This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A Newsletter of the Qualitative Family Research Network
Volume 5, Number 2
A Personal History of the Development of Grounded Theory By Anselm Strauss
University of California, San Francisco
At the University of Chicago when I was a graduate student (1939-44), there was a well entrenched tradition of doing what is now called qualitative research. It wasn't called by this name then, and there was no self-consciousness about quantitative versus qualitative studies. Chicago theses and monographs might use both, or one or the other methods. They also used a variety of data sources: interviews. field observations, archival materials, library materials, diaries, government reports and statistics. This department also had close relations with anthropology, and I took a minor in social anthropology. The data for my doctoral thesis were part questionnaire and part in-depth interview. My major post-doctoral research was a study of children's conceptions of money, a Piaget-like developmental study, again using statistics and interviews. It was not until almost 15 years after graduation that I headed a team studying psychiatric ideologies in mental hospitals that I began to develop the ethnographic style characteristic of my research since then.
(JIe did build in a minor quantitative side to the research in close conjunction with the field observations.)
Field Work and Developing Effective Sociological Theory
During the 1960s, when Barney Glaser and I were doing our research on dying in hospitals, quantitive research was dominant in sociology and qualitative was much eclipsed in the major training university departments. Perhaps the accident of my own career protected me against abandoning field observation and interviewing. I believed in it, for one thing; and enjoyed doing it. But just as important, perhaps, is that from the beginning I was also concerned with developing effective sociological theory. Field observation and interviews was proving appropriate to that aim. Also, I had the opportunity at UCSF to (ound a doctoral program (1968) and one of its emphases, was on training students in qualitative research, and we were being successful. at this. A Personal History Continued on page 2
In This Issue
Dilemmas and New Directions by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler
Update on Qualitative Methods in Family Research Book
The Portraiture Approach to. ~ocial Inquiry by Sara Mansfield Taber Syracuse Provides Advanced Training in Qualitative Methods
'What's Going on in Denver
A Personal History By Anselm Strauss
Continued from page 1
The other important strand in this narrative is that during the psychiatric ideology study, we had begun to do elaborate comparisons in the organizations being studied. This led me in the next study (of dying) to continue with these methodological procedures, and together with Glaser to develop what's now known as grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). So it all hangs together for me: theory, grounded theory style and the procedures I've used since its inception, plus the use of materials that are "qualitative." These have induced studies that just use interviews, studies that are based on field observations (most), and studies that basically used library data (autobiographies, journals, newspapers, novels).
Grounded Theory as a General Way of Thinking
A parenthetical paragraph about grounded theory: This is a general way of thinking about analysis, and we say so in the discovery book. which in its logic is not confined to qualitative research. (In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, there is a chapter written by Glaser showing how it could be used with quantitative data.) However, it seems not at all to have been used by quantitative researchers, whereas rather obviously now it has influenced many qualitative researchers.
Maximizing Your Own Creativity
I don't know that my particular career, running as it does through a different set of years and impinging conditions, has any message for anyone today. If there is one I would put the emphasis on having a sense of what fits your own style and temperament, what too you want to get from research-and sticking with resolve to that, and quite as important also attempting to manage conditions to maximize your own creativity and warding off or minimizing those that will lessen or destroy it. If qualitative research lines up with those directives, then you do it and keep on doing it.
Positivism and Post-Modernism
The climate supporting qualitative researchers has vastly improved, for over the last two decades increasing numbers of people have turned to it-besides the usual anthropologists and a proportion of sociologiets-dn education and nursing especially. Social work has yet to work through its reliance on purely quantitative methods, but like nursing it surely will pass through that phase into one of increasing tolerance and then acceptance of pluralism. The recent book on social gerontology and qualitative methods edited by a sociologist and a social worker (Reinharz & Rowles, 1988) had papers by researchers in several disciplines and hardly a trace of defensiveness about their qualitative research.
The other trend that will support your kind of interest and work is the general international skepticism and frank attack on "positivism" and on taking uncritically natural science as the model for studying humans. I am skeptical myself about much post-modernism, but it is having its impact on social research and probably some of it will be lasting, at least in some fields-perhaps not in social work through, which like sociology has pressing social problems to address.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 2
Dilemmas, Potentials, and New Directions For Qualitative Family Research
By Partricia A. Adler ~ University of Colorado and
Peter Adler, University of Denver
In thinking about qualitative research and writing, ethnographers can be stimulated by addressing both the basic suppositions and the new trends. Ours is the most creative and innovative form of social science, and we should take pride in these strengths.
