This chapter presents studies on specific research studies and is meant to supplement the conceptual review of literature given in Chapter II. It is structured into the following subthemes: A. Environmental Cognitionleducation B. Curriculum Contextualisation Studies C. Multigrade Teaching on Small Communities D. Community and Outdoor Education (General) A. ENVIRONMENTAL COGNlTlONlEDUCATlON Piaget has shown that mathematical and scientific knowledge cannot be acquired simply by reading books or merely from the words of the teacher. They have to be 'constructed' by the child through his own experience of the world and applying his mental schemata. For young children experience with concrete material is necessary for constructing the schemata as well as the scientific concepts. But working in limited closed settings Piaget probably underestimated the ability of young children to do certain tasks. For example, Piaget and lnhelder claimed that young children possessed only topological concepts in space, i.e., concepts that allow the encoding of locations as next to one another, but do not entail a full reference system; only in later childhood is the individual said to acquire a Euclidean system, metric in nature, and based on a full reference system. On the other hand, the en,vironmental cognitivists (Moore and Golledge, 1976, Spencer et al., 1993) have shown that experience with the environment helps children to acquire many of the competencies much earlier than what Piaget theorised. Some studies on these lines are cited below. Some of these studies go the preschool years; yet they are cited in
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order to focus the latest view that the capacity of primary school children to learn certain aspects especially in mathematics, science and geography has been grossly underestimated. Hart (1979) showed that environmental knowledge was directly related to individual children's activity range. Parents allowed boys greater freedom than girls and therefore they were much more knowledgeable about their neighbourhoods. Develin (1 976) found that experienced travellers were able to build a set of expectations about a typical town and could use these expectations to understand a novel town better. This suggests that an individual's own past experience may generate increased sensitivity. Hence wide individual differences may be expected in the effect of cognitive style, training and experience on the individual's environmental cognition.

Landan et al (1984) showed through a series of experiments that a 2-yearold congenitally blind child has spatial knowledge. On the basis of the results, they challenge Piaget's characterisation of the spatial knowledge of the pre-school child. They claim that their blind subject demonstrated a Euclidean frame of reference. Martin (1976) has claimed that the very young child has full Euclidean knowledge and challenged the view hat topological representation precedes the Eucledean. The results obtained from the experiments conducted by Laurenduau and Pinard (1970) do not support the view that topological concepts develop prior to Euclidean and projective concepts in the child's representation of space. Kato (1984) concludes on the basis of experiments that by the age of four, children can recognise shapes on the basis of Euclidean features.
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Coben and Coben (1982) compared children walking through an environment with and without interaction with landmarks, and found that children developed a more accurate map when the activity was given a theme that functionally links with landmarks. As soon as mobility permits, the infant explores novel spaces in the context of a secure base (the parent) and thus acquires a huge amount of environmental learning. Rogoff and Waddell (1982) argue that along with acquiring spatial information, children also develop skills in making strategic use of the contextual organisation of the array of locations. This use is tacit and unreflective in pre-school years, but becomes deliberate in the early school years. Wellman, Somerville and Haake (1979 a) showed that even 2-year-old children were capable of sustained logical searches and their performance improved with age. The type of task as well as the age will determine whether he adopts a spatial-associative search strategy (based on knowledge of locations strongly associated with the object or event), a general strategy (a procedure for exhaustively covering the space, and monitoring which locations have been checked and which are still to be checked), or a logical search strategy (procedures that select from a potential general search just those locations that suit the immediate task. The logical search requires much more specific memory of events, order and sequences and the ability to use logical inferences to prioritise the search and to eliminate some possible locations. Wellman, Somerville and Haake (1979 b) have found that the increasing use, with age, of the more efficient search procedures can be related to increase in the child's abilities both in memory and logical deduction. Complex heuristics are also developed as the child grows older. During the first year of life, infants do not show an ability to relate their own movements to the knowledge of spatial layout and their own position within
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it. During the second year, they begin to relate their own movements to their knowledge of target locations. Strategies for self and object location improve with age. By three years of age, he child has achieved route

reversibility and is beginning to develop a more complex cognitive mapping of a whole area. As the child grows, relational and dimensional terms may be used differently with different objects in a systematic and sophisticated way. Smith, Cooney and McCord (1986) showed that the categorical use of relational terms involves "a rich and intricate knowledge system," and that it takes considerable time to acquire and organise he relevant information about the world. According to Acredolo (1978), infants begin to use landmarks by about six months for predicting future positions of a moving object. A year later, the young child shows evidence of a grasp of the mutually exclusive nature of earlier and later positions. Harris (1985) attributes inaccurate performance of an infant to hislher not being sure how many objects he or she is dealing with; an expectation of lawful relationships as well as the use of number skills seems to play a part. Although very young infants are capable of discriminating between arrays consisting of one, two or three items, the concepts of subtractions and addition - which are essentially transformations of an array by the displacement or replacement of an item - become available to the child only at the period when he or she is able to work with the displacement of objects in space. West, Morris and Nichol (1985) showed that spatial knowledge can affect performance on a broad spectrum of cognitive tasks, which, in turn, may have implications for later academic performance.
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Kosslyn (1973), working on collateral development of spatial cognition and imagery presents experimental evidence to suggest that mental images containing spatial content preserve relative metric distances between places, objects or features; that imagery facilitates the learning of both verbal and pictorial material and plays a major role in the recall process and in solving problems by inference. Acredolo, Pick and Olsen (1975) showed how familiarity with an environment interacts with the complexity and differentiation of that environment as determinant of the child's memory for spatial location. The level of competence in environmental cognition acquired through spatial experience will interact with the characteristics of a specific environment (its structural, organisational, social and affective features) to determine what particular image the individual develops of a setting. Dawizch and Spencer (1984) showed that children's memory for a route could be significantly improved when their attention was drawn to appropriate landmarks along the way. Rather than viewing children's developing knowledge in fixed stages, it may be more appropriate to consider children's ability in terms of their ability to apply efficient strategies for selecting appropriate information from the environment. Even young children can rernember a lot about a simple route after one exposure to it, but they may be less proficient than older children or adults,

if they do not realise the benefits of noting effective information as they move through the environment. King (1992) investigated two aspects of spatial ability of students in a three-dimensional logo environment: (1) the differences in reasoning between students with high spatial ability and those with low spatial ability, and the inferability of these differences using student interactions with a three-dimensional computer graphic programme; (2) the differences in spatial strategies of the students as they engage in the threedimensional graphing activities. The students were observed during lessons in three-dimensional graphing using a programme. They attempted tasks such as representation of a rectangular solid, a tetrahedron, and a triangular prism. They also completed a series of lessons designed to test both their spatial and their problem-solving abilities. The observable results included: 1. There is, in environments such as the ones studied, a forced integration of verballsymbolic skills in order to construct the desired graphic representation 2. It was necessary for the subject to have verbal/symbolic skills in order to construct the desired graphic representation. 3. There was a direct relationship between the amount of anticipationlreflection and students' success in completing the task. Acredolo and Boulter (1984), investigating the effects of hierarchical organisation on children's judgements of distance and direction, found that children remembered the relative position of two places in different areas of a map by reference to the relative location of those areas. They interpreted the findings in Piagetian terms, by suggesting that the children in their experiment were particularly sensitive to the topological properties of the maps and that the topological notions of enclosure, belongingness and similarity may have been operating to distort the preoperational children's memory for distance and direction. Stevens and Coupe (1978) had earlier found that the same distortions occurred in adult's memory for similar maps, indicating that adults also could be limited to a topological understanding of space. Cadwallader (1979), investigating problems in cognitive distance and their implications for behavioural mapping, showed that distance estimates are both intransitive and non-commutative. Subjects are quite likely to say that distance 1 is longer than distance 2; 2 is longer than 3; and 3 is longer than 1. They are also capable of estimating the distance from A to B as being different from B to A. The intransitivity and non-commutativity of estimates indicates that people 'do not posses cognitive representations of their physical world that have the mathematical properties of metric space'.
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Any internalised spatial representation of the physical world will be highly complex. A few studies were conducted to find an answer to the question, "What factors about the environment might facilitate environmental information processing?" Weisman (1981), working on evaluating architectural legibility: way finding with built environment, examined the relationship

between ease of orientation and four architectural variables: interior signing, the possibility of seeing outdoors; architectural differentiation between the areas of a building; and overall plan configuration. Appleyard (1970), in his study of styles and methods of structuring a city, discusses the importance of physical distinctiveness for both one's orientation and one's aesthetic response to the city. Evans, Smith and Pezdek (1982) made a study of cognitive maps and urban forms. They observed that the building features that predict how well subjects recall places include: the amount of movement around the building; shape and high use, arid thereby, familiarity. The other building characteristics that enhanced recall included: the presence of natural features around the building, uniqueness of architectural style, and sense of pedestrian access. Atkins's (1981) study on introducing basic map and globe concepts to young children and Muir arid Blaut's experimental study on the use of aerial photographs in teaching mapping to children in the first grade attempted to check whether children before the age of 7 years are (1) limited to the topological stage of development; (2) spatially egocentric; and (3) too young to start any map work. They showed that children may be able to learn about maps well before they reach the projective stage of spatial development (7 or 8 years). From the earliest play with objects, the child receives practice in trar~slatingb etween viewpoints. The aerial views
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of a toy car anticipate the plan representation that would be found in a drawing view of the car from above. Biel (1982) studied children's representation of their neighbourhood: a step towards a general spatial competence and showed the child's home occupies a key position in six-year-old's representations. When asked to imagine him- or her-self at various known points or near home, and to then decide which of two other landmarks that the child has mentioned is nearer, then one finds the child's representation of the location of these landmarks to be internally consistent, and to coincide with their actual locations. Biel cites this as evidence for six-year-olds being able to use projective and Euclidean concepts when dealing with a known area. It is clear from this study that in map drawing of real, familiar environments, landmarks play an important role for the young children. Poag et a1 (1983) suggest that from a number of theoretical perspectives, active movement through the environment has been assumed to be an almost essential condition for the construction of spatial representations of large-scale environments. Spencer, Mitchell and Wrisdom (1984) in their attempt to evaluate environmental education in nursery and primary education conducted five projects at the Ladywood school in which 3- and 4-year-olds learned about spatial relationships within a house; the same age group investigated the three-dimensional structure of a house; and, in a third project, worked on a cognitive map of their route through the village in the school. Project four was a more complex mapping exercise of the same

daily journeys with 7- and 9- year-olds; and project five was 'Mapping the classroom' exercise included in every textbook on beginning mapping. All these were chosen as typical kind of exercise that nursery and primary school teachers have been encouraged to do. In each case, the simple, conventional procedure of an empirical study was outlined. Before and
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after measures, with control groups, development of category systems and other procedures for evaluating children's concepts were undertaken. The results showed that the control and experimental groups were comparable; there was very little change in the control group's knowledge ad concepts over the term between pre-test and post-test. In contrast, the experimental group showed significant improvement in the post-test. All trained children then benefited considerably from the teaching programme, with the slightly older children showing better performance than the younger at both the pre-test and post-test stages. Thus the effectiveness of environmental education on children's knowledge, concepts, environmental awareness, geographicacy and better locational skills was established. Rachel Kaplan (1976) has presented a case study on "Way-Finding in the Natural Environment" The ideal is to present a 'future' environment in a way that facilities envisioning it. This has not yet been fully met. Meanwhile the four transition experiences described by Kaplan include: exploratory study of cognitive mapping, use of a board game as prior experience, different games as prior experience and a new location contour map and aerial photographs. Playing the different way-finding games had significant positive effect on confidence in finding their way about knowledge of natural environment and built environment. Spencer et al (1989) suppoll: the idea that children are manifestly ready for, and are indeed using, geographic concepts as early as 4 or 5 years of age. They have thought about the world's position in the universe, about distant places; local and immediate areas; and are able to use directly gained information about the environment to perform locational and orientational tasks.
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Mitchell suggests that very young children, even before they are four, can explore, make protomaps and can do geographic experiments. Although graphicacy is basic to the expression and investigation of ideas in mathematics, design and other areas in the school curriculum it has been claimed by geographers as especially their concern, which indicates that there is close connection between mathematics and geography and through study of geography, a number of mathematical concept can be developed in children. B. CURRICULUM CONTEXTUALISATION STUDIES A principle-oriented analysis of the major contributions from the project sponsored by the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom [Taylor and Mulhall (1997)l to explore the use of a local-based occupation like agriculture as a contextualising media in primary education

has been presented in Chapter II. In the present chapter, some of the typical research studies testing the principles are presented. Mulhall describes the cases of two schools to illustrate common involvement in Tanzania. An innovative school situated in a village in the Arumeru district of Tanzania consists of 540 pupils and 17 teachers. Agriculture is the main economic activity in the village. The main cash crops are coffee, banana, maize and beans. There is considerable interaction between the school and the community. The villagers were very much interested in the education of their children. Community spirit and co-operation were promoted by the relative diversity of tribes. A village school committee facilitates community-school relations. The committee is concerned with the problems like discipline and absence of pupils, school developmerlt and even occasional lectures in areas like health, veterinary Science and extension. The absenteeism is due to sickness, pregnancy, and work in parent's farm or local mines.
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Two schools are compared to understand the conditions in which a progressive reform may be accepted. School A has high academic reputation. The primary and secondary school were constructed largely using local community contributions. Cabbage and tomatoes are grown in school plot to supplement the income. Science lessons are entirely theorybased with chalk and talk and occasionally demonstrated. Teachers do make some teaching aids from locally available materials. Agriculture demonstrations by teachers are brief and not followed by practice. The parents viewed education as being very important for their children as the key of life. They were sorry that they could not interact with those who decided what their children learned in school. But they prefer their children not to enter agriculture, since they wanted them to go beyond what they had achieved themselves. They wanted them to become self-reliant and to get employment in the modern sector. School B is situated in a village of Tanzania. Agriculture is the main economic activity in the village. Coffee, maize, beans, banana are the main cash crops. Livestocks are also kept. Some are employed in a large rose growing industry. The village school committee has a trend to dominate the school, and the chairman would sometimes arrive expecting to check on how things were going. The experts who came to the school did not seem to play those roles in the community. The curriculum was problematic with irrelevant content and centrally developed curriculum was constantly changing and inadequate. Teachers struggled due to shortage of text books, teaching aids, resources and the newly introduced subjects like Skills and Civics have no materials. Community members had contributed a new office I-oom and a class room. Farming parents want their children to become Inore advanced than themselves. It seems that the wealth of parents will be the deciding factor in the educational life of a child. Pupils interviewed described ways in which they applied what they had learned at school in the home environment. One boy mentioned that
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he had been taught to draw the map of Tanzania by his brother before he started school.

Teachers at B did try to relate teaching and learning to the pupil's experience like English syllabus sections on the farm and soil. All instructions were given in English and the pupils appeared to enjoy the practical activity. The teacher explained that the previous lesson was based on the preparation of breakfast and pupils had made tea for themselves. Teachers thought that agriculture was a good medium of education to use for pupils who live with these things but the teacher's knowledge about the local agriculture was insufficient and there was no resource teacher in agriculture. Parents thougnt that agriculture was a good way of linking school and home learning, since they liked their children to practice at home what they had learned at school. School B is officially classified as an average school. But from the incidents reported above, it must be considered as a superior school. Here contextualisation of learning is practiced by some teachers and a more immediate understanding of the contextualising learning seemed to be reached by parents, pupils and teachers. Elstgeest (1987) notes a progressive approach to primary education in Tanzania based on problerns that they can handle. By asking questions based on their own experience, the children can respond positively and build on their confidence and motivation. An example is given of the fifth grade class in Kigururunyembe, Tanzania, where children used equal amounts of soil, using washers and nuts as units of weight. They then translated their findings into a picture, and proceeded to establish what amount of water their soils could carry. Another example was of children counting the number of seeds in a cob of maize to assist them in
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developing skills in numeracy. When the children set out to count the seeds, they were surprised that there were 470 seeds, as many of the children had a vague idea of large numbers. Elstgeest notes that the children can learn that by manipulating and controlling the environment they can influence and control the response and behaviour of living things in certain ways; this demonstrates a particular value of agriculture as a contextualising subject. The Ministry of Education, Sri Lanka (1993) launched Plantation Sector Education Development Programme (PSEDP) self study materials and graded learning. It started in 1987 as a programme of support to primary education in the tea and rubber estates. Until fairly recently estate schools had been managed and owned by plantation companies. They were connected with the National Ministry of Education through a grant-in-aidsystem in which schools were subjected to an annual inspection and award of grant based on academic achievement. During the 1970s, these schools and teachers began to be taken over by the state and were incorporated fully into the state system. In 1984, there were 558 estate schools, with a total of 63389 students and 1148 permanent teachers. The average student-teacher ratio was 55:l. A large proportion of the schools had only one teacher. The programme started with an analysis of the fundamental problems

facing children in the estate community - large numbers of children dropping out from primary school, too few teachers and too many untrained teachers. As and when some of those problems are being met, more attention is being given under the programme to appropriate pedagogy for groups of 46-50 children: (1) through the development of self study materials, and (2) through individualised approach to the learning of reading. Both strategies can support multi-grade teaching as well as multiability teaching within a mono-grade structure.
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Peris (1976) and Baker (1988) describe an integrated approach to curriculum development in primary education in Sri Lanka. The basis of the curriculum was that children should carry out activities related to their own experience, using subject content as and when necessary in their work (through a project approach, planned well in advance and focusing on identified knowledge, skills and attitudes). The nature of the work itself is expected to generate an enthusiasm producing an internal selfdiscipline and would be made more responsiveness to their own environment. The focus and aims of the study of Kent and Mushi (1995) is the examination of both the structures and processes that assist in the training of youth who aspire to become artisans working in the informal sector and the operational characteristics of subsistence and small-scale enterprises. Originally mechanical and electrical trades' training was expected to be focussed. But later more common trades such as carpentry and tailoring were added. In a recent study of rural schools, pupils were frequently found to play truant in order to avoid self-reliant activities (TADREG, Tanzania Development Research Group, 1993). Both parents and pupils resisted such activities as explosive for two reasons. Firstly, pupils were not taught useful skills and secondly they did not see any tangible evidence of improvements to their schocjl for their efforts. Reducing the number of subjects, or introducing work skills does not address the fundamental problern of curriculum reform, i.e., how to make the content of primary education more relevant to the needs of the client group. In 1993-'95, pilot projects began in two regions, Mbega and Zanzibar. The first stage in the process was to establish rapport with the consumers, i.e.,
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to establish the needs of parents through workshops designed to raise their awareness of issues and to encourage them to become active participants in the programme. Diversified secondary schools were introduced in 1975 with funding from the World Bank and Specialised in Agriculture, Home Economics, Commerce and Technical Education. The aim was to shorten the time taken to produce skilled labour by equipping the students with the knowledge and skills necessary to become productively self-employed in the rural and urban informal sectors. However, subsequent studies

considered them to be ineffective and withdrew their support. However some of these schools continue to operate although ineffectual. There was also a tendency to give the disciplinary approach, i.e., to teach science as three separate subjects - physics, chemistry and biology. The curriculum is characterised by overloaded syllabi that are presented in a fashion, which decentralises the various topics making them appear abstract. The Secondary Science Project (SSP based on the British Nuffield courses was first tried in '1968 but withdrawn in 1971. The most recent endeavour was the World Bank-funded, TIE-developed Unified Science Project (USP which ran tom 1990 to 1994). This initiative in principle represented the opportunity to introduce radical reform in a holistic manner similar to the primary PEP project. In practice, it was considered to be too radical, as it challenged long-held beliefs among politicians, administrators and teachers about the elitist nature of science education and science teaching and in response to a number of reports, was abruptly cancelled by the Commissioner of Education (TADREG 1995).
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C. MULTIGRADE TEACHINGISELF-LEARNING IN SMALL COMMUNITIES In 1993, the Sri Lankan Plantation Sector Education Development Programme (PSEDP) embarked on a programme of development of selfstudy materials in the Tamil language for use by students in years 3 to 5 of the primary cycle. Some of the results of the summative evaluation in two schools are as follows: In School I, there have been three testing. Pupils with A grade increased from 0% to 21%. E grade decreased from 35% to 7%. In School It, there were five children in five year class who could not read at all. They were started off with the year one book. After six months two of the five got their promotion to year six, they were able to read at the year five level. The other three did not reach the level and will repeat the year, but they will catch up. In another school, it was found that when tested in March there no D's and quite a few A's, but when retested in June using a different book but of about the same level, not the set Tamil reader, this time there were no A's. It was felt that the children had been memorising the set book and were unfamiliar with reading anything that was outside the set-book. Although neither the self study materials nor the reading project arose primarily out of a need to final solutions to the problems facing the multigrade teacher, clearly the materials and approaches developed were found appropr~atefo r both the muti-grade and mono-grade teacher. Zambia's experiment with teacher education and support for multi-grade schools presents several insight in this direction. In-service training courses in multi-grade teaching were developed and mounted by the Malcolm Moffat Teacher's Training College (MMTTC). Among the two schools which participated in the project the Mwape

primary school did increase the enrolment beyond grade five by this method. Nut? the school community relationship was not particularly

strong and no contribution had been made by the parents towards the rehab~litationo f school building. The Kalombe school experience increased the enrolment rapidly after the introduction of multi-grade teaching. Parents expressed the view that the provision of upper primary grade schooling, made possible through the multi-grade teaching, had been one of the attractions of setting in the area. Teachers felt that with multi-grade teaching students were better prepared for self-learning after they had left school. It was felt that multi-grade teaching contributed greatly to the mastery and enduring impact of basic skills, as interesting preparation, which would warrant further investigation. In contrast to Mwape the school community relationship is very strong. Learning Activity Centres in each school complement the study guides. In service training is an integral part of the new school strategy. This training involving students in the organisation of the school, the use of learning centres and group work in the organisation of learning, and the mobilisation of community resources for the mobilisation of the school. Colbert, Chiappe and Arboleda (1993) describe Escuela Nueva (the new school programme) in Cc~lumbia. It arose as an attempt to address the problems of rural education, which persisted in spite of the unitary school approach. By 1992 the new system had 17,000 schools. It provides active rnstruct~on, a stronger relationship between the school and the community, and a flexible promotion mechanism adapted to the life style of the rural child. It comprises four main components-curriculum, training, administration and community relations.
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The programme assumes that the rural schools involved in the programme are multi-grade with self instruction, flexible promotion learning centres strategy. Self-instruction study guides for grades 2 to 5 in Natural Science, Mathematics, Social Studies and Languages adopt a method, which promotes active learning, cognitive skills, discussion group decisionmaking and the development of application skills within the local environment. The guides contain sequenced objectives and activities. The supply guides reflect both the national curriculum and regional and local adaptations. The study guides are used by groups of 2 to 3 children at a time and facilitate the work of the teachers required to work with several grades in the same class room. Conventional text books tend not to facilitate self instruction. Learning activity centres in each school complement the study guides. In service teachers training is an integral part of the new school strategy. The workshops are conducted in three stages. Follow-up workshops are organized monthly to exchange ideas, analyse problems and discuss results. These local non formal workshops become formalised as micro centres. These centres serve as a participatory experience where teachers could evaluate, create, enrich their own experiences, innovate, criticize, analyse and carry out projects for the improvement of the school and the community. Both the micro centres ancl demonstration schools maintain a horizontal

training network and are regarded as a 'decentralised, in service, low-cost mechanism to maintain quality in the process of going to scale". Rodriguez (1979) inferred during the first stage that there was no difference in the levels of creativity of children multi compared, compared with mono-grade rural schools, but the self esteem of both boys and girls was higher. Rojas and Castillo (1988) report that a majority of teachers believe that the new school is superior to other types of traditional rural school. Students in new schools performed better on tests of socio-civic behaviour, self esteem and some subjects in some grades. In short, it has been suggested that the new school system responds successfully to the needs of the rural child in Columbia because t the learning strategy adopted encourages active, creative, participatory and responsible learning. t children learn at their own pace using self instructional materials. t materials are affordable-one set is shared among three children and each set lasts several years. The content of the materials reflects a national curriculum and can also include regional and local adaptation. t the in service training of the teacher in local, replicable and permanent. In short, it has been suggested that the new school system responds successfully to the needs of the rural child in Columbia because the learning strategy adopted encourages active, creative, participatory and responsible learning. children learn at their own pace using self instructional materials materials are affordable - one set is shared among three children and each set lasts several years. The content of the materials reflects a national curriculum and can also include regional and local adaptation. the in service training of the teacher is local, replicable and permanent.
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D. COMMUNITY AND OUT OF SCHOOL LEARNING (GENERAL) Gordon (1998) examined the effects of an integrated organisational strategy on an intermediate school in Texas, which developed a true feeling of community. The strategies were looping, interdisciplinary instruction and use of technology as an integrated tool for learning. Purposive emergent sampling was used to maximise information from the school population. Both structured and unstructured interviews were conducted by the participant observer. Small learning environments were created by forming teams of teachers and students, assigning advisors, teaching critical thinking, active citizenship, grouping for learning, flexible scheduling, teacher influence, building governance, teacher leaders, expert teachers of adolescence, meaningful roles for parents keeping parents informed and shar~ng a vision. The findings of the study also responded to the two research questions that guided the study. What were the nature of the interpersonal relationships that formed between parents, teachers and students, and to what degree were the relationships of result

of the implemented instructional strategies. Miller (1997) discusses improving the school-to-work and community transition program of 41 mildly disabled secondary students during their educational careers in a rural district setting. During an 8 month practicurn, 41 mildly disabled high school students, their teachers, parents and counsellors, and community business representatives co-operated in defining individual school-to-work transition goals in education, occupationallcareer, and sociallpersonal areas. The major aim was to realistically and adequately prepare these special needs students for community life after exiting high school. Techniques used to achieve their goal included student and parent surveys, questionnaires, parent and teacher workshops, restricted curricula, co-operation of community, school and itinerant personnel and student-set goals. The major findings were:
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1. 5 of the 41 eligible students were formally enrolled in a schooltowork programme. 2. 20 of the 38 teachers and aids working directly with the 41 students were able to correlate at least two specific curriculum goals with the students' traditional plans. 3. Parents of 22 of the 41 students expressed satisfaction with the transitional plans, and 4. 16 of the 41 students were able to share one education, on careerloccupational and one sociallpersonal transitional goal. All outcomes except number 2 were met, only 12 teachers indicated their ability )o correlate at least two specific curriculum goals with students' transitional plans. John (2000) developed a Guided-Field-Study Model (GFSM) and tested its effectiveness by comparing the achievement in Ecology of the treatment groups, viz. Guided-Field-Study Method (GFSM) group. Lecture Method (LM) grclup and Self-study led to the conclusion that Guided-Field-Study Method is superior to Lecture Method with regard to post test achievement. The study also showed that resource units based on GFS models are a necessity in higher secondary schools to help teachers realize the possibilities and potentialities of this approach. Han, Eun Sok (1991) made a comprehensive analysis of the teacher school administrator attitudes toward out-door education. The study found that, in general, teachers and school administrators are quite positive towards the value of outdoor education and school camping. (camping kyonggi). Another significant finding was that the teachers and school administrators are not equipped with the knowledge and skills related to another education and school camping. Lindenmeier (1996) co,nducted a study on outdoor education components. The research project was undertaken to determine to what
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degree Environmental Education and Adventure Education are interdependent components of outdoor education. The study found that environmental education and adventure education are significantly dissimilar in several key respects. Orion (1993) developed a model for the implementation of fields trips as

an integral part of the Science curriculum. The important conclusions arrived at regarding the role of field trips as a tool of concretization were that 1. the field trip should be placed at the early stage of the learning process and 2. the field trip should focus on concrete activities which can not be conducted effectively in the classroom. Thies (1997) conducted a study to determine efficient procedures for operating residency outdoor environmental programme. The analysis of result revealed that: The environmental programmes are weak, if not integrated with ongoing educational curricula. Better training programmes and certification requirements need to be developed. Inquiry methods with hands-on-student activities need to be developed for such programmes. The current interest in environmental education is to be exploited for programme support. Universities should arrange outdoor environmental education courses for teachers. A survey by Turner (1997:) examines eleven integrated Science courses for the age range 11-14 in countries as diverse as West Germany, the U.S.A, Nigeria and the Pacific Islands. It describes the circumstances which gave rise to each course and how the course was shaped to suit
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local needs, either by importing and adapting a proven course or by creating an entirely fresh course around local curricula and materials. In a survey by Chambers (1983), 89% of the respondents listed their dealers as a good source of agricultural information. Thus the farm input dealers constitute an important link in the extension chain for dissemination of agricultural information to the farming community. E. ENVIRONMENTALIDEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION STUDIES: INDIAN UNIVERSITIES Patel (1978) conducted a study about the educational facilities and utilisation of educational opportunity by the slum children. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1 in the matter of school resources, the slum schools were not at par with the schools in non-slum areas; 2. the resources of the schools in the slum area were interior and inadequate; 3. the curriculum was inappropriate for the slum children's needs and level of ability. Aikara (1979) conducted a study about the problem of out-of-school children of the school-going age. 20% random sample of the out-of-school children and 5% random sample of the in-school children were drawn for the purpose of interviewing parentslguardians. The major findings were 1. The out-of-school children had a relatively poorer educational, occupational and economic background compared to their counter parts in school.

2. By and large, the parents of the out-of-school children were eager and willing to send their children to an educational programmer that would be suitable and convenient to them. An educational programme that combined literacy with vocational training seemed to be the most acceptable. The parents of the majority of children wanted the medium
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of instruction to be the mother tongue. About two hours in the evening appeared to be the most suitable time for the new educational programme. Ambika (1973) conducted a study on the potentialities of field trips for learning Biology of standard IX. The study aimed at finding out the field trip experiences that are currently being provided in the learning of Biology and also those field-trip experiences that can be made possible for improved teaching-learning of Biology. The study came to the conclusion that the teaching of Biology at present is very much formalised within the class room. The teachers are unaware of the latent potentialities of field trips and how they can be used in learning Biology. It was also found that teachers tended to avoid out door activities. because they were very often unfamiliar with the philosophy, technique and organization of field trips. Raju (1985) and Sheenil (1995) studied the utilisation of available community resources in the teaching of Biology in the secondary schools of Kerala. Both studies revealed the improper utilisation of community resources. Ravindranath, Sowrirajan and Nair (1990) studied the use of computers in the teaching of environmental education. The main objectives of the study were to find out how computers could be effectively used in schools to support the teacher with the necessary information on the local environment and how instruction could be made locally specific. The main conclusion of the study is that with the availability of sophisticated gadgets like computer, classroom instruction could be made more creative and challenging.
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Nat (1990) conducted a study on environmental education to develop an awareness of and responsibility for the environment at present and future. He concluded that th~s coulcl be achieved by bringing environment into school as well as the school to the environment. Joshi (1981) in his study to Find out the environmental problems particularly in the state of Rejasthan which might have a bearing on the rural and urban classes, found that environment outside the class was potent enough to initiate learning and suggested environmental education as a compulsory subject at primary level. Teachers and syllabus were the main obstacles in limiting the growth of this approach. Gupta (1986) conducted .a study of attitude of teachers towards environmental education. The findings of the study: 1. the mean attitude score for all the groups of teachers showed a favourable attitude towards environment education; 2. the order of favourableness were junior college teachers, secondary and primary teachers; 3. the teachers pointed out

constraints like crowded classroom, lack of time for proper planning of activities, loss of interest in the absence of regular follow up action etc. on implementation of environment education programme. Rajput et al. (1980) conducted a study of environmental approach of teaching at primary level. The Madhya Pradesh State curriculum for classes 3 ad 4 was redesigned to build the scope for environmental approach of teaching. The effect of implementing the redesigned curriculum in primary schools was assessed (with a sample of over 100 students) on environmental awareness and achievement in science. The study revealed: (1) Only orte of the four groups (2 schools x 2 classes) was significantly different as environmental awareness at pre-test stage, whereas, at the post-test stage, two experimental groups were significantly better than the control group. (2) The difference between the
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experimental group and the control group on a traditional achievement test was not significant. Pai (1981) prepared and tried out a curriculum I environmental studies leading to life-long education for college students with the following objectives: (1) to help students acquire an awareness of the interrelationships, interactions and interdependence existing between biological and physical aspects of the total environment and sensitivity towards the environment and its applied problems (2) to help students acquire strong positive attitudes, sound ecological values towards the seeds of a better environment and the necessary motivation for actively participating in its protection and improvement; and (3) to help students develop skills necessary for solving environmental problems and taking preventive measures The environmental curriculum prepared was tried out experimentally (N expt=72, N control=60).and tested with specially prepared tools. The findings of the study were: (1) There was significant difference in the performance of the envirc~nmental group as compared with the control group on knowledge scores and attitude scores. (2) The experimental group had gained more than the control group in environmental activities inventory. (3) As a result cf instructions for using the curriculum, students reflected clearer and more vivid images perceived in terms of the sensitivity towards the environment. (4) Unit-wise analysis of he performance of the students in the experimental group showed that they had gained in overallknowledge in environmental problems. Gupta, Grewal and Rajput 111981) conducted a study of the environmental awareness with the following objectives: (1) to know the components of environment in wh8ich children from rural [R] and urban [U] areas were lacking and the areas in which the students from both the streams were well acquainted; 92) to compare the environmental awareness of schoolSurvey
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going children [F] and children studying in nonformal centres [NF]; (3) to suggest means for developing environment-based curriculum for universalisation of elementary education . The sample consisted of 110

students of standard 4 - 20 from rural schools [FR], 30 from urban schools [FU, and 60 from nonformal centres [NFE]. An Environmental Awareness Test by Rajput and associates was administered on the sample. The performance of the three groups was compared. Significance of mean difference was tested by t test. It was found that: (1) The difference between FR and FU on environmental awareness was significant and in favour of NFE. (2) The difference between NFR and FU was also significantly in favour of NFE. (3) The difference between NFE and FR on environmental awareness was not significant. The SCERT of Andhra Pradesh (1980) compared the old and new science curricula in environmental studies of classes IV and V and found that the new curriculum relevant to environment was more effective. According to the teachers, the new S,cience curriculum fulfilled the educational objectives as prescribed by the Directorate of Education. Geethalekshmi, C. (1994) identified the curricular potentials of ten local edible fruit yielding plants for the study of Botany at higher secondary school level. The fruit yielding plants selected for the study were mango, jack fruit, papaya, amla, passion fruit, anona, guava, coconut, pineapple and banana. The study showed that all the ten plants selected for the study have immense potential for teaching-learning of the content covered in the Botany text books of higher text books of higher secondary classes. Joseph (1976) explored in detail the potential and practices of using school resources in conducting science clubs. The study found that resources like yields, agricultural farmers and gardens are present near
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almost all schools. But only a small number of teachers use these environmental resources for teaching Science. Scaria's (1984) study on the curricular potentials of local plants of food value revealed that the majority of the secondary school students are lacking practical and utilitarian knowledge about the commonly available local food plants. The investigator suggested that pupils should be encouraged to make use of these plants, as it may be helpful to reduce some of the deficiency dist.> ases. Exemmal (1974) conducted a study about the use of environmental and ethnic resources in the teaching of Botany in the primary classes of Kerala. The study attempted to find out how far the environmental and ethnic (cultural) resources of Kerala were used in the teaching school botany. The investigator found that agricultural field is the only resource reported by the majority of teachers as being used for teaching botany. Observation and analysis revealed a number of environmental resources like profuse plant growth in and around the school which could illustrate several botanical concepts and principles (which remain unused or recognised by teachers., use of plant products for beautification, ornament, medicine et . Ethnobotanic classification and analysis embedded in the ordinary Malayalam language (such as the use of two words for leaf ila for non-palmate leaf and ola for palmate leaf), have potentiality for initiating scientific thinking and for bridging the home and the school. The diffusion of modern science among the ordinary people by

the Farm Information Bureau at a rate faster than the official mechanism spreading practical and functional modern science in schools is another potential resource.. Sulochana (1984) made ail attempt to prepare certain instructional models based on farming for the learning of Science in high school classes. The
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models prepared were found to be good for learning Biology through the medium of farming. Leelammma Mathew (1975) developed some models of relating the teaching of the agriculture-based items in Standard 9. biology with the resources of the agricultural extension services. The study was based on the data collected from 113 natural Science teachers and 40 agricultural officers. Teachers in the sarnple reported that the most common methods used by them for teaching a!zjricultural ideas to pupils are lecture, showing pictures, charts or specimen, group discussion and taking pupils to garden. The agricultural officers were using much more modern methods function ally related to the environment in teaching the farmers, because they were more specifically trained for the job. Unlike the teachers, they were dealing with a non-captive clientele, who will take lessons only if it was worthwhile. All the agricultural officers think that agricultural education can relate education to environment. 85% of the agricultural officers suggest that agricultural education in schools can make Science teaching more interesting. Pillai (1975) constructed and tested models of relating the teaching of the ecology-oriented portions of Class 9 with the local environment. Visit to forest to observe different species, conducting vanamahotsava (treeplanting festival) were the items in the rating scale which gogt the IOowesgt score in terms of present use. The investigator suggests that a spirit of cooperation between schools and external resources of the state as done in the young farmers' club and young naturalists club would be very relevant for science teaching. Elizabeth Mathew (1976) conducted a study on the formulation and evaluation of environmental approaches in biology education and arrived at the conclusion that environmental approach is superior to formal approach in terms of developing or achieving many educational objectives
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including environmental understanding, aesthetic aspects and academic objectives. One interesting finding in her study is that in environmental teaching the usual sequence of prior objective followed by designing learning experience and evaluation is often reversed. The environmental experience directly provides a learning experience from which relevant educational objectives car1 be extracted. An interdisciplinary transaction is also commonly met with in environmental education situations, e.g., in teaching pest control, learning experiences and objectives pertaining to botany, entomology, chemistry toxicology etc. come naturally together. Exemmal (1980) followetj up her master's study in environmental and ethnic resources in the teaching of school botany with a more sophisticated constructive and experimental study, adapting analytical, constructive and follow-up judgement techniques too. The study resulted

in: (1) The construction of very analytical models for teaching botany using detailed environmental observations, folk science, phylotaxy etc. and drawing out educational objectives from these ordinary situations. (2) the efficacy of the environmental approaches were tested by comparing the achievement in botany (a) of the environmental approach group and formal approach group (overall groups) and (b) within the overall groups, of equated subgroups (equated separately for each of the variables such as intelligence, science interest, attitude towards science teaching and learning, socio-economic status, and present achievement scores) in terms of (i) immediate post-teaching achievement, (ii) delayed memory achievement, (iii) extent of forgetting (special tools were constructed, item-analysed and used). The experimental group showed significant superiority in achievement - immediate and delayed memory. (3). Environmental approach had significant positive effect on the attitude of pupils towards science teaching and learning. (4) the suitability of the teaching models was tested (in terms of the ratings of experts and teachers) with respect to (a) availability of suitable outdoor resources for developing the select learning experiences, (b) stage suitable for
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introducing the select learning experiences, (c) competencies required for handling the select learni~ge xperiences. Mercykutty (1996) conducted a doctoral study on developing and testing models of teaching mathematics using environmental resources. The study used a large amount of qualitative methodology, supplemented by some quantitative methodology. The investigator conducted a lot of activity analysis - of the mathematical competencies embedded in crafts like tailoring, embroidery, carpentry, gardening etc. and various play activities. She even apprenticed herself to a tailoring teacher in order to make the analysis functional. She observed a variety of objects in the environment and drew sketches. A project was conducted with her B.Ed. students to analyse the rnathematics embedded in Onarn celebrations. Participant observation and Onam and Christmas celebrations yielded rich mathematics com~onents. The school textbooks iri mathematics were first analysed by the investigator in terms of environmental examples for development of mathematical ideas, invitations extended to students to explore mathematics from the environment etc. Contrary to popular belief, it was found that all the textbooks do contain plenty of environmental references. They progressively get dirninished as the student goes up the grades. But many of the references are of a verbal nature. The book does suggest concrete and project-type activities, but usually they come at the end and hence tend to be omitted. 'The preface to the book seems to suggest that children should first master the content through verbal understanding and drill and thus 'strengthen the permanent contact with the environment'. But this does not seem to work with young children. Mercykutty has identified several un-Piagetian approaches in the textbook presentation in the lower classes. The difficulty with the prior verbal presentation is made more complicated by unnecessary use of heavy words with a Sanskrit

diction far above the level of the language studies for the corresponding standard, neologisms, homonymy (different terms for the same concept), polysemy (the same term having multiple meanings), importing of English terms in the most unexpected context, withholding of crucial English terms when they would have sewed as a bridge between the Malayalam term and the symbol, inconsistency in the use of terms between classes, and even between chapters, dissonance between the discourse and the term (e.g., in LCM, HCF), confusion through artificial syntax modelled on English syntax. Though the textbook writers seem to know the subject very well and able to explain it in clear verbal terms, they often do not seem to think of it in terms of the experience and point of view of the young child. One of the most cruel examples is the dumping of the modern complex number system made more complex by the difficult terminology at one lump in Class VII without proper iconic support. Though the textbooks do contain plenty of environmental references, especially in the lower cases, intense interviews were had with 50 teachers to check up the teachers' awareness and use of these environmental references revealed that their judgement of the adequacy of such references is not c.ategorical. Their rating is centred at 'to some extent'. But the question whether the environmental references are placed in the textbook in si~cha way that they can be effectively used for concept formation the response is zero. All the responding teachers claim to make use of the environmental references verbally. When it came to function al use of the environmental references, most teachers seemed more concerned to explain why they could not do so. The most common reason is that if they follow environmental activity methods, the topic cannot be covered (96%). Many consider this approach a waste of time (56%). Examination focus. and parents' expectations are also cited as excuse (80%). About three-fourths of the sample (74%) said that it is not practicable in the present school system. The same number suggested that the syllabus should be changed. 86% suggested that the investigator should prepare a curriculum suitable for environmental
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teaching and influence then authorities to implement it. 68% endorse that these approaches should be started from the lowest classes. The investigator conducted a one-group experiment with 15 pupils for five days to test the environmental bridge materials prepared by her in solid geometry with one group pre-test, post-test design. There was continuous formative evaluation of the process with reference to each learning unit, which corltributed plenty of insights. The summative evaluation yielded a post-test mean of 27.07 as against the pre-test mean of 12.27 (t= 8.04, P<.01) Mercykutty academically adapted a carpenter's son who was versatile in crafts but weak in mathematics scoring only 8% in maths at that time. His skill in mat-weaving was used to give him exercises in mat weaving which would build in the multiplication tables. He quickly got over his negative self-concept with reference to mathematical studies, and is scoring good marks. He is also helpful in preparing improvised

mathematic aids for high school pupils. Plenty of other anecdotal episodes are also given in the study. Mercykutty prepared bridge materials for learning mathematics on the basis of her sketches of various shapes in the environment, from carpentry, paper folding, palm leaf play, drawing, painting and enlarging. These were validated on the basis of judgement by a purposive sample of 100. On the basis of all these experiences twelve models of teaching mathematics using environmental resources were prepared: Free exploration, patterning, ecstasy through mathematics-music convergences, ethnomathernatics, linguistics relation, interdisciplinarity, grid analysis, artistic vision, gestalt vision, socio-cultural learning climate,
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project, and physically perceived space penetrated through mathematicophilosophic space. These were consensually validated. Krishnankutty (1997) cond~~ctead doctoral study of Development-based Curricula for Coastal Students. He used a variety of methods, combining both qualitative and quantitative methodology. One interesting aspect of the study was the preparation of a number of environmental learning episodes. The first was on the chakara (mud bank) phenomenon. This phenomenon occurred in the Perinjanam beach (about 7 km from the investigator's school). The investigator and 50 of his pupils observed it in September 1996. they interviewed the inhabitants of the area to collect the ethnoscientific details. The older inhabitants recalled earlier chakaras that occurred as early as 1942 and 1939. Many were able to recall the one that occurred in 1968, not far away from Perinjanam. The fishermen recalled that in olden days the ordinary fishermen could catch a lot of fish. Now trawlers tend to catch most of the fish. The pupils observed the phenomena carefully and prepared their notes and drawings. They recalled stories and songs about it. Another episode was about kaitha mat weaving, a crafl popular in the area. Kaitha is a shrub which grows quite tall and used as a natural fence. Its leaves are long like coconut leaves, but slightly thicker. Some children in the school also knew the craft. One got a prize in work experience. There is great mathematical potentiality in the work, which is not exploited. Another episode centred round the work place Mr Thangal at Perinjanam. He also had a private mosque, which looked like an ordinary Hindu house, like the original Cheraman mosque of Kodungalloor. He had a pond ecosystem in the tank in front of the mosque. He manufactured a number of concrete articles, which were studied by the children for their mathematical properties. This study was extended to the Nirmithi type holobricks, slabs and building shapes. A study visit was made to Binani Zinc limited, Alwaye. Surprisingly, it was found that zinc is not prepared by the method found in textbooks of
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reduction of zinc oxide (prepared by roasting zinc blende), but by converting zinc Ooxide to zinc sulphate and electrolysing the solution. It

was explained to the group that cadmium, which is an 'impurity' in the zinc gets separated by this method, and since it is very strategic in nuclear technology, a lot of profit comes out of this. This visit showed clearly that what is presented in the formal textbook is only then basic matter. Environmental information gives the real world information with the latest technology. There were some sea-oriented animatory episodes too. Krishnankutty's study also included an analysis of the decentralise developmental planning documents. The Report of the Mathilakam panchyat in which the school of the investigator is located explicitly brings out the educational value of the knowledge of he social and cultural history of the locality. It has 'plenty of tales to tell from the footprints of llango Adigal to the battle marches of Tippu". Old Tamil literature such as Chilapatikaram, folklore and Sanskrit sources are used in addition to historical remains in order to learn history through investigat~on. The reports of the adjoining panchayats and Kodungallor municipality are also equally illuminating from the educational point of view. The panchayt map of he area was used to re-teach map literacy to pupils who had studied geography only mechanically and made little progress. Apart from map reading, some geololgicl features such as ekkal mannu (soft sand in coasgtal areas), kidappara (biologically formed rocks), and five landcorms in gthe area have been noted in the Report. Development issues were also clearly broughtr out. Kerala coast and its developmental significance was brought out from gthe ar~alysis of the Report of the State Committee on Science, Technology and Environment (1 988). Krishnankutty's study also included a judgement schedule administered to teachers and experts. The mean scores (maximum 5; minimum I) and/or ranks of a few items from the segment, 'Development-oriented education for coastal areas' are giver1 below. Out of the 17 items given in this segment, the item Kerala's sea coast has brought new contacts and enriched culture throughout the ages' got the second rank from both teachers (mean 4.15) and experts mean 4.33 (three items with this score stood at the top in experts': hence all three are given rank 2). 'Pollution around coastal industries should be brought out in the curriculum' is another item sharing the experts' second rank, whereas teachers give this item the rank 6 (mean 3.99). The third item getting experts' rank 2 is 'The school curriculum should start from the immediate environment, but gradually move towards a common core' gets the first rank in the teachers' ratings (mean 4.23). IN the experts' rating the mean score 4.17 is tied with five items (ranks 3 to 7, all of them statistically given the rank 6). The teachers' ratings vary widely for these five items: 'Children should be made sensitive to the precious minerals in coastal areas' (Teachers' mean 4.07, Rank 4); 'The crafts around the coast should be related to the curriculum' (4.00, Rank 5); 'Coconut craft and crafts around the plant products of the coastal areas should e cultivated in school' (3.98, Rank 7.5); 'The inspiration provided by the sea should form themes in literature and history teaching' (3.78, Rank 11); and 'While much of the syllabus will be common, teaching in the coastal area should be from a coastal perspective' (3.72, Rank 12). items with a conservative stand get low

ranks from both experts and teachers: 'The curriculum should be absolutely uniform throughout the state' (Rank 15), and 'The curriculum should be absolutely uniform throughout the nation' (Rank 17). A recent study was conducted in Kerala by Susan (2000) to identify the curricular potentials of select biology-based occupations for the study of biological sciences at higher secondary level. The study used descriptive, analytical and experimental methods. Observation, interview and task analysis were also done with the help of suitable schedules. The tools used were textual content analysis, questionnaire for teachers (N=180) and students (N=1250), model action plans and evaluation schedule for experts.
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The data collected through the different sources were analysed using appropriate statistical techniques such as computation of percentages, critical ratios and chi-square test of significance. The major findings that emerged from the study are: 1. the existing curriculum of the higher secondary course in the state of Kerala is inadequate to develop the occupational skills of the students. 2. in Kerala there are a number of biology-based occupations that can be utilized for the learning of Biology and the development of occupational skills simultaneously. 3. biology-based occupations have the potentials for both the learning of biology at higher secondary level and the development of occupational skills. 4. the learning of biology and the development of occupational skills can be integrated if the potentials of the biology-based occupations are identified. Of even greater relevance and lasting value than the statistical findings are the deep analytical constructs yielding a clear analysis and description of content set against tasks like selection of site, raw materials, preparation of support material, sterilizing the straw, preparation of polypropylene bags, arranging, maintaining the bags in the dark room, controlling the diseases, harvesting -for identifying the task Mushroom. A similar depth analysis is done for coconut cultivation. Poultry farming was analysed under more complicated column headings: major tasks, task analysis as done before, content, learner competencies, teaching-learning strategies, evaluation of learning outcomes. The attractive pictures communicate the aesthetic dimensions of the study in addition to summarizing in a way the cognitive analysis too. Benedict (2001) conducted a doctoral study of nonformal models in Chemistry Education. His main objectives included the following.
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1. to explore the concept of nonformal education in a variety of positive, flexible, life relevant and creative dimensions. 2. to seek a consensus about the concepts so obtained from a competent panel 3. to construct nonformal chemistry education models and episodes. 4. to explore the applicability of some of the models in real situation

5. to test the product (models) and processes (modeling) in terms of relevance, acceptability and integration potential in the system. 6. to synthesise the results. With reference to Objective 4. twenty-six models were constructed and explored in the study: Technology-Enhanced Secondary Science Instruction (TESS), Group Concept Mapping (GCM), False concept Map (FCM), 'V'-Mapping (VM), Concept Cartoon (CC), Stage Craft (SC), Science-technology-Society (S--T-S), Activity Based Industrial Visit (ABIV), Cross-Curricular (CRA), Play Space (PS), Out-door-Laboratory (ODL), Realistic Table (RT), Museum Outreach (MOR), Science and Youth (SAY), Team-Games-Tournament (TGT), Co-operative Learning (CL), Reciprocal Teaching (RT), Cross-Age teaching (CAT), Directed Activities related to Text (DART), Site-based management (SBM), Science Story (SS) and Scaffolding (Scaf). Of these the first 12 are studied intensely with four sub heads, Inspiration, Essential Elements, Episodes and Supporting materials. A kind of continuous formative evaluation (noting the joy, confidence, openness of reaction, willingness to work hard) was conducted along with the tryout of the episodes. The product models were tested in terms of relevance, acceptability and integration potential with the help of 31 judges and validated. The special interest in the present study is that about ten of these models are clearly related to the present study and also bring out how community
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resources can be used. In the Museum Outreach Model, Benedict actually coordinated a planning group consisting of pure and applied scientists and the chemistry gallery was accepted in principle by the Director of Science and Technology Museum. For the Activity based lndustrial Visit Model, he actually made a complete survey of 134 chemical industries out of 1324 medium and large scale chemical industries in cooperation with Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation. The community study model was conducted in the education-centred community at Mitraniketan. Some of them are deeply analysed from the point of view of curricular potential of industry. A. SOME SPECIAL PROJECT TYPE STUDIES DONE1 PRESENTED IN KERALA Manuel (1982) analysed some worthwhile environmental education models in lndia and abroad and the relevant materials from the point of view of developing a functional theory of environmental education relevant for lndia. The study involved (1) analysis of the textbooks in environmental studies of the NCERT and of six state systems from the point of view of components which might facilitate or hinder genuine environmental approach; (2) analysis of textual and non-textual matters from the point of view of potentialities for environmental education; (3) development of some models for EE representing a reasonable compromise between EE theory and the present conditions in the majority of Indian schools and non-formal educational content.

