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is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job y A process where description is developed for the present methods and procedures of doing a job, physical conditions in which job is done, relation of the job to other jobs and other conditions of employment
y JA is intended to reveal what is actually done as
opposed to what should be done y The purpose of JA is not to describe an ideal but to show the management how at the moment a particular job is being carried out.
Various points on which information are gathered for JA y y y y y y y y y y y Work performed Equipment used Materials used Reports and records made Relation of the jobs to other jobs Education required Experience required Physical effort required Visual attention required Hazards Supervision . .
Process of data collection y Questionnaire y Checklist y Interview y Observation y Participation y Technical conference y Self-recording or Diary y Critical incident method (on-the-job bhrs of people) .
Output of JA y Job description y Job specification y Job evaluation .
Tools. materials (risk) y Relation to other jobs y Nature of supervision y Working environment .JD y Job Title y Job Location y Job summary y Duties to be performed y Machines.
Job Specification y Minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job satisfactorily .
qualifications and special training y Experience y Personality requirements y Physical requirements .y ASK y Education.
Job Evaluation y JE is an orderly and systematic technique of determining the relative worth of the various jobs within the orgn so as to develop an equitable wage and salary structure .
Job Evaluation y Relative worth of each job y To eliminate wage inequities y For developing a consistent wage policy y Framework for periodic revision y Minimise wage discrimination .
The process y Job evaluation committee y Either employees or consultants from outside are engaged for it .
Methods of Job Evaluation y Non-quantitative y Quantitative .
Non-quantitative method y Ranking y Classification or Grading .
Ranking y Ranking from highest to lowest y The whole job is compared with the other y Three sets of ranking are averaged and final ranking of jobs is decided y The method is simple. quick and inexpensive y Suitable for small orgns .
y Skilled. y Semi-skilled and y Unskilled .Classification/ Grading y Highly skilled.
Quantitative method y Point rating y Factor comparision .
prescribes the points to be assigned to each factor and provides scales and yardsticks by which each factor is to be evaluated .Point rating y A manual is developed for the purpose y The manual describes factors upon which each job is to be rated.
working conditions etc y Major factor is then broken down into minor factors like: y Skill.physical. safety y Working conditions-hazardous .process. experience (100). effort.education (75). mental and visual y Responsibility. responsibility. intiative (75) y Effort.Procedure y Jobs are first broken down into major factors such as skill. product.
add and subtract (15) y High school (30) y Plus two (45) y Graduate (60) y PG (75) .y Each minor factor is converted into scale by dividing it into certain number of degrees and assigning point values to them. y Education y Read. write.
y A totalling of the points for all factors gives the final rating of the job in terms of points y Point scales are now translated into monetary values y A wage survey is done to collect current wage rates of certain key jobs .
Factor comparison y A cross.section of 15-20 key jobs will be taken y 5 factors used are y Mental effort y Skill y Physical effort y Responsibility y Working conditions .
y All key jobs are then ranked under each factor y Then individual job rankings for each factor are then averaged and the results expressed in nearest whole numbers. .
Related concepts y Job enlargement y Job enrichment y Job rotation .
y Both Job enlargement and job enrichment are part of the career planning and development programmes in an organisation .
Job enlargement y Adding y Increase variety y Horizontal loading y Multi tasking .
enlargement. similar tasks to a job y The job itself remains essentially unchanged y By widening the range of tasks that need to be performed. which rely upon division of labour y In J.y It involves the addition of extra. hopefully the employee will experience less repetition and monotony that are common on product lines. the employee rarely needs to acquire new skills to carry out the additional task .
enlargement gives employees a chance to do a number of small.related tasks as oppose to just one repetitively y It works better within a group situation.y J. where each worker has specific jobs and job rotation can take place .
enlargement the motivational benefits of j.enrichment are not usually experienced y Workers sometimes resent this because they prefer doing a singularly boring repetitive job y J.enlargement is sometimes viewed by employees as a requirement to carry out more work for the same amount of pay .In contrast y It reduces efficiency because of a fall in productivity from carrying out a greater number of tasks y In J.
Job enrichment y Up grading responsibility y Higher level skills y Vertical loading y Self fulfillment y Self esteem y In.charge .
and bring better performance to the workplace. . or due to an over-controlled authority structure. repetitive procedures. y Job enrichment tries to eliminate these dysfunctional elements.y Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to lack of challenge.
lack of flexibility and employee dissatisfaction . y J.enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects of tasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy y Some of these effects are boredom.y Job enrichment is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities.
y The basis of J.enrichment practices is the work done by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950 s and 60 s y Job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation & it is a continuous management process. .
then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. then there will be a motivation problem .y According to Herzberg: y The job should have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee y Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility y If a job cannot be designed to use an employee s full abilities. If a person cannot be fully utilized.
as a managerial activity includes a y y y y y three steps technique: 1. Turn employees' effort into performance Ensuring that objectives are well defined and understood by everyone Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well Creating a supportive corporate culture Free flow of information Provide skill improvement oppurtunities .y Job enrichment.