Addressing Theory in Qualitative Research
Every article should strive to make a contribution to two separate bodies of literature: an empirical literature and a theoretical literature. In the data section, authors should relate their work to exiting studies of similar substantive topics. These relevant literatures should be cited to show how the current work replicates, extends, modifies, or disputes the findings of others. The conclusion, in contrast, moves the reader to a different plane of analysis. It is here that social researchers should try to address the trans-situational relevance of their findings by addressing either policy issues or more conceptual issues such as human nature, human behavior, or human social organization. This requires a jump to a more abstract plane of analysis.
Contributions to extant theory can thus be made in the conclusion by building on existing theoretical models. Each article's contribution, and the literature on which it will be building, should then be previewed in the Introduction. In this way we can accumulate a body of specific empirical evidence and build broad theoretical models and policy implications at the same time.
Qualitative Research and the Postmodern Impulse
The influence of postmodernism is one of the major movements in qualitative research today. In the early years, qualitative research epistemology forged itself against the backdrop of positivism. For years, qualitative researchers have struggled with the positivist critique of our perspective. We defined ourselves. too fundamentally. in defense against this critique. As a result, we tried to legitimate our methodology by positivistic tenets. We called on such criteria as reliability, validity, and objectivity to justify our work to mainstream researchers. With the maturing of the qualitative perspective, however, there has been much more of a sense of confidence in the viability of this perspective.
Qualitative research does not answer questions about the prevalence of behavior or offer predictions on the correlation between variables. Rather, we address how and why behavior occurs. We focus on what types of behavior are theoretically possible. In order to best address these questions and issues, which are very different from those raised by positivists, we rely on different sources of validity. Rather than assessing others' research by how objective and detached they were in gathering the data, we gain more confidence in their findings if they can convince us of how close
Potentials and New Directions Continued on page 4
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 3
Potentials and New Directions by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler
Continued from page 3
they were to the data and how much they really understood what what was going on in the setting. We want to know the researcher's role in the setting and his or her relationship to the members. These bases of credibility draw less on objectivity and detachment, and more on subjectivity and involvement. (See Adler & Adler, 1987.)
This refocusing of emphasis has come about in two different forums. First, in explicit discussions of methodology, where researchers have become much more explicit in explaining their personal background with the involvement in the settings they study. This includes acknowledging the interactive effect between the subjects and the researchers themselves. The second is in the actual text where the data are presented. One of the major effects of postmodernism has been that we acknowledge our role as text-producers, whether quantitative or qualitative, natural or social science. As such, our work should be subject to critical analysis as literary texts. In bringing a literary eye to our writings, we have gained some insights into the underlying assumptions that have guided our writing. One of these is a concern with voice.
The Multi-Vocal Nature of Texts
Ethnographers have discussed and analyzed the mutli-vceal nature of the texts we produce. We may use the subject'S voice when we present our quotes. We may use a rich narrative voice in describing our settings and the behavior of our SUbjects. For the discussion we are likely to shift into a more detached, analytical voice that conveys the ambiance of science and scholarship. In the methods section, we have been used to employing the passive voice, to remove the sense of ourselves from the setting and text, so that objectivity could be conveyed. These different forms have been used to confer authority on an essay and to establish to an audience that what we are offering is scholarship as we recognize it according to the conventions of science.
Social researchers have realized that there are implicit assumptions about power in voice.
For example, anthropologists have become more sensitive to the dominance of gendered voices in society, in families, and in all interpersonal groups. Field researchers struggle with the conflict between their own voices and their subjects' voices. Traditionally, the mode has been to hide one's voice behind the text. The fact is, however, that the researcher'S voice-the author's voice-vis there. It is embedded in the representation of subjects, the selection of particular quotes, the determination of generic patterns and typologies. Traditionally, this is the voice that is not acknowledged.
Making Diverse Voices Accessible
One of the movements in postmodern qualitative research is to acknowledge the existence of these diverse voices and to make other voices more accessible. We can do this by letting subjects speak and write for themselves, to show how different people speak to, with and against each other, and to give subjects a commentary rather than always letting the researcher have the last word. Postrnodernism has also urged the more liberal use of the narrative form, freeing qualitative researchers to experiment creatively with diverse styles of writing.