The main findings of the study are:(l) Very few genuine EE-type activities as understood in modern developed systems seemed to be undertaken in the primary schools. (2) The lead materials (textbooks) at the national level seemed to have some worthy aspects such as process approach in science, activisation, some directives to observation and visits, stimulating
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questions with some open tables to fill in the answers, thought excursion through the country profusely illustrated with pictures (in history portions), clear verbal processing and the like. (3) The national level textbooks lacked the higher specifications commonly adopted in modern EE procedures and in open, mufti-disciplinary approaches to the environment. Defects such as pre-emptying investigation (by suggesting the answers), premature precision (overlooking the initial phase of 'romance' in environmental exploration), simulations and artificial situations even where natural situations were available in the environment (e.g., for soil erosion), adaptation of spectator approach where participant approach was possible, and insufficient respect to work culture were frequent. (4) NCERT's Curriculum framework which had obviously guided the textbook gave useful negative guidance lines, but specific positive guidelines needed by environment education workers were lacking. (5) As regards the state level textbooks, some of the drawbacks of the national level books were carried over and some of the merits seemed to have been missed, like replacing open exploratory tables by closed tables, more pre-empting of environmental exploration. (6) Work done at the Vikram Sarabhai community Science Centre, Ahmedabad, Kerala Sastra Sahityaa Parishad and workshops conducted with the British Council collaboration in Tamil Nadu and Kerala were instances of functional EE starting from the ground en\lironment and developing useful constructs. (7) The study yielded some theoretical analysis of environmental knowledge and some relevant models representing a combination of modern EE theory and the local context and culture. Manuel (1990) reports the innovations developed at CERlD (Centre for Education, Research, Innovation and Development), Mitraniketan, where the various crafts, art forms and the local environmental setting were full of potentialties for drawing out the intellectual and other educational outcomes. After explaining the theoretical framework based on the philosophies of Tagore, Gandhiji, Dewey, Marx and Freire, and the
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psychologies of Piaget, Bruner, Gagne, Ausubel, Vygotsky and Maslow, he has presented (noting the concerned workers as co-researchers) gte various activities such as tailoring and embroidery, tie and die, batik, weaving and woodwork, plastic wire patterns, educational projects in the hostels, environmental education, music, art and cultural education and the activities conducted at the Rural Technology Centre, Krishi Vignan Kendra and sericulture unit. The more transparent mathematical linkages include: equations for graphs through embroidery, area conceptualisation through tailoring, (a+b12 and other identities through plastic wire patterns,

and mathematics through muslc and rhythmic activities. The Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishat has always been doing continuous animatory extension and formative educational research. Occasionally they do summative evaluation studies too. Two such studies relevant for the using community resources in education are summaised below: Ramakrishnan (1994) has analysed the activists of the Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishat (KSSP) in developing new models of educational planning and motivation. C)ne of the most significant items reviewed in the present paper is the school complex programme suggested by Kothari Commission through pupil participation. This had been dubbed by educational authorities as a failed experiment due to the lack of imaginative leadership and academic resources. However, KSSP took it up seriously in 1992-93 in the school complex with Sivapuram high school (Kannur district) as nucleus. The complex had twenty, primary schools spread over three Panchayats. The objectives of this study was To improve the teaching-learning processes and to make the learning processes inside and outside the classroom more effective. To develop educational strategies which make learning peoplecentred, life-related, interesting and activity-oriented.
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To make teaching a joyful exercise to teachers and to establish a forum for teachers of various schools to interact with each other. To develop a healthy relationship between schools and the people of the local locality thus enabling the community to take up the responsibility of various activities in the schools. To develop an organic interest for parents, especially mothers, in the school activities of their children. The studies include comprehensive intervention in the curriculum transaction from Class I to IV under the guidance of KSSP. The Madikkai experience is specifically focussed. The president of the District Council was the Chairman. At the panchayat level, the panchayat president was the chairman. Of the school level the president of the mother PTA was the chairman. 1858 pupils and sixty five teachers spread over 10 schools were covered. The Aksharapulari programme conducted during 1992-93, provided a strong basis for the activities. Detailed modules were prepared in a workshop where conducted in the early stage of Padanotsavam. This was used as the teacher's hand book. New technologies of evaluation were tried out to measure the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The programme was effectively monitored. The people's representatives visited the schools to solve unforeseen problems. The following possibilities emerged from this study: 1. An attempt could be made to involve the whole society in the educational planning execution to transcending the limitations of the existing parent teacher association 2. The expertises of the local level artisans were used widely in preparing classroom learning aids.

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3. The qualitative improvement of the schools by the people's interventions strengthened the parent's self-confidence encouraging the principle of neighbourhood schools. 4. A new united front could be forged consisting of pupils, teachers and guardians. 5. The re-training of teachers could be undertaken depending on the local needs and on the fast expanding horizons of knowledge; the teachers could exchange their improved expertise among themselves 6. The mother's forum helped to identify educational, psychological, nutritional and health problems of children. Ramakrishanan (2001) in his analysis of local level initiative and peoples alternatives in school education notes that though social injustice and impractical existed in the different regions which consists of Kerala Malayalees always get an awareness and constant vigil against them. These Social Reform Movernent paved the way for universal access to primary education. Thus community participation in education has a long tradition in Kerala. He makes a list of number of problems which arose out of which the most relevant are selected. 1. Community participation has given an impetus to the quantitative achievement in the field of education, but the impact on quality needs to be assessed. 2. The whole educational process has become rigid and bureaucratised totally hindering further development. 3. Competition has replaced co-operation among children and the parents are under the impression that education must be to train the child to win this cut throat competition. 4. The vested interest groups, who have an axe to grind, take advantage of this anxiety of parents and are running parallel educational centres
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with the support of cornrnunal and religious groups. Thus education has been a 'business' in Kerala. 5. Community participatior~ in education was facing the axe and by the late seventies society was almost completely alienated from the educational system. In order to overcome the defects stated above, and others Ramakrishnan suggests alternate attempts with community participation. The forerunner of this process with the help of community intervention was the formation of 'Aksharavedi' at Vellanad. It was an attempt to identify the slow learners and bring them to the main frame through child-friendly strategies spread all over Kerala. Another alternative strategy is the integrated approach in teaching tried out in 35 schools in Thiruvananthapuram district in 1989. Others were 'Science Co-living Camps' and 'Festival of Learning'. Effective community participation could be ensured in all these activities. All these as well as the experiment in the Sivapuram complex under the

leadership of District Couricils were incorporated under the peoples' learning programme. The curricular reforms that have been taking place in primary education during the past eight years have been subjected to a lot of projection in the media - both favourable and unfavourable. They have also been subjected to fairly extensive research studies. Two of them have been reviewed here in some detail because they have relevance for environmental linking, liaison with the community and to integrated pedagogy which is inevitable wherever environmental approaches are adopted. Some studies presented in the Psian Regional Conference on Educational
Technology in Trivandrum (Sivadason Pillai, K. (compiled), 1989j especially those in the technology-extension interface - are of interest in revealing some community resources and new ways of using them. Susan, in her paper presented in the Asian Education technology Conference (1989) identify the sports and games field as an unusual resource, whose potentiality has been underestimated. This is particularly important because sportsmen fare badly in school subjects. She has made out a case for disinterested underachieving sportsmen and sports fans to re-enter academics through a medium they are interested in. It has been found that the Engl~sh language (terms, vocabulary and full sentences) can be picked up effortlessly as a result of being exposed to the sports atmosphere. Several interest-centred learning materials which lead directly or indirectly to language development have been identified ad evaluated. Anandavalli Mahadeven (1989) presented a paper on "Multidisciplinarity (Infusion) Model for environmental Education - a Feasibility Survey at School Level" in the Conference. The multidiciplinarity model involves integration of the concepts with established disciplines in the curriculum. It is expected to be more practical, can be extended over long stretches of time, allows application of EE concepts, and develops problem-solving skills. In the study programme 130 teachers were involved in two phases. An outline of the key ecological concepts like the quality of the total environment and man's interference were resented through slide presentation, lectures, and demonstration by professionals The teachers were introduced to different strategies and methods of EE, like field study, experimentation, action programme, exhibition and microteaching. Based on the analysis of the responses, a of the teachers and their lesson plans for this approach the feasibility model was arrived at.
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Two papers are specially important from the community/environmental resource reading point of view. The paper of Viswanathan (1989), Director of Mitraniketan, entitled "From Rural Technology to Development Education Complex" starts with a preamble that there is no separate brand of technology called 'Rural technology, or 'Appropriate technology'. The view that these are inferior forms of technology meant for the rural