. Link employees performance directly to reward 3. Make sure the employee wants reward.2.
y Re-engineer the job process y Re-design the physical facility y Change technologies y Simplification of procedures y Elimination of repetitiveness y Redesigning authority structures .
both workers needs and organizational needs must be analyzed and acted upon.enrichment to produce positive results. .y Excellent non-training intervention y J.
Job Rotation y Horizontal or Lateral transfer y Multi skilling .
y Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. . y J R can improve multi-skilling but it also involves the need for greater training y An employee who works on a routine/ respective job moves to and works on another job and backs up to the first job.
.y JR may offer the advantage of making it easier to cover for absent colleagues y But it may also reduce productivity as workers are initially unfamiliar with a new task.
Why JR is imp ??? y It is a possible solution to two significant challenges faced by business: y Skill shortages and skill gaps. and y Employee motivation .
Need for JR y To broaden an individual s knowledge of other functions and departments in the organisation y To prepare an individual for career advancement y To maximize an individual s exposure to customers by moving him or her into positions that require customer interaction y To motivate and challenge an individual who has been on a job for a long time y To cross-train members of a team .
protect employee s health and maximize productivity . social and psychological conveniences y The purposes of ergonomics are to save human resources.Ergonomics y Designing the job. work stations and facilities according to employee s physical.
y Reduce occupational diseases y Areas of research include colour of the wall. roof height. lighting.Trends y Companies have been designing new kind of office furniture to reduce fatigue and back strain. furniture design etc .
Flippo .y The process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation Edwin.B.
Objectives of recruitment y To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences y To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organisation y To develop an organisational culture that attracts competent people to the company y To search for talent globally and not just within the company .
Factors affecting recruitment y Internal y External .
Internal y Employer s brand y Company s pay package y Organisational culture y Career Planning and Growth y Company s products and services y Company s size y Geographical spread of company s locations y Role of trade unions y Cost of recruitment .
legal and Governmental factors like Reservations for SC/ST/OBC and Sons-of soil .External y Supply and Demand factors y Labour Market conditions y Political.
y AIDA y Prospective employer meets the prospective employee .
policies Personnel policies of other competing organisations Organisation s personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment need Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preferences .Recruitment policy y Factors to be taken into consideration while y y y y y y y formulating recruitment policy Govt.
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT y INTERNAL y EXTERNAL .
Internal y Present permanent employees y Present Temporary/ Casual/ Part-time employees y Promotions y Transfers y Demotions y Retired employees y Retrenched employees y Employee referrals (Nepotism) y Dependents of present employees (Die-in-harness) .
External y Advertisements (3 types) y Employment exchanges y Private consultants y Deputation y Job sites y Professional Associations y Campus recruitment y Unsolicited applicants y Own data bank .
Modern sources of recruitment y Walk-in y Consult-in y Head Hunting y Body Shopping y Business Alliances y E-recriutment .
Recruiting protected classes y Recruitment of women y Recruitment of minorities y Sports people y Ex-Servicemen y Disadvantaged people y Disabled people .
y Choosing the most appropriate candidates and offering them jobs y Selection includes rejection also y A negative function .
Hurdles y Receiving applications y Preliminary screening y Written examination y Preliminary interview y Employment test / Business Games y Final Interview y Medical examination y Reference check y Line Manager s decision y Employment/ Offer letter Rejection .
y Personal background information y Educational attainments y Work experiences y Salary y Personal details y Conviction records y References
Screening application forms
y Clinical method (Psychology) y Weighted method y Biographical inventories
y Stand-up interviews y Can be used to provide the basic information about
the company y Ensure that the desirable workers are not eliminated
Business games y Case study y Role-play y Assessment centre (GD. In-basket exercises) .
Group discussion y The candidates in the group are required to analyse. discuss. y Keenly observing the discussion of others y Clarifying controversial issues y Influencing others y Speaking effectively y Summarising . find alternative solutions and select the sound solution y A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of y initiating the discussion. y explaining the problem.
Inkblot) .Tests y Aptitude test y Psychomotor test y Achievement test (Job knowledge & work sample) y Personality test (TAT.
Rorschach Inkblot Test .
Unknown hurdles y Starts from the time you step in the organisation y Code of conduct y Web cam .
Selection interview y Structured y Unstructured y Depth interview y Panel interview y Stress interview (emotional balance u/ tension) y Telephonic y Video conferencing .
Interview process .
Interview bias y Halo effect y Horns effect .
y Medical examination y Reference check (character. exp) y Line Manager s Decision y Offer letter .
