What Is Poverty ?  Two Ways Of Povert  Measurement Of Poverty  Poverty Head Count Index  Types of poverty  What Is Poverty Line ?  Causes Of Poverty  Measures to Reduce Poverty  Efforts to alleviate poverty  Outlook for poverty alleviation Government Programmes For Poverty Alleviation

is fear for the future. The world bank describes poverty as: ´Poverty is hunger. Poverty is not having a job. However.µ . Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is lack of shelter. living one day at a time. poverty is more. clothing and shelter. much more than just not having enough money. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read.What Is Poverty ? Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food.


Two Ways Of Poverty 1)Relative Poverty 2)Absolute Poverty .

an Average Middle Class Person is Poor when compared to the Upper Middle Class Person. or of one Individual vis a vis the Others. who in turn. may be poorer than the Richer Person and so on. . ‡ For Example.1) Relative Poverty Relative Poverty refers to the Income or Asset Position of one Class or Group of People in comparison with the other Classes or Groups. ‡ The essential point here is that Poverty of One is Relative to the Richness of the other.

Health. Housing.Absolute Poverty It is associated with a Minimum Level of Living or Minimum Consumption Requirements of Food. etc. . Clothing. ‡ All those People who fail to Secure Income or Assets to have access to even these Minimum Consumption Requirements are classified as ¶Poor·. ‡ Is relevant for the Less Developed Countries.

e. . ‡ INCOME METHOD ‡ This method is used by the government while distributing food through PDS at the local level. in rupees. ‡ The total equivalent amount is considered as the poverty line. ‡ The food value is converted into calories. ‡ The caloric value of food is then converted into the money value i.Measurement Of Poverty ‡ EXPENDITURE METHOD ‡ Under this the minimum food requirements for survival is estimated. ‡ Under this a poverty line is fixed by the government. ‡ All the families whose total income is less than the poverty line fixed by the government are considered as BPL.

Poverty Head Count Index .

Mental Poverty 4. Bodily Poverty 3. Spiritual Poverty 6. Societal Poverty . Cultural Poverty 5.Types of poverty 1. Economic Poverty 2. Political Poverty 7.

.What Is Poverty Line ? ‡Poverty Line is drawn on the basis of Expenditure that is necessary to Secure the Minimum Acceptable Living Standard for Work & Efficiency. Poverty Line is drawn on the basis of a Minimum Necessary Nutritional Standard expressed in terms of Calories Per Day. Food is the most Basic Requirement. ‡ Since.thus.

Government defined a Person with an Income of Less than Rs. the Minimum Calories intake of a Person has been put at 2.559 (Urban) per month as living below Poverty Line. the Cost of Minimum Consumption Requirements of Food providing the minimum calories is calculated at prevailing Price.400 in Rural Area & 2. ‡ To convert this Calorie intake based Poverty Line into a Monetary Measure of Poverty.In India.100 in Urban Areas. .368 (Rural) & Rs. ‡ Thus.

Causes Of Poverty ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Caste System Heavy Pressure Of Population Unemployment Illiteracy India·s Economic Policy .

Caste explanations of poverty fail to account for the urban/rural divide. Haviland. Others. Using the UN definition of poverty 65% of rural forward castes are below the poverty line.Caste System According to S. and continues to segregate Dalits. have noted the steady rise and empowerment of the Dalits through social reforms and the implementation of reservations in employment and benefits. . M. casteism is widespread in rural areas. Michael. Dalits constitute the bulk of poor and unemployed. According to William A. however.

( India is the 2nd most populated country in the world). India became only the second country in the world after China to cross the one billion mark. India's estimated population to be Pressure Of Population The population in India as at 0:00 hours on 1st March 2001 stood at 1.154. in July 2007. With this. .247 persons.

e.India's population rose by 21.. rising from 927 as at the 1991 Census. Persons Males Females 1.34 % between 1991 2001. number of females per thousand males) of population was 933.247 531.169 .078 495. The sex ratio (i.

1.150. the population of India will be largest in the world estimated to be around 1. Currently. Population of India at the time of Independence was only 350 million. Current Population of India in 2010 .Current Population of India in 2010 is around 1.350 million .15 billion) Population of India in 1947 was .000.000 (1.000 (1.15 billion) people.53 billion.150. There has been rapid increase in Indian population in the last 60 years.000. By 2030. So Indian Population has increased more than three times. India is second largest country in the world after China in terms of population.

. Those who are fit to Work but do not want to Work & hence do not actively seek Work are not included among the Unemployed Persons. Fail to Secure Work or Activity which gives them Income or Means of Livelihood.Unemployment Unemployment refers to the situation where the Persons who are able to Work & Willing to Work.