poor must be dispelled. Any technology that is appropriate to the situation is appropriate technology. This calls for choice and discrimination, not only in the designing but also in the use. Hence intrinsically appropriate technology is educative. All technology in the service of the rural sector is rural technology. It has potential educative value because often high grade science, at least as product, is exposed to and is actually used by the rural people. When the awareness of it is conscioujsly developed, it can actually become educative. Rural technology has another meaning, the ethnoscience of the rural people. CERID, Mitrraniketran is giving serious attention to it. CAF'ART and other people's science associations are also sensitive to it.. When new technologies are built upon or related to known old technologies, the chances of acceptance, intelligent use and educational yields will be high. Viswanathan presented a list of high level groups or centres working on technology for the rural sector. CSIR, CFTRRT, RRLS, AIMAP, ICAR, SLRI, CBRI, NIO, NBRI, llT, CAPART, AFPRO and IAAS come under this category. Several foreign agencies also have made valuable contributions. The development departments and research laboratories play an important part in rural development, but they think in terms of technology delivery systems and in terms of packages. Even then, the 'unpacking skills' call for some amount of education. Mitraniketan is an agency which serves such bridge and catalytic purpose. Viswanathan then went on to describe the various wings of Mitraniketan and the functions it was serving for creative and productive training
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especially to the rural people in agro horticulture, animal science, handicrafts, village industries, appropriate science and rural technology, development t of the environment, health care, formal and nonformal education, creative expression and aesthetic appreciation. Manuel (1989), Director, Centre for Educational Research, Innovation, and Development (CERID) presented a paper complementing the exposition of Viswanathan, and designed to read the appropriate technological and cultural environment educatively. It was entitled "From rural Technology/Folk Culture through Educational Technology to Enriched Individual and Community L.ivingU. While the development components in Mitraniketan might be the 'product' of hard labour of body and mind of several persons. But the product of the labour could hide the high level of intellectual process. This reading was education at its most penetrative aspect. This was the main task undertaken by CERID. This analytical task has been applied not only to the several units of Mitraniketan, but also to individual crafts and art phases, e.g., the fingers of a craftsman working a pattern in mt making or basket weaving, or of a veena vidwan performing a niraval in Carnatic music may be intuitively working with a logic which, superimposed with certain mathematical, symbols, can be seen as working problematically with complex arithmeticallgeometricallalgebraic tasks. Compared with the skills sequences and problem-identifying and solving approaches already achieved intuitively, this symbolic super-imposition is a relatively easy

task, comparable to the lower orders of the Gagnean hierarchy. A large number of co-investigators, most of them not having high paper qualifications, possess intricate skills in crafts and are teaching them. The educational technology task in process is primarily one of learning from them and analysing the skills. The educational technology products may take the form of bridge materials in enactive, iconic or (easier) symbolic forms. They can be used differently for those who have mastered the art or craft and who wish to acquire formal educational qualificationslcompetencies. In preparing the b ridge tasks, what is implicit has to be made explicit. They may have to slow down the operation and analyse it. After the hidden academic concepts begin to stand out, the symbolic association can be made. Sometimes iconic bridges too may be needed. Educational technology in the context of creative education has a duty to do all this hard and systematic task analysis, pattern analysis, refitting possibilities etc. But it must play and unobtrusive role, waiting for and
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seizing the occasion, placing the right tool at the right moment before the right person to serve the cause of educational growth and illumination. It would then serve as a bridge between the simpler level of the people's technical and artistic culture to higher levels, leading to enriched individual and community living. Two major studies covering the recent primary education curriculum reform in Kerala are reviewed in detail because they have direct relevance for the study. In fact they will be quoted again in Chapter VI, and the further analysis will be built of them. Anita Rampal (2000) reports the study undertaken by her in collaboration with Mohan Menon on Curriculum Change for Quality Education: A study of schools in DPEP and non-DPEP districts in Kerala. On the basis of tests administered she found that on certain items such as writing, reading comprehension, drawing, problem analysis, arithmetic operations, comparison, map reading and classification, children of class 4 in districts where DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) infrastructure had been well organised, not only perform remarkably better than in non-DPEP districts, but also outperforrr~ the older students of Class 8. In the present review the interest is more on the environmental and community resources being use, the activity and integrative pedagogy used. She notes that most of the classrooms visited presented a relaxed and friendly interaction between teachers and children. It is in sharp contrast to the old picture of the stern presence of the teacher with the help of a cane to highlight his role as a law-keeper, with children sitting passively and dutifully following the dictates of the teacher. Children's free response without fear of the teacher is identified as the basic condition of any learning environment. Classrooms are visibly changing, and traditional sc1i001s are slowly accepting that children need to be allowed greater freedom of expression. Sister Ferera, the
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Headmistress of Aided FMLP school at Chinnakanal, amusedly recounts how

earlier she could manage to enforce 'neatness and discipline' in school, and that children only wrote their names on their books. But now with all these activities, like paper folding and so on, children happily tear pages, make airplanes, and write all over their books. She laughingly shrugs her shoulders and benignly accepts "I now find them quite out of my control". However she also asserts that she is satisfied that her children, most of them 'poor and destitute' and looked after by the school hostel, are learning well and are gaining confidence. Rampal also recounts that Mr Basheer, the Deputy Director of Public Instruction, Palghat is unusually sensitive about child-friendly pedagogy, unlike his other colleagues, who may have been distanced from children and their developmental rieeds by the dry nature of their administrative chores. The vision of the new classrooms are as learning centres where the material needed for children are to be locally specific and need-bases; they are to be prepared by children using local resources, under the guidance of their teachers and experts in the field. In such learning centres, the child gains confidence inn facing problematic situations; interacts freely, meaningfully and joyfully with her classmates, teachers and teaching learning materials; shows interest in interacting with groups and makes use of other resources for expanding her knowledge; compares events, things, facts and findings and arrives at logical conclusions; assesses her own progress in her work, identifies errors and rectifies them with the help of peers, teachers and parents; and undertakes tasks on her own without any hesitation and selects reading material of her own choice. Rampal cites a newspaper article (Indian Express, July 31, 2000) in which under the influence of the [)PEP scheme, even the traditional Ashan Kalari in Muhamma got transformed to a friendly place. Children were taught writing by helping the child inscribe words on sand beds. Each child gets personal attention; the kids are made to dance, sing and narrate stories
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and thus develop their talents. Even newspapers which were originally critical of the scheme, like Malayala Manorama, began to give favourable reviews such as the multi-column report and large photographs describing how 'joy and music had rained during Knginikootam inauguration' (June 6, 2000). Kinginikootam is the ten-day hands-on training (following a 5-day training during vacation) held in the beginning of the year It begins with Praveshanotsavam to welcome the new entrants on the first day of school, and ends with the Adhyapaka Sangamam where all teachers gather at the panchayat level to meet the Village Education Committee members and the monitoring committee, for a thorough analysis of the training. The Rampal Committee visited some schools during the 'First Day Celebrations' where the organisation had been well done, with participation of parents and panchayat members, but noted that in some schools not all were actively engaged in strengthening their reading corners, the wall newspapers and Ente Kuttikal (My Children - record of

teachers). They suggest that such key aspects should be seriously followed up. The Committee notes that most parents were satisfied with their children's performance in school, especially about the intrinsic interest and enjoyment of schooling. Mothers were proud of children's creative efforts including stories and poems composed by them, their own story book, diary and song book. The Ralnpal committee found the participation of parents, who constitute the School Support Group (SSG) a unique aspect of the Bock Resource Centre training in Kerala. In one batch of forty participants studied by her, there were seven parents, five women and two men They were fully attentive and took part in the discussions and all the activities along with the teachers. Through this process parents and other members of the community also gain a legitimate place in the school activities and develop a meaningful bond with the teachers. For instance, in one session on 'the objectives of making a Teaching Manual', a teacher
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said that it could help a member of the SSG to take the class, if for some reason the teacher was unable to do so. However, not all SSGs are as active as they are expected to be, and there is need to again mobilise their support and keep them fully involved. The Committee cites cases where parents visited school regularly and also took classes during the last period used by teachers for the School Resource Group (SG) planning. In one lower primary school during the Kinginikootam period mothers came to conduct sessions on paper-craft, drawing etc. Some educated parents said they did not understand how to help their children at home with the new type of activities being done by children. But in ldukki, one of the backward districts, parents expressed satisfaction with what children did at home: 'They conduct experiments at home, such as, about floating and sinking of objects'; they 'know more about medicinal plants than we might know'; 'they improvise and make lamps or other useful things at home'; 'this should be extended to the higher classes so that they continue to have more practical knowledge. High school students cannot even write an application'.. But there were others who put a premium on formal literacy rather functional literacy and they felt standards were going lower. While the cooperation with cornmunity members is quite high, and the training system for activity pedagogy is on the whole quite dynamic, the Rampal Committee found an unhealthy 'defensiveness' in the non-DPEP districts. The collaboration between the SCERT and the DPEP resource group is not deep and substantial enough. It has cited instances of "discordant notes right through the training 'cascade' and we found significant disagreement even at the very top" The interest shown by the minister for education is rec:orded by the Committee, but they felt that the senior officers of the Deparlment appeared ill at ease in the face of public queries or criticism Our meting with the Director of Public Instruction in effect turned out to be a protracted debate about basic curricular issues in mathematics

teaching. Unfortunately, he was not ready to acknowledge the visible change in classrooms but insisted on his own views that 'some learning has to be painful in order to be effective'. It was clear that much more
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orientation and open sharing is required within the Education Department itself, so that its officers may understand and ably promote the pedagogy renewal process. A large number of positive and a few negative case obse~ations have been given in the Report. School 1 (Trichur District) presents evidence of the support given by the panchayat, children sitting in benches arranged in a circle and the teacher writing on the blackboard words of objects seen during a festival - the words are initiated by girl pupils, followed by boys. School 2, ldukki (a poor locality, with two posts not filled) presents Class 2 where not much activity is going on, and nearly one fourth cannot read or write properly. But in the very same school the English Second Language Acquisition Programme with Class 5 pupils who have studied the language for only one year, resents a different picture: They talk confidently, even though their teacher is not as confident, and are not inhibited by their lack of fluency. They narrate a story from their lesson and excitedly try gto carry on a conversation, asking questions, responding to our queries, etc. They know names of many trees and vegetables gfrOown in their houses, and tell us that they walk up to four kms to school. The HM tells us that parents are very happy with the progress children have made in English. In fact, those who send their wards to private schools say they are ready to shift them here if his school can also arrange for a school bus. The Committee was also informed about the sahavas (residential) camp held in the school for underachieving 'backward' children of classes 3-4. Parents too had joined in and helped in the cooking etc. It became like a 'mela' (celebration) and was highly appreciated by the community. DPEP Programme Officer informed that 250 such camps have been conducted. School 3 (Kozhikode District) was the most disappointing. Traditional methods of teaching and policing were adopted. School 4 (Kasargode District) displays children 's drawings and charts. Children respond happily and confidently. The school has an active Parent Teacher Association and a garden with many trees and medicinal plants. School 6 (Malappuram District) has no playground space, but the new building were constructed out of the funds of the local Member of Parliament. The lesson on plants (class 3) was done actively in an environment-related
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way. Children in the school seem to have conducted many projects. The Committee observed the planning stages for preparing a poster for the market place to promote aware ness on environmental pollution. There are other schools too where children work on their own even when the teacher is other wise engaged. On the whole he new approach has popularised active, independent, environment-oriented and communityresourcetapping approaches, though there were resistant and dissenting voices too.