Another postmodern influence on ethnographic writing has been an increase in attention to the location of the self. Some people have experimented with removing themselves from the text altogether. Susan Krieger, for instance, did this in The Mirror Dance (Krieger, 1983), where she presented a study of a Midwestern lesbian community through the members' own voices only, without any use of authorial narrative. The other tack is to acknowledge and Potentials and New Direetlons Continued on page 10
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 4
The Portraiture Approach to Social Inquiry:
The Writing of Dusk on the Campo By Sara Mansfield Taber
Chevy Chase, MD
Dusk on the Campos (Taber, 1991) is a portrait of life on the desolate, windswept sheep ranches of Southern Argentina. The book, created out of my Harvard doctoral thesis in comparative human development, consists of a melange of historical facts, descriptions of the barren Patagonia landscape, many individual portraits of sheep ranchers, social science conclusions regarding the changes in the lives of the Patagonians over the past century, and sketches of my personal responses to this dramatic land and people.
Portraits of Families
The purpose of my doctoral fieldwork was to collect data on families which would, narrowly, reveal how historical changes in schooling had affected the Patagonians' lives, and, more broadly, illuminate how the texture of the lives of these people, who had immigrated from the Basque Country in the 1880s, had changed over the last century (Taber, 1990).
Most important to me, during this project, was to "elicit. .. the images through which people see themselves" (Langess & Frank, 1981) and to draw my conclusions from the ground. To pursue this in-depth sharing of life experiences, I employed ethnographic--interview and participant observation--techniques and collected life histories with members of three or four generations of more than 15 families. As a complement to the general ethnographic approach of "hanging around and trying to understand what is going on," data collection was shaped very heavily by the anthropological life history (Langness & Frank, 1981), oral history (Thompson,
1978), self-reflexive anthropology (Briggs, 1970), and social science portraiture methodologies (Lightfoot, 1983).
The Portraiture Approach to Social Science Inquiry
The portraiture approach to social science inquiry, set forth by Sara Lawrence Lightfoot (1983) had a profound influence on this project. In her work, Lightfoot regards the actors in a setting as the primary "knowledge-bearers." Her aim is to convey their values and perceptions "from the inside out." My orientation during data collection, and also during analysis and writing, reflected Lightfoot's commitment to providing both subjective and objective viewpoints and a variety of perspectives.
Need for Both "Insiders:" and "Outsiders!" Perspectives
Lightfoot (1983) describes her work as being dedicated to "holistic, complex, contextual descriptions of reality" and to a "belief that environments and processes should be examined from the outsider's more distant perspectives and the insider's subjective views: that the truth lies in the integration of various perspecuves rather than in the choice of one as dominant and 'objective. '" I'Oll'trsUh,rA Continued on page 6
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 5
iii· . The Portraiture Approach by Sara Mansfield Taber
! i C<!ntinued from page 5
I i In composing the portraits for my thesis, J have shared Lightfoot's interest in creating
carefully-composed narratives in which sequencing, language, and other aesthetic considerations are taken into account, so as to evoke in readers empathic and critical responses. In this perspective, art was joined, in the writing, with the analysis of data derived from systematic observation and interviewing, to help readers gain the "Insiders" perspectives. I considered this one of my most important aims.
Dusk on the Campo represents a re-sorting of the field notes, interview data, social science findings, and personal impressions gathered during my thesis work. In writing this book, it has been my ardent hope to "bring alive," in a much fuller and more artistic way than was possible for my thesis, the sear Patagonian land and what it means to live there. In going beyond the thesis to write this book, my primary purpose was to honor the compassionate people who live in the hostile Patagonian sheep lands, to bring these valiant people to the larger world. In particular, I wanted to present the Patagonians to the portenos, the inhabitants of Buenos Aires, whose prejudices toward their out-lying compatriots are deep and sometimes misguided. I also wanted to give to North Americans a picture of Argentines that broadened their images of the place a stew pot of despots, wheeler-dealers, and cowboys.
Excerpts Give a Flavor of Portraiture
1. Strewn over the Patagonian steppe along with the bones are roofless shacks and
rotting vehicles, the leavings of families who tried to fashion a life in Patagoina and got their
fences knocked down, their shacks crushed, and their sheep frozen, and who finally surrendedered to hopelessness, went to town, or died. Set down among the bones and overturned trucks, a Jew wind-crumbled sheep stations remain inhabited. An old couple or a lone peon stands with the houses, watching the wind lash at the earth and wishing for a child's song.
