IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 37, NO.
4, JULY/AUGUST 2001
Operations of the Dominant Harmonic Active Filter (DHAF) Under Realistic Utility Conditions
Po-Tai Cheng, Member, IEEE, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Student Member, IEEE, and Deepak Divan, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—This paper presents laboratory test results of the Dominant Harmonic Active Filter (DHAF) prototype. The DHAF system achieves harmonic isolation at the dominant harmonics using square-wave active filter inverters. The key advantages of the DHAF system are the low rating and low bandwidth requirements of the active filter inverter. Such characteristics allow cost-effective and viable applications of the DHAF system to mitigate harmonic problems for high-power nonlinear loads (10–100 MW and above). Several practical situations, including source-sink resonance, ambient harmonic interferences, and unbalanced grid voltages are applied to the DHAF prototype to validate its performance. The operation principles of the DHAF system and the synchronous-reference-frame-based controller are discussed to explain how harmonic isolation at the dominant harmonics is accomplished. A design example of the DHAF system for a 20-MVA rectifier load at an industrial site is also given to illustrate its application. Index Terms—Active filter, dominant harmonic active filter, harmonic filter, harmonic isolation, HVdc, square-wave inverter, synchronous reference frame.
Proposed DHAF system.
I. INTRODUCTION S INDUSTRIES embrace modern power electronics technologies with an unprecedented fervor and capitalize on the improved efficiency and productivity provided by the workhorses like adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) and uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), the utility grid that powers the industries is being disturbed by these equipments because of their rectifier front ends. Due to their nonlinear nature, use of rectifiers results in significant harmonic current in the utility grid. With the increasing use of power factor correction capacitors installed in the grid for var compensation and the inductance of the lines and transformers, severe L-C resonances may be triggered by the harmonic current generated by nonlinear loads. The harmonic current also causes higher losses in the lines and transformers of the utility grid. Harmonic
Paper IPCSD 01–004, presented at the 2000 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy, October 8–12, and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Industrial Power Converter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Manuscript submitted for review April 1, 2000 and released for publication March 23, 2001. This work was supported by the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium (WEMPEC), University of Wisconsin, Madison. P.-T. Cheng is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). S. Bhattacharya is with the FACTS and Power Quality Division, Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 USA (e-mail: email@example.com). D. Divan is with Soft Switching Technologies, Middleton, WI 53706 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(01)05911-4.
standards, such as the IEEE 519, are strongly recommended by the utilities to alleviate such problems. Passive L-C filters have been the traditionally preferred harmonic filtering solution mainly for their high efficiency, low cost and simplicity.However, L-C filters aresusceptible to source-sink resonances –. L-C filters also attract harmonic current from ambient harmonic-producing loads and background distortion of grid voltages , –. Filter loading due to background distortion is a key design issue . Their filtering characteristics are affected by component tolerances, and the varying utility system impedances in case of system configuration changes and contingencies. Further, a stiff utility grid poses great difficulties for L-C filter design because sharp and precise tuning will be required to sink a significant percentage of the load harmonic current.Withalltheseproblems,L-CfiltersmaynotmeettheIEEE 519 standard . Several active filter systems have been proposed to mitigate harmonic current of industrial loads –. Pure series and shunt active filters are suitable for small-rating nonlinear loads , –. Hybrid series and hybrid shunt active filters, which are characterized by a combination of passive L-C filters and active filters, are cost effective and practical for large-rated nonlinear loads. Implemented with high-bandwidth pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverters, these active filters demonstrate superb filtering characteristics –, , , , , , –, , . On the other hand, due to their high bandwidth requirement, their applications are limited to nonlinear loads below 10 MW , . For nonlinear loads beyond 10 MW, hybrid active
0093–9994/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
using square-wave inverters.3%. to the references and . The proposed DHAF system (Fig. Restrictions apply. Filtering performances of shunt active filters with “double-pulse” nonlinear loads can be maintained if sufficient impedances (such as step-down transformers) are provided in between . The hardware implementation of major components of the DHAF prototype will also be presented. a similar SRF-based controller will be implemented for the seventh harmonic active filter inverter to achieve harmonic isolation at the seventh harmonic frequency . 1) achieves harmonic isolation at the dominant harmonic frequencies. The SRF controller achieves fifth harmonic isolation by using closed-loop control on the fifth harmonic com. and are measured and transformed into the synchronous axes) rotating at the fifth harmonic. The DHAF system test setup is shown in Fig. with 1. The errors are fed into the proportional plus integral (PI) regulators to generate the required voltage command for the -totransformation is applied active filter inverter. highly distorted line currents and voltages are likely to occur and cause line trip-offs and possible equipment damages.5-kVA basis. Downloaded on August 17. The operating frequency of the transformation is phase-locked to the utility grid by a simple phase-locked-loop circuitry. the synchronous-reference-frame (SRF)-based controller of the DHAF system is explained in detail. JULY/AUGUST 2001