Errors in selection
y True positive (success is predicted , success occurs) y True negative (failure is predicted , failure occurs) y False positive (success is predicted , failure occurs) y False negative (failure is predicted , success occurs)
y Placing the right person in the right job y Initially the person will be on probation y Generally final placement will be decided after the
initial training is over on the basis of candidate s aptitude and performance during the training /probation period y 6months/1yr/2yr/can be extended
Thru induction an employee is oriented towards y Job y Firm y Policies y Colleagues y Superiors y Sub-ordinates y Practices .
y A process of making the employee feel at home y Through induction the newcomer learns about the organization and adapts to the work culture y .y The process of orienting a new employee to the organisation.
objectives. operations and products or services y A detailed presentation about organisation s policies.Orientation conveys 3 types of information y General information about the daily work routine y A review of a firm s history. founders. work rules and employee benefits .
Tools for orientation y Induction manual y Induction CD y Induction film y Induction kit y Hand books y Pamphlet y Brochures .
y policies and procedures. y expansion plans etc. y major landmarks. y its core activities. y rewards and recognitions. . y organizational structure. y welfare measures. y general code of conduct.Induction training y the history of the organization.
y The success of an induction training programme depends on the positive responses that a person has developed about the organization. .y An incubation period for the new comer so develop training programmes with the objective of employee retention.
Induction training process y General orientation y Specific orientation y Follow-up orientation .
y More Pay y Prestige y Position y Responsibilities .
and responsibility .y Reassignment to a higher level job to an internal employee with higher authority.
Types y Seniority y Merit y Seniority cum Merit y Merit cum Seniority .
y Vertical promotion y Dry promotions y In charge y Training linked promotion .
y Company initiated /employee initiated y Transfer is the lateral movement of employees from one position. . division. demotion or orgl restructuring. y The movement can be due to promotion. department or unit to another.
Types of transfers y Prod. Trsfr y Replacement trsfr y Versatility trsfr y Shift trsfr y Remedial trsfr y Penal trsfr y Due to changes in prod y Trsfr of long service employees y To increase versatility y From one shift to other y Correct wrong placements y In disciplinary action .
y Transfer policy y Promotion policy .
status or responsibilities .y Opposite of promotion y It is a downward movement of an employee in the organisational hierarchy with lower pay.
Reasons for demotion y Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs y Adverse business conditions y When there have been errors in promotions and these need to be corrected y A tool of disciplinary action .
y Separation occurs when an employee leaves the organisation y Both voluntary & involuntary separations are there .
Voluntary y Resignation y Retirement
Involuntary y Lay-off y Dismissal y Retrenchment y Absenteeism y Voluntary retirement scheme (VRS)
According to Edwin.B.Flippo
Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
TRAINING????????????? y Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose .
y Unlearning and relearning y Imp for both new comers and existing employees .
term educational process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purposes.Development?????????? y It is a long. .
y It is not primary skills oriented. instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. y For overall personality development .
behavioural knowledge y Specific job-related y Short.y Training y Technical skills & y Development y Managerial .term y Mostly technical & nonmanagerial personnel skills & knowledge y Conceptual & general knowledge y Long-term y Mostly for managerial personnel .
Need for training y Newly joined employees y Existing employees y To familiarize with the work culture & reduce wastage y Refresher training y Skill upgradation y Promotion y Transfer .
Kinds of Training y On-the-job training y Off the-job training .
On-the-job Training y Induction training y Apprenticeship training y Internship training y Refresher training y Under study .
Off-the-job Training y Lectures y Conferences y Group Discussion y Role playing y T-Group / Sensitivity training/ Laboratory training y Simulation y Vestibule training y E-learning y Out bound trainings .
.Sensitivity training y Sensitivity training / T-group training y Development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioural patterns of oneself and others. y Helps in unlearning and learning things y T-group helps the members learn about their own behaviours and also learn from others behaviour.
Simulation methods y To construct a situation which closely represent a real one y They include physical similarities. bhrl characteristics and interactions that would normally be present under actual conditions. Three basic simulation techniques are: .
y Inbasket excercises y Case study y Management Games .
memos and reports y Materials that are require d for problem solving are put into an in-basket and the trainee plays the role of a manager responsible for solving the problems .In-basket method y Developing decision making skills y Incoming mail.
Vestibule training y An attempt is made to duplicate. y Large no: of employees can be trained at a time. . the actual material. as nearly as possible. equipment and conditions found in the real work place.
replaces trainer .e.learning y Audio-visual methods y Computer managed instruction.
Event management y Types of employees y The resource personnel (Inauguration) y Training materials y Resources to employees y Training aids y Refreshments y Duration y Evaluation .
Finding out the Critical skill among ASK .
Training policy y Mission statement y Develop objectives y Training depts role y Training budget y Coverage y External trainings y Train the trainer programs y Duration y Special trainings y Location y Designing tailor-made programmes y Linking training to performance appraisals y Training linked promotions y Evaluation .
Training evaluation/Feedback y Objectives y Content y Training aids y Resource person y Method of training y Course material y Ambiance of the training location y Often test are conducted .
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