· 8oron famllv aenerallv referred as aroup 13 elemenLs ln Lhe perlodlc LableŦ 1hese conslsL of

flve elemenLs namelv boronţ alumlnumţ aalllumţ lndlumţ Lhalllum as Lhelr famllv membersŦ
1hese meLals are aenerallv referred Lo as earLh meLalsŦ
· Cenerallv occur scarce ln naLure excepL alumlnum
· Þosses Lhree valence elecLrons
· 1he carbon famllv conslsLs of one meta||o|d (8oron) and four meta|s (A|um|n|umţ Ga|||umţ
Ind|umţ and 1ha|||um)Ŧ
· ofL and have low melLlna polnLs excepL boron
· Chemlcallv reacLlve aL moderaLe LemperaLures excepL boron
· Ion|zat|on energy Ŷ n splLe of Lhe larae nuclear charae and small slzeţ Lhe fltst loolzotloo
eoetoles of tbese elemeots ote less tboo tbe cottespooJloo voloes of sŴblock elemeotsŦ 1hls ls
because pŴelecLrons are less peneLraLlna and more shlelded Lhan sŴelecLronsţ lŦeŦ Lhev are
farLher from Lhe nucleus and hence held less LlahLlv Lhan Lhe sŴelecLrons and Lhus can be
easllv removedŦ
· |ectropos|t|ve (meta|||c) character lncreases from 8 Lo 1lŦ 1hls ls also lndlcaLed from Lhe
lonlzaLlon enerav values of Lhese elemenLsŦ
8oron lamllv 8oron lamllv
Boron
Physical characteristic
Chemical
characteristic
uses
reactions
METALLOÌD
9hys|ca| character|st|cs of 8oron
LaLe olld
Color 8lack
uenslLv 2Ŧ34 a/cm³
MelLlna polnL 2349 k
8olllna polnL 4200 k
LnLhalpv of vaporlsaLlon 480 k!/mol
hem|ca| character|st|cs of 8oron
rysta| 5tructure rhombohedral
|ectronegat|v|ty 2Ŧ04
Atom|c kad|| 83 pm
Atom|c number 3
Atom|c mass 10Ŧ811 (7) a/mol
Abundance 930 ppm
Dses of 8oron
· Dsed w|th t|tan|um and tungsten to make ||ght we|ght heat
res|stant a||oysŦ A|so tenn|s racketsţ regu|ators |n nuc|ear
p|antsţ heat res|stant g|ass and eye d|s|nfectantŦ
· 8or|c ac|d (n
3
8C
3
) |s used an |nsect|s|deţ most|y aga|nst ants
or cockroachesŦ 8oron n|tr|de |s a mater|a| |n wh|ch the extra
e|ectron of n|trogen (w|th respect to carbon) enab|es |t to
form structures that are |soe|ectron|c w|th carbon
a||otropesŦ
· 5od|um tetraborate decahydrate (Na
2
8
4
C
7
Ŵ 10n
2
C) or boraxţ
used |n the product|on of adhes|vesţ |n ant|Ŵcorros|on
systems and many other usesŦ
Dses of 8oron
· odlum LeLraboraLe penLahvdraLe (na
2
8
4
C
7
Ŵ 3P
2
C)ţ
whlch ls used ln larae amounLs ln maklna lnsulaLlna
flberalass and sodlum perboraLe bleachŦ
· CrLhoborlc acld (P
3
8C
3
) or borlc acld ls used ln Lhe
producLlon of LexLlle flberalassţ flaL panel dlsplavs
and eve dropsŦ
· 8oron slurrv ls used as an eneraeLlc maLerlal wlLh
verv hlah enerav denslLv llke rockeL fuels and [eL
enalnesŦ
· Pard as well as a aood conducLor
eacLlons of 8oron
· keact|ons w|th water 8oron wlll noL reacL wlLh waLer under
