# Quantum Mechanics

Potential Barier :

Vo

a

-a

From Schroedinger equation :

1. For x<-a

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈
+ 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 = 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2
ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈1
− 2
= 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈1
4𝜋𝜋 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈1
+ 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈1 = 0
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2 𝜕𝜕

2 𝑈𝑈1 4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
+ 𝑈𝑈
1 = 0
ℎ2 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2
Solution : 𝑈𝑈1 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 𝜕𝜕

2 𝑈𝑈1
+ 𝑘𝑘12 𝑈𝑈1 = 0 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2

2. For –a<x<a

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈2
+ 𝑉𝑉0 𝑈𝑈2 = 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈2
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈2
+ 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈2 − 𝑉𝑉0 𝑈𝑈2 = 0
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2 𝜕𝜕
2 𝑈𝑈2 4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚
+
(𝐸𝐸 − 𝑉𝑉0 )𝑈𝑈2 = 0
ℎ2 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2

Solution : 𝑈𝑈2 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝜕𝜕

2 𝑈𝑈2
+ 𝑞𝑞 2 𝑈𝑈2 = 0 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2

If we use : 𝜅𝜅 = −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

Then : 𝑈𝑈2 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝜅𝜅𝜅𝜅 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝜅𝜅𝜅𝜅

M. Khari Secario

Page 1

Quantum Mechanics

3. For x>a

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈3
= 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈3
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2

ℎ2 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑈𝑈3
+ 𝐸𝐸𝑈𝑈3 = 0
4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥 2 𝜕𝜕

2 𝑈𝑈3 4𝜋𝜋 2 2𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
+ 𝑈𝑈
3 = 0
ℎ2 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2
Solution : 𝑈𝑈3 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘3 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑊𝑊𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘3 𝑥𝑥 𝜕𝜕

2 𝑈𝑈3
+ 𝑘𝑘32 𝑈𝑈3 = 0 𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥
2

Remember, at Region 3, there is only transmitted wave (T)
Then : 𝑈𝑈3 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘3 𝑥𝑥

Now, we have 3 eq. :

• 𝑈𝑈

1 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 𝑈𝑈
2 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝜅𝜅𝜅𝜅 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝜅𝜅𝜅𝜅 = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑈𝑈
3 (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘3 𝑥𝑥

With 𝑘𝑘1 = 𝑘𝑘3 = 𝑘𝑘

Remember at x=-a and x=a :

At x=-a 𝑈𝑈

1 (−𝑎𝑎) = 𝑈𝑈2 (−𝑎𝑎) ...© 𝑑𝑑
𝑈𝑈1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(−𝑎𝑎) =
• 𝑑𝑑

𝑈𝑈2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

At x=a

𝑈𝑈2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(𝑎𝑎) = 𝑑𝑑𝑈𝑈

3 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

M. Khari Secario

Page 2

Quantum Mechanics 𝑈𝑈
1 (−𝑎𝑎) = 𝑈𝑈2 (−𝑎𝑎)

[𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘1 𝑥𝑥 ](−𝑎𝑎) = �𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 �(−𝑎𝑎) 𝑒𝑒
−𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ... 𝑑𝑑
𝑈𝑈1

(−𝑎𝑎) = 𝑑𝑑

𝑈𝑈2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(−𝑎𝑎) 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑

𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑥𝑥
�𝑒𝑒 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑥𝑥 � =
(𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

�𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 − 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖(𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ) ... 𝑈𝑈
2 (𝑎𝑎) = 𝑈𝑈3 (𝑎𝑎)

�𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 �(𝑎𝑎) = �𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 �(𝑎𝑎) 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒
𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ... 𝑑𝑑
𝑈𝑈2

(𝑎𝑎) = 𝑑𝑑𝑈𝑈

3 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(𝑎𝑎) 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑

�𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 � =
(𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞

�𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘(𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ) ...