Manuel (2001) conducted a study on Integrative Approaches in Classroom Transaction of Poothiri Texts, Subtexts, Inter-texts and Contexts: Problems Solutions, Relevant functional Theory Illustrated with Practical Models. The study starts with calling attention to the existing state of affa~rs in the formal school where the time and transaction have been neatly divided into 'gong-regulated periods and book-regulated subjects'. Teachers are accustomed to teach in this style, but it is unnatural for the very young child. Hence attempts were made to integrate the approaches in the lower classes. But the attempts failed. The DPEP scheme works on the model of language, arithmetic and environmental studies treated as one integral unit in Classes 1 and 2. This is understood by ordinary people and even by some educators as presenting in one book called Poothiri what was earlier presented in three books. This accounts for some of the misunderstandings about the project. The textbook transaction alone will not effect the integration. lnteg;ation has to be in the educative experience of the pupil. In fact the DPEP scheme does not depend on the book alone. The term refers to the pupils' text -- which is called Poothiri in Malayalam, Katambam in Tamil and Jok:ali in Kannada. The Teachers' Handbooks which give clear instructions about how to transact the curriculum 'around' the text, as swell as the environment are included under the term 'Subtext'. Inter-texts refer to the extra books referred to or used in the class, the
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teacher-made and pupil-made materials to enrich the curriculum transaction. Context includes all the environmental, administrative, social stereotype factors which might promote, sustain or hamper curriculum transaction, contributing to DPEP image-making or image-breaking. The project is elaborate covering several objectives. Manuel used lot of analysis - conceptual, documentary, situational, and structural. He also conducted two quantitative surveys. Plenty of qualitative methodology was adopted to get qualitative transferable findings. The present review focuses only those aspects that are relevant to the theme of the present research. One set of results in the study is a condense presentation of integrative pedagogy theory drawn from the modern critique of the school (Rousseau, Illich, Freire); creators of childhood education system (Froebel and Montessori); Decroly who represents those who moved from therapy to education; the new educ:ation (\'education nouvelle) represented by Cousinet, Indian national ~?ducators(T agore ad Gandhiji), Work-centred liberal educators abroad (Dewey and Krupskaya), constructive intelligence and developmental stages. (Piaget and Bruner); Vygotsky, the social constructionist; the behaviourist, Skinner; the humanists (Rogers and Maslow); and some modern themes relevant for activity pedagogy (experiential education and creative education). Some of the contributions brought out above refer to mental structure, developmental stages etc. Of specific interest for the study is the fact that almost all of them have attacked isolated pedagogy. Most of them insist on contextual,

community-related, environment-oriented education. The attitude scale consisting of 35 items related to integrated pedagogy (including components such as activity, environment and community orientation) was administered to 593 members of the public (including parents) (315 men and 278 women) drawn from all the six 'DPEP districts' and three 'non-DPEP districts'. The mean of total scores in non-DPEP
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districts is 106.97 (just 1.97 higher than the neutral score of 105 for a 35item scale. The mean in DPEP districts is 118.46 (13.5 higher than the neutral mean. Thus the attitude is more favourable in the DPEP districts. Among the DPEP districts ldukki (127.60) and Wayanadu (121.97) are distinctly higher than the rest. Among the non-DPEP districts Ernakulam alone stands distinctly low, with a score of 96.13, well below the neutral score. The Likert-type scale perrnits analysis of scores of individual items and compare them. Among the high-ranking items those relating to children's joy in going to school (Rank 2), 'makes learning interesting' (Rank 3), 'helps children to think for themselves' (Rank 4.5), 'helps children to express themselves without fear' (Rank 4.5), 'develops learning based on play and activities' (Rank 7:1, 'Learning becomes more meaningful because drawn out of experience (Rank 6), 'Develops children's imagination and creativity' (Rank 8) refer to the individual gains, but even they have relevance for the environmental approaches because these are gains from a pedagogy which breaks away from verbal, passive approaches. But it is interesting that the item which gets the first rank is directly environmental: 'helps learning to transcend the limits of the classroom and extend to the home and the environment' 'helps to approach problems with a sense of reality' is also a typical environment-oriented item (Rank 10). Another environmental item is 'Textbook helps the teacher to use situations like festivals and seasons to develop the lesson' (Rank 14). The item 'Helps even handicapped children to be accepted in the school' (Rank 9) represents a social concern for the weak members of the society. Another items with a clear social relevance is 'creates situations in which the school, teacher and various social agencies cooperate in learning activities' (Rank 12). Two items with clear social relevance fall exactly at the median: 'The school learning is improved through identifying the learning resources in social institutions' (Rank 17.5), and 'Chances of improving the standard of education are high through cooperative learning'
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(Rank 17.5). Though these two items share the middle ranks, the item mean (3.31 is well above the neutral score of 3.00.). On the negative side, while environmental investigation is definitely educative, it may degenerate in the hands of an unskilful or irresponsible teacher. This perception is tested with an item which earns a low rank: 'Lessons consist only in collecting leaves, flowers and fruits' (Rank 23), but even here the item mean (3.15) is higher than the neutral point. On the whole, it may be inferred that the new approaches when actually adopted makes learning,

more interesting, more enjoyable, more creative etc.. and also extends the learning environment beyond the school classroom and develops several social values in a form admitted by most parents. The questionnaire responses suggest that some parent committed to oppose the scheme, do admit some of the benefits, though reluctantly. The Teachers' Handbooks were defined as the subtexts. These books give excellent practical suggestions about using the environment for drawing out educational objectives, and for using the material and human resources of the community. The materials prepared by the teachers and pupils were defined as the inter-text. A questionnaire administered from 132 teachers elicited the extent to which the teacherlpupil-made materials exceed the amount they were made before the scheme came into operation. The judgement was on the basis of whether the amount of materials or relevant teacherlpupil behaviour is now More, Less or the Same. Comparisons are by the index of More-Less. Only the environmental/community-oriented items are highlighted in this summary. Closer relations between home and school records the highest increase with an index of 118. 'Closer relations between the community and school' gets an index of 112 (Rank 7). 'Integration of the home and school' increases by 110 (Rank 10.5). Among pupils' mathematics-related behaviour, comparison of sizes and shapes in the environment (am good grounding for real mathematics) records clear
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improvement with an index of 115 (Rank 4.5). Measuring and recording (from the environment t) has an index of 11 1 (Rank 8.5). Relating mathematics to life has a increase index of 95 (Rank 17). Sensing problems occurring in life and finding solutions has an index 57 (Rank 23). Among pupils' general behawour, number of teacher-made learning materials (from the environment) has an index of 113 (Rank 6.5). Number of pupil-developed learning materials gets 115 (Rank 4.5). Teacher's innovative adaptations gets 86 (Rank la).. Another item in the teachers' questionnaire in which the environmentoriented items can be gleaned for the present purposes pertains to 'The ways in which the textbook is supplemented for effective curriculum transaction'. Several teacher behaviours are rated on a 3-poin scale, weighted as 2 (Often), 1 (Sometimes), 0 (Never). The comparisons are by overall mean scores which can vary from 2 to 0. Only the environmentoriented items are highlighted here. In teaching language. 'eliciting the environmental words focussing key letters and writing tern on the blackboard' gets the second rank (Mean 1.61). 'Discussion on environmental themes (Rain etc.:~ to draw, language, maths, science' has a mean of 1.52 (Rank 6.5). 'Starting off the pupil's names and other dominant ideas to trigger litel-acy' gets a mean of 1.29 (Rank 11). One important aspect of Manuel's work is the analysis of texts, subtexts etc. In integrative pedagogy suggested in the handbook, reading does not start from the letter, but froni the idea in the context. Thence, sentences are read holistically, deconstructed into word and letter, to be again

reconstructed letter+word+sentence. It is in environmental studies (especially that of Class 2) that the textbook excels, providing plenty of opportunity for holistic experience, to branch off ingot communication and language, comparing, measurement and mathematics, observation, hypothesising, making various kinds of tests and verification developing scientific skills.
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The context analysed in the research is not on ly that of the physical environment, but also the social and administrative climate. There is also a climate of joy, cooperatiori and celebration. There is also a climate of resistance, and often resolution Some of the criticisms made aga~nst DPEP are analysed here. One criticism against DPEP is that the principle of deconstructing holistic experience into components, analysing them and rebuilding them into larger units is not easy for the ordinary teacher. Many teachers do some holistic play, and then teach language and arithmetic by the old method. In the methods suggested in the training sessions some ways of bridging have been developed. Manuel has suggested some methods of maintaining the integration, but gently and naturally facilitate the deconstruction. This has been suggested for mathematics as well as language. The method of drawing out mathematics from rhythmic poetry, by first securing the enactive form through clapping, rapping, stamping, dancing etc., then writing out the poems on a large chart, grouping into bars (ganams) marked out by vertical lines, and pasting secants in each bar to get the iconic form. Whereas the enactive mathematics is fleeting the iconic form can be gazed at leisure, till a pattern emerges. If the symbolic numbers etc are given at this stage, insights and mathematical gestalts can be developed. A special looped wire wide enough to hold ten beads is arranged in such a way that problems like 5+7=12 can be solved within insight, answering some children's unspoken question, "Sow do two large numbers 5 and 7 become two small numbers , 1 and 2. Games around the wire help to develop the schema of ten with the digit moving one place left, the one on the left having a value of ten which the child can grasp. In Malayalam reading garnes are suggested to help deconstruction of 'vallis' (vowel diacriticals in Malayalam graphemes), to separate conjuncts and to read and write the complex Malayalam 'a' with ease. The teachers and trainers also do a large number of action researches which are reported in the publications of the Block and District Resource Centres. Most of them are very valuable for meeting the immediate needs of the teachers and pupils. Some of them are of a very high level.

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