normal condlLlonsŦ
· keact|ons w|th a|r L hlaher LemperaLuresţ boron does burn
ln alr Lo form boron() oxldeţ 8
2
C
3
Ŧ
48 + 3C
2(a)
8
2
C
3(s)
· keact|ons w|th ha|ogens 8oron reacLs vlaorouslv wlLh
fluorlneţ chlorlneţ and bromlne Lo form boron() LrlhalldesŦ
28
(s)
+ 3l
2(a)
28l
3(a)
28
(s)
+ 3Cl
2(a)
8Cl
3(a)
28
(s)
+ 38r
2(a)
88r
3(a)
eacLlons of 8oron
· keact|ons w|th ac|ds CrvsLalllne boron does
noL reacL wlLh bolllna hvdrochlorlc acld (PCl)
or bolllna hvdrofluorlc acld (Pl)Ŧ Þowdered
boron oxldlzes slowlv when LreaLed wlLh
concenLraLed nlLrlc acldţ PnC
3
Ŧ
lumlnlum
reaction
Phisycal
characteristic
Chemical
characteristic
uses
METAL
9hys|ca| character|st|cs of A|um|n|um
LaLe solld
Color 8lulsh ŶwhlLe ln lLs puresL formţ sllverv ln
appearance whlle ln aeneral use
uenslLv 2ţ70 a·cm
-3
8olllna polnL 933ţ47 k
MelLlna polnL 2792 k
LnLhalpv of fuslon 10ţ71 k!·mol
-1
LnLhalpv of vaporlsaLlon 294ţ0 k!·mol
-1
PeaL CapaclLv 24ţ200 !·mol
-1
·k
-1
hem|ca| character|st|cs of A|um|n|um
CrvsLal LrucLure Cublc closed packed
0ţ40494 nm
LlecLroneaaLlvlLv 1ţ61
onlzaLlon ÞoLenLlal 377ţ3 k!·mol
-1
ţ 1816ţ7 k!·mol
-1
ţ
2744ţ8 k!·mol
-1
Lomlc radll 118 pm
Covalen radll 118 pm
bundance 82000 ppm
eacLlons of lumlnlum eacLlons of lumlnlum
· keact|ons w|th water Lhln laver of oxlde prevenLs
alumlnlum belna aLLack bv waLerŦ
· keact|ons w|th a|r Lhln laver of oxlde prevenLs alumlnlum
belna aLLack bv alrŦ lumlnlum wlll burn ln oxvaen wlLh a
brllllan whlLe flame Lo form alumlnlum LrlxodeŦ
4l + 3C
2(a)
2l
2
C
3(s)
· keact|ons w|th ha|ogens lumlnlum reacLs vlaorouslv wlLh all
haloaens Lo form alumlnlum halldesŦ
2l
(s)
+ 3Cl
2(a)
lCl
3(s)
2l
(s)
+ 38r
2(l)
l8r
26(s)
2l
(s)
+ 3
2(l)
l
2

6(s)
· keact|ons w|th ac|ds
lumlnlum dlssolves readllv ln dlluLe suphurlc acld for form soluLlons
conLalnlna Lhe l() lon and hvdroden aasŦ
2l
(s)
+ 3P
2
C
4(aq)
l
3+
(aq)
+ 2C
4

(aq)
+ 3P
2(a)
1he reacLlon wlLh dlluLe hvdrochlorlc acld also vleld Lhe same l() lon
and hvdroaen aasŦ
2l
(s)
+ 6PCl
(aq)
2l
3+
(aq)
+ 6Cl
Ŵ
(aq)
+ 3P
2(a)
· keact|ons w|th bases
lumlnlum dlssolves ln sodlum hvdroxlde Lo vleld hvdroaen aas and
alumlnaLes of Lhe form żl(CP)
4
Ž
Ŵ
Ŧ
2l
(s)
+ 2naCP
(aq)
+ 6P
2
C
(l)
2na
+
(aq)
+ 2żl(CP)
4
Ž
Ŵ
+ 3P
2(a)
eacLlons of lumlnlum eacLlons of lumlnlum
· klLchen uLensllsţ bulldlna decoraLlonsţ elecLrlcal Lransmlsslon (noL nearlv as
conducLlve as copperţ buL cheaper) as well as packaalna (canţ foll eLcŦ)Ŧ
· lumlnlumallovs form vlLal componenLs of alrcrafL and rockeLs as a resulL of Lhelr
hlah sLrenaLh Lo welahL raLloŦ llovs conLalnlna copperţ maaneslumţ slllconţ
