EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I NTRODUCTI ON ...................................................................................................... 3  
BROADBAND DEVELOPMENTS ................................................................................ 5 
WI RELESS DATA MARKET ....................................................................................... 8  
Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
EDGE/ HSPA/ HSPA+ Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
St at ist ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
WI RELESS TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTI ON AND MI GRATI ON ....................................... 15 
Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 
3GPP Evolut ionary Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 
Spect rum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Core- Net work Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 
Service Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 
Broadband- Wireless Deployment Considerat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
Feat ure and Net work Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
COMPETI NG TECHNOLOGI ES ................................................................................ 29  
CDMA2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 
WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 
I EEE 802. 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
Wi- Fi and Municipal Wi- Fi Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
COMPARI SON OF WI RELESS TECHNOLOGI ES ....................................................... 36  
Dat a Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 
HSDPA Throughput in Represent at ive Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 
Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 
LTE Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 
Lat ency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 
Spect ral Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 
Cost , Volume and Market Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 
Compet it ive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 
CONCLUSI ON ........................................................................................................ 56  
APPENDI X: TECHNOLOGY DETAI LS ...................................................................... 58 
EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 
Evolved EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 
UMTS/ HSPA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 
UMTS Release 99 Dat a Capabilit ies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 
HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 
HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 
Evolut ion of HSPA ( HSPA+ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 
HSPA Voice Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 
3GPP LTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 
4G, I MT- Advanced and LTE Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 
UMTS TDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 
TD- SCDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 
I MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 
Broadcast / Mult icast Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 
EPC/ SAE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 
ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... 96  
ADDI TI ONAL I NFORMATI ON .............................................................................. 100 
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 100  

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 3
Introduction
Through const ant innovat ion, Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em ( UMTS) wit h
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) t echnology and it s evolut ion t o beyond t hird generat ion
( 3G) has est ablished it self as t he global, mobile- broadband solut ion. Building on t he
phenomenal success of Global Syst em for Mobile Communicat ions ( GSM) , t he GSM/ UMTS
ecosyst em is becoming t he most successful communicat ions t echnology family ever.
Through a process of const ant improvement , t he GSM family of t echnologies has not only
mat ched or exceeded t he capabilit ies of all compet ing approaches, but has significant ly
ext ended t he life of each of it s member t echnologies.
UMTS/ HSPA, in part icular, has many key t echnical and business advant ages over ot her
mobile wireless t echnologies. Operat ors worldwide are now deploying bot h High Speed
Downlink Packet Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) , t he
combinat ion of t he t wo t echnologies called simply HSPA. HSPA is one of t he most powerful
cellular- dat a t echnologies ever developed. HSPA, already widely available, follows t he
successful deployment of UMTS net works around t he world and is now a st andard feat ure.
Any operat or deploying UMTS t oday is doing so wit h HSPA. The UMTS- t o- HSPA upgrade is
similar t o Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion ( EDGE) , which has already proven t o be a
remarkably effect ive upgrade t o GSM net works, and HSPA ( or HSDPA for some net works) is
now support ed by an overwhelming number of operat ors and vendors worldwide.
HSPA is st rongly posit ioned t o be t he dominant mobile- dat a t echnology for t he rest of t he
decade. To leverage operat or invest ment s in HSPA, t he 3GPP ( Third Generat ion Part nership
Proj ect ) st andards body has developed a series of enhancement s t o creat e “ HSPA
Evolut ion, ” also referred t o as “ HSPA+ . ” HSPA Evolut ion represent s a logical development of
t he Wideband Code Division Mult iple Access ( WCDMA) approach, and it is t he st epping st one
t o an ent irely new Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect ( 3GPP) radio plat form called 3GPP
Long Term Evolut ion ( LTE) . LTE, which uses Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
( OFDMA) , should be ready for deployment in t he 2010 t imeframe. Simult aneously, 3GPP —
recognizing t he significant worldwide invest ment s in GSM net works—has defined
enhancement s t hat will significant ly increase EDGE dat a capabilit ies t hrough an effort called
Evolved EDGE.
Combined wit h t hese improvement s in radio- access t echnology, 3GPP has also spearheaded
t he development of maj or core- net work archit ect ure enhancement s such as t he I P
Mult imedia Subsyst em ( I MS) and t he Evolved Packet Core ( or EPC, previously called Syst em
Archit ect ure Evolut ion or SAE) , as well as development s in Fixed Mobile Convergence ( FMC) .
These development s will facilit at e new t ypes of services, t he int egrat ion of legacy and new
net works, t he convergence bet ween fixed and wireless syst ems, and t he t ransit ion from
circuit - swit ched approaches for voice t raffic t o a fully packet - swit ched model.
The result is a balanced port folio of complement ary t echnologies t hat covers bot h radio-
access and core net works, provides operat ors maximum flexibilit y in how t hey enhance t heir
net works over t ime, and support s bot h voice and dat a services.
This paper discusses t he evolut ion of EDGE, HSPA enhancement s, 3GPP LTE, t he capabilit ies
of t hese t echnologies, and t heir posit ion relat ive t o ot her primary compet ing t echnologies.
The following are some of t he import ant observat ions and conclusions of t his paper:
 Persist ent innovat ion creat ed EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS;
HSPA and HSPA+ , which are bringing UMTS t o it s full pot ent ial; and is now delivering
LTE, t he most powerful, wide- area wireless t echnology ever developed.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 4
 GSM/ UMTS has an overwhelming global posit ion in t erms of subscribers,
deployment , and services. I t s success will marginalize ot her wide- area wireless
t echnologies.
 I n current deployment s, HSPA users regularly experience t hroughput rat es well in
excess of 1 megabit per second ( Mbps) , under favorable condit ions, on bot h
downlinks and uplinks. Planned enhancement s will increase t hese peak user-
achievable t hroughput rat es, wit h 4 Mbps on commercial net works being commonly
measured.
 HSPA Evolut ion provides a st rat egic performance roadmap advant age for incumbent
GSM/ UMTS operat ors. HSPA+ wit h 2x2 MI MO, successive int erference cancellat ion,
and 64 Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion ( QAM) is more spect rally efficient t han
compet ing t echnologies including Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
( WiMAX) Wave 2 wit h 2x2 MI MO and Evolved Dat a Opt imized ( EV- DO) Revision B.
 The LTE Radio Access Net work t echnical specificat ion was approved in January 2008
and is being incorporat ed int o 3GPP Release 8, which is close t o complet ion. I nit ial
deployment s are likely t o occur around 2010. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in
LTE mat ches or exceeds t he capabilit ies of any ot her OFDMA syst em. Peak
t heoret ical rat es are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidt h. LTE assumes a full
I nt ernet Prot ocol ( I P) net work archit ect ure, and it is designed t o support voice in t he
packet domain.
 LTE has become t he t echnology plat form of choice as GSM/ UMTS and CDMA/ EV- DO
operat ors are making st rat egic long- t erm decisions on t heir next - generat ion
plat forms. I n June of 2008, aft er ext ensive evaluat ion, LTE was t he first and only
t echnology recognized by t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net work alliance t o meet it s
broad requirement s.
 GSM/ HSPA will comprise t he overwhelming maj orit y of subscribers over t he next five
t o t en years, even as new wireless t echnologies are adopt ed. The deployment of LTE
and it s coexist ence wit h UMTS/ HSPA will be analogous t o t he deployment of
UMTS/ HSPA and it s coexist ence wit h GSM.
 3GPP is now st udying how t o enhance LTE t o meet t he requirement s of I MT-
Advanced in a proj ect called LTE Advanced.
 UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE have significant economic advant ages over ot her wireless
t echnologies.
 WiMAX has developed an ecosyst em support ed by many companies, but it will st ill
only represent a very small percent age of wireless subscribers over t he next five t o
t en years.
 EDGE t echnology has proven ext remely successful and is widely deployed on GSM
net works globally. Advanced capabilit ies wit h Evolved EDGE can double and
event ually quadruple current EDGE t hroughput rat es.
 Wit h a UMTS mult iradio net work, a common core net work can efficient ly support
GSM, WCDMA, and HSPA access net works and offer high efficiency for bot h high and
low dat a rat es, as well as for bot h high- and low- t raffic densit y configurat ions. I n t he
fut ure, EPC/ SAE will provide a new core net work t hat support s bot h LTE and
int eroperabilit y wit h legacy GSM/ UMTS radio- access net works.
 I nnovat ions such as EPC/ SAE and UMTS one- t unnel archit ect ure will “ flat t en” t he
net work, simplifying deployment and reducing lat ency.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 5
 Circuit - swit ched, voice over HSPA, t hen moving t o Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
( VoI P) over HSPA will add t o voice capacit y and reduce infrast ruct ure cost s. I n t he
meant ime, UMTS/ HSPA enj oys high circuit - swit ched voice spect ral efficiency, and it
can combine voice and dat a on t he same radio channel.
This paper begins wit h an overview of t he market , looking at t rends, EDGE and UMTS/ HSPA
deployment s, and market st at ist ics. I t t hen examines t he evolut ion of wireless t echnology,
part icularly 3GPP t echnologies, including spect rum considerat ions, core- net work evolut ion,
broadband- wireless deployment considerat ions, and a feat ure and net work roadmap. Next ,
t he paper discusses ot her wireless t echnologies, including Code Division Mult iple Access
2000 ( CDMA2000) , Ult ra Mobile Broadband ( UMB) , and WiMAX. Finally, it compares t he
different wireless t echnologies t echnically, based on feat ures such as performance and
spect ral efficiency.
The appendix explains in det ail t he capabilit ies and workings of t he different t echnologies
including EDGE, Evolved EDGE, WCDMA
1
, HSPA, HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , LTE, I MS, and
SAE.
Broadband Developments
As wireless t echnology represent s an increasing port ion of t he global communicat ions
infrast ruct ure, it is import ant t o underst and overall broadband t rends and t he role bet ween
wireless and wireline t echnologies. Somet imes wireless and wireline t echnologies compet e
wit h each ot her, but in most inst ances t hey are complement ary. For t he most part , backhaul
t ransport and core infrast ruct ure for wireless net works are based on wireline approaches,
whet her opt ical or copper. This applies as readily t o Wi- Fi net works as it does t o cellular
net works.
Given t hat t he inherent capacit y of one fiber opt ical link exceeds t he ent ire available radio
frequency ( RF) spect rum, dat a flow over wireless links will never represent more t han a
small percent age of t he t ot al global communicat ions t raffic. Nevert heless, wireless
t echnology is playing a profound role in net working and communicat ions, because it
provides t wo fundament al capabilit ies: mobilit y and access. Mobilit y refers t o unt et hered
communicat ion whet her st at ionery or in mot ion. Access refers t o communicat ion services,
whet her t elephony or I nt ernet , easily provided across geographic areas and oft en more
easily accomplished t han wit h wireline approaches, especially in greenfield sit uat ions where
t here is lit t le exist ing communicat ions infrast ruct ure. Thus, given t hese charact erist ics,
mobile communicat ions volume may be less t han wireline, but it s overall cont ribut ion t o
communicat ions in t he world and it s social, polit ical and economic impact , is j ust as
significant .
The overwhelming global success of mobile t elephony, and now t he growing adopt ion of
mobile dat a, conclusively demonst rat e t he desire for mobile- orient ed communicat ions. The
quest ion of using wireless t echnology, however, for access is more complex. One must
consider t he performance and capacit y of wireless t echnologies relat ive t o wireline
approaches, what wireline infrast ruct ure may already be available, and ongoing
development s wit h wireline t echnology. I n part icular, wireline net works have always had
great er capacit y, and hist orically have delivered fast er t hroughput rat es. Figure 1 shows
advances in t ypical user t hroughput rat es, and a consist ent 10x advant age of wireline
t echnologies over wireless t echnologies.

1
Alt hough many use t he t erms “ UMTS” and “ WCDMA” int erchangeably, in t his paper we use “ WCDMA”
when referring t o t he radio int erface t echnology used wit hin UMTS and “ UMTS” t o refer t o t he
complet e syst em. HSPA is an enhancement t o WCDMA.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 6
Fi gur e 1: Wi r el i ne and Wi r el ess Advances
2010 2000 2005
100 kbps
10 kbps
1 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
GPRS 40 kbps
UMTS 350 kbps
HSDPA 1 Mbps
HSPA+ 5 Mbps
LTE 10 Mbps
EDGE 100 kbps
ADSL 1 Mbps
ISDN
128 kbps
ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps
ADSL2+ 25 Mbps
FTTH 100 Mbps

Mobile broadband combines compelling high- speed dat a services wit h mobilit y. Thus, t he
opport unit ies are limit less when considering t he many diverse market s mobile broadband
can successfully address. I n developing count ries, t here is no doubt t hat 3G t echnology will
cat er t o bot h ent erprises and t heir high- end mobile workers and consumers, for whom 3G
can be a cost - effect ive opt ion, compet ing wit h digit al subscriber line ( DSL) , for home use.
I n t he developed world, users’ desire t o be connect ed anyt ime, anywhere will be a primary
source of demand. While consumer demand for social and search services, such as
Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Yahoo, and Google, increases t he demand for mobile-
broadband capabilit ies, t he maj orit y of early adopt ers of mobile broadband have been
ent erprises. Bet t er connect ivit y means a business is more efficient . As a result , ent erprise
broadband- connect ivit y adopt ion is t aking on t he same “ look and feel” as early mobile-
phone service adopt ion. I n t he early 1990s, doct ors, lawyers, salespeople, and execut ives
already had home phones, office desk phones, and even recept ionist s. I t was t he
product ivit y increases associat ed wit h being connect ed t o a cellular net work, however, t hat
accelerat ed mobile- broadband growt h t hroughout t he world. Port io Research predict ed in
June 2008 t hat worldwide mobile dat a revenue would increase at an annual rat e of 16
percent t o reach $252 billion t he end of 2012.
2

Overall, whet her in business or in our personal lives, t he world of voice and dat a is quickly
becoming one t hat must be unt et hered, but always connect ed.
Alt hough it is t rue t hat most 3G syst ems are now offering t hroughput s of about 1 Mbps—
which is comparable t o what many users experience wit h a basic DSL or cable- modem
service—t he overall capacit y of wireless syst ems is generally lower t han it is wit h wireline
syst ems. This is especially t rue when wireless is compared t o opt ical fiber, which some

2
“ Mobile Dat a Services Market s 2008” , Port io Research, June 11, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 7
operat ors are now deploying t o people’s homes. Wit h wireline operat ors looking t o provide
20 t o 100 Mbps t o eit her people’s homes or businesses via next - generat ion cable- modem
services, very high- speed DSL ( VDSL) , or fiber—especially for services such as high-
definit ion I P Television ( I PTV) —t he quest ion becomes, is it possible t o mat ch t hese rat es
using wireless approaches? The answer is “ yes” from a purely t echnical perspect ive, but it is
“ no” from a pract ical point of view. I t is only possible t o achieve t hese rat es by using large
amount s of spect rum, generally more t han is available for current 3G syst ems, and by using
relat ively small cell sizes. Ot herwise, it simply will not be possible t o deliver t he hundreds of
gigabyt es per mont h t hat users will soon be consuming over t heir broadband connect ions
wit h wide- area wireless net works. Consider t oday’s high definit ion ( HD) t elevision cont ent
t hat demands 6 t o 9 Mbps of cont inuous connect ivit y, where one subscriber could
essent ially consume t he ent ire capacit y of a WiMAX or HSPA cell sect or. The only possible
wireless approach t o address such high- dat a consumpt ion is wit h FMC approaches, such as
femt o cells ( or dual mode Wi- Fi/ 3G devices, as shown in Figure 2. This presupposes,
however, an exist ing wireline I nt ernet connect ion ( e. g. , DSL) .
Fi gur e 2: FMC Used t o Ex pand Capaci t y
Macro-Cell
Coverage
Femto-Cell
Coverage
Aggregate femto-cell
capacity far exceeds
macro-cell capacity
for same amount
of spectrum

What makes much more sense t oday is using wireless t echnology for access only when
t here are no good wireline alt ernat ives. Hence, t he int erest developing count ries have in
broadband- wireless t echnologies. What changes t he dynamics of t he business model in
t hese areas is t hat operat ors can cost - effect ively deploy voice ( which is inherent ly low
bandwidt h) and lower- speed dat a services, most ly because of t he lack of wireline offerings.
Deploying at lower capacit y—as measured by lower bit s per second ( bps) per square
kilomet er—means larger cell sizes, and t hus fewer cell sit es and much lower deployment
cost s.
Table 1 summarizes t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of wireless versus wireline broadband
approaches.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 8

Tabl e 1: St r engt hs and Weak ness of Br oadband Appr oaches
St r engt h Weak ness
Mobi l e br oadband ( EDGE,
HSPA, LTE)
Const ant connect ivit y
Broadband capabilit y across
ext remely wide areas
Good access solut ion for
areas lacking wireline
infrast ruct ure
Capacit y enhancement
opt ions via FMC
Excellent voice
communicat ions
Lower capacit y t han wireline
approaches
I nabilit y t o serve high-
bandwidt h applicat ions such
as I P TV
Wi r el i ne br oadband ( e.g.,
DSL, DOCSI S, FTTH)
High capacit y broadband at
very high dat a rat es
Evolut ion t o ext remely high
t hroughput rat es
Expensive t o deploy new
net works, especially in
developing economies
lacking infrast ruct ure

This is not a st at ic sit uat ion, however. I n t he longer t erm, a number of development s could
make high- capacit y broadband- wireless syst ems more compet it ive wit h wireline
approaches. Among t hese development s are mesh capabilit ies t o reduce deployment cost s,
higher spect ral efficiency, low- cost commodit ized base st at ions, and fut ure spect rum
allocat ions for mobile- broadband syst ems. However, any such fut ure success is somewhat
speculat ive and dependent on many development s including t echnology and broadband
applicat ion evolut ion.
3GPP t echnologies clearly address proven market needs; hence, t heir overwhelming
success. The 3GPP roadmap, which ant icipat es cont inual performance and capacit y
improvement s, provides t he t echnical means t o deliver on proven business models. As t he
applicat ions for mobile broadband cont inue t o expand, HSPA, HSPA+ , LTE and LTE
Advanced will cont inue t o provide a compet it ive plat form for t omorrow’s new business
opport unit ies.
Wireless Data Market
By August 2008, over 3. 2 billion subscribers were using GSM/ UMTS
3
—approaching an
ast onishing 50 percent of t he world’s t ot al 6. 7 billion populat ion.
4
I nforma’s World Cellular
I nformat ion Service proj ect s over 4 billion GSM/ UMTS cust omers by 2010, wit h 742 million
of t hese subscribers using UMTS services.
5
3G Americas President Chris Pearson st at es,
“ This level of wireless t echnology growt h exceeds t hat of almost all ot her lifest yle- changing

3
I nforma Telecoms & Media, August 2008.
4
ht t p: / / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ World_populat ion, July 2008
5
I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 9
innovat ions.”
6
Clearly, GSM/ UMTS has est ablished global dominance. Alt hough voice st ill
const it ut es most cellular t raffic, wireless dat a worldwide now comprises 17 percent of
average revenue per user ( ARPU) . I n t he Unit ed St at es, wireless dat a is more t han 20
percent of ARPU for t he t hree largest operat ors.
7
This number could easily double wit hin
t hree years, and operat ors across Nort h and Sout h America are confirming t his growt h wit h
t heir report s of rising dat a ARPU.
This sect ion examines t rends and deployment , and t hen provides market dat a t hat
demonst rat es t he rapid growt h of wireless dat a.
Trends
Users are adopt ing wireless dat a across a wide range of applicat ions, including e- mail,
social net working, game downloads, inst ant messaging ( I M) , ringt ones, and video.
Wireless dat a in ent erprise applicat ions like group collaborat ion, ent erprise resource
planning ( ERP) , cust omer relat ionship management ( CRM) , and dat abase access is also
gaining accept ance. The simult aneous adopt ion by bot h consumers, for ent ert ainment -
relat ed services, and businesses, t o enhance product ivit y, increases t he ret urn- on-
invest ment pot ent ial for wireless operat ors.
A number of import ant fact ors are accelerat ing t he adopt ion of wireless dat a. These
include increased user awareness, innovat ive “ feat ure phones” , powerful smart phones,
and global coverage. But t wo fact ors st and out : net work capabilit y and applicat ions.
Technologies such as GSM, UMTS, and HSPA support a wide range of applicat ions,
including st andard net working applicat ions and t hose designed for wireless. Meanwhile,
applicat ion and cont ent suppliers are opt imizing t heir offerings or, in many cases,
developing ent irely new applicat ions and cont ent t o t arget t he needs and desires of
mobile users.
Comput ing it self is becoming more mobile, and not ebook comput ers and smart phones
are now prevalent . I n fact , all mobile phones are becoming “ smart , ” wit h some form of
dat a capabilit y, and leading not ebook vendors are now offering comput ers wit h
int egrat ed 3G ( e. g. , HSPA) capabilit ies. Modems are available in mult iple format s
including USB devices, PC Cards and Express cards.
Comput er manufact urers are also experiment ing wit h new form fact ors, such as ult ra-
mobile PCs, “ net book” comput ers and mobile I nt ernet devices ( MI Ds) . Lifest yles at home
and at work are increasingly mobile wit h more people t raveling more oft en for business,
for pleasure or in ret irement . Meanwhile, t he I nt ernet is becoming progressively more
int ert wined wit h people’s lives providing communicat ions, social net working,
informat ion, enhancement s t o memberships and subscript ions, communit y involvement ,
and commerce. Wireless access t o t he I nt ernet in t his environment is a powerful cat alyst
for t he creat ion of new services. I t also provides operat ors and ot her t hird- part y
providers wit h many new business opport unit ies.
As dat a const it ut es a rising percent age of t ot al cellular t raffic, it is essent ial t hat
operat ors deploy spect rally efficient dat a t echnologies t hat meet cust omer requirement s
for performance—especially because dat a applicat ions can demand significant ly more
net work resources t han t radit ional voice services. Operat ors have a huge invest ment in
spect rum and in t heir net works; dat a services must leverage t hese invest ment s. I t is
only a mat t er of t ime before t oday’s more t han 3 billion cellular cust omers st art t aking

6
3G Americas press release of June 5, 2007.
7
ht t p: / / www.chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 10
full advant age of dat a capabilit ies. This adopt ion will offer t remendous opport unit ies and
t he associat ed risks t o operat ors as t hey choose t he most commercially viable
evolut ionary pat h for migrat ing t heir cust omers. The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE evolut ionary pat hs
provide dat a capabilit ies t hat address market needs and deliver ever- higher dat a
t hroughput s, lower lat ency, and increased spect ral efficiency.
Alt hough wireless dat a has always offered a t ant alizing vision of always- connect ed
mobile comput ing, adopt ion has been slower t han t hat for voice services. I n t he past
several years, however, adopt ion has accelerat ed t hanks t o a number of key
development s. Net works are much more capable, delivering higher t hroughput s at lower
cost . Awareness of dat a capabilit ies has increased, especially t hrough t he pervasive
success of Short Message Service ( SMS) , wireless e- mail, downloadable ringt ones, and
downloadable games. Widespread availabilit y of services has also been import ant . The
feat ures found in cellular t elephones are expanding at a rapid rat e and t oday include
large color displays, graphics viewers, st ill cameras, movie cameras, MP3 players, I M
client s, e- mail client s, Push- t o- Talk over Cellular ( PoC) , downloadable execut able
cont ent capabilit ies, and ever more powerful browsers. All t hese capabilit ies consume
dat a.
Meanwhile, smart phones, which emphasize a rich comput ing environment on a phone,
represent t he convergence of t he personal digit al assist ant , a fully capable mobile
comput er, and a phone, all in a device t hat is only slight ly larger t han t he average
cellular t elephone. Many users would prefer t o carry one device t hat “ does it all. ”
Smart phones, originally t arget ed for t he high end of t he market , are now available at
much lower price point s and t hus affordable t o a much larger market segment . ABI
Research predict s t hat t he smart phone market , which was 10% of t he t ot al market in
2007, will become 31% of t he market in 2013.
8
This number may be conservat ive as t he
iPhone demonst rat es t he lat ent market demand for devices t hat enable rich mult imedia
and communicat ions capabilit ies.
As a consequence, t his rich net work and device environment is spawning t he availabilit y
of a wide range of wireless applicat ions and cont ent . Because of it s growing size—and it s
unassailable pot ent ial—applicat ion and cont ent developers simply cannot afford t o ignore
t his market . And t hey aren’t . Consumer cont ent developers are already successfully
providing downloadable ringt ones and games. Enabled by 3G net work capabilit ies,
downloadable and st reaming music and video are not far behind. I n t he ent erprise
space, all t he maj or developers now offer mobilized “ wireless- friendly” component s for
t heir applicat ions. A recent art icle in Net work Comput ing surveyed maj or ent erprise
applicat ion vendors, including I BM, Oracle, Salesforce. com, SAP, and Sybase and found
comprehensive support for mobile plat forms from each of t hese vendors.
9

Act ing as cat alyst s, a wide array of middleware providers are addressing issues such as
increased securit y ( for example, Virt ual Privat e Net works [ VPNs] ) , swit ching bet ween
different net works ( for example, WLANs t o 3G) , session maint enance under adverse
radio condit ions, and policy mechanisms t hat cont rol applicat ion access t o net works.
A number of ot her powerful cat alyst s are spurring wireless- dat a innovat ion. Pricing for
unlimit ed
10
usage has declined subst ant ially for bot h lapt op and handset plans, t hus
encouraging great er numbers of users t o adopt dat a services. Operat ors are seeing

8
“ One in Three Handset s Will Be a Smart phone by 2013” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. wirelessweek. com/ art icle.aspx?id= 158452
9
“ Reach Me if You Can, ” May 2007, Pet er Rysavy, ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com/ papers. ht ml
10
Typically, some rest rict ions apply.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 11
considerable success wit h music sales. New services such as video sharing are being
enabled by I MS, which will also facilit at e FMC and seamless communicat ions experiences
t hat span cellular and Wi- Fi net works. Meanwhile, users are responding ent husiast ically
t o locat ion- based services, banks are let t ing t heir account holders manipulat e t heir
account s using handheld devices, and users have an increasing number of mobile
opt ions for real- t ime t ravel informat ion and manipulat ion of t hat informat ion.
I n t he ent erprise space, t he first st age of wireless t echnology adopt ion was essent ially t o
replace modem connect ivit y. The next was t o offer exist ing applicat ions on new
plat forms like smart phones. But t he final, and much more import ant , st age is where
j obs are reengineered t o t ake full advant age of cont inuous connect ivit y. Select ive
t act ical adopt ion of mobile applicat ions such as wireless e- mail is a good st art ing point
for many organizat ions. However, companies t hat carefully adopt mobile applicat ions in
a more st rat egic fashion across mult iple business unit s are finding t hey can significant ly
increase t heir compet it iveness.
Based on one leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor’s st at ist ics, Figure 3 compares
t he rapid growt h in wireless dat a t raffic compared t o voice t raffic. By t he end of 2007, in
HSPA coverage areas on a global basis, t he volume of dat a t raffic ( indicat ed in gigabit
per radio net work cont roller [ RNC] per hour) exceeded voice t raffic.
Fi gur e 3: UMTS/ HSPA Voi ce and Dat a Tr af f i c
11

2,5827
5,1654
7,7481
10,3308
12,9135
15,4962
18,0789
20,6616
Jan
07
Feb
07
Mar
07
Apr
07
May
07
Jun
07
Jul
07
Aug
07
Sep
07
Oct
07
Nov
07
Dec
07
Jan
08
Feb
08
Mar
08
Voice
Packet
Data


11
Based on leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor st at ist ics.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 12


Over t ime, dat a demands are expect ed t o grow significant ly. Figure 4 shows a leading
operat or’s assessment of dat a demands on it s net work.
Fi gur e 4: Oper at or Assessment of Gr ow t h i n Dat a Demand on Rel at i ve Basi s
12

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0
5
10
15
20
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
AO - 12/17/07
Source: AT&T
1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic
Aggressive 3G/4G
Data Traffic Growth
Conservative 3G/4G
Data Traffic Growth
Voice Traffic Growth
2G Data Traffic Growth


This figure is consist ent wit h growt h in mobile- broadband dat a consumpt ion present ed in
a report from Value Part ners
13
. The report proj ect s for European count ries 1
GByt e/ user/ mont h using conservat ive assumpt ions, 8 GByt es/ user/ mont h wit h medium
assumpt ions, and 30 Gbyt es/ user/ mont h wit h aggressive assumpt ions.
Anot her driver for broadband dat a growt h beyond mobile applicat ions is t he use of
HSPA/ LTE net works as alt ernat ives t o wireline net works where running wire or fiber is

12
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
13
Value Part ners, “ Get t ing t he Most Out of t he Digit al Divide – Allocat ing UHF Spect rum t o Maximise
t he Benefit s for European Societ y” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. spect rumst rat egy. com/ Pages/ GB/ perspect ives/ Spect rum- Get t ing- t he- most - out - of- t he-
digit a- dividend- 2008. pdf.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 13
problemat ic. This includes developing economies, as well as remot e areas. For example,
Telst ra is ext ending it s HSPA net work t o remot e mining locat ions and oil product ion
plat forms.
14

A final fact or accelerat ing adopt ion of mobile/ wireless t echnologies is environment al
considerat ions, where enhanced communicat ions t echnologies facilit at e business
int eract ion wit h fewer face- t o- face meet ings, and make it easier for workers t o eit her
t elecommut e or st ay involved wit h work proj ect s as t hey conduct t heir personal affairs.
Wit h huge energy cost s and pollut ion from fossil fuels, mobile broadband may
increasingly be viewed as a “ green” t echnology, and t here is even a Web sit e ( ht t p: / /
www. green4g. com) t hat promot es t his cause.
The key for operat ors is enhancing t heir net works t o support t he demands of consumer
and business applicat ions as t hey grow, along wit h offering complement ary capabilit ies
such as I P- based mult imedia. This is where t he GSM family of wireless- dat a t echnologies
is t he undisput ed leader. Not only does it provide a plat form for cont inual improvement s
in capabilit ies, but it does so over huge coverage areas and on a global basis.
EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment
Three quart ers of GSM net works t oday support EDGE, represent ing more t han 350
net works in approximat ely 150 count ries.
15

Because of t he very low increment al cost of including EDGE capabilit y in GSM net work
deployment s, virt ually all new GSM infrast ruct ure deployment s are also EDGE- capable
and nearly all new mid- t o high- level GSM devices include EDGE radio t echnology.
Meanwhile, UMTS has est ablished it self globally. Nearly all WCDMA handset s are also
GSM handset s, so WCDMA users can access t he wide base of GSM net works and
services. There are more t han 251 million UMTS cust omers globally spanning 236
commercial net works. 211 operat ors in 90 count ries offer HSDPA and 46 of t hese have
HSUPA deployed.
16
All UMTS operat ors are deploying HSPA for t wo reasons: first , t he
increment al cost of HSPA is relat ively low and second, HSPA makes such efficient use of
spect rum for dat a t hat it result s in a much lower overall cost per megabyt e of dat a
delivered. Already, t here are more t han 724 commercial HSPA devices available
worldwide.
17
Devices include handset s, dat a cards, modems, rout ers, lapt ops, media
players and cameras.
As for HSPA+ , a number of operat ors have commit t ed t o t he t echnology including AT&T
and Telst ra. As t he t echnology mat ures, upgrading t o HSPA+ will likely represent a
minimal invest ment for operat ors in order t o significant ly boost net work performance.
Statistics
A variet y of st at ist ics show t he growt h in wireless dat a. For inst ance, SNL Kagan st at es
in a recent press release t hat Apple’s iPhone 3G combined wit h ot her smart phone
offerings will result in mobile dat a dominat ing t he wireless indust ry. The report proj ect s

14
Telst ra present at ion “ HSPA as an Open Eco- Syst em Today – Telst ra Next G Net work” , 2008.
15
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.
16
I bid.
17
GSA HSPA Devices Survey, July 21, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 14
mobile dat a revenues in t he US t o increase at a compound annual growt h rat e of 16%
( from $24 billion in 2007 t o over $100 billion in 2017.
18
)
Similarly, Chet an Sharma Consult ing report s t hat US wireless dat a grew 8. 6% in t he
second quart er of 2008 compared t o t he previous quart er and 40% compared t o Q1 of
2007, reaching $8. 2 billion in revenue.
19
On a global basis, I nforma Telecoms and Media
report ed first quart er revenue of $49 billion, a 42. 7% year- t o- year increase, result ing in
more t han $200 billion of revenue for t he year
20
. Meanwhile, ABI Research found t hat
cellular modem sales including PC Cards, Express Cards, USB modems, embedded
modems and 3G/ Wi- Fi rout ers t oget her increased 300% in 2007 compared t o t he
previous year.
21

I n research conduct ed by Wireless I nt elligence and AT Kearney for t he GSM Associat ion,
findings included 40% growt h of t he European Union’s mobile dat a market in 2007 t o 7
billion Euros, excluding SMS.
22
The number of devices t hat support wireless dat a has
part ly fueled t hat dat a use. According t o a st udy by t he Online Publishers Associat ion, 76
percent of all mobile phones are Web- enabled.
23
3G is also fueling dat a adopt ion.
According t o Lehman Global Equit y Research, 3G subscribers t hat use mobile dat a
applicat ions spend t wice as much on dat a each mont h as 2G subscribers.
24

From a device perspect ive, I nforma WCI S proj ect ed in July 2008 t he following sales
growt h rat e for WCDMA handset s:
25

2008: 283 million
2009: 422 million
2010: 558 million
2011: 701 million
2012: 861 million
2013: 1. 01 billion
I t is clear t hat bot h EDGE and UMTS/ HSDPA are dominant wireless t echnologies. And
powerful dat a capabilit ies and global presence mean t hese t echnologies will likely
cont inue t o capt ure most of t he available wireless- dat a market .

18
ht t p: / / www1. snl. com/ press/ 20080731. asp
19
Chet an Sharma: “ US Wireless Dat a Market Updat e – Q2 2008” ,
ht t p: / / www. chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m.
20
Source: I nforma Telecoms and Media, press release, July 23, 2008
21
ht t p: / / www.fiercewireless. com/ press- releases/ led- asia- pacific- suppliers- cellular- modem- indust ry-
will- exceed- 200- million- unit s- 2013
22
ht t p: / / www. cellular- news. com/ st ory/ 31730. php?source= newslet t er
23
Online Publishers Associat ion st udy, March 8, 2007
24
Lehman Global Equity Research, Paul Wuh, “Global 3G Developments: 3G subs accelerate; more data revenue in
’09.” May 23, 2008.
25
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 15
Wireless Technology Evolution and Migration
This sect ion discusses t he evolut ion and migrat ion of wireless- dat a t echnologies from EDGE
t o LTE, as well as t he evolut ion of underlying wireless approaches. Progress has occurred in
mult iple phases, first wit h EDGE, and t hen UMTS, followed by t oday’s enhanced 3G
capabilit ies such as HSPA, HSPA+ and, before long, LTE. Meanwhile, underlying approaches
have evolved from Time Division Mult iple Access ( TDMA) t o CDMA, and now from CDMA t o
OFDMA, which is t he basis of LTE.
Technical Approaches (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA)
Considerable discussion in t he wireless indust ry has focused on t he relat ive benefit s of
TDMA, CDMA, and, more recent ly, OFDMA. Many t imes, one t echnology or t he ot her is
posit ioned as having fundament al advant ages over anot her. However, any of t hese t hree
approaches, when fully opt imized, can effect ively mat ch t he capabilit ies of any ot her.
GSM, which is based on TDMA, is a case in point . Through innovat ions like frequency
hopping, t he Adapt ive Mult i Rat e ( AMR) vocoder for voice, and EDGE for dat a
performance opt imizat ion, GSM is able t o effect ively compet e wit h t he capacit y and dat a
t hroughput of CDMA2000 One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology ( 1xRTT) .
Despit e t he evolut ion of TDMA capabilit ies, t he cellular indust ry has generally adopt ed
CDMA for 3G net working t echnology. Alt hough t here are some significant differences
bet ween CDMA2000 and WCDMA/ HSPA, such as channel bandwidt hs and chip rat es,
bot h t echnologies use many of t he same t echniques t o achieve roughly t he same degree
of spect ral efficiency and t ypical performance. These t echniques include efficient
schedulers, higher order modulat ion, Turbo codes, and adapt ive modulat ion and coding.
Today, people are asking whet her Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing ( OFDM)
and OFDMA
26
provide any inherent advant age over TDMA or CDMA. For syst ems
employing 10 MHz or less of bandwidt h, t he answer is largely “ no.” Because it t ransmit s
mut ually ort hogonal subchannels at a lower symbol rat e, t he fundament al advant age of
OFDM is t hat it elegant ly addresses t he problem of int ersymbol int erference induced by
mult ipat h and great ly simplifies channel equalizat ion. As such, OFDM syst ems, assuming
t hey employ all t he ot her st andard t echniques for maximizing spect ral efficiency, may
achieve slight ly higher spect ral efficiency t han CDMA syst ems. However, advanced
receiver archit ect ures—including opt ions such as pract ical equalizat ion approaches and
int erference cancellat ion t echniques—are already commercially available in UMTS and
CDMA chipset s and can nearly mat ch t his performance advant age.
I t is wit h larger bandwidt hs of great er t han 10 MHz and in combinat ion wit h advanced
ant enna approaches such as MI MO or Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems ( AAS) , t hat OFDM
enables less comput at ionally complex implement at ions t han t hose based on CDMA.
Hence, OFDM is more readily realizable in mobile devices. However, st udies have shown
t hat t he complexit y advant age of OFDM may be quit e small ( t hat is, less t han a fact or of
t wo) if frequency domain equalizers are used for CDMA- based t echnologies. St ill, t he
advant age of reducing complexit y is one reason 3GPP chose OFDM for it s LTE proj ect . I t
is also one reason newer WLAN st andards, which employ 20 MHz radio channels, are
based on OFDM. I n ot her words, OFDM is current ly a favored approach under
considerat ion for radio syst ems t hat have ext remely high peak rat es. OFDM also has an
advant age in t hat it can scale easily for different amount s of available bandwidt h. This in

26
OFDMA is simply OFDM in which t he syst em assigns different subcarriers t o different users.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 16
t urn allows OFDM t o be progressively deployed in available spect rum by using different
numbers of subcarriers.
An OFDMA t echnology like LTE can also t ake bet t er advant age of wider radio channels
( for example, 10 MHz) by not requiring guard bands bet ween radio carriers ( for
example, HSPA carriers) . I n recent years, t he abilit y of OFDM t o cope wit h mult ipat h has
also made it t he t echnology of choice for t he design of Digit al Broadcast Syst ems.
I n 5 MHz of spect rum, as used by UMTS/ HSPA, cont inual advances wit h CDMA
t echnology—realized in HSPA+ t hrough approaches such as equalizat ion, MI MO,
int erference cancellat ion, and higher- order modulat ion—will allow CDMA- based syst ems
t o largely mat ch OFDMA- based syst ems.
Table 2 summarizes t he at t ribut es of t he different wireless approaches.
Tabl e 2: Summar y of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Appr oaches
Appr oach Technol ogi es Empl oy i ng
Appr oach
Comment s
TDMA GSM, GPRS, EDGE,
Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry
Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry
Associat ion ( TI A/ EI A) - 136 TDMA
First digit al cellular
approach. Hugely
successful wit h GSM.
New enhancement s being
designed for GSM/ EDGE.
CDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT, CDMA2000
EV- DO, WCDMA, HSPA, HSPA+
I nst it ut e of Elect rical and
Elect ronic Engineers ( I EEE)
802. 11b
Basis for nearly all new 3G
net works. Mat ure, efficient ,
and will dominat e wide-
area wireless syst ems for
t he remainder of t his
decade and well int o next .
OFDM/ OFDMA 802. 16/ WiMAX, Flarion Fast Low-
Lat ency Access wit h Seamless
Handoff OFDM ( Flash OFDM) ,
3GPP LTE, I EEE 802. 11a/ g/ n,
I EEE 802. 20, Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2)
UMB, 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast
Mult icast Services ( EBCMCS) ,
Digit al Video Broadcast ing- H
( DVB- H) , Forward Link Only
( FLO)
Effect ive approach for
broadcast syst ems, higher
bandwidt h radio syst ems,
and high peak dat a rat es in
large blocks of spect rum.
Also provides flexibilit y in
t he amount of spect rum
used. Well suit ed for
syst ems planned for t he
next decade.

Because OFDMA has only modest advant ages over UMTS in 5 MHz channels, t he
advancement of HSPA is a logical and effect ive st rat egy. I n part icular, it ext ends t he life
of operat ors’ large 3G invest ment s reducing overall infrast ruct ure invest ment s,
decreasing capit al and operat ional expendit ures, and allowing operat ors t o offer
compet it ive services.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 17
3GPP Evolutionary Approach
Rat her t han emphasizing any one wireless approach, 3GPP’s evolut ionary plan is t o
recognize t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of every t echnology and t o exploit t he unique
capabilit ies of each one accordingly. GSM, based on a TDMA approach, is mat ure and
broadly deployed. Already ext remely efficient , t here are nevert heless opport unit ies for
addit ional opt imizat ions and enhancement s. St andards bodies have already defined
“ Evolved EDGE, ” which will be available for deployment in t he 2009 t o 2010 t imeframe
and bring more t han a doubling of performance over current EDGE syst ems. By t he end
of t he decade, because of sheer market moment um, t he maj orit y of worldwide
subscribers will st ill be using GSM/ EDGE t echnologies.
Meanwhile, CDMA was chosen as t he basis of 3G t echnologies, including WCDMA for t he
frequency division duplex ( FDD) mode of UMTS, and Time Division CDMA ( TD- CDMA) for
t he t ime division duplex ( TDD) mode of UMTS. The evolved dat a syst ems for UMTS, such
as HSPA and HSPA+ , int roduce enhancement s and simplificat ions t hat help CDMA- based
syst ems mat ch t he capabilit ies of compet ing syst ems, especially in 5 MHz spect rum
allocat ions. Over t he remainder of t his decade, GSM and UMTS will const it ut e a growing
proport ion of subscript ions and, by t he end of t he decade, t hese t echnologies will likely
account for most new subscript ions.
Given some of t he advant ages of an OFDM approach, 3GPP has specified OFDMA as t he
basis of it s Long Term Evolut ion
27
effort . LTE incorporat es best - of- breed radio
t echniques t o achieve performance levels beyond what will be pract ical wit h CDMA
approaches, part icularly in larger channel bandwidt hs. However, in t he same way t hat
3G coexist s wit h Second Generat ion ( 2G) syst ems in int egrat ed net works, LTE syst ems
will coexist wit h bot h 3G syst ems and 2G syst ems. Mult imode devices will funct ion
across LTE/ 3G or even LTE/ 3G/ 2G, depending on market circumst ances. Beyond radio
t echnology, EPC/ SAE provides a new core archit ect ure t hat enables bot h flat t er
archit ect ures, and int egrat ion of LTE wit h bot h legacy GSM/ UMTS net works, as well as
ot her wireless t echnologies. The combinat ion of EPC and EPS is referred t o as t he
Evolved Packet Syst em ( EPS) .
Though lat er sect ions quant ify performance, and t he appendix of t he whit e paper
present s funct ional det ails of t he different t echnologies, t his sect ion provides a quick
summary int ended t o provide a frame of reference for t he subsequent discussion. Table
3 summarizes t he key 3GPP t echnologies and t heir charact erist ics.
Tabl e 3: Char act er i st i cs of 3GPP Technol ogi es
Technol ogy
Name
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Speed
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
Speed
GSM TDMA Most widely deployed
cellular t echnology in t he
world. Provides voice and
dat a service via
GPRS/ EDGE.

EDGE TDMA Dat a service for GSM
net works. An enhancement
t o original GSM dat a service
70 kbps
t o 130 kbps
70 kbps
t o 130 kbps

27
3GPP also refers t o LTE as Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work ( E- UTRAN) .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 18
Technol ogy
Name
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Speed
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
Speed
called GPRS.
Evolved
EDGE
TDMA Advanced version of EDGE
t hat can double and
event ually quadruple
t hroughput rat es.
150 kbps
t o 500 kbps
expect ed
100 kbps
t o 500 kbps
expect ed
UMTS CDMA 3G t echnology providing
voice and dat a capabilit ies.
Current deployment s
implement HSPA for dat a
service.
200 t o 300
kbps
200 t o 300
kbps
HSPA CDMA Dat a service for UMTS
net works. An enhancement
t o original UMTS dat a
service.
1 Mbps t o
4 Mbps
500 kbps
t o 2 Mbps
HSPA+ CDMA Evolut ion of HSPA in
various st ages t o increase
t hroughput and capacit y
and t o lower lat ency.
> 5 Mbps
expect ed
> 3 Mbps
expect ed
LTE OFDMA New radio int erface t hat
can use wide radio channels
and deliver ext remely high
t hroughput rat es. All
communicat ions handled in
I P domain.
Typical user rat es may
exceed 10 Mbps.
> 10 Mbps
expect ed
> 5 Mbps
expect ed
LTE
Advanced
OFDMA Advanced version of LTE
designed t o meet I MT-
Advanced requirement s.


User achievable rat es and great er det ails on t ypical rat es are covered in Table 5 in t he
sect ion “ Dat a Throughput ” lat er in t his paper. Figure 5 shows t he evolut ion of t he
different wireless t echnologies and t heir peak net work performance capabilit ies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 19
Fi gur e 5: Ev ol ut i on of TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA Sy st ems
E
D
G
E
H
S
P
A
L
T
E
C
D
M
A
2
0
0
0
F
i
x
e
d

W
i
M
A
X
M
o
b
i
l
e

W
i
M
A
X
U
M
B


The development of GSM and UMTS/ HSPA happens in st ages referred t o as 3GPP
releases, and equipment vendors produce hardware t hat support s part icular versions of
each specificat ion. I t is import ant t o realize t hat t he 3GPP releases address mult iple
t echnologies. For example, Release 7 opt imizes VoI P for HSPA but also significant ly
enhances GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved EDGE. A summary of t he different 3GPP
releases is as follows:
28

 Rel ease 99: Complet ed. First deployable version of UMTS. Enhancement s t o
GSM dat a ( EDGE) . Maj orit y of deployment s t oday are based on Release 99.
Provides support for GSM/ EDGE/ GPRS/ WCDMA radio- access net works.
 Rel ease 4: Complet ed. Mult imedia messaging support . First st eps t oward using
I P t ransport in t he core net work.

28
Aft er Release 99, release versions went t o a numerical designat ion inst ead of designat ion by year.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 20
 Rel ease 5: Complet ed. HSDPA. First phase of I MS. Full abilit y t o use I P- based
t ransport inst ead of j ust Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM) in t he core net work.
 Rel ease 6: Complet ed. HSUPA. Enhanced mult imedia support t hrough
Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Services ( MBMS) . Performance specificat ions for
advanced receivers. WLAN int egrat ion opt ion. I MS enhancement s. I nit ial VoI P
capabilit y.
 Rel ease 7: Complet ed. Provides enhanced GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved
EDGE. Specifies HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , which includes higher order modulat ion
and MI MO. Provides fine- t uning and increment al improvement s of feat ures from
previous releases. Result s include performance enhancement s, improved spect ral
efficiency, increased capacit y, and bet t er resist ance t o int erference. Cont inuous
Packet Connect ivit y ( CPC) enables efficient “ always- on” service and enhanced
uplink UL VoI P capacit y as well as reduct ions in call set - up delay for PoC. Radio
enhancement s t o HSPA include 64 QAM in t he downlink DL and 16 QAM in t he
uplink. Also includes opt imizat ion of MBMS capabilit ies t hrough t he
mult icast / broadcast single- frequency net work ( MBSFN) funct ion.
 Rel ease 8: Under development . Comprises furt her HSPA Evolut ion feat ures such
as simult aneous use of MI MO and 64 QAM. I ncludes work it em for dual- carrier
HSPA ( DC- HSPA) where t wo WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a
doubling of t hroughput performance. Specifies OFDMA- based 3GPP LTE. Defines
EPC.
 Rel ease 9: Expect ed t o include HSPA and LTE enhancement s.
 Rel ease 10: Expect ed t o specify LTE Advanced t hat meet s t he requirement s set
by I TU’s I MT- Advanced proj ect .
Whereas operat ors and vendors act ively involved in t he development of wireless
t echnology are heavily focused on 3GPP release versions, most users of t he
t echnology are more int erest ed in part icular feat ures and capabilit ies, such as
whet her a device support s HSDPA. For t his reason, t he det ailed discussion of t he
t echnologies in t his paper emphasizes feat ures as opposed t o 3GPP releases.
Spectrum
Anot her import ant aspect of UMTS/ HSPA deployment is t he expanding number of
available radio bands, as shown in Figure 6, and t he corresponding support from
infrast ruct ure and mobile- equipment vendors. The fundament al syst em design and
net working prot ocols remain t he same for each band; only t he frequency- dependent
port ions of t he radios have t o change.
As ot her frequency bands become available for deployment , st andards bodies are
adapt ing UMTS for t hese bands as well. This includes 450 and 700 MHz. UMTS- TDD
equipment is already available for 450 MHz. 1710- 1770 uplink was mat ched wit h 2110-
2170 downlink t o allow for addit ional global harmonizat ion of t he 1. 7/ 2. 1GHz band.
Meanwhile, t he Federal Communicat ions Commission auct ioned t he 700 MHz band in t he
Unit ed St at es in January 2008. The availabilit y of t his band, t he Advanced Wireless
Services ( AWS) band at 1710- 1755 MHz wit h/ 2110- 2155 MHz in t he US, and t he
fort hcoming 2. 6 GHz frequency band in Europe are providing operat ors wit h wider
deployment opt ions. An increasing number of operat ors are also deploying UMTS at 900
MHz, a t radit ional GSM band.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 21
As t he t ot al amount of available spect rum increases and as t echnologies simult aneously
become spect rally more efficient , t ot al capacit y rises rapidly, support ing more
subscribers, and make many new t ypes of applicat ions feasible.
The following figure shows t he FDD bands defined for 3GPP t echnologies.
Fi gur e 6: FDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
29

850 MHz
1800 MHz
1900 MHz
2.1 GHz
2.6 GHz
1.7/2.1 GHz
900 MHz
Band 1
Band 2
Band 3
Band 4
Band 5
Band 7
Band 8
1700 MHz Band 9
800 MHz Band 6
2x25 MHz
2x75 MHz
2x60 MHz
2x60 MHz
2x70 MHz
2x45 MHz
2x35 MHz
2x35 MHz
2x10 MHz
824-849
1710-1785
1850-1910
1920-1980
2500-2570
1710-1755
880-915
1749.9-1784.9
830-840
Operating
band
Band name
Total
spectrum
Uplink [MHz]
869-894
1805-1880
1930-1990
2110-2170
2620-2690
2110-2155
925-960
1844.9-1879.9
875-885
Downlink [MHz]
Ext 1.7/2.1MHz Band 10 2x60 MHz 1710-1770 2110-2170
1500 MHz Band 11 2x25 MHz 1427.9 - 1452.9 1475.9 - 1500.9
Lower 700 MHz Band 12 2x18 MHz 698-716 728-746
Upper 700 MHz Band 13 2x10 MHz 777-787 746-756
Upper 700 MHz,
public safety/private
Band 14 2x10 MHz 788-798 758-768


I t should be not ed t hat , alt hough t he support of a new frequency band may be
int roduced in a part icular release, t he 3GPP st andard also specifies ways t o implement
devices and infrast ruct ure operat ing on any frequency band according t o release ant erior
t o t he int roduct ion of t hat part icular frequency band. For example, alt hough band 5 ( US
Cellular Band) was int roduced n Release 6, t he first devices operat ing on t his band were
compliant wit h t he release 5 of t he st andard.
Figure 7 shows TDD bands defined for 3GPP Technologies.

29
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 22
Fi gur e 7: TDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
30

Operating
band
Total
spectrum
Frequencies [MHz]
Band 39
Band 40
40 MHz
100 MHz
1880-1920
2300-2400
Band 38 50 MHz 2570-2620
Band 33
Band 34
Band 35
Band 36
Band 37 20 MHz
60 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz
60 MHz
1910-1930
1850-1910
2010-2025
1900-1920
1930-1990


Different count ries have regulat ed spect rum more loosely t han ot hers. For example,
operat ors in t he Unit ed St at es can use eit her 2G or 3G t echnologies in cellular, Personal
Communicat ions Service ( PCS) , and 3G bands; whereas in Europe t here are great er
rest rict ions—t hough effort s are underway t hat are result ing in great er flexibilit y,
including t he use of 3G t echnologies in current 2G bands.
Wit h t he proj ect ed increase in t he use of mobile- broadband t echnologies, t he amount of
spect rum required by t he next generat ion of wireless t echnology ( t hat is, aft er 3GPP LTE
in proj ect s such as I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions ( I MT) Advanced) could be
subst ant ial, given t he desire t o operat e radio channels as wide as 100 MHz. I deally, t his
spect rum would fall below 5 GHz. This search for new spect rum is a long- t erm
undert aking, and it may be well int o t he next decade before any such new spect rum
becomes available. However, given t he expanding size and economic significance of t he
mobile- comput ing indust ry, decisions made on new spect rum—especially wit h respect t o
global harmonizat ion—will have profound consequences.
Core-Network Evolution
3GPP is defining a series of enhancement s t o t he core net work t o improve net work
performance and t he range of services provided and t o enable a shift t o all- I P
archit ect ures.
One way t o improve core- net work performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures. The
more hierarchical a net work, t he more easily it can be managed cent rally; however, t he
t radeoff is reduced performance, especially for dat a communicat ions, because packet s
must t raverse and be processed by mult iple nodes in t he net work. To improve dat a
performance and, in part icular, t o reduce lat ency ( delays) , 3GPP has defined a number
of enhancement s in Release 7 and Release 8 t hat reduce t he number of processing
nodes and result in a flat t er archit ect ure.

30
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 23
I n Release 7, an opt ion called one- t unnel archit ect ure allows operat ors t o configure t heir
net works so t hat user dat a bypasses a serving node and t ravels direct ly via a gat eway
node. There is also an opt ion t o int egrat e t he funct ionalit y of t he radio- net work
cont roller direct ly int o t he base st at ion.
For Release 8, 3GPP has defined an ent irely new core net work, called t he Evolved Packet
Core, previously called Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion. The key feat ures and capabilit ies
of EPC/ SAE include:
 Reduced lat ency and higher dat a performance t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure.
 Support for bot h LTE radio- access net works and int erworking wit h GSM/ UMTS
radio- access net works.
 The abilit y t o int egrat e non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX.
 Opt imizat ion for all services provided via I P.
This paper provides furt her det ails in t he sect ions on HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) and
EPC/ SAE.
Service Evolution
Not only do 3GPP t echnologies provide cont inual improvement s in capacit y and dat a
performance, t hey also evolve capabilit ies t hat expand t he services available t o
subscribers. Key service advances include FMC, I MS, and broadcast ing t echnologies. This
sect ion provides an overview of t hese t opics, and t he appendix provides great er det ail
on each of t hese it ems.
FMC refers t o t he int egrat ion of fixed services ( such as t elephony provided by wireline or
Wi- Fi) wit h mobile cellular- based services. Though FMC is st ill in it s early st ages of
deployment by operat ors, it promises t o provide significant benefit s t o bot h users and
operat ors. For users, FMC will simplify how t hey communicat e, making it possible for
t hem t o use one device ( for example, a cell phone) at work and at home, where it might
connect via a Wi- Fi net work or a femt o cell. When mobile, users connect via a cellular
net work. Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and single phone numbers
as well as t he abilit y t o cont rol how and wit h whom t hey communicat e. For operat ors,
FMC allows t he consolidat ion of core services across mult iple- access net works. For
inst ance, an operat or could offer complet e VoI P- based voice service t hat support s access
via DSL, Wi- Fi, or 3G. FMC also offloads t he macro net work from dat a- int ensive
applicat ions such as movie downloads.
FMC has various approaches, including enabling t echnologies such as Unlicensed Mobile
Access ( UMA) , femt ocells, and I MS. Wit h UMA, GSM/ UMTS devices can connect via Wi- Fi
or cellular connect ions for bot h voice and dat a. UMA is a 3GPP t echnology, and it has
been deployed by a number of operat ors, including T- Mobile in t he Unit ed St at es. An
alt ernat ive t o using Wi- Fi for t he “ fixed” port ion of FMC is femt ocells. These are t iny base
st at ions t hat cost lit t le more t han a Wi- Fi access point and, like Wi- Fi, femt ocells
leverage a subscriber' s exist ing wireline- broadband connect ion ( for example, DSL) .
I nst ead of operat ing on unlicensed bands, femt ocells use t he operat or’s licensed bands
at very low power levels. The key advant age of t he femt o cell approach is t hat any
single- mode, mobile- communicat ions device a user has can now operat e using t he femt o
cells.
I MS is anot her key t echnology for convergence. I t allows access t o core services and
applicat ions via mult iple- access net works. I MS is more powerful t han UMA, because it
support s not only FMC but also a much broader range of pot ent ial applicat ions. I n t he

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 24
Unit ed St at es, AT&T has commit t ed t o an I MS approach and has already deployed an
I MS- based video sharing service. Though defined by 3GPP, t he Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2) , CableLabs and WiMAX have adopt ed I MS.
I MS allows t he creat ive blending of different t ypes of communicat ions and informat ion,
including voice, video, I M, presence informat ion, locat ion, and document s. I t provides
applicat ion developers t he abilit y t o creat e applicat ions t hat have never before been
possible, and it allows people t o communicat e in ent irely new ways by dynamically using
mult iple services. For example, during an int eract ive chat session, a user could launch a
voice call. Or during a voice call, a user could suddenly est ablish a simult aneous video
connect ion or st art t ransferring files. While browsing t he Web, a user could decide t o
speak t o a cust omer- service represent at ive. I MS will be a key plat form for all- I P
archit ect ures for bot h HSPA and LTE.
Anot her import ant new service is support for mobile TV t hrough what is called mult icast
or broadcast funct ions. 3GPP has defined mult icast / broadcast capabilit ies for bot h HSPA
and LTE.
Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations
Much of t he debat e in t he wireless indust ry is on t he merit s of different radio
t echnologies, yet ot her fact ors are equally import ant in det ermining t he services and
capabilit ies of a wireless net work. These fact ors include t he amount of spect rum
available, backhaul, and net work t opology.
Spect rum has always been a maj or considerat ion for deploying any wireless net work,
but it is part icularly import ant when looking at high- performance broadband syst ems.
HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high t hroughput rat es on t he downlink and uplink wit h low
lat ency in 5 MHz channels when deployed in single frequency ( 1/ 1) reuse. By t his, we
mean t hat every cell sect or ( t ypically t hree per cell) in every cell uses t he same radio
channel( s) .
As previously discussed, an OFDMA approach in a 5 MHz radio channel yields only a
small performance advant age. To achieve higher dat a rat es requires wider radio
channels, such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels in combinat ion wit h emerging OFDMA
radio t echnologies. Very few operat ors t oday, however, have access t o t his much
spect rum. I t was challenging enough for GSM operat ors t o obt ain UMTS spect rum. I f
delivering very high dat a rat es is t he obj ect ive, t hen t he syst em must minimize
int erference. This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse, such as having
every sect or use only one- t hird of t he available radio channels ( 1/ 3 reuse) . The 10 MHz
radio channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of available spect rum.
Backhaul is anot her fact or. As t he t hroughput of t he radio link increases, t he circuit s
connect ing t he cell sit es t o t he core net work must be able t o handle t he increased load.
Wit h many cell sit es t oday serviced by j ust a small number of T1/ E1 circuit s, each able
t o carry only 1. 5/ 2. 0 Mbps, operat ors will have t o significant ly upgrade backhaul
capacit y t o obt ain t he full benefit of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. An OFDMA
syst em wit h 1. 5 bps per hert z ( Hz) of spect ral efficiency in 10 MHz on t hree sect ors has
up t o 45 Mbps average cell t hroughput .
Addit ionally, any t echnology’s abilit y t o reach it s peak spect rum efficiency is somewhat
cont ingent on t he syst em’s abilit y t o reach t he inst ant aneous peak dat a rat es allowed by
t hat t echnology. For example, a syst em claiming spect rum efficiency of 1. 5 bps/ Hz ( as
described above) might rely on t he abilit y t o reach 100 Mbps inst ant aneously t o achieve
t his level of spect rum efficiency. Any const raint on t he t ransport syst em below 100 Mbps

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 25
will rest rict t he range of achievable t hroughput and, in t urn, impact t he spect ral
efficiency of t he syst em.
The mismat ch bet ween backhaul capabilit ies and radio performance in some net works is
one reason t hat user rat es on some 3G syst ems are lower t han t heoret ical rat es.
Operat ors are act ively enhancing t heir backhaul approaches, and t here are many
available and emerging wireline t echnologies—such as VDSL and opt ical Et hernet —as
well as compet it ive point - t o- point microwave syst ems t hat make t his possible.
Finally, t he overall net work t opology also plays an import ant role, especially wit h respect
t o lat ency. Low lat ency is crit ical t o achieving very high dat a rat es, because of t he way it
affect s TCP/ I P t raffic. How t raffic rout es t hrough t he core net work—how many hops and
nodes it must pass t hrough—can influence t he overall performance of t he net work. One
way t o increase performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures, meaning a less
hierarchical net work wit h more direct rout ing from mobile device t o end syst em. The
core EPC/ SAE net work for 3GPP LTE emphasizes such a flat t er archit ect ure.
I n summary, it can be misleading t o say t hat one wireless t echnology out performs
anot her wit hout a full underst anding of how t hat t echnology will be deployed in a
complet e syst em t hat also t akes spect rum int o account .
Feature and Network Roadmap
GSM operat ors first enhanced t heir net works t o support dat a capabilit y t hrough t he
addit ion of GPRS infrast ruct ure wit h t he abilit y t o use exist ing cell sit es, t ransceivers,
and int erconnect ion facilit ies. Since inst alling GPRS, GSM operat ors have largely
upgraded dat a service t o EDGE, and any new GSM net work includes EDGE capabilit y.
Operat ors have deployed UMTS/ HSPA worldwide. Alt hough UMTS involves a new radio-
access net work, several fact ors facilit at e deployment . First , most UMTS cell sit es can be
collocat ed in GSM cell sit es enabled by mult i- radio cabinet s t hat can accommodat e
GSM/ EDGE as well as UMTS equipment . Second, much of t he GSM/ GPRS core net work
can be used. This means t hat all core- net work element s above t he Serving GPRS
Support Node ( SGSN) and Mobile Swit ching Cent er ( MSC) —t he Gat eway GPRS Support
Node ( GGSN) , t he Home Locat ion Regist er ( HLR) , billing and subscriber administ rat ion
syst ems, service plat forms, and so fort h—need, at most , a soft ware upgrade t o support
3G UMTS/ HSPA. And while early 3G deployment used separat e 2G/ 3G SGSNs and MSCs,
all- new MSC and/ or SGSN product s are capable of support ing bot h GSM and UMTS/ HSPA
radio- access net works.
New feat ures such as HSDPA, HSUPA, and MBMS are being designed so t hat t he same
upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixt ure of t erminals including t hose based
on 3GPP Release 99, Release 5, and Release 6. I n ot her words, a net work support ing
Release 5 feat ures ( for example, HSDPA) can support Release 99, Release 5, and
Release 6 t erminals ( for example, HSUPA) operat ing in a Release 5 mode. Alt ernat ively,
a net work support ing Release 6 feat ures can support Release 99, Release 5, and Release
6 t erminals. This flexibilit y assures t he maximum degree of forward- and backward-
compat ibilit y. Not e also t hat most UMTS t erminals t oday support GSM, t hus facilit at ing
use across large coverage areas and mult iple net works.
Once deployed, operat ors can minimize t he cost s of managing GSM/ EDGE and UMTS
net works, because t hese net works share many of t he same aspect s including:
 Packet - dat a archit ect ure
 Cell sit es

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 26
 Ant enna syst ems
 Backhaul circuit s
 Subscriber account management
 Service plat forms
Users largely don’t even need t o know t o what t ype of net work t hey are connect ed,
because t heir mult imode GSM/ UMTS devices can seamlessly hand off bet ween net works.
The changes being planned for t he core net work are anot her aspect of evolut ion. Here,
t he int ent is t o reduce t he number of nodes t hat packet s must t raverse. This will result
in bot h reduced deployment cost s and reduced lat ency. The key enabling t echnology is
EPC/ SAE, which is described in det ail lat er in t his paper.
The upgrade t o LTE will be relat ively st raight forward, wit h new infrast ruct ure support ing
HSPA, but soft ware upgradeable t o HSPA+ and LTE. Beginning at t he end of 2008,
UMTS/ HSPA base st at ions from some vendors will have LTE soft ware upgrades available
by t he second half of 2009. Base st at ion equipment is available for many bands
including t he 1. 7/ 2. 1 GHz AWS band and t he recent ly auct ioned 700 MHz bands in t he
US. Vendors and operat ors are planning LTE field t rials in 2008- 09 and commercial
deployment s by 2010.
On t he device side, mult i- mode chipset s will enable devices t o easily operat e across
UMTS and LTE net works. For example, one chipset vendor has announced a series of
chips t hat support t he following combinat ion of t echnologies: UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE;
EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE; and UMTS, HSPA+ , EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE.
31

One import ant and int erest ing aspect of t echnology deployment is t hat an advanced
t echnology such as LTE enables operat ors t o upgrade prior t echnologies, such as HSPA.
Examples include:
 VoI P for HSPA. Since LTE uses an I P core, once it is deployed, support ing voice
on HSPA via VoI P will be a much simpler t ask as it can share t he same core I P
net work as LTE.
 Device processing power. Support ing t he high t hroughput rat es wit h LTE ( e. g.,
50 Mbps or higher) will provide sufficient processing in t he device t o also support
very high HSPA rat es ( e. g. , 30 Mbps or higher) .
Table 4 shows t he rollout of EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE feat ures over t ime.
Tabl e 4: Ex pect ed UMTS/ LTE Feat ur e and Capabi l i t y Avai l abi l i t y
Year Feat ur es
2008 HSUPA seeing significant deployment moment um in net works and device
availabilit y.
First HSUPA net works wit h 5. 8 Mbps peak uplink speed capabilit y.
HSPA devices wit h 7. 2 Mbps downlinks widely available.
Various operat ors offering FMC based on UMA.
Operat ors announcing commit ment s t o femt o cell approaches.

31
ht t p: / / www. qualcomm. com/ press/ r eleases/ 2008/ 080207_Qualcomm_t o_Ship. ht ml

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 27
Year Feat ur es
Great er availabilit y of FMC
2009 Net works and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+ , including MI MO,
boost ing HSPA peak speeds t o 28 Mbps

Enhanced I MS- based services ( for example, int egrat ed
voice/ mult imedia/ presence/ locat ion)

2010 Evolved EDGE capabilit ies available t o significant ly increase EDGE
t hroughput rat es
HSPA+ peak speeds furt her increased t o peak rat es of 42 Mbps based on
Release 8
LTE int roduced for next - generat ion t hroughput performance using 2X2
MI MO
Advanced core archit ect ures available t hrough EPC/ SAE, primarily for LTE
but also for HSPA+ , providing benefit s such as int egrat ion of mult iple
net work t ypes and flat t er archit ect ures for bet t er lat ency performance
Most new services implement ed in t he packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE
2011 and
lat er
LTE enhancement s such as 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO
LTE Advanced specificat ions complet ed.
2012 LTE Advanced pot ent ially deployed in init ial st ages.

Over t ime, t he separat e GSM/ EDGE Access Net work ( GERAN) , UMTS Access Net work
( UTRAN) , and core- infrast ruct ure element s will undergo consolidat ion, t hus lowering
t ot al net work cost and improving int egrat ed operat ion of t he separat e access net works.
For act ual users wit h mult imode devices, t he net works t hey access will be largely
t ransparent . Today, nearly all UMTS phones and modems support GSM / EDGE.
Figure 8 present s t he cont inuing advances in HSPA and LTE, plot t ed over t ime, showing
an approximat e doubling of t hroughput per year.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 28
Fi gur e 8: Peak Rat es f or Dow nl i nk and Upl i nk Ov er Ti me
32

DL R’99-384k
HSDPA 1.8M
HSDPA 3.6M
HSDPA 7.2M
HSDPA 14.4M
MIMO 2x2 28M
MIMO/64QAM 41M
DL LTE(10MHz) 140M
DL LTE(20MHz) 300M
100 kbps
1 M|to
10 Mbps
20 Mbps
100 kbps
1 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
UL R’99 384k
HSUPA 1.5M
HSUPA 5.6M
HSUPA/16QAM 11M
UL LTE (10MHz) 25M
UL LTE (10MHz) 50M
• HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected
to double every year on average
• Limitations not induced by the technology itself
but time frames required to upgrade
infrastructure and transport networks, obtain
devices with corresponding capabilities and
interoperability tests
Downlink Speeds
Uplink Speeds

Despit e rapid UMTS deployment , market moment um means t hat even by t he end of t he
decade most worldwide subscribers will st ill be using GSM. By t hen, however, most new
subscribers will be t aking advant age of UMTS. Only over many years, as subscribers
upgrade t heir equipment , will most net work usage migrat e t o UMTS. Similarly, even as
operat ors st art t o deploy LTE net works at t he end of t his decade and t he beginning of
t he next , it will probably be t he middle of t he next decade before a large percent age of
subscribers are act ually using LTE. During t hese years, most net works and devices will
be t ri- mode—support ing GSM, UMTS, and LTE. The hist ory of wireless- net work
deployment provides a useful perspect ive. GSM, which in 2008 is st ill growing it s
subscriber base, was specified in 1990, wit h init ial net works deployed in 1991. The
UMTS Task Force est ablished it self in 1995, Release 99 specificat ions were complet ed in
2000, and HSPA+ specificat ions were complet ed in 2007. Alt hough it ’s been more t han a
decade since work began on t he t echnology, only now is UMTS deployment and adopt ion
st art ing t o surge.
Figure 9 shows t he relat ive adopt ion of t echnologies over a mult i- decadal period and t he
lengt h of t ime it t akes for any new t echnology t o be adopt ed widely on a global basis.

32
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 29
Fi gur e 9: Rel at i ve Adopt i on of Technol ogi es
33

1990 2000 2020 2010
LTE
UMTS/HSPA
S
u
b
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
s
GSM/EDGE
2030


One opt ion for GSM operat ors t hat have not yet commit t ed t o UMTS, and do not have an
immediat e pressing need t o do so, is t o migrat e direct ly from GSM/ EDGE or Evolved
EDGE t o LTE wit h net works and devices support ing dual- mode GSM- EDGE/ LTE
operat ion.
Competing Technologies
Alt hough GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA net works are dominat ing global cellular- t echnology
deployment s, operat ors are deploying ot her wireless t echnologies t o serve bot h wide and
local areas. This sect ion of t he paper looks at t he relat ionship bet ween GSM/ UMTS/ LTE and
some of t hese ot her t echnologies.
CDMA2000
CDMA2000, consist ing principally of 1xRTT and One Carrier- Evolved, Dat a- Opt imized
( 1xEV- DO) versions, is t he ot her maj or cellular t echnology deployed in many part s of
t he world. 1xRTT is current ly t he most widely deployed CDMA2000 version. A number of
operat ors have deployed or are deploying 1xEV- DO, where a radio carrier is dedicat ed t o
high- speed dat a funct ions. I n July 2008 t here were 100 EV- DO Release 0 net works and
42 EV- DO Rev A net works deployed worldwide.
34


33
Source: Rysavy Research proj ect ion based on hist orical dat a.
34
Source: www. cdg. org, July 14, 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 30
EV- DO uses many of t he same t echniques for opt imizing spect ral efficiency as HSPA,
including higher order modulat ion, efficient scheduling, t urbo- coding, and adapt ive
modulat ion and coding. For t hese reasons, it achieves spect ral efficiency t hat is virt ually
t he same as HSPA. The 1x t echnologies operat e in t he 1. 25 MHz radio channels,
compared t o t he 5 MHz channels UMTS uses. This result s in lower t heoret ical peak rat es,
but average t hroughput s for high level of net work loading are similar. Under low t o
medium- load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es, EV- DO or EV-
DO Rev A achieves a lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA. Operat ors have quot ed
400 t o 700 kilobit s per second ( kbps) t ypical downlink t hroughput for EV- DO Rev 0
35
and
bet ween 600 kbps and 1. 4 Mbps for EV- DO Rev A.
36

Under low t o medium load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es,
EV- DO or EV- DO Rev A achieve a slight ly lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA.
Current ly deployed net work versions are based on eit her Rev 0 or Rev A radio- int erface
specificat ions. EV- DO Rev A incorporat es a more efficient uplink, which has spect ral
efficiency similar t o t hat of HSUPA. Operat ors st art ed t o make EV- DO Rev A
commercially available in 2007.
One challenge for EV- DO operat ors is t hat t hey cannot dynamically allocat e t heir ent ire
spect ral resources bet ween voice and high- speed dat a funct ions. The EV- DO channel is
not available for circuit - swit ched voice, and t he 1xRTT channels offer only medium-
speed dat a. I n t he current st age of t he market , where dat a only const it ut es a small
percent age of t ot al net work t raffic, t his is not a key issue. But as dat a usage expands,
t his limit at ion will cause subopt imal use of radio resources. Figure 10 illust rat es t his
severe limit at ion.

35
Source: Verizon BroadbandAccess Web page, July 29, 2005.
36
Source: Sprint press release January 30, 2007.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 31
Fi gur e 10: Radi o Resour ce Management 1x RTT/ 1x EV- DO v er sus UMTS/ HSPA
EV-DO
1xRTT
1xRTT
Speech
Blocking
Unavailable High-
Speed Data Capacity
Voice
High-Speed Data
1xRTT and 1xEV-DO UMTS/HSPA
T
h
r
e
e

1
.
2
5

M
H
z

C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
O
n
e

5

M
H
z

C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Efficient Allocation of Resources
Between Voice and Data

Anot her limit at ion of using a separat e channel for EV- DO dat a services is t hat it
current ly prevent s users from engaging in simult aneous voice and high- speed dat a
services, whereas t his is possible wit h UMTS and HSPA. Many users enj oy having a
t et hered dat a connect ion from t heir lapt op—by using Bluet oot h, for example—and being
able t o init iat e and receive phone calls while maint aining t heir dat a sessions.
EV- DO will event ually provide voice service using VoI P prot ocols t hrough EV- DO Rev A,
which includes a higher speed uplink, QoS mechanisms in t he net work, and prot ocol
opt imizat ions t o reduce packet overhead, as well as addressing problems such as j it t er.
Even t hen, however, operat ors will face difficult choices: How many radio channels at
each base st at ion should be made available for 1xRTT t o support legacy t erminals versus
how many radio channels should be allocat ed t o EV- DO. I n cont rast , UMTS allows bot h
circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched t raffic t o occupy t he same radio channel, where t he
amount of power each uses can be dynamically adj ust ed. This makes it simple t o
migrat e users over t ime from circuit - swit ched voice t o packet - swit ched voice.
Beyond Rev A, 3GPP2 has defined EV- DO Rev B as allowing t he combinat ion of up t o 15
1. 25 MHz radio channels in 20 MHz—significant ly boost ing peak t heoret ical rat es t o 73. 5
Mbps. More likely, an operat or would combine t hree radio channels in 5 MHz. Such an
approach by it self does not necessarily increase overall capacit y, but it does offer users
higher peak- dat a rat es. No operat ors have yet publicly commit t ed t o EV- DO Rev B.
Beyond Rev B, UMB will be based on an OFDMA approach like LTE. UMB support s radio
channels from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz. I n a 20 MHz radio channel, using 4X4 MI MO, UMB will
deliver a peak- dat a rat e of 280 Mbps. UMB and LTE are being developed basically
simult aneously, so it is logical t o assume t hat bot h t echnologies will exploit t he same
advances in wireless t echnology. Bot h UMB and LTE are more recent t han ot her OFDMA

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 32
t echnologies, like WiMAX, so it is also logical t o assume t hat t heir capabilit ies will exceed
init ial OFDMA designs.
No operat ors have commit t ed t o UMB, and t here are legit imat e quest ions about t he
commercial viabilit y of t he t echnology as more CDMA2000 operat ors such as Verizon
choose LTE as t heir next t echnology choice. Though t he migrat ion from CDMA2000 t o
LTE is feasible, it will be more complex t han for UMTS/ HSPA operat ors, especially in
achieving int erworking bet ween LTE and legacy net works.
CDMA2000 is clearly a viable and effect ive wireless t echnology and, t o it s credit , many
of it s innovat ions have been brought t o market ahead of compet ing t echnologies. Today,
however, t he GSM family of t echnologies—including UMTS—adds more cust omers in one
year t han t he ent ire base of CDMA2000 cust omers. And t he GSM family has in excess of
3. 6 billion subscribers—more t han nine t imes t he t ot al number of subscribers as t he
CDMA2000 family of t echnologies.
37

WiMAX
WiMAX has emerged as a pot ent ial alt ernat ive t o cellular t echnology for wide- area
wireless net works. Based on OFDMA and recent ly accept ed by t he I nt ernat ional
Telecommunicat ions Union ( I TU) as an I MT- 2000 ( 3G t echnology) under t he name
OFDMA TDD WMAN ( Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work) , WiMAX is t rying t o challenge
exist ing wireless t echnologies—promising great er capabilit ies and great er efficiencies
t han alt ernat ive approaches such as HSPA. But as WiMAX, part icularly mobile WiMAX,
has come closer t o realit y, vendors have cont inued t o enhance HSPA, and perceived
WiMAX advant ages are no longer apparent . I nst ead, WiMAX has gained t he great est
t ract ion in developing count ries as an alt ernat ive t o wireline deployment . I n t he Unit ed
St at es, Clearwire, Sprint Next el and ot hers ( I nt el, Google, Comcast , Time Warner Cable,
Bright House Net works) have creat ed a j oint vent ure t o deploy a nat ionwide WiMAX
net work t hat is await ing Unit ed St at es Regulat ory Approval. I n addit ion, at t he t ime of
t his paper, t here are st ill no wide area deployment s of WiMAX in t he US. At best , t he
promises of mobile WiMAX is appealing but it remains unproven in t he real world.
Like GSM/ HSPA, WiMAX is not a single t echnology; it is a family of int eroperable
t echnologies. The original specificat ion, I EEE 802. 16, was complet ed in 2001 and
int ended primarily for t elecom backhaul applicat ions in point - t o- point , line- of- sight
configurat ions using spect rum above 10 GHz. This original version of I EEE 802. 16 uses a
radio int erface based on a single- carrier waveform.
The next maj or st ep in t he evolut ion of I EEE 802. 16 occurred in 2004, wit h t he release
of t he I EEE 802. 16- 2004 st andard. I t added mult iple radio int erfaces, including one
based on OFDM- 256 and one based on OFDMA. I EEE 802. 16- 2004 also support s point -
t o- mult ipoint communicat ions, sub- 10 GHz operat ion, and non- line- of- sight
communicat ions. Like t he original version of t he st andard, operat ion is fixed, meaning
t hat subscriber st at ions are t ypically immobile. Pot ent ial applicat ions include wireless
I nt ernet Service Provider ( I SP) service, local t elephony bypass ( as an alt ernat ive t o
cable modem or DSL service) , and cellular backhaul for connect ions from cellular base
st at ions t o operat or infrast ruct ure net works. Vendors can design equipment for eit her
licensed or unlicensed bands.
Vendors are now delivering I EEE 802. 16- 2004- cert ified equipment . This st andard does
not compet e direct ly wit h cellular- dat a and privat e Wi- Fi net works; t hus, it can provide

37
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, June 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 33
complement ary services. I n addit ion t o operat or- host ed access solut ions, privat e ent it ies
such as municipal government s, universit ies, and corporat ions will be able t o use t his
version of WiMAX in unlicensed bands ( for example, 5. 8 GHz) for local connect ivit y,
t hough t here has been lit t le or no development in t his area.
The I EEE has also complet ed a mobile- broadband st andard—I EEE 802. 16e- 2005—t hat
adds mobilit y capabilit ies including support for radio operat ion while mobile, handovers
across base st at ions, and handovers across operat ors. Unlike I EEE 802. 16- 2004, which
operat es in bot h licensed and unlicensed bands, I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 ( referred t o as
mobile WiMAX) makes t he most sense in licensed bands. Operat ors have begun limit ed
mobile WiMAX net work deployment s in 2008. Current WiMAX profiles emphasize TDD
operat ion. Mobile WiMAX net works are not backward- compat ible wit h I EEE 802. 16- 2004
net works.
I nit ial mobile WiMAX net works will be deployed using 2X2 MI MO, TDD and 10 MHz radio
channels in a profile defined by t he WiMAX Forum known as WiMAX Wave 2. Beyond
Wave 2, WiMAX vendors are defining a new I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 profile called WiMAX
Release 1. 5, wit h product cert ificat ion expect ed by t he end of 2009. Mobile WiMAX
release 1. 5 includes various refinement s int ended t o improve efficiency and
performance, and will be available for deployment in a similar t imeframe as LTE. The
subsequent version, Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, will be designed t o address t he performance
requirement s being developed in t he I TU I MT- Advanced Proj ect , and will be st andardized
in a new I EEE st andard, I EEE 802. 16m. According t o Sprint Next el, I EEE 802. 16m will be
available in 2011.
38

I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 employs many of t he same mechanisms as HSPA t o maximize
t hroughput and spect ral efficiency, including high- order modulat ion, efficient coding,
adapt ive modulat ion and coding, and Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( HARQ) . The
principal difference from HSPA is I EEE 802. 16e- 2005’s use of OFDMA. As discussed in
t he sect ion “ Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) ” above, OFDM provides a
pot ent ial implement at ion advant age for wide radio channels ( for example, 10 t o 20
MHz) . I n 5 t o 10 MHz radio channels, t here is no evidence indicat ing t hat I EEE 802. 16e-
2005 will have any performance advant age compared t o HSPA+ .
I t should be not ed, however, t hat I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 cont ains some aspect s t hat may
limit it s performance, part icularly in scenarios in which a sect or cont ains a large number
of mobile users. The performance of t he MAC layer is inefficient when scheduling large
numbers of users, and some aspect s—such as power cont rol of t he mobile st at ion—are
provided using MAC signaling messages rat her t han t he fast power cont rol used in
WCDMA and ot her t echnologies. Thus, while WiMAX uses OFDMA, t he performance will
likely be somewhat less t han HSPA due t o increased overhead and ot her design issues.
Relat ive t o LTE, WiMAX has t he following t echnical disadvant ages: 5 msec frames
inst ead of 1 msec frames, Chase combining inst ead of increment al redundancy, coarser
granularit y for modulat ion and coding schemes and vert ical coding inst ead of horizont al
coding.
39
One deployment considerat ion is t hat TDD requires net work synchronizat ion. I t
is not possible for one cell sit e t o be t ransmit t ing and an adj acent cell sit e t o be
receiving at t he same t ime. Different operat ors in t he same band must eit her coordinat e
t heir net works or have guard bands t o ensure t hat t hey don’t int erfere wit h each ot her.

38
Ali Tabassi, Sprint Next el, Fierce Wireless Webcast , “ WiMAX: Mobilizing t he I nt ernet ” , March 5,
2008.
39
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 34
This may int roduce problems as more operat ors int roduce net works in t he same
spect rum band; for example, t he 2. 5 GHz band in t he Unit ed St at es may be used for
bot h TDD and FDD operat ion.
Alt hough I EEE 802. 16e exploit s significant radio innovat ions similar t o HSPA+ and LTE,
it faces challenges such economies of scale and t echnology mat urit y. Very few operat ors
t oday have access t o spect rum for WiMAX t hat would permit t hem t o provide widespread
coverage.
I n reference t o economies of scale, GSM/ UMTS/ HSPA subscribers number in t he billions.
Even over t he next five years, t he number of WiMAX subscribers is likely t o be quit e low.
Forward Concept s predict ed in January 2008 38 million WiMAX subscribers in 2012
40
and
Juniper Research predict ed in May 2008 more t han 47 million subscribers by 2013.
41

This mat ches forecast s from a year ago when Art hur D. Lit t le summarized different
forecast s for t ot al WiMAX subscribers worldwide as bet ween 20 million and 100 million
by 2012,
42
a t iny fract ion of global wireless subscribers. Senza Fili Consult ing proj ect ed
54 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012 wit h emerging market s driving growt h.
43
To put
t his int o perspect ive, t he GSM family of t echnologies adds more subscribers every four
mont hs ( about 100 million) t han t he expect ed worldwide t ot al subscriber predict ion of
WiMAX by 2012.
Finally, from a t echnology st andpoint , mobile WiMAX on paper may be slight ly more
capable t han t oday’s available versions of HSPA. But by t he t ime it becomes available,
mobile WiMAX will act ually have t o compet e against evolved HSPA syst ems t hat will
offer bot h similar capabilit ies and enhanced performance. Furt her, by t hen, LTE will not
be t hat far from deployment .
One specific area where WiMAX has a t echnical disadvant age is cell size. I n fact , 3G
syst ems have a significant link budget advant age over mobile WiMAX because of soft -
handoff diversit y gain and an FDD duplexing advant age over TDD.
44
Art hur D. Lit t le
report s t hat t he radii of t ypical HSPA cells will be t wo t o four t imes great er t han t ypical
mobile WiMAX cells for high- t hroughput operat ion.
45
One vendor est imat es t hat for t he
same power out put , frequency, and capacit y, mobile WiMAX requires 1. 7 t imes more cell
sit es t han HSPA.
46
Given t hat many real world deployment s of HSPA will occur at
frequencies such as 850 MHz, and LTE at 700 MHz, WiMAX deployment s at 2. 5 GHz will
be at a significant disadvant age.
Wit h respect t o spect ral efficiency, WiMAX is comparable t o HSPA+ , as discussed in t he
sect ion “ Spect ral Efficiency” t hat follows. As for dat a performance, HSPA+ in Release 8—

40
“ WiMAX ' 08 The 3G+ Broadband Alt ernat ive” , ht t p: / / www. fwdconcept s. com/ WiMAX8. ht m
41
ht t p: / / www. rcrnews. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ art icle?AI D= / 20080509/ SUB/ 940077592/ 1008/ newslet t er32
42
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
43
Source: Press release of June 19, 2007 describing t he report "WiMAX: Ambit ions and Realit y. A
det ailed market assessment and forecast at t he global, regional and count ry level ( 2006- 2012) "
44
Wit h a 2: 1 TDD syst em, t he reverse link only t ransmit s one t hird of t he t ime. To obt ain t he same
cell edge dat a rat es, t he mobile syst em must t ransmit at 4. 77 dB higher t ransmit power.
45
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
46
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
2007” .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 35
wit h a peak rat e of 42 Mbps—exceeds mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz in TDD 2: 1 DL: UL using
2X2 MI MO of 40 Mbps.
47
The somet imes- quot ed peak rat e of 63. 4 Mbps for mobile
WiMAX in 10 MHz assumes no bandwidt h applied t o t he uplink.
Some have cit ed int ellect ual propert y right s as an area where WiMAX has an advant age.
There is lit t le subst ant ial, publicly available informat ion, however t o support such claims.
First , t he large HSPA vendors have invest ed heavily in t hese t echnologies—hopefully
giving t hem significant leverage wit h which t o negot iat e reasonable int ellect ual propert y
right s ( I PR) rat es wit h ot her vendors. Second, t he mobile WiMAX indust ry is in it s
infancy, and t here is considerable lack of clarit y when it comes t o how different
companies will assert and resolve I PR issues.
Finally, wireless- dat a business models must also be considered. Today’s cellular
net works can finance t he deployment of dat a capabilit ies t hrough a successful voice
business. Building new net works for broadband wireless mandat es subst ant ial capacit y
per subscriber. Consumers who download 1 gigabyt e of dat a each mont h represent a t en
t imes great er load on t he net work t han a 1, 000- minut e- a- mont h voice user. And if t he
fut ure is in mult imedia services such as movie downloads, it is import ant t o recognize
t hat downloading a single DVD- qualit y movie—even wit h advanced compression—
consumes approximat ely 2 gigabyt es. I t is not clear how easily t he available revenue per
subscriber will be able t o finance large- scale deployment of net work capacit y. Despit e
numerous at t empt s, no t errest rial wireless- dat a- only net work has ever succeeded as a
business.
48
Alt hough t here is discussion of providing voice services over WiMAX using
VoI P, mobile- voice users demand ubiquit ous coverage—including indoor coverage.
Mat ching t he cellular foot print wit h WiMAX will require nat ional roaming arrangement s,
complement ed by new dual- t echnology devices, or significant operat or invest ment s.
IEEE 802.20
I EEE 802. 20 is a mobile- broadband specificat ion developed by t he Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access Working Group of t he I EEE t hat was complet ed in 2008. Wit h vendors
focused heavily on LTE, UMB, and WiMAX for next - generat ion wireless services, it is not
clear whet her t here is sufficient moment um in t his st andard t o make it a viable
t echnology. At t his t ime, no operat or has commit t ed t o t he possible st andard. Not e t hat
802. 20 is very similar t o UMB. However, neit her t echnology has gained any moment um
at t his point in t ime.
Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems
I n t he local area, t he I EEE 802. 11 family of t echnologies has experienced rapid growt h,
mainly in privat e deployment s. The lat est 802. 11 st andard, 802. 11n offers users
t hroughput s in excess of 100 Mbps, and improved range t hrough use of MI MO.
Complement ary st andards increase t he at t ract ion of t he t echnology. 802. 11e provides
qualit y- of- service enabling VoI P and mult imedia, and 802. 11i enables robust securit y.
Leveraging t his success, operat ors—including cellular operat ors—are offering hot spot
service in public areas such as airport s, fast - food rest aurant s, and hot els. For t he most
part , hot spot s are complement ary wit h cellular- dat a net works, because t he hot spot can

47
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
2007” .
48
Source: Andy Seybold, January 18, 2006, comment ary: “ Will Dat a- Only Net works Ever Make
Money?” ht t p: / / www. out look4mobilit y. com/ comment ary2006/ j an1806. ht m

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 36
provide broadband services in ext remely dense user areas and t he cellular net work can
provide broadband services across much larger areas. Various organizat ions are looking
at int egrat ing WLAN service wit h GSM/ UMTS dat a services. The GSM Associat ion has
developed recommendat ions for SI M- based aut hent icat ion of hot spot s, and 3GPP has
mult iple init iat ives t hat address WLAN int egrat ion int o it s net works, including 3GPP
Syst em t o WLAN I nt erworking, UMA, I MS, and EPC/ SAE.
Many cit ies are now deploying met ro Wi- Fi syst ems t hat will provide Wi- Fi access in
downt own areas. These syst ems are based on a mesh t echnology, where access point s
forward packet s t o nodes t hat have backhaul connect ions. Alt hough some indust ry
observers are predict ing t hat t hese syst ems will have an adverse effect on 3G dat a
services, met ro Wi- Fi and 3G are more likely t o be complement ary in nat ure. Wi- Fi can
generally provide bet t er applicat ion performance over limit ed coverage areas, whereas
3G syst ems can provide access over much larger coverage areas.
Met ro syst ems t oday are st ill quit e immat ure and face t he following challenges:
 Many cit y proj ect s have been discont inued due t o t he difficult y of providing a
viable business model.
 Today’s mesh syst ems are all propriet ary. The I EEE is developing a mesh
net working st andard—I EEE 802. 16s—but t his may not be ready unt il 2008. Even
t hen, it is not clear t hat vendors will adopt t his st andard for out door syst ems.
 Coverage in most met ro syst ems is designed t o provide an out door signal. As
such, t he signal does not penet rat e many buildings in t he coverage area and
repeat ers are needed t o propagat e t he signal indoors. Many early net work
deployment s have experienced poorer coverage t han init ially expect ed, and t he
number of recommended access point s per square mile has increased st eadily.
 Operat ion is in unlicensed bands in t he 2. 4 GHz radio channel. Given only t hree
relat ively non- overlapping radio channels at 2.4 GHz, int erference bet ween public
and privat e syst ems is inevit able.
 Though mesh archit ect ure simplifies backhaul, t here are st ill considerable
expenses and net working considerat ions in backhauling a large number of
out door access point s.
Nevert heless, met ro net works have at t ract ed considerable int erest , and some number of
proj ect s are st ill proceeding. Technical issues will likely be resolved over t ime, and as
more devices support bot h 3G and Wi- Fi, users can look forward t o mult iple access
opt ions.
Comparison of Wireless Technologies
This sect ion of t he paper compares t he different wireless t echnologies, looking at
t hroughput , lat ency, spect ral efficiency, and market posit ion. Finally, t he paper present s a
t able t hat summarizes t he compet it ive posit ion of t he different t echnologies across mult iple
dimensions.
Data Throughput
Dat a t hroughput is an import ant met ric for quant ifying net work t hroughput
performance. Unfort unat ely, t he ways in which various organizat ions quot e t hroughput
st at ist ics vary t remendously, which oft en result s in misleading claims. The int ent of t his
paper is t o realist ically represent t he capabilit ies of t hese t echnologies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 37
One met hod of represent ing a t echnology’s t hroughput is what people call “ peak
t hroughput ” or “ peak net work speed. ” This refers t o t he fast est possible t ransmission
speed over t he radio link, and it is generally based on t he highest order modulat ion
available and t he least amount of coding ( error correct ion) overhead. Peak net work
speed is also usually quot ed at layer 2 of t he radio link. Because of prot ocol overhead,
act ual applicat ion t hroughput may be 10 t o 20 percent lower ( or more) t han t his layer- 2
value. Even if t he radio net work can deliver t his speed, ot her aspect s of t he net work—
such as t he backhaul from base st at ion t o operat or- infrast ruct ure net work—can oft en
const rain t hroughput rat es t o levels below t he radio- link rat e.
Anot her met hod is t o disclose t hroughput s act ually measured in deployed net works wit h
applicat ions such as File Transfer Prot ocol ( FTP) under favorable condit ions, which
assume light net work loading ( as low as one act ive dat a user in t he cell sect or) and
favorable signal propagat ion. This number is useful because it demonst rat es t he high-
end, act ual capabilit y of t he t echnology. This paper refers t o t his rat e as t he “ peak user
rat e. ” Average rat es, however, are lower t han t his peak rat e and difficult t o predict
because t hey depend on a mult it ude of operat ional and net work fact ors. Except when
t he net work is congest ed, however, t he maj orit y of users should experience t hroughput
rat es higher t han one- half of t he peak- achievable rat e.
Some operat ors, primarily in t he US, also quot e t ypical t hroughput rat es. These rat es
are based on t hroughput t est s t he operat ors have done across t heir operat ing net works,
and incorporat e a higher level of net work loading. Though t he operat ors do not disclose
t he precise met hodology t hey use t o est ablish t hese figures, t he values provide a good
indicat ion of what users can t ypically expect .
Table 4 present s t he t echnologies in t erms of peak net work t hroughput rat es, peak user-
rat es ( under favorable condit ions) and t ypical rat es. I t omit s values t hat are not yet
known, such as t hose associat ed wit h fut ure t echnologies.
Tabl e 5: Thr oughput Per f or mance of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
( Bl ue I ndi cat es Theor et i cal Peak Rat es, Gr een Ty pi cal )

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
EDGE ( t y pe 2 MS) 473. 6 kbps 473. 6 kbps
EDGE ( t y pe 1 MS)
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
peak
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
peak
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 1 MS)
49

1184 kbps
50
473. 6
kbps
51



49
A t ype 1 evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o eight t imeslot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o four t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
50
Type 1 mobile, class 12 hardware, 10 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) , MTCS- 8- B ( 118. 4 kbps/ slot )
51
4 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 38

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 2 MS)
52

1894. 4
53

kbps
947. 2
kbps
54



UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99 2. 048 Mbps 768 kbps
UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
HSDPA I ni t i al Devi ces
( 2006)
1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
HSDPA 14. 4 Mbps 384 kbps
HSPA
55
I ni t i al
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps > 5 Mbps
peak
700 kbps t o
1. 7 Mbps
t ypical
56

2 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
peak
500 kbps t o
1. 2 Mbps
t ypical
HSPA Cur r ent
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA 14. 4 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA+ ( DL 64 QAM, UL
16 QAM)
21. 6 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps

HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
28 Mbps > 5Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
11. 5 Mbps > 3 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
42 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps
LTE ( 2X2 MI MO)
173 Mbps > 10 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
58 Mbps > 5 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed

52
A t ype 2- evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o 16 t imes slot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o eight t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
53
Type 2 mobile, 16 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) at MTCS- 8- B
54
Type 2 mobile, 8 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B
55
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) consist s of syst ems support ing bot h High Speed Downlink Packet
Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) .
56
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on AT&T press release, June 4, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 39

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
LTE ( 4X4 MI MO) 326 Mbps 86 Mbps

CDMA2000 1XRTT
153 kbps 130 kbps
peak
153 kbps 130 kbps
peak
CDMA2000 1XRTT 307 kbps 307 kbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev 0
2. 4 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
153 kbps 150 kbps
peak
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev A
3. 1 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
peak
600 kbps t o
1. 4 Mbps
t ypical
57

1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
300 t o 500
kbps t ypical
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
( 3 r adi o channel s MHz)
9. 3 Mbps 5. 4 Mbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
Theor et i cal ( 15 r adi o
channel s)
73. 5 Mbps 27 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 2X2 MI MO)
140 Mbps 34 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 4X4 MI MO)
280 Mbps 68 Mbps

802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 1 ( 10 MHz TDD
DL/ UL= 3, 1X2 SI MO)
23 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 2 ( 10 MHz TDD,
DL/ UL= 3, 2x 2 MI MO)
46 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16m TBD TBD

Rysavy Research’s 2002 paper for 3G Americas on wireless dat a ant icipat ed EDGE
average performance of 110 t o 130 kbps and UMTS average performance of 200 t o 300
kbps. Act ual result s from operat or and vendor field t rials mat ched t hese predict ed
result s validat ing t he met hodology used t o predict performance. I n t he 2004 and 2005
versions of t his paper, t he 550 t o 800 kbps t hroughput performance of init ial HSDPA
devices has been borne out as fairly accurat e.

57
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on Sprint press release January 30, 2007.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 40
HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios
I t is inst ruct ive t o look at act ual HSDPA t hroughput in commercial net works. Figure 11
shows t he t hroughput s measured in one net work wit h voice and dat a in one West ern
European count ry across t hree larger cit ies. The dat a shows t he percent age of samples
on t he X axis t hat fall below t he t hroughput shown on t he Y axis. For example, t he 75
percent ile is at 5 Mbps, meaning t hat 75% of samples are below 5 Mbps and 25% are
above. Significant ly, half of all t he measurement s showed 4 Mbps or higher t hroughput .
Fi gur e 11: HSDPA Thr oughput Di st r i but i on i n Depl oy ed Net w or k s
58

0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
1
0
0
%
9
5
%
9
0
%
8
5
%
8
0
%
7
5
%
7
0
%
6
5
%
6
0
%
5
5
%
5
0
%
4
5
%
4
0
%
3
5
%
3
0
%
2
5
%
2
0
%
1
5
%
1
0
%
5
%
0
%
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]


I n anot her net work st udy, Figure 12 shows t he downlink t hroughput performance of a
7. 2 Mbps device. ( peak dat a rat e capabilit y) . I t result s in a median t hroughput of 1. 9
Mbps when mobile, 1. 8 Mbps wit h poor coverage, and 3. 8 Mbps wit h good coverage.

58
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 41
Fi gur e 12: HSDPA Per f or mance of a 7.2 Mbps Devi ce i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
59

Good Coverage
Median bitrate
3.8 Mbps
Median bitrate
1.8 Mbps
Bad Coverage
Median bitrate
1.8 Mbps
Bad Coverage
-106 dBm
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.9 Mbps
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.9 Mbps


These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for t wo deployed HSPA
net works t hat support ed 7. 2 Mbps HSDPA. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 2. 1 Mbps in t he first net work, and 1. 9 Mbps in t he second
net work.
60

Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance
HSUPA dramat ically increases uplink t hroughput s over 3GPP Release 99. However, even
Release 99 net works have seen significant uplink increases. Many net works were init ially
deployed wit h a 64 kbps uplink rat e. Lat er, t his increased t o 128 kbps. Lat er, operat ors
increased speeds t o 384 kbps peak rat es, wit h peak user- achievable rat es of 350 kbps.
The ant icipat ed 1 Mbps achievable uplink t hroughput wit h HSUPA can be seen in t he
measured t hroughput of a commercial net work, as document ed in Figure 13. The X axis
shows t hroughput rat e, t he Y axis shows t he cumulat ive dist ribut ion funct ion and t he
bars show t he number of samples obt ained for t hat t hroughput rat e on a relat ive basis.
The median bit rat e is 1. 0 Mbps.

59
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
60
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 42
Fi gur e 13: Upl i nk Thr oughput i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
61

0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.0 Mbps
0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.0 Mbps

These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for a deployed HSPA net work
t hat support ed 2. 0 Mbps HSUPA
62
uplink speed. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 1. 2 Mbps
63
.
LTE Throughput
As part of t he LTE/ SAE/ EPC Trial I nit iat ive ( LSTI ) , vendors are t est ing LTE t echnology.
Figure 14shows LTE t hroughput s in a 2X2 MI MO t rial net work reaching a maximum of
154 Mbps, a mean of 78 Mbps and a minimum of 16 Mbps. Unt il operat ors act ually
deploy complet e net works, t ypical rat es will not be available, but t he dat a suggest s t hat
users should be able t o obt ain t hroughput s an order of magnit ude higher t han t oday’s
3G net works.