Thus we have 4 eq (look at smiley) :

• 𝑒𝑒

−𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
�𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 − 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖(𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ) 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒

𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞
�𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘�𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 �

With a “little” algebra, we’ll find out T. But we’ll using Gauss Elimination instead.

M. Khari Secario

Page 3

Quantum Mechanics

Now, let see :

• 𝑒𝑒

−𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 + 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 = 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
�𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 − 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖(𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 ) 𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒

𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 + 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 = 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞
�𝐴𝐴𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 − 𝐵𝐵𝑒𝑒 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 � = 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘�𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎 �

For simplification :

• 𝑒𝑒

−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 𝐿𝐿 𝑒𝑒
𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 𝑀𝑀 𝑒𝑒
−𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞𝑎𝑎 = 𝑁𝑁 𝑒𝑒
𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞𝑎𝑎 = 𝑃𝑃

So we have :

• 𝐿𝐿

+ 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀 = 𝐴𝐴𝑁𝑁 + 𝐵𝐵𝑃𝑃 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
(𝐿𝐿 − 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀) = 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖(𝐴𝐴𝑁𝑁 − 𝐵𝐵𝑃𝑃) 𝐴𝐴𝑃𝑃
+ 𝐵𝐵𝑁𝑁 = 𝑇𝑇𝑀𝑀 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞
(𝐴𝐴𝑃𝑃 − 𝐵𝐵𝑁𝑁) = 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘(𝑇𝑇𝑀𝑀)

Put in some order :

• 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀

− 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 − 𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 − 0 = −𝐿𝐿
−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀 − 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝐴𝐴𝑁𝑁 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝐵𝐵𝑃𝑃 + 0 = −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝐿𝐿
0 + 𝐴𝐴𝑃𝑃 + 𝐵𝐵𝑁𝑁 − 𝑇𝑇𝑀𝑀 = 0
0 + 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞𝐴𝐴𝑃𝑃 − 𝑖𝑖𝑞𝑞𝐵𝐵𝑁𝑁 − 𝑖𝑖𝑘𝑘(𝑇𝑇𝑀𝑀) = 0

Make a Matrices based on coefficient :

 M
 −ikM

 0

 0

−N
−iqN
P
iqP

−P
iqP
N
−iqN

0  R  L 
0   A ikL 
=
−M   B   0 
   
−ikM  T   0 

 M
 −ikM

 0

 0

−N
−iqN
P
iqP

−P
iqP
N
−iqN

0
0
−M
−ikM

M. Khari Secario

L
ikL 
0 

0 

Page 4

After a “few” steps, we’ll get :

N

1 − M

1
0

0
0

0
0

P
M

0

β

N − Pγ

Pβα 
−iqPβ +

N − Pγ 
L
M

0

γ

1

Quantum Mechanics

0
M
N − Pγ
αM
−ikM +
N − Pγ

So,
�−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼𝑀𝑀 𝑃𝑃𝛼𝛼𝛽𝛽

� 𝑇𝑇 = −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝛽𝛽 + 𝑁𝑁
− 𝑃𝑃𝛾𝛾 𝑁𝑁
− 𝑃𝑃𝛾𝛾

With :

• 𝛾𝛾

= 𝛽𝛽

= 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
2𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

−𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼

= −𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 − 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝛾𝛾

After a “little” solving : 𝑇𝑇
= 𝑒𝑒 −2𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
|𝑇𝑇|2 =

M. Khari Secario

2𝑘𝑘𝜅𝜅
2𝑘𝑘𝜅𝜅 cosh 2𝜅𝜅𝑎𝑎 + 𝑖𝑖(𝑘𝑘 2 − 𝜅𝜅 2) sinh 2𝜅𝜅𝑎𝑎
(2𝑘𝑘𝜅𝜅)2
(𝑘𝑘 2 − 𝜅𝜅 2 )2 sinh2 2𝜅𝜅𝑎𝑎 + (2𝑘𝑘𝜅𝜅)2

Page 5