4.1 The velocity field of a flow is given by V = (S::t - 3)i + (x + 4)1 + 4~k rtfs. wltfre x. )I.

Clind z mre il'l feet Determine the fluid speed at the origin (x= )I = z = 0) and on the x axis (y "'" z == 0).

u-:; S z -3 !1r :::. X + if JJI' ;::: 4'y

J J

Thv« af fh e 0 ria in ().::: - 3 IV == ¥ ,1.1/ == 0

I J J J. J J

so1haf

V = ,ju""'· ~-+-t1f-2.-+)Jr-~2. :: /(_3):2. +.Jf~ ::: S' