P. 1
The Neolithic Period

The Neolithic Period

|Views: 102|Likes:
Published by rupart duckington

More info:

Published by: rupart duckington on Dec 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





The Neolithic Period 4000 BC Farmers Céide fields, co.

Mayo Pets – cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, dogs, etc Houses – rectangular in shape Large poles in ground Thatched roof Wattle and daub Fire in centre Cooked on spits Work & food – small fields, low walls Mattocks or wooden ploughs Wheat & barley Bread & porridge Saddle stone Animals Clothes – animal skins Wool Tools & weapons – axes, knives, scrapers, arrowheads & spears Polished stone Bone needles Jewellery Pottery Burial customs – megaliths Court cairn: pottery, cremated bodies, upright stones on entrance passage, burial chamber covered with stones, 400 Portal dolmen: 3 large upright stones, dolmen or capstone, portalentrance, 200 Passage tombs: 300 Cemeteries in Boyne Valley, Co. Meath Newgrange, Dowth, Knowth Corbelled roof In about 4000 BC new people came to Ireland. These people were Ireland’s first farmers. Te most important sites are Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath, and the Céide fields in Co. Mayo. They knew how to grow crops, and they had domesticated animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and dogs. Neolithic houses were usually rectangular in shape. Timber poles were driven into the ground. The roof was thatched with straw from wheat and barley, or with reeds from a river. The walls were built of upright timber planks, or else of wattle and daub. Inside the house a stone hearth with a spit was built in the centre of the floor. Ireland’s first farmers created small fields surrounded by low walls. The farmers tilled the land with mattocks or with wooden ploughs. They grew wheat and barley, which

were used to make bread and porridge. The grain was ground on a saddle stone. Apart from the grain, the people also got food from their animals, for example when pigs were killed for the winter. Animal skins were used for clothes, and scrapers were used to clean the skins. But wool was also spun and woven to make woollen clothes. The tools and weapons were made of stone – axes, knives, scrapers, arrowheads and spears. But now the stone was polished. Bone needles were used for stitching hides. Jewellery, in the form of beads and pendants, was made from stone, wood and bone. Pottery was made by hand, using rings of clay. The Neolithic people built tombs called megaliths to honour their dead. Almost 400 court cairns were built, mainly in the northern half of Ireland. The ashes of the bodies were placed in pots in the chamber. Large upright stones formed the entrance. The passage and chamber were covered by a “cairn” or mound of smaller stones. Portal dolmens get their name from the large stones from which they were formed. Three large upright stones supported a capstone or dolmen. Two large upright stones acted as portals, or door supports, while the third stone was at the back. Almost 200 of these portal tombs have so far been found. Over 300 passage tombs have been found, mostly in the northern part of the country. The most famous of the passage graves are in Boyne Valley, Newgrange, Dowth and Knowth. B = new point I = key word

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->