2. On this gaunt flank of land, in the stampeding wind, bands of animals carry
out life, Sea lions and sea elephants, penguins and whales sport and fish along the coastline. On the soil, among the bristle bushes, gaunacos munch the thorns and hardy grasses,' Patagonian gray foxes trot, tuft to tuft, in search of soft-bellied birds and guinea pig-like cuis; pheasantlsh tlnamou forage, dust-bathe, and produce pea green eggs; Darwin's rhea or ostrich stroll: and maras-the local rabbit-like rodents-: and skunks, wild cats, and weasels make their rounds.
In stride with these animals ride the sheep men. With them, the men exchange blood and also milk.
Taber, Sara Mansfield. (1991). Dusk on the Campo: Ajaumey to Patagonia. New York: Holt. 295 pages. $19.95. Until September 1991, Taber was an assistant professor, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.
Dusk on the Campo Receives Critical Acclaim
Taber's Dusk on the Campo received raves in a recent Minneapolis Star Tribune review, Reviewer Dave Wood said, "I was impressed with the interviews, because each of the many interviewees speaks in a distinctive voice." He also said, "Throughout this wonderful book, Taber synthesizes her subjects' character with a poet's eye to simile."
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 6
Syracuse University Provides Advanced Training in Qualitative Methods For Ph.D. Students
By Jane F. Gilgun
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
While many qualitative researchers who also are professors at colleges and universities feel proud if their academic units offer one advanced course in qualitative research methods, some institutions of higher learning offer an entire series of advanced courses. The College of Education and the department of sociology at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. are just such academic units. These two units cross-list Ph. D. -level courses taught by an interdisciplinary team of five professors.
Students can choose between two different options in advanced training in qualitative methods. The first option is to go directly into the qualitative sequence, beginning with a one-semester course called Introduction to Qualitative Methods. Three additional advanced courses are required: a two-semester seminar on qualitative methods and one course on qualitative data analysis. which mainly involves learning Qualog, a computer program for analyzing qualitative data (For a description of Qualog, see Snyder. 1990). The second option is to take a two-semester Introduction to Research Methods, which includes 6 weeks on qualitative methods. After the first two introductory courses, students can chose between a two-course series of qualitative or quantitative seminars.
Advanced Seminars Center on Field Work Projects
Fieldwork projects are the heart of the advanced seminars. These projects often become the basis of dissertations. In the first seminar, the only assignments are fieldwork and one short reading per week, which includes five research proposals based on qualitative methods. Class time is devoted to presenting fieldnotes, discussing emerging ideas. and responses to field experiences. The professor reads all students' fieldnotes every week, a labor-intensive project.
In the second seminar, students continue their fieldwork and read one booklength qualitative study per week. many from the Chicago School of the 20's and early 30's and some more contemporary works. The first half of the class is spent discussing the readings and the second half involves student-led presentations based on their fieldwork experiences. Up to 25 Ph.D. students per year take the seminars. Professors who teach in this qualitative sequence are Sari Biklen, foundations of education; Bob Bogdan, education and sociology; Marge Duvault, sociology; Anne Shelly. computer sciences; and Steven Taylor, special education.
Students Produce Many Studies
Students and faculty from this program produce many studies, which are published in journals such as Journal of Family Issues. The Journal of Mental Health and Qualitative Sociology. A list of recent publications from the :"'V"'''''n~" group is on page 12.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2). Page 7
:1 Many Papers Using Qualitative Methods Ii to be Presented at NCFR
The biggest block ever of papers based on qualitative methods will be presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations to be held in Denver November 15-20. The papers are the following.
Friday, November 15, 7-8:30 pm, Denver Rosenblatt, Paul. Metaphors of Family Systems Theory
Troost, Kay Michael. Human Family Evolution
Saturday, November 16, 8:30-10 am, Terrace Richards, Lyn and Thomas Richards. Computing Grounded Theory? New
Developments in Qualitative Family Research
1-2:30 pm, Columbine
Baber, Kristine M. and Katherine R. Allen. Toward a Feminist Postmodernist
Construction of Women's Sexualities
Sunday, November 17, 1-2:15 pm, Plaza Level
Bock, Jane D. Understanding the Birds and the Bees: A Qualitative Examination of the Social Construction of Sexuality
2:30-3:45, Ballroom C
Jarrett, Robin L., Susan O. Murphy, Jane F. Gilgun, Robert S. Pickett, Margaret H.
