y JA

is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job y A process where description is developed for the present methods and procedures of doing a job, physical conditions in which job is done, relation of the job to other jobs and other conditions of employment

y JA is intended to reveal what is actually done as

opposed to what should be done y The purpose of JA is not to describe an ideal but to show the management how at the moment a particular job is being carried out.

.Various points on which information are gathered for JA y y y y y y y y y y y Work performed Equipment used Materials used Reports and records made Relation of the jobs to other jobs Education required Experience required Physical effort required Visual attention required Hazards Supervision .

Process of data collection y Questionnaire y Checklist y Interview y Observation y Participation y Technical conference y Self-recording or Diary y Critical incident method (on-the-job bhrs of people) .

Output of JA y Job description y Job specification y Job evaluation .

materials (risk) y Relation to other jobs y Nature of supervision y Working environment .JD y Job Title y Job Location y Job summary y Duties to be performed y Machines. Tools.

Job Specification y Minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job satisfactorily .

qualifications and special training y Experience y Personality requirements y Physical requirements .y ASK y Education.

Job Evaluation y JE is an orderly and systematic technique of determining the relative worth of the various jobs within the orgn so as to develop an equitable wage and salary structure .

Job Evaluation y Relative worth of each job y To eliminate wage inequities y For developing a consistent wage policy y Framework for periodic revision y Minimise wage discrimination .

The process y Job evaluation committee y Either employees or consultants from outside are engaged for it .

Methods of Job Evaluation y Non-quantitative y Quantitative .

Non-quantitative method y Ranking y Classification or Grading .

quick and inexpensive y Suitable for small orgns .Ranking y Ranking from highest to lowest y The whole job is compared with the other y Three sets of ranking are averaged and final ranking of jobs is decided y The method is simple.

Classification/ Grading y Highly skilled. y Semi-skilled and y Unskilled . y Skilled.

Quantitative method y Point rating y Factor comparision .

Point rating y A manual is developed for the purpose y The manual describes factors upon which each job is to be rated. prescribes the points to be assigned to each factor and provides scales and yardsticks by which each factor is to be evaluated .

physical. effort. working conditions etc y Major factor is then broken down into minor factors like: y Skill. intiative (75) y Effort. responsibility. product. safety y Working conditions-hazardous . mental and visual y Responsibility. experience (100).process.Procedure y Jobs are first broken down into major factors such as skill.education (75).

y Each minor factor is converted into scale by dividing it into certain number of degrees and assigning point values to them. y Education y Read. write. add and subtract (15) y High school (30) y Plus two (45) y Graduate (60) y PG (75) .

y A totalling of the points for all factors gives the final rating of the job in terms of points y Point scales are now translated into monetary values y A wage survey is done to collect current wage rates of certain key jobs .

Factor comparison y A cross.section of 15-20 key jobs will be taken y 5 factors used are y Mental effort y Skill y Physical effort y Responsibility y Working conditions .

y All key jobs are then ranked under each factor y Then individual job rankings for each factor are then averaged and the results expressed in nearest whole numbers. .

Related concepts y Job enlargement y Job enrichment y Job rotation .

y Both Job enlargement and job enrichment are part of the career planning and development programmes in an organisation .

Job enlargement y Adding y Increase variety y Horizontal loading y Multi tasking .

which rely upon division of labour y In J. similar tasks to a job y The job itself remains essentially unchanged y By widening the range of tasks that need to be performed. the employee rarely needs to acquire new skills to carry out the additional task .enlargement. hopefully the employee will experience less repetition and monotony that are common on product lines.y It involves the addition of extra.

y J. where each worker has specific jobs and job rotation can take place .enlargement gives employees a chance to do a number of small.related tasks as oppose to just one repetitively y It works better within a group situation.

In contrast y It reduces efficiency because of a fall in productivity from carrying out a greater number of tasks y In J.enrichment are not usually experienced y Workers sometimes resent this because they prefer doing a singularly boring repetitive job y J.enlargement the motivational benefits of j.enlargement is sometimes viewed by employees as a requirement to carry out more work for the same amount of pay .

Job enrichment y Up grading responsibility y Higher level skills y Vertical loading y Self fulfillment y Self esteem y In.charge .

y Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to lack of challenge. or due to an over-controlled authority structure. repetitive procedures. y Job enrichment tries to eliminate these dysfunctional elements. and bring better performance to the workplace. .

lack of flexibility and employee dissatisfaction . y J.enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects of tasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy y Some of these effects are boredom.y Job enrichment is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities.

y The basis of J.enrichment practices is the work done by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950 s and 60 s y Job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation & it is a continuous management process. .

then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. If a person cannot be fully utilized.y According to Herzberg: y The job should have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee y Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility y If a job cannot be designed to use an employee s full abilities. then there will be a motivation problem .

Turn employees' effort into performance Ensuring that objectives are well defined and understood by everyone Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well Creating a supportive corporate culture Free flow of information Provide skill improvement oppurtunities . as a managerial activity includes a y y y y y three steps technique: 1.y Job enrichment.

. Link employees performance directly to reward 3.2. Make sure the employee wants reward.

y Re-engineer the job process y Re-design the physical facility y Change technologies y Simplification of procedures y Elimination of repetitiveness y Redesigning authority structures .

both workers needs and organizational needs must be analyzed and acted upon. .y Excellent non-training intervention y J.enrichment to produce positive results.

Job Rotation y Horizontal or Lateral transfer y Multi skilling .

.y Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. y J R can improve multi-skilling but it also involves the need for greater training y An employee who works on a routine/ respective job moves to and works on another job and backs up to the first job.

y JR may offer the advantage of making it easier to cover for absent colleagues y But it may also reduce productivity as workers are initially unfamiliar with a new task. .

Why JR is imp ??? y It is a possible solution to two significant challenges faced by business: y Skill shortages and skill gaps. and y Employee motivation .

Need for JR y To broaden an individual s knowledge of other functions and departments in the organisation y To prepare an individual for career advancement y To maximize an individual s exposure to customers by moving him or her into positions that require customer interaction y To motivate and challenge an individual who has been on a job for a long time y To cross-train members of a team .

social and psychological conveniences y The purposes of ergonomics are to save human resources. work stations and facilities according to employee s physical.Ergonomics y Designing the job. protect employee s health and maximize productivity .

y Reduce occupational diseases y Areas of research include colour of the wall. roof height. furniture design etc . lighting.Trends y Companies have been designing new kind of office furniture to reduce fatigue and back strain.


y The process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation Edwin.B.Flippo .

Objectives of recruitment y To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences y To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organisation y To develop an organisational culture that attracts competent people to the company y To search for talent globally and not just within the company .

Factors affecting recruitment y Internal y External .

Internal y Employer s brand y Company s pay package y Organisational culture y Career Planning and Growth y Company s products and services y Company s size y Geographical spread of company s locations y Role of trade unions y Cost of recruitment .

legal and Governmental factors like Reservations for SC/ST/OBC and Sons-of soil .External y Supply and Demand factors y Labour Market conditions y Political.

y AIDA y Prospective employer meets the prospective employee .

policies Personnel policies of other competing organisations Organisation s personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment need Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preferences .Recruitment policy y Factors to be taken into consideration while y y y y y y y formulating recruitment policy Govt.


Internal y Present permanent employees y Present Temporary/ Casual/ Part-time employees y Promotions y Transfers y Demotions y Retired employees y Retrenched employees y Employee referrals (Nepotism) y Dependents of present employees (Die-in-harness) .

External y Advertisements (3 types) y Employment exchanges y Private consultants y Deputation y Job sites y Professional Associations y Campus recruitment y Unsolicited applicants y Own data bank .



Modern sources of recruitment y Walk-in y Consult-in y Head Hunting y Body Shopping y Business Alliances y E-recriutment .

Recruiting protected classes y Recruitment of women y Recruitment of minorities y Sports people y Ex-Servicemen y Disadvantaged people y Disabled people .


y Choosing the most appropriate candidates and offering them jobs y Selection includes rejection also y A negative function .

Hurdles y Receiving applications y Preliminary screening y Written examination y Preliminary interview y Employment test / Business Games y Final Interview y Medical examination y Reference check y Line Manager s decision y Employment/ Offer letter Rejection .

Application forms
y Personal background information y Educational attainments y Work experiences y Salary y Personal details y Conviction records y References

Screening application forms
y Clinical method (Psychology) y Weighted method y Biographical inventories

Preliminary interview
y Stand-up interviews y Can be used to provide the basic information about

the company y Ensure that the desirable workers are not eliminated

In-basket exercises) .Business games y Case study y Role-play y Assessment centre (GD.

find alternative solutions and select the sound solution y A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of y initiating the discussion. y Keenly observing the discussion of others y Clarifying controversial issues y Influencing others y Speaking effectively y Summarising . y explaining the problem.Group discussion y The candidates in the group are required to analyse. discuss.

Tests y Aptitude test y Psychomotor test y Achievement test (Job knowledge & work sample) y Personality test (TAT. Inkblot) .


Rorschach Inkblot Test .

Unknown hurdles y Starts from the time you step in the organisation y Code of conduct y Web cam .

Selection interview y Structured y Unstructured y Depth interview y Panel interview y Stress interview (emotional balance u/ tension) y Telephonic y Video conferencing .

Interview process .

Interview bias y Halo effect y Horns effect .

exp) y Line Manager s Decision y Offer letter .y Medical examination y Reference check (character.

Errors in selection
y True positive (success is predicted , success occurs) y True negative (failure is predicted , failure occurs) y False positive (success is predicted , failure occurs) y False negative (failure is predicted , success occurs)

y Placing the right person in the right job y Initially the person will be on probation y Generally final placement will be decided after the

initial training is over on the basis of candidate s aptitude and performance during the training /probation period y 6months/1yr/2yr/can be extended


Thru induction an employee is oriented towards y Job y Firm y Policies y Colleagues y Superiors y Sub-ordinates y Practices .

y A process of making the employee feel at home y Through induction the newcomer learns about the organization and adapts to the work culture y .y The process of orienting a new employee to the organisation.

Orientation conveys 3 types of information y General information about the daily work routine y A review of a firm s history. operations and products or services y A detailed presentation about organisation s policies. founders. work rules and employee benefits . objectives.

Tools for orientation y Induction manual y Induction CD y Induction film y Induction kit y Hand books y Pamphlet y Brochures .

y policies and procedures. . y major landmarks. y general code of conduct. y organizational structure.Induction training y the history of the organization. y its core activities. y welfare measures. y expansion plans etc. y rewards and recognitions.

y An incubation period for the new comer so develop training programmes with the objective of employee retention. . y The success of an induction training programme depends on the positive responses that a person has developed about the organization.

Induction training process y General orientation y Specific orientation y Follow-up orientation .


y More Pay y Prestige y Position y Responsibilities .

y Reassignment to a higher level job to an internal employee with higher authority. and responsibility .

Types y Seniority y Merit y Seniority cum Merit y Merit cum Seniority .

y Vertical promotion y Dry promotions y In charge y Training linked promotion .


department or unit to another. y The movement can be due to promotion. division. .y Company initiated /employee initiated y Transfer is the lateral movement of employees from one position. demotion or orgl restructuring.

Trsfr y Replacement trsfr y Versatility trsfr y Shift trsfr y Remedial trsfr y Penal trsfr y Due to changes in prod y Trsfr of long service employees y To increase versatility y From one shift to other y Correct wrong placements y In disciplinary action .Types of transfers y Prod.

y Transfer policy y Promotion policy .


status or responsibilities .y Opposite of promotion y It is a downward movement of an employee in the organisational hierarchy with lower pay.

Reasons for demotion y Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs y Adverse business conditions y When there have been errors in promotions and these need to be corrected y A tool of disciplinary action .


y Separation occurs when an employee leaves the organisation y Both voluntary & involuntary separations are there .

Voluntary y Resignation y Retirement

Involuntary y Lay-off y Dismissal y Retrenchment y Absenteeism y Voluntary retirement scheme (VRS)

According to Edwin.B.Flippo

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

TRAINING????????????? y Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose .

y Unlearning and relearning y Imp for both new comers and existing employees .

Development?????????? y It is a long.term educational process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purposes. .

y For overall personality development . instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions.y It is not primary skills oriented.

term y Mostly technical & nonmanagerial personnel skills & knowledge y Conceptual & general knowledge y Long-term y Mostly for managerial personnel .y Training y Technical skills & y Development y Managerial . behavioural knowledge y Specific job-related y Short.

Need for training y Newly joined employees y Existing employees y To familiarize with the work culture & reduce wastage y Refresher training y Skill upgradation y Promotion y Transfer .

Kinds of Training y On-the-job training y Off the-job training .

On-the-job Training y Induction training y Apprenticeship training y Internship training y Refresher training y Under study .

Off-the-job Training y Lectures y Conferences y Group Discussion y Role playing y T-Group / Sensitivity training/ Laboratory training y Simulation y Vestibule training y E-learning y Out bound trainings .

y Helps in unlearning and learning things y T-group helps the members learn about their own behaviours and also learn from others behaviour. .Sensitivity training y Sensitivity training / T-group training y Development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioural patterns of oneself and others.

bhrl characteristics and interactions that would normally be present under actual conditions.Simulation methods y To construct a situation which closely represent a real one y They include physical similarities. Three basic simulation techniques are: .

y Inbasket excercises y Case study y Management Games .

memos and reports y Materials that are require d for problem solving are put into an in-basket and the trainee plays the role of a manager responsible for solving the problems .In-basket method y Developing decision making skills y Incoming mail.

Vestibule training y An attempt is made to duplicate. y Large no: of employees can be trained at a time. equipment and conditions found in the real work place. as nearly as possible. the actual material. .

learning y Audio-visual methods y Computer managed instruction. replaces trainer .e.



Event management y Types of employees y The resource personnel (Inauguration) y Training materials y Resources to employees y Training aids y Refreshments y Duration y Evaluation .


Finding out the Critical skill among ASK .

Training policy y Mission statement y Develop objectives y Training depts role y Training budget y Coverage y External trainings y Train the trainer programs y Duration y Special trainings y Location y Designing tailor-made programmes y Linking training to performance appraisals y Training linked promotions y Evaluation .

Training evaluation/Feedback y Objectives y Content y Training aids y Resource person y Method of training y Course material y Ambiance of the training location y Often test are conducted .