manaanese and oLher meLals are much sLronaer and more durable Lhan
alumlnlumţ maklna alumlnlum useful ln Lhe manufacLure of alrcrafL and rockeLsŦ
· MosL elecLronlc appllances LhaL requlre coollna of Lhelr lnLernal devlces (llke
LranslsLorsţ CÞus Ŵ semlconducLors ln aeneral) have heaL slnks LhaL are made of
alumlnlumdue Lo lLs ease of manufacLure and aood heaL conducLlvlLvŦ
· lumlnlumoxlde (l
2
C
3
)ţ alumlnaţ ls found naLurallv as corundum (rubles and
sapphlres)ţ emervţ and ls used ln alass maklnaŦ vnLheLlc rubv and sapphlre are
used ln lasersŦ
· Þowdered alumlnlum ls a commonlv used sllverlna aaenL ln palnLŦ lumlnlum
flakes mav also be lncluded ln undercoaL palnLsţ parLlcularlv wood prlmer Ŵ on
drvlnaţ Lhe flakes overlap Lo produce a waLer reslsLanL barrlerŦ
uses of lumlnlum uses of lumlnlum
Þhvslcal CharacLerlsLlc of Calllum
o|or llver WhlLe
5tate olld aL 298 k
Dens|ty 3Ŧ91a/cm
3
Me|t|ng 9o|nt 302Ŧ91k (29Ŧ76¨C)
8o|||ng 9o|nt 2477k (2204¨C)
ntha|py of
Ius|on
3Ŧ39 k! mol
Ŵ1
ntha|py of
Vapor|sat|on
270Ŧ3 k! mol
Ŵ1
neat apac|ty 23Ŧ86 ! mol
Ŵ1
k
Ŵ1
Chemlcal CharacLerlsLlc of Calllum
Atom|c Number 31
Atom|c Mass 69Ŧ723 a/mol
Atom|c kad|| 130 pm
Abundance 18 ppm
|ectronegat|v|ty 1Ŧ81
|ectron
onf|gurat|on
żrŽ 3d
10
4s
2
4p
1
rysta| 5tructure CrLhorhomblc
GuM
METAL
kLC1Cn
keact|ons of Ga|||um
keact|ons w|th bases
Calllum dlssolves ln aqueous alkallŦ
nu
nazards of Ga|||um
Parmful lf swallowedţ lnhaled or of lL comes ln Lo conLacL wlLh sklnŦ Corroslveţ causes
burnsŦ ome sources suaaesL LhaL lL mav cause dermaLlLls from prolonaed exposureŤ
oLher LesLs have noL caused a poslLlve reacLlonŦ L wlll however sLaln vour skln lf vou
hold lL ln vour bare handsŦ
used ln semlconducLor producLlonţ quarLz LhermomeLersţ laser dlodesţ used Lo locaLe
Lumors and for creaLlna mlrrorsŦ
Calllum Cadollnlum CarneL (Cd
3
Ca
3
C
12
) ls a maLerlal wlLh aood opLlcal properLlesţ and
ls used ln fabrlcaLlon of varlous opLlcal componenLs and as subsLraLe maLerlal for
maaneLoŴopLlcal fllmsŦ
Calllum ls Lhe raresL componenL of new phoLovolLalc compounds (such as copper
lndlum aalllum selenlum sulphlde or Cu(nţCa)(eţ)
2
ţ recenLlv announced bv ouLh
frlcan researchers) for use ln solar panels as an alLernaLlve Lo crvsLalllne slllconţ whlch
ls currenLlv ln shorL supplvŦ L has been suaaesLed LhaL a llquld aalllumŴLln allov could be
used Lo cool compuLer chlps ln place of waLerŦ s lL conducLs heaL approxlmaLelv 63
Llmes beLLer Lhan waLer lL makes a conslderablv beLLer coolanLŦ
DL
Dses of Ga|||um
GuM
Þhvslcal CharacLerlsLlc of ndlum
o|or llverv usLrous Crev
5tate olld aL 298 k
Dens|ty 7Ŧ31a/cm
3
Me|t|ng 9o|nt 429Ŧ73k (136Ŧ6¨C)