61
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
62
2 x spreading fact or ( 2xSF2) code configurat ion.
63
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 43
Fi gur e 14: LTE Measur ed Thr oughput i n Test Net w or k
64

Base station located at x.
L1 Throughput
Max: 154 Mbps
Mean: 78 Mbps
Min: 16 Mbps
User Speed
Max: 45 km/h
Mean: 16 km/h
Min: 0 km/h
Sub-urban area with line-
of-sight: less than 40%
of the samples
Heights of surrounding
buildings: 15-25 m

12
23
37
54
74
97
123
154
100 meters

Latency
Just as import ant as t hroughput is net work lat ency, defined as t he round- t rip t ime it
t akes dat a t o t raverse t he net work. Each successive dat a t echnology from GPRS forward
reduces lat ency, wit h HSDPA net works having lat ency as low as 70 milliseconds ( msec) .
HSUPA brings lat ency down even furt her, as will 3GPP LTE. Ongoing improvement s in
each t echnology mean all t hese values will go down as vendors and operat ors fine t une
t heir syst ems. Figure 15 shows t he lat ency of different 3GPP t echnologies.

64
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 44
Fi gur e 15: Lat ency of Di f f er ent Technol ogi es
65

100
700
600
500
400
300
200
GPRS
Rel’97
EDGE
Rel’99
EDGE
Rel’4
WCDMA
Rel’99
Evolved
EDGE
M
i
l
l
i
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
LTE HSPA HSDPA


The values shown in Figure 15 reflect measurement s of commercially deployed
t echnologies. Some vendors have report ed significant ly lower values in net works using
t heir equipment , such as 150 msec for EDGE, 70 msec for HSDPA, and 50 msec for
HSPA. Wit h furt her refinement s and t he use of 2 msec Transmission Time I nt erval ( TTI )
in t he HSPA uplink, 25 msec roundt rip is a realist ic goal. LTE will reduce lat ency even
furt her, t o as low as 10 msec in t he radio- access net work.
Spectral Efficiency
To bet t er underst and t he reasons for deploying t he different dat a t echnologies and t o
bet t er predict t he evolut ion of capabilit y, it is useful t o examine spect ral efficiency. The
evolut ion of dat a services will be charact erized by an increasing number of users wit h
ever- higher bandwidt h demands. As t he wireless- dat a market grows, deploying wireless
t echnologies wit h high spect ral efficiency will be of paramount import ance. Keeping all
ot her t hings equal, such as frequency band, amount of spect rum, and cell sit e spacing,
an increase in spect ral efficiency t ranslat es t o a proport ional increase in t he number of
users support ed at t he same load per user—or, for t he same number of users, an
increase in t hroughput available t o each user. Delivering broadband services t o large
numbers of users can best be achieved wit h high spect ral efficiency syst ems, especially

65
Source: 3G Americas' member companies. Measured bet ween subscriber unit and Gi int erface,
immediat ely ext ernal t o wireless net work. Does not include I nt ernet lat ency. Not e t hat t here is some
variat ion in lat ency based on net work configurat ion and operat ing condit ions.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 45
because t he only ot her alt ernat ives are using more spect rum or deploying more cell
sit es.
I ncreased spect ral efficiency, however, comes at a price. I t generally implies great er
complexit y for bot h user and base st at ion equipment . Complexit y can arise from t he
increased number of calculat ions performed t o process signals or from addit ional radio
component s. Hence, operat ors and vendors must balance market needs against net work
and equipment cost s. One core aspect of evolving wireless t echnology is managing t he
complexit y associat ed wit h achieving higher spect ral efficiency. The reason t echnologies
such as OFDMA are at t ract ive is t hat t hey allow higher spect ral efficiency wit h lower
overall complexit y; t hus t heir use in t echnologies such as LTE, UMB, and WiMAX.
The roadmap for t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies provides a wide port folio of
opt ions t o increase spect ral efficiency. The exact t iming for deploying t hese opt ions is
difficult t o predict , because much will depend on t he growt h of t he wireless dat a market ,
and what t ypes of applicat ions become popular.
When det ermining t he best area on which t o focus fut ure t echnology enhancement s, it is
int erest ing t o not e t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 all have highly
opt imized links—t hat is, physical layers. I n fact , as shown in Figure 16, t he link layer
performance of t hese t echnologies is approaching t he t heoret ical limit s as defined by t he
Shannon bound. ( The Shannon bound is a t heoret ical limit t o t he informat ion t ransfer
rat e [ per unit bandwidt h] t hat can be support ed by any communicat ions link. The bound
is a funct ion of t he Signal t o Noise Rat io [ SNR] of t he communicat ions link. ) Figure 16
also shows t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 are all wit hin 2 t o 3 decibels
( dB) of t he Shannon bound, indicat ing t hat t here is not much room for improvement
from a link layer perspect ive. Not e t hat differences do exist in t he design of t he MAC
layer ( layer 2) and t his may result in lower t han expect ed performance in some cases as
described previously.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 46
Fi gur e 16: Per f or mance Rel at i ve t o Theor et i cal Li mi t s
f or HSDPA, EV- DO, and I EEE 802.16e- 2005
66

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Required SNR (dB)
A
c
h
i
e
v
a
b
l
e

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
)
Shannon bound
Shannon bound with 3dB margin
EV-DO
IEEE 802.16e-2005
HSDPA


The curves in Figure 16 apply t o an Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel ( AWGN) . I f
t he channel is slowly varying and t he effect of frequency select ivit y can be overcome
t hrough an equalizer in eit her HSDPA or OFDM, t hen t he channel can be known almost
perfect ly and t he effect s of fading and non- AWGN int erference can be ignored—t hus
j ust ifying t he AWGN assumpt ion. For inst ance, at 3 km per hour, and fading at 2 GHz,
t he Doppler spread is about 5. 5 Hz. The coherence t ime of t he channel is t hus 1 sec/ 5. 5
or 180 msec. Frames are well wit hin t he coherence t ime of t he channel, because t hey
are t ypically 20 msec or less. As such, t he channel appears “ const ant ” over a frame and
t he Shannon bound applies. Much more of t he t raffic in a cellular syst em is at slow
speeds ( for example, 3 km/ hr) rat her t han at higher speeds. Thus, t he Shannon bound
is relevant for a realist ic deployment environment .
As t he speed of t he mobile st at ion increases and t he channel est imat ion becomes less
accurat e, addit ional margin is needed. However, t his addit ional margin would impact t he
different st andards fairly equally.
The Shannon bound only applies t o a single user; it does not at t empt t o indicat e
aggregat e channel t hroughput wit h mult iple users. However, it does indicat e t hat link
layer performance is reaching t heoret ical limit s. As such, t he focus of fut ure t echnology
enhancement s should be on improving syst em performance aspect s t hat maximize t he
experienced SNRs in t he syst em rat her t han on invest igat ing new air int erfaces t hat
at t empt t o improve t he link layer performance.

66
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 47
Examples of t echnologies t hat improve SNR in t he syst em are t hose t hat minimize
int erference t hrough int elligent ant ennas or int erference coordinat ion bet ween sect ors
and cells. Not e t hat MI MO t echniques using spat ial mult iplexing t o pot ent ially increase
t he overall informat ion t ransfer rat e by a fact or proport ional t o t he number of t ransmit
or receive ant ennas do not violat e t he Shannon bound, because t he per ant enna t ransfer
rat e ( t hat is, t he per communicat ions link t ransfer rat e) is st ill limit ed by t he Shannon
bound.
Figure 17 compares t he spect ral efficiency of different wireless t echnologies based on a
consensus view of 3G Americas cont ribut ors t o t his paper. I t shows t he cont inuing
evolut ion of t he capabilit ies of all t he t echnologies discussed. The values shown are
conservat ive and int ended t o be reasonably represent at ive of real- world condit ions. Most
simulat ion result s produce values under idealized condit ions; as such, some of t he
values shown are lower ( for all t echnologies) t han t he values indicat ed in ot her papers
and publicat ions. For inst ance, 3GPP st udies indicat e higher HSDPA and LTE spect ral
efficiencies t han t hose shown below.
Fi gur e 17: Compar i son of Dow nl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
67

0.1
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
UMTS to LTE
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
/
s
e
c
t
o
r
)

5
+
5

M
H
z
0.8
0.9
UMTS R’99
HSDPA
EV-DO Rev 0
Rev B
Cross-Carrier
Scheduling
Rev A,
MRxD,
Equalizer
UMB
2X2 MIMO
WiMAX
Wave 1
WiMAX
Wave 2
CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
LTE
2X2 MIMO
HSPA+
2X2 MIMO
HSPA+
SIC, 64 QAM
HSDPA
MRxD,
Equalizer
1.5
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.4
LTE
4X4 MIMO
UMB
4X4 MIMO
Future
improvements
Future
improvements
LTE
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
2X2 MIMO
UMB
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
4X4 MIMO
Future
improvements



67
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. WiMAX Wave 2 AMC not included. Mix of mobile and
st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a preliminary, based on expect ed feat ures.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 48

The values shown in Figure 17 are not all t he combinat ions of available feat ures. Rat her,
t hey are represent at ive milest ones in ongoing improvement s in spect ral efficiency. For
inst ance, t here are t erminals t hat employ mobile- receive diversit y but not equalizat ion.
The figure does not include EDGE, but EDGE it self is spect rally efficient , at 0. 3
bps/ Hz/ sect or. Relat ive t o WCDMA Release 99, HSDPA increases capacit y by almost a
fact or of t hree. Type 3 receivers t hat include Minimum Mean Square Error ( MMSE)
equalizat ion and Mobile Receive Diversit y ( MRxD) will effect ively double HSDPA spect ral
efficiency. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes 2X2 MI MO, which furt her increases spect ral
efficiency by about 20 percent and mat ches WiMAX Wave 2 spect ral efficiency. Met hods
like successive int erference cancellat ion ( SI C) and 64 QAM allow gains in spect ral
efficiency as high as 1.3 bps/ Hz/ sect or, which is close t o LTE performance in 5+ 5 MHz
channel bandwidt h. Terminals wit h SI C can also be used wit h Release 7 syst ems.
Wit h respect t o act ual deployment , some enhancement s, such as 64 QAM, will be
simpler for some operat ors t o deploy t han ot her enhancement s, such as 2X2 MI MO. The
former can be done as a soft ware upgrade, whereas t he lat t er requires addit ional
hardware at t he base st at ion. Thus t he figure does not necessarily show t he act ual
progression of t echnologies t hat operat ors will deploy t o increase spect ral efficiency.
Beyond HSPA, 3GPP LTE will also result in furt her spect ral efficiency gains, init ially wit h
2X2 MI MO, and t hen opt ionally wit h SI C, 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO. LTE is even more
spect rally efficient wit h wider channels, such as 10 and 20 MHz.
Similar gains are available for CDMA2000. Mobile WiMAX also experiences gains in
spect ral efficiency as various opt imizat ions, like MRxD and MI MO, are applied. WiMAX
Wave 2 includes 2X2 MI MO. Enhancement s t o WiMAX will come from a new profile
defined in Release 1. 5, as well as ot her fut ure enhancement s.
The main reason t hat HSPA+ wit h MI MO is shown as more spect rally efficient t han
WiMAX Wave 2 wit h MI MO is because HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h
precode weight ing and mult icode- word MI MO, which enables t he use of SI C receivers.
Ot her reasons are t hat HSPA support s increment al- redundancy HARQ, while t he init ial
WiMAX profiles support only Chase combining HARQ, and t hat WiMAX has larger cont rol
overhead in t he downlink t han HSPA, because t he uplink in WiMAX is fully scheduled.
OFDMA t echnology requires scheduling t o avoid t wo mobile devices t ransmit t ing on t he
same t ones simult aneously. An uplink MAP zone in t he downlink channel does t his
scheduling.
LTE has higher spect ral efficiency t han WiMAX Wave 2 for a number of reasons:
68

- Closed- loop operat ion wit h precoded weight ing.
- Mult i codeword MI MO which enable t he use of SI C receivers.
- Lower Channel Qualit y I ndicat or delay t hrough use of 1 msec frames inst ead of 5
msec frames.
- Great er cont rol channel efficiency.
- I ncrement al redundancy in error correct ion.
- Finer granularit y of modulat ion and coding schemes.

68
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 49

WiMAX Release 1. 5 will address some of t hese it ems, and will t hus have increased
spect ral efficiency. Expect ed feat ures include reduced MAC overhead, adapt ive
modulat ion and coding, and ot her physical- layer enhancement s. At t he t ime of t his
paper, t he feat ure set is neit her public nor final, and hence t he spect ral efficiency values
shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change. Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range
from about 77% t o 98% of LTE spect ral efficiency for downlink dat a.
69
Thus if t he final
spect ral efficiency analysis for WiMAX Release 1. 5 comes at t he low end of t he range, it
would fall well below LTE performance and could also fall below HSPA+ spect ral
efficiency. Since t here is a wide range in proj ect ed spect ral efficiency, t he assessment of
act ual performance of WiMAX Release 1. 5 relat ive t o HSPA+ and LTE must await furt her
analysis.
One available improvement for LTE spect ral efficiency not shown in t he figure is
successive int erference cancellat ion. This will result in a gain of 5% in a low mobilit y
environment and a gain of 10 t o 15% in environment s such as picocells in which t here is
cell isolat ion.
An import ant conclusion of t his comparison is t hat all t he maj or wireless t echnologies
achieve comparable spect ral efficiency t hrough t he use of comparable radio t echniques.
Figure 18 compares t he uplink spect ral efficiency of t he different syst ems.

69
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 50
Fi gur e 18: Compar i son of Upl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
70

0.1
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
UMTS to LTE
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
/
s
e
c
t
o
r
)

5
+
5

M
H
z
0.8
0.9
UMTS R’99
to Rel 5
HSUPA Rel 6
LTE 1X2
Receive
Diversity
EV-DO Rev 0
EV-DO Rev B,
Interference
Cancellation
UMB 1X2
Receive
Diversity
EV-DO Rev A
HSPA+
Interference
Cancellation,
16 QAM
WiMAX
Wave 1
LTE 1x4
Receive
Diversity
CDMA2000 to UMB
WiMAX
Wave 2
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
1.0
Rel 1.5 1X2
Receive Diversity
UMB 1X4
Receive
Diversity
WiMAX
Rel 1.5 1X4
Receive
Diversity



The implement at ion of HSUPA in HSPA significant ly increases uplink capacit y, as does
Rev A of 1xEV- DO, compared t o Rev 0. OFDM- based syst ems can exhibit improved
uplink capacit y relat ive t o CDMA t echnologies, but t his improvement depends on fact ors
such as t he scheduling efficiency and t he exact deployment scenario. Wit h LTE, spect ral
efficiency gains increase by use of receive diversit y. I nit ial syst ems will employ 1X2
receive diversit y ( t wo ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and lat er 1X4 diversit y, which
should increase spect ral efficiency by 50%. I t is also possible t o employ Mult i- User MI MO
( MU- MI MO) which allows simult aneous t ransmission by mult iple users on t he uplink on
t he same physical resource t o increase spect ral efficiency and is, in fact , easier t o
implement t han t rue MI MO because it does not require an addit ional t ransmit t er in t he
mobile device. Spect ral efficiency gains, however, wit h MU- MI MO are not as great as
wit h t he receive diversit y schemes.
Figure 18 shows WiMAX Wave 2 uplink spect ral efficiency t o be lower t han 3GPP and
3GPP2 t echnologies employing int erference cancellat ion. This is because of t he high pilot
overhead in I EEE 802. 16e, which account s for up t o 33 percent of t ones. Wit h t he
opt ional, but more efficient pilot st ruct ure implement ed, it is likely t hat I EEE 802. 16e
uplink spect ral efficiency will be on par.

70
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 51
Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range from about 57% t o 98% of LTE spect ral
efficiency for uplink dat a and t he values shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change.
71

Figure 19 compares voice spect ral efficiency. I t assumes a round- robin t ype of
scheduler, as opposed t o a proport ional- fair scheduler t hat is normally used for
asynchronous dat a.
Fi gur e 19: Compar i son of Voi ce Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
72

50
350
300
250
200
150
100
UMTS to LTE
E
r
l
a
n
g
s
,


1
0
+
1
0

M
H
z
UMTS R’99
AMR 7.95 kbps
Interference
Cancellation
AMR 5.9 kbps
1xRTT
EVRC 8 kbps
Interference
Cancellation
EVRC-B 6 kbps
Rel 1.5
EVRC-B 6kbps
EV-DO Rev A
EVRC 8 kbps Rel 7, VoIP
AMR 7.95 kbps
500
450
400
CDMA2000 to UMB
LTE AMR 5.9 kbps
Rel 7 VoIP
AMR 5.9 kbps
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
UMB VoIP
EVRC-B 6 kbps
EVRC-B 6 kbps
Future
Improvements
WiMAX
Wave 2
EVRC 8 kbps
Rel 1.5
EVRC 8 kbps
LTE VoIP
AMR 7.95 kbps
WiMAX
UMTS R’99
AMR 12.2 kbps


Figure 19 shows UMTS R’99 wit h bot h AMR 12. 2 kbps and 7. 95 kbps vocoders. The AMR
12. 2 kbps vocoder provides superior voice qualit y in good ( e. g. , st at ic, indoors) channel
condit ions. UMTS has dynamic adapt at ion bet ween vocoder rat es, enabling enhanced
voice qualit y compared t o EVRC at t he expense of capacit y in sit uat ions t hat are not
capacit y limit ed.
Opport unit ies will arise t o improve voice capacit y using VoI P over HSPA channels.
Depending on t he specific enhancement s implement ed, voice capacit y could double over
exist ing circuit - swit ched syst ems. I t should be not ed, however, t hat t he gains are not
relat ed specifically t o t he use of VoI P; rat her, gains relat e t o advances in radio
t echniques applied t o t he dat a channels. Many of t hese same advances may also be
applied t o current circuit - swit ched modes. This is what t he CS over HSPA work it em will

71
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.
72
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 10 + 10 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 20 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 52
achieve. However, ot her benefit s of VoI P are driving t he migrat ion t o packet voice.
Among t hese benefit s are a consolidat ed I P core net work for operat ors and sophist icat ed
mult imedia applicat ions for users.
EV- DO t echnologies could possibly exhibit a slight ly higher spect ral efficiency for VoI P
t han HSPA t echnologies ( t hough not for packet dat a in general) , as t hey operat e purely
in t he packet domain and do not have circuit - swit ched cont rol overhead.
73
Unt il VoI P
over EV- DO becomes available, HSPA will have t he significant advant age, however, of
being able t o support simult aneous circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched users on t he
same radio channel.
Wit h respect t o codecs, in VoI P syst ems such as LTE, UMB and WiMAX, a variet y of
codecs can be used. The figures show performance assuming specific codecs at
represent at ive bit rat es. For codecs such as EVRC ( Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec) , t he
bit rat e shown is an average value.
Though WiMAX Release 1. 5 has high downlink and uplink spect ral efficiency for VoI P, it
has a disadvant age relat ive t o LTE because it only support s 5 msec frames while LTE
support s 1 msec frames. The use of 5 msec frames limit s t he number of HARQ
ret ransmissions in each 20 msec speech frame. LTE can support mult iple HARQ
ret ransmissions wit hin a 20 msec speech frame, whereas WiMAX can only support one.
Cost, Volume and Market Comparison
So far, t his paper has compared wireless t echnologies on t he basis of t echnical capabilit y
and demonst rat ed t hat many of t he different opt ions have similar t echnical at t ribut es.
This is for t he simple reason t hat t hey employ many of t he same approaches.
There is a point of comparison, however, in which t he differences bet ween t he
t echnologies diverge t remendously; namely, t he difference in volume involved including
subscribers and t he amount of infrast ruct ure required. This difference should t ranslat e t o
dramat ically reduced cost s for t he highest volume solut ions, specifically GSM/ UMTS.
Based on proj ect ions and numbers already present ed in t his paper, 3G subscribers on
UMTS net works will number in t he many hundreds of millions by t he end of t his decade,
whereas subscribers t o emerging wireless t echnologies such as I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 will
number in t he t ens of millions. See Figure 20 for det ails.

73
Transmit Power Cont rol ( TPC) bit s on t he uplink Dedicat ed Physical Cont rol Channel DPCCH in UMTS
R’99. See also I EEE Journal on Select ed Areas in Communicat ion, Vol 24, No. 1, Qi Bi, “ An Analysis of
VoI P Service Using 1 EV- DO Revision A Syst em” , January, 2006.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 53
Fi gur e 20: Rel at i ve Vol ume of Subscr i ber s Acr oss Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
74



Alt hough proponent s for t echnologies such as mobile WiMAX point t o lower cost s for
t heir alt ernat ives, t here doesn’t seem t o be any inherent cost advant age—even on an
equal volume basis. And when fact oring in t he lower volumes, any real- world cost
advant age is debat able.
From a deployment point of view, t he t ype of t echnology used ( for example, HSPA
versus WiMAX) only applies t o t he soft ware support ed by t he digit al cards at t he base
st at ion. This cost , however, is only a small fract ion of t he base st at ion cost wit h t he
balance covering ant ennas, power amplifiers, cables, racks, RF cards, . As for t he rest of
t he net work including const ruct ion, backhaul, and core- net work component s, cost s are
similar regardless of Radio Access Net work ( RAN) t echnology. Spect rum cost s for each
t echnology can differ great ly depending on a count ry’s regulat ions and t he spect rum
band. As a general rule in most part s of t he world, spect rum sold at 3.5 GHz will cost
much less t han spect rum sold at 850 MHz ( all ot her t hings being equal) .
As for UMTS/ HSPA versus CDMA2000, higher deployment —by a fact or of five—could
t ranslat e t o significant cost savings. For example, research and development
amort izat ion result s in a four- t o- one difference in base st at ion cost s.
75
Similarly, j ust as
GSM handset s are considered much less expensive t han 1xRTT handset s, UMTS
wholesale t erminal prices could be t he market leader in low- cost or mass- market 3G
t erminals. Development s such as single- chip UMTS complement ary met al oxide

74
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, WCI S Forecast , July 2008
75
Source: 3G Americas member analysis.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 54
semiconduct or ( CMOS) t ransceivers could be part icularly effect ive in making
UMTS/ HSDPA devices more affordable t o t he mass market .
76

Even LTE is on t he road t o a robust wireless ecosyst em and significant economies of
scale. I n June of 2008, t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net works ( NGMN) alliance confirmed
it s select ion of LTE. Dr. Pet er Meissner, Operat ing Officer of NGMN announced t hat ,
“ based on int ensive and det ailed t echnology evaluat ions, 3GPP LTE/ SAE is t he first
t echnology which broadly meet s it s recommendat ions and is approved by it s Board. ”
77

The NGMN is comprised of 18 mobile net work operat ors, 29 vendor sponsors and 3
Universit y research inst it ut es. I t s operat or members include: Allt el, AT&T, China Mobile,
France Telecom, Royal KPN, MSV Mobile Sat ellit e Vent ures, NTT DoComo, Reliance
Communicat ions, SK Telecom, Telecom I t alia, Telefonica, Telenor, TeliaSonera, Telst ra,
Telus, T- Mobile and Vodafone.
I n reference t o t he NGMN Alliance announcement , Michael Thelander, CEO and Founder
of Signals Research Group, a US- based wireless research consult ancy, st at ed t hat , “ t he
implicat ions could be significant , and if not hing else, eight een of t he world’s largest
mobile operat ors have spoken…”
78

Competitive Summary
Based on t he informat ion present ed in t his paper, Table 6 summarizes t he compet it ive
posit ion of t he different t echnologies discussed.
Tabl e 6: Compet i t i ve Posi t i on of Maj or Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
Subscr i ber s Over 3 billion
t oday; 4 billion
expect ed by 2010
438 million
79

t oday; slower
growt h expect ed
t han GSM/ UMTS
Less t han 54 million
by 2012
Mat ur i t y Ext remely mat ure Ext remely mat ure Emerging/ immat ure
Adopt i on Cellular operat ors
globally
Cellular operat ors
globally for CDMA
2000. No
commit ment s t o
UMB.
Limit ed t o dat e
Cov er age/ Foot pr i nt Global Global wit h t he
general except ion
of West ern Europe
Very limit ed
Depl oy ment Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Many more cell
sit es required at 2. 5
GHz.

76
Source: Qualcomm press release Feb 13, 2007.
77
ht t p: / / www. umt s- forum. org/ cont ent / view/ 2479/ 172/
78
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org/ English/ news_room/ DisplayPressRelease. cfm?id= 3359&s= ENG
79
Source: CDG, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 55
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
Dev i ces Broad select ion of
GSM/ EDGE/ UMTS/
HSPA
devices
Broad select ion of
1xRTT/ EV- DO
devices
None yet ; init ial
devices likely t o
emphasize dat a
Radi o Technol ogy Highly opt imized
TDMA for EDGE,
highly opt imized
CDMA for HSPA,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for LTE
Highly opt imized
CDMA for
Rev 0/ A/ B,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for Rev C
OFDMA in Wave 1,
more opt imized in
Wave 2,
highly opt imized in
Release 1. 5
Spect r al Ef f i ci ency Very high wit h
HSPA, mat ches
OFDMA approaches
in 5 MHz wit h
HSPA+
Very high wit h EV-
DO Rev A/ B
Very high, but not
higher t han HSPA+
Thr oughput
Capabi l i t i es
Peak downlink
user- achievable
rat es of over 4
Mbps t oday, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
Peak downlink
user- achievable
rat es of over 1. 5
Mbps, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
Peak downlink user-
achievable rat es will
depend on net work
design
Lat ency As low as 70 msec
wit h HSPA t oday,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
fut ure
As low as 70 msec
wit h EV- DO Rev A,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
fut ure
To be det ermined
Voi ce Capabi l i t y Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday;
smoot hest
migrat ion t o VoI P
of any t echnology
Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday
EV- DO radio
channels wit h VoI P
cannot support
circuit - voice users
Relat ively inefficient
VoI P init ially; more
efficient in lat er
st ages, but lower
t han LTE.
Voice coverage will
be much more
limit ed t han cellular
Si mul t aneous Voi ce
and Dat a
Available wit h
GSM
80
and UMTS
t oday
Not available t oday
Available wit h VoI P
Pot ent ially
available, t hough
init ial services will
emphasize dat a
Ef f i ci ent Spect r um
Usage
Ent ire UMTS radio
channel available
for any mix of
voice and high-
speed dat a
Radio channel
t oday limit ed t o
eit her
voice/ medium
speed dat a or high-
Efficient for dat a-
cent ric net works
only unt il lat er
versions

80
Wit h t he applicat ion of Dual Transfer Mode.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 56
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
speed dat a only

Conclusion
Thanks t o const ant innovat ion, t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies has proven it self
as t he predominant wireless net work solut ion, and offers operat ors and subscribers a t rue
mobile- broadband advant age. The cont inued use of GSM and EDGE t echnology t hrough
ongoing enhancement s allows operat ors t o leverage exist ing invest ment s. Wit h UMTS/ HSPA,
t he t echnologies’ advant ages provide for broadband services t hat will deliver increased dat a
revenue and provide a pat h t o all- I P archit ect ures. Wit h LTE, now t he most widely chosen
t echnology plat form for t he fort hcoming decade, t he advant ages offer a best - of- breed, long-
t erm solut ion t hat mat ches or exceeds t he performance of compet ing approaches. I n all
cases, t he different radio- access t echnologies can coexist using t he same core archit ect ure.
Today, HSPA offers t he highest peak dat a rat es of any widely available, wide- area wireless
t echnology. Wit h cont inued evolut ion, peak dat a rat es will cont inue t o increase, spect ral
efficiency will increase, and lat ency will decrease. The result is support for more users at
higher speeds wit h more applicat ions enabled. The scope of applicat ions will also increase as
new services become available such as locat ion informat ion and video. Great er efficiencies
will t ranslat e t o more compet it ive offers, great er net work usage, and increased revenues.
Because of pract ical benefit s and deployment moment um, t he migrat ion pat h from EDGE t o
HSPA t hen t o LTE is inevit able. Benefit s include t he abilit y t o roam globally, huge economies
of scale, widespread accept ance by operat ors, complement ary services such as messaging
and mult imedia, and an ast onishing variet y of compet it ive handset s and ot her devices.
Current ly more t han 210 commercial UMTS/ HSPA net works and 236 UMTS net works are
already in operat ion. UMTS/ HSPA offers an excellent migrat ion pat h for GSM operat ors, as
well as an effect ive t echnology solut ion for greenfield operat ors.
EDGE has proven t o be a remarkably effect ive and efficient t echnology for GSM net works. I t
achieves high spect ral efficiency and dat a performance t hat t oday support a wide range of
applicat ions. Evolved EDGE will great ly enhance EDGE capabilit ies—doubling and,
pot ent ially, quadrupling t hroughput s—making t he t echnology viable for many years t o
come.
Whereas EDGE is efficient for narrowband dat a services, t he UMTS/ HSPA radio link is
efficient for wideband services. Unlike some compet ing t echnologies, UMTS t oday offers
users simult aneous voice and dat a. I t also allows operat ors t o support voice and dat a across
t heir ent ire available spect rum.
HSPA has significant ly enhanced UMTS by providing a broadband dat a service wit h user-
achievable rat es t hat oft en exceed 1 Mbps on t he downlink in init ial deployment s and t hat
now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial net works. Many net works are now being upgraded
t o include HSUPA providing users uplink rat es in excess of 1 Mbps.
Not only are t here cont inual improvement s in radio t echnology, but improvement s t o t he
core net work t hrough flat t er archit ect ures—part icularly EPC/ SAE—will reduce lat ency, speed
applicat ions, simplify deployment , enable all services in t he I P domain, and allow a common
core net work t o support bot h LTE and legacy GSM/ UMTS syst ems.
HSPA and it s advanced evolut ion can compet e against any ot her t echnology in t he world,
and it is widely expect ed t hat most UMTS operat ors will event ually upgrade t o t his

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 57
t echnology. Ot her innovat ions, such as MI MO and higher order modulat ion, will be deployed
over t he next several years. Evolved HSPA+ syst ems, wit h peak rat es of 42 Mbps, will
largely mat ch t he t hroughput and capacit y of OFDMA- based approaches in 5 MHz. 3GPP
adopt ed OFDMA wit h 3GPP LTE, which will provide a growt h plat form for t he next decade.
Wit h t he cont inued growt h in mobile comput ing, powerful new handheld- comput ing
plat forms, an increasing amount of mobile cont ent , mult imedia messaging, mobile
commerce, and locat ion services, wireless dat a has slowly, but inevit ably, become a huge
indust ry. EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE provides one of t he most robust port folios of mobile- broadband
t echnologies, and it is an opt imum framework for realizing t he pot ent ial of t his market .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 58
Appendix: Technology Details
The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of dat a t echnologies provides ever- increasing capabilit ies t hat
support ever more demanding applicat ions. EDGE, now available globally, already makes a
wealt h of applicat ions feasible including ent erprise applicat ions, messaging, e- mail, Web
browsing, consumer applicat ions, and even some mult imedia applicat ions. Wit h UMTS and
HSDPA, users are enj oying videophones, high- fidelit y music, richer mult imedia applicat ions,
and efficient access t o t heir ent erprise applicat ions.
I t is import ant t o underst and t he needs ent erprises and consumers have for t hese services.
The obvious needs are broad coverage and high dat a t hroughput . Less obvious for users,
but as crit ical for effect ive applicat ion performance, are t he needs for low lat ency, QoS
cont rol, and spect ral efficiency. Spect ral efficiency, in part icular, is of paramount concern,
because it t ranslat es t o higher average t hroughput s ( and t hus more responsive
applicat ions) for more act ive users in a coverage area. The discussion below, which
examines each t echnology individually, det ails how t he progression from EDGE t o HSPA t o
LTE is one of increased t hroughput , enhanced securit y, reduced lat ency, improved QoS, and
increased spect ral efficiency.
I t is also helpful t o specifically not e t he t hroughput requirement s necessary for different
applicat ions:
 Microbrowsing ( for example, Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol [ WAP] ) : 8 t o 128 kbps
 Mult imedia messaging: 8 t o 64 kbps
 Video t elephony: 64 t o 384 kbps
 General- purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps t o more t han 1 Mbps
 Ent erprise applicat ions including e- mail, dat abase access, and VPNs: 32 kbps t o
more t han 1 Mbps
 Video and audio st reaming: 32 kbps t o 2 Mbps
Not e t hat EDGE already sat isfies t he demands of many applicat ions. Wit h HSPA, applicat ions
operat e fast er and t he range of support ed applicat ions expands even furt her.
Under favorable condit ions, EDGE delivers peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es close t o
200 kbps and init ial deployment s of HSPA deliver peak user- achievable downlink t hroughput
rat es of well over 1 Mbps, easily meet ing t he demands of many applicat ions. Lat ency has
cont inued t o improve, t oo, wit h HSPA net works t oday having round- t rip t imes as low as 70
msec. The combinat ion of low lat ency and high t hroughput t ranslat es t o a broadband
experience for users, in which applicat ions are ext remely responsive.
I n t his sect ion, we consider different t echnical approaches for wireless and t he parallel
evolut ion of 3GPP t echnologies. We t hen provide det ails on EDGE, UMTS/ HSPA, HSPA+ ,
LTE, and support ing t echnologies such as I MS.
EDGE
Today, most GSM net works support EDGE. I t is an enhancement t o GPRS, which is t he
original packet dat a service for GSM net works. GPRS provides a packet - based I P
connect ivit y solut ion support ing a wide range of ent erprise and consumer applicat ions.
GSM net works wit h EDGE operat e as wireless ext ensions t o t he I nt ernet and give users
I nt ernet access, as well as access t o t heir organizat ions from anywhere. Wit h peak user-

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 59
achievable
81
t hroughput rat es of up t o 200 kbps wit h EDGE using four t ime- slot devices,
users have t he same effect ive access speed as a modem, but wit h t he convenience of
connect ing from anywhere.
To underst and t he evolut ion of dat a capabilit y, we briefly examine how t hese dat a
services operat e, beginning wit h t he archit ect ure of GSM and EDGE, as depict ed in
Figure 21.
Fi gur e 21: GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE Ar chi t ect ur e
Public Switched
Telephone Network
External Data
Network (e.g., Internet)
Base
Station
Controller
Base
Transceiver
Station
Base
Transceiver
Station
Mobile
Switching
Center
Home
Location
Register
Serving
GPRS
Support
Node
Gateway
GPRS
Support
Node
IP
Traffic
Circuit-Switched
Traffic
Mobile
Station
Mobile
Station
Mobile
Station
GPRS/EDGE Data
Infrastructure

EDGE is essent ially t he addit ion of a packet - dat a infrast ruct ure t o GSM. I n fact , t his
same dat a archit ect ure is preserved in UMTS and HSPA net works, and it is t echnically
referred t o as GPRS for t he core- dat a funct ion in all t hese net works. The t erm GPRS may
also be used t o refer t o t he init ial radio int erface, now supplant ed by EDGE. Funct ions of
t he dat a element s are as follows:
1. The base st at ion cont roller direct s/ receives packet dat a t o/ from t he SGSN, an
element t hat aut hent icat es and t racks t he locat ion of mobile st at ions.
2. The SGSN performs t he t ypes of funct ions for dat a t hat t he MSC performs for
voice. Each serving area has one SGSN, and it is oft en collocat ed wit h t he MSC.
3. The SGSN forwards/ receives user dat a t o/ from t he GGSN, which can be viewed
as a mobile I P rout er t o ext ernal I P net works. Typically, t here is one GGSN per
ext ernal net work ( for example, t he I nt ernet ) . The GGSN also manages I P
addresses, dynamically assigning t hem t o mobile st at ions for t heir dat a sessions.
Anot her import ant element is t he HLR, which st ores users’ account informat ion for bot h
voice and dat a services. Of significance is t hat t his same dat a archit ect ure support s dat a
services in GSM and in UMTS/ HSPA net works, t hereby simplifying operat or net work
upgrades.
I n t he radio link, GSM uses radio channels of 200 kilohert z ( kHz) widt h, divided in t ime
int o eight t imeslot s comprising 577 microseconds ( us) t hat repeat every 4. 6 msec, as
shown in Figure 22. The net work can have mult iple radio channels ( referred t o as

81
“ Peak user- achievable” means users, under favorable condit ions of net work loading and signal
propagat ion, can achieve t his rat e as measured by applicat ions such as file t ransfer. Average rat es
depend on many fact ors and will be lower t han t hese rat es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 60
t ransceivers) operat ing in each cell sect or. The net work assigns different funct ions t o
each t imeslot such as t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( BCCH) , circuit - swit ched funct ions
like voice calls or dat a calls, t he opt ional Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( PBCCH) ,
and packet dat a channels. The net work can dynamically adj ust capacit y bet ween voice
and dat a funct ions, and it can also reserve minimum resources for each service. This
enables more dat a t raffic when voice t raffic is low or, likewise, more voice t raffic when
dat a t raffic is low, t hereby maximizing overall use of t he net work. For example, t he
PBCCH, which expands t he capabilit ies of t he normal BCCH, may be set up on a t imeslot
of a TDMA frame when j ust ified by t he volume of dat a t raffic.
Fi gur e 22: Ex ampl e of GSM/ EDGE Ti mesl ot St r uct ur e
82


EDGE offers close coupling bet ween voice and dat a services. I n most net works, while in
a dat a session, users can accept an incoming voice call, which suspends t he dat a
session, and t hen resume t heir dat a session aut omat ically when t he voice session ends.
Users can also receive SMS messages and dat a not ificat ions
83
while on a voice call. Wit h
net works support ing DTM, users wit h DTM- capable devices can engage in simult aneous
voice/ dat a operat ion.
Wit h respect t o dat a performance, each dat a t imeslot can deliver peak user- achievable
dat a rat es of up t o about 50 kbps. The net work can aggregat e up t o four of t hese
t imeslot s on t he downlink wit h current devices.
Table 7 shows t he different modulat ion and coding schemes for EDGE.
Tabl e 7: EDGE Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
84

Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 1 GMSK 8. 8
MCS- 2 GMSK 11. 2
MCS- 3 GMSK 14. 8

82
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
83
Example: WAP not ificat ion message delivered via SMS.
84
Radio Link Cont rol ( RLC) – layer 2 - t hroughput s. Applicat ion rat es are t ypically 20 percent lower.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 61
Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 4 GMSK 17. 6
MCS- 5 8- PSK 22. 4
MCS- 6 8- PSK 29. 6
MCS- 7 8- PSK 44. 8
MCS- 8 8- PSK 54. 4
MCS- 9 8- PSK 59. 2


I f mult iple dat a users are act ive in a sect or, t hey share t he available dat a channels. As
demand for dat a services increases, however, an operat or can accommodat e cust omers
by assigning an increasing number of channels for dat a service t hat is limit ed only by
t hat operat or’s t ot al available spect rum and radio planning.
EDGE is an official 3G cellular t echnology t hat can be deployed wit hin an operat or' s
exist ing 850, 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz spect rum bands. EDGE capabilit y is now largely
st andard in new GSM deployment s. A GPRS net work using t he EDGE radio int erface is
t echnically called an Enhanced GPRS ( EGPRS) net work, and a GSM net work wit h EDGE
capabilit y is referred t o as GERAN. EDGE has been an inherent part of GSM
specificat ions since Release 99. I t is fully backward- compat ible wit h older GSM
net works, meaning t hat GPRS devices work on EDGE net works and t hat GPRS and EDGE
t erminals can operat e simult aneously on t he same t raffic channels. I n addit ion, any
applicat ion developed for GPRS will work wit h EDGE.
Many operat ors t hat originally planned t o use only UMTS for next - generat ion dat a
services have deployed EDGE as a complement ary 3G t echnology. There are mult iple
reasons for t his including:
1. EDGE provides average dat a capabilit ies for t he “ sweet spot ” of approximat ely
100 kbps, t hereby enabling many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
2. EDGE has proven it self in t he field as a cost - effect ive solut ion and is now a
mat ure t echnology.
3. EDGE is spect rally efficient , t hereby allowing operat ors t o support large numbers
of voice and dat a users in exist ing spect rum.
4. EDGE provides a cost - effect ive wide- area dat a service t hat offers cont inuit y and
is complement ary wit h a UMTS/ HSPA net work deployed in high t raffic areas.
I t is import ant t o not e t hat EDGE t echnology is cont inuing t o improve. For example,
Release 4 significant ly reduced EDGE lat ency ( net work round- t rip t ime) —from t he
t ypical 500 t o 600 msec t o about 300 msec. Operat ors also cont inue t o make
improvement s in how EDGE funct ions, including net work opt imizat ions t hat boost
capacit y and reduce lat ency. The impact for users is t hat EDGE net works t oday are more
robust wit h applicat ions funct ioning more responsively. Release 7’s Evolved EDGE will
also int roduce significant new feat ures.
Devices t hemselves are increasing in capabilit y. Dual Transfer Mode ( DTM) devices,
already available from vendors, allow simult aneous voice and dat a communicat ions. For
example, during a voice call, users will be able t o ret rieve e- mail, do mult imedia

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 62
messaging, browse t he Web, and do I nt ernet conferencing. This is part icularly useful
when connect ing phones t o lapt ops via cable or Bluet oot h and using t hem as modems.
DTM is a 3GPP- specified t echnology t hat enables new applicat ions like video sharing
while providing a consist ent service experience ( service cont inuit y) wit h UMTS. Typically,
a DTM end- t o- end solut ion requires only a soft ware upgrade t o t he GSM/ EDGE radio
net work. There are a number of net works and devices now support ing DTM.
Alt hough HSPA net works provide an even bet t er user experience for some applicat ions,
t he fact is t hat many applicat ions—such as e- mail on smart phones—are served perfect ly
well by EDGE. Combining t he efficiency of EDGE for dat a wit h t he efficiency of GSM for
voice, operat ors can use GSM t echnology t o deliver a broad range of services t hat will
sat isfy t heir cust omers for many years.
Evolved EDGE
Recognizing t he value of t he huge inst alled base of GSM net works, 3GPP is current ly
working t o improve EDGE capabilit ies for Release 7. This work is part of t he GERAN
Evolut ion effort , which also includes voice enhancement s not discussed in t his paper.
Alt hough EDGE t oday already serves many applicat ions like wireless e- mail ext remely
well, it makes good sense t o cont inue t o evolve EDGE capabilit ies. From an economic
st andpoint , it is less cost ly t han upgrading t o UMTS, because most enhancement s are
designed t o be soft ware based, and it is highly asset efficient , because it involves fewer
long- t erm capit al invest ment s t o upgrade an exist ing syst em. Wit h 85 percent of t he
world market using GSM, which is already equipped for simple roaming and billing, it is
easy t o offer global service t o subscribers. Evolved EDGE offers higher dat a rat es and
syst em capacit y, and cable- modem speeds are realist ically achievable.
I n addit ion, many regions t o not have licensed spect rum for deployment of a new radio
t echnology such as UMTS/ HSPA or LTE. Also, Evolved EDGE also provides bet t er service
cont inuit y bet ween EDGE and HSPA, meaning t hat a user will not have a hugely different
experience when moving bet ween environment s.
Alt hough GSM and EDGE are already highly opt imized t echnologies, advances in radio
t echniques will enable furt her efficiencies. Some of t he obj ect ives of Evolved EDGE
include:
 A 100 percent increase in peak dat a rat es.
 A 50 percent increase in spect ral efficiency and capacit y in C/ I - limit ed scenarios.
 A sensit ivit y increase in t he downlink of 3 dB for voice and dat a.
 A reduct ion of lat ency for init ial access and round- t rip t ime, t hereby enabling
support for conversat ional services such as VoI P and PoC.
 To achieve compat ibilit y wit h exist ing frequency planning, t hus facilit at ing
deployment in exist ing net works.
 To coexist wit h legacy mobile st at ions by allowing bot h old and new st at ions t o
share t he same radio resources.
 To avoid impact s on infrast ruct ure by enabling improvement s t hrough a soft ware
upgrade.
 To be applicable t o DTM ( simult aneous voice and dat a) and t he A/ Gb mode
int erface. The A/ Gb mode int erface is part of t he 2G core net work, so t his goal is
required for full backward- compat ibilit y wit h legacy GPRS/ EDGE.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 63
The met hods st andardized in Release 7 t o achieve t hese obj ect ives include:
 Downlink dual- carrier recept ion t o increase t he number of t imeslot s t hat can be
received wit hout a need t o receive and t ransmit on t he same carrier from four on
one carrier t o 10 on t wo carriers for a 150 percent increase in t hroughput .
 The addit ion of Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying ( QPSK) , 16 QAM, and 32 QAM as
well as an increased symbol rat e ( 1. 2x) in t he uplink and a new set of
modulat ion/ coding schemes t hat will increase maximum t hroughput per t imeslot
by 38 percent . Current ly, EDGE uses 8- PSK modulat ion. Simulat ions indicat e a
realizable 25 percent increase in user- achievable peak rat es.
 A reduct ion in overall lat ency. This is achieved by lowering t he TTI t o 10 msec
and by including t he acknowledgement informat ion in t he dat a packet . These
enhancement s will have a dramat ic effect on t hroughput for many applicat ions.
 Downlink diversit y recept ion of t he same radio channel t o increase t he robust ness
in int erference and t o improve t he receiver sensit ivit y. Simulat ions have
demonst rat ed sensit ivit y gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/ I of up t o 18
dB for a single cochannel int erferer. Significant increases in syst em capacit y can
be achieved, as explained below.
Dual - Car r i er Recei ver
A key part of t he evolut ion of EDGE is t he ut ilizat ion of more t han one radio frequency
carrier. This overcomes t he inherent limit at ion of t he narrow channel bandwidt h of GSM.
Using t wo radio- frequency carriers requires t wo receiver chains in t he downlink, as
shown in Figure 23. As previously st at ed, using t wo carriers enables t he recept ion of
more t han t wice as many radio blocks simult aneously.
Fi gur e 23: Ev ol v ed EDGE Tw o- Car r i er Oper at i on
85

Rx1
Tx (1)
Neighbor Cell Measurements
Uplink Timeslot
Downlink Timeslot
Slot N
Slot N + 1
(Idle Frame)
Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3
Rx2


Alt ernat ively, t he original number of radio blocks can be divided bet ween t he t wo
carriers. This eliminat es t he need for t he net work t o have cont iguous t imeslot s on one
frequency.

85
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 64
Fi gur e 24: EDGE Mul t i - Car r i er Recei ve Logi c – Mobi l e Par t
86

RF Transceiver
front ends
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
Carrier N
Transceiver carrier
frequency control
Decode
control
Multi-carrier radio
resource control logic
Baseband
processing:
demodulation,
channel
decoding
Radio protocol
stack
Downlink
logical
User application
data
Timeslot and
radio frequency
assignment unit
Timeslot and frequency
allocation messages
Radio resource control
Demodulator
and decoding
control

Channel capacit y wit h dual- carrier recept ion improves great ly, not by increasing basic
efficiencies of t he air int erface, but because of st at ist ical improvement in t he abilit y t o
assign radio resources, which increases t runking efficiency.
As net work loading increases, it is st at ist ically unlikely t hat cont iguous t imeslot s will be
available. Wit h t oday’s EDGE devices, it is not possible t o change radio frequencies when
going from one t imeslot t o t he next . Wit h an Evolved EDGE dual receiver, however, t his
becomes possible, t hus enabling cont iguous t imeslot s across different radio channels.
The result is t hat t he syst em can allocat e a large set of t ime slot s for dat a even if t hey
are not cont iguous, which ot herwise is not possible. Figure 25 shows why t his is
import ant . As t he net work becomes busy, t he probabilit y of being assigned 1 t imeslot
decreases. As t his probabilit y decreases ( X axis) , t he probabilit y of being able t o obt ain
5 t imeslot s on t he same radio carrier decreases dramat ically. Being able t o obt ain
t imeslot s across t wo carriers in Evolved EDGE, however, significant ly improves t he
likelihood of obt aining t he desired t imeslot s.

86
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 65
Fi gur e 25: Pr obabi l i t i es of Ti me Sl ot Assi gnment s
87



Figure 26 shows a dual- radio receiver approach opt imizing t he use of available t imeslot s.
( “ Rx1” refers t o receiver 1, “ Rx2” refers t o receiver 2, “ NCM” refers t o neighbour cell
monit oring, and “ M2” refers t o receiver 2 doing syst em monit oring. )
Fi gur e 26: Opt i mi zat i on of Ti mesl ot Usage Ex ampl e
88

Rx1
Tx
Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot
Idle Frame
F4
5 Timeslot Allocation “Scavenged” from
Different Frequency Carriers
Rx2
NCM
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2
Each Receiver Changes
Tuned Frequency Between
its Slots
F4
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2

Through int elligent select ion, a dual- carrier receiver archit ect ure can support eit her
dual- carrier recept ion or mobile- st at ion receive diversit y, depending on t he operat ing
environment .
Mobi l e St at i on Recei v e Di ver si t y

87
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
88
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 66
Figure 27 illust rat es how mobile- st at ion receive diversit y increases syst em capacit y.
( BCCH refers t o t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel and TCH refers t o t he Traffic Channel. )
The BCCH carrier repeat s over 12 cells in a 4/ 12 frequency reuse pat t ern, which requires
2. 4 MHz for GSM. A fract ionally loaded syst em may repeat f12 t hrough f15 on each of
t he cells. This is a 1/ 1 frequency reuse pat t ern wit h higher syst em ut ilizat ion, but also
pot ent ially high co- channel int erference in loaded condit ions.
Fi gur e 27: Ex ampl e of 4/ 12 Fr equency Reuse w i t h 1/ 1 Ov er l ay
89


I n t oday’s EDGE syst ems, f12 t hrough f15 in t he 1/ 1 reuse layer can only be loaded t o
around 25 percent of capacit y. Thus, wit h four of t hese frequencies, it is possible t o
obt ain 100 percent of t he capacit y of t he frequencies in t he 4/ 12 reuse layer or t o
double t he capacit y by adding 800 KHz of spect rum.
Using Evolved EDGE and receive- diversit y- enabled mobile devices t hat have a high
t olerance t o co- channel int erference, however, it is possible t o increase t he load on t he
1/ 1 layer from 25 t o 50 percent and possibly t o as high as 75 percent . An increase t o 50
percent t ranslat es t o a doubling of capacit y on t he 1/ 1 layer wit hout requiring any new
spect rum and t o a 200 percent gain compared t o a 4/ 12 reuse layer.
Hi gher Or der Modul at i on and Hi gher Symbol Rat e Schemes
The addit ion of higher order modulat ion schemes enhances EDGE net work capacit y wit h
lit t le capit al invest ment by ext ending t he range of t he exist ing wireless t echnology. More
bit s- per- symbol means more dat a t ransmit t ed per unit t ime. This yields a fundament al
t echnological improvement in informat ion capacit y and fast er dat a rat es. Use of higher
order modulat ion exploit s localized opt imal coverage circumst ances, t hereby t aking
advant age of t he geographical locat ions associat ed wit h probabilit ies of high C/ I rat io
and enabling very high dat a t ransfer rat es whenever possible.
These enhancement s are only now being considered, because fact ors such as processing
power, variabilit y of int erference, and signal level made higher order modulat ions
impract ical for mobile wireless syst ems j ust a few years ago. Newer t echniques for
demodulat ion, however, such as advanced receivers and receive diversit y, help enable
t heir use.

89
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 67
Two different levels of support for higher order modulat ion are defined for bot h t he
uplink and t he downlink. I n t he uplink, t he first support level includes GMSK, 8- PSK,
and 16 QAM at t he legacy symbol rat e. This level of support reuses Modulat ion and
Coding Schemes ( MCSs) 1 t hrough 6 from EGPRS and adds five new 16 QAM modulat ed
schemes called uplink “ A” level schemes ( UAS) .
Tabl e 8: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
MCS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
MCS- 6 8- PSK 118. 4
UAS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UAS- 8 16 QAM 204. 8
UAS- 9 16 QAM 236. 8
UAS- 10 16 QAM 268. 8
UAS- 11 16 QAM 307. 2

The second support level in t he uplink includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ion
as well as a higher ( 1. 2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 from EGPRS are reused, and
eight new uplink “ B” level schemes ( UBS) are added.
Tabl e 9: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps)
– 4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
UBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
UBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
UBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UBS- 8 16 QAM 236. 8

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 68
UBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
UBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
UBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
UBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6

The first downlink support level int roduces a modified set of 8- PSK coding schemes and
adds 16 QAM, and 32 QAM all at t he legacy symbol rat e. Turbo codes are used for all
new modulat ions. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ A” level
schemes ( DAS) are added.
Tabl e 10: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DAS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
DAS- 6 8- PSK 108. 8
DAS- 7 8- PSK 131. 2
DAS- 8 16 QAM 179. 2
DAS- 9 16 QAM 217. 6
DAS- 10 32 QAM 262. 0
DAS- 11 32 QAM 326. 4
DAS- 12 32 QAM 393. 6

The second downlink support level includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ions at
a higher ( 1.2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ B”
level schemes ( DBS) are defined.
Tabl e 11: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
90

Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2

90
These dat a r at es require a wide- pulse shaping filt er t hat is not part of Release 7.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 69
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
DBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
DBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
DBS- 8 16 QAM 2368
DBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
DBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
DBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
DBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6

The combinat ion of Release 7 EDGE Evolut ion enhancement s shows a dramat ic pot ent ial
increase in t hroughput . For example, in t he downlink, a Type 2 mobile device ( one t hat
can support simult aneous t ransmission and recept ion) using DBS- 12 as t he MCS and a
dual- carrier receiver can achieve t he following performance:
Highest dat a rat e per t imeslot ( layer 2) = 118. 4 kbps
Timeslot s per carrier = 8
Carriers used in t he downlink = 2
Tot al downlink dat a rat e = 118. 4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894. 4 kbps
91

This t ranslat es t o a peak net work rat e close t o 2 Mbps and a user- achievable dat a rat e
of well over 1 Mbps!
Ot her Met hods Under Consi der at i on
This paper has emphasized t hose Evolved EDGE feat ures t hat 3GPP has agreed upon for
Release 7. However, t here are ot her feat ures being proposed t hat would boost EDGE
capabilit ies even furt her.
Advanced modulat ion enhancement s include t he addit ion of t urbo coding and 64 QAM t o
t he higher order modulat ion enhancement s already described. These enhancement s
increase t he robust ness of t he channel and t ake advant age of local areas of high C/ I
rat ios.
A second uplink carrier could also double uplink t hroughput . Two approaches have been
discussed. The first is a fully flexible dual- t ransmit t er approach. This approach has no
impact on t he net work, but may have significant impact on t he feasibilit y of t he mobile
st at ion, part icularly in t he handheld form fact or; it is current ly being researched and
discussed. The second approach is a const rained form of uplink dual carrier in which t he
spacing of t he t wo carriers is less t han 1 MHz and a single wideband t ransmit t er
generat es t he signal. This approach is easier t o implement in a mobile handset , but it
may impact legacy frequency planning. Proposals have been put forward out lining ways

91
For t he near fut ure, t wo carriers will be a scenario more pract ically realized on a not ebook comput er
plat form t han handheld plat forms.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 70
t o coexist wit h legacy frequency planning; t hese ideas are being researched and
discussed.
Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
Table 12 shows what is involved in implement ing t he different feat ures defined for
Evolved EDGE. For a number of feat ures, t here are no hardware changes required for
t he base t ransceiver st at ion ( BTS) . For all feat ures, Evolved EDGE is compat ible wit h
legacy frequency planning.
Tabl e 12: Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
92

 


I n conclusion, it is int erest ing t o not e t he sophist icat ion and capabilit y t hat is achievable
wit h, and planned for, GSM.
UMTS/HSPA Technology
UMTS has garnered t he overwhelming maj orit y of new 3G spect rum licenses wit h 236
commercial net works already in operat ion.
93
Compared t o emerging wireless
t echnologies, UMTS t echnology is mat ure and benefit s from research and development
t hat began in t he early 1990s. I t has been t horoughly t rialed, t est ed, and commercially
deployed. UMTS deployment is now accelerat ing wit h st able net work infrast ruct ures and
at t ract ive, reliable mobile devices t hat have rich capabilit ies. Wit h t he addit ion of HSPA
for high- speed packet dat a services, UMTS/ HSPA is quickly emerging as t he dominant
global mobile- broadband net work.
UMTS employs a wideband CDMA radio- access t echnology. The primary benefit s of
UMTS include high spect ral efficiency for voice and dat a, simult aneous voice and dat a
capabilit y for users, high user densit ies t hat can be support ed wit h low infrast ruct ure

92
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
93
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 71
cost s, support for high- bandwidt h dat a applicat ions, and a clean migrat ion t o VoI P in t he
fut ure. Operat ors can also use t heir ent ire available spect rum for bot h voice and high-
speed dat a services.
Addit ionally, operat ors can use a common core net work t hat support s mult iple radio-
access net works including GSM, EDGE, WCDMA, HSPA, and evolut ions of t hese
t echnologies. This is called t he UMTS mult iradio net work, and it gives operat ors
maximum flexibilit y in providing different services across t heir coverage areas ( see
Figure 28) .
Fi gur e 28: UMTS Mul t i r adi o Net w or k
UMTS
Core Network
(MSC, HLR,
SGSN, GGSN)
GSM/EDGE
WCDMA,
HSDPA
Other
e.g., WLAN
Radio-Access Networks External Networks
Packet-Switched
Networks
Circuit-Switched
Networks
Other Cellular
Operators

The UMTS radio- access net work consist s of base st at ions referred t o as Node B
( corresponding t o GSM base t ransceiver syst ems) t hat connect t o RNCs ( corresponding
t o GSM base st at ion cont rollers [ BSCs] ) . The RNCs connect t o t he core net work as do
t he BSCs. When bot h GSM and WCDMA access net works are available, t he net work can
hand over users bet ween t hese net works. This is import ant for managing capacit y, as
well as in areas in which t he operat or has cont inuous GSM coverage, but has only
deployed WCDMA in some locat ions.
Whereas GSM can effect ively operat e like a spread- spect rum syst em
94
, based on t ime
division in combinat ion wit h frequency hopping, WCDMA is a direct - sequence, spread-
spect rum syst em. WCDMA is spect rally more efficient t han GSM, but it is t he wideband
nat ure of WCDMA t hat provides it s great est advant age—t he abilit y t o t ranslat e t he
available spect rum int o high dat a rat es. This wideband t echnology approach result s in
t he flexibilit y t o manage mult iple t raffic t ypes including voice, narrowband dat a, and
wideband dat a.
WCDMA allocat es different codes for different channels, whet her for voice or dat a, and it
can adj ust t he amount of capacit y, or code space, of each channel every 10 msec wit h
WCDMA Release 99 and every 2 msec wit h HSPA. WCDMA creat es high- bandwidt h t raffic
channels by reducing t he amount of spreading ( using a short er code) wit h WCDMA

94
Spread spect rum syst ems can eit her be direct sequence or frequency hopping.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 72
Release 99 and higher order modulat ion schemes for HSPA. Packet dat a users can share
t he same codes as ot her users, or t he net work can assign dedicat ed channels t o users.
To furt her expand t he number of effect ively operat ing applicat ions, UMTS employs a
sophist icat ed QoS archit ect ure for dat a t hat provides four fundament al t raffic classes
including:
1. Conv er sat i onal . Real- t ime int eract ive dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and
minimum delay such as VoI P or video conferencing.
2. St r eami ng. Cont inuous dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and some delay such as
music or video.
3. I nt er act i ve. Back- and- fort h dat a wit hout bandwidt h cont rol and some delay
such as Web browsing.
4. Back gr ound. Lower priorit y dat a t hat is non- real- t ime such as bat ch t ransfers.
This QoS archit ect ure involves negot iat ion and priorit izat ion of t raffic in t he radio- access
net work, t he core net work, and t he int erfaces t o ext ernal net works such as t he I nt ernet .
Consequent ly, applicat ions can negot iat e QoS paramet ers on an end- t o- end basis
bet ween a mobile t erminal and a fixed- end syst em across t he I nt ernet or privat e
int ranet s. This capabilit y is essent ial for expanding t he scope of support ed applicat ions,
part icularly mult imedia applicat ions including packet ized video t elephony and VoI P.
UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities
I nit ial UMTS net work deployment s were based on 3GPP Release 99 specificat ions, which
included voice and dat a capabilit ies. Since t hen, Release 5 has defined HSDPA and
Release 6 has defined HSUPA. Wit h HSPA- capable devices, t he net work uses HSPA
( HSDPA/ HSUPA) for dat a. Operat ors wit h Release 99 net works are upgrading t hem t o
Release 5 or Release 6. Because Release 99 net works and devices are st ill in t he field,
t his sect ion describes t he dat a service available wit h Release 99. I n advance of Release
6, t he uplink in HSDPA ( Release 5) net works uses t he Release 99 approach.
I n UMTS Release 99, t he maximum t heoret ical downlink rat e is j ust over 2 Mbps.
Alt hough exact t hroughput depends on t he channel sizes t he operat or chooses t o make
available, t he capabilit ies of devices, and t he number of users act ive in t he net work limit
t he peak t hroughput rat es a user can achieve t o about 350 kbps in commercial
net works. Peak downlink net work speeds are 384 kbps. Uplink peak- net workt hroughput
rat es are also 384 kbps in newer deployment s, wit h user- achievable peak rat es of 350
kbps.
95
This sat isfies many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
Channel t hroughput s are det ermined by t he amount of channel spreading. Wit h more
spreading, as in voice channels, t he dat a st ream has great er redundancy, and t he
operat or can employ more channels. I n comparison, a high- speed dat a channel has less
spreading and fewer available channels. Voice channels use downlink spreading fact ors
of 128 or 256, whereas a 384 kbps dat a channel uses a downlink spreading fact or of 8.
The commonly quot ed rat e of more t han 2 Mbps downlink t hroughput for UMTS can be
achieved by combining t hree dat a channels of 768 kbps, each wit h a spreading fact or of
4.

95
I nit ial UMTS net works had peak uplink rat es of 64 kbps or 128 kbps, but many deployment s
emphasize 384 kbps.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 73
The act ual t hroughput speeds a user can obt ain wit h WCDMA Release 99 depend on t he
Radio Access Bearer ( RAB) assigned by t he net work. Possible values include 768, 384,
128, 64, 32, and 16 kbps. The different rat es correspond t o t he amount of spreading. A
lower degree of spreading result s in more code space assigned t o t hat RAB; hence,
higher t hroughput . I n t oday’s Release 99 net works, operat ors have limit ed t he range of
operat ional dat a rat es using Release 99 channels t o 384 kbps as a result of t he
emergence of HSDPA, which provides a much more elegant way t o reach dat a
t hroughput in t he 2 Mbps range and higher.
Beyond t he maximum t hroughput support ed by t he RAB assigned by t he net work, user
t hroughput is also impact ed by t he radio condit ions and t he amount of dat a t o t ransfer.
The RAN t akes t hese element s int o account t o cont inuously adj ust t he inst ant aneous
t ransfer rat e based on operat ional condit ions and wit hin t he QoS const raint s of t he RAB.
The net work assigns RABs based on available resources. How t he net work assigns RABs
varies by infrast ruct ure vendor.
WCDMA has lower net work lat ency t han EDGE, wit h about 100 t o 200 msec measured in
act ual net works. Alt hough UMTS Release 99 offers at t ract ive dat a services, t hese
services become much more efficient and more powerful wit h HSPA.
HSDPA
HSPA refers t o net works t hat support bot h HSDPA and HSUPA. Most new deployment s
t oday are HSPA, and many operat ors are upgrading t heir HSDPA net works t o HSPA. For
example, in 2008, AT&T had upgraded most of it s net work t o HSPA. By t he end of 2008,
HSPA will be deployed t hroughout t he Americas. This sect ion covers t echnical aspect s of
HSDPA, while t he next sect ion covers HSUPA.
HSDPA, specified in 3GPP Release 5, is a high- performance packet - dat a service t hat
delivers peak t heoret ical rat es of 14 Mbps. Peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es in
init ial deployment s are well over 1 Mbps, and as high as 4 Mbps in some net works.
HSDPA is fully backward- compat ible wit h UMTS Release 99, and any applicat ion
developed for Release 99 will work wit h HSDPA. The same radio carrier can
simult aneously service UMTS voice and dat a users as well as HSDPA dat a users. HSDPA
also has significant ly lower lat ency, measured t oday on some net works as low as 70
msec on t he dat a channel.
HSDPA achieves it s high speeds t hrough t echniques similar t o t hose t hat push EDGE
performance past GPRS including higher order modulat ion, variable coding, and soft
combining, as well as t hrough t he addit ion of powerful new t echniques such as fast
scheduling. HSDPA elevat es t he performance level of WCDMA t echnology t o provide
broadband services, and it has t he highest t heoret ical peak t hroughput of any cellular
t echnology current ly available. The higher spect ral efficiency and higher dat a rat es not
only enable new classes of applicat ions, but also support a great er number of users
accessing t he net work.
HSDPA achieves it s performance gains from t he following radio feat ures:
 High- speed channels shared in bot h code and t ime domains
 Short TTI
 Fast scheduling and user diversit y
 Higher order modulat ion
 Fast link adapt at ion

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 74
 Fast HARQ
These feat ures funct ion as follows:
Hi gh- Speed Shar ed Channel s and Shor t Tr ansmi ssi on Ti me I nt er v al : First ,
HSDPA uses high- speed dat a channels called High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channels ( HS- PDSCH) . Up t o 15 of t hese channels can operat e in t he 5 MHz WCDMA
radio channel. Each uses a fixed spreading fact or of 16. User t ransmissions are assigned
t o one or more of t hese channels for a short TTI of 2 msec, significant ly less t han t he
int erval of 10 t o 20 msec used in Release 99 WCDMA. The net work can t hen readj ust
how users are assigned t o different HS- PDSCH every 2 msec. The result is t hat
resources are assigned in bot h t ime ( t he TTI int erval) and code domains ( t he HS- PDSCH
channels) . Figure 29 illust rat es different users obt aining different radio resources.
Fi gur e 29: Hi gh Speed–Dow nl i nk Shar ed Channel s ( Ex ampl e)
2 msec
Time
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
d
e
s
User 4 User 3 User 2 User 1


Fast Schedul i ng and User Di v er si t y : Fast scheduling exploit s t he short TTI by
assigning users channels t hat have t he best inst ant aneous channel condit ions, rat her
t han in a round- robin fashion. Because channel condit ions vary somewhat randomly
across users, most users can be serviced wit h opt imum radio condit ions and t hereby
obt ain opt imum dat a t hroughput . Figure 30 shows how a scheduler might choose
bet ween t wo users based on t heir varying radio condit ions t o emphasize t he user wit h
bet t er inst ant aneous signal qualit y. Wit h about 30 users act ive in a sect or, t he net work
achieves significant user diversit y and significant ly higher spect ral efficiency. The syst em
also makes sure t hat each user receives a minimum level of t hroughput . This approach
is somet imes called proport ional fair scheduling.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 75
Fi gur e 30: User Di v er si t y
High data rate
Low data rate
Time
User 2
User 1
User 2
User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1
S
i
g
n
a
l

Q
u
a
l
i
t
y


Hi gher Or der Modul at i on: HSDPA uses bot h t he modulat ion used in WCDMA—namely
QPSK—and, under good radio condit ions, an advanced modulat ion scheme—16 QAM.
The benefit of 16 QAM is t hat 4 bit s of dat a are t ransmit t ed in each radio symbol as
opposed t o 2 bit s wit h QPSK. Dat a t hroughput is increased wit h 16 QAM, while QPSK is
available under adverse condit ions. HSPA Evolut ion will add 64 QAM modulat ion t o
furt her increase t hroughput rat es. Not e t hat 64QAM was available in Release 7 and t he
combinat ion of MI MO and 64QAM will be in Release 8.
Fast Li nk Adapt at i on: Depending on t he condit ion of t he radio channel, different levels
of forward- error correct ion ( channel coding) can also be employed. For example, a
t hree- quart er coding rat e means t hat t hree quart ers of t he bit s t ransmit t ed are user bit s
and one quart er are error- correct ing bit s. The process of select ing and quickly updat ing
t he opt imum modulat ion and coding rat e is referred t o as fast link adapt at ion. This is
done in close coordinat ion wit h fast scheduling, as described above.
Fast Hybr i d Aut omat i c Repeat Request : Anot her HSDPA t echnique is Fast Hybrid
Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( Fast Hybrid ARQ) . “ Fast ” refers t o t he medium- access
cont rol mechanisms implement ed in Node B ( along wit h scheduling and link adapt at ion) ,
as opposed t o t he BSC in GPRS/ EDGE, and “ hybrid” refers t o a process of combining
repeat ed dat a t ransmissions wit h prior t ransmissions t o increase t he likelihood of
successful decoding. Managing and responding t o real- t ime radio variat ions at t he base
st at ion, as opposed t o an int ernal net work node, reduces delays and furt her improves
overall dat a t hroughput .
Using t he approaches j ust described, HSDPA maximizes dat a t hroughput s and capacit y
and minimizes delays. For users, t his t ranslat es t o bet t er net work performance under
loaded condit ions, fast er applicat ion performance, a great er range of applicat ions t hat
funct ion well, and increased product ivit y.
Field result s validat e t he t heoret ical t hroughput result s. Wit h init ial 1. 8 Mbps peak- rat e
devices, vendors measured consist ent t hroughput rat es in act ual deployment s of over 1
Mbps. These rat es rose t o over 2 Mbps for 3.6 Mbps devices and are close t o 4 Mbps for

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 76
7. 2 Mbps devices, assuming ot her port ions of t he net work ( for example, backhaul) can
support t he high t hroughput rat es.
I n 2008, t ypical devices support ing peak dat a rat es of 3.6 Mbps or 7. 2 Mbps became
available. Many operat or net works support 7. 2 Mbps peak operat ion, and some even
support t he maximum rat e of 14. 4 Mbps.
Table 13 defines t he different cat egories of HSDPA devices. ( Soft channel bit s are t he
number of bit s t he syst em uses for error correct ion. )
Tabl e 13: HSDPA Ter mi nal Cat egor i es
QPSK
QPSK
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
QPSK/
16QAM
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Soft
Channel
Bit s
L1 Peak
Rat e ( Mbps)
Maximum
Number of
HS- DSCH codes
HS- DSCH
Cat egor y
QPSK
QPSK
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
QPSK/
16QAM
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Soft
Channel
Bit s
L1 Peak
Rat e ( Mbps)
Maximum
Number of
HS- DSCH codes
HS- DSCH
Cat egor y


HSPA t echnology is not st anding st ill. Advanced radio t echnologies are becoming
available. Among t hese t echnologies are mobile- receive diversit y and equalizat ion ( for
example, MMSE) , which improve t he qualit y of t he received radio signal prior t o
demodulat ion and decoding. This improvement enables not only higher peak HSDPA
t hroughput speeds, but makes t hese speeds available over a great er percent age of t he
coverage area.
HSUPA
Whereas HSDPA opt imizes downlink performance, HSUPA—which uses t he Enhanced
Dedicat ed Channel ( E- DCH) —const it ut es a set of improvement s t hat opt imizes uplink
performance. Net works and devices support ing HSUPA became available in 2007. These
improvement s include higher t hroughput s, reduced lat ency, and increased spect ral
efficiency. HSUPA is st andardized in Release 6. I t result s in an approximat ely 85 percent
increase in overall cell t hroughput on t he uplink and more t han 50 percent gain in user
t hroughput . HSUPA also reduces packet delays, a significant benefit result ing in
significant ly improved applicat ion performance on HSPA net works

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 77
Alt hough t he primary downlink t raffic channel support ing HSDPA serves is a shared
channel designed for t he support of services delivered t hrough t he packet - swit ched
domain, t he primary uplink t raffic channel defined for HSUPA is a dedicat ed channel t hat
could be used for services delivered t hrough eit her t he circuit - swit ched or t he packet -
swit ched domains. Nevert heless, by ext ension and for simplicit y, t he WCDMA- enhanced
uplink capabilit ies are oft en ident ified in t he lit erat ure as HSUPA.
Such an improved uplink benefit s users in a number of ways. For inst ance, some user
applicat ions t ransmit large amount s of dat a from t he mobile st at ion such as sending
video clips or large present at ion files. For fut ure applicat ions like VoI P, improvement s
will balance t he capacit y of t he uplink wit h t he capacit y of t he downlink.
HSUPA achieves it s performance gains t hrough t he following approaches:
 An enhanced dedicat ed physical channel
 A short TTI , as low as 2 msec, which allows fast er responses t o changing radio
condit ions and error condit ions
 Fast Node B- based scheduling, which allows t he base st at ion t o efficient ly
allocat e radio resources
 Fast Hybrid ARQ, which improves t he efficiency of error processing
The combinat ion of TTI , fast scheduling, and Fast Hybrid ARQ also serves t o reduce
lat ency, which can benefit many applicat ions as much as improved t hroughput . HSUPA
can operat e wit h or wit hout HSDPA in t he downlink, t hough it is likely t hat most
net works will use t he t wo approaches t oget her. The improved uplink mechanisms also
t ranslat e t o bet t er coverage and, for rural deployment s, larger cell sizes.
HSUPA can achieve different t hroughput rat es based on various paramet ers including t he
number of codes used, t he spreading fact or of t he codes, t he TTI value, and t he
t ransport block size in byt es, as illust rat ed in Table 14.
Tabl e 14: HSUPA Peak Thr oughput Rat es
11520
20000
20000
5837
20000
14592
2919
14592
7296
Transport
Block Size
2 Mbps 10 2 x SF2 4
2.9 Mbps 2 2 x SF2 4
1.46 Mbps 10 2 x SF4 2
1.46 Mbps 2 2 x SF4 2
2 Mbps 10 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 6
6
5
3
1
HSUPA
Category
2
10
10
10
TTI
2xSF2 + 2xSF4
2 x SF2
2 x SF4
1 x SF4
Codes
x Spreading
5.76 Mbps
2 Mbps
1.46 Mbps
0.73 Mbps
Data Rate



EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 78
I nit ial devices are Cat egory 5 enabling peak user rat es of close t o 2 Mbps as measured
in act ual net work deployment s. Cat egory 6 devices will ult imat ely allow speeds close t o
5 Mbps, alt hough only wit h t he addit ion of int erference cancellat ion met hods t hat boost
SNR.
Beyond t hroughput enhancement s, HSUPA also significant ly reduces lat ency. I n
opt imized net works, lat ency will fall below 50 msec, relat ive t o current HSDPA net works
at 70 msec. And wit h a lat er int roduct ion of a 2 msec TTI , lat ency will be as low as 30
msec.
Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+)
OFDMA syst ems have at t ract ed considerable at t ent ion t hrough t echnologies such as
3GPP LTE, WiMAX, and UMB. As already discussed in t his paper, however, CDMA
approaches can mat ch OFDMA approaches in reduced channel bandwidt hs. The goal in
evolving HSPA is t o exploit available radio t echnologies—largely enabled by increases in
digit al signal processing power—t o maximize CDMA- based radio performance. This not
only makes HSPA compet it ive, it significant ly ext ends t he life of sizeable operat or
infrast ruct ure invest ment s.
Wireless and net working t echnologist s have defined a series of enhancement s for HSPA,
some of which are specified in Release 7 and some of which are being finalized in
Release 8. These include advanced receivers, MI MO, Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y,
Higher- Order Modulat ion and One Tunnel Archit ect ure.
Adv anced Recei v er s
One import ant area is advanced receivers for which 3GPP has specified a number of
advanced designs. These designs include Type 1, which uses mobile- receive diversit y;
Type 2, which uses channel equalizat ion; and Type 3, which includes a combinat ion of
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion. Type 3i devices, which are not yet available,
will employ int erference cancellat ion. Not e t hat t he different t ypes of receivers are
release- independent . For example, Type 3i receivers will work and provide a capacit y
gain in a Release 5 net work.
The first approach is mobile- receive diversit y. This t echnique relies on t he opt imal
combinat ion of received signals from separat e receiving ant ennas. The ant enna spacing
yields signals t hat have somewhat independent fading charact erist ics. Hence, t he
combined signal can be more effect ively decoded, which result s in an almost doubling of
downlink capacit y when employed in conj unct ion wit h t echniques such as channel
equalizat ion. Receive diversit y is effect ive even for small devices such as PC Card
modems and smart phones.
Current receiver archit ect ures based on rake receivers are effect ive for speeds up t o a
few megabit s per second. But at higher speeds, t he combinat ion of reduced symbol
period and mult ipat h int erference result s in int er- symbol int erference and diminishes
rake receiver performance. This problem can be solved by advanced- receiver
archit ect ures wit h channel equalizers t hat yield addit ional capacit y gains over HSDPA
wit h receive diversit y. Alt ernat e advanced- receiver approaches include int erference
cancellat ion and generalized rake receivers ( G- Rake) . Different vendors are emphasizing
different approaches. The performance requirement s for advanced- receiver
archit ect ures, however, are specified in 3GPP Release 6. The combinat ion of mobile-
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion ( Type 3) is especially at t ract ive, because it
result s in a large capacit y gain independent of t he radio channel.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 79
What makes such enhancement s at t ract ive is t hat t he net works do not require any
changes ot her t han increased capacit y wit hin t he infrast ruct ure t o support t he higher
bandwidt h. Moreover, t he net work can support a combinat ion of devices, including bot h
earlier devices t hat do not include t hese enhancement s and lat er devices t hat do. Device
vendors can select ively apply t hese enhancement s t o t heir higher performing devices.
MI MO
Anot her st andardized capabilit y is MI MO, a t echnique t hat employs mult iple t ransmit
ant ennas and mult iple receive ant ennas, oft en in combinat ion wit h mult iple radios and
mult iple parallel dat a st reams. The most common use of t he t erm “ MI MO” applies t o
spat ial mult iplexing. The t ransmit t er sends different dat a st reams over each ant enna.
Whereas mult ipat h is an impediment for ot her radio syst ems, MI MO—as illust rat ed in
Figure 31—act ually exploit s mult ipat h, relying on signals t o t ravel across different
uncorrelat ed communicat ions pat hs. This result s in mult iple dat a pat hs effect ively
operat ing somewhat in parallel and, t hrough appropriat e decoding, in a mult iplicat ive
gain in t hroughput .
Fi gur e 31: MI MO Usi ng Mul t i pl e Pat hs t o Boost Thr oughput and Capaci t y
Encoder Decoder

Test s of MI MO have proven very promising in WLANs operat ing in relat ive isolat ion
where int erference is not a dominant fact or. Spat ial mult iplexing MI MO should also
benefit HSPA “ hot spot s” serving local areas such as airport s, campuses, and malls,
where t he t echnology will increase capacit y and peak dat a rat es. I n a fully loaded
net work wit h int erference from adj acent cells, however, overall capacit y gains will be
more modest —in t he range of 20 t o 33 percent over mobile- receive diversit y. Relat ive t o
a 1x1 ant enna syst em, however, 2X2 MI MO can deliver cell t hroughput gains of about
80 percent . 3GPP has st andardized spat ial mult iplexing MI MO in Release 7 using Double
Transmit Adapt ive Array ( D- TxAA) .
96


96
For furt her det ails on t hese t echniques, refer t o t he 3G Americas whit e paper “ Mobile Broadband:
The Global Evolut ion of UMTS/ HSPA. 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 80
Alt hough MI MO can significant ly improve peak rat es, ot her t echniques such as Space
Division Mult iple Access ( SDMA) —also a form of MI MO—may be even more effect ive
t han MI MO for improving capacit y in high spect ral efficiency syst ems employing a reuse
fact or of 1.
Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
I n Release 7, CPC enhancement s reduce t he uplink int erference creat ed by t he
dedicat ed physical cont rol channels of packet dat a users when t hose channels have no
user dat a t o t ransmit . This, in t urn, increases t he number of simult aneously connect ed
HSUPA users. CPC allows bot h discont inuous uplink t ransmission and discont inuous
downlink recept ion, where t he modem can t urn off it s receiver aft er a cert ain period of
HSDPA inact ivit y. CPC is especially beneficial t o VoI P on t he uplink, which consumes t he
most power, because t he radio can t urn off bet ween VoI P packet s. See Figure 32.
Fi gur e 32: Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
Data
Pilot
Data
Pilot
Without CPC
With CPC


Hi gher Or der Modul at i on
Anot her way of increasing performance is t o use higher order modulat ion. HSPA uses 16
QAM on t he downlink and QPSK on t he uplink. But radio links can achieve higher
t hroughput s—adding 64 QAM on t he downlink and 16 QAM on t he uplink—precisely what
is added in HSPA+ . Higher order modulat ion requires a bet t er SNR, which is enabled
t hrough ot her enhancement s such as receive diversit y and equalizat ion.
HSPA+
Taking advant age of t hese various radio t echnologies, 3GPP has st andardized a number
of feat ures in Release 7 including higher order modulat ion and MI MO. Collect ively, t hese
capabilit ies are referred t o as HSPA+ . Release 8 will include furt her enhancement s.
The goals of HSPA+ are t o:
 Exploit t he full pot ent ial of a CDMA approach before moving t o an OFDM plat form
in 3GPP LTE.
 Achieve performance close t o LTE in 5 MHz of spect rum.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 81
 Provide smoot h int erworking bet ween HSPA+ and LTE, t hereby facilit at ing t he
operat ion of bot h t echnologies. As such, operat ors may choose t o leverage t he
EPC/ SAE planned for LTE.
 Allow operat ion in a packet - only mode for bot h voice and dat a.
 Be backward- compat ible wit h previous syst ems while incurring no performance
degradat ion wit h eit her earlier or newer devices.
 Facilit at e migrat ion from current HSPA infrast ruct ure t o HSPA+ infrast ruct ure.
Depending on t he feat ures implement ed, HSPA+ can exceed t he capabilit ies of I EEE
802. 16e- 2005 ( mobile WiMAX) in t he same amount of spect rum. This is mainly because
HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h precode weight ing, as well as
mult icode- word MI MO, and enables t he use of SI C receivers. I t is also part ly because
HSPA support s I ncrement al Redundancy ( I R) and has lower overhead t han WiMAX.
Table 15 summarizes t he capabilit ies of HSPA and HSPA+ based on various met hods.
Tabl e 15: HSPA Thr oughput Evol ut i on
Technol ogy Dow nl i nk
( Mbps)
Peak Dat a
Rat e
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a
Rat e
HSPA as def i ned i n Rel ease 6

14. 4 5. 76
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM,
UL 16 QAM
21. 1 11. 5
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM
28. 0 11. 5
Rel ease 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM

42. 2

11. 5
HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO, Dual Car r i er
( ant i ci pat ed i n Rel ease 9)

84

11. 5

Beyond t he peak rat e of 42 Mbps defined in Release 8, Release 9 may specify 2X2 MI MO
in combinat ion wit h dual carrier operat ion which would furt her boost peak net work rat es
t o 84 Mbps.
HSPA+ will also have improved lat ency performance of below 50 msec, and improved
packet call set up t ime of below 500 msec.
HSPA+ wit h 28 Mbps capabilit y will be available for deployment by t he end of 2009, and
HSPA+ wit h 42 Mbps capabilit y on t he downlink and 11. 5 Mbps on t he uplink could be
ready for deployment by 2009 or 2010.
Given t he large amount of backhaul bandwidt h required t o support HSPA+ , as well as
addit ional MI MO radios at cell sit es, operat ors are likely t o init ially deploy HSPA+ in
limit ed “ hot spot ” coverage areas such as airport s, ent erprise campuses, and in- building
net works. Wit h advances in backhaul t ransport like met ropolit an Et hernet , however,
operat ors will be able t o expand coverage.
The prior discussion emphasizes t hroughput speeds, but HSPA+ will also more t han
double HSPA capacit y as well as reduce lat ency below 25 msec. Sleep- t o- dat a- t ransfer

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 82
t imes of less t han 200 msec will improve users’ “ always- connect ed” experience, and
reduced power consumpt ion wit h VoI P will result in t alk t imes t hat are more t han 50
percent higher.
From a deployment point of view, operat ors will be able t o int roduce HSPA+ capabilit ies
t hrough eit her a soft ware upgrade or hardware expansions t o exist ing cabinet s t o
increase capacit y. Cert ain upgrades will be simpler t han ot hers. For example, upgrading
t o 64- QAM support will be easier t o implement t han 2X2 MI MO for many net works. For
net works t hat have implement ed uplink diversit y in t he base st at ion, however, t hose
mult iple ant ennas will facilit at e MI MO deployment .
Dual - Car r i er HSPA
3GPP has defined a work it em for Release 8 t o invest igat e dual- carrier HSPA operat ion.
This approach coordinat es t he operat ion of HSPA on t wo adj acent 5 MHz carriers so t hat
dat a t ransmissions can achieve higher t hroughput rat es. The work it em assumes t wo
adj acent carriers, downlink operat ion and no MI MO. I n t his configurat ion, it will be
possible t o achieve a doubling of t he 21 Mbps maximum rat e available on each channel
t o 42 Mbps.
Alt hough t here is no increase in overall spect ral efficiency, t here are benefit s:
 Significant ly higher peak t hroughput s available t o users, especially in light ly-
loaded net works.
 Same maximum- t hroughput rat e of 42 Mbps as using MI MO, but wit h a less
expensive infrast ruct ure upgrade.
The following figure shows an analysis of dual- carrier performance using a cumulat ive
dist ribut ion funct ion. CDF indicat es t he probabilit y of achieving a part icular t hroughput
rat e and t he figure demonst rat es a consist ent doubling of t hroughput .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 83
Fi gur e 33: Dual - Car r i er Per f or mance
97

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
C
D
F

[
%
]
Achievable bitrate [Mbps]


RAKE, single-carrier
RAKE, multi-carrier
GRAKE, single-carrier
GRAKE, multi-carrier
GRAKE2, single-carrier
GRAKE2, multi-carrier
Ped A, 10% load

One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
Anot her way HSPA performance can be improved is t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure. I n
Release 7, t here is t he opt ion of a one- t unnel archit ect ure by which t he net work
est ablishes a direct t ransfer pat h for user dat a bet ween RNC and GGSN while t he SGSN
st ill performs all cont rol funct ions. This brings several benefit s such as eliminat ing
hardware in t he SGSN and simplified engineering of t he net work.
There is also an int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB opt ion in which RNC funct ions are int egrat ed in
t he Node B. This is part icularly beneficial in femt o cell deployment s, as an RNC would
ot herwise need t o support t housands of femt ocells. The int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB for
HSPA+ has been agreed- upon as an opt ional archit ect ure alt ernat ive for packet -
swit ched- based services.
These new archit ect ures, as shown in Figure 34, are similar t o t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure,
especially on t he packet - swit ched core net work side where t hey provide synergies wit h
t he int roduct ion of LTE.

97
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 84
Fi gur e 34: HSPA One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
98


User Plane
Cont r ol Pl ane
Node B
RNC
SGSN
GGSN
Tradi t i onal HSPA
Archi t ect ure
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
Possi bl e HSPA+ wi t h
One-Tunnel Archi t ect ure
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
HSPA wi t h One-Tunnel
Ar chi t ect ur e
RNC



HSPA, HSPA+ , and ot her advanced funct ions provide a compelling advant age for UMTS
over compet ing t echnologies: The abilit y t oday t o support voice and dat a services on t he
same carrier and across t he whole available radio spect rum; t o offer t hese services
simult aneously t o users; t o deliver dat a at ever- increasing broadband rat es; and t o do
so in a spect rally efficient manner.
HSPA Voice Support
Voice support wit h WCDMA dedicat ed channels in UMTS net works is spect rally very
efficient . Moreover, current net works support simult aneous voice and dat a operat ion.
There are, however, reasons t o consider alt ernat e approaches including reducing power
consumpt ion and being able t o support even more users. One approach is called circuit -
swit ched voice over HSPA. The ot her is VoI P.
CS Voi ce ov er HSPA
HSPA channels employ many opt imizat ions t o obt ain a high degree of dat a t hroughput ,
which is why it makes sense t o use t hem t o carry voice communicat ions. Doing so wit h
VoI P, however, requires not only support ing packet ized voice in t he radio channel, but
also wit hin t he infrast ruct ure net work. There is an elegant alt ernat ive: To packet ize t he
circuit - swit ched voice t raffic which is already in digit al form, use t he HSPA channels t o
carry t he CS voice, but t hen t o connect t he CS voice t raffic back int o t he exist ing CS
infrast ruct ure ( MSCs, et c. ) immediat ely beyond t he radio access net work. This requires
relat ively st raight forward changes in j ust t he radio net work and in devices. The following
figure shows t he infrast ruct ure changes required at t he Node B and wit hin t he RNC.

98
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 85
Fi gur e 35: I mpl ement at i on of HSPA CS Voi ce
99

IuCS
IuPS
RNC
CS R99
AMR
adapt.
Transport
queues etc
HSPA
PS R99
NodeB
HSPA scheduler
Combined
to one
carrier
AMR adaptation
possible
CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer
depending on terminal capability
Scheduler prioritizes
voice packets


Wit h t his approach, legacy mobile phones can cont inue using WCDMA- dedicat ed t raffic
channels for voice communicat ions while new devices use HSPA channels. HSPA CS
voice can be deployed wit h Release 7 or lat er net works.
The many benefit s of t his approach, list ed below, make it highly likely t hat operat ors will
adopt it :
 Relat ively easy t o implement and deploy.
 Transparent t o exist ing CS infrast ruct ure.
 Support s bot h narrowband and wideband codecs.
 Significant ly improves bat t ery life wit h voice communicat ions.
 Enables fast er call connect ions.
 Provides a 50 t o 100% capacit y gain over current voice implement at ions.
 Act s as a st epping st one t o VoI P over HSPA/ LTE in t he fut ure.
VoI P
Once HSDPA and HSUPA are available, operat ors will have anot her opt ion of moving
voice t raffic over t o t hese high- speed dat a channels, which is using VoI P. This will
event ually increase voice capacit y, allow operat ors t o consolidat e t heir infrast ruct ure on
an I P plat form, and enable innovat ive new applicat ions t hat combine voice wit h dat a
funct ions in t he packet domain. VoI P is possible in Release 6, but it is enhancement s in

99
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 86
Release 7 t hat make it highly efficient and t hus at t ract ive t o net work operat ors. VoI P will
be implement ed in conj unct ion wit h I MS, discussed lat er in t his paper.
One at t ract ive aspect of deploying VoI P wit h HSPA is t hat operat ors can smoot hly
migrat e users from circuit - swit ched operat ion t o packet - swit ched operat ion over t ime.
Because t he UMTS radio channel support s bot h circuit - swit ched voice and packet -
swit ched dat a, some voice users can be on legacy circuit - swit ched voice and ot hers can
be on VoI P. Figure 36 shows a syst em’s voice capacit y wit h t he j oint operat ion of circuit -
swit ched and I P- based voice services.
Fi gur e 36: Abi l i t y f or UMTS t o Suppor t Ci r cui t and Pack et Voi ce User s
100

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
PS Evolution
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
PS Evolution


VoI P capacit y gains are quant ified in det ail in t he main part of in t his paper. They range
from 20 percent t o as high as 100 percent wit h t he implement at ion of int erference
cancellat ion and t he minimizat ion of I P overhead t hrough a scheme called Robust
Header Compression ( ROHC) .
Whereas packet voice is t he only way voice will be support ed in LTE, wit h HSPA+ , it may
not be used immediat ely for primary voice services. This is because UMTS already has a
highly efficient circuit - swit ched voice service and already allows simult aneous voice/ dat a
operat ion. Moreover, packet voice requires a considerable amount of new infrast ruct ure
in t he core net work. As a result , packet voice will likely be used init ially as part of ot her
services ( for example, t hose based on I MS) , and only over t ime will it t ransit ion t o
primary voice service.
3GPP LTE
Alt hough HSPA and HSPA+ offer a highly efficient broadband- wireless service t hat will
enj oy success for t he remainder of t his decade and well int o t he next , 3GPP is working
on a proj ect called Long Term Evolut ion as part of Release 8. LTE will allow operat ors t o
achieve even higher peak t hroughput s in higher spect rum bandwidt h. Work on LTE

100
Source: 3G Americas member cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 87
began in 2004 wit h an official work it em st art ed in 2006 and a complet ed specificat ion
expect ed in early 2009. I nit ial possible deployment is t arget ed for 2010.
LTE uses OFDMA on t he downlink, which is well suit ed t o achieve high peak dat a rat es in
high- spect rum bandwidt h. WCDMA radio t echnology is basically as efficient as OFDM for
delivering peak dat a rat es of about 10 Mbps in 5 MHz of bandwidt h. Achieving peak
rat es in t he 100 Mbps range wit h wider radio channels, however, would result in highly
complex t erminals, and it is not pract ical wit h current t echnology. This is where OFDM
provides a pract ical implement at ion advant age. Scheduling approaches in t he frequency
domain can also minimize int erference, t hereby boost ing spect ral efficiency. The OFDMA
approach is also highly flexible in channelizat ion, and LTE will operat e in various radio
channel sizes ranging from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz.
On t he uplink, however, a pure OFDMA approach result s in high Peak t o Average Rat io
( PAR) of t he signal, which compromises power efficiency and, ult imat ely, bat t ery life.
Hence, LTE uses an approach called SC- FDMA, which is somewhat similar t o OFDMA, but
has a 2 t o 6 dB PAR advant age over t he OFDMA met hod used by ot her t echnologies such
as I EEE 802. 16e.
LTE capabilit ies include:
 Downlink peak dat a rat es up t o 326 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
 Uplink peak dat a rat es up t o 86.4 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
 Operat ion in bot h TDD and FDD modes.
 Scalable bandwidt h up t o 20 MHz, covering 1. 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz in t he
st udy phase.
 I ncreased spect ral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a fact or of t wo t o four.
 Reduced lat ency, t o 10 msec round- t rip t imes bet ween user equipment and t he
base st at ion, and t o less t han 100 msec t ransit ion t imes from inact ive t o act ive.
The overall obj ect ive is t o provide an ext remely high performance, radio- access
t echnology t hat offers full vehicular speed mobilit y and t hat can readily coexist wit h
HSPA and earlier net works. Because of scalable bandwidt h, operat ors will be able t o
easily migrat e t heir net works and users from HSPA t o LTE over t ime.
Table 16 shows LTE peak dat a rat es based on different downlink and uplink designs.
Tabl e 16: LTE Peak Thr oughput Rat es
LTE Conf i gur at i on Dow nl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Using 2X2 MI MO in t he Downlink and
16 QAM in t he Uplink

172. 8 57. 6
Using 4X4 MI MO in t he Downlink and
64 QAM in t he Uplink

326. 4 86. 4


EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 88
LTE is not only efficient for dat a but , because of a highly efficient uplink, is ext remely
efficient for VoI P t raffic. I n 10 MHz of spect rum, LTE VoI P capacit y will reach almost 500
users.
101

LTE implement s OFDM in t he downlink. The basic principle of OFDM is t o split a high- rat e
dat a st ream int o a number of parallel low- rat e dat a st reams, each a narrowband signal
carried by a subcarrier. The different narrowband st reams are generat ed in t he
frequency domain, and t hen combined t o form t he broadband st ream using a
mat hemat ical algorit hm called an I nverse Fast Fourier Transform ( I FFT) t hat is
implement ed in digit al- signal processors. I n LTE, t he subcarriers have 15 kHz spacing
from each ot her. LTE maint ains t his spacing regardless of t he overall channel bandwidt h,
which simplifies radio design, especially in support ing radio channels of different widt hs.
The number of subcarriers ranges from 72 in a 1. 4 MHz channel t o 1, 200 in a 20 MHz
channel.
The composit e signal is obt ained aft er t he I FFT is ext ended by repeat ing t he init ial part
of t he signal ( called t he Cyclic Prefix [ CP] ) . This ext ended signal represent s an OFDM
symbol. The CP is basically a guard t ime during which reflect ed signals will reach t he
receiver. I t result s in an almost complet e eliminat ion of mult ipat h induced I nt ersymbol
I nt erference ( I SI ) , which ot herwise makes ext remely high dat a rat e t ransmissions
problemat ic. The syst em is called ort hogonal, because t he subcarriers are generat ed in
t he frequency domain ( making t hem inherent ly ort hogonal) , and t he I FFT conserves t hat
charact erist ic. OFDM syst ems may lose t heir ort hogonal nat ure as a result of t he Doppler
shift induced by t he speed of t he t ransmit t er or t he receiver. 3GPP specifically select ed
t he subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz t o avoid any performance degradat ion in high- speed
condit ions. WiMAX syst ems t hat use a lower subcarrier spacing ( ~ 11 kHz) will be more
impact ed in high- speed condit ions t han LTE.
Fi gur e 37: OFDM Sy mbol w i t h Cy cl i c Pr ef i x
Cyclic Prefix
(4.8 usec)
Data
(66.7 usec)


The mult iple- access aspect of OFDMA comes from being able t o assign different users
different subcarriers over t ime. A minimum resource block t hat t he syst em can assign t o
a user t ransmission consist s of 12 subcarriers over 14 symbols in 1. 0 msec. Figure 38
shows how t he syst em can assign t hese resource blocks t o different users over bot h
t ime and frequency.

101
Source: 3GPP Mult i- member analysis.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 89
Fi gur e 38: LTE OFDMA Dow nl i nk Resour ce Assi gnment i n Ti me and Fr equency
Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
Minimum resource block consists of
14 symbols and 12 subcarriers


By having cont rol over which subcarriers are assigned in which sect ors, LTE can easily
cont rol frequency reuse. By using all t he subcarriers in each sect or, t he syst em would
operat e at a frequency reuse of 1; but by using a different one t hird of t he subcarriers in
each sect or, t he syst em achieves a looser frequency reuse of 1/ 3. The looser frequency
reduces overall spect ral efficiency, but delivers high peak rat es t o users.
LTE is specified for a variet y of MI MO configurat ions. On t he downlink, t hese include
2X2, 4X2 ( four ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and 4X4. I nit ial deployment will likely be
2x2. 4X4 will be most likely used init ially in femt o cells. On t he uplink, t here are t wo
possible approaches: single user MI MO ( SU- MI MO) and mult i- user MI MO ( MU- MI MO) .
SU- MI MO is more complex t o implement as it requires t wo parallel radio t ransmit chains
in t he mobile device, whereas MU- MI MO does not require any addit ional implement at ion
at t he device. The first LTE release t hus incorporat es MU- MI MO wit h SU- MI MO deferred
for t he second LTE release.
4G, IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced
LTE will address t he market needs of t he next decade. Aft er t hat , operat ors may deploy
Fourt h Generat ion ( 4G) net works using LTE t echnology as a foundat ion. Current ly, t here
are no official st andards or formal definit ions for 4G. Preliminary research is focused on
t echnologies capable of delivering peak rat es of 1 gigabit per second ( Gbps) in hot spot -
t ype scenarios and 100 Mbps while mobile, being fully I P- based, and support ing full
net work agilit y for handovers bet ween different t ypes of net works ( for example, 4G t o
3G t o WLAN) . The high dat a rat es will require radio channels wider t han 20MHz, most
likely in new spect rum, as discussed above in t he sect ion “ Spect rum. ”
Some companies are at t empt ing t o co- opt t he t erm “ 4G” t o refer t o wireless syst ems
t hat promise performance beyond current 3G syst ems. All of t hese syst ems are on par
wit h HSPA/ HSPA+ and LTE, however, and use of t he t erm “ 4G” for t hem is
inappropriat e. I TU is t he int ernat ionally recognized organizat ion producing t he official
definit ion of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. Through it s Radio Communicat ions

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 90
Sect or ( I TU- R) , I TU is current ly working on a definit ion of 4G using t he name I MT-
Advanced. Current 3G syst ems came about t hrough I TU’s prior proj ect on I nt ernat ional
Mobile Telecommunicat ions 2000 ( I MT- 2000) .
As background for t his proj ect , I TU published a document , Recommendat ion I TU- R
M. 1645, t it led “ Framework and overall obj ect ives of t he fut ure development of I MT- 2000
and syst ems beyond I MT- 2000. ”
The I MT- Advanced proj ect schedule shows t he requirement s and evaluat ion crit eria
being published in 2008 wit h submissions t o occur t hrough 2009. 3GPP will address t he
requirement s in a version of LTE called LTE Advanced for which specificat ions could
become available in 2011. 3GPP will specify LTE Advanced in Release 10. WiMAX will
address t he I MT- Advanced requirement s in a version called Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, t o be
specified in I EEE 802. 16m.
No det ails are available yet on t hese advanced t echnologies, but ideas under
considerat ion include:
 Evolut ion of current OFDMA approaches.
 High- order MI MO ( e. g. , 4X4) .
 Wider radio channels ( e. g. , 50 t o 100 MHz) .
 Opt imizat ion in narrower bands ( e.g. , less t han 20 MHz) due t o spect rum
const raint s in some deployment s.
 Mult i- channel operat ion in eit her same or different frequency bands.
 Abilit y t o share bands wit h ot her services.
Globally, t here are a variet y of wireless research and development proj ect s, init iat ives,
and organizat ions t hat are advancing t he capabilit ies of wireless syst ems. These include
t he Wireless World Research Forum, Wireless World I nit iat ives, I nformat ion and
Communicat ion Technologies ( I CT) , research under t he European Union’s Sevent h
Framework Programme ( FP7) , Japan Mobile I T Forum ( mI TF) , t he Elect ronic and
Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e ( ETRI ) in Korea, and t he Next Generat ion Mobile
Commit t ee ( NGMC) .
Given t his paper’s proj ect ion of mid- next - decade before OFDMA- based syst ems like LTE
have a large percent age of subscribers, it could be well t oward t he end of t he next
decade before any I MT- Advanced syst em has a large subscriber base. Needless t o say,
vendors will be looking at how t o leverage and enhance current OFDMA syst ems like
LTE, UMB, and WiMAX t o meet t he requirement s of I MT- Advanced.
UMTS TDD
Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployment s are based on FDD, in which t he operat or uses
different radio bands for t ransmit and receive. An alt ernat e approach is TDD, in which
bot h t ransmit and receive funct ions alt ernat e in t ime on t he same radio channel. 3GPP
specificat ions include a TDD version of UMTS, called UMTS TDD.
TDD does not provide any inherent advant age for voice funct ions, which need balanced
links—namely, t he same amount of capacit y in bot h t he uplink and t he downlink. Many
dat a applicat ions, however, are asymmet ric, oft en wit h t he downlink consuming more
bandwidt h t han t he uplink, especially for applicat ions like Web browsing or mult imedia
downloads. A TDD radio int erface can dynamically adj ust t he downlink- t o- uplink rat io
accordingly, hence balancing bot h forward- link and reverse- link capacit y. Not e t hat for

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 91
UMTS FDD, t he higher spect ral efficiency achievable in t he downlink versus t he uplink is
crit ical in addressing t he asymmet rical nat ure of most dat a t raffic.
The UMTS TDD specificat ion also includes t he capabilit y t o use j oint det ect ion in
receiver- signal processing, which offers improved performance. The vendor I P Wireless,
acquired by Next Wave in May 2007, had commercialized UMTS TDD.
One considerat ion, however, relat es t o available spect rum. Various count ries around t he
world including Europe, Asia, and t he Pacific region have licensed spect rum available
specifically for TDD syst ems. For t his spect rum, UMTS TDD, or in t he fut ure LTE in TDD
mode, is a good choice. I t is also a good choice in any spect rum t hat does not provide a
duplex gap bet ween forward and reverse links.
I n t he Unit ed St at es, t here is limit ed spect rum specifically allocat ed for TDD syst ems.
102

UMTS TDD is not a good choice in FDD bands; it would not be able t o operat e effect ively
in bot h bands, t hereby making t he overall syst em efficiency relat ively poor.
As discussed in more det ail in t he “ WiMAX” sect ion, TDD syst ems require net work
synchronizat ion and careful coordinat ion bet ween operat ors or guard bands, which may
be problemat ic in cert ain bands.
There has been lit t le deployment of UMTS TDD. Fut ure TDD deployment s of 3GPP
t echnologies are likely t o be based on LTE.
TD-SCDMA
TD- SCDMA is one of t he official 3G wireless t echnologies being developed, most ly for
deployment in China. Specified t hrough 3GPP as a variant of t he UMTS TDD Syst em and
operat ing wit h a 1. 28 Megachips per second ( Mcps) chip rat e against 3. 84 Mcps for
UMTS TDD, t he primary at t ribut e of TD- SCDMA is t hat it is designed t o support very high
subscriber densit ies. This makes it a possible alt ernat ive for wireless local loops. TD-
SCDMA uses t he same core net work as UMTS, and it is possible for t he same core
net work t o support bot h UMTS and TD- SCDMA radio- access net works.
TD- SCDMA t echnology is not as mat ure as UMTS and CDMA2000, wit h 2008 being t he
first year of limit ed deployment s in China in t ime for t he Olympic Games. Though t here
are no planned deployment s in any count ry ot her t han China, TD- SCDMA could
t heoret ically be deployed anywhere unpaired spect rum is available—such as t he bands
licensed for UMTS TDD—assuming appropriat e resolut ion of regulat ory issues.
IMS
I MS is a service plat form t hat allows operat ors t o support I P mult imedia applicat ions.
Pot ent ial applicat ions include video sharing, PoC, VoI P, st reaming video, int eract ive
gaming, and so fort h. I MS by it self does not provide all t hese applicat ions. Rat her, it
provides a framework of applicat ion servers, subscriber dat abases, and gat eways t o
make t hem possible. The exact services will depend on cellular operat ors and applicat ion
developers t hat make t hese applicat ions available t o operat ors.
The core net working prot ocol used wit hin I MS is Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol ( SI P) , which
includes t he companion Session Descript ion Prot ocol ( SDP) used t o convey configurat ion
informat ion such as support ed voice codecs. Ot her prot ocols include Real Time Transport
Prot ocol ( RTP) and Real Time St reaming Prot ocol ( RTSP) for t ransport ing act ual

102
The 1910- 1920 MHz band t arget ed unlicensed TDD syst ems, but has never been used.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 92
sessions. The QoS mechanisms in UMTS will be an import ant component of some I MS
applicat ions.
Alt hough originally specified by 3GPP, numerous ot her organizat ions around t he world
are support ing I MS. These include t he I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce ( I ETF) , which
specifies key prot ocols such as SI P, and t he Open Mobile Alliance, which specifies end-
t o- end service- layer applicat ions. Ot her organizat ions support ing I MS include t he GSM
Associat ion ( GSMA) , t he ETSI , CableLabs, 3GPP2, The Parlay Group, t he I TU, t he
American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e ( ANSI ) , t he Telecoms and I nt ernet Converged
Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works ( TI SPAN) , and t he Java Communit y
Process ( JCP) .
I MS is relat ively independent of t he radio- access net work and can, and likely will, be
used by ot her radio- access net works or wireline net works. Operat ors are already t rialing
I MS, and one init ial applicat ion under considerat ion—PoC—is being specified by t he Open
Mobile Alliance. Ot her applicat ions include pict ure and video sharing t hat occur in
parallel wit h voice communicat ions. Operat ors looking t o roll out VoI P over net works
could also use I MS. 3GPP init ially int roduced I MS in Release 5 and has enhanced it in
each subsequent specificat ion release.
As shown in Figure 39, I MS operat es j ust out side t he packet core.
Fi gur e 39: I P Mul t i medi a Subsy st em
Call Session Control Function ( CSCF)
( SIP Proxy)
Home Subscriber
Server ( HSS)
SIP Application
Server
SIP
DI AMETER
I MS
UMTS/HSPA
Packet Core
Network
Media Resource
Function Control
Media Resource
Gateway Cont rol
Wi-Fi DSL
Multiple Possible Access Networ ks

The benefit s of using I MS include handling all communicat ion in t he packet domain,
t ight er int egrat ion wit h t he I nt ernet , and a lower cost infrast ruct ure t hat is based on I P
building blocks used for bot h voice and dat a services. This allows operat ors t o pot ent ially
deliver dat a and voice services at lower cost , t hus providing t hese services at lower
prices and furt her driving demand and usage.
I MS applicat ions can reside eit her in t he operat or’s net work or in t hird- part y net works
including ent erprises. By managing services and applicat ions cent rally—and
independent ly of t he access net work—I MS can enable net work convergence. This allows
operat ors t o offer common services across 3G, Wi- Fi, and wireline net works.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 93
Broadcast/Multicast Services
An import ant capabilit y for 3G and evolved 3G syst ems is broadcast ing and mult icast ing,
wherein mult iple users receive t he same informat ion using t he same radio resource. This
creat es a much more efficient approach for delivering cont ent such as video
programming t o which mult iple users have subscript ions. I n a broadcast , every
subscriber unit in a service area receives t he informat ion, whereas in a mult icast , only
users wit h subscript ions receive t he informat ion. Service areas for bot h broadcast and
mult icast can span eit her t he ent ire net work or a specific geographical area. Because
mult iple users in a cell are t uned t o t he same cont ent , broadcast ing and mult icast ing
result in much great er spect rum efficiency for services such as mobile TV.
3GPP defined highly- efficient broadcast / mult icast capabilit ies for UMTS in Release 6 wit h
MBMS. Release 7 includes opt imizat ions t hrough a solut ion called mult icast / broadcast
single- frequency net work operat ion which involves simult aneous t ransmission of t he
exact waveform across mult iple cells. This enables t he receiver t o const ruct ively
superpose mult iple MBSFN cell t ransmissions. The result is highly efficient WCDMA-
based broadcast t ransmission t echnology t hat mat ches t he benefit s of OFDMA- based
broadcast approaches.
LTE will also have a broadcast / mult icast capabilit y. OFDM is part icularly well- suit ed for
broadcast ing, because t he mobile syst em can combine t he signal from mult iple base
st at ions and because of t he narrowband nat ure of OFDM. Normally, t hese signals would
int erfere wit h each ot her. As such, t he LTE broadcast capabilit y is expect ed t o be quit e
efficient .
Fi gur e 40: OFDM Enabl es Ef f i ci ent Br oadcast i ng

An alt ernat e approach for mobile TV is t o use an ent irely separat e broadcast net work
wit h t echnologies such as Digit al Video Broadcast ing–Handheld ( DVB- H) or Media
Forward Link Only ( MediaFLO) , which various operat ors around t he world have opt ed t o
do. Though t his requires a separat e radio in t he mobile device, t he net works are highly
opt imized for broadcast .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 94
EPC/SAE
3GPP is defining EPC/ SAE in Release 8 as a framework for an evolut ion or migrat ion of
t he 3GPP syst em t o a higher- dat a- rat e, lower- lat ency, packet - opt imized syst em t hat
support s mult iple radio- access t echnologies. The focus of t his work is on t he packet -
swit ched domain wit h t he assumpt ion t hat t he syst em will support all services—including
voice—in t his domain.
Alt hough it will most likely be deployed in conj unct ion wit h LTE, EPC/ SAE could also be
deployed for use wit h HSPA+ where it could provide a st epping- st one t o LTE. EPC/ SAE
will be opt imized for all services t o be delivered via I P in a manner t hat is as efficient as
possible—t hrough minimizat ion of lat ency wit hin t he syst em, for example. I t will support
service cont inuit y across het erogeneous net works, which will be import ant for LTE
operat ors t hat must simult aneously support GSM / EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA cust omers.
One import ant performance aspect of EPC/ SAE is a flat t er archit ect ure. For packet flow,
EPC/ SAE includes t wo net work element s, called Evolved Node B ( eNodeB) and t he
Access Gat eway ( AGW) . The eNodeB ( base st at ion) int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he radio- net work cont roller, which previously was a separat e node
cont rolling mult iple Node Bs. Meanwhile, t he AGW int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he SGSN and GGSN. The AGW has bot h cont rol funct ions, handled
t hrough t he Mobile Management Ent it y ( MME) , and user plane ( dat a communicat ions)
funct ions. The user plane funct ions consist of t wo element s: A serving gat eway t hat
addresses 3GPP mobilit y and t erminat es eNodeB connect ions, and a Packet Dat a
Net work ( PDN) gat eway t hat addresses service requirement s and also t erminat es access
by non- 3GPP net works. The MME, serving gat eway, and PDN gat eways can be collocat ed
in t he same physical node or dist ribut ed, based on vendor implement at ions and
deployment scenarios.
The EPC/ SAE archit ect ure is similar t o t he HSPA One- Tunnel Archit ect ure discussed in
t he “ HSPA+ ” sect ion t hat allows for easy int egrat ion of HSPA net works t o t he EPC/ SAE.
Anot her archit ect ural opt ion is t o reverse t he t opology, so t hat t he EPC/ SAE Access
Gat eway is locat ed close t o t he RAN in a dist ribut ed fashion t o reduce lat ency while t he
MME is cent rally locat ed t o minimize complexit y and cost .
EPC/ SAE also allows int egrat ion of non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX. EPC/ SAE will use
I MS as a component . I t will also manage QoS across t he whole syst em, which will be
essent ial for enabling a rich set of mult imedia- based services.
Figure 41 shows t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 95
Fi gur e 41: EPC/ SAE Ar chi t ect ur e
MME
GERAN
UTRAN
Rel’7 Legacy GSM/ UMTS
SGSN
Evolved RAN,
e.g., LTE
Serving
Gateway
PDN
Gateway
Non 3GPP
IP Access
PCRF
IP
Services,
IMS
EPC/ SAE Access Gat eway
Cont r ol
User Plane
One-Tunnel
Opt ion


Element s of t he SAE archit ect ure include:
 Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN net works connect ed via SGSN.
 Support for new radio- access net works such as LTE.
 The Serving Gat eway t hat t erminat es t he int erface t oward t he 3GPP radio- access
net works.
 The PDN gat eway t hat cont rols I P dat a services, does rout ing, allocat es I P
addresses, enforces policy, and provides access for non- 3GPP access net works.
 The MME t hat support s user equipment cont ext and ident it y as well as
aut hent icat es and aut horizes users.
 The Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion ( PCRF) t hat manages QoS
aspect s.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 96

Acronyms
The following acronyms are used in t his paper. Acronyms are defined on first use.
1xEV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
1xEV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
1XRTT – One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology
2G – Second Generat ion
3G – Third Generat ion
3GPP – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect
3GPP2 – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect 2
4G – Fourt h Generat ion
8- PSK – Oct agonal Phase Shift Keying
AAS – Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems
AGW – Access Gat eway
AMR – Adapt ive Mult i Rat e
ANSI – American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e
ARQ – Aut omat ic Repeat Request
ARPU – Average Revenue Per User
ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AWGN – Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel
BCCH – Broadcast Cont rol Channel
bps – bit s per second
BRS – Broadband Radio Service
BSC – Base St at ion Cont roller
BTS – Base Transceiving St at ion
C/ I – Carrier t o I nt erference Rat io
CAPEX- Capit al Expendit ure
CDF – Cumulat ive Dist ribut ion Funct ion
CDMA – Code Division Mult iple Access
CMOS – Complement ary Met al Oxide Semiconduct or
CP – Cyclic Prefix
CPC – Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y
CRM – Cust omer Relat ionship Management
DAS – Downlink “ A” Level Scheme
dB – Decibel
DBS – Downlink “ B” Level Scheme
DC- HSPA – Dual Carrier HSPA
DSL – Digit al Subscriber Line

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 97
DTM – Dual Transfer Mode
D- TxAA – Double Transmit Adapt ive Array
DVB- H – Digit al Video Broadcast ing Handheld
E–DCH – Enhanced Dedicat ed Channel
EBCMCS – Enhanced Broadcast Mult icast Services
EDGE – Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion
EGPRS – Enhanced General Packet Radio Service
eNodeB – Evolved Node B
EPS – Evolved Packet Syst em
ERP – Ent erprise Resource Planning
ETRI – Elect ronic and Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e
ETSI – European Telecommunicat ions I nst it ut e
E- UTRAN – Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
EV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
EV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
EVRC – Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec
FCC – Federal Communicat ions Commission
FDD – Frequency Division Duplex
Flash OFDM – Fast Low- Lat ency Access wit h Seamless Handoff OFDM
FLO – Forward Link Only
FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence
FP7 – Sevent h Framework Programme
FTP – File Transfer Prot ocol
G- Rake – Generalized Rake Receiver
Gbps – Gigabit s Per Second
GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Net work
GGSN – Gat eway GPRS Support Node
GHz — Gigahert z
GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
GSM – Global Syst em for Mobile communicat ions
GSMA – GSM Associat ion
HARQ – Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request
HD – High Definit ion
HLR – Home Locat ion Regist er
HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HS- PDSCH - High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels
HSPA – High Speed Packet Access ( HSDPA wit h HSUPA)
HSPA+ – HSPA Evolut ion
HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 98
Hz – Hert z
I CT – I nformat ion and Communicat ion Technologies
I EEE – I nst it ut e of Elect rical and Elect ronic Engineers
I ETF – I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce
I FFT – I nverse Fast Fourier Transform
I M – I nst ant Messaging
I MS – I P Mult imedia Subsyst em
I MT – I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions
I PR - I nt ellect ual Propert y Right s
I P – I nt ernet Prot ocol
I PTV – I nt ernet Prot ocol Television
I R – I ncrement al Redundancy
I SI – I nt ersymbol I nt erference
I SP – I nt ernet Service Provider
I TU – I nt ernat ional Telecommunicat ions Union
JCP – Java Communit y Process
kbps – Kilobit s Per Second
kHz — Kilohert z
km – Kilomet er
LSTI – LTE/ SAE Trial I nit iat ive
MAC – Medium Access Cont rol
MBMS - Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Service
Mbps – Megabit s Per Second
Mcps – Megachips Per Second
MCS – Modulat ion and Coding Scheme
MediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only
MHz – Megahert z
MI MO – Mult iple I nput Mult iple Out put
mI TF – Japan Mobile I T Forum
MMDS – Mult ichannel Mult ipoint Dist ribut ion Service
MME – Mobile Management Ent it y
MMSE – Minimum Mean Square Error
MRxD – Mobile Receive Diversit y
MSC – Mobile Swit ching Cent er
MU- MI MO – Mult i- User MI MO
msec – millisecond
NGMC – Next Generat ion Mobile Commit t ee
OFDM – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing
OFDMA – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
PAR – Peak t o Average Rat io

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 99
PBCCH – Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel
PCRF – Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion
PCS – Personal Communicat ions Service
PHY – Physical Layer
PDN – Packet Dat a Net work
PoC – Push- t o- t alk over Cellular
QAM – Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion
QoS – Qualit y of Service
QPSK – Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying
RAB – Radio Access Bearer
RAN – Radio Access Net work
RF – Radio Frequency
RNC – Radio Net work Cont roller
ROHC – Robust Header Compression
RTP – Real Time Transport Prot ocol
RTSP – Real Time St reaming Prot ocol
SC- FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Mult iple Access
SAE – Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion
SDMA – Space Division Mult iple Access
SDP – Session Descript ion Prot ocol
SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node
SI C – Successive I nt erference Cancellat ion
SI P – Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol
SMS – Short Message Service
SNR – Signal t o Noise Rat io
SU- MI MO – Single User MI MO
TCH – Traffic Channel
TDD – Time Division Duplex
TDMA – Time Division Mult iple Access
TD- SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous Code Division Mult iple Access
TD- CDMA – Time Division Code Division Mult iple Access
TI A/ EI A – Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry Associat ion
TI SPAN – Telecoms and I nt ernet converged Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works
TTI – Transmission Time I nt erval
UAS – Uplink “ A” Level Scheme
UBS – Uplink “ B” Level Scheme
UMA – Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMB – Ult ra Mobile Broadband
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em
us – Microseconds

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 100
UTRAN – UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
VDSL – Very High Speed DSL
VoI P – Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
VPN – Virt ual Privat e Net work
WAP – Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol
WCDMA – Wideband CDMA
Wi- Fi – Wireless Fidelit y
WiMAX – Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Net work
WMAN – Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work
WRC- 07 – World Radiocommunicat ion Conference 2007

Additional Information
3G Americas maint ains complet e and current list s of market informat ion, including EDGE,
UMTS, and HSDPA deployment s worldwide, available for free download on it s Web sit e:
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org.
I f t here are any quest ions regarding t he download of t his informat ion, please call + 1 425
372 8922 or e- mail Krissy Gochnour, Public Relat ions Administ rat or, at
info@3gamericas. org. ”
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This whit e paper was writ t en for 3G Americas by Rysavy Research ( ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com) and ut ilized a
composit e of st at ist ical infor mat ion from mult iple resources.



EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 104
The contents of this paper reflect the research, analysis and conclusions of Rysavy Research and
may not necessarily represent the comprehensive opinions and individual view points of each
particular 3G Americas Board member company.

Rysavy Research provides this document and the information contained herein to you for
informational purposes only. Rysavy Research provides this information solely on the basis that
you will take responsibility for making your own assessments of the information.

Although Rysavy Research has exercised reasonable care in providing this information to you,
Rysavy Research does not warrant that the information is error-free. Rysavy Research disclaims
and in no event shall be liable for any losses or damages of any kind, whether direct, indirect,
incidental, consequential, or punitive arising out of or in any way related to the use of the
information.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 3  BROADBAND DEVELOPMENTS ................................................................................ 5  WIRELESS DATA MARKET ....................................................................................... 8  Trends ................................................................................................................ 9  EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment ........................................................................... 13  Statistics ........................................................................................................... 13  WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION AND MIGRATION ....................................... 15  Technical Approaches (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) ........................................................ 15  3GPP Evolutionary Approach ................................................................................ 17  Spectrum .......................................................................................................... 20  Core-Network Evolution ....................................................................................... 22  Service Evolution ................................................................................................ 23  Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations ..................................................... 24  Feature and Network Roadmap ............................................................................. 25  COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................ 29  CDMA2000 ........................................................................................................ 29  WiMAX .............................................................................................................. 32  IEEE 802.20....................................................................................................... 35  Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems ........................................................................ 35  COMPARISON OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES ....................................................... 36  Data Throughput ................................................................................................ 36  HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios ...................................................... 40  Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance ............................................................ 41  LTE Throughput .................................................................................................. 42  Latency ............................................................................................................. 43  Spectral Efficiency .............................................................................................. 44  Cost, Volume and Market Comparison ................................................................... 52  Competitive Summary ......................................................................................... 54  CONCLUSION........................................................................................................ 56  APPENDIX: TECHNOLOGY DETAILS ...................................................................... 58  EDGE ................................................................................................................ 58  Evolved EDGE .................................................................................................... 62  UMTS/HSPA Technology ...................................................................................... 70  UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities........................................................................ 72  HSDPA .............................................................................................................. 73  HSUPA .............................................................................................................. 76  Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+) .................................................................................. 78  HSPA Voice Support ............................................................................................ 84  3GPP LTE .......................................................................................................... 86  4G, IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced .................................................................... 89  UMTS TDD ......................................................................................................... 90  TD-SCDMA ........................................................................................................ 91  IMS .................................................................................................................. 91  Broadcast/Multicast Services ................................................................................ 93  EPC/SAE............................................................................................................ 94  ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... 96  ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .............................................................................. 100  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 100 

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation

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Introduction
Through constant innovation, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond third generation (3G) has established itself as the global, mobile-broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. Through a process of constant improvement, the GSM family of technologies has not only matched or exceeded the capabilities of all competing approaches, but has significantly extended the life of each of its member technologies. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies. Operators worldwide are now deploying both High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), the combination of the two technologies called simply HSPA. HSPA is one of the most powerful cellular-data technologies ever developed. HSPA, already widely available, follows the successful deployment of UMTS networks around the world and is now a standard feature. Any operator deploying UMTS today is doing so with HSPA. The UMTS-to-HSPA upgrade is similar to Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), which has already proven to be a remarkably effective upgrade to GSM networks, and HSPA (or HSDPA for some networks) is now supported by an overwhelming number of operators and vendors worldwide. HSPA is strongly positioned to be the dominant mobile-data technology for the rest of the decade. To leverage operator investments in HSPA, the 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) standards body has developed a series of enhancements to create “HSPA Evolution,” also referred to as “HSPA+.” HSPA Evolution represents a logical development of the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) approach, and it is the stepping stone to an entirely new Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio platform called 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). LTE, which uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), should be ready for deployment in the 2010 timeframe. Simultaneously, 3GPP — recognizing the significant worldwide investments in GSM networks—has defined enhancements that will significantly increase EDGE data capabilities through an effort called Evolved EDGE. Combined with these improvements in radio-access technology, 3GPP has also spearheaded the development of major core-network architecture enhancements such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and the Evolved Packet Core (or EPC, previously called System Architecture Evolution or SAE), as well as developments in Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC). These developments will facilitate new types of services, the integration of legacy and new networks, the convergence between fixed and wireless systems, and the transition from circuit-switched approaches for voice traffic to a fully packet-switched model. The result is a balanced portfolio of complementary technologies that covers both radioaccess and core networks, provides operators maximum flexibility in how they enhance their networks over time, and supports both voice and data services. This paper discusses the evolution of EDGE, HSPA enhancements, 3GPP LTE, the capabilities of these technologies, and their position relative to other primary competing technologies. The following are some of the important observations and conclusions of this paper:

Persistent innovation created EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS; HSPA and HSPA+, which are bringing UMTS to its full potential; and is now delivering LTE, the most powerful, wide-area wireless technology ever developed.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation

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           EDGE. but it will still only represent a very small percentage of wireless subscribers over the next five to ten years. Advanced capabilities with Evolved EDGE can double and eventually quadruple current EDGE throughput rates. UMTS/HSPA/LTE have significant economic advantages over other wireless technologies. and HSPA access networks and offer high efficiency for both high and low data rates. WCDMA. In June of 2008. With a UMTS multiradio network. EPC/SAE will provide a new core network that supports both LTE and interoperability with legacy GSM/UMTS radio-access networks. HSPA Evolution provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM/UMTS operators. Peak theoretical rates are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidth. and 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is more spectrally efficient than competing technologies including Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Wave 2 with 2x2 MIMO and Evolved Data Optimized (EV-DO) Revision B. Initial deployments are likely to occur around 2010. with 4 Mbps on commercial networks being commonly measured.and low-traffic density configurations. which is close to completion. In the future. under favorable conditions. successive interference cancellation. and it is designed to support voice in the packet domain. Innovations such as EPC/SAE and UMTS one-tunnel architecture will “flatten” the network. after extensive evaluation. EDGE technology has proven extremely successful and is widely deployed on GSM networks globally. The LTE Radio Access Network technical specification was approved in January 2008 and is being incorporated into 3GPP Release 8. 3GPP is now studying how to enhance LTE to meet the requirements of IMTAdvanced in a project called LTE Advanced. as well as for both high. LTE assumes a full Internet Protocol (IP) network architecture. The deployment of LTE and its coexistence with UMTS/HSPA will be analogous to the deployment of UMTS/HSPA and its coexistence with GSM. GSM/HSPA will comprise the overwhelming majority of subscribers over the next five to ten years. WiMAX has developed an ecosystem supported by many companies. GSM/UMTS has an overwhelming global position in terms of subscribers. HSPA+ with 2x2 MIMO. deployment. LTE has become the technology platform of choice as GSM/UMTS and CDMA/EV-DO operators are making strategic long-term decisions on their next-generation platforms. LTE was the first and only technology recognized by the Next Generation Mobile Network alliance to meet its broad requirements. even as new wireless technologies are adopted. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in LTE matches or exceeds the capabilities of any other OFDMA system. In current deployments. Planned enhancements will increase these peak userachievable throughput rates. HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 4 . HSPA users regularly experience throughput rates well in excess of 1 megabit per second (Mbps). on both downlinks and uplinks. a common core network can efficiently support GSM. Its success will marginalize other wide-area wireless technologies. simplifying deployment and reducing latency. and services.

and ongoing developments with wireline technology. For the most part. and a consistent 10x advantage of wireline technologies over wireless technologies. Evolved EDGE. including Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). Although many use the terms “UMTS” and “WCDMA” interchangeably. it is important to understand overall broadband trends and the role between wireless and wireline technologies. but its overall contribution to communications in the world and its social. Access refers to communication services. data flow over wireless links will never represent more than a small percentage of the total global communications traffic. This applies as readily to Wi-Fi networks as it does to cellular networks. but in most instances they are complementary. backhaul transport and core infrastructure for wireless networks are based on wireline approaches. and it can combine voice and data on the same radio channel. Next. HSPA. and WiMAX. conclusively demonstrate the desire for mobile-oriented communications. In particular. Nevertheless. and SAE. IMS. HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). then moving to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) over HSPA will add to voice capacity and reduce infrastructure costs. One must consider the performance and capacity of wireless technologies relative to wireline approaches. including spectrum considerations. political and economic impact. Sometimes wireless and wireline technologies compete with each other. core-network evolution. 1 EDGE. however. Broadband Developments As wireless technology represents an increasing portion of the global communications infrastructure. It then examines the evolution of wireless technology. based on features such as performance and spectral efficiency. Mobility refers to untethered communication whether stationery or in motion. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 5 . HSPA is an enhancement to WCDMA. voice over HSPA. for access is more complex. especially in greenfield situations where there is little existing communications infrastructure. Thus. Finally. what wireline infrastructure may already be available. This paper begins with an overview of the market. whether optical or copper. UMTS/HSPA enjoys high circuit-switched voice spectral efficiency. Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB). whether telephony or Internet. because it provides two fundamental capabilities: mobility and access. wireline networks have always had greater capacity. Circuit-switched. HSPA. mobile communications volume may be less than wireline. Given that the inherent capacity of one fiber optical link exceeds the entire available radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Figure 1 shows advances in typical user throughput rates. and a feature and network roadmap. broadband-wireless deployment considerations. EDGE and UMTS/HSPA deployments. easily provided across geographic areas and often more easily accomplished than with wireline approaches. LTE. in this paper we use “WCDMA” when referring to the radio interface technology used within UMTS and “UMTS” to refer to the complete system. is just as significant. and historically have delivered faster throughput rates. wireless technology is playing a profound role in networking and communications. the paper discusses other wireless technologies. In the meantime. and now the growing adoption of mobile data. The appendix explains in detail the capabilities and workings of the different technologies including EDGE. and market statistics. The question of using wireless technology. looking at trends. particularly 3GPP technologies. The overwhelming global success of mobile telephony. given these characteristics. WCDMA1. it compares the different wireless technologies technically.

Portio Research. there is no doubt that 3G technology will cater to both enterprises and their high-end mobile workers and consumers. for whom 3G can be a cost-effective option. Portio Research predicted in June 2008 that worldwide mobile data revenue would increase at an annual rate of 16 percent to reach $252 billion the end of 2012. anywhere will be a primary source of demand. the opportunities are limitless when considering the many diverse markets mobile broadband can successfully address. and Google. This is especially true when wireless is compared to optical fiber. MySpace. June 11. that accelerated mobile-broadband growth throughout the world. competing with digital subscriber line (DSL). users’ desire to be connected anytime. In the early 1990s. salespeople. the majority of early adopters of mobile broadband have been enterprises. increases the demand for mobilebroadband capabilities. and executives already had home phones. HSPA. and even receptionists. Thus. whether in business or in our personal lives. lawyers. In developing countries. In the developed world. however. Although it is true that most 3G systems are now offering throughputs of about 1 Mbps— which is comparable to what many users experience with a basic DSL or cable-modem service—the overall capacity of wireless systems is generally lower than it is with wireline systems. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 6 . While consumer demand for social and search services. the world of voice and data is quickly becoming one that must be untethered. but always connected. enterprise broadband-connectivity adoption is taking on the same “look and feel” as early mobilephone service adoption. Yahoo. YouTube. such as Facebook.2 Overall. for home use. doctors. office desk phones. which some 2 “Mobile Data Services Markets 2008”. 2008 EDGE. As a result. Better connectivity means a business is more efficient. It was the productivity increases associated with being connected to a cellular network.Figure 1: Wireline and Wireless Advances 100 Mbps FTTH 100 Mbps ADSL2+ 25 Mbps 10 Mbps ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps 1 Mbps ADSL 1 Mbps ISDN 128 kbps LTE 10 Mbps HSPA+ 5 Mbps HSDPA 1 Mbps UMTS 350 kbps EDGE 100 kbps GPRS 40 kbps 100 kbps 10 kbps 2000 2005 2010 Mobile broadband combines compelling high-speed data services with mobility.

The only possible wireless approach to address such high-data consumption is with FMC approaches. Hence. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 7 . it simply will not be possible to deliver the hundreds of gigabytes per month that users will soon be consuming over their broadband connections with wide-area wireless networks. an existing wireline Internet connection (e. Deploying at lower capacity—as measured by lower bits per second (bps) per square kilometer—means larger cell sizes. and by using relatively small cell sizes. the interest developing countries have in broadband-wireless technologies. This presupposes. is it possible to match these rates using wireless approaches? The answer is “yes” from a purely technical perspective. however. but it is “no” from a practical point of view. DSL).g. where one subscriber could essentially consume the entire capacity of a WiMAX or HSPA cell sector. What changes the dynamics of the business model in these areas is that operators can cost-effectively deploy voice (which is inherently low bandwidth) and lower-speed data services. or fiber—especially for services such as highdefinition IP Television (IPTV)—the question becomes. HSPA. mostly because of the lack of wireline offerings. Figure 2: FMC Used to Expand Capacity Macro-Cell Coverage Aggregate femto-cell capacity far exceeds macro-cell capacity for same amount of spectrum Femto-Cell Coverage What makes much more sense today is using wireless technology for access only when there are no good wireline alternatives. With wireline operators looking to provide 20 to 100 Mbps to either people’s homes or businesses via next-generation cable-modem services. It is only possible to achieve these rates by using large amounts of spectrum.operators are now deploying to people’s homes. as shown in Figure 2. EDGE. generally more than is available for current 3G systems.. Otherwise. and thus fewer cell sites and much lower deployment costs. Table 1 summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of wireless versus wireline broadband approaches. Consider today’s high definition (HD) television content that demands 6 to 9 Mbps of continuous connectivity. very high-speed DSL (VDSL). such as femto cells (or dual mode Wi-Fi/3G devices.

and future spectrum allocations for mobile-broadband systems.2 billion subscribers were using GSM/UMTS3—approaching an astonishing 50 percent of the world’s total 6. which anticipates continual performance and capacity improvements. http://en. World Cellular Information Service. provides the technical means to deliver on proven business models. The 3GPP roadmap. any such future success is somewhat speculative and dependent on many developments including technology and broadband application evolution. In the longer term. their overwhelming success.5 3G Americas President Chris Pearson states. hence. HSPA. HSPA. DSL. DOCSIS. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 8 . Wireless Data Market By August 2008.org/wiki/World_population.wikipedia. with 742 million of these subscribers using UMTS services.7 billion population. FTTH) High capacity broadband at very high data rates Evolution to extremely high throughput rates Expensive to deploy new networks. However. August 2008. 3GPP technologies clearly address proven market needs. low-cost commoditized base stations. LTE and LTE Advanced will continue to provide a competitive platform for tomorrow’s new business opportunities. “This level of wireless technology growth exceeds that of almost all other lifestyle-changing 3 4 5 Informa Telecoms & Media. especially in developing economies lacking infrastructure Weakness Lower capacity than wireline approaches Inability to serve highbandwidth applications such as IP TV This is not a static situation.Table 1: Strengths and Weakness of Broadband Approaches Strength Mobile broadband (EDGE. July 2008. July 2008 Informa Telecoms & Media.. Among these developments are mesh capabilities to reduce deployment costs. a number of developments could make high-capacity broadband-wireless systems more competitive with wireline approaches. HSPA+. however. LTE) Constant connectivity Broadband capability across extremely wide areas Good access solution for areas lacking wireline infrastructure Capacity enhancement options via FMC Excellent voice communications Wireline broadband (e.g.4 Informa’s World Cellular Information Service projects over 4 billion GSM/UMTS customers by 2010. over 3. higher spectral efficiency. HSPA. As the applications for mobile broadband continue to expand. EDGE.

HSPA. it is essential that operators deploy spectrally efficient data technologies that meet customer requirements for performance—especially because data applications can demand significantly more network resources than traditional voice services. Computer manufacturers are also experimenting with new form factors. social networking. Computing itself is becoming more mobile. and notebook computers and smartphones are now prevalent. But two factors stand out: network capability and applications. and operators across North and South America are confirming this growth with their reports of rising data ARPU. “netbook” computers and mobile Internet devices (MIDs). the Internet is becoming progressively more intertwined with people’s lives providing communications. for pleasure or in retirement. information. and video. It is only a matter of time before today’s more than 3 billion cellular customers start taking 6 7 3G Americas press release of June 5. Wireless data in enterprise applications like group collaboration. GSM/UMTS has established global dominance.com/usmarketupdateq108. HSPA) capabilities. wireless data worldwide now comprises 17 percent of average revenue per user (ARPU). community involvement. Technologies such as GSM.. for entertainmentrelated services. and businesses. powerful smartphones. and leading notebook vendors are now offering computers with integrated 3G (e. in many cases. Meanwhile. instant messaging (IM). game downloads. enterprise resource planning (ERP). http://www. social networking. Wireless access to the Internet in this environment is a powerful catalyst for the creation of new services. These include increased user awareness. customer relationship management (CRM). and database access is also gaining acceptance.”6 Clearly. Operators have a huge investment in spectrum and in their networks. The simultaneous adoption by both consumers. 2007. wireless data is more than 20 percent of ARPU for the three largest operators. and global coverage. This section examines trends and deployment.7 This number could easily double within three years. Lifestyles at home and at work are increasingly mobile with more people traveling more often for business. PC Cards and Express cards. A number of important factors are accelerating the adoption of wireless data. ringtones. including e-mail. all mobile phones are becoming “smart. innovative “feature phones”. application and content suppliers are optimizing their offerings or. developing entirely new applications and content to target the needs and desires of mobile users.” with some form of data capability. UMTS. to enhance productivity.g. As data constitutes a rising percentage of total cellular traffic. and then provides market data that demonstrates the rapid growth of wireless data.htm EDGE. including standard networking applications and those designed for wireless. and HSPA support a wide range of applications. Trends Users are adopting wireless data across a wide range of applications. such as ultramobile PCs. Meanwhile. In the United States. data services must leverage these investments. Modems are available in multiple formats including USB devices. increases the return-oninvestment potential for wireless operators. and commerce. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 9 . enhancements to memberships and subscriptions. Although voice still constitutes most cellular traffic. In fact. It also provides operators and other third-party providers with many new business opportunities.chetansharma.innovations.

still cameras. The EDGE/HSPA/LTE evolutionary paths provide data capabilities that address market needs and deliver ever-higher data throughputs. 10 EDGE. Widespread availability of services has also been important. all in a device that is only slightly larger than the average cellular telephone.com. will become 31% of the market in 2013. Many users would prefer to carry one device that “does it all. graphics viewers.8 This number may be conservative as the iPhone demonstrates the latent market demand for devices that enable rich multimedia and communications capabilities. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 10 .aspx?id=158452 9 “Reach Me if You Can. including IBM. A number of other powerful catalysts are spurring wireless-data innovation. Enabled by 3G network capabilities. are now available at much lower price points and thus affordable to a much larger market segment. Awareness of data capabilities has increased. All these capabilities consume data. smartphones. Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC). Although wireless data has always offered a tantalizing vision of always-connected mobile computing. SAP. this rich network and device environment is spawning the availability of a wide range of wireless applications and content. downloadable and streaming music and video are not far behind. adoption has accelerated thanks to a number of key developments. HSPA. and a phone. WLANs to 3G). downloadable ringtones. some restrictions apply. MP3 players. downloadable executable content capabilities. Peter Rysavy. and Sybase and found comprehensive support for mobile platforms from each of these vendors.com/article.wirelessweek. movie cameras. Oracle.com/papers. delivering higher throughputs at lower cost. And they aren’t. a fully capable mobile computer. http://www.9 Acting as catalysts. Because of its growing size—and its unassailable potential—application and content developers simply cannot afford to ignore this market. a wide array of middleware providers are addressing issues such as increased security (for example. which was 10% of the total market in 2007. all the major developers now offer mobilized “wireless-friendly” components for their applications. As a consequence. thus encouraging greater numbers of users to adopt data services. and ever more powerful browsers. March 2008.full advantage of data capabilities. and policy mechanisms that control application access to networks. IM clients.html Typically. Pricing for unlimited10 usage has declined substantially for both laptop and handset plans. Virtual Private Networks [VPNs]). Meanwhile. Networks are much more capable. Salesforce.” Smartphones. In the enterprise space.” May 2007. Consumer content developers are already successfully providing downloadable ringtones and games. represent the convergence of the personal digital assistant.rysavy. A recent article in Network Computing surveyed major enterprise application vendors. session maintenance under adverse radio conditions. lower latency. http://www. The features found in cellular telephones are expanding at a rapid rate and today include large color displays. ABI Research predicts that the smartphone market. wireless e-mail. Operators are seeing 8 “One in Three Handsets Will Be a Smartphone by 2013”. which emphasize a rich computing environment on a phone. adoption has been slower than that for voice services. and downloadable games. especially through the pervasive success of Short Message Service (SMS). originally targeted for the high end of the market. and increased spectral efficiency. however. switching between different networks (for example. In the past several years. This adoption will offer tremendous opportunities and the associated risks to operators as they choose the most commercially viable evolutionary path for migrating their customers. e-mail clients.

the volume of data traffic (indicated in gigabit per radio network controller [RNC] per hour) exceeded voice traffic. Selective tactical adoption of mobile applications such as wireless e-mail is a good starting point for many organizations. New services such as video sharing are being enabled by IMS. However. In the enterprise space. and users have an increasing number of mobile options for real-time travel information and manipulation of that information.9135 10.1654 2. HSPA.6616 18.4962 12.0789 15. EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 11 . the first stage of wireless technology adoption was essentially to replace modem connectivity. Figure 3: UMTS/HSPA Voice and Data Traffic11 20.3308 7. in HSPA coverage areas on a global basis. The next was to offer existing applications on new platforms like smartphones. banks are letting their account holders manipulate their accounts using handheld devices. and much more important. Based on one leading UMTS/HSPA infrastructure vendor’s statistics. But the final.7481 Packet Data Voice 5. By the end of 2007.considerable success with music sales. Meanwhile. which will also facilitate FMC and seamless communications experiences that span cellular and Wi-Fi networks. companies that carefully adopt mobile applications in a more strategic fashion across multiple business units are finding they can significantly increase their competitiveness. stage is where jobs are reengineered to take full advantage of continuous connectivity. Figure 3 compares the rapid growth in wireless data traffic compared to voice traffic. users are responding enthusiastically to location-based services.5827 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 11 Based on leading UMTS/HSPA infrastructure vendor statistics.

8 GBytes/user/month with medium assumptions.Over time. Value Partners. EDGE. Figure 4 shows a leading operator’s assessment of data demands on its network. data demands are expected to grow significantly.12/17/07 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 This figure is consistent with growth in mobile-broadband data consumption presented in a report from Value Partners13. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 12 . Another driver for broadband data growth beyond mobile applications is the use of HSPA/LTE networks as alternatives to wireline networks where running wire or fiber is 12 13 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.com/Pages/GB/perspectives/Spectrum-Getting-the-most-out-of-thedigita-dividend-2008.spectrumstrategy. Figure 4: Operator Assessment of Growth in Data Demand on Relative Basis12 700 600 500 Aggressive 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth 400 300 Conservative 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth 1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic 200 100 2G Data Traffic Growth 20 0 15 10 5 0 2007 Voice Traffic Growth Source: AT&T AO . http://www. and 30 Gbytes/user/month with aggressive assumptions.pdf. The report projects for European countries 1 GByte/user/month using conservative assumptions. “Getting the Most Out of the Digital Divide – Allocating UHF Spectrum to Maximise the Benefits for European Society”. HSPA. March 2008.

15 Because of the very low incremental cost of including EDGE capability in GSM network deployments.green4g. but it does so over huge coverage areas and on a global basis. Not only does it provide a platform for continual improvements in capabilities. where enhanced communications technologies facilitate business interaction with fewer face-to-face meetings. Meanwhile. laptops. 2008 EDGE. This is where the GSM family of wireless-data technologies is the undisputed leader. 211 operators in 90 countries offer HSDPA and 46 of these have HSUPA deployed. media players and cameras. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 13 . data cards. As the technology matures. The report projects 14 15 16 17 Telstra presentation “HSPA as an Open Eco-System Today – Telstra Next G Network”. EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment Three quarters of GSM networks today support EDGE. GSA HSPA Devices Survey. representing more than 350 networks in approximately 150 countries. July 21.” Informa Telecoms & Media. mobile broadband may increasingly be viewed as a “green” technology. The key for operators is enhancing their networks to support the demands of consumer and business applications as they grow.problematic. Telstra is extending its HSPA network to remote mining locations and oil production platforms. UMTS has established itself globally. HSPA. upgrading to HSPA+ will likely represent a minimal investment for operators in order to significantly boost network performance. With huge energy costs and pollution from fossil fuels. the incremental cost of HSPA is relatively low and second.16 All UMTS operators are deploying HSPA for two reasons: first. June 2008. and there is even a Web site (http:// www. there are more than 724 commercial HSPA devices available worldwide. As for HSPA+. so WCDMA users can access the wide base of GSM networks and services. Nearly all WCDMA handsets are also GSM handsets.17 Devices include handsets. a number of operators have committed to the technology including AT&T and Telstra. Already. virtually all new GSM infrastructure deployments are also EDGE-capable and nearly all new mid. Statistics A variety of statistics show the growth in wireless data.14 A final factor accelerating adoption of mobile/wireless technologies is environmental considerations.to high-level GSM devices include EDGE radio technology. HSPA makes such efficient use of spectrum for data that it results in a much lower overall cost per megabyte of data delivered. along with offering complementary capabilities such as IP-based multimedia. modems. “World Cellular Information Service. This includes developing economies. Ibid.com) that promotes this cause. For example. and make it easier for workers to either telecommute or stay involved with work projects as they conduct their personal affairs. as well as remote areas. SNL Kagan states in a recent press release that Apple’s iPhone 3G combined with other smartphone offerings will result in mobile data dominating the wireless industry. routers. For instance. 2008. There are more than 251 million UMTS customers globally spanning 236 commercial networks.

http://www. 2007 22 23 24 Lehman Global Equity Research. 18 19 http://www1. resulting in more than $200 billion of revenue for the year20. Meanwhile. 2008.01 billion It is clear that both EDGE and UMTS/HSDPA are dominant wireless technologies. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 14 . Informa WCIS projected in July 2008 the following sales growth rate for WCDMA handsets: 25 2008: 283 million 2009: 422 million 2010: 558 million 2011: 701 million 2012: 861 million 2013: 1. According to a study by the Online Publishers Association.2 billion in revenue.fiercewireless.” Informa Telecoms & Media.com/press/20080731. reaching $8. press release. March 8. findings included 40% growth of the European Union’s mobile data market in 2007 to 7 billion Euros.6% in the second quarter of 2008 compared to the previous quarter and 40% compared to Q1 of 2007.com/press-releases/led-asia-pacific-suppliers-cellular-modem-industrywill-exceed-200-million-units-2013 http://www. 3G subscribers that use mobile data applications spend twice as much on data each month as 2G subscribers. Paul Wuh.19 On a global basis. more data revenue in ’09.22 The number of devices that support wireless data has partly fueled that data use. 2008 20 21 http://www. According to Lehman Global Equity Research.php?source=newsletter Online Publishers Association study. Express Cards. EDGE. USB modems.chetansharma. 76 percent of all mobile phones are Web-enabled.snl. July 2008. ABI Research found that cellular modem sales including PC Cards. Source: Informa Telecoms and Media. HSPA.com/story/31730.asp Chetan Sharma: “US Wireless Data Market Update – Q2 2008”.18) Similarly. July 23. excluding SMS.23 3G is also fueling data adoption. a 42.7% year-to-year increase.24 From a device perspective. embedded modems and 3G/Wi-Fi routers together increased 300% in 2007 compared to the previous year.mobile data revenues in the US to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 16% (from $24 billion in 2007 to over $100 billion in 2017. Chetan Sharma Consulting reports that US wireless data grew 8. 25 “World Cellular Information Service.htm. And powerful data capabilities and global presence mean these technologies will likely continue to capture most of the available wireless-data market.cellular-news.com/usmarketupdateq108.21 In research conducted by Wireless Intelligence and AT Kearney for the GSM Association.” May 23. “Global 3G Developments: 3G subs accelerate. Informa Telecoms and Media reported first quarter revenue of $49 billion.

However. which is the basis of LTE. one technology or the other is positioned as having fundamental advantages over another. which employ 20 MHz radio channels. and. which is based on TDMA.Wireless Technology Evolution and Migration This section discusses the evolution and migration of wireless-data technologies from EDGE to LTE. Although there are some significant differences between CDMA2000 and WCDMA/HSPA. and now from CDMA to OFDMA. GSM. higher order modulation. Progress has occurred in multiple phases. and EDGE for data performance optimization. Many times. as well as the evolution of underlying wireless approaches. OFDM is currently a favored approach under consideration for radio systems that have extremely high peak rates. any of these three approaches. Through innovations like frequency hopping. and then UMTS.” Because it transmits mutually orthogonal subchannels at a lower symbol rate. may achieve slightly higher spectral efficiency than CDMA systems. is a case in point. advanced receiver architectures—including options such as practical equalization approaches and interference cancellation techniques—are already commercially available in UMTS and CDMA chipsets and can nearly match this performance advantage. HSPA+ and. OFDM systems. For systems employing 10 MHz or less of bandwidth. It is with larger bandwidths of greater than 10 MHz and in combination with advanced antenna approaches such as MIMO or Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS). However. the fundamental advantage of OFDM is that it elegantly addresses the problem of intersymbol interference induced by multipath and greatly simplifies channel equalization. Hence. Still. OFDMA. the advantage of reducing complexity is one reason 3GPP chose OFDM for its LTE project. and adaptive modulation and coding. CDMA. before long. This in 26 OFDMA is simply OFDM in which the system assigns different subcarriers to different users. underlying approaches have evolved from Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to CDMA. such as channel bandwidths and chip rates. first with EDGE. EDGE. However. As such. HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 15 . Meanwhile. both technologies use many of the same techniques to achieve roughly the same degree of spectral efficiency and typical performance. people are asking whether Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and OFDMA26 provide any inherent advantage over TDMA or CDMA. the cellular industry has generally adopted CDMA for 3G networking technology. Technical Approaches (TDMA. are based on OFDM. These techniques include efficient schedulers. followed by today’s enhanced 3G capabilities such as HSPA. can effectively match the capabilities of any other. GSM is able to effectively compete with the capacity and data throughput of CDMA2000 One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT). the answer is largely “no. studies have shown that the complexity advantage of OFDM may be quite small (that is. less than a factor of two) if frequency domain equalizers are used for CDMA-based technologies. Today. that OFDM enables less computationally complex implementations than those based on CDMA. Despite the evolution of TDMA capabilities. CDMA. OFDM is more readily realizable in mobile devices. assuming they employ all the other standard techniques for maximizing spectral efficiency. Turbo codes. more recently. the Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) vocoder for voice. when fully optimized. In other words. OFDM also has an advantage in that it can scale easily for different amounts of available bandwidth. OFDMA) Considerable discussion in the wireless industry has focused on the relative benefits of TDMA. It is also one reason newer WLAN standards. LTE.

interference cancellation. and will dominate widearea wireless systems for the remainder of this decade and well into next. HSPA+ Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802. Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) UMB. WCDMA. Table 2: Summary of Different Wireless Approaches Approach TDMA Technologies Employing Approach GSM.16/WiMAX. MIMO. efficient. it extends the life of operators’ large 3G investments reducing overall infrastructure investments. HSPA carriers). CDMA OFDM/OFDMA Because OFDMA has only modest advantages over UMTS in 5 MHz channels. decreasing capital and operational expenditures. Mature. 10 MHz) by not requiring guard bands between radio carriers (for example. EDGE. HSPA. In 5 MHz of spectrum. and allowing operators to offer competitive services. Flarion Fast LowLatency Access with Seamless Handoff OFDM (Flash OFDM). as used by UMTS/HSPA. In recent years. continual advances with CDMA technology—realized in HSPA+ through approaches such as equalization. higher bandwidth radio systems. In particular.11b 802. Table 2 summarizes the attributes of the different wireless approaches. New enhancements being designed for GSM/EDGE. GPRS. the advancement of HSPA is a logical and effective strategy. IEEE 802. 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast Multicast Services (EBCMCS). the ability of OFDM to cope with multipath has also made it the technology of choice for the design of Digital Broadcast Systems. Well suited for systems planned for the next decade. Effective approach for broadcast systems. Forward Link Only (FLO) Comments First digital cellular approach. Basis for nearly all new 3G networks. Digital Video Broadcasting-H (DVB-H). 3GPP LTE. and high peak data rates in large blocks of spectrum. CDMA2000 EV-DO.11a/g/n. IEEE 802. EDGE. Also provides flexibility in the amount of spectrum used.20.turn allows OFDM to be progressively deployed in available spectrum by using different numbers of subcarriers. HSPA. Hugely successful with GSM. An OFDMA technology like LTE can also take better advantage of wider radio channels (for example. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 16 . and higher-order modulation—will allow CDMA-based systems to largely match OFDMA-based systems. Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industry Association (TIA/EIA)-136 TDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT.

By the end of the decade. The combination of EPC and EPS is referred to as the Evolved Packet System (EPS). in the same way that 3G coexists with Second Generation (2G) systems in integrated networks. Data service for GSM networks. because of sheer market momentum. Multimode devices will function across LTE/3G or even LTE/3G/2G. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 17 . EDGE. such as HSPA and HSPA+. CDMA was chosen as the basis of 3G technologies. depending on market circumstances. HSPA. LTE systems will coexist with both 3G systems and 2G systems. there are nevertheless opportunities for additional optimizations and enhancements. 3GPP has specified OFDMA as the basis of its Long Term Evolution27 effort. the majority of worldwide subscribers will still be using GSM/EDGE technologies. is mature and broadly deployed. Already extremely efficient. Given some of the advantages of an OFDM approach. as well as other wireless technologies. and integration of LTE with both legacy GSM/UMTS networks. introduce enhancements and simplifications that help CDMA-based systems match the capabilities of competing systems. The evolved data systems for UMTS. especially in 5 MHz spectrum allocations. Standards bodies have already defined “Evolved EDGE. GSM. Table 3 summarizes the key 3GPP technologies and their characteristics. and Time Division CDMA (TD-CDMA) for the time division duplex (TDD) mode of UMTS. this section provides a quick summary intended to provide a frame of reference for the subsequent discussion. based on a TDMA approach. including WCDMA for the frequency division duplex (FDD) mode of UMTS. 3GPP’s evolutionary plan is to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of every technology and to exploit the unique capabilities of each one accordingly. Though later sections quantify performance. Over the remainder of this decade. LTE incorporates best-of-breed radio techniques to achieve performance levels beyond what will be practical with CDMA approaches. Provides voice and data service via GPRS/EDGE.3GPP Evolutionary Approach Rather than emphasizing any one wireless approach. by the end of the decade. EPC/SAE provides a new core architecture that enables both flatter architectures. An enhancement to original GSM data service 70 kbps to 130 kbps 70 kbps to 130 kbps EDGE TDMA 27 3GPP also refers to LTE as Enhanced UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). particularly in larger channel bandwidths.” which will be available for deployment in the 2009 to 2010 timeframe and bring more than a doubling of performance over current EDGE systems. these technologies will likely account for most new subscriptions. However. Table 3: Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies Technology Name GSM Type Characteristics Typical Downlink Speed Typical Uplink Speed TDMA Most widely deployed cellular technology in the world. Meanwhile. Beyond radio technology. and the appendix of the white paper presents functional details of the different technologies. GSM and UMTS will constitute a growing proportion of subscriptions and.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 18 . Typical user rates may exceed 10 Mbps.Technology Name Type Characteristics Typical Downlink Speed Typical Uplink Speed called GPRS. New radio interface that can use wide radio channels and deliver extremely high throughput rates. An enhancement to original UMTS data service. HSPA. LTE Advanced OFDMA Advanced version of LTE designed to meet IMTAdvanced requirements. Figure 5 shows the evolution of the different wireless technologies and their peak network performance capabilities. Evolved EDGE TDMA Advanced version of EDGE that can double and eventually quadruple throughput rates. Evolution of HSPA in various stages to increase throughput and capacity and to lower latency. 3G technology providing voice and data capabilities. All communications handled in IP domain. EDGE. 150 kbps to 500 kbps expected 200 to 300 kbps 100 kbps to 500 kbps expected 200 to 300 kbps UMTS CDMA HSPA CDMA 1 Mbps to 4 Mbps 500 kbps to 2 Mbps HSPA+ CDMA >5 Mbps expected >3 Mbps expected LTE OFDMA > 10 Mbps expected > 5 Mbps expected User achievable rates and greater details on typical rates are covered in Table 5 in the section “Data Throughput” later in this paper. Current deployments implement HSPA for data service. Data service for UMTS networks.

release versions went to a numerical designation instead of designation by year. Provides support for GSM/EDGE/GPRS/WCDMA radio-access networks. CDMA. It is important to realize that the 3GPP releases address multiple technologies. and equipment vendors produce hardware that supports particular versions of each specification. First deployable version of UMTS. and OFDMA Systems Mobile WiMAX Fixed WiMAX UMB CDMA2000 LTE HSPA EDGE The development of GSM and UMTS/HSPA happens in stages referred to as 3GPP releases.  28 After Release 99. Majority of deployments today are based on Release 99. First steps toward using IP transport in the core network. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 19 . Release 7 optimizes VoIP for HSPA but also significantly enhances GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE.Figure 5: Evolution of TDMA. Multimedia messaging support. Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). Release 4: Completed. For example. A summary of the different 3GPP releases is as follows: 28  Release 99: Completed. EDGE. HSPA.

Release 6: Completed. Includes work item for dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA) where two WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling of throughput performance. Release 8: Under development. The fundamental system design and networking protocols remain the same for each band. Results include performance enhancements. Specifies HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). which includes higher order modulation and MIMO. For this reason. Enhanced multimedia support through Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). Radio enhancements to HSPA include 64 QAM in the downlink DL and 16 QAM in the uplink. Full ability to use IP-based transport instead of just Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in the core network. Release 10: Expected to specify LTE Advanced that meets the requirements set by ITU’s IMT-Advanced project. UMTS-TDD equipment is already available for 450 MHz. Provides enhanced GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE. and the forthcoming 2. As other frequency bands become available for deployment. such as whether a device supports HSDPA. the detailed discussion of the technologies in this paper emphasizes features as opposed to 3GPP releases. Meanwhile. improved spectral efficiency. An increasing number of operators are also deploying UMTS at 900 MHz. standards bodies are adapting UMTS for these bands as well. increased capacity. This includes 450 and 700 MHz. IMS enhancements. Release 5: Completed. Release 9: Expected to include HSPA and LTE enhancements. HSUPA. Provides fine-tuning and incremental improvements of features from previous releases. a traditional GSM band. HSDPA.7/2. and better resistance to interference. WLAN integration option. Initial VoIP capability. Release 7: Completed.1GHz band. The availability of this band. most users of the technology are more interested in particular features and capabilities. Also includes optimization of MBMS capabilities through the multicast/broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) function. 1710-1770 uplink was matched with 21102170 downlink to allow for additional global harmonization of the 1. Specifies OFDMA-based 3GPP LTE. the Federal Communications Commission auctioned the 700 MHz band in the United States in January 2008. Defines EPC. HSPA. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient “always-on” service and enhanced uplink UL VoIP capacity as well as reductions in call set-up delay for PoC. EDGE. Comprises further HSPA Evolution features such as simultaneous use of MIMO and 64 QAM.6 GHz frequency band in Europe are providing operators with wider deployment options. only the frequency-dependent portions of the radios have to change. Performance specifications for advanced receivers. as shown in Figure 6. First phase of IMS. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 20 . the Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) band at 1710-1755 MHz with/2110-2155 MHz in the US. and the corresponding support from infrastructure and mobile-equipment vendors.      Whereas operators and vendors actively involved in the development of wireless technology are heavily focused on 3GPP release versions. Spectrum Another important aspect of UMTS/HSPA deployment is the expanding number of available radio bands.

6 GHz 900 MHz 1700 MHz Ext 1.9-1879.7/2. and make many new types of applications feasible. The following figure shows the FDD bands defined for 3GPP technologies. Figure 6: FDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies 29 Operating band Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8 Band 9 Band 10 Band 11 Band 12 Band 13 Band 14 Band name 2.9 698-716 777-787 788-798 Downlink [MHz] 2110-2170 1930-1990 1805-1880 2110-2155 869-894 875-885 2620-2690 925-960 1844.1 GHz 1900 MHz 1800 MHz 1.9 .9 1710-1770 1427.1500. although band 5 (US Cellular Band) was introduced n Release 6. the 3GPP standard also specifies ways to implement devices and infrastructure operating on any frequency band according to release anterior to the introduction of that particular frequency band.9 728-746 746-756 758-768 It should be noted that.9 2110-2170 1475. supporting more subscribers.9-1784. Figure 7 shows TDD bands defined for 3GPP Technologies.As the total amount of available spectrum increases and as technologies simultaneously become spectrally more efficient.1452.1MHz 1500 MHz Lower 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz. total capacity rises rapidly. public safety/private Total spectrum 2x60 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x75 MHz 2x45 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x70 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x18 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz Uplink [MHz] 1920-1980 1850-1910 1710-1785 1710-1755 824-849 830-840 2500-2570 880-915 1749. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 21 . 29 Source: 3G Americas’ member company.7/2.9 . HSPA. the first devices operating on this band were compliant with the release 5 of the standard. EDGE. although the support of a new frequency band may be introduced in a particular release. For example.1 GHz 850 MHz 800 MHz 2.

the amount of spectrum required by the next generation of wireless technology (that is. especially for data communications. Ideally. 30 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. One way to improve core-network performance is by using flatter architectures. including the use of 3G technologies in current 2G bands. This search for new spectrum is a long-term undertaking. To improve data performance and. and it may be well into the next decade before any such new spectrum becomes available. Core-Network Evolution 3GPP is defining a series of enhancements to the core network to improve network performance and the range of services provided and to enable a shift to all-IP architectures. The more hierarchical a network.Figure 7: TDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies30 Operating band Band 33 Band 34 Band 35 Band 36 Band 37 Band 38 Band 39 Band 40 Total spectrum 20 MHz 15 MHz 60 MHz 60 MHz 20 MHz 50 MHz 40 MHz 100 MHz Frequencies [MHz] 1900-1920 2010-2025 1850-1910 1930-1990 1910-1930 2570-2620 1880-1920 2300-2400 Different countries have regulated spectrum more loosely than others. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 22 . given the expanding size and economic significance of the mobile-computing industry. operators in the United States can use either 2G or 3G technologies in cellular. the more easily it can be managed centrally. HSPA. the tradeoff is reduced performance. because packets must traverse and be processed by multiple nodes in the network. However. in particular. decisions made on new spectrum—especially with respect to global harmonization—will have profound consequences. EDGE. however. given the desire to operate radio channels as wide as 100 MHz. this spectrum would fall below 5 GHz. 3GPP has defined a number of enhancements in Release 7 and Release 8 that reduce the number of processing nodes and result in a flatter architecture. With the projected increase in the use of mobile-broadband technologies. For example. and 3G bands. whereas in Europe there are greater restrictions—though efforts are underway that are resulting in greater flexibility. after 3GPP LTE in projects such as International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) Advanced) could be substantial. to reduce latency (delays). Personal Communications Service (PCS).

they also evolve capabilities that expand the services available to subscribers. where it might connect via a Wi-Fi network or a femto cell. Instead of operating on unlicensed bands. Key service advances include FMC. because it supports not only FMC but also a much broader range of potential applications. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 23 . including enabling technologies such as Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA). Support for both LTE radio-access networks and interworking with GSM/UMTS radio-access networks. There is also an option to integrate the functionality of the radio-network controller directly into the base station. The key features and capabilities of EPC/SAE include:   Reduced latency and higher data performance through a flatter architecture. Though FMC is still in its early stages of deployment by operators. called the Evolved Packet Core. FMC refers to the integration of fixed services (such as telephony provided by wireline or Wi-Fi) with mobile cellular-based services. femtocells use the operator’s licensed bands at very low power levels. DSL). FMC also offloads the macro network from data-intensive applications such as movie downloads. FMC has various approaches. For operators. Wi-Fi. FMC allows the consolidation of core services across multiple-access networks. and the appendix provides greater detail on each of these items. IMS is more powerful than UMA. GSM/UMTS devices can connect via Wi-Fi or cellular connections for both voice and data. 3GPP has defined an entirely new core network. including T-Mobile in the United States. For Release 8.   This paper provides further details in the sections on HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) and EPC/SAE. An alternative to using Wi-Fi for the “fixed” portion of FMC is femtocells. previously called System Architecture Evolution. Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and single phone numbers as well as the ability to control how and with whom they communicate. When mobile. like Wi-Fi. HSPA. IMS is another key technology for convergence. users connect via a cellular network. and it has been deployed by a number of operators. Optimization for all services provided via IP. an option called one-tunnel architecture allows operators to configure their networks so that user data bypasses a serving node and travels directly via a gateway node. For users. With UMA. an operator could offer complete VoIP-based voice service that supports access via DSL. mobile-communications device a user has can now operate using the femto cells. a cell phone) at work and at home. IMS. it promises to provide significant benefits to both users and operators. The ability to integrate non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX. These are tiny base stations that cost little more than a Wi-Fi access point and.In Release 7. femtocells. UMA is a 3GPP technology. This section provides an overview of these topics. In the EDGE. and IMS. femtocells leverage a subscriber's existing wireline-broadband connection (for example. For instance. making it possible for them to use one device (for example. FMC will simplify how they communicate. and broadcasting technologies. or 3G. It allows access to core services and applications via multiple-access networks. The key advantage of the femto cell approach is that any single-mode. Service Evolution Not only do 3GPP technologies provide continual improvements in capacity and data performance.

a system claiming spectrum efficiency of 1. we mean that every cell sector (typically three per cell) in every cell uses the same radio channel(s). Backhaul is another factor. any technology’s ability to reach its peak spectrum efficiency is somewhat contingent on the system’s ability to reach the instantaneous peak data rates allowed by that technology. For example. then the system must minimize interference.5/2. and network topology.0 Mbps. The 10 MHz radio channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of available spectrum. however. video. a user could launch a voice call. Spectrum has always been a major consideration for deploying any wireless network. This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse. each able to carry only 1. As previously discussed. With many cell sites today serviced by just a small number of T1/E1 circuits.United States. Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations Much of the debate in the wireless industry is on the merits of different radio technologies. For example. By this. Very few operators today. It provides application developers the ability to create applications that have never before been possible. CableLabs and WiMAX have adopted IMS. If delivering very high data rates is the objective. Though defined by 3GPP. yet other factors are equally important in determining the services and capabilities of a wireless network. presence information. have access to this much spectrum. such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels in combination with emerging OFDMA radio technologies. 3GPP has defined multicast/broadcast capabilities for both HSPA and LTE. These factors include the amount of spectrum available.5 bps/Hz (as described above) might rely on the ability to reach 100 Mbps instantaneously to achieve this level of spectrum efficiency. and it allows people to communicate in entirely new ways by dynamically using multiple services. a user could suddenly establish a simultaneous video connection or start transferring files. It was challenging enough for GSM operators to obtain UMTS spectrum. the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2). HSPA. operators will have to significantly upgrade backhaul capacity to obtain the full benefit of next-generation wireless technologies. the circuits connecting the cell sites to the core network must be able to handle the increased load. Additionally. location. Or during a voice call. but it is particularly important when looking at high-performance broadband systems. An OFDMA system with 1. Another important new service is support for mobile TV through what is called multicast or broadcast functions. IMS allows the creative blending of different types of communications and information. an OFDMA approach in a 5 MHz radio channel yields only a small performance advantage. While browsing the Web. IMS will be a key platform for all-IP architectures for both HSPA and LTE. including voice. Any constraint on the transport system below 100 Mbps EDGE. To achieve higher data rates requires wider radio channels. HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high throughput rates on the downlink and uplink with low latency in 5 MHz channels when deployed in single frequency (1/1) reuse. a user could decide to speak to a customer-service representative. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 24 . during an interactive chat session. backhaul. As the throughput of the radio link increases. and documents. such as having every sector use only one-third of the available radio channels (1/3 reuse). IM.5 bps per hertz (Hz) of spectral efficiency in 10 MHz on three sectors has up to 45 Mbps average cell throughput. AT&T has committed to an IMS approach and has already deployed an IMS-based video sharing service.

the overall network topology also plays an important role. Release 5. The mismatch between backhaul capabilities and radio performance in some networks is one reason that user rates on some 3G systems are lower than theoretical rates. and MBMS are being designed so that the same upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixture of terminals including those based on 3GPP Release 99. impact the spectral efficiency of the system. most UMTS cell sites can be collocated in GSM cell sites enabled by multi-radio cabinets that can accommodate GSM/EDGE as well as UMTS equipment. operators can minimize the costs of managing GSM/EDGE and UMTS networks. New features such as HSDPA. Feature and Network Roadmap GSM operators first enhanced their networks to support data capability through the addition of GPRS infrastructure with the ability to use existing cell sites. HSDPA) can support Release 99.will restrict the range of achievable throughput and. Note also that most UMTS terminals today support GSM. and Release 6. because of the way it affects TCP/IP traffic. at most. all-new MSC and/or SGSN products are capable of supporting both GSM and UMTS/HSPA radio-access networks.and backwardcompatibility. Alternatively. the Home Location Register (HLR). and any new GSM network includes EDGE capability. it can be misleading to say that one wireless technology outperforms another without a full understanding of how that technology will be deployed in a complete system that also takes spectrum into account. Since installing GPRS. in turn. First. Release 5. and so forth—need. Operators are actively enhancing their backhaul approaches. and Release 6 terminals (for example. HSUPA) operating in a Release 5 mode. Although UMTS involves a new radioaccess network. This flexibility assures the maximum degree of forward. One way to increase performance is by using flatter architectures. This means that all core-network elements above the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC)—the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). In summary. Release 5. a network supporting Release 6 features can support Release 99. several factors facilitate deployment. transceivers. Operators have deployed UMTS/HSPA worldwide. a software upgrade to support 3G UMTS/HSPA. because these networks share many of the same aspects including:   Packet-data architecture Cell sites EDGE. The core EPC/SAE network for 3GPP LTE emphasizes such a flatter architecture. And while early 3G deployment used separate 2G/3G SGSNs and MSCs. and there are many available and emerging wireline technologies—such as VDSL and optical Ethernet—as well as competitive point-to-point microwave systems that make this possible. Finally. meaning a less hierarchical network with more direct routing from mobile device to end system. HSUPA. Once deployed. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 25 . HSPA. and Release 6 terminals. How traffic routes through the core network—how many hops and nodes it must pass through—can influence the overall performance of the network. especially with respect to latency. Low latency is critical to achieving very high data rates. and interconnection facilities. Second. thus facilitating use across large coverage areas and multiple networks. billing and subscriber administration systems. In other words. a network supporting Release 5 features (for example. service platforms. much of the GSM/GPRS core network can be used. GSM operators have largely upgraded data service to EDGE.

Here. 50 Mbps or higher) will provide sufficient processing in the device to also support very high HSPA rates (e. The changes being planned for the core network are another aspect of evolution. and UMTS. supporting voice on HSPA via VoIP will be a much simpler task as it can share the same core IP network as LTE. HSPA+.2 Mbps downlinks widely available. because their multimode GSM/UMTS devices can seamlessly hand off between networks. with new infrastructure supporting HSPA.8 Mbps peak uplink speed capability.g. First HSUPA networks with 5. HSPA+ and LTE. the intent is to reduce the number of nodes that packets must traverse. Device processing power. multi-mode chipsets will enable devices to easily operate across UMTS and LTE networks. EV-DO Rev B. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 26 . UMB and LTE. HSPA.  Table 4 shows the rollout of EDGE/HSPA/LTE features over time.g.31 One important and interesting aspect of technology deployment is that an advanced technology such as LTE enables operators to upgrade prior technologies. 31 http://www. Beginning at the end of 2008. Operators announcing commitments to femto cell approaches. The upgrade to LTE will be relatively straightforward. Base station equipment is available for many bands including the 1. The key enabling technology is EPC/SAE.html EDGE. On the device side. UMB and LTE. EV-DO Rev B. which is described in detail later in this paper. Supporting the high throughput rates with LTE (e. Since LTE uses an IP core.. Table 4: Expected UMTS/LTE Feature and Capability Availability Year 2008 Features HSUPA seeing significant deployment momentum in networks and device availability. Examples include:  VoIP for HSPA. but software upgradeable to HSPA+ and LTE. For example..1 GHz AWS band and the recently auctioned 700 MHz bands in the US. once it is deployed. one chipset vendor has announced a series of chips that support the following combination of technologies: UMTS. 30 Mbps or higher).7/2. This will result in both reduced deployment costs and reduced latency.    Antenna systems Backhaul circuits Subscriber account management Service platforms Users largely don’t even need to know to what type of network they are connected.com/press/releases/2008/080207_Qualcomm_to_Ship.qualcomm. UMTS/HSPA base stations from some vendors will have LTE software upgrades available by the second half of 2009. Various operators offering FMC based on UMA. such as HSPA. HSPA devices with 7. Vendors and operators are planning LTE field trials in 2008-09 and commercial deployments by 2010.

plotted over time. primarily for LTE but also for HSPA+. Today. showing an approximate doubling of throughput per year. integrated voice/multimedia/presence/location) 2010 Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE throughput rates HSPA+ peak speeds further increased to peak rates of 42 Mbps based on Release 8 LTE introduced for next-generation throughput performance using 2X2 MIMO Advanced core architectures available through EPC/SAE.Year Features Greater availability of FMC 2009 Networks and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+. Figure 8 presents the continuing advances in HSPA and LTE. Over time. the separate GSM/EDGE Access Network (GERAN). HSPA. the networks they access will be largely transparent. UMTS Access Network (UTRAN). EDGE. providing benefits such as integration of multiple network types and flatter architectures for better latency performance Most new services implemented in the packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE 2011 and later 2012 LTE enhancements such as 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO LTE Advanced specifications completed. boosting HSPA peak speeds to 28 Mbps Enhanced IMS-based services (for example. nearly all UMTS phones and modems support GSM /EDGE. including MIMO. and core-infrastructure elements will undergo consolidation. For actual users with multimode devices. LTE Advanced potentially deployed in initial stages. thus lowering total network cost and improving integrated operation of the separate access networks. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 27 .

GSM. Figure 9 shows the relative adoption of technologies over a multi-decadal period and the length of time it takes for any new technology to be adopted widely on a global basis. only now is UMTS deployment and adoption starting to surge. Although it’s been more than a decade since work began on the technology.5M 1 Mbps • HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected to double every year on average  • Limitations not induced by the technology itself but time frames required to upgrade infrastructure and transport networks.6M HSUPA 5. obtain devices with corresponding capabilities and interoperability tests DL R’99-384k UL R’99 384k 100 kbps 2004 kbps 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Despite rapid UMTS deployment. Release 99 specifications were completed in 2000.4M 10 Mbps HSUPA/16QAM 11M HSDPA 7. which in 2008 is still growing its subscriber base. The history of wireless-network deployment provides a useful perspective. 32 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. By then. as subscribers upgrade their equipment. it will probably be the middle of the next decade before a large percentage of subscribers are actually using LTE. Only over many years.2M HSDPA 3.6M Mbps Uplink Speeds HSDPA 1. and LTE. EDGE. Similarly. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 28 . with initial networks deployed in 1991. will most network usage migrate to UMTS. HSPA. even as operators start to deploy LTE networks at the end of this decade and the beginning of the next. The UMTS Task Force established itself in 1995. UMTS. however. was specified in 1990.8M HSUPA 1. most new subscribers will be taking advantage of UMTS. market momentum means that even by the end of the decade most worldwide subscribers will still be using GSM. and HSPA+ specifications were completed in 2007.Figure 8: Peak Rates for Downlink and Uplink Over Time32 DL LTE(20MHz) 300M Downlink Speeds DL LTE(10MHz) 140M 100 Mbps MIMO/64QAM 41M MIMO 2x2 28M Mbps UL LTE (10MHz) 50M UL LTE (10MHz) 25M HSDPA 14. During these years. most networks and devices will be tri-mode—supporting GSM.

consisting principally of 1xRTT and One Carrier-Evolved. Source: www. A number of operators have deployed or are deploying 1xEV-DO. HSPA. CDMA2000 CDMA2000. is the other major cellular technology deployed in many parts of the world.cdg. where a radio carrier is dedicated to high-speed data functions.Figure 9: Relative Adoption of Technologies33 LTE Subscriptions UMTS/HSPA GSM/EDGE 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 One option for GSM operators that have not yet committed to UMTS. Competing Technologies Although GSM/GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSPA networks are dominating global cellular-technology deployments. 1xRTT is currently the most widely deployed CDMA2000 version. This section of the paper looks at the relationship between GSM/UMTS/LTE and some of these other technologies.34 33 34 Source: Rysavy Research projection based on historical data. and do not have an immediate pressing need to do so. operators are deploying other wireless technologies to serve both wide and local areas.org. July 14. Data-Optimized (1xEV-DO) versions. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 29 . EDGE. 2008. is to migrate directly from GSM/EDGE or Evolved EDGE to LTE with networks and devices supporting dual-mode GSM-EDGE/LTE operation. In July 2008 there were 100 EV-DO Release 0 networks and 42 EV-DO Rev A networks deployed worldwide.

EV-DO or EV-DO Rev A achieve a slightly lower typical performance level than HSPA. compared to the 5 MHz channels UMTS uses. Operators started to make EV-DO Rev A commercially available in 2007. But as data usage expands. Under low to medium-load conditions. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 30 . where data only constitutes a small percentage of total network traffic. The EV-DO channel is not available for circuit-switched voice. 2007. EV-DO Rev A incorporates a more efficient uplink. Source: Sprint press release January 30. This results in lower theoretical peak rates. HSPA. EDGE. and adaptive modulation and coding. it achieves spectral efficiency that is virtually the same as HSPA. The 1x technologies operate in the 1. efficient scheduling. because of the lower peak achievable data rates.EV-DO uses many of the same techniques for optimizing spectral efficiency as HSPA. and the 1xRTT channels offer only mediumspeed data. this is not a key issue. July 29. Figure 10 illustrates this severe limitation. In the current stage of the market. Operators have quoted 400 to 700 kilobits per second (kbps) typical downlink throughput for EV-DO Rev 035 and between 600 kbps and 1. including higher order modulation. which has spectral efficiency similar to that of HSUPA. because of the lower peak achievable data rates. Currently deployed network versions are based on either Rev 0 or Rev A radio-interface specifications. One challenge for EV-DO operators is that they cannot dynamically allocate their entire spectral resources between voice and high-speed data functions.36 Under low to medium load conditions. 2005. but average throughputs for high level of network loading are similar. 35 36 Source: Verizon BroadbandAccess Web page. this limitation will cause suboptimal use of radio resources.4 Mbps for EV-DO Rev A.25 MHz radio channels. EV-DO or EVDO Rev A achieves a lower typical performance level than HSPA. For these reasons. turbo-coding.

Beyond Rev B. Many users enjoy having a tethered data connection from their laptop—by using Bluetooth. 3GPP2 has defined EV-DO Rev B as allowing the combination of up to 15 1. QoS mechanisms in the network. UMB supports radio channels from 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 31 . Both UMB and LTE are more recent than other OFDMA EDGE. Even then. an operator would combine three radio channels in 5 MHz. Such an approach by itself does not necessarily increase overall capacity. UMTS allows both circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic to occupy the same radio channel. where the amount of power each uses can be dynamically adjusted. This makes it simple to migrate users over time from circuit-switched voice to packet-switched voice. UMB will be based on an OFDMA approach like LTE. which includes a higher speed uplink.Figure 10: Radio Resource Management 1xRTT/1xEV-DO versus UMTS/HSPA 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO Speech Blocking Unavailable HighSpeed Data Capacity UMTS/HSPA Efficient Allocation of Resources Between Voice and Data Three 1. HSPA. Beyond Rev A. as well as addressing problems such as jitter. In a 20 MHz radio channel. however.25 MHz Channels EV-DO One 5 MHz Channel High-Speed Data Voice 1xRTT 1xRTT Another limitation of using a separate channel for EV-DO data services is that it currently prevents users from engaging in simultaneous voice and high-speed data services. using 4X4 MIMO. operators will face difficult choices: How many radio channels at each base station should be made available for 1xRTT to support legacy terminals versus how many radio channels should be allocated to EV-DO.25 MHz radio channels in 20 MHz—significantly boosting peak theoretical rates to 73. EV-DO will eventually provide voice service using VoIP protocols through EV-DO Rev A. UMB and LTE are being developed basically simultaneously. so it is logical to assume that both technologies will exploit the same advances in wireless technology.5 Mbps. More likely. whereas this is possible with UMTS and HSPA. In contrast. UMB will deliver a peak-data rate of 280 Mbps. and protocol optimizations to reduce packet overhead. for example—and being able to initiate and receive phone calls while maintaining their data sessions. No operators have yet publicly committed to EV-DO Rev B. but it does offer users higher peak-data rates.25 to 20 MHz.

This original version of IEEE 802. Clearwire.6 billion subscribers—more than nine times the total number of subscribers as the CDMA2000 family of technologies. Vendors are now delivering IEEE 802. many of its innovations have been brought to market ahead of competing technologies.16. WiMAX has gained the greatest traction in developing countries as an alternative to wireline deployment. EDGE.37 WiMAX WiMAX has emerged as a potential alternative to cellular technology for wide-area wireless networks. sub-10 GHz operation. Time Warner Cable. especially in achieving interworking between LTE and legacy networks. so it is also logical to assume that their capabilities will exceed initial OFDMA designs. to its credit. vendors have continued to enhance HSPA. Instead. at the time of this paper. local telephony bypass (as an alternative to cable modem or DSL service). there are still no wide area deployments of WiMAX in the US. however. it will be more complex than for UMTS/HSPA operators. the GSM family of technologies—including UMTS—adds more customers in one year than the entire base of CDMA2000 customers. Though the migration from CDMA2000 to LTE is feasible. In addition. Today. CDMA2000 is clearly a viable and effective wireless technology and. No operators have committed to UMB. operation is fixed.technologies. WiMAX is trying to challenge existing wireless technologies—promising greater capabilities and greater efficiencies than alternative approaches such as HSPA.16 occurred in 2004. The next major step in the evolution of IEEE 802. But as WiMAX. Vendors can design equipment for either licensed or unlicensed bands. HSPA.16-2004 standard. In the United States. Potential applications include wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) service. Google. IEEE 802. June 2008. like WiMAX. IEEE 802. At best. and cellular backhaul for connections from cellular base stations to operator infrastructure networks. and non-line-of-sight communications. Comcast. And the GSM family has in excess of 3. line-of-sight configurations using spectrum above 10 GHz. and perceived WiMAX advantages are no longer apparent. thus. This standard does not compete directly with cellular-data and private Wi-Fi networks. the promises of mobile WiMAX is appealing but it remains unproven in the real world. It added multiple radio interfaces. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 32 . Based on OFDMA and recently accepted by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) as an IMT-2000 (3G technology) under the name OFDMA TDD WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network). it can provide 37 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media. including one based on OFDM-256 and one based on OFDMA. with the release of the IEEE 802. and there are legitimate questions about the commercial viability of the technology as more CDMA2000 operators such as Verizon choose LTE as their next technology choice. it is a family of interoperable technologies.16-2004 also supports pointto-multipoint communications. particularly mobile WiMAX. WiMAX is not a single technology. Sprint Nextel and others (Intel. Bright House Networks) have created a joint venture to deploy a nationwide WiMAX network that is awaiting United States Regulatory Approval. was completed in 2001 and intended primarily for telecom backhaul applications in point-to-point. Like the original version of the standard. The original specification. meaning that subscriber stations are typically immobile.16-2004-certified equipment. World Cellular Information Service.16 uses a radio interface based on a single-carrier waveform. Like GSM/HSPA. has come closer to reality.

particularly in scenarios in which a sector contains a large number of mobile users. Mobile WiMAX release 1. Operators have begun limited mobile WiMAX network deployments in 2008.16e-2005’s use of OFDMA. and will be available for deployment in a similar timeframe as LTE.16e2005 will have any performance advantage compared to HSPA+.16-2004. will be designed to address the performance requirements being developed in the ITU IMT-Advanced Project. OFDM provides a potential implementation advantage for wide radio channels (for example. Fierce Wireless Webcast. private entities such as municipal governments.5 includes various refinements intended to improve efficiency and performance. It is not possible for one cell site to be transmitting and an adjacent cell site to be receiving at the same time. IEEE 802. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications: Anders Furuskär et al “The LTE Radio Interface – Key Characteristics and Performance”.16e-2005 profile called WiMAX Release 1. adaptive modulation and coding. OFDMA)” above. The subsequent version. which operates in both licensed and unlicensed bands. It should be noted. Different operators in the same band must either coordinate their networks or have guard bands to ensure that they don’t interfere with each other. WiMAX vendors are defining a new IEEE 802. Thus. and handovers across operators. TDD and 10 MHz radio channels in a profile defined by the WiMAX Forum known as WiMAX Wave 2. Mobile WiMAX 2.16e-2005 (referred to as mobile WiMAX) makes the most sense in licensed bands.16e-2005 contains some aspects that may limit its performance. The performance of the MAC layer is inefficient when scheduling large numbers of users. March 5.16m will be available in 2011. Unlike IEEE 802. and corporations will be able to use this version of WiMAX in unlicensed bands (for example. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 33 . 10 to 20 MHz). Mobile WiMAX networks are not backward-compatible with IEEE 802.16m. The IEEE has also completed a mobile-broadband standard—IEEE 802. “WiMAX: Mobilizing the Internet”. however. Initial mobile WiMAX networks will be deployed using 2X2 MIMO. coarser granularity for modulation and coding schemes and vertical coding instead of horizontal coding.39 One deployment consideration is that TDD requires network synchronization. including high-order modulation. IEEE 802. that IEEE 802. Chase combining instead of incremental redundancy. EDGE. The principal difference from HSPA is IEEE 802.8 GHz) for local connectivity. and Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ). 39 IEEE International Symposium on Personal.complementary services. As discussed in the section “Technical Approaches (TDMA. WiMAX has the following technical disadvantages: 5 msec frames instead of 1 msec frames. there is no evidence indicating that IEEE 802.16e-2005 employs many of the same mechanisms as HSPA to maximize throughput and spectral efficiency. Relative to LTE. while WiMAX uses OFDMA.5.16-2004 networks. Beyond Wave 2. universities. 5. CDMA. HSPA.16e-2005—that adds mobility capabilities including support for radio operation while mobile. Current WiMAX profiles emphasize TDD operation. and will be standardized in a new IEEE standard. IEEE 802. with product certification expected by the end of 2009. 2008. 2008. In 5 to 10 MHz radio channels. 38 Ali Tabassi. Sprint Nextel. and some aspects—such as power control of the mobile station—are provided using MAC signaling messages rather than the fast power control used in WCDMA and other technologies. handovers across base stations.38 IEEE 802. the performance will likely be somewhat less than HSPA due to increased overhead and other design issues. In addition to operator-hosted access solutions. though there has been little or no development in this area. efficient coding. According to Sprint Nextel.0.

as discussed in the section “Spectral Efficiency” that follows.45 One vendor estimates that for the same power output.fwdconcepts. mobile WiMAX on paper may be slightly more capable than today’s available versions of HSPA. the undisputed choice for mobile broadband.com/WiMAX8. Very few operators today have access to spectrum for WiMAX that would permit them to provide widespread coverage. the number of WiMAX subscribers is likely to be quite low. Little Limited. Arthur D. Senza Fili Consulting projected 54 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012 with emerging markets driving growth.46 Given that many real world deployments of HSPA will occur at frequencies such as 850 MHz.htm http://www.dll/article?AID=/20080509/SUB/940077592/1008/newsletter32 Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess". A detailed market assessment and forecast at the global. Although IEEE 802. regional and country level (2006-2012)" 43 44 With a 2:1 TDD system. Little reports that the radii of typical HSPA cells will be two to four times greater than typical mobile WiMAX cells for high-throughput operation. HSPA. LTE will not be that far from deployment. 3G systems have a significant link budget advantage over mobile WiMAX because of softhandoff diversity gain and an FDD duplexing advantage over TDD.7 times more cell sites than HSPA. In fact. and LTE at 700 MHz. from a technology standpoint.41 This matches forecasts from a year ago when Arthur D. it faces challenges such economies of scale and technology maturity. the reverse link only transmits one third of the time. 27 March 2007. Little Limited. HSPA+ in Release 8— 40 41 42 “WiMAX '08 The 3G+ Broadband Alternative”. 27 March 2007. Source: Press release of June 19. the mobile system must transmit at 4. WiMAX deployments at 2. Further. mobile WiMAX will actually have to compete against evolved HSPA systems that will offer both similar capabilities and enhanced performance. 2007 describing the report "WiMAX: Ambitions and Reality. Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess". “HSPA.5 GHz will be at a significant disadvantage.5 GHz band in the United States may be used for both TDD and FDD operation.77 dB higher transmit power. Forward Concepts predicted in January 2008 38 million WiMAX subscribers in 201240 and Juniper Research predicted in May 2008 more than 47 million subscribers by 2013. With respect to spectral efficiency. Little summarized different forecasts for total WiMAX subscribers worldwide as between 20 million and 100 million by 2012.44 Arthur D. As for data performance.com/apps/pbcs. 45 46 EDGE. frequency. GSM/UMTS/HSPA subscribers number in the billions. the 2. and capacity. for example.43 To put this into perspective. WiMAX is comparable to HSPA+. mobile WiMAX requires 1. Source: Ericsson public white paper. One specific area where WiMAX has a technical disadvantage is cell size. But by the time it becomes available. Arthur D. http://www. In reference to economies of scale.This may introduce problems as more operators introduce networks in the same spectrum band. the GSM family of technologies adds more subscribers every four months (about 100 million) than the expected worldwide total subscriber prediction of WiMAX by 2012.rcrnews. by then.42 a tiny fraction of global wireless subscribers.16e exploits significant radio innovations similar to HSPA+ and LTE. Finally. May 2007”. Even over the next five years. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 34 . To obtain the same cell edge data rates.

48 Although there is discussion of providing voice services over WiMAX using VoIP. First. May 2007”. Building new networks for broadband wireless mandates substantial capacity per subscriber. For the most part. it is important to recognize that downloading a single DVD-quality movie—even with advanced compression— consumes approximately 2 gigabytes. wireless-data business models must also be considered. “HSPA. And if the future is in multimedia services such as movie downloads. 802. Some have cited intellectual property rights as an area where WiMAX has an advantage. because the hotspot can 47 Source: Ericsson public white paper. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 35 . the large HSPA vendors have invested heavily in these technologies—hopefully giving them significant leverage with which to negotiate reasonable intellectual property rights (IPR) rates with other vendors. no terrestrial wireless-data-only network has ever succeeded as a business. 48 Source: Andy Seybold. publicly available information.20 is very similar to UMB. however to support such claims. Finally. Second. the undisputed choice for mobile broadband. and hotels. Today’s cellular networks can finance the deployment of data capabilities through a successful voice business. complemented by new dual-technology devices.11i enables robust security. it is not clear whether there is sufficient momentum in this standard to make it a viable technology.11 family of technologies has experienced rapid growth. mainly in private deployments. HSPA. neither technology has gained any momentum at this point in time.htm EDGE. With vendors focused heavily on LTE.11n offers users throughputs in excess of 100 Mbps.4 Mbps for mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz assumes no bandwidth applied to the uplink. the mobile WiMAX industry is in its infancy. the IEEE 802. and 802. and there is considerable lack of clarity when it comes to how different companies will assert and resolve IPR issues. Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems In the local area.000-minute-a-month voice user. Complementary standards increase the attraction of the technology. and improved range through use of MIMO. It is not clear how easily the available revenue per subscriber will be able to finance large-scale deployment of network capacity. Consumers who download 1 gigabyte of data each month represent a ten times greater load on the network than a 1. There is little substantial. commentary: “Will Data-Only Networks Ever Make Money?” http://www. or significant operator investments. 802.with a peak rate of 42 Mbps—exceeds mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz in TDD 2:1 DL:UL using 2X2 MIMO of 40 Mbps.20 IEEE 802.11e provides quality-of-service enabling VoIP and multimedia. Despite numerous attempts.47 The sometimes-quoted peak rate of 63. At this time. and WiMAX for next-generation wireless services. Leveraging this success. IEEE 802.11 standard. 2006. hotspots are complementary with cellular-data networks. Matching the cellular footprint with WiMAX will require national roaming arrangements. January 18. UMB. no operator has committed to the possible standard. mobile-voice users demand ubiquitous coverage—including indoor coverage.com/commentary2006/jan1806.20 is a mobile-broadband specification developed by the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Working Group of the IEEE that was completed in 2008. fast-food restaurants. However. Note that 802. The latest 802.outlook4mobility. operators—including cellular operators—are offering hotspot service in public areas such as airports.

Metro systems today are still quite immature and face the following challenges:  Many city projects have been discontinued due to the difficulty of providing a viable business model. looking at throughput. As such. The GSM Association has developed recommendations for SIM-based authentication of hotspots. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 36 . Comparison of Wireless Technologies This section of the paper compares the different wireless technologies.     Nevertheless. metro Wi-Fi and 3G are more likely to be complementary in nature. The intent of this paper is to realistically represent the capabilities of these technologies. it is not clear that vendors will adopt this standard for outdoor systems. latency.4 GHz radio channel. Although some industry observers are predicting that these systems will have an adverse effect on 3G data services. the paper presents a table that summarizes the competitive position of the different technologies across multiple dimensions. and the number of recommended access points per square mile has increased steadily. where access points forward packets to nodes that have backhaul connections. Finally. metro networks have attracted considerable interest. which often results in misleading claims. users can look forward to multiple access options. interference between public and private systems is inevitable. Data Throughput Data throughput is an important metric for quantifying network throughput performance. the ways in which various organizations quote throughput statistics vary tremendously. These systems are based on a mesh technology. Technical issues will likely be resolved over time. including 3GPP System to WLAN Interworking. and some number of projects are still proceeding. IMS. Given only three relatively non-overlapping radio channels at 2. spectral efficiency. and market position. EDGE.provide broadband services in extremely dense user areas and the cellular network can provide broadband services across much larger areas. UMA. Even then. Though mesh architecture simplifies backhaul. Unfortunately. whereas 3G systems can provide access over much larger coverage areas. the signal does not penetrate many buildings in the coverage area and repeaters are needed to propagate the signal indoors. and 3GPP has multiple initiatives that address WLAN integration into its networks.4 GHz. Wi-Fi can generally provide better application performance over limited coverage areas. and as more devices support both 3G and Wi-Fi. The IEEE is developing a mesh networking standard—IEEE 802. Many early network deployments have experienced poorer coverage than initially expected. Operation is in unlicensed bands in the 2. HSPA. there are still considerable expenses and networking considerations in backhauling a large number of outdoor access points. Many cities are now deploying metro Wi-Fi systems that will provide Wi-Fi access in downtown areas. and EPC/SAE. Various organizations are looking at integrating WLAN service with GSM/UMTS data services. Today’s mesh systems are all proprietary.16s—but this may not be ready until 2008. Coverage in most metro systems is designed to provide an outdoor signal.

8 kbps Evolved EDGE (type 1 MS)49 1184 kbps50 49 A type 1 evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to eight timeslots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to four timeslots in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulation with turbo coding. actual application throughput may be 10 to 20 percent lower (or more) than this layer-2 value. Some operators. Green Typical) Downlink Peak Network Speed EDGE (type 2 MS) EDGE (type 1 MS) (Practical Terminal) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 473.” Average rates. Even if the radio network can deliver this speed.6 kbps51 Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 473. Though the operators do not disclose the precise methodology they use to establish these figures. Table 4 presents the technologies in terms of peak network throughput rates. primarily in the US. 10 slots downlink (dual carrier).” This refers to the fastest possible transmission speed over the radio link. however. Type 1 mobile. This paper refers to this rate as the “peak user rate.8 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical 473. which assume light network loading (as low as one active data user in the cell sector) and favorable signal propagation. and it is generally based on the highest order modulation available and the least amount of coding (error correction) overhead. actual capability of the technology. Peak network speed is also usually quoted at layer 2 of the radio link. also quote typical throughput rates. peak userrates (under favorable conditions) and typical rates. MTCS-8-B (118. Table 5: Throughput Performance of Different Wireless Technologies (Blue Indicates Theoretical Peak Rates. MCS-8-B 50 51 EDGE. and incorporate a higher level of network loading. Another method is to disclose throughputs actually measured in deployed networks with applications such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) under favorable conditions. This number is useful because it demonstrates the highend. other aspects of the network— such as the backhaul from base station to operator-infrastructure network—can often constrain throughput rates to levels below the radio-link rate.4 kbps/slot) 4 slots uplink. HSPA.6 kbps 236. are lower than this peak rate and difficult to predict because they depend on a multitude of operational and network factors. the majority of users should experience throughput rates higher than one-half of the peak-achievable rate. Because of protocol overhead.6 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical 236. however. such as those associated with future technologies. class 12 hardware. It omits values that are not yet known. Except when the network is congested. the values provide a good indication of what users can typically expect.One method of representing a technology’s throughput is what people call “peak throughput” or “peak network speed. These rates are based on throughput tests the operators have done across their operating networks. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 37 .

2008 56 EDGE.048 Mbps 384 kbps HSDPA Initial Devices (2006) HSDPA HSPA Initial Implementation 55 1.2 kbps54 768 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical 384 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical 384 kbps 384 kbps > 5 Mbps peak 700 kbps to 1.4 Mbps 21. DL 16 QAM. UL 16 QAM) LTE (2X2 MIMO) 7. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 38 . Type 2 mobile. 8 slots uplink.76 Mbps 11.453 kbps 2.6 Mbps 28 Mbps 42 Mbps 173 Mbps > 10 Mbps typical expected 11. HSPA. June 4.5 Mbps peak 500 kbps to 1. MCS-8-B 53 54 55 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) consists of systems supporting both High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).2 Mbps typical 5.8 Mbps 14.7 Mbps typical56 2 Mbps > 1.2 Mbps 14.5 Mbps > 3 Mbps typical expected 350 kbps peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 1894.5 Mbps > 5Mbps typical expected 11. DL 64 QAM.5 Mbps 58 Mbps > 5 Mbps typical expected 52 A type 2-evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to 16 times slots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to eight timeslots in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulation with turbo coding.Downlink Peak Network Speed Evolved EDGE (type 2 MS)52 UMTS WCDMA Rel’99 UMTS WCDMA Rel’99 (Practical Terminal) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 947. Typical downlink and uplink throughput rates based on AT&T press release. UL 16 QAM) HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO. 16 slots downlink (dual carrier) at MTCS-8-B Type 2 mobile.2 Mbps > 1 Mbps peak HSPA Current Implementation HSPA HSPA+ (DL 64 QAM.76 Mbps 5.4 Mbps 7. UL 16 QAM) HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 39 .8 Mbps 150 kbps peak > 1 Mbps peak 300 to 500 kbps typical 5.4 Mbps typical57 153 kbps 1.Downlink Peak Network Speed LTE (4X4 MIMO) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 86 Mbps 130 kbps peak 153 kbps 307 kbps > 1 Mbps peak > 1. EDGE.4 Mbps 3.3 Mbps 73. the 550 to 800 kbps throughput performance of initial HSDPA devices has been borne out as fairly accurate.16m 9.1 Mbps CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev 0 CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev A CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B (3 radio channels MHz) CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B Theoretical (15 radio channels) Ultra Mobile Broadband (2X2 MIMO) Ultra Mobile Broadband (4X4 MIMO) 802. 1X2 SIMO) 802.5 Mbps peak 600 kbps to 1. DL/UL=3. 2007. HSPA.4 Mbps 27 Mbps 130 kbps peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 326 Mbps 153 kbps 307 kbps 2.5 Mbps 140 Mbps 280 Mbps 34 Mbps 68 Mbps 23 Mbps 4 Mbps 46 Mbps 4 Mbps TBD TBD Rysavy Research’s 2002 paper for 3G Americas on wireless data anticipated EDGE average performance of 110 to 130 kbps and UMTS average performance of 200 to 300 kbps. 2x2 MIMO) 802.16e WiMAX expected Wave 1 (10 MHz TDD DL/UL=3. 57 Typical downlink and uplink throughput rates based on Sprint press release January 30.16e WiMAX expected Wave 2 (10 MHz TDD. Actual results from operator and vendor field trials matched these predicted results validating the methodology used to predict performance. In the 2004 and 2005 versions of this paper.

58 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.8 Mbps with poor coverage. half of all the measurements showed 4 Mbps or higher throughput. Figure 11: HSDPA Throughput Distribution in Deployed Networks58 6.0 95 % 75 % 70 % 90 % 85 % 45 % 65 % 10 0% 40 % 80 % 60 % 55 % 15 % 10 % 50 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 5% 0% In another network study.2 Mbps device.0 0.HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios It is instructive to look at actual HSDPA throughput in commercial networks. EDGE. The data shows the percentage of samples on the X axis that fall below the throughput shown on the Y axis.0 Throughput [Mbps] 4.0 1.8 Mbps with good coverage.9 Mbps when mobile. meaning that 75% of samples are below 5 Mbps and 25% are above. (peak data rate capability). Figure 12 shows the downlink throughput performance of a 7.0 2.0 3. 1. and 3. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 40 . For example.0 5. HSPA. the 75 percentile is at 5 Mbps. Significantly. Figure 11 shows the throughputs measured in one network with voice and data in one Western European country across three larger cities. It results in a median throughput of 1.

2 Mbps HSDPA. The anticipated 1 Mbps achievable uplink throughput with HSUPA can be seen in the measured throughput of a commercial network.2 Mbps Device in a Commercial Network59 Good Coverage Bad Coverage Median bitrate 3. this increased to 128 kbps.60 Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance HSUPA dramatically increases uplink throughputs over 3GPP Release 99. However.8 Mbps Median bitrate 1. even Release 99 networks have seen significant uplink increases.9 Mbps These rates are consistent with other vendor information for two deployed HSPA networks that supported 7. Later.0 Mbps. The X axis shows throughput rate. HSPA. Many networks were initially deployed with a 64 kbps uplink rate. 59 60 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.9 Mbps in the second network. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 41 . Testers measured average FTP downlink application throughput of 2. Later. Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.1 Mbps in the first network. as documented in Figure 13. and 1.Figure 12: HSDPA Performance of a 7. the Y axis shows the cumulative distribution function and the bars show the number of samples obtained for that throughput rate on a relative basis. operators increased speeds to 384 kbps peak rates.8 Mbps -106 dBm Mobile Median bitrate 1. The median bit rate is 1. EDGE. with peak user-achievable rates of 350 kbps.

