the system pressure of 50 bar. The piston can be pushed into the retracted end position. resulting in only the set pressure of 15 bar being attained. i. By closing the throttle valve 1V5. it is demonstrated that increased counter pressure during the return stroke causes the valve to the tank to open.C-62 Solution 13 Solution description In the first task in the exercise.e. it is possible to increase the counter pressure until the pressure gauge p1Z2 shows 15 bar. the pressure then falls below 15 bar.

Advance stroke 2. Advance stroke with pressure regulator 6. Piston advance stroke with shut-off valve closed 6. End position 5. End position 5.C-63 Solution 13 Measured are: p1Z1 = Pressure upstream of pressure regulator p1Z2 = Pressure upstream of cylinder p1Z3 = Pressure downstream of cylinder Cases of examination: 1. 3. Advance stroke with counter pressure 4. End position Evaluation p1Z1 5 bar 50 bar 49 bar 50 bar 49 bar 50 bar p1Z2 2 bar 15 bar 13 bar 16 bar 14 bar 16 bar p1Z3 1 bar 0 bar 20 bar 0 bar 20 bar 0 bar Advance stroke Cases of examination 1. p1Z3 = 20 bar. Piston advanced to end position with shut-off valve closed Cases of examination 1. 4. End position p1Z1 4 bar 0 bar 6 bar 0 bar 0 bar 0 bar p1Z2 7 bar 0 bar 10 bar 0 bar 26 bar 0 bar p1Z3 16 bar 50 bar 18 bar 50 bar 46 bar 50 bar Return stroke TP501 • Festo Didactic . Piston advanced to end position 5. Piston advance stroke 2. Return stroke with pressure regulator 6. Return stroke with counter pressure 4. Piston advanced to end position with setting p1Z2 = 15 bar. Return stroke 2. Piston advance stroke with counter pressure setting. End position 3. End position 3.

TP501 • Festo Didactic . Note that increased pressures occur which act on port A of the pressure regulator. These pressures must be discharged to the tank.C-64 Solution 13 Conclusions Pressure regulators are used in cases when a secondary circuit with a constant but lower pressure is required in addition to a primary circuit.

C-65 Solution 14 Bulkhead door Circuit diagram. without counter-holding System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic . hydraulic.

C-66 Solution 14 Practical assembly. hydraulic. with counter-holding In inlet line p = 10 bar (1 MPa) System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

For the return stroke. with counter-holding provided by the pressure relief valve 1V3. Solution description TP501 • Festo Didactic . 1Z2 0V1. Switch on the hydraulic power pack and then use the pressure relief valve 0V1 to set a system pressure of 50 bar. 5 sec. The throttle valve setting should be retained while manipulating the circuit using the weight 1Z3. Open the shut-off valve and adjust the pressure relief valve 1V2 in such a way that the piston rod advances in approx. Dismantle the circuit only when the pressure has fallen to zero. Mount the cylinder 1A on the profile in such a way that it can advance downwards. first remove the weight and then retract the cylinder. First close the shut-off valve 0V2. After the measurements have been completed. a non-return valve 1V4 is required as a bypass for the pressure relief valve. 1Z1. Now depressurise the circuit by closing the shut-off valve and then opening the pressure relief valve 1V3. 0Z1 0Z2. double-acting Loading weight Non-return valve Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Components list Assemble and check the circuit. as shown by the pressure gauge 1Z2. 1V3 0V2 1V1 1V2 1A 1Z3 1V4 Qty. 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 4 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 4/2-way valve One-way flow control valve Cylinder.C-67 Solution 14 Item no.

A constant advance-stroke speed is obtained only with counter-holding. Without counter-holding. Reason: The piston is pulled out by the load.0 s 0. which means that the travel speed also remains constant. the movement is uncontrolled and jerky.8 s 4. TP501 • Festo Didactic .3 s Conclusions The travel time becomes shorter as the load increases. It is also possible to adjust the counter-holding to suit the load.6 s 5. A circuit with counter-holding is advisable both with and without a load. The generation of a counter pressure clamps the piston hydraulically.C-68 Solution 14 Evaluation Measure the following: t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 = Cylinder travel pressure p1Z2 = Cylinder back pressure p0Z2 = System pressure Values table With load and counter-holding Without load with counter-holding With load without counter-holding With load and counter-holding Without load with counter-holding p0Z2 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z1 0 bar 0 bar 2 bar 7 bar p1Z2 0 bar 0 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ 5. The travel and back pressures remain constant.