Illiteracy There is a close connection between illiteracy and poverty at all levels--global. and poverty is cyclical in families. and these illiterate people are forced to stay on the lowest levels of the work force and thus remain in poverty. Poverty breeds illiteracy by forcing children to drop out of school to work. . national. and subnational. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to the cycle. the countries with the lowest levels of literacy are also the poorest economically. Thus illiteracy in turn reinforces poverty.

every 5-year program has a broad antipoverty component that includes a minimum needs program. minimum wages. an intensified and effective employment program. specific development programs. work toward a national income policy. and equal status for women. and legislation promoting tenancy reform and surplus land distribution. writing. and to raise awareness of societal needs.In order to break the cycle of illiteracy. In India and in some other developing countries. and arithmetic. an increase in the flow of real income. to equip them with some income-generating skills. a multipronged program against poverty must be carried out. Literacy education has a specific role--to train illiterate adults in reading. . an assets redistribution program.

the average income in India was not much different from South Korea in 1947.317.720. $13. $770 for South Korea.India·s Economic Policy In 1947. and $15. and $936 for Taiwan. India was left as one of the world's poorer countries. At the same time. the average annual income in India was $439.818. the numbers were $1. .259. $3. but South Korea became a developed country by 2000s. (numbers are in 1990 international Maddison dollars) In other words. compared with $619 for China. By 1999.

. restrictive state (License Raj) ‡Inability to sustain social expenditures ‡Macro instability. indeed crisis.India had started out in the 1950s with: ‡High growth rates ‡Openness to trade and investment ‡A promotional state ‡Social expenditure awareness ‡Macro stability But ended the 1980s with: ‡Low growth rates (Hindu rate of growth) ‡Closure to trade and investment ‡A license-obsessed.

Measures to Reduce Poverty ‡Agriculture & other Rural Vocations should be rapidly developed so as to Eradicate Rural Poverty. ‡ Village and Small Industries should be developed to create greater Employment both in Rural & Urban Areas. ‡ Programmes should be implemented that directly target the Poor & help them increase their Income & Consumption. .

Persons belonging to Poor Families must be provided Employment. Goods consumed by the Poor should not be Taxed. . Goods required by the Poor must be Subsidised.‡Income Inequalities should be reduced: Labour Legislation should ensure better Wages. etc. Free Health Care & Education should be provided to the Poor. Incentives. ‡Rapid Growth of Population must be controlled & Population Growth Rate brought down through Family Planning. Education.

. sustained. govt has initiated. and refined various planning schemes to help the poor attain self sufficiency in food production. available throughout the country as poor spend about 80 percent of their income on food. Probably the most important initiative has been the supply of basic commodities.Efforts to alleviate poverty Since the early 1950s. particularly food at controlled prices.

Increasing stress on education. are also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty. Poverty alleviation is expected to make better progress in the next 50 years than in the past.Outlook for poverty alleviation Eradication of poverty in India is generally only considered to be a long-term goal. as a trickle-down effect of the growing middle class. . reservation of seats in government jobs and the increasing empowerment of women and the economically weaker sections of society.

. but the distribution of wealth is not at all even. The growth of the middle class (which was virtually non-existent when India became a free nation in August 1947) indicates that economic prosperity has indeed been very impressive in India.It is incorrect to say that all poverty reduction programmes have failed.

Government Programmes For Poverty Alleviation ‡Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana (PMGY) ‡Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) ‡Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana(SGSY) ‡Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) ‡Jawahar Gram Sammridhi Yojana (JGSY) ‡National Food For Work Programme ‡Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) The Swaran Jayanti Shahkari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) .

‡ Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Major Scheme for construction of Houses to be given to the Poor. 2000 to provide Road Connectivity through good all weather roads to all the eligible unconnected habitations in the Rural Areas by the end of Tenth Plan.Government Programmes For Poverty Alleviation ‡Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana (PMGY) Launched in December. . Free of Cost.

. 2002. Creation of Durable Community. Aims at i. Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) & Jawahar Gram Sammridhi Yojana (JGSY) were merged since April. Food Security iii.‡Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana(SGSY) Launched in 2001. Providing Wage Employment in Rural Areas ii. Social & Economic Assets.

‡ Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) Launched in 2001 to facilitate the construction and upgradation of Dwelling Units for the Slum Dwellers & Provides a Healthy & Enabling Urban Environment through Community Toilets.‡National Food For Work Programme  Launched in November. . 2004 in 150 backward Districts of the Country with the objective of providing more Opportunities of Wage Employment & ensuring certain Minimum Nutritional Levels for Rural Poor.

The Swaran Jayanti Shahkari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)  Came into operation from December. Urban Basic Services Programmes (UBSB) & Prime Minister Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme(PMIUPEP). 1997 submerging the three earlier Urban Poverty Alleviation Programmes viz.. . Seeks to provide Employment to the Urban Unemployed or Under Employed Poor by encouraging the setting up of Self employment Ventures or Provisions of Wage Employment. Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY).

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