0 Mbps HSUPA62 uplink speed. LTE: Broadband Innovation 1400 Page 42 . Until operators actually deploy complete networks. LTE Throughput As part of the LTE/SAE/EPC Trial Initiative (LSTI). Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. vendors are testing LTE technology. 61 62 63 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. HSPA.0 Mbps 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 140 280 350 490 560 630 700 840 910 1050 1120 1190 1260 210 420 770 980 1330 These rates are consistent with other vendor information for a deployed HSPA network that supported 2. but the data suggests that users should be able to obtain throughputs an order of magnitude higher than today’s 3G networks.2 Mbps63.Figure 13: Uplink Throughput in a Commercial Network61 Mobile 100 90 Median bitrate 1. EDGE. Figure 14shows LTE throughputs in a 2X2 MIMO trial network reaching a maximum of 154 Mbps. 2 x spreading factor (2xSF2) code configuration. Testers measured average FTP downlink application throughput of 1. a mean of 78 Mbps and a minimum of 16 Mbps. typical rates will not be available.

HSPA. 64 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.Figure 14: LTE Measured Throughput in Test Network64 154 Base station located at x. Figure 15 shows the latency of different 3GPP technologies. Ongoing improvements in each technology mean all these values will go down as vendors and operators fine tune their systems. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 43 . with HSDPA networks having latency as low as 70 milliseconds (msec). L1 Throughput Max: 154 Mbps Mean: 78 Mbps Min: 16 Mbps User Speed Max: 45 km/h Mean: 16 km/h Min: 0 km/h Sub-urban area with lineof-sight: less than 40% of the samples Heights of surrounding buildings: 15-25 m 100 meters 123 97 74 54 37 23 12 Latency Just as important as throughput is network latency. defined as the round-trip time it takes data to traverse the network. Each successive data technology from GPRS forward reduces latency. EDGE. HSUPA brings latency down even further. as will 3GPP LTE.

to as low as 10 msec in the radio-access network. HSPA.Figure 15: Latency of Different Technologies65 700 600 500 Milliseconds 400 300 200 100 GPRS Rel’97 EDGE Rel’99 EDGE WCDMA Evolved HSDPA EDGE Rel’4 Rel’99 HSPA LTE The values shown in Figure 15 reflect measurements of commercially deployed technologies. an increase in throughput available to each user. Keeping all other things equal. Delivering broadband services to large numbers of users can best be achieved with high spectral efficiency systems. such as 150 msec for EDGE. an increase in spectral efficiency translates to a proportional increase in the number of users supported at the same load per user—or. The evolution of data services will be characterized by an increasing number of users with ever-higher bandwidth demands. Does not include Internet latency. 25 msec roundtrip is a realistic goal. Spectral Efficiency To better understand the reasons for deploying the different data technologies and to better predict the evolution of capability. especially 65 Source: 3G Americas' member companies. LTE will reduce latency even further. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 44 . Note that there is some variation in latency based on network configuration and operating conditions. and cell site spacing. Measured between subscriber unit and Gi interface. Some vendors have reported significantly lower values in networks using their equipment. As the wireless-data market grows. deploying wireless technologies with high spectral efficiency will be of paramount importance. immediately external to wireless network. With further refinements and the use of 2 msec Transmission Time Interval (TTI) in the HSPA uplink. and 50 msec for HSPA. amount of spectrum. EDGE. such as frequency band. for the same number of users. it is useful to examine spectral efficiency. 70 msec for HSDPA.

When determining the best area on which to focus future technology enhancements. the link layer performance of these technologies is approaching the theoretical limits as defined by the Shannon bound. The exact timing for deploying these options is difficult to predict. HSPA. EDGE. however. The roadmap for the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of technologies provides a wide portfolio of options to increase spectral efficiency. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 45 . as shown in Figure 16. physical layers.) Figure 16 also shows that HSDPA. because much will depend on the growth of the wireless data market. UMB. The reason technologies such as OFDMA are attractive is that they allow higher spectral efficiency with lower overall complexity. Increased spectral efficiency. 1xEV-DO.16e-2005 are all within 2 to 3 decibels (dB) of the Shannon bound. and IEEE 802. indicating that there is not much room for improvement from a link layer perspective. Complexity can arise from the increased number of calculations performed to process signals or from additional radio components. and WiMAX. It generally implies greater complexity for both user and base station equipment. operators and vendors must balance market needs against network and equipment costs. One core aspect of evolving wireless technology is managing the complexity associated with achieving higher spectral efficiency. comes at a price. Hence. 1xEV-DO.16e-2005 all have highly optimized links—that is. (The Shannon bound is a theoretical limit to the information transfer rate [per unit bandwidth] that can be supported by any communications link. it is interesting to note that HSDPA. and what types of applications become popular. Note that differences do exist in the design of the MAC layer (layer 2) and this may result in lower than expected performance in some cases as described previously. thus their use in technologies such as LTE. and IEEE 802. The bound is a function of the Signal to Noise Ratio [SNR] of the communications link. In fact.because the only other alternatives are using more spectrum or deploying more cell sites.

then the channel can be known almost perfectly and the effects of fading and non-AWGN interference can be ignored—thus justifying the AWGN assumption. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 46 . the Shannon bound is relevant for a realistic deployment environment. 66 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. this additional margin would impact the different standards fairly equally. The Shannon bound only applies to a single user. As such.16e-200566 6 Shannon bound Shannon bound with 3dB margin HSDPA EV-DO IEEE 802. EV-DO. it does not attempt to indicate aggregate channel throughput with multiple users. it does indicate that link layer performance is reaching theoretical limits.5 or 180 msec. and IEEE 802. As such. 3 km/hr) rather than at higher speeds. Frames are well within the coherence time of the channel. However. the focus of future technology enhancements should be on improving system performance aspects that maximize the experienced SNRs in the system rather than on investigating new air interfaces that attempt to improve the link layer performance. The coherence time of the channel is thus 1 sec/5. As the speed of the mobile station increases and the channel estimation becomes less accurate. the channel appears “constant” over a frame and the Shannon bound applies. For instance. Much more of the traffic in a cellular system is at slow speeds (for example.5 Hz. HSPA. and fading at 2 GHz. additional margin is needed. the Doppler spread is about 5. Thus.Figure 16: Performance Relative to Theoretical Limits for HSDPA. because they are typically 20 msec or less. If the channel is slowly varying and the effect of frequency selectivity can be overcome through an equalizer in either HSDPA or OFDM. However.16e-2005 5 Achievable Efficiency (bps/Hz) 4 3 2 1 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Required SNR (dB) 10 15 20 The curves in Figure 16 apply to an Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN). EDGE. at 3 km per hour.

1 1.5 2X2 MIMO Rev B Cross-Carrier Scheduling Rev A.7 1.4 2.9 0. Equalizer WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1 HSDPA EV-DO Rev 0 UMTS R’99 UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX 67 Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members.3 0. For instance. EDGE. WiMAX Release 1.6 1.5 data preliminary.9 1.7 0.3 2.5 2. 5+5 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000. some of the values shown are lower (for all technologies) than the values indicated in other papers and publications. The values shown are conservative and intended to be reasonably representative of real-world conditions. Most simulation results produce values under idealized conditions. MRxD. 3GPP studies indicate higher HSDPA and LTE spectral efficiencies than those shown below.0 1.4 1. Mix of mobile and stationary users. Figure 17: Comparison of Downlink Spectral Efficiency67 2.6 0.2 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 47 .4 0. as such.1 2.2 0.8 1.1 Future improvements LTE 4X4 MIMO Future improvements UMB 4X4 MIMO Future improvements Rel 1.5 4X4 MIMO Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/sector) 5+5 MHz LTE 4X2 MIMO LTE 2X2 MIMO HSPA+ SIC.2 2. 64 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO HSDPA MRxD. Equalizer UMB 4X2 MIMO UMB 2X2 MIMO Rel 1. Note that MIMO techniques using spatial multiplexing to potentially increase the overall information transfer rate by a factor proportional to the number of transmit or receive antennas do not violate the Shannon bound. because the per antenna transfer rate (that is.5 4X2 MIMO Rel 1. Figure 17 compares the spectral efficiency of different wireless technologies based on a consensus view of 3G Americas contributors to this paper. HSPA.5 0. based on expected features.3 1.0 0.Examples of technologies that improve SNR in the system are those that minimize interference through intelligent antennas or interference coordination between sectors and cells. WiMAX Wave 2 AMC not included. It shows the continuing evolution of the capabilities of all the technologies discussed.8 0. the per communications link transfer rate) is still limited by the Shannon bound. and 10 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX.5 1.

EDGE. Relative to WCDMA Release 99. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 48 . while the initial WiMAX profiles support only Chase combining HARQ. The main reason that HSPA+ with MIMO is shown as more spectrally efficient than WiMAX Wave 2 with MIMO is because HSPA MIMO supports closed-loop operation with precode weighting and multicode-word MIMO. there are terminals that employ mobile-receive diversity but not equalization. Mobile WiMAX also experiences gains in spectral efficiency as various optimizations. Finer granularity of modulation and coding schemes. at 0. such as 10 and 20 MHz. Greater control channel efficiency. OFDMA technology requires scheduling to avoid two mobile devices transmitting on the same tones simultaneously. which further increases spectral efficiency by about 20 percent and matches WiMAX Wave 2 spectral efficiency. Rather. LTE is even more spectrally efficient with wider channels. which enables the use of SIC receivers. they are representative milestones in ongoing improvements in spectral efficiency. will be simpler for some operators to deploy than other enhancements. With respect to actual deployment. Lower Channel Quality Indicator delay through use of 1 msec frames instead of 5 msec frames. The figure does not include EDGE. such as 2X2 MIMO. whereas the latter requires additional hardware at the base station. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications: Anders Furuskär et al “The LTE Radio Interface – Key Characteristics and Performance”. and that WiMAX has larger control overhead in the downlink than HSPA. 68 IEEE International Symposium on Personal. Terminals with SIC can also be used with Release 7 systems. Type 3 receivers that include Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalization and Mobile Receive Diversity (MRxD) will effectively double HSDPA spectral efficiency. as well as other future enhancements.The values shown in Figure 17 are not all the combinations of available features. which is close to LTE performance in 5+5 MHz channel bandwidth. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes 2X2 MIMO. Beyond HSPA. An uplink MAP zone in the downlink channel does this scheduling. Similar gains are available for CDMA2000. 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO. 3GPP LTE will also result in further spectral efficiency gains. Enhancements to WiMAX will come from a new profile defined in Release 1. LTE has higher spectral efficiency than WiMAX Wave 2 for a number of reasons: 68       Closed-loop operation with precoded weighting. HSDPA increases capacity by almost a factor of three. 2008.3 bps/Hz/sector. HSPA. Thus the figure does not necessarily show the actual progression of technologies that operators will deploy to increase spectral efficiency. are applied. WiMAX Wave 2 includes 2X2 MIMO. Methods like successive interference cancellation (SIC) and 64 QAM allow gains in spectral efficiency as high as 1. Other reasons are that HSPA supports incremental-redundancy HARQ.3 bps/Hz/sector. Incremental redundancy in error correction. such as 64 QAM. For instance. because the uplink in WiMAX is fully scheduled. some enhancements.5. but EDGE itself is spectrally efficient. initially with 2X2 MIMO. Multi codeword MIMO which enable the use of SIC receivers. and then optionally with SIC. The former can be done as a software upgrade. like MRxD and MIMO.

5 comes at the low end of the range. Figure 18 compares the uplink spectral efficiency of the different systems. it would fall well below LTE performance and could also fall below HSPA+ spectral efficiency. and will thus have increased spectral efficiency. Since there is a wide range in projected spectral efficiency.5 relative to HSPA+ and LTE must await further analysis. At the time of this paper.5 will address some of these items. EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 49 . An important conclusion of this comparison is that all the major wireless technologies achieve comparable spectral efficiency through the use of comparable radio techniques. and hence the spectral efficiency values shown are preliminary and subject to change. One available improvement for LTE spectral efficiency not shown in the figure is successive interference cancellation. This will result in a gain of 5% in a low mobility environment and a gain of 10 to 15% in environments such as picocells in which there is cell isolation.WiMAX Release 1. adaptive modulation and coding. 69 Contributions to 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.69 Thus if the final spectral efficiency analysis for WiMAX Release 1. Vendor estimates for Release 1. HSPA. the feature set is neither public nor final. Expected features include reduced MAC overhead. and other physical-layer enhancements.5 range from about 77% to 98% of LTE spectral efficiency for downlink data. the assessment of actual performance of WiMAX Release 1.

This is because of the high pilot overhead in IEEE 802.7 0. WiMAX Release 1. It is also possible to employ Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO) which allows simultaneous transmission by multiple users on the uplink on the same physical resource to increase spectral efficiency and is.5 1X2 Receive Diversity WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1 HSUPA Rel 6 UMTS R’99 to Rel 5 EV-DO Rev A EV-DO Rev 0 UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX The implementation of HSUPA in HSPA significantly increases uplink capacity.16e. it is likely that IEEE 802. easier to implement than true MIMO because it does not require an additional transmitter in the mobile device.2 0.Figure 18: Comparison of Uplink Spectral Efficiency70 Future Improvements LTE 1x4 Receive Diversity Future Improvements UMB 1X4 Receive Diversity Future Improvements Rel 1. however. compared to Rev 0. and later 1X4 diversity. 70 Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. but more efficient pilot structure implemented.5 1X4 Receive Diversity Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/sector) 5+5 MHz 1. With LTE. Initial systems will employ 1X2 receive diversity (two antennas at the base station). in fact. based on expected features.4 0.0 0. 5+5 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000. Mix of mobile and stationary users. with MU-MIMO are not as great as with the receive diversity schemes. 16 QAM UMB 1X2 Receive Diversity EV-DO Rev B. as does Rev A of 1xEV-DO.3 0. but this improvement depends on factors such as the scheduling efficiency and the exact deployment scenario.8 0. Spectral efficiency gains. OFDM-based systems can exhibit improved uplink capacity relative to CDMA technologies. EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 50 .5 0. and 10 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX. With the optional. which should increase spectral efficiency by 50%. which accounts for up to 33 percent of tones.5 data preliminary. spectral efficiency gains increase by use of receive diversity.16e uplink spectral efficiency will be on par. Figure 18 shows WiMAX Wave 2 uplink spectral efficiency to be lower than 3GPP and 3GPP2 technologies employing interference cancellation. Interference Cancellation Rel 1.9 0.6 0.1 LTE 1X2 Receive Diversity HSPA+ Interference Cancellation. HSPA.

voice capacity could double over existing circuit-switched systems.9 kbps Rel 7. gains relate to advances in radio techniques applied to the data channels. static. that the gains are not related specifically to the use of VoIP. and 20 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX. VoIP AMR 7. rather.2 kbps Interference Cancellation EVRC-B 6 kbps EVRC-B 6 kbps EV-DO Rev A EVRC 8 kbps 1xRTT EVRC 8 kbps Future Improvements Rel 1.95 kbps UMTS R’99 AMR 7. Depending on the specific enhancements implemented. 10 + 10 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000.9 kbps LTE VoIP AMR 7. based on expected features. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 51 . WiMAX Release 1. Figure 19: Comparison of Voice Spectral Efficiency72 500 450 Future Improvements LTE AMR 5. as opposed to a proportional-fair scheduler that is normally used for asynchronous data. It should be noted. Mix of mobile and stationary users. Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members.5 EVRC-B 6kbps Rel 1. HSPA.2 kbps and 7. EDGE.95 kbps vocoders.Vendor estimates for Release 1.9 kbps Rel 7 VoIP AMR 5.5 EVRC 8 kbps WiMAX Wave 2 EVRC 8 kbps UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX Figure 19 shows UMTS R’99 with both AMR 12. 10+10 MHz 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Interference Cancellation AMR 5. Many of these same advances may also be applied to current circuit-switched modes. enabling enhanced voice quality compared to EVRC at the expense of capacity in situations that are not capacity limited.95 kbps Future Improvements UMB VoIP EVRC-B 6 kbps Erlangs. indoors) channel conditions.95 kbps UMTS R’99 AMR 12. This is what the CS over HSPA work item will 71 72 Contributions to 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.2 kbps vocoder provides superior voice quality in good (e. UMTS has dynamic adaptation between vocoder rates. It assumes a round-robin type of scheduler.71 Figure 19 compares voice spectral efficiency. Opportunities will arise to improve voice capacity using VoIP over HSPA channels. however..g.5 range from about 57% to 98% of LTE spectral efficiency for uplink data and the values shown are preliminary and subject to change. The AMR 12.5 data preliminary.

3G subscribers on UMTS networks will number in the many hundreds of millions by the end of this decade. Based on projections and numbers already presented in this paper. other benefits of VoIP are driving the migration to packet voice. Volume and Market Comparison So far. a variety of codecs can be used.16e-2005 will number in the tens of millions. whereas subscribers to emerging wireless technologies such as IEEE 802. The use of 5 msec frames limits the number of HARQ retransmissions in each 20 msec speech frame. however. the bit rate shown is an average value. “An Analysis of VoIP Service Using 1 EV-DO Revision A System”. Qi Bi. 73 Transmit Power Control (TPC) bits on the uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCCH in UMTS R’99. of being able to support simultaneous circuit-switched and packet-switched users on the same radio channel. HSPA will have the significant advantage. in which the differences between the technologies diverge tremendously. See also IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication. This is for the simple reason that they employ many of the same approaches. Vol 24. Cost.1. EV-DO technologies could possibly exhibit a slightly higher spectral efficiency for VoIP than HSPA technologies (though not for packet data in general).5 has high downlink and uplink spectral efficiency for VoIP. LTE can support multiple HARQ retransmissions within a 20 msec speech frame. There is a point of comparison. as they operate purely in the packet domain and do not have circuit-switched control overhead. this paper has compared wireless technologies on the basis of technical capability and demonstrated that many of the different options have similar technical attributes. 2006. the difference in volume involved including subscribers and the amount of infrastructure required.achieve.73 Until VoIP over EV-DO becomes available. Among these benefits are a consolidated IP core network for operators and sophisticated multimedia applications for users. No. HSPA. See Figure 20 for details. For codecs such as EVRC (Enhanced Variable Rate Codec). EDGE. With respect to codecs. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 52 . January. it has a disadvantage relative to LTE because it only supports 5 msec frames while LTE supports 1 msec frames. namely. whereas WiMAX can only support one. However. UMB and WiMAX. however. specifically GSM/UMTS. Though WiMAX Release 1. This difference should translate to dramatically reduced costs for the highest volume solutions. in VoIP systems such as LTE. The figures show performance assuming specific codecs at representative bit rates.

costs are similar regardless of Radio Access Network (RAN) technology. the type of technology used (for example.75 Similarly.5 GHz will cost much less than spectrum sold at 850 MHz (all other things being equal). power amplifiers. For example. there doesn’t seem to be any inherent cost advantage—even on an equal volume basis. And when factoring in the lower volumes. As a general rule in most parts of the world. HSPA versus WiMAX) only applies to the software supported by the digital cards at the base station. From a deployment point of view. backhaul. and core-network components. cables. HSPA. higher deployment—by a factor of five—could translate to significant cost savings. WCIS Forecast. Spectrum costs for each technology can differ greatly depending on a country’s regulations and the spectrum band. racks. As for the rest of the network including construction.. July 2008 Source: 3G Americas member analysis. just as GSM handsets are considered much less expensive than 1xRTT handsets. however. any real-world cost advantage is debatable. This cost. UMTS wholesale terminal prices could be the market leader in low-cost or mass-market 3G terminals. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 53 . As for UMTS/HSPA versus CDMA2000. EDGE. research and development amortization results in a four-to-one difference in base station costs. Developments such as single-chip UMTS complementary metal oxide 74 75 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media. is only a small fraction of the base station cost with the balance covering antennas. spectrum sold at 3.Figure 20: Relative Volume of Subscribers Across Wireless Technologies74 Although proponents for technologies such as mobile WiMAX point to lower costs for their alternatives. RF cards.

SK Telecom.76 Even LTE is on the road to a robust wireless ecosystem and significant economies of scale. Table 6 summarizes the competitive position of the different technologies discussed. stated that. 76 77 78 79 Source: Qualcomm press release Feb 13. Its operator members include: Alltel. Reliance Communications. http://www. 2007. slower growth expected than GSM/UMTS Extremely mature Cellular operators globally for CDMA 2000.umts-forum. “based on intensive and detailed technology evaluations. HSPA. Many more cell sites required at 2. MSV Mobile Satellite Ventures. France Telecom. China Mobile. Global with the general exception of Western Europe Fewer cell sites required at 700 and 850 MHz. TeliaSonera.org/English/news_room/DisplayPressRelease.3gamericas. Table 6: Competitive Position of Major Wireless Technologies Technology Subscribers EDGE/HSPA/LTE Over 3 billion today.cfm?id=3359&s=ENG Source: CDG. No commitments to UMB. Dr. In June of 2008. July 2008. IEEE 802. and if nothing else. NTT DoComo. AT&T. Royal KPN. eighteen of the world’s largest mobile operators have spoken…”78 Competitive Summary Based on the information presented in this paper. T-Mobile and Vodafone. the Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) alliance confirmed its selection of LTE. CEO and Founder of Signals Research Group. Telus. Peter Meissner. 29 vendor sponsors and 3 University research institutes. Telecom Italia. EDGE. Telefonica. “the implications could be significant. Operating Officer of NGMN announced that. Telstra. Telenor.semiconductor (CMOS) transceivers could be particularly effective in making UMTS/HSDPA devices more affordable to the mass market.”77 The NGMN is comprised of 18 mobile network operators. Michael Thelander. 4 billion expected by 2010 Extremely mature Cellular operators globally CDMA2000/UMB 438 million79 today. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 54 .16e WiMAX Less than 54 million by 2012 Maturity Adoption Emerging/immature Limited to date Coverage/Footprint Global Very limited Deployment Fewer cell sites required at 700 and 850 MHz. In reference to the NGMN Alliance announcement. 3GPP LTE/SAE is the first technology which broadly meets its recommendations and is approved by its Board.5 GHz. a US-based wireless research consultancy.org/content/view/2479/172/ http://www.

matches OFDMA approaches in 5 MHz with HSPA+ Peak downlink user-achievable rates of over 4 Mbps today.5 Very high. highly optimized OFDMA for Rev C Very high with EVDO Rev A/B IEEE 802. more optimized in Wave 2. highly optimized OFDMA for LTE Very high with HSPA.5 Mbps. but lower than LTE. though initial services will emphasize data Efficient for datacentric networks only until later versions Simultaneous Voice and Data Available with GSM80 and UMTS today Entire UMTS radio channel available for any mix of voice and highspeed data Efficient Spectrum Usage 80 With the application of Dual Transfer Mode. with significantly higher rates in the future As low as 70 msec with HSPA today. with significantly higher rates in the future As low as 70 msec with EV-DO Rev A.Technology Devices EDGE/HSPA/LTE Broad selection of GSM/EDGE/UMTS/ HSPA devices Highly optimized TDMA for EDGE. HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 55 . highly optimized in Release 1. smoothest migration to VoIP of any technology CDMA2000/UMB Broad selection of 1xRTT/EV-DO devices Highly optimized CDMA for Rev 0/A/B. EDGE. Voice coverage will be much more limited than cellular Potentially available. initial devices likely to emphasize data OFDMA in Wave 1. more efficient in later stages. highly optimized CDMA for HSPA. with much lower latency in the future Extremely efficient circuit-voice available today. but not higher than HSPA+ Radio Technology Spectral Efficiency Throughput Capabilities Peak downlink user-achievable rates of over 1. with much lower latency in the future Extremely efficient circuit-voice available today EV-DO radio channels with VoIP cannot support circuit-voice users Not available today Available with VoIP Radio channel today limited to either voice/medium speed data or high- Peak downlink userachievable rates will depend on network design Latency To be determined Voice Capability Relatively inefficient VoIP initially.16e WiMAX None yet.

With UMTS/HSPA. Whereas EDGE is efficient for narrowband data services. the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of technologies has proven itself as the predominant wireless network solution. spectral efficiency will increase. the technologies’ advantages provide for broadband services that will deliver increased data revenue and provide a path to all-IP architectures. speed applications. Today. peak data rates will continue to increase. widespread acceptance by operators. UMTS today offers users simultaneous voice and data. complementary services such as messaging and multimedia. and an astonishing variety of competitive handsets and other devices. With LTE. huge economies of scale. enable all services in the IP domain.Technology EDGE/HSPA/LTE CDMA2000/UMB speed data only IEEE 802. wide-area wireless technology. It also allows operators to support voice and data across their entire available spectrum. as well as an effective technology solution for greenfield operators. EDGE has proven to be a remarkably effective and efficient technology for GSM networks. longterm solution that matches or exceeds the performance of competing approaches. and offers operators and subscribers a true mobile-broadband advantage. The continued use of GSM and EDGE technology through ongoing enhancements allows operators to leverage existing investments. quadrupling throughputs—making the technology viable for many years to come. the different radio-access technologies can coexist using the same core architecture. greater network usage. and allow a common core network to support both LTE and legacy GSM/UMTS systems. Because of practical benefits and deployment momentum. Unlike some competing technologies. HSPA has significantly enhanced UMTS by providing a broadband data service with userachievable rates that often exceed 1 Mbps on the downlink in initial deployments and that now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial networks. simplify deployment. Evolved EDGE will greatly enhance EDGE capabilities—doubling and. With continued evolution. HSPA and its advanced evolution can compete against any other technology in the world. and latency will decrease. the advantages offer a best-of-breed. and increased revenues. The scope of applications will also increase as new services become available such as location information and video. and it is widely expected that most UMTS operators will eventually upgrade to this EDGE. Greater efficiencies will translate to more competitive offers. Many networks are now being upgraded to include HSUPA providing users uplink rates in excess of 1 Mbps.16e WiMAX Conclusion Thanks to constant innovation. potentially. HSPA offers the highest peak data rates of any widely available. It achieves high spectral efficiency and data performance that today support a wide range of applications. In all cases. Currently more than 210 commercial UMTS/HSPA networks and 236 UMTS networks are already in operation. HSPA. Not only are there continual improvements in radio technology. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 56 . UMTS/HSPA offers an excellent migration path for GSM operators. The result is support for more users at higher speeds with more applications enabled. the migration path from EDGE to HSPA then to LTE is inevitable. now the most widely chosen technology platform for the forthcoming decade. the UMTS/HSPA radio link is efficient for wideband services. but improvements to the core network through flatter architectures—particularly EPC/SAE—will reduce latency. Benefits include the ability to roam globally.

technology. EDGE/HSPA/LTE provides one of the most robust portfolios of mobile-broadband technologies. mobile commerce. with peak rates of 42 Mbps. With the continued growth in mobile computing. 3GPP adopted OFDMA with 3GPP LTE. EDGE. an increasing amount of mobile content. but inevitably. will largely match the throughput and capacity of OFDMA-based approaches in 5 MHz. HSPA. powerful new handheld-computing platforms. and it is an optimum framework for realizing the potential of this market. Evolved HSPA+ systems. will be deployed over the next several years. and location services. such as MIMO and higher order modulation. become a huge industry. Other innovations. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 57 . multimedia messaging. which will provide a growth platform for the next decade. wireless data has slowly.

applications operate faster and the range of supported applications expands even further. too. improved QoS. and supporting technologies such as IMS. It is important to understand the needs enterprises and consumers have for these services. QoS control. It is an enhancement to GPRS. HSPA. in particular. and increased spectral efficiency. but as critical for effective application performance. as well as access to their organizations from anywhere. now available globally. EDGE Today. easily meeting the demands of many applications. are the needs for low latency. Less obvious for users. GPRS provides a packet-based IP connectivity solution supporting a wide range of enterprise and consumer applications. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 58 . Spectral efficiency. The combination of low latency and high throughput translates to a broadband experience for users. messaging. with HSPA networks today having round-trip times as low as 70 msec. and VPNs: 32 kbps to more than 1 Mbps Video and audio streaming: 32 kbps to 2 Mbps  Note that EDGE already satisfies the demands of many applications. It is also helpful to specifically note the throughput requirements necessary for different applications:      Microbrowsing (for example. already makes a wealth of applications feasible including enterprise applications. enhanced security. details how the progression from EDGE to HSPA to LTE is one of increased throughput. and even some multimedia applications. e-mail. With UMTS and HSDPA. in which applications are extremely responsive. With peak user- EDGE. which is the original packet data service for GSM networks. most GSM networks support EDGE. UMTS/HSPA.Appendix: Technology Details The EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of data technologies provides ever-increasing capabilities that support ever more demanding applications. In this section. high-fidelity music. database access. which examines each technology individually. With HSPA. consumer applications. users are enjoying videophones. LTE. EDGE delivers peak user-achievable throughput rates close to 200 kbps and initial deployments of HSPA deliver peak user-achievable downlink throughput rates of well over 1 Mbps. HSPA+. Under favorable conditions. Latency has continued to improve. richer multimedia applications. GSM networks with EDGE operate as wireless extensions to the Internet and give users Internet access. and efficient access to their enterprise applications. we consider different technical approaches for wireless and the parallel evolution of 3GPP technologies. We then provide details on EDGE. Web browsing. is of paramount concern. because it translates to higher average throughputs (and thus more responsive applications) for more active users in a coverage area. and spectral efficiency. Wireless Application Protocol [WAP]): 8 to 128 kbps Multimedia messaging: 8 to 64 kbps Video telephony: 64 to 384 kbps General-purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps to more than 1 Mbps Enterprise applications including e-mail. reduced latency. EDGE. The obvious needs are broad coverage and high data throughput. The discussion below.

3. The SGSN performs the types of functions for data that the MSC performs for voice. The GGSN also manages IP addresses. as shown in Figure 22. and it is often collocated with the MSC. beginning with the architecture of GSM and EDGE.6 msec. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 59 . Each serving area has one SGSN. there is one GGSN per external network (for example. HSPA. can achieve this rate as measured by applications such as file transfer. users have the same effective access speed as a modem. The base station controller directs/receives packet data to/from the SGSN.achievable81 throughput rates of up to 200 kbps with EDGE using four time-slot devices. The SGSN forwards/receives user data to/from the GGSN. The network can have multiple radio channels (referred to as 81 “Peak user-achievable” means users. The term GPRS may also be used to refer to the initial radio interface. Of significance is that this same data architecture supports data services in GSM and in UMTS/HSPA networks. this same data architecture is preserved in UMTS and HSPA networks. divided in time into eight timeslots comprising 577 microseconds (s) that repeat every 4. In the radio link. EDGE. Typically. an element that authenticates and tracks the location of mobile stations. In fact. Functions of the data elements are as follows: 1. thereby simplifying operator network upgrades. Another important element is the HLR. now supplanted by EDGE. 2. GSM uses radio channels of 200 kilohertz (kHz) width.g. and it is technically referred to as GPRS for the core-data function in all these networks. dynamically assigning them to mobile stations for their data sessions. which can be viewed as a mobile IP router to external IP networks.. the Internet). Average rates depend on many factors and will be lower than these rates. but with the convenience of connecting from anywhere. Internet) EDGE is essentially the addition of a packet-data infrastructure to GSM. as depicted in Figure 21. To understand the evolution of data capability. under favorable conditions of network loading and signal propagation. Figure 21: GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture Mobile Station Mobile Station Mobile Station Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station Circuit-Switched Traffic Base Mobile Station Switching Controller Center IP Traffic Home Location Register Public Switched Telephone Network GPRS/EDGE Data Infrastructure Serving GPRS Support Node Gateway GPRS Support Node External Data Network (e. which stores users’ account information for both voice and data services. we briefly examine how these data services operate.

and packet data channels. which suspends the data session. while in a data session. The network can dynamically adjust capacity between voice and data functions. each data timeslot can deliver peak user-achievable data rates of up to about 50 kbps. HSPA. The network assigns different functions to each timeslot such as the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). likewise.2 14. Table 7 shows the different modulation and coding schemes for EDGE.transceivers) operating in each cell sector. Users can also receive SMS messages and data notifications83 while on a voice call. Figure 22: Example of GSM/EDGE Timeslot Structure82 EDGE offers close coupling between voice and data services. Radio Link Control (RLC) – layer 2 . The network can aggregate up to four of these timeslots on the downlink with current devices. users with DTM-capable devices can engage in simultaneous voice/data operation. circuit-switched functions like voice calls or data calls. and then resume their data session automatically when the voice session ends.throughputs. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 60 . the PBCCH. users can accept an incoming voice call. Example: WAP notification message delivered via SMS. Table 7: EDGE Modulation and Coding Schemes84 Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK Throughput per Timeslot (kbps) 8. Application rates are typically 20 percent lower.8 11. may be set up on a timeslot of a TDMA frame when justified by the volume of data traffic. With respect to data performance. the optional Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH). EDGE. With networks supporting DTM. more voice traffic when data traffic is low. For example. and it can also reserve minimum resources for each service. thereby maximizing overall use of the network.8 82 83 84 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. which expands the capabilities of the normal BCCH. This enables more data traffic when voice traffic is low or. In most networks.

allow simultaneous voice and data communications. The impact for users is that EDGE networks today are more robust with applications functioning more responsively. EDGE has proven itself in the field as a cost-effective solution and is now a mature technology. A GPRS network using the EDGE radio interface is technically called an Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) network. Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) devices. EDGE provides a cost-effective wide-area data service that offers continuity and is complementary with a UMTS/HSPA network deployed in high traffic areas. during a voice call. 2. For example. however. For example. 3. Devices themselves are increasing in capability. Many operators that originally planned to use only UMTS for next-generation data services have deployed EDGE as a complementary 3G technology. any application developed for GPRS will work with EDGE. EDGE provides average data capabilities for the “sweet spot” of approximately 100 kbps. In addition. There are multiple reasons for this including: 1. 1800. Release 7’s Evolved EDGE will also introduce significant new features. EDGE has been an inherent part of GSM specifications since Release 99. Operators also continue to make improvements in how EDGE functions. and 1900 MHz spectrum bands. EDGE is spectrally efficient. users will be able to retrieve e-mail. Release 4 significantly reduced EDGE latency (network round-trip time)—from the typical 500 to 600 msec to about 300 msec. thereby allowing operators to support large numbers of voice and data users in existing spectrum. 4.2 If multiple data users are active in a sector. including network optimizations that boost capacity and reduce latency. thereby enabling many communications-oriented applications. As demand for data services increases. It is fully backward-compatible with older GSM networks.8 54.6 22. an operator can accommodate customers by assigning an increasing number of channels for data service that is limited only by that operator’s total available spectrum and radio planning. HSPA. EDGE is an official 3G cellular technology that can be deployed within an operator's existing 850. meaning that GPRS devices work on EDGE networks and that GPRS and EDGE terminals can operate simultaneously on the same traffic channels. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 61 . 900.4 29. It is important to note that EDGE technology is continuing to improve. EDGE capability is now largely standard in new GSM deployments.Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 Modulation GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK Throughput per Timeslot (kbps) 17. already available from vendors.4 59. do multimedia EDGE.6 44. they share the available data channels. and a GSM network with EDGE capability is referred to as GERAN.

This work is part of the GERAN Evolution effort. DTM is a 3GPP-specified technology that enables new applications like video sharing while providing a consistent service experience (service continuity) with UMTS. so this goal is required for full backward-compatibility with legacy GPRS/EDGE. This is particularly useful when connecting phones to laptops via cable or Bluetooth and using them as modems. Combining the efficiency of EDGE for data with the efficiency of GSM for voice. the fact is that many applications—such as e-mail on smartphones—are served perfectly well by EDGE. HSPA. advances in radio techniques will enable further efficiencies. Evolved EDGE also provides better service continuity between EDGE and HSPA. because most enhancements are designed to be software based. it makes good sense to continue to evolve EDGE capabilities.     EDGE. it is easy to offer global service to subscribers. To coexist with legacy mobile stations by allowing both old and new stations to share the same radio resources. many regions to not have licensed spectrum for deployment of a new radio technology such as UMTS/HSPA or LTE. because it involves fewer long-term capital investments to upgrade an existing system. The A/Gb mode interface is part of the 2G core network. Typically. To avoid impacts on infrastructure by enabling improvements through a software upgrade. To achieve compatibility with existing frequency planning. Evolved EDGE Recognizing the value of the huge installed base of GSM networks. A sensitivity increase in the downlink of 3 dB for voice and data. browse the Web. Evolved EDGE offers higher data rates and system capacity. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 62 . a DTM end-to-end solution requires only a software upgrade to the GSM/EDGE radio network. which also includes voice enhancements not discussed in this paper. and it is highly asset efficient. With 85 percent of the world market using GSM. To be applicable to DTM (simultaneous voice and data) and the A/Gb mode interface. Although EDGE today already serves many applications like wireless e-mail extremely well. Although HSPA networks provide an even better user experience for some applications. A 50 percent increase in spectral efficiency and capacity in C/I-limited scenarios. Some of the objectives of Evolved EDGE include:     A 100 percent increase in peak data rates. A reduction of latency for initial access and round-trip time. Also. operators can use GSM technology to deliver a broad range of services that will satisfy their customers for many years. which is already equipped for simple roaming and billing. Although GSM and EDGE are already highly optimized technologies. and cable-modem speeds are realistically achievable. There are a number of networks and devices now supporting DTM. thus facilitating deployment in existing networks. and do Internet conferencing. 3GPP is currently working to improve EDGE capabilities for Release 7. From an economic standpoint. meaning that a user will not have a hugely different experience when moving between environments.messaging. it is less costly than upgrading to UMTS. In addition. thereby enabling support for conversational services such as VoIP and PoC.

Downlink diversity reception of the same radio channel to increase the robustness in interference and to improve the receiver sensitivity. 85 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. as shown in Figure 23. using two carriers enables the reception of more than twice as many radio blocks simultaneously. Significant increases in system capacity can be achieved.    Dual-Carrier Receiver A key part of the evolution of EDGE is the utilization of more than one radio frequency carrier. Using two radio-frequency carriers requires two receiver chains in the downlink. This overcomes the inherent limitation of the narrow channel bandwidth of GSM. EDGE uses 8-PSK modulation. This eliminates the need for the network to have contiguous timeslots on one frequency.The methods standardized in Release 7 to achieve these objectives include:  Downlink dual-carrier reception to increase the number of timeslots that can be received without a need to receive and transmit on the same carrier from four on one carrier to 10 on two carriers for a 150 percent increase in throughput. EDGE. Simulations have demonstrated sensitivity gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/I of up to 18 dB for a single cochannel interferer. HSPA. and 32 QAM as well as an increased symbol rate (1. This is achieved by lowering the TTI to 10 msec and by including the acknowledgement information in the data packet. A reduction in overall latency. These enhancements will have a dramatic effect on throughput for many applications. 16 QAM. As previously stated. The addition of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK).2x) in the uplink and a new set of modulation/coding schemes that will increase maximum throughput per timeslot by 38 percent. the original number of radio blocks can be divided between the two carriers. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 63 . as explained below. Figure 23: Evolved EDGE Two-Carrier Operation85 Slot N Rx1 Rx2 Tx (1) Slot N + 1 (Idle Frame) Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3 Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot Alternatively. Simulations indicate a realizable 25 percent increase in user-achievable peak rates. Currently.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 64 . however. Figure 25 shows why this is important. which increases trunking efficiency.Figure 24: EDGE Multi-Carrier Receive Logic – Mobile Part86 Multi-carrier radio resource control logic Transceiver carrier frequency control Timeslot and radio frequency assignment unit Demodulator and decoding control Timeslot and frequency allocation messages Radio resource control RF Transceiver front ends Carrier 1 Baseband processing: demodulation. With today’s EDGE devices. channel decoding Decode control Downlink logical User application data Carrier 2 Radio protocol stack Carrier N Channel capacity with dual-carrier reception improves greatly. EDGE. With an Evolved EDGE dual receiver. Being able to obtain timeslots across two carriers in Evolved EDGE. it is not possible to change radio frequencies when going from one timeslot to the next. significantly improves the likelihood of obtaining the desired timeslots. however. 86 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. As network loading increases. this becomes possible. not by increasing basic efficiencies of the air interface. As the network becomes busy. it is statistically unlikely that contiguous timeslots will be available. the probability of being able to obtain 5 timeslots on the same radio carrier decreases dramatically. HSPA. the probability of being assigned 1 timeslot decreases. which otherwise is not possible. thus enabling contiguous timeslots across different radio channels. As this probability decreases (X axis). but because of statistical improvement in the ability to assign radio resources. The result is that the system can allocate a large set of time slots for data even if they are not contiguous.

depending on the operating environment. Mobile Station Receive Diversity 87 88 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. “NCM” refers to neighbour cell monitoring. (“Rx1” refers to receiver 1. “Rx2” refers to receiver 2. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 65 . EDGE. and “M2” refers to receiver 2 doing system monitoring.Figure 25: Probabilities of Time Slot Assignments87 Figure 26 shows a dual-radio receiver approach optimizing the use of available timeslots. a dual-carrier receiver architecture can support either dual-carrier reception or mobile-station receive diversity. HSPA. Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.) Figure 26: Optimization of Timeslot Usage Example88 Each Receiver Changes Tuned Frequency Between its Slots Rx1 Rx2 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 5 Timeslot Allocation “Scavenged” from Different Frequency Carriers Idle Frame F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Tx NCM Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot Through intelligent selection.

Higher Order Modulation and Higher Symbol Rate Schemes The addition of higher order modulation schemes enhances EDGE network capacity with little capital investment by extending the range of the existing wireless technology. These enhancements are only now being considered. Using Evolved EDGE and receive-diversity-enabled mobile devices that have a high tolerance to co-channel interference. Thus. help enable their use. it is possible to obtain 100 percent of the capacity of the frequencies in the 4/12 reuse layer or to double the capacity by adding 800 KHz of spectrum. but also potentially high co-channel interference in loaded conditions.) The BCCH carrier repeats over 12 cells in a 4/12 frequency reuse pattern. 89 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. and signal level made higher order modulations impractical for mobile wireless systems just a few years ago. such as advanced receivers and receive diversity. HSPA. An increase to 50 percent translates to a doubling of capacity on the 1/1 layer without requiring any new spectrum and to a 200 percent gain compared to a 4/12 reuse layer. This yields a fundamental technological improvement in information capacity and faster data rates. (BCCH refers to the Broadcast Control Channel and TCH refers to the Traffic Channel. however. variability of interference. because factors such as processing power. EDGE. it is possible to increase the load on the 1/1 layer from 25 to 50 percent and possibly to as high as 75 percent. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 66 .4 MHz for GSM. with four of these frequencies. A fractionally loaded system may repeat f12 through f15 on each of the cells. Newer techniques for demodulation. f12 through f15 in the 1/1 reuse layer can only be loaded to around 25 percent of capacity. Use of higher order modulation exploits localized optimal coverage circumstances. This is a 1/1 frequency reuse pattern with higher system utilization. however.Figure 27 illustrates how mobile-station receive diversity increases system capacity. More bits-per-symbol means more data transmitted per unit time. thereby taking advantage of the geographical locations associated with probabilities of high C/I ratio and enabling very high data transfer rates whenever possible. Figure 27: Example of 4/12 Frequency Reuse with 1/1 Overlay89 In today’s EDGE systems. which requires 2.

and 16 QAM at the legacy symbol rate. and 32 QAM modulation as well as a higher (1.2 70.6 118.2 236.2 204.2x) symbol rate.2 44.8 EDGE. In the uplink. the first support level includes GMSK. 16 QAM.8 59. MCSs 1 through 4 from EGPRS are reused. 8-PSK. and eight new uplink “B” level schemes (UBS) are added.2 70.2 44.4 89.8 307. Table 9: Uplink Modulation and Coding Schemes with Higher Symbol Rate Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 UBS-5 UBS-6 UBS-7 UBS-8 Uplink EGPRS2 Support Level B Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK QPSK QPSK 16 QAM 16 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35.8 59.4 179.8 236.Two different levels of support for higher order modulation are defined for both the uplink and the downlink. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 67 .8 268.4 179.4 89. HSPA. This level of support reuses Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs) 1 through 6 from EGPRS and adds five new 16 QAM modulated schemes called uplink “A” level schemes (UAS). Table 8: Uplink Modulation and Coding Schemes Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 UAS-7 UAS-8 UAS-9 UAS-10 UAS-11 Uplink EGPRS2 Support Level A Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35.2 The second support level in the uplink includes QPSK.6 118.

2 179.2 90 These data rates require a wide-pulse shaping filter that is not part of Release 7.6 262. HSPA. EDGE.2x) symbol rate.6 The second downlink support level includes QPSK.4 393. 16 QAM.8 355.2 473. and eight new downlink “A” level schemes (DAS) are added.2 217.8 131. and eight new downlink “B” level schemes (DBS) are defined.UBS-9 UBS-10 UBS-11 UBS-12 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 268.4 89. Table 10: Downlink Modulation and Coding Schemes Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 DAS-5 DAS-6 DAS-7 DAS-8 DAS-9 DAS-10 DAS-11 DAS-12 Downlink HOM/HSR Support Level A Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35.2 44. Table 11: Downlink Modulation and Coding Schemes with Higher Symbol Rate90 Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 Downlink HOM/HSR Support Level B Modulation Type GMSK Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 68 . and 32 QAM all at the legacy symbol rate.6 The first downlink support level introduces a modified set of 8-PSK coding schemes and adds 16 QAM. Turbo codes are used for all new modulations.8 59. MCSs 1 through 4 are reused.6 108. and 32 QAM modulations at a higher (1.0 326. MCSs 1 through 4 are reused.2 70.2 435.

MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 DBS-5 DBS-6 DBS-7 DBS-8 DBS-9 DBS-10 DBS-11 DBS-12

GMSK GMSK GMSK QPSK QPSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM

44.8 59.2 70.4 89.6 118.4 179.2 2368 268.8 355.2 435.2 473.6

The combination of Release 7 EDGE Evolution enhancements shows a dramatic potential increase in throughput. For example, in the downlink, a Type 2 mobile device (one that can support simultaneous transmission and reception) using DBS-12 as the MCS and a dual-carrier receiver can achieve the following performance: Highest data rate per timeslot (layer 2) = 118.4 kbps Timeslots per carrier = 8 Carriers used in the downlink = 2 Total downlink data rate = 118.4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894.4 kbps91 This translates to a peak network rate close to 2 Mbps and a user-achievable data rate of well over 1 Mbps! Other Methods Under Consideration This paper has emphasized those Evolved EDGE features that 3GPP has agreed upon for Release 7. However, there are other features being proposed that would boost EDGE capabilities even further. Advanced modulation enhancements include the addition of turbo coding and 64 QAM to the higher order modulation enhancements already described. These enhancements increase the robustness of the channel and take advantage of local areas of high C/I ratios. A second uplink carrier could also double uplink throughput. Two approaches have been discussed. The first is a fully flexible dual-transmitter approach. This approach has no impact on the network, but may have significant impact on the feasibility of the mobile station, particularly in the handheld form factor; it is currently being researched and discussed. The second approach is a constrained form of uplink dual carrier in which the spacing of the two carriers is less than 1 MHz and a single wideband transmitter generates the signal. This approach is easier to implement in a mobile handset, but it may impact legacy frequency planning. Proposals have been put forward outlining ways
91

For the near future, two carriers will be a scenario more practically realized on a notebook computer platform than handheld platforms.

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to coexist with legacy frequency planning; these ideas are being researched and discussed. Evolved EDGE Implementation Table 12 shows what is involved in implementing the different features defined for Evolved EDGE. For a number of features, there are no hardware changes required for the base transceiver station (BTS). For all features, Evolved EDGE is compatible with legacy frequency planning. Table 12: Evolved EDGE Implementation92

 

In conclusion, it is interesting to note the sophistication and capability that is achievable with, and planned for, GSM.

UMTS/HSPA Technology
UMTS has garnered the overwhelming majority of new 3G spectrum licenses with 236 commercial networks already in operation.93 Compared to emerging wireless technologies, UMTS technology is mature and benefits from research and development that began in the early 1990s. It has been thoroughly trialed, tested, and commercially deployed. UMTS deployment is now accelerating with stable network infrastructures and attractive, reliable mobile devices that have rich capabilities. With the addition of HSPA for high-speed packet data services, UMTS/HSPA is quickly emerging as the dominant global mobile-broadband network. UMTS employs a wideband CDMA radio-access technology. The primary benefits of UMTS include high spectral efficiency for voice and data, simultaneous voice and data capability for users, high user densities that can be supported with low infrastructure

92 93

Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. “World Cellular Information Service,” Informa Telecoms & Media, June 2008.

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costs, support for high-bandwidth data applications, and a clean migration to VoIP in the future. Operators can also use their entire available spectrum for both voice and highspeed data services. Additionally, operators can use a common core network that supports multiple radioaccess networks including GSM, EDGE, WCDMA, HSPA, and evolutions of these technologies. This is called the UMTS multiradio network, and it gives operators maximum flexibility in providing different services across their coverage areas (see Figure 28). Figure 28: UMTS Multiradio Network

GSM/EDGE UMTS Core Network (MSC, HLR, SGSN, GGSN)

Packet-Switched Networks

WCDMA, HSDPA

Circuit-Switched Networks

Other e.g., WLAN Radio-Access Networks

Other Cellular Operators External Networks

The UMTS radio-access network consists of base stations referred to as Node B (corresponding to GSM base transceiver systems) that connect to RNCs (corresponding to GSM base station controllers [BSCs]). The RNCs connect to the core network as do the BSCs. When both GSM and WCDMA access networks are available, the network can hand over users between these networks. This is important for managing capacity, as well as in areas in which the operator has continuous GSM coverage, but has only deployed WCDMA in some locations. Whereas GSM can effectively operate like a spread-spectrum system94, based on time division in combination with frequency hopping, WCDMA is a direct-sequence, spreadspectrum system. WCDMA is spectrally more efficient than GSM, but it is the wideband nature of WCDMA that provides its greatest advantage—the ability to translate the available spectrum into high data rates. This wideband technology approach results in the flexibility to manage multiple traffic types including voice, narrowband data, and wideband data. WCDMA allocates different codes for different channels, whether for voice or data, and it can adjust the amount of capacity, or code space, of each channel every 10 msec with WCDMA Release 99 and every 2 msec with HSPA. WCDMA creates high-bandwidth traffic channels by reducing the amount of spreading (using a shorter code) with WCDMA

94

Spread spectrum systems can either be direct sequence or frequency hopping.