C-69 Solution 15 Ferry loading ramp Circuit diagram. with counter-holding and flow control valve in inlet line In Inlet line p = 10 bar (1 MPa) System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic . hydraulic.

hydraulic.C-70 Solution 15 Practical assembly. with flow control valve in outlet line System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 13 4 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Shut-off valve 4/3-way valve Flow control valve Non-return valve Cylinder. double-acting Loading weight Hose line Branch tee Stop-watch Components list Assemble and check the circuit. The flow control valve setting should be retained throughout the series of measurements. as shown by the pressure gauge 1Z2. 1Z1. Mount the cylinder 1A on the profile plate in such a way that it can advance downwards. 1V5 1A 1Z3 Qty. 0Z1 0Z2. 1V4 0V2 1V1 1V3 1V2. 5 sec. Open the shut-off valve and adjust the pressure relief valve 1V3 in such a way that the piston rod advances in approx. First close the shutoff valve 0V2. Solution description TP501 • Festo Didactic . 1Z2 0V1.C-71 Solution 15 Item no. Dismantle the circuit only when the pressure has fallen to zero. Switch on the hydraulic power pack and then use the pressure relief valve 0V1 to set a system pressure of 50 bar. Only the circuit should be modified.

It advances jerkily. With counter-holding. the same speed is achieved with and without a load.C-72 Solution 15 Evaluation Measure the following: t→ = Cylinder advance-stroke time p1Z1 = Cylinder travel pressure p1Z2 = Cylinder back pressure p0Z2 = System pressure Flow control valve in inlet line With load and counter-holding Without load without counter-holding With load without counter-holding With load and counter-holding Without load with counter-holding p0Z2 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar 50 bar p1Z1 0 bar 0 bar 3 bar 8 bar p1Z2 0 bar 0 bar 10 bar 10 bar t→ 5s 0. very high pressures will occur on the outlet side. the piston rod is pulled out by the load. If. however. This is often unacceptable in practice. A suitable circuit is thus one with a flow control valve in the inlet line and counter-holding by means of a pressure relief valve in the outlet line. TP501 • Festo Didactic .1 s Conclusions Without counter-holding.6 s 5s 5s Flow control valve in outlet line Load Without load With load p0Z2 50 bar 50 bar p1Z1 48 bar 48 bar p1Z2 77 bar 84 bar t→ 5s 3. the flow control valve is installed in the outlet line to provide counter-holding.

C-73 Solution 16 Skip handling Practical assembly. hydraulic p = 30 bar (3 MPa) p = 50 bar (5 MPa) System pressure p = 50 bar (5 MPa) Pump safety valve pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .

Ensure that the non-return valves are installed correctly. The travel motion can be slowed down by closing the two pressure relief valves 1V3 and 1V4. Before the circuit is dismantled. If a sufficient number of pressure relief valves are not available. manually operated Non-return valve Cylinder. double-acting Hose line Branch tee Solution description Assemble the control circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram. 0Z1 0Z2. Open the pressure relief valves fully. 1Z1. Now set the system pressure to 50 bar. TP501 • Festo Didactic . the system pressure can also be set on the pressure relief valve of the hydraulic power pack. Adjustment is carried out using the pressure relief valve in the outlet line in each case. 1V5 1A Qty. With the pressure relief valves fully closed.C-74 Solution 16 Components list Item no. Check the circuit and then switch on the hydraulic power pack. If the non-return valves are installed incorrectly. When the directional control valve 1V1 is actuated. the travel speed will not change even when the pressure relief valves are closed. The non-return valves 1V2 and 1V5 are used to bypass the pressure relief valves fitted in each inlet line. The counter-holding pressures are shown on the pressure gauges 1Z1 and 1Z2. the cylinder will no longer retract due to the pressure intensification effect present. 1V4 1V1 1V2. 1Z2 0V. 1 3 3 1 2 1 10 4 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve 4/3-way valve. the pressure relief valves must once again be fully opened to ensure that no pressure is trapped. the cylinder advances and retracts at maximum speed. 1V3.