filter systems implemented with PWM inverters are not cost effective due to the high bandwidth and high rating requirement.1038
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Passive L-C filters are usually used for this level of loads. 2 shows the block diagram of the SRF-based controller implemented for the fifth harmonic active filter inverter of the DHAF system. AD2S100 vector rotator of Analog Devices is used to implement the SRF transformation. The instrumentations for the DHAF prototype are shown in Fig. SRF-BASED DHAF CONTROLLER Fig. and extracted formed into dc quantities in the and are then compared by the subsequent low-pass filters. 37. the supply current ( is severely distorted with 38. using L-C filters may not meet the IEEE 519 standard. The authors have proposed the Dominant Harmonic Active Filter (DHAF) – intended for high-power nonlinear loads beyond 10 MW. Note that references and are zero in order to achieve harmonic isolation at the fifth harmonic.e. Three-phase supply currents . therefore the DHAF system operates independent of the load current profile. The DHAF system does not have any compenof the nonlinear load because sation limit in terms of its operations focus only on the dominant fifth and seventh harmonics. including “double-pulse” type of front ends widely used at low voltage levels. THD of improves from 39. The passive filters to the DHAF system. i. II. and ac-side dc-bus electrolytic capacitors mH. Source-Sink Resonance Passive L-C filters are very susceptible to source-sink resonance formed by the passive filter and the utility system impedance.2% of fifth harmonic as shown filter current as shown in in Fig.2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore. A to convert the inverter voltage command back to three-phase quantities. In real applications. The modified sine/triangle modulation used in the
controller generates square-wave switching commands at the fifth harmonic with slight fundamental frequency modulation to achieve harmonic isolation at the fifth harmonic frequency and dc-bus power balancing of the active filter inverter . DHAF PROTOTYPE TEST RESULTS The following test conditions are set up in the laboratory to emulate various practical utility interface situations. Experimental and simulation results have shown that the DHAF system meets the IEEE 519 harmonic current limits in the supply . Load: Six-pulse diode rectifier. as stated previously. If the resonant frequency is near the dominant fifth or seventh harmonic frequency. Turns ratio of the coupling transformer reactor is 20 : 1 (inverter side : L-C filter side). The DHAF system prototype is tested under several practical utility interface situations including source-sink resonances. 60 Hz. In the laboratory. and are the dc-side inductor and capacitor of Note that the rectifier load. 6(b). 3. The resonant frequency of the system inductance ( ) and the filter and ) is very close to the fifth harmonic components ( . only the fifth harmonic SRF controller is implemented to verify the operation of the DHAF prototype. A. VOL. In this paper. Therefore. The fifth and seventh harmonics of the supply current are extracted by the DHAF controller to achieve dominant harmonic isolation. 6(a). and so is the Fig. Supply: 244 V (rms. . ambient harmonic interferences.
.. line-to-line). Passive Filter: Component parameters for each test condition are given in Table II. where rad s). 5(b). The IEEE 519 harmonic standard requires the total demand distortion (TDD) to be below 12%. After the active filter is started. The control circuit is implemented with digital and analog circuit components to achieve the control functions described in Section II. SCR 90 on 4. . The distortion of the filter current is also reduced as shown in Fig. reduce the disturbances of high The DHAF system can also be installed at the PCC for a group of nonlinear loads.0% fifth harmH. 4. at the fifth and seventh harmonics (for six-pulse rectifier front ends). F. reference frame ( – The fifth harmonic component of the supply current is transand axes. and unbalanced grid voltages to validate its performance. However. . the fifth harmonic component of is reduced to 5. 5(a). monic distortion. NO. Details are given in Table I. and laboratory test results of the DHAF prototype are presented. The key parameters are given as follows. III. The DHAF system adopts the hybrid-shunt topology for the advantages of simple protection and retrofit possibility with the existing passive filters. 4.0% (after) as shown in Fig. For the DHAF prototype.
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. ponent of the supply current.2% (before the DHAF system is started) to 11. Active Filter: A conventional three-phase voltage-source inverter implemented with Toshiba MG100Q2YS40 (1200 V. 100 A) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules.
2. veriharmonic component of fying the square-wave switching of the DHAF inverter.0% of the fifth harmonic).
TABLE I HARMONIC PRODUCING LOAD USED IN THE TEST BENCH
TABLE II PASSIVE FILTER COMPONENTS FOR EACH TEST CONDITION
Note that the DHAF system achieves harmonic isolation in presence of the background supply voltage distortion (approximately 1. This experimental result filter to be indicates that the DHAF system allows the tuned at the fifth harmonic to maximize its harmonic filtering effectiveness without the risk of inducing the source-sink harmonic resonance. also contains a small fundamental component for dc-bus power
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA.: OPERATIONS OF THE DHAF UNDER REALISTIC UTILITY CONDITIONS
Fig. As indicated by the spectrum.
Fig. 7 shows the line-to-line output voltage of the fifth harmonic active filter inverter. Downloaded on August 17.2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore.CHENG et al. Controller of the DHAF system for the fifth harmonic active filter inverter. the fifth is the major component. Restrictions apply. The active filter inverter switches in the square-wave mode to achieve harmonic isolation at the fifth harmonic frequency.
under system resonance. VOL. 5. NO. Before the DHAF starts. Diode rectifier load. Supply current i .
(a) Fig. and the THD of
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. L . 10(a). L . This high current distortion primarily results from the ambient rectifier and background distortion of the supply voltage. 7.6%.
before DHAF is
balancing of the active filter inverter. JULY/AUGUST 2001
(a) Fig. After is the DHAF is started.1040
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Fig. The 11th and 13th sideare the result of the band harmonic voltages present in modulation strategy of the DHAF system. the fifth harmonic component of is reduced to 4. Filter current i . 8.
Fig.2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore. The current of the ambient rectifier is given in Fig. Ambient Harmonics Interferences Passive L-C filters are susceptible to ambient harmonic-producing loads because excessive harmonic current from ambient loads can cause passive filter overloading. the
DHAF system demonstrates its capability of blocking ambient harmonics by achieving harmonic isolation at dominant harmonic frequencies.6% of the fifth harmonic component as shown in Fig.
(line to line). (b) i after DHAF is started. 6.
DHAF prototype test bench instrumentations. under system
Fig. 4. 37.
before DHAF is
Fig. 3. B. supply current 22. Active filter inverter voltage resonance. (a) started. (b) i after DHAF is started. Hardware test bench for the DHAF system. Hardware test bench for the DHAF system. Ambient diode rectifier load. L and C are tuned at the fifth harmonic frequency. Note that the main load is disconcontains nected. Restrictions apply. under system resonance. 8 shows the arrangement of the DHAF system and the ambient harmonic-producing load.2% as reduced to 2. Downloaded on August 17. 4. (a) started.
. In this test. and resonance near the fifth harmonic frequency. Detailed derivation and calculation of the sideband components are provided in  and .
even with background distortion of the supply voltage.i . Supply current i . and thus allows the passive filters to be rated based only on the main load. 9. As the ambient diode rectifier load is started.
. 12. Unbalanced Grid Voltages In practice. As shown in Fig.3 V in the presence of increased disturbance from the utility side. 11 shows the response of the DHAF system to the starting transient of the ambient rectifier. 14. Fig. approximately 10% voltage drop in phase A is fabricated using an autotransformer. Load current i . middle: inverter dc-bus voltage.
Fig.0% with no individual harmonic component exceeding 3. Downloaded on August 17. (a) (b) . unbalanced utility supply voltage. 11. 13 shows the unbalanced line–line voltages. The DHAF system is tested under the unbalanced grid voltages and the resulting unbalanced diode rectifier load current.
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. The DHAF system is able to prevent overloading of the passive filters.v . (a) i before DHAF is started. the feedback controller and the dc-bus voltage controller of the DHAF system respond by charging up the inverter dc-bus voltage from 42. the three-phase supply voltages can be unbalanced for various reasons. unbalanced supply voltage. Ambient nonlinear load current. The envelope of the inverter output voltage follows the dc-bus voltage because of square-wave switching.
Fig. 15 and 16 show the unbalanced three-phase supply currents before and after the DHAF is started. 12. The fundamental and the fifth harmonic components are both unbalanced as shown in Table III. ambient diode rectifier load. Dynamic response of the DHAF system to the starting transient of the ambient rectifier load. Supply voltage v .
Fig. (b) Frequency domain.8 to 70. unbalanced supply voltage. In actual applications. (b) i after DHAF is started.CHENG et al.2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 13. Figs.: OPERATIONS OF THE DHAF UNDER REALISTIC UTILITY CONDITIONS
Fig. Restrictions apply. therefore the ambient load disturbances is limited. and v (a) Time domain. the utility needs to maintain the voltage THD below 5.