Young, Jay D. Schvaneveldt, Gerald Handel. Symposium on Qualitative Methods in Family Research
4:00-5:15, Majestic Ballroom
Waiyaki, Nieri and Kianne K. Kieren. Managing Qualitative Family Research in a
Developing World Context
Gale, Jerry E. A Qualitative Study of Meaningful Moments in Therapy
Monday, November 18, 2:00-3:15, Plaza Level
Gilgun, Jane F. and Geraldine Kearse Brookins. Does Anybody Care? The Meanings of the Poverty of the Families of Origin of Three Incarcerated Men of Color
4:45-6:00 pm, Majestic Ballroom
Murphy, Susan 0, Videotaping Families at Home: Research Issues
Wiseman, Jacqueline P. Oualitative Methods for Family Research
4:45-6:00 pm, Plaza level
Beach, Alan, R. Lynn Coward, Lydia I. Marek, Dan M. Sandifer. Leaving Home: A
Qualitative Study of College Students Separating from Parents
Walker, Alexis J. and Katherine R. Allen. Positive Outcomes for Mothers and
Richards, Lyn and Jeanne Daly. Women's Experiences of Menopause: A Qualitative
Garwick, Anne E., Daniel Detzner, and Pauline G. Boss. Family Perceptions of Living 4
with Alzheimer's Disease
Wednesday, November 20, 8:00~9:30 am, Colorado
Engebretsen, Berv, Jacques Lempers, Dania Clark-Lernpers, William J. Doherty, Paula W. Dail. Symposium on Oualitative Research Methodology as an Intervention When Studying Indigent Families
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 8
---What's Going On in Denver----
Facilitating Change in Editorial Boards and 5-Minute Updates Patricia and Peter Adler to Address Qualitative Family Research Network at NCFR on Sunday Night
Patricia and Peter Adler, editors of the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, will be the guest speakers at the annual meeting of the Qualitative Family Research Network (QFRN), to be held Sunday, November 17, 6:45 to 8 pm in the Columbine Room, Radisson Hotel. Their topic is "The Characteristics of Qualitative Research Reports." (See Adler & Adler, p. 3, this lssue.) The OFRN meeting is part of the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations, to be held in Denver, November 15-20.
Part of the meeting will be devoted to five-minute updates on research members are conducting. We did this last year. It is a great way to see the breadth and variety of the research members are doing.
Peter and Patricia will discuss the characteristics of qualitative research reports, This is an important topic for qualitative researchers. Writing up qualitative research is difficult. There are no lock-step formulae for how to do it. Qualitative researchers of all experience levels look forward to discussing how to transform voluminous data into interpretatable research reports. This session also will be helpful to journal editors and reviewers for journals. Many qualitative researchers have manuscripts rejected by editorial boards, not because they do not write them correctly, but because reviewers and editors are not familiar with qualitative methods. We may strategize about how to fapilitate change in editorial boards.
Research and Theory Section Sponsors Symposium
on Qualitative Methods in Family Research
Qualitative Methods in Family Research, a Symposium sponsored by the Research and Theory Section, National Council on Family Relations, will be held on Sunday afternoon, 2:30-3:45 in Ballroom C, Radisson Hotel. Grounded theory, the ethnographic case study, the use of historical documents, and the multiple perspectives in qualitative family research are the topics.
The Symposium is multi-disciplinary, with presenters from social work, nursing, sociology, and family studies. Presenters are Jane F. Gilgun, University of Minnesota; Susan O. Murphy, San Diego State; Robin L. Jarrett, Loyola University of Chicago; Robert S. Pickett, Syracuse University; Jay D. Schvaneveldt and Margaret H. Young, Utah State University. Handel, City College of New York, is the Presider.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 9
,:::;:: ,::. '.::::.' : ':.,": '. ,: : '_ " .. :::,,: . .. .
i Ii %~~g;tt.;~:; m~a:::tt~:' ~~::::~.:,:,:!~~" OIaYMO, 197')
1.1 such as Carolyn Ellis and David Brown. Ellis' writings on systematic sociological introspection
IIi! . (see Ellis, 1991) urge researchers to delve into their own experience to find a source of
ii: meaning. She does this in her work, Final Negotiations (Ellis, in progress), where she
::i describes and analyzes her late husband's gradual death and the evolving nature of its meaning
/1/ for both her and himself.
ii; Also in this tradition is the work of Brown (cf. Brown, 1991a; 1991b). He has delineated
the role of the "Professional-Ex," one who capitalizes on their former deviance by becoming accredited as a counselor to assist the rehabilitation of others.' Drawing on his years of alcoholism, recovery, and experience as a state-licensed alcohol counselor, as well as interviews with eating disorder, drug, and other types of counselors, Brown reaches a deep, intuitive glimpse into the more existential nature of the self and the social relations and transformations such people experience.