Conclusions Remark TP501 • Festo Didactic . In practice. A non-return valve is required as a bypass in each direction. Dynamic adjustment of the proportional valves allows better control of fast and slow travel motions.C-75 Solution 16 Hydraulic clamping on both sides is provided by two counter-holding circuits with pressure relief valves. Take account of the cylinder area ratio when setting the pressure. skip handling is controlled using proportional valves.

C-76 Solution 16 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

hydraulic With 3-way pressure regulator With pressure relief valve p = 30 bar (3 MPa) p = 30 bar (3 MPa) p = 50 bar (5 MPa) p = 50 bar (5 MPa) pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-77 Solution 17 Bonding press Practical assembly.

that the pump delivery is sufficient for this. Due to the pressure intensification effect. manually operated Shut-off valve Pressure regulator Cylinder. in the case of long standstill periods with the directional control valve actuated. the shut-off valve must be opened to retract the piston rod. If a pressure regulator is used. double-acting Hose line Branch tee Solution description In the case of the circuit with the pressure regulator. This allows further actuators to be supplied with full system pressure by the same hydraulic power pack. since. Check. 1Z1. however. Conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic . the pump need only develop the set pressure of 30 bar. and only the cylinder is supplied with the reduced pressure of 30 bar. If a pressure relief valve is fitted in the bypass. 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 7 5 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve 4/3-way valve. the overall system pressure will fall to 30 bar during the advance stroke. the system pressure of 50 bar is not sufficient to open the pressure regulator from A to T.C-78 Solution 17 Components list Item no. the system pressure of 50 bar is maintained. 1V4 1V1 1V2 1V2 1A Qty. 0Z1 0Z2. The pressure relief valve gives an advantage in this application. 1Z2 0V.

hydraulic p = 30 bar (3 MPa) p = 20 bar (2 MPa) q = 1 l/min p = 50 bar (5 MPa) p = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-79 Solution 18 Assembly device Practical assembly.

C-80 Solution 18 Displacement-step diagram Components Description 4/3-way-valve * Designation Signal Time Step Cylinder Pressure relief valve Motor Pressure relief valve * 4/3-way-valve Switching position a: Switching position 0: Switching position b: TP501 • Festo Didactic .

The shut-off valve should be closed at this time. 1Z2 Qty. The system pressure of 50 bar can now be set on the pressure relief valve 0V1. the system pressure can be set on the pressure relief valve of the hydraulic power pack. and the piston of this will advance. switch on the hydraulic power pack. When assembling the circuit. 0Z1 0V1. A pressure will build up at the pressure relief valve 1V2. Cylinder 1A1 will retract when the pressure relief valve 1V2 is opened. 1V5 1Z1. When the 4/3-way valve is actuated. The return stroke is initiated by reversing the 4/3-way valve.C-81 Solution 18 Item no. 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 16 7 1 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure relief valve Flow control valve Shut-off valve 4/3-way valve. Motor 1A2 will begin to rotate only when the pressure relief valve 1V4 is opened. manually operated Cylinder. ensure that the non-return valves are installed correctly. set the flow control valve to a flow rate of 1 l/min. 1V2. The two other pressure relief valves should be closed. If a sufficient number of pressure relief valves is not available. since otherwise pressure may become trapped. fluid will first flow to cylinder 1A1. Once the circuit has been assembled and checked. 1V4 0V2 0V3 1V1 1A1 1A2 1V3. Solution description TP501 • Festo Didactic . The motor will then stop. double-acting Hydromotor Non-return valve Pressure gauge Hose line Branch tee Flow sensor Components list Before assembling the circuit.

C-82 Solution 18 Conclusions The most important steps in commissioning are as follows: 1. Checking the circuit 5. Adjusting the pressure relief valves during the operation of the control circuit TP501 • Festo Didactic . Closing the pressure relief valves 4. Assembly of circuit 3. Presetting of flow rate 2. Switching on the hydraulic power pack 6.