8o|||ng 9o|nt 2343k (2072¨C)
ntha|py of
Ius|on
3Ŧ27 k! mol
Ŵ1
ntha|py of
Vapor|sat|on
231Ŧ8 k! mol
Ŵ1
neat apac|ty 26Ŧ74 ! mol
Ŵ1
k
Ŵ1
Chemlcal CharacLerlsLlc of ndlum
Atom|c Number 49
Atom|c Mass 114Ŧ818 (3) a/mol
Atom|c kad|| 133 pm
Abundance 0Ŧ049 ppm
|ectronegat|v|ty 1Ŧ78
|ectron
onf|gurat|on
żkrŽ 4d
10
3s
2
3p
1
rysta| 5tructure 1eLraaonal
InuuM
METAL
kLC1Cn
keact|ons of Ind|um
keact|ons w|th bases
unllke aalllum (ln Lhe same aroup as lndlum)ţ lndlum wlll noL dlssolve ln aqueous alkall
soluLlonsŦ
nazards of Ind|um
Þure lndlum ln meLal form ls consldered nonŴLoxlcŦ Poweverţ all lndlum compounds
should be reaarded as hlahlv LoxlcŦ ndlum compounds damaae Lhe hearLţ kldnevţ and
llverţ and mav be LeraLoaenlcŦ
nu
1he flrsL laraeŴscale appllcaLlon for lndlum was as a coaLlna for bearlnas ln hlahŴ
performance alrcrafL enalnes durlna World War Ŧ
fLerwardsţ producLlon araduallv lncreased as new uses were found ln fuslble allovsţ
soldersţ and elecLronlcsŦ
n Lhe 1930sţ Llnv beads of lL were used for Lhe emlLLers and collecLors of allov [uncLlon
LranslsLorsŦ
n Lhe mlddle and laLe 1980sţ Lhe developmenL of lndlum phosphlde semlconducLors
and lndlum Lln oxlde Lhln fllms for llquld crvsLal dlsplavs (Cu) aroused much lnLeresLŦ
8v 1992ţ Lhe LhlnŴfllm appllcaLlon had become Lhe laraesL end useŦ
DL
Dses of Ind|um
InuuM
9hys|ca| haracter|st|c of 1ha|||um
o|or llverv WhlLe
5tate solld aL 298 k
Dens|ty 11Ŧ83a/cm
3
Me|t|ng 9o|nt 1746k (1473¨C)
8o|||ng 9o|nt 1746k (1473¨C)
ntha|py of
Ius|on
4Ŧ31 k! mol
Ŵ1
ntha|py of
Vapor|sat|on
166Ŧ1 k! mol
Ŵ1
neat apac|ty 26Ŧ32 ! mol
Ŵ1
k
Ŵ1
hem|ca| haracter|st|c of 1ha|||um hem|ca| haracter|st|c of 1ha|||um
Atom|c Number 81
Atom|c Mass 204Ŧ383 a/mol
Atom|c kad|| 190 pm
Abundance 0Ŧ6 ppm
|ectronegat|v|ty 1Ŧ62
|ectron
onf|gurat|on
ż xe Ž 4f
14
3d
10
6s
2
6p
1
rysta| 5tructure Pexaaonal close
packed
ThaIIium ThaIIium
METAL
keact|ons of 1ha|||um keact|ons of 1ha|||um
· · keact|ons w|th water keact|ons w|th water 1halllum Larnlshes slowlv ln molsL alr or dlssolves ln 1halllum Larnlshes slowlv ln molsL alr or dlssolves ln
waLer Lo vleld polsonous Lhalllum() hvdroxldeŦ waLer Lo vleld polsonous Lhalllum() hvdroxldeŦ
21l 21l
(s) (s)
+ 2P + 2P
22
C C
(l) (l)
21lCP 21lCP
( (aq aq) )
+ P + P
2(a) 2(a)
· · keact|ons w|th a|r keact|ons w|th a|r n oxlde laver proLecLs Lhalllum form furLher reacLlon n oxlde laver proLecLs Lhalllum form furLher reacLlon
wlLh alrŦ When heaLed sLronalv ln alr Lhe polsonous Lhalllum() oxlde ls wlLh alrŦ When heaLed sLronalv ln alr Lhe polsonous Lhalllum() oxlde ls
formedŦ formedŦ
21l 21l
(s) (s)
+ C + C
2(a) 2(a)
1l 1l
22
C C