(b) . and i (a) Time domain. 10. and the resulting unbalanced rectifier current is shown in Fig. bottom: inverter output voltage v .
shown in Fig. (b) Frequency domain.
(a) Fig. Hardware test bench of the DHAF system. Top: ambient load current i . 14.0% (under 69 kV) according to the IEEE 519 standard. Fig. 10(b).
TABLE V HARMONIC CONTENTS OF THE 20-MVA INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMER
the IEEE 519 harmonic standard as shown in Fig. (b) Frequency domain. Therefore. After the DHAF is started. and 0. The output line–line voltages of the active filter given in Fig. 0. Supply current i . (b) THIRD.
Active filter inverter output voltage v .
Fig. 37. the fifth harmonic currents are reduced to 0. AND i
. (a) FUNDAMENTAL. JULY/AUGUST 2001
HARMONIC CONTENTS AND THD OF SUPPLY CURRENT i
TABLE III . 17 show a set of balanced three-phase voltages which achieve harmonic isolation at the negative-sequence fifth harmonic frequency. 18. (a) Time domain. respectively.
.31 A. Restrictions apply. 16.
DHAF design example for a 20-MVA industrial site. i . The DHAF controller uses SRF transformation rotating at the negative-sequence fifth harmonic. respectively. The harmonic content of the load current is given in Table V. unbalanced supply voltage. 18. 15.
The third harmonic component is also significant due to the unbalance. As the DHAF system achieves harmonic isolation at the fifth harmonic frequency. i . VOL. (a) Time domain. Similar industrial installations have been presented –. (a) Time domain. Assume that the grid voltage contains 2% each of fifth and seventh harmonic distortion. unbalanced supply voltage. Downloaded on August 17. (c) FIFTH.28. thus. while the positive-sequence fifth harmonic component still exists. The fifth and seventh passive filters given in Table VI provide a total of 10 Mvar for reactive power compensation and harmonic filtering. 17.
TABLE IV POSITIVE-SEQUENCE
AND NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS OF i
Fig. DESIGN EXAMPLE A DHAF system is designed for an industrial customer of 20-MVA nonlinear load connected to the 11-kV feeder to meet
Fig. and i . 4. as given in Table III. unbalanced supply voltages. and i after the DHAF is started. the positive-sequence fifth harmonic current is converted into ac components and then filtered out by the subsequent low-pass filters. the
Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. before the DHAF is started. (d) THD
Fig.32. only the negative-sequence is driven toward zero by the fifth harmonic component of PI regulators. and . (b) Frequency domain. The DHAF system only suppresses the negative-sequence component of the fifth harmonic current. IV.1042
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. (b) Frequency domain. NO. i . Table IV shows that the negative fifth harmonic component of the supply current is suppressed by the DHAF system. Compensation of the positive-sequence component of the fifth harmonic current can be added if desired. Supply current i . v .2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore.
.  . The operational principles of the DHAF system and the SRF-based controller of the DHAF system were presented.” in Proc. pp.” in Conf. Z. Restrictions apply. Mohan. and the L-C filtered 11th and 13th harmonic current
Fig. Long. the secondary side quantities can be derived V A
With square-wave switching. A.” IEEE Trans. Dreifuerst. ambient harmonics interference.  H. Applicat. IEEE PESC’88. and A. 1991. Downloaded on August 17. respectively. Akagi. W. IEEE-IAS Annu..
Photographs of the DHAF prototype. the voltage and current ratings of the seventh harmonic active filter are V A
The voltampere ratings of the fifth and seventh harmonic square-wave inverters are 540 kVA (2. pp.
(2) V. J. Akagi. F. the seventh harmonic current due to the 2% tracking voltage generated by the seventh active filter.2010 at 14:19:35 UTC from IEEE Xplore. and unbalanced grid voltages. The commercially available 2500-V IGBTs can be used in this case for implementation. G. Meeting. “A practical approach to harmonic compensation in power systems—Series connection of passive and active filters. 874–880.7%) and 510 kVA (2. and J. The experimental results validate the capability of the DHAF system to achieve harmonic isolation at the dominant harmonic frequencies under various utility system conditions as well as background supply voltage distortions. REFERENCES
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Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA. Rec. 19. 19.  F. Peterson. the fifth harmonic component of load current. H. Photographs of the DHAF laboratory prototype are shown in Fig. based on peak values. 1977. Vithayathil. 1020–1025. pp.: OPERATIONS OF THE DHAF UNDER REALISTIC UTILITY CONDITIONS
TABLE VI PASSIVE FILTERS OF THE 20-MVA INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMER
active filter inverter produces the active tuning and background harmonic distortion tracking voltage components 
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