Finding OUT Own Muse
These are some of the new directions in qualitative research. Their effect is to push the boundaries of qualitative research further away from the mainstream. Rather than aiding the acceptability of our work to generalist outlets, these trends move us in more deeply felt, but radical directions. Yet we must carve our own path and find our own muse. We ask fundamentally different questions from the positivists, and the answers are complementary, but different. Qualitative methods give us broad knowledge of family and society, but not in similar veins to the knowledge produced by positivists. As such, we must not let our methods be judged by the epistemological standards of positivists. Yet at the same time, these new directions in qualitative research make our work more accessible to a broader, non-academic audience. This is a critical dimension of our future. If we are to make our findings meaningful, then we cannot hide them in a scientific terminology that derives its authority from being incomprehensible and turgid. The vast majority of the public thinks like qualitative researchers. This is our untapped, potential audience that we Can reach if we unchain ourselves from the shackles of positivism.
Qualitative Family Research
Volume 5, Number 2 November 1991
Qualitative Family Research is a publication of the Qualitative Family Research Network, a focus group of the Research and Theory Section, National Council on Family Relations. Unsolicited articles; news items, reviews of books and articles all are warmly welcome. Send correspondence to Jane F. Gilgun, Editor, Qualitative Family Research, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota, 224 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Phone: 612/624-0082.
Members of the Steering Committee of the QFRN are Katherine Allen, Virginia Tech;
Kerry Daly, University of Guelph; and Jane Gilgun, University of Minnesota. Nominations for the steering committee are open at any time. The requirement for steering committee membership is to be heading a significant project for the Network. Reclaiming our Heritage and expansion of our understanding of qualitative methods in family research are on-going themes for QFR. The Network welcome members from all academic disciplines. If you would like to contribute to the Network in any way, please contact members of the steering committee.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 10
Qualitative Methods in Family Research AvaiJabl.e From Sage in Spring or Summer 1992
By Jane F. Gilgun. University of Minnesota
Kerry Daly. University of GL!elph
Gerald Handel, City College of New York
Qualitative Methods in Family Research, a book developed through the Qualitative Family Research Network, will be available in late spring or summer of 1992. Edited by Jane Gilgun, Kerry Daly, and Gerald Handel, the book is 14 chapters long and wiIJ be published by Sage. Chapters were written by members of the Network. As a whole, the book addresses some of the most significant contemporary questions about the conduct of qualitative family research.
Book Is First of lis Kind
This book is the first of its kind=the first ever on qualitative methods in family research. It is a response to the need for training in qualitative family research. The intended audiences are researchers already doing qualitative research, researchers trained in quantitative and positivistic traditions and who want to learn more about qualitative approaches, professors who teach methods courses and want to include content on qualitative family research, students who are exploring ways of answering their own research questions, and members of editorial boards of journals . which have published primarily positivistic and quantitative research but are open to additional ways of doing research on families.
Diversity of Families Well-Represented
The authors of the chapters represent several different disciplines: family studies, sociology, nursing, social work, and public health. Like the authors of the chapters, the intended audience is from a variety of disciplines. The chapters of this book reflect the diversity of qualitative approaches to the study of families and the diversity of families' experiences.
Focus on Method and Substantive Findings
Since this book is intended to teach readers how to do several different types of qualitative family research, each chapter devotes a considerable amount of time discussing method. In order to help readers understand what types of findings the methods can produce, each chapter also provides substantive results of each study. In constrast to the often sterile discussions in conventional methods textbooks, the approach of this proposed text brings research processes to life.
The text is organized by method. Each of the three principal methods of
qualitative research are represented: the interview. observation, and document analysis. In addition, there are chapters on combined qualitative methods and combined qualitative and quantitative methods.
i·.· With a dual focus on method and findings, this book provides readers with
I.i .••..•..••... i.·· opportunities to make informed decisions about whether and how qualitative methods
1 fit their research, teaching, and editorial agendas.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 11
Recent Publications of the Syracuse Group
Bogdan, Robert, & Taylor, Steven J. (l990). looking at the bright side: A positive approach to qualitative policy and evaluation research. Qualitative Sociology, 13,183-192.
lutfiyya, Zana Marie (1990). Affectionate bonds: What we can learn from listening to friends. Syracuse, N.V.: Center on Human Policy.
lutfiyya, Zana Marie (1991). Personal relationships and social networks: Facl/itating the participation of individuals with disabilities in community life. Syracuse, N.V.: Center on Human Policy.