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or the network can assign dedicated channels to users. the network uses HSPA (HSDPA/HSUPA) for data. Continuous data with controlled bandwidth and some delay such as music or video. The commonly quoted rate of more than 2 Mbps downlink throughput for UMTS can be achieved by combining three data channels of 768 kbps. EDGE. which included voice and data capabilities. HSPA. Uplink peak-networkthroughput rates are also 384 kbps in newer deployments.Release 99 and higher order modulation schemes for HSPA. this section describes the data service available with Release 99. particularly multimedia applications including packetized video telephony and VoIP. Packet data users can share the same codes as other users.95 This satisfies many communications-oriented applications. applications can negotiate QoS parameters on an end-to-end basis between a mobile terminal and a fixed-end system across the Internet or private intranets. as in voice channels. Release 5 has defined HSDPA and Release 6 has defined HSUPA. Interactive. To further expand the number of effectively operating applications. Lower priority data that is non-real-time such as batch transfers. 3. UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities Initial UMTS network deployments were based on 3GPP Release 99 specifications. With more spreading. but many deployments emphasize 384 kbps. each with a spreading factor of 4. UMTS employs a sophisticated QoS architecture for data that provides four fundamental traffic classes including: 1. 2. With HSPA-capable devices. the uplink in HSDPA (Release 5) networks uses the Release 99 approach. In UMTS Release 99. the capabilities of devices. Channel throughputs are determined by the amount of channel spreading. and the number of users active in the network limit the peak throughput rates a user can achieve to about 350 kbps in commercial networks. the core network. Voice channels use downlink spreading factors of 128 or 256. and the interfaces to external networks such as the Internet. This QoS architecture involves negotiation and prioritization of traffic in the radio-access network. Background. Operators with Release 99 networks are upgrading them to Release 5 or Release 6. and the operator can employ more channels. Consequently. In advance of Release 6. 95 Initial UMTS networks had peak uplink rates of 64 kbps or 128 kbps. Because Release 99 networks and devices are still in the field. the maximum theoretical downlink rate is just over 2 Mbps. with user-achievable peak rates of 350 kbps. the data stream has greater redundancy. Real-time interactive data with controlled bandwidth and minimum delay such as VoIP or video conferencing. Back-and-forth data without bandwidth control and some delay such as Web browsing. a high-speed data channel has less spreading and fewer available channels. whereas a 384 kbps data channel uses a downlink spreading factor of 8. 4. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 72 . This capability is essential for expanding the scope of supported applications. In comparison. Peak downlink network speeds are 384 kbps. Conversational. Streaming. Although exact throughput depends on the channel sizes the operator chooses to make available. Since then.

The actual throughput speeds a user can obtain with WCDMA Release 99 depend on the Radio Access Bearer (RAB) assigned by the network. Possible values include 768, 384, 128, 64, 32, and 16 kbps. The different rates correspond to the amount of spreading. A lower degree of spreading results in more code space assigned to that RAB; hence, higher throughput. In today’s Release 99 networks, operators have limited the range of operational data rates using Release 99 channels to 384 kbps as a result of the emergence of HSDPA, which provides a much more elegant way to reach data throughput in the 2 Mbps range and higher. Beyond the maximum throughput supported by the RAB assigned by the network, user throughput is also impacted by the radio conditions and the amount of data to transfer. The RAN takes these elements into account to continuously adjust the instantaneous transfer rate based on operational conditions and within the QoS constraints of the RAB. The network assigns RABs based on available resources. How the network assigns RABs varies by infrastructure vendor. WCDMA has lower network latency than EDGE, with about 100 to 200 msec measured in actual networks. Although UMTS Release 99 offers attractive data services, these services become much more efficient and more powerful with HSPA.

HSDPA
HSPA refers to networks that support both HSDPA and HSUPA. Most new deployments today are HSPA, and many operators are upgrading their HSDPA networks to HSPA. For example, in 2008, AT&T had upgraded most of its network to HSPA. By the end of 2008, HSPA will be deployed throughout the Americas. This section covers technical aspects of HSDPA, while the next section covers HSUPA. HSDPA, specified in 3GPP Release 5, is a high-performance packet-data service that delivers peak theoretical rates of 14 Mbps. Peak user-achievable throughput rates in initial deployments are well over 1 Mbps, and as high as 4 Mbps in some networks. HSDPA is fully backward-compatible with UMTS Release 99, and any application developed for Release 99 will work with HSDPA. The same radio carrier can simultaneously service UMTS voice and data users as well as HSDPA data users. HSDPA also has significantly lower latency, measured today on some networks as low as 70 msec on the data channel. HSDPA achieves its high speeds through techniques similar to those that push EDGE performance past GPRS including higher order modulation, variable coding, and soft combining, as well as through the addition of powerful new techniques such as fast scheduling. HSDPA elevates the performance level of WCDMA technology to provide broadband services, and it has the highest theoretical peak throughput of any cellular technology currently available. The higher spectral efficiency and higher data rates not only enable new classes of applications, but also support a greater number of users accessing the network. HSDPA achieves its performance gains from the following radio features:
    

High-speed channels shared in both code and time domains Short TTI Fast scheduling and user diversity Higher order modulation Fast link adaptation

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Fast HARQ

These features function as follows: High-Speed Shared Channels and Short Transmission Time Interval: First, HSDPA uses high-speed data channels called High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels (HS-PDSCH). Up to 15 of these channels can operate in the 5 MHz WCDMA radio channel. Each uses a fixed spreading factor of 16. User transmissions are assigned to one or more of these channels for a short TTI of 2 msec, significantly less than the interval of 10 to 20 msec used in Release 99 WCDMA. The network can then readjust how users are assigned to different HS-PDSCH every 2 msec. The result is that resources are assigned in both time (the TTI interval) and code domains (the HS-PDSCH channels). Figure 29 illustrates different users obtaining different radio resources. Figure 29: High Speed–Downlink Shared Channels (Example)

User 1

User 2

User 3

User 4

Channelization Codes

2 msec Time

Fast Scheduling and User Diversity: Fast scheduling exploits the short TTI by assigning users channels that have the best instantaneous channel conditions, rather than in a round-robin fashion. Because channel conditions vary somewhat randomly across users, most users can be serviced with optimum radio conditions and thereby obtain optimum data throughput. Figure 30 shows how a scheduler might choose between two users based on their varying radio conditions to emphasize the user with better instantaneous signal quality. With about 30 users active in a sector, the network achieves significant user diversity and significantly higher spectral efficiency. The system also makes sure that each user receives a minimum level of throughput. This approach is sometimes called proportional fair scheduling.

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Figure 30: User Diversity

User 1 Signal Quality High data rate

User 2

Low data rate

Time
User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1

Higher Order Modulation: HSDPA uses both the modulation used in WCDMA—namely QPSK—and, under good radio conditions, an advanced modulation scheme—16 QAM. The benefit of 16 QAM is that 4 bits of data are transmitted in each radio symbol as opposed to 2 bits with QPSK. Data throughput is increased with 16 QAM, while QPSK is available under adverse conditions. HSPA Evolution will add 64 QAM modulation to further increase throughput rates. Note that 64QAM was available in Release 7 and the combination of MIMO and 64QAM will be in Release 8. Fast Link Adaptation: Depending on the condition of the radio channel, different levels of forward-error correction (channel coding) can also be employed. For example, a three-quarter coding rate means that three quarters of the bits transmitted are user bits and one quarter are error-correcting bits. The process of selecting and quickly updating the optimum modulation and coding rate is referred to as fast link adaptation. This is done in close coordination with fast scheduling, as described above. Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request: Another HSDPA technique is Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (Fast Hybrid ARQ). “Fast” refers to the medium-access control mechanisms implemented in Node B (along with scheduling and link adaptation), as opposed to the BSC in GPRS/EDGE, and “hybrid” refers to a process of combining repeated data transmissions with prior transmissions to increase the likelihood of successful decoding. Managing and responding to real-time radio variations at the base station, as opposed to an internal network node, reduces delays and further improves overall data throughput. Using the approaches just described, HSDPA maximizes data throughputs and capacity and minimizes delays. For users, this translates to better network performance under loaded conditions, faster application performance, a greater range of applications that function well, and increased productivity. Field results validate the theoretical throughput results. With initial 1.8 Mbps peak-rate devices, vendors measured consistent throughput rates in actual deployments of over 1 Mbps. These rates rose to over 2 Mbps for 3.6 Mbps devices and are close to 4 Mbps for EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 75

Many operator networks support 7.2 1.4 0.2 7. (Soft channel bits are the number of bits the system uses for error correction. It results in an approximately 85 percent increase in overall cell throughput on the uplink and more than 50 percent gain in user throughput. a significant benefit resulting in significantly improved application performance on HSPA networks EDGE.2 Mbps devices.6 Mbps or 7. reduced latency. MMSE).2 Mbps peak operation.6 7.8 1. and increased spectral efficiency. Table 13 defines the different categories of HSDPA devices.2 14. HSUPA also reduces packet delays. In 2008. These improvements include higher throughputs.9 1.8 Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both QPSK QPSK Soft Channel Bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800 HSPA technology is not standing still.7.4 Mbps. but makes these speeds available over a greater percentage of the coverage area. HSUPA—which uses the Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH)—constitutes a set of improvements that optimizes uplink performance. HSUPA Whereas HSDPA optimizes downlink performance. which improve the quality of the received radio signal prior to demodulation and decoding. Among these technologies are mobile-receive diversity and equalization (for example. Networks and devices supporting HSUPA became available in 2007. backhaul) can support the high throughput rates. HSUPA is standardized in Release 6. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 76 .6 3.) Table 13: HSDPA Terminal Categories HS-DSCH Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Maximum Number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 L1 Peak QPSK/ Rate (Mbps) 16QAM 1.2 10. typical devices supporting peak data rates of 3. This improvement enables not only higher peak HSDPA throughput speeds. and some even support the maximum rate of 14. Advanced radio technologies are becoming available. HSPA. assuming other portions of the network (for example.8 3.2 1.2 Mbps became available.

for rural deployments. For instance.73 Mbps 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 77 . The improved uplink mechanisms also translate to better coverage and. Nevertheless.9 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 5. as low as 2 msec. HSUPA can operate with or without HSDPA in the downlink. improvements will balance the capacity of the uplink with the capacity of the downlink. the primary uplink traffic channel defined for HSUPA is a dedicated channel that could be used for services delivered through either the circuit-switched or the packetswitched domains. which can benefit many applications as much as improved throughput.46 Mbps 1. fast scheduling.Although the primary downlink traffic channel supporting HSDPA serves is a shared channel designed for the support of services delivered through the packet-switched domain. Table 14: HSUPA Peak Throughput Rates HSUPA Category 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 Codes x Spreading 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 TTI 10 10 2 10 10 2 10 10 2 Transport Block Size 7296 14592 2919 14592 20000 5837 20000 20000 11520 Data Rate 0. though it is likely that most networks will use the two approaches together.46 Mbps 2 Mbps 2. some user applications transmit large amounts of data from the mobile station such as sending video clips or large presentation files. HSPA. as illustrated in Table 14.46 Mbps 1. HSUPA achieves its performance gains through the following approaches:   An enhanced dedicated physical channel A short TTI. which allows the base station to efficiently allocate radio resources Fast Hybrid ARQ. by extension and for simplicity. the TTI value. and Fast Hybrid ARQ also serves to reduce latency. the spreading factor of the codes.76 Mbps EDGE. which improves the efficiency of error processing   The combination of TTI. HSUPA can achieve different throughput rates based on various parameters including the number of codes used. larger cell sizes. Such an improved uplink benefits users in a number of ways. the WCDMA-enhanced uplink capabilities are often identified in the literature as HSUPA. and the transport block size in bytes. For future applications like VoIP. which allows faster responses to changing radio conditions and error conditions Fast Node B-based scheduling.

Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+) OFDMA systems have attracted considerable attention through technologies such as 3GPP LTE. latency will be as low as 30 msec. because it results in a large capacity gain independent of the radio channel. WiMAX. which are not yet available. For example. which uses channel equalization. Type 3i receivers will work and provide a capacity gain in a Release 5 network. the combination of reduced symbol period and multipath interference results in inter-symbol interference and diminishes rake receiver performance. Current receiver architectures based on rake receivers are effective for speeds up to a few megabits per second. Type 3i devices. The antenna spacing yields signals that have somewhat independent fading characteristics. These include advanced receivers. The performance requirements for advanced-receiver architectures. the combined signal can be more effectively decoded. Type 2. however. it significantly extends the life of sizeable operator infrastructure investments. HSPA. This not only makes HSPA competitive. will employ interference cancellation. Continuous Packet Connectivity. This technique relies on the optimal combination of received signals from separate receiving antennas. which includes a combination of receive diversity and channel equalization. are specified in 3GPP Release 6. relative to current HSDPA networks at 70 msec. Hence. Different vendors are emphasizing different approaches. Alternate advanced-receiver approaches include interference cancellation and generalized rake receivers (G-Rake). But at higher speeds. As already discussed in this paper. latency will fall below 50 msec. Note that the different types of receivers are release-independent. MIMO. In optimized networks. and UMB. HSUPA also significantly reduces latency. And with a later introduction of a 2 msec TTI. Wireless and networking technologists have defined a series of enhancements for HSPA. some of which are specified in Release 7 and some of which are being finalized in Release 8. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 78 . These designs include Type 1. The goal in evolving HSPA is to exploit available radio technologies—largely enabled by increases in digital signal processing power—to maximize CDMA-based radio performance. however. which results in an almost doubling of downlink capacity when employed in conjunction with techniques such as channel equalization. Receive diversity is effective even for small devices such as PC Card modems and smartphones. Beyond throughput enhancements. Higher-Order Modulation and One Tunnel Architecture. which uses mobile-receive diversity. EDGE. The first approach is mobile-receive diversity. Advanced Receivers One important area is advanced receivers for which 3GPP has specified a number of advanced designs. Category 6 devices will ultimately allow speeds close to 5 Mbps.Initial devices are Category 5 enabling peak user rates of close to 2 Mbps as measured in actual network deployments. The combination of mobilereceive diversity and channel equalization (Type 3) is especially attractive. although only with the addition of interference cancellation methods that boost SNR. CDMA approaches can match OFDMA approaches in reduced channel bandwidths. This problem can be solved by advanced-receiver architectures with channel equalizers that yield additional capacity gains over HSDPA with receive diversity. and Type 3.

including both earlier devices that do not include these enhancements and later devices that do. 3GPP has standardized spatial multiplexing MIMO in Release 7 using Double Transmit Adaptive Array (D-TxAA). Relative to a 1x1 antenna system. In a fully loaded network with interference from adjacent cells. Figure 31: MIMO Using Multiple Paths to Boost Throughput and Capacity Encoder Decoder Tests of MIMO have proven very promising in WLANs operating in relative isolation where interference is not a dominant factor. This results in multiple data paths effectively operating somewhat in parallel and.96 96 For further details on these techniques.” EDGE. The most common use of the term “MIMO” applies to spatial multiplexing. The transmitter sends different data streams over each antenna. Device vendors can selectively apply these enhancements to their higher performing devices. and malls. however. campuses. the network can support a combination of devices. Spatial multiplexing MIMO should also benefit HSPA “hotspots” serving local areas such as airports. however. HSPA.What makes such enhancements attractive is that the networks do not require any changes other than increased capacity within the infrastructure to support the higher bandwidth. refer to the 3G Americas white paper “Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA. a technique that employs multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive antennas. 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. where the technology will increase capacity and peak data rates. overall capacity gains will be more modest—in the range of 20 to 33 percent over mobile-receive diversity. relying on signals to travel across different uncorrelated communications paths. often in combination with multiple radios and multiple parallel data streams. 2X2 MIMO can deliver cell throughput gains of about 80 percent. in a multiplicative gain in throughput. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 79 . MIMO Another standardized capability is MIMO. through appropriate decoding. MIMO—as illustrated in Figure 31—actually exploits multipath. Moreover. Whereas multipath is an impediment for other radio systems.

HSPA. The goals of HSPA+ are to:  Exploit the full potential of a CDMA approach before moving to an OFDM platform in 3GPP LTE. Higher order modulation requires a better SNR.Although MIMO can significantly improve peak rates. in turn. See Figure 32. because the radio can turn off between VoIP packets. where the modem can turn off its receiver after a certain period of HSDPA inactivity. other techniques such as Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)—also a form of MIMO—may be even more effective than MIMO for improving capacity in high spectral efficiency systems employing a reuse factor of 1. Figure 32: Continuous Packet Connectivity Data Pilot Without CPC Data Pilot With CPC Higher Order Modulation Another way of increasing performance is to use higher order modulation. HSPA uses 16 QAM on the downlink and QPSK on the uplink. HSPA+ Taking advantage of these various radio technologies. Collectively. CPC allows both discontinuous uplink transmission and discontinuous downlink reception.  EDGE. Release 8 will include further enhancements. Achieve performance close to LTE in 5 MHz of spectrum. which consumes the most power. these capabilities are referred to as HSPA+. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 80 . Continuous Packet Connectivity In Release 7. But radio links can achieve higher throughputs—adding 64 QAM on the downlink and 16 QAM on the uplink—precisely what is added in HSPA+. CPC is especially beneficial to VoIP on the uplink. increases the number of simultaneously connected HSUPA users. which is enabled through other enhancements such as receive diversity and equalization. CPC enhancements reduce the uplink interference created by the dedicated physical control channels of packet data users when those channels have no user data to transmit. 3GPP has standardized a number of features in Release 7 including higher order modulation and MIMO. This.

enterprise campuses. Dual Carrier (anticipated in Release 9) 42. Table 15 summarizes the capabilities of HSPA and HSPA+ based on various methods. but HSPA+ will also more than double HSPA capacity as well as reduce latency below 25 msec. Release 9 may specify 2X2 MIMO in combination with dual carrier operation which would further boost peak network rates to 84 Mbps. UL 16 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO. HSPA+ with 28 Mbps capability will be available for deployment by the end of 2009. Given the large amount of backhaul bandwidth required to support HSPA+. however. thereby facilitating the operation of both technologies.5 HSPA as defined in Release 6 Release 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM. HSPA+ will also have improved latency performance of below 50 msec.5 Beyond the peak rate of 42 Mbps defined in Release 8.76 11.2 84 11. The prior discussion emphasizes throughput speeds. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 81 .    Depending on the features implemented. as well as multicode-word MIMO.0 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 5. This is mainly because HSPA MIMO supports closed-loop operation with precode weighting. operators are likely to initially deploy HSPA+ in limited “hotspot” coverage areas such as airports.4 21. As such. It is also partly because HSPA supports Incremental Redundancy (IR) and has lower overhead than WiMAX. DL 16 QAM. and HSPA+ with 42 Mbps capability on the downlink and 11.5 11.1 28. HSPA+ can exceed the capabilities of IEEE 802. Sleep-to-data-transfer EDGE. Facilitate migration from current HSPA infrastructure to HSPA+ infrastructure. Allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data.16e-2005 (mobile WiMAX) in the same amount of spectrum. HSPA. UL 16 QAM Release 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO DL 64 QAM.5 Mbps on the uplink could be ready for deployment by 2009 or 2010. and improved packet call setup time of below 500 msec. operators will be able to expand coverage.5 11. and in-building networks. Provide smooth interworking between HSPA+ and LTE. operators may choose to leverage the EPC/SAE planned for LTE. and enables the use of SIC receivers. With advances in backhaul transport like metropolitan Ethernet. Table 15: HSPA Throughput Evolution Technology Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 14. UL 16 QAM Release 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO. Be backward-compatible with previous systems while incurring no performance degradation with either earlier or newer devices. as well as additional MIMO radios at cell sites.

Same maximum-throughput rate of 42 Mbps as using MIMO. From a deployment point of view. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 82 . CDF indicates the probability of achieving a particular throughput rate and the figure demonstrates a consistent doubling of throughput. operators will be able to introduce HSPA+ capabilities through either a software upgrade or hardware expansions to existing cabinets to increase capacity. For example. EDGE. In this configuration. and reduced power consumption with VoIP will result in talk times that are more than 50 percent higher. For networks that have implemented uplink diversity in the base station.times of less than 200 msec will improve users’ “always-connected” experience. there are benefits:  Significantly higher peak throughputs available to users. This approach coordinates the operation of HSPA on two adjacent 5 MHz carriers so that data transmissions can achieve higher throughput rates. downlink operation and no MIMO. however. Although there is no increase in overall spectral efficiency. Dual-Carrier HSPA 3GPP has defined a work item for Release 8 to investigate dual-carrier HSPA operation. especially in lightlyloaded networks. but with a less expensive infrastructure upgrade. Certain upgrades will be simpler than others.  The following figure shows an analysis of dual-carrier performance using a cumulative distribution function. those multiple antennas will facilitate MIMO deployment. HSPA. upgrading to 64-QAM support will be easier to implement than 2X2 MIMO for many networks. it will be possible to achieve a doubling of the 21 Mbps maximum rate available on each channel to 42 Mbps. The work item assumes two adjacent carriers.

This is particularly beneficial in femto cell deployments. single-carrier GRAKE. In Release 7. These new architectures.Figure 33: Dual-Carrier Performance97 100 90 80 70 Ped A. This brings several benefits such as eliminating hardware in the SGSN and simplified engineering of the network. single-carrier GRAKE2. multi-carrier 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Achievable bitrate [Mbps] One-Tunnel Architecture Another way HSPA performance can be improved is through a flatter architecture. There is also an integrated RNC/NodeB option in which RNC functions are integrated in the Node B. especially on the packet-switched core network side where they provide synergies with the introduction of LTE. 10% load CDF [%] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 RAKE. multi-carrier GRAKE. HSPA. The integrated RNC/NodeB for HSPA+ has been agreed-upon as an optional architecture alternative for packetswitched-based services. as an RNC would otherwise need to support thousands of femtocells. multi-carrier GRAKE2. as shown in Figure 34. 97 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. EDGE. there is the option of a one-tunnel architecture by which the network establishes a direct transfer path for user data between RNC and GGSN while the SGSN still performs all control functions. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 83 . single-carrier RAKE. are similar to the EPC/SAE architecture.

Doing so with VoIP. 2007. The other is VoIP. however. There is an elegant alternative: To packetize the circuit-switched voice traffic which is already in digital form. HSPA+. CS Voice over HSPA HSPA channels employ many optimizations to obtain a high degree of data throughput.” EDGE. 98 Source: 3G Americas white paper. Moreover. HSPA Voice Support Voice support with WCDMA dedicated channels in UMTS networks is spectrally very efficient. to offer these services simultaneously to users. One approach is called circuitswitched voice over HSPA. The following figure shows the infrastructure changes required at the Node B and within the RNC. “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. which is why it makes sense to use them to carry voice communications. There are. HSPA. and other advanced functions provide a compelling advantage for UMTS over competing technologies: The ability today to support voice and data services on the same carrier and across the whole available radio spectrum. requires not only supporting packetized voice in the radio channel. to deliver data at ever-increasing broadband rates. This requires relatively straightforward changes in just the radio network and in devices. current networks support simultaneous voice and data operation. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 84 .) immediately beyond the radio access network. use the HSPA channels to carry the CS voice. however.Figure 34: HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture98 Traditional HSPA Architecture GGSN User Plane Control Plane RNC Node B SGSN HSPA with One-Tunnel Possible HSPA+ with Architecture One-Tunnel Architecture GGSN SGSN RNC Node B Node B GGSN SGSN HSPA. but also within the infrastructure network. but then to connect the CS voice traffic back into the existing CS infrastructure (MSCs. and to do so in a spectrally efficient manner. etc. reasons to consider alternate approaches including reducing power consumption and being able to support even more users.

Acts as a stepping stone to VoIP over HSPA/LTE in the future. but it is enhancements in 99 Source: 3G Americas white paper.” EDGE. VoIP is possible in Release 6. HSPA. allow operators to consolidate their infrastructure on an IP platform. VoIP Once HSDPA and HSUPA are available. 2007. legacy mobile phones can continue using WCDMA-dedicated traffic channels for voice communications while new devices use HSPA channels. Supports both narrowband and wideband codecs. IuCS Combined to one carrier HSPA scheduler HSPA IuPS PS R99 NodeB RNC With this approach. “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. make it highly likely that operators will adopt it:        Relatively easy to implement and deploy. operators will have another option of moving voice traffic over to these high-speed data channels. Significantly improves battery life with voice communications. Transparent to existing CS infrastructure. The many benefits of this approach. and enable innovative new applications that combine voice with data functions in the packet domain. Provides a 50 to 100% capacity gain over current voice implementations. HSPA CS voice can be deployed with Release 7 or later networks. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 85 .Figure 35: Implementation of HSPA CS Voice99 Scheduler prioritizes voice packets CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer depending on terminal capability Transport queues etc CS R99 AMR adaptation possible AMR adapt. listed below. This will eventually increase voice capacity. which is using VoIP. Enables faster call connections.

They range from 20 percent to as high as 100 percent with the implementation of interference cancellation and the minimization of IP overhead through a scheme called Robust Header Compression (ROHC). EDGE. packet voice will likely be used initially as part of other services (for example.6 0. some voice users can be on legacy circuit-switched voice and others can be on VoIP. packet voice requires a considerable amount of new infrastructure in the core network.8 PS Evolution VoIP capacity gains are quantified in detail in the main part of in this paper.4 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 86 . This is because UMTS already has a highly efficient circuit-switched voice service and already allows simultaneous voice/data operation.Release 7 that make it highly efficient and thus attractive to network operators.2 1 VoIP CS CS + VoIP 0. Because the UMTS radio channel supports both circuit-switched voice and packetswitched data. HSPA. with HSPA+. Moreover. it may not be used immediately for primary voice services. 3GPP is working on a project called Long Term Evolution as part of Release 8. and only over time will it transition to primary voice service. Whereas packet voice is the only way voice will be supported in LTE. Figure 36: Ability for UMTS to Support Circuit and Packet Voice Users100 1. 3GPP LTE Although HSPA and HSPA+ offer a highly efficient broadband-wireless service that will enjoy success for the remainder of this decade and well into the next.4 0. Figure 36 shows a system’s voice capacity with the joint operation of circuitswitched and IP-based voice services.2 0 0 Power reserved for PS traffic (W) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Relative Capacity 0. discussed later in this paper. One attractive aspect of deploying VoIP with HSPA is that operators can smoothly migrate users from circuit-switched operation to packet-switched operation over time. Work on LTE 100 Source: 3G Americas member contribution. LTE will allow operators to achieve even higher peak throughputs in higher spectrum bandwidth. those based on IMS). As a result. VoIP will be implemented in conjunction with IMS.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 87 . which is well suited to achieve high peak data rates in high-spectrum bandwidth. On the uplink. LTE capabilities include:     Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth. LTE uses OFDMA on the downlink. to 10 msec round-trip times between user equipment and the base station. Uplink peak data rates up to 86. Achieving peak rates in the 100 Mbps range with wider radio channels. Scheduling approaches in the frequency domain can also minimize interference. LTE uses an approach called SC-FDMA.4 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 57. which is somewhat similar to OFDMA. radio-access technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily coexist with HSPA and earlier networks. a pure OFDMA approach results in high Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) of the signal.16e. however. battery life. Reduced latency.4 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth. ultimately. Operation in both TDD and FDD modes.6 86. thereby boosting spectral efficiency. and it is not practical with current technology. This is where OFDM provides a practical implementation advantage. Table 16 shows LTE peak data rates based on different downlink and uplink designs.4 EDGE. Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz. The OFDMA approach is also highly flexible in channelization. and to less than 100 msec transition times from inactive to active. and LTE will operate in various radio channel sizes ranging from 1. WCDMA radio technology is basically as efficient as OFDM for delivering peak data rates of about 10 Mbps in 5 MHz of bandwidth. Initial possible deployment is targeted for 2010. Increased spectral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a factor of two to four. Hence. 10. which compromises power efficiency and.began in 2004 with an official work item started in 2006 and a completed specification expected in early 2009. however. 5.25 to 20 MHz. and 20 MHz in the study phase. operators will be able to easily migrate their networks and users from HSPA to LTE over time.   The overall objective is to provide an extremely high performance. 15. covering 1. but has a 2 to 6 dB PAR advantage over the OFDMA method used by other technologies such as IEEE 802. Table 16: LTE Peak Throughput Rates LTE Configuration Using 2X2 MIMO in the Downlink and 16 QAM in the Uplink Using 4X4 MIMO in the Downlink and 64 QAM in the Uplink Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 172. 3.4. Because of scalable bandwidth.8 326. would result in highly complex terminals. HSPA.

The CP is basically a guard time during which reflected signals will reach the receiver. The system is called orthogonal. because of a highly efficient uplink. In 10 MHz of spectrum. and then combined to form the broadband stream using a mathematical algorithm called an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) that is implemented in digital-signal processors. especially in supporting radio channels of different widths. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 88 . It results in an almost complete elimination of multipath induced Intersymbol Interference (ISI). 3GPP specifically selected the subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz to avoid any performance degradation in high-speed conditions.LTE is not only efficient for data but.101 LTE implements OFDM in the downlink. EDGE. Figure 38 shows how the system can assign these resource blocks to different users over both time and frequency. The different narrowband streams are generated in the frequency domain. which otherwise makes extremely high data rate transmissions problematic. is extremely efficient for VoIP traffic. In LTE.0 msec. and the IFFT conserves that characteristic. HSPA.4 MHz channel to 1. OFDM systems may lose their orthogonal nature as a result of the Doppler shift induced by the speed of the transmitter or the receiver. The composite signal is obtained after the IFFT is extended by repeating the initial part of the signal (called the Cyclic Prefix [CP]). LTE VoIP capacity will reach almost 500 users.7 sec) The multiple-access aspect of OFDMA comes from being able to assign different users different subcarriers over time. The basic principle of OFDM is to split a high-rate data stream into a number of parallel low-rate data streams. A minimum resource block that the system can assign to a user transmission consists of 12 subcarriers over 14 symbols in 1. WiMAX systems that use a lower subcarrier spacing (~11 kHz) will be more impacted in high-speed conditions than LTE. because the subcarriers are generated in the frequency domain (making them inherently orthogonal). The number of subcarriers ranges from 72 in a 1. This extended signal represents an OFDM symbol. each a narrowband signal carried by a subcarrier.8 sec) Data (66. Figure 37: OFDM Symbol with Cyclic Prefix Cyclic Prefix (4. 101 Source: 3GPP Multi-member analysis. the subcarriers have 15 kHz spacing from each other. LTE maintains this spacing regardless of the overall channel bandwidth. which simplifies radio design.200 in a 20 MHz channel.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 89 . there are two possible approaches: single user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). 4G. 4X4 will be most likely used initially in femto cells. and 4X4. 4X2 (four antennas at the base station). Initial deployment will likely be 2x2. whereas MU-MIMO does not require any additional implementation at the device. Through its Radio Communications EDGE. and supporting full network agility for handovers between different types of networks (for example. however. The high data rates will require radio channels wider than 20MHz. Preliminary research is focused on technologies capable of delivering peak rates of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) in hotspottype scenarios and 100 Mbps while mobile. After that. but by using a different one third of the subcarriers in each sector.Figure 38: LTE OFDMA Downlink Resource Assignment in Time and Frequency User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency User 4 Time Minimum resource block consists of 14 symbols and 12 subcarriers By having control over which subcarriers are assigned in which sectors. being fully IP-based. most likely in new spectrum. there are no official standards or formal definitions for 4G. LTE can easily control frequency reuse. HSPA. LTE is specified for a variety of MIMO configurations.” Some companies are attempting to co-opt the term “4G” to refer to wireless systems that promise performance beyond current 3G systems. but delivers high peak rates to users. The looser frequency reduces overall spectral efficiency. All of these systems are on par with HSPA/HSPA+ and LTE. Currently. the system achieves a looser frequency reuse of 1/3. and use of the term “4G” for them is inappropriate. By using all the subcarriers in each sector. The first LTE release thus incorporates MU-MIMO with SU-MIMO deferred for the second LTE release. the system would operate at a frequency reuse of 1. 4G to 3G to WLAN). as discussed above in the section “Spectrum. SU-MIMO is more complex to implement as it requires two parallel radio transmit chains in the mobile device. On the downlink. On the uplink. these include 2X2. operators may deploy Fourth Generation (4G) networks using LTE technology as a foundation. IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced LTE will address the market needs of the next decade. ITU is the internationally recognized organization producing the official definition of next-generation wireless technologies.

” The IMT-Advanced project schedule shows the requirements and evaluation criteria being published in 2008 with submissions to occur through 2009. in which the operator uses different radio bands for transmit and receive.. Multi-channel operation in either same or different frequency bands. often with the downlink consuming more bandwidth than the uplink. An alternate approach is TDD. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 90 . called UMTS TDD. Japan Mobile IT Forum (mITF). and organizations that are advancing the capabilities of wireless systems. 50 to 100 MHz). in which both transmit and receive functions alternate in time on the same radio channel. 3GPP will address the requirements in a version of LTE called LTE Advanced for which specifications could become available in 2011. however. Ability to share bands with other services.. Wider radio channels (e. Needless to say. These include the Wireless World Research Forum. TDD does not provide any inherent advantage for voice functions. Many data applications. As background for this project. and the Next Generation Mobile Committee (NGMC).g.Sector (ITU-R). ITU published a document. HSPA. research under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). No details are available yet on these advanced technologies.16m. 4X4). Note that for EDGE. hence balancing both forward-link and reverse-link capacity. are asymmetric.1645. A TDD radio interface can dynamically adjust the downlink-to-uplink ratio accordingly. Wireless World Initiatives. Given this paper’s projection of mid-next-decade before OFDMA-based systems like LTE have a large percentage of subscribers. it could be well toward the end of the next decade before any IMT-Advanced system has a large subscriber base. 3GPP specifications include a TDD version of UMTS. which need balanced links—namely.. ITU is currently working on a definition of 4G using the name IMTAdvanced. UMTS TDD Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployments are based on FDD. there are a variety of wireless research and development projects. vendors will be looking at how to leverage and enhance current OFDMA systems like LTE. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Current 3G systems came about through ITU’s prior project on International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000).g. WiMAX will address the IMT-Advanced requirements in a version called Mobile WiMAX 2. less than 20 MHz) due to spectrum constraints in some deployments.   Globally. to be specified in IEEE 802. initiatives. Optimization in narrower bands (e. 3GPP will specify LTE Advanced in Release 10. especially for applications like Web browsing or multimedia downloads. the Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea. and WiMAX to meet the requirements of IMT-Advanced. Recommendation ITU-R M. but ideas under consideration include:     Evolution of current OFDMA approaches. titled “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000.g. the same amount of capacity in both the uplink and the downlink. High-order MIMO (e. UMB.0.

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 91 . TDSCDMA uses the same core network as UMTS. however. The UMTS TDD specification also includes the capability to use joint detection in receiver-signal processing. This makes it a possible alternative for wireless local loops. relates to available spectrum. or in the future LTE in TDD mode. TDD systems require network synchronization and careful coordination between operators or guard bands. EDGE. and the Pacific region have licensed spectrum available specifically for TDD systems. thereby making the overall system efficiency relatively poor. acquired by NextWave in May 2007. The vendor IP Wireless. it provides a framework of application servers.102 UMTS TDD is not a good choice in FDD bands.84 Mcps for UMTS TDD. Asia. For this spectrum. There has been little deployment of UMTS TDD. the primary attribute of TD-SCDMA is that it is designed to support very high subscriber densities. PoC. One consideration. TD-SCDMA technology is not as mature as UMTS and CDMA2000. which includes the companion Session Description Protocol (SDP) used to convey configuration information such as supported voice codecs. The core networking protocol used within IMS is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). As discussed in more detail in the “WiMAX” section. The exact services will depend on cellular operators and application developers that make these applications available to operators. Though there are no planned deployments in any country other than China. but has never been used.UMTS FDD. Specified through 3GPP as a variant of the UMTS TDD System and operating with a 1. which offers improved performance. Future TDD deployments of 3GPP technologies are likely to be based on LTE. and gateways to make them possible. had commercialized UMTS TDD. there is limited spectrum specifically allocated for TDD systems. Rather. Potential applications include video sharing. TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA is one of the official 3G wireless technologies being developed. IMS by itself does not provide all these applications. streaming video. the higher spectral efficiency achievable in the downlink versus the uplink is critical in addressing the asymmetrical nature of most data traffic. IMS IMS is a service platform that allows operators to support IP multimedia applications.28 Megachips per second (Mcps) chip rate against 3. It is also a good choice in any spectrum that does not provide a duplex gap between forward and reverse links. UMTS TDD. which may be problematic in certain bands. with 2008 being the first year of limited deployments in China in time for the Olympic Games. mostly for deployment in China. TD-SCDMA could theoretically be deployed anywhere unpaired spectrum is available—such as the bands licensed for UMTS TDD—assuming appropriate resolution of regulatory issues. Other protocols include Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) for transporting actual 102 The 1910-1920 MHz band targeted unlicensed TDD systems. HSPA. Various countries around the world including Europe. is a good choice. and it is possible for the same core network to support both UMTS and TD-SCDMA radio-access networks. In the United States. interactive gaming. subscriber databases. and so forth. it would not be able to operate effectively in both bands. VoIP.

sessions. By managing services and applications centrally—and independently of the access network—IMS can enable network convergence. and the Java Community Process (JCP). Although originally specified by 3GPP. thus providing these services at lower prices and further driving demand and usage. 3GPP2. This allows operators to potentially deliver data and voice services at lower cost. As shown in Figure 39. These include the Internet Engineering Taskforce (IETF). and wireline networks. This allows operators to offer common services across 3G. CableLabs. 3GPP initially introduced IMS in Release 5 and has enhanced it in each subsequent specification release. Other organizations supporting IMS include the GSM Association (GSMA). IMS operates just outside the packet core. numerous other organizations around the world are supporting IMS. IMS is relatively independent of the radio-access network and can. and one initial application under consideration—PoC—is being specified by the Open Mobile Alliance. and the Open Mobile Alliance. EDGE. Operators are already trialing IMS. IMS applications can reside either in the operator’s network or in third-party networks including enterprises. The QoS mechanisms in UMTS will be an important component of some IMS applications. be used by other radio-access networks or wireline networks. and a lower cost infrastructure that is based on IP building blocks used for both voice and data services. Wi-Fi. and likely will. Figure 39: IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS Home Subscriber Server (HSS) DIAMETER SIP Application Server SIP Media Resource Function Control Media Resource Gateway Control Call Session Control Function (CSCF) (SIP Proxy) UMTS/HSPA Packet Core Network DSL Wi-Fi Multiple Possible Access Networks The benefits of using IMS include handling all communication in the packet domain. tighter integration with the Internet. which specifies key protocols such as SIP. which specifies endto-end service-layer applications. the ITU. Operators looking to roll out VoIP over networks could also use IMS. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 92 . HSPA. the ETSI. The Parlay Group. Other applications include picture and video sharing that occur in parallel with voice communications. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). the Telecoms and Internet Converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN).

Release 7 includes optimizations through a solution called multicast/broadcast single-frequency network operation which involves simultaneous transmission of the exact waveform across multiple cells. The result is highly efficient WCDMAbased broadcast transmission technology that matches the benefits of OFDMA-based broadcast approaches. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 93 . Service areas for both broadcast and multicast can span either the entire network or a specific geographical area. As such. EDGE. This enables the receiver to constructively superpose multiple MBSFN cell transmissions.Broadcast/Multicast Services An important capability for 3G and evolved 3G systems is broadcasting and multicasting. Normally. these signals would interfere with each other. because the mobile system can combine the signal from multiple base stations and because of the narrowband nature of OFDM. whereas in a multicast. every subscriber unit in a service area receives the information. In a broadcast. the LTE broadcast capability is expected to be quite efficient. wherein multiple users receive the same information using the same radio resource. Because multiple users in a cell are tuned to the same content. 3GPP defined highly-efficient broadcast/multicast capabilities for UMTS in Release 6 with MBMS. broadcasting and multicasting result in much greater spectrum efficiency for services such as mobile TV. LTE will also have a broadcast/multicast capability. only users with subscriptions receive the information. OFDM is particularly well-suited for broadcasting. HSPA. Figure 40: OFDM Enables Efficient Broadcasting An alternate approach for mobile TV is to use an entirely separate broadcast network with technologies such as Digital Video Broadcasting–Handheld (DVB-H) or Media Forward Link Only (MediaFLO). This creates a much more efficient approach for delivering content such as video programming to which multiple users have subscriptions. which various operators around the world have opted to do. Though this requires a separate radio in the mobile device. the networks are highly optimized for broadcast.

and PDN gateways can be collocated in the same physical node or distributed. For packet flow. One important performance aspect of EPC/SAE is a flatter architecture. based on vendor implementations and deployment scenarios. called Evolved Node B (eNodeB) and the Access Gateway (AGW). It will support service continuity across heterogeneous networks. EDGE. Another architectural option is to reverse the topology. The user plane functions consist of two elements: A serving gateway that addresses 3GPP mobility and terminates eNodeB connections. Meanwhile. EPC/SAE includes two network elements. EPC/SAE also allows integration of non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX. It will also manage QoS across the whole system. The AGW has both control functions. and user plane (data communications) functions. the AGW integrates the functions traditionally performed by the SGSN and GGSN. which previously was a separate node controlling multiple Node Bs. so that the EPC/SAE Access Gateway is located close to the RAN in a distributed fashion to reduce latency while the MME is centrally located to minimize complexity and cost. and a Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway that addresses service requirements and also terminates access by non-3GPP networks. EPC/SAE could also be deployed for use with HSPA+ where it could provide a stepping-stone to LTE. serving gateway. lower-latency. Although it will most likely be deployed in conjunction with LTE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 94 . EPC/SAE will be optimized for all services to be delivered via IP in a manner that is as efficient as possible—through minimization of latency within the system. which will be important for LTE operators that must simultaneously support GSM /EDGE/UMTS/HSPA customers. The EPC/SAE architecture is similar to the HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture discussed in the “HSPA+” section that allows for easy integration of HSPA networks to the EPC/SAE. for example.EPC/SAE 3GPP is defining EPC/SAE in Release 8 as a framework for an evolution or migration of the 3GPP system to a higher-data-rate. The focus of this work is on the packetswitched domain with the assumption that the system will support all services—including voice—in this domain. The eNodeB (base station) integrates the functions traditionally performed by the radio-network controller. which will be essential for enabling a rich set of multimedia-based services. packet-optimized system that supports multiple radio-access technologies. HSPA. EPC/SAE will use IMS as a component. Figure 41 shows the EPC/SAE architecture. handled through the Mobile Management Entity (MME). The MME.

The MME that supports user equipment context and identity as well as authenticates and authorizes users. enforces policy. IMS EPC/SAE Access Gateway Non 3GPP IP Access Elements of the SAE architecture include:    Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN networks connected via SGSN. The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) that manages QoS aspects. The Serving Gateway that terminates the interface toward the 3GPP radio-access networks. and provides access for non-3GPP access networks. e.g. allocates IP addresses. does routing. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 95 .    EDGE.Figure 41: EPC/SAE Architecture GERAN Rel’7 Legacy GSM/UMTS SGSN UTRAN One-Tunnel Option Control MME PCRF Evolved RAN. Support for new radio-access networks such as LTE. HSPA. LTE User Plane Serving Gateway PDN Gateway IP Services.. The PDN gateway that controls IP data services.

Data Voice 1XRTT – One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology 2G – Second Generation 3G – Third Generation 3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2 – Third Generation Partnership Project 2 4G – Fourth Generation 8-PSK – Octagonal Phase Shift Keying AAS – Adaptive Antenna Systems AGW – Access Gateway AMR – Adaptive Multi Rate ANSI – American National Standards Institute ARQ – Automatic Repeat Request ARPU – Average Revenue Per User ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode AWGN – Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel BCCH – Broadcast Control Channel bps – bits per second BRS – Broadband Radio Service BSC – Base Station Controller BTS – Base Transceiving Station C/I – Carrier to Interference Ratio CAPEX. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 96 . Data Optimized 1xEV-DV – One Carrier Evolved.Acronyms The following acronyms are used in this paper. HSPA. Acronyms are defined on first use. 1xEV-DO – One Carrier Evolved.Capital Expenditure CDF – Cumulative Distribution Function CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CP – Cyclic Prefix CPC – Continuous Packet Connectivity CRM – Customer Relationship Management DAS – Downlink “A” Level Scheme dB – Decibel DBS – Downlink “B” Level Scheme DC-HSPA – Dual Carrier HSPA DSL – Digital Subscriber Line EDGE.

Data Optimized EV-DV – One Carrier Evolved. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 97 .DTM – Dual Transfer Mode D-TxAA – Double Transmit Adaptive Array DVB-H – Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld E–DCH – Enhanced Dedicated Channel EBCMCS – Enhanced Broadcast Multicast Services EDGE – Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution EGPRS – Enhanced General Packet Radio Service eNodeB – Evolved Node B EPS – Evolved Packet System ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning ETRI – Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute ETSI – European Telecommunications Institute E-UTRAN – Enhanced UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network EV-DO – One Carrier Evolved. HSPA. Data Voice EVRC – Enhanced Variable Rate Codec FCC – Federal Communications Commission FDD – Frequency Division Duplex Flash OFDM – Fast Low-Latency Access with Seamless Handoff OFDM FLO – Forward Link Only FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence FP7 – Seventh Framework Programme FTP – File Transfer Protocol G-Rake – Generalized Rake Receiver Gbps – Gigabits Per Second GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Network GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node GHz — Gigahertz GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GPRS – General Packet Radio Service GSM – Global System for Mobile communications GSMA – GSM Association HARQ – Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request HD – High Definition HLR – Home Location Register HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access HS-PDSCH .High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels HSPA – High Speed Packet Access (HSDPA with HSUPA) HSPA+ – HSPA Evolution HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access EDGE.

Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service Mbps – Megabits Per Second Mcps – Megachips Per Second MCS – Modulation and Coding Scheme MediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only MHz – Megahertz MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output mITF – Japan Mobile IT Forum MMDS – Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service MME – Mobile Management Entity MMSE – Minimum Mean Square Error MRxD – Mobile Receive Diversity MSC – Mobile Switching Center MU-MIMO – Multi-User MIMO msec – millisecond NGMC – Next Generation Mobile Committee OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access PAR – Peak to Average Ratio EDGE.Hz – Hertz ICT – Information and Communication Technologies IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IETF – Internet Engineering Taskforce IFFT – Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IM – Instant Messaging IMS – IP Multimedia Subsystem IMT – International Mobile Telecommunications IPR .Intellectual Property Rights IP – Internet Protocol IPTV – Internet Protocol Television IR – Incremental Redundancy ISI – Intersymbol Interference ISP – Internet Service Provider ITU – International Telecommunications Union JCP – Java Community Process kbps – Kilobits Per Second kHz — Kilohertz km – Kilometer LSTI – LTE/SAE Trial Initiative MAC – Medium Access Control MBMS . HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 98 .

LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 99 .PBCCH – Packet Broadcast Control Channel PCRF – Policy Control and Charging Rules Function PCS – Personal Communications Service PHY – Physical Layer PDN – Packet Data Network PoC – Push-to-talk over Cellular QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QoS – Quality of Service QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RAB – Radio Access Bearer RAN – Radio Access Network RF – Radio Frequency RNC – Radio Network Controller ROHC – Robust Header Compression RTP – Real Time Transport Protocol RTSP – Real Time Streaming Protocol SC-FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SAE – System Architecture Evolution SDMA – Space Division Multiple Access SDP – Session Description Protocol SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node SIC – Successive Interference Cancellation SIP – Session Initiation Protocol SMS – Short Message Service SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio SU-MIMO – Single User MIMO TCH – Traffic Channel TDD – Time Division Duplex TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access TD-SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access TD-CDMA – Time Division Code Division Multiple Access TIA/EIA – Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industry Association TISPAN – Telecoms and Internet converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks TTI – Transmission Time Interval UAS – Uplink “A” Level Scheme UBS – Uplink “B” Level Scheme UMA – Unlicensed Mobile Access UMB – Ultra Mobile Broadband UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System s – Microseconds EDGE. HSPA.

Multi-vendor assessment. 3GPP: LTE Performance Summary.com/ReportPDF/ProductSheet/BI-SOS-PS.” August 1. 2008.” July 2006. July 2007. ABI Research: press release on study “Mobile Business Applications and Services. If there are any questions regarding the download of this information. 2007. April 2008. Downlink. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 100 . 3G Americas: “Global UMTS and HSPA Operator Status”. submission to 3G Americas Arthur D Little: “HSPA and Mobile WiMAX for Mobile Broadband Wireless Access – An Independent Report Prepared for the GSM Association. “HSPA: Keys to a Successful Broadband Access Strategy”.” References 3G Americas: “Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA – 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond.3gamericas. VoIP.org. including EDGE. HSPA. EDGE.berginsight. AT&T: “Ideas on LTE-Advanced”.org. 2007. June 2008 Update. Alcatel Lucent:”Technology Comparison”. available for free download on its Web site: http://www. and HSDPA deployments worldwide. 2007. June 2008. AT&T: Tom Keathley. Public Relations Administrator. March 27. HSPA and SAE/LTE”. UMTS. 3G Americas: “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8.UTRAN – UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VDSL – Very High Speed DSL VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol VPN – Virtual Private Network WAP – Wireless Application Protocol WCDMA – Wideband CDMA Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity WiMAX – Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network WMAN – Wireless Metropolitan Area Network WRC-07 – World Radiocommunication Conference 2007 Additional Information 3G Americas maintains complete and current lists of market information. http://www. July 11. HSPA and SAE/LTE”. Berg Insight: Smartphone Operating Systems. Uplink. 2008. please call +1 425 372 8922 or e-mail Krissy Gochnour. at info@3gamericas. 3GPP LTE-Advanced Workshop. July 2007.pdf. 3G Americas: “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8.

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July 31.com) and utilized a composite of statistical information from multiple resources.com/commentary2006/jan1806.rysavy. “HSPA as an Open Eco-System Today – Telstra Next G Network”.cellularnews. 2007. March 5.” June 2006.aspx?id=158452.htm.snl.com/story/31730. May 15. Qualcomm: press release.asp. 2008. 2006. http://www.com/press/20080731.html. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 103 .qualcomm. Rysavy Research: “Hard Numbers and Experts' Insights on Migration to 4G Wireless Technology. 2005. Verizon Wireless: Verizon Broadband Access Web page. GERAN Update. July 2008. Rysavy Research article: “Reach Me if You Can. Portio Research: “Mobile Data Services Markets 2008”. 2008.com/press/releases/2008/080207_Qualcomm_to_Ship. Value Partners: “Getting the Most Out of the Digital Divide – Allocating UHF Spectrum to Maximise the Benefits for European Society”.html.rysavy. January 30. 2008 Sprint: press release. This white paper was written for 3G Americas by Rysavy Research (http://www.wikipedia.outlook4mobility.com/article. Andy Seybold: “Will Data-Only Networks Ever Make Money?” January 18. HSPA.com/usmarketupdateq108. 2007. 2008. commentary. February 2005. http://www. Wireless Intelligence and AT Kearney: http://www. 2008. Wireless Week: “One in Three Handsets Will Be a Smartphone by 2013”.spectrumstrategy.Research in Motion: “EDGE Evolution.Q1 2008”. http://www. Research in Motion: “Evolution of High Speed Wireless Data Standards in 3GPP”. July 29.htm.com/Pages/GB/perspectives/Spectrum-Getting-the-most-outof-the-digita-dividend-2008. EDGE. “WiMAX: Mobilizing the Internet”.pdf. March 2008. SNL Kagan: press release. http://www.com/papers. “SNL Kagan Expects Wireless Data Revenue To Increase At A 16% Annual Rate Over The Next Decade”. May 2007.” published by Datacomm Research. March 2008. http://www1. Wikipedia: http://en.wirelessweek.org/wiki/World_population. Fierce Wireless Webcast. http://www.” http://www.php?source=newsletter. Sprint Nextel: Ali Tabassi. June 11.chetansharma. Telstra: presentation. Chetan Sharma: “US Wireless Data Market Update .

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