(s) (s)
· · keact|ons w|th ha|ogens keact|ons w|th ha|ogens 1halllum reacLs vlaorouslv wlLh fluorlneţ chlorlne 1halllum reacLs vlaorouslv wlLh fluorlneţ chlorlne
and bromlne Lo form polsonous and bromlne Lo form polsonous dlhalldes dlhalldesŦ Ŧ
21l 21l
(s) (s)
+ 3l + 3l
2(a) 2(a)
221ll 1ll
3(s) 3(s)
21l 21l
(s) (s)
+ 3Cl + 3Cl
2(a) 2(a)
221lCl 1lCl
3(s) 3(s)
21l 21l
(s) (s)
+ 38r + 38r
2(l) 2(l)
221l8r 1l8r
3(s) 3(s)
· · keact|ons w|th ac|ds keact|ons w|th ac|ds 1halllum dlssolves 1halllum dlssolves slowlv ln slowlv ln sulphurlc sulphurlc acld and acld and
hvdrochlorlc acld as Lhe producLţ polsonous Lhalllum() salLsţ are noL vev hvdrochlorlc acld as Lhe producLţ polsonous Lhalllum() salLsţ are noL vev
solubleŦ solubleŦ
· · 1 1halllum halllum has has been been used used ln ln the the product|on product|on of of h|gh h|ghŴ Ŵdens|ty dens|ty g|asses g|assesţţ
ccomblne omblned d wlLh wlLh sulfur sulfur or or selenlum selenlum and and a arsenlc rsenlcţţ LhaL LhaL have have low low melLlna melLlna polnLs polnLs
ln ln Lhe Lhe ranae ranae of of 123 123 and and 130 130¨¨C CŦ Ŧ 1hese 1hese alasses alasses have have room room LemperaLure LemperaLure
properLles properLles LhaL LhaL are are slmllar slmllar Lo Lo ordlnarv ordlnarv alasses alasses and and are are durableţ durableţ lnsoluble lnsoluble ln ln
waLer waLer and and have have unlque unlque refracLlve refracLlve lndlces lndlcesŦ Ŧ
· · nfrared nfrared lenses lenses
· · 1halllum 1halllum amalaam amalaam ls ls used used ln ln LhermomeLers LhermomeLers for for low low LemperaLureţ LemperaLureţ because because lL lL
freezes freezes aL aL Ŵ Ŵ38 38¨¨C C (pure (pure mercurv mercurv freezes freezes aL aL Ŵ Ŵ38 38¨¨C) C)Ŧ Ŧ
Thallium Thallium and and its its compounds compounds are are highly highly toxic toxic and and should should be be handled handled with with
great great care care.. Thallium Thallium is is a a suspected suspected human human carcinogen carcinogen.. Thallium Thallium was was once once
an an effective effective murder murder weapon weapon before before its its effects effects became became understood understood and and an an
antidote antidote ( (prussian prussian blue) blue) discovered discovered..
Dses of 1ha|||um Dses of 1ha|||um
nazards of 1ha|||um nazards of 1ha|||um
hem|ca| haracter|st|c of Dnuntr|um hem|ca| haracter|st|c of Dnuntr|um
Atom|c Number 113
Atom|c Mass ż284Ž a/mol
|ectron
onf|gurat|on
żnŽ 3f
14
6d
10
7s
2
7p
1
|ass|f|cat|on MeLalllc
Ava||ab|||ty hvnLeLlc
C Created reated by bombarding americium by bombarding americium- -243 atoms with caIcium 243 atoms with caIcium- -48 48 atoms. atoms.