8 kN TP501 • Festo Didactic .5 N F1 = 9.C-83 Solution 19 Calculation for an assembly device Evaluation Schematic diagram Piston force: F1 = A PN ⋅ p 1 = F1 = F1 = π 2 ⋅ D ⋅ p1 4 π ⋅ 50 2 mm 2 ⋅ 50 bar 4 π kp ⋅ 50 2 mm 2 ⋅ 50 4 cm 2 π 50 2 mm 2 ⋅ 50 kp ⋅ 4 100 mm 2 F1 = . F1 = 98175 kp = 9817.

8 kN − 0.89 s ≈ 6 s TP501 • Festo Didactic .36 kp = 883.C-84 Solution 19 Counter force: F2 = A PR ⋅ p 2 = F2 = F2 = π ⋅ (D 2 − d 2 ) ⋅ p 2 4 π ⋅ (50 2 − 25 2 ) mm 2 ⋅ 6 bar 4 π kp ⋅ (50 2 − 25 2 ) mm 2 ⋅ 6 4 cm 2 π 1875 mm 2 ⋅ 6 kp ⋅ 4 100 mm 2 F2 = F2 = 88.9 kN F = 8.9 kN Press-fitting force: F = F1 − F2 = 9.9 kN π 2 ⋅D ⋅ s V A ⋅s 4 = t = = PN q q q t= π 50 2 mm 2 ⋅ 250 mm ⋅ l 4 5 min π 5 2 cm 2 ⋅ 25 cm ⋅ 4 5000 cm 3 60 s π 625 cm 3 ⋅ 60 s π 625 ⋅ 60 s ⋅ = ⋅ 4 4 5000 5000 cm 3 Press-fitting time: t= t= t = 5.6 N F2 = 0.

hydraulic p = 50 bar (5 MPa) pmax = 60 bar (6 MPa) TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-85 Solution 20 Tipping container Practical assembly.

1 1 1 1 Description Signal input unit Relay. electrical S1 = “Up” pushbutton S2 = “Down” pushbutton Components list. 3-fold Cable set Power supply unit TP501 • Festo Didactic . elektrisch Item no. hydraulic Item no.C-86 Solution 20 Circuit diagram. 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 Description Hydraulic power pack Pressure relief valve 4/3-way solenoid valve Non-return valve. double-acting Hose line Branch tee Components list. Qty. 0Z 0V 1V1 1V2 1A Qty. hydraulically piloted Cylinder.

internal leakage losses can occur which will cause the piloted non-return valve to close. which prevents the piston rod from being pushed back. Solution description It is also possible to carry out these exercises using the 4/3-way valve with recirculating mid-position which is included in the equipment set. This ensures that the control circuit will work correctly even in the case of operator error. Conclusions TP501 • Festo Didactic .C-87 Solution 20 A piloted non-return valve is used to protect the tipping container against undesired lowering. This 4/3-way valve relieves ports A and B in its mid-position. the 4/3-way valve reverses. Once the electrical and hydraulic circuits have been assembled and checked. B and T are connected and P is closed is used in order to ensure that the non-return valve closes when the electrical control circuit is switched off. The load acting on the piston rod now causes the pilotoperated non-return valve to close. The pressure which builds up in the line from port B of the valve causes the non-return valve to open and the piston rod of the cylinder travels into its retracted end position (emptying position). actuate push-button S1. A 4/3-way valve with a mid-position in which A. Due to the inherent characteristics of this valve. This causes the cylinder piston rod to travel to its forward end position (filling position). which are connected together in such a way that no movement occurs if the push-buttons are actuated simultaneously. When the push-button S1 is released. The two push-buttons S1 and S2 each actuate one normally-open and one normally-closed contact. The electrical circuit diagram incorporates an interlock between current paths 1 and 2. a spring force causes the 4/3-way valve to switch to its mid-position. When the push-button S2 is actuated.

C-88 Solution 20 TP501 • Festo Didactic .

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