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Chapter III REFORM AND REVOLUTION

THE CAMPAIGN FOR REFORMS:
Role of the Middle Class

Introduction
‡ The unjust execution of the 3 Martyr Priests Gomez, Burgos, Zamora ‡ Led to a new era The Reform Movement ‡ Propagandists waged their war againts Spain but it failed. However, its failure led to the founding of the revolutionary KATIPUNAN.

The Role of the Middle Class

Filipino Middle Class
‡ 19th century rise of the middle class ‡ Non-existent in previous centuries ‡ Composed of Spanish and Chinese mestizos. ‡ Became leaders in finance and education.

2 Spanish Classes Consideration
‡ Peninsulares - Spaniards born in Spain ‡ Insulares -Spaniards born in the Philippines

‡ Natives (The pure Filipino blood) were invariable called Indios . ‡ Natives were never called Filipinos until Governor-General Basilio Augustin called for loyalty and aid for Indios in 1898. ‡ Before 1898, the Filipinos were called indios and Insulares Filipinos.

‡ The members of the middle class started the movement for reforms but, the spanish look down uponthem while natives look upon them with suspicion the natives having been, and continued to be, the victimes of mestizos arrogant and insolent mannerisms.

‡ It was thus that the Filipino Middle Class and the natives came to work hand in hand, with the former naturally leading the latter by the hand.

The Rise of the Middle Class
‡ 1896, the chance of the middle class to show their political color when General Carlos Maria de la Torre became the governor. ‡ The middle class saw an ally in him for de la Torre showed his democratic tendencies when he dismissed the palace halberdiers and lived simply within his means

Halberdiers
‡ A weapon of the 15th and 16th centuries having an axlike blade and a steel spike mounted on the end of a long shaft.

‡ July 12, 1896 - Middle Class marched to the governor s place and serenaded him.

List of well-known Mestizo and Insulare serenaders of the period:

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Maximo Paterno Angel Garchitorena Joaquin Pardo de Tavera Andres Nieto Manuel Genato

‡ From then on, the middle class led on the reform movement which was temporarily silenced during the decade from 1872 to 1882, when the Filipino intelligentsia, a segment of the middle class, took over the leadership from the wealthy segment.