Experiments resuIting in the formation of eIement 113 were reported in Experiments resuIting in the formation of eIement 113 were reported in
February 2004 foIIowing experiments carried out between 14 JuIy February 2004 foIIowing experiments carried out between 14 JuIy - - 10 10
August 2003 invoIving scientists at August 2003 invoIving scientists at Dubna Dubna (Joint Institute for NucIear (Joint Institute for NucIear
Research at the U400 cycIotron with the Research at the U400 cycIotron with the Dubna Dubna gas gas- -fiIIed recoiI separator, fiIIed recoiI separator,
DGFRS) in Russia DGFRS) in Russia
C8Cn lM C8Cn lM
· 1he carbon famllv conslsLs of carbonţ s|||conţ german|umţ t|n and |eadŦ
· Carbon famllv elemenLs conLaln aLoms LhaL have 4 e|ectrons |n the|r outer
energy |eve|Ŧ
· s vou move down Lhe perlodlc Lable ln Lhe carbon famllv Lhe aLomlc radlus
lncreases whlle lonlzaLlon enerav decreasesŦ
· 1he carbon famllv conslsLs of one nonmeta| (carbon)ţ two meta||o|ds
(s|||con and german|um) and two meta|s (t|n and |ead)Ŧ
· 1he carbon famllv elemenLs Lend Lo be falrlv unreact|veŦ
· 1he elemenLs Lend Lo form covalenL compoundsţ Lhouah Lln and lead also
form lonlc compoundsŦ
· Carbon famllv elemenLs exlsL free |n nature and ln compoundsŦ
9hys|ca| haracter|st|c of arbon
o|or
CraphlLe ť 8lack
ulamond ť colourless
5tate solld aL 298 k
Dens|ty
CraphlLe ť 2Ŧ267 a/cm
3
ulamond ť 3Ŧ313 a/cm
3
Me|t|ng 9o|nt 3800 k (3327¨C)
8o|||ng 9o|nt 4300 k (4027¨C)
ntha|py of
Ius|on
103Ŧ0 k! mol
Ŵ1
ntha|py of
Vapor|sat|on
710Ŧ9 k! mol
Ŵ1
neat apac|ty 8Ŧ317 ! mol
Ŵ1
k
Ŵ1
hem|ca| haracter|st|c of arbon hem|ca| haracter|st|c of arbon
Atom|c Number 6
Atom|c Mass 12Ŧ0107 a/mol
Atom|c kad|| 70 pm
Abundance 480 ppm
|ectronegat|v|ty 2Ŧ33
|ectron
onf|gurat|on
1s
2
2s
2
2p
2
rysta| 5tructure Pexaaonal close
packed
CARBON (C) CARBON (C)
O METAL
#eactions of Carbon #eactions of Carbon
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th water water Carbonţ elLher as araphlLe or dlamond does noL reacL
wlLh waLer under normal condlLlonsŦ
under more forceful condlLlonsţ Lhe reacLlon becomes lmporLanLŦ n lndusLrvţ
waLer ls blown Lhrouah hoL cokeŦ 1he resulLlna aas ls called waLer aas and ls a
mlxLure of hvdroaen (P
2
ţ 30Ʒ)ţ carbon monoxlde (CCţ 40Ʒ)ţ carbon dloxlde
(CC
2
ţ 3Ʒ)ţ nlLroaen and meLhane (n
2
+ CP
4
ţ 3Ʒ)Ŧ L ls an lmporLanL feedsLock aas
for Lhe chemlcal lndusLrvŦ
C + P
2
C CC + P
2
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th water water Carbonţ elLher as araphlLe or dlamond does noL reacL
wlLh waLer under normal condlLlonsŦ
under more forceful condlLlonsţ Lhe reacLlon becomes lmporLanLŦ n lndusLrvţ
waLer ls blown Lhrouah hoL cokeŦ 1he resulLlna aas ls called waLer aas and ls a
mlxLure of hvdroaen (P
2
ţ 30Ʒ)ţ carbon monoxlde (CCţ 40Ʒ)ţ carbon dloxlde
(CC
2
ţ 3Ʒ)ţ nlLroaen and meLhane (n
2
+ CP
4
ţ 3Ʒ)Ŧ L ls an lmporLanL feedsLock aas
for Lhe chemlcal lndusLrvŦ
C + P
2
C CC + P
2
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th a|r a|r Carbonţ as araphlLeţ burns ln oxvaen Lo form aaseous
carbon(v) dloxldeŦ Carbonţ as dlamondţ also burns ln alr when heaLed Lo 600Ŵ
800¨C Lo also form carbon(v) oxldeŦ
C
(s)
+ C
2(a)
CC
2(a)
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th a|r a|r Carbonţ as araphlLeţ burns ln oxvaen Lo form aaseous
carbon(v) dloxldeŦ Carbonţ as dlamondţ also burns ln alr when heaLed Lo 600Ŵ
800¨C Lo also form carbon(v) oxldeŦ
C
(s)
+ C
2(a)
CC
2(a)
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th ha|ogens ha|ogens CraphlLe reacLs wlLh fluorlne (buL none of Lhe oLher
haloaens) aL hlah LemperaLures Lo make a mlxLure of carbon LeLrafluorldeţ Cl
4
ţ
LoaeLher wlLh some C
2
l
6
and C
3
l
12
Ŧ
C
(s)
+ excess l
2(a)
Cl
4(a)
+ C
2
l
6
+ C
3
l
12
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th ha|ogens ha|ogens CraphlLe reacLs wlLh fluorlne (buL none of Lhe oLher
haloaens) aL hlah LemperaLures Lo make a mlxLure of carbon LeLrafluorldeţ Cl
4
ţ
LoaeLher wlLh some C
2
l
6
and C
3
l
12
Ŧ
C
(s)
+ excess l
2(a)
Cl
4(a)
+ C
2
l
6
+ C
3
l
12
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th bases bases CraphlLe reacLs wlLh hoL concenLraLed nlLrlc acld Lo form
melllLlc acldţ C
6
(CC
2
P)
6
Ŧ
· · keact|ons keact|ons w|th w|th bases bases CraphlLe reacLs wlLh hoL concenLraLed nlLrlc acld Lo form
melllLlc acldţ C
6
(CC
2
P)
6
Ŧ
Carbon-14 wbicb is radioacti\e is used in carbon
dating (telling bow old sometbing is by determining tbe
amount of Carbon-14 present in tbe item being tested
as compared to a standard \alue for a similar ob|ect
wbicb is new|.
Diamond is a gemstone and used for drilling/cutting.
Grapbite is used in pencils. as a lubricant. and to
protect against rust.
Cbarcoal is used to remo\e toxins. tastes. and odors.
&ses &ses &ses &ses
lllcon (c)
Þhysical Characteristic o1
Silicon
Color dark grey wìth a
b1uìsh tìnge
State so1ìd at čĎ8 k
0ensity č.22g1cm
2
Melting Þoint Č687k {Č4Č4°C)
8oiling Þoint 2Č72k {čĎĉĉ°C)
5nthalpy o1
iusion
2Ď.6 kJ mo1

5nthalpy o1
vaporisation
282.2 kJ mo1

Heat Capacity ČĎ.78Ď J mo1

k

Chemical Characteristic o1
Silicon
Atomic Number Č4
Atomic Mass
č8.ĉ855
g1mo1
Atomic kadii ČČĉ pm
Abundance 2Ŧ771 x 10
3
ppm
5lectronegativity Č.Ďĉ
5lectron
Con1iguration
Čs
č
čs
č
čp
6
2s
č
2p
č
Crystal Structure
0ìamond
METALloid
eacLlons of lllcon eacLlons of lllcon

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