Racino. Julie Ann. (1991). Organizations in Community living: Supporting People with Disabilities. The Journal of Mental Health Administration, 18, 51-59.
Traustadottir, Rannveig. (l991). Supported employment: Issues and resources.
Syracuse, N.Y.: Center on Human Policy.
Traustadottir, Rannveig. (1991). Mothers who care: Gender, disability, and family life. Journal of Family Issues. 12, 211-228.
Walker, Pam (1991). Where there is a waY,there is not always a will: Technology, public policy, and the school integration of children who are technologyassisted. CHC. 20. 68-14.
Walker, Pam (1990). Resources on integrated recreation/leisure opportunities for children and teens with developmental disabilities. Syracuse, N.V.: Center on Human Policy. 200 Huntington Hall, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 13244
References Cited in This Issue
Adler, Patricia A., Adler. Peter. (19B7). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Briggs. J. (l970). Never in anger. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Brown, J. David. (1991 al. The professional ex-: An alternative for exiting the deviant career. Sociological Quarterly, 32, 219-30.
Brown, J. David. 11991 b). Preprofessional socialization and identity transformation:
The case of the professional ex-, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. 20, 157-78.
Ellis, Carolyn. (1991). Sociological introspection and emotional experience.
Symbolic Interaction, 14, 23-50.
Ellis, Carolyn. Final Negotiations. In preparation. Department of Sociology,
University of South Florida, Tampa. .
Glaser. B.G., & Strauss, A. (1961). The discovery of grounded theory. New York:
Hayano, David. (1979). Auto-ethnography: Paradigms, problems and prospects.
Human Organization, 38, 99-104.
Krieger, Susan. (1983). The mirror dance. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. langness, l., & Frank, G. (1981). Lives: An anthropological approach to biography. New York: Chandler & Sharp.
lightfoot. Sara. L. (1983). The good high school: Portraits of character and culture.
New York: Basic Books.
Reinharz, Shulmitz, and Rowles, G.D. (Eds.). (19881. Qualitative gerontology. New York: Springer.
Snyder. Susan U. Another versatile mainframe program: Qualog. Qualitative Family Research, 4 (1). 3.
Taber, Sara Mansfield. (19901. A history of schooling in Southern Argentina sheep ranches. Journal of Family History, 15 (3J.
Taber, Sara Mansfield. (1991). Dusk on the Campo: A journey to Patagonia. New Vork: Holt.
Thompson, P. (l918). The voice of the past: Oral history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 12
Open Your Checkbook and Let Us Know What You Think We're Worth
Since the May 1991 Qualitative Family Research, 27 people have joined or renewed their membership in the Qualitative Family Research Network. Keep those checks coming. We very much need your money to produce this newsletter. So, if you haven't sent your renewal check, or if you are thinking about joining the Network, do it now. We aU are part of a major shift in thinking about and doing research. Our mutual interests and the interests of families are furthered by this newsletter.
If You're Not Satiifjed, Cancel Your Subscription
After reading what we've put together for this issue, think for a minute about whether any other piece of writing you've read lately has been as informative as this newsletter. If they answer is no, please send in your cancellation for your subscription. If your answer is yes, then send in what you think Qualitative Family Research is worth to you and your work. The following persons have renewed their membership or joined the Network. Patricia Bell-Scott, Lew Bennett, Roni Berger, Rosemary Bliezner, Robert Bogdan, Patricia Esherg, Jerry Gale, Joanne Grabinski, Henry Grunebaum, Linda Haas, Barbara Hanson, Judith Kendall, Elizabeth Morgan, Anne Mahoney, Nancy Naples, Juanne Nancarrow-Clarke, Einat Peled, Agnes Reidman, Christine Riley, Paul Rosenblatt, Margarete Sandelowskl, Barbara Sosnowitz, Jill Suitor, University of Alberta, Alexis Walker, B. Lee Walker, Jane Wolf-Smith.
--An International Conference on Interactionist Research-The Quest for Meaning and Method is Theme
The Seventh Annual Interactionist Research Forum will be held on May 22- 25, 1992, at Carleton University, Ottowa. This year's theme is "The Quest for Method and Meaning." The focus of the conference is on symbolic interactionism: theories, methods, and data. Papers will explore the connections between symbolic interactionism and post-modernism, feminist analysis, generic concepts, interpretive sociology and anthropology, research ethics, and applied research.
Attendees report getting intellectual "highs" from the conference, called by some "unforgettable. It Registration and accommodations are reasonable because the Canadian government subsidizes the conference. For registration information, write to Flo Andrews, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, KIS 5B6. It's too late to submit abstracts for this year's conrerence, but the deadline for 1993 is September 1992. Abstracts must be accompanied by an academic curriculum vitae. Save the date!
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 13
i. I···· Conference on Qualitative Methods
liD Social Work Practice Research Held in August
Qualitative Methods in Social Work Practice Research, an invitation-only conference held August 23-25, 1991, at the Rockefeller Institute of Government, State University of New York at Albany, attracted participants from throughout the United States and Canada. Tile conference opened with a report from David Austin, Chair of the National Institute of Health's Task Force on Social Work Research, the organization which sponsored the conference. Austin was optimistic about the present and future of social work research. Ann Hartman, editor of the flagship journal Social Work, encouraged social work researchers to use a broad range of research methods in their quest to understand social problems and to bring about social change.
Martha Helneman-Piper, a private practitioner, stated in her keynote address that an outmoded scientific imperative has restricted knowledge building in social work. She showed how heuristic can help develop useful knowledge. In his closing comments, Austin announced that NIMH will be issuing a request for proposals for centers for social work research, which would be interdisciplinary in nature. It is not clear whether NIMH would entertain ideas of qualitative approaches be sponsored through these centers. The prevailing wisdom is that man branches of NIMH will not fund qualitative proposals. Watch for an up-coming book based on conference papers.
AMFT Makes Plans for A Pre-Confereoce Institute 00 Qualitative Therapy Research
In June 1992, the annual meeting of The American Family Therapy Association will hold a one-day preconference workshop on qualitative research. The workshop is in the planning stages and, therefore, the format is still open. Ideas include taking a transcript of part of a therapy session and have two different researchers analyzed the excerpt using two different methods. Puzzles to be addressed are whether clinician-researcher combinations possible? If you have ideas you would like to contribute, contact Ron Chenail, Director, Institute for Systemic Therapy, Nova University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314. Phone: 407/424-1570.
QUiG CONFERENCE SCHEDULED FOR JANUARY
Save January 2-4, 1992 for the Fifth International Qualitative Research in Education Conference to be held at the University of Georgia, Athens. Keynote speakers are Alan Peshkin, professor of education, University of Illinois--Champaign-Urbana and Lous Heshusiu, associate professor, York University, Toronto, Ontario. Write to QUIG 9201-0201, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
Articles or Note
Allen, Katherine R., & Baber, Kristine M. (In press). Ethical and epistemological tensions in applying a post-modem perspective to feminist research. Psychowgy of Women Quarterly, 16.
Andrews, Flo. (1991). Controlling motherhood. Observations of the culture of the Lal.eche League, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 28, 84-98.
Gale, Jerry, & Newfield, Neal. (In press). A conversation analysis of a solution-focused marital therapy session. Journal of Marital & Family 111erapy .
Morse, Janice M. (1991). On the evaluation of qualitative proposals. Qualitative Health Research, 1, 147-151.
Sands, Roberta, & Nuccio, Kathleen. (In press). Postmodern feminist theory and social work.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2). Page 14
THE QUALITATIVE FAMILY RESEARCH NETWORK
Yes, I want to __ join or __ continue my membership in the Qualitative Family Research Network. I've enclosed $4 __ or more __ for membership and my subscription to QUALITATIVE FAMILY RESEARCH.
Please make checks payable to Katherine Allen, treasurer, QFRN, Virginia Tech, Family and Child Development, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
CHANGE OF ADDRESS
I have changed my address. Please send QUALITATIVE FAMILY RESEARCH to my new address:
NAME ~ __
Send address changes to Jane Gilgun, editor, Qualitative Family Research, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota, 224 Church Street, S.B., Minneapolis, MN 55455.
The Qualitative Family Research Network (QFRN) is a focus group of the Research and Theory Section, National Council on Family Relations. The QFRN is an interdisciplinary organization of about 375 persons who either do qualitative research or want to learn more about qualitative research. The activities of the Network are to publish Qualitative FamiJy Research twice a year, meet annually as a group, and to promote the development of qualitative family research.
Qualitative Family Research 5(2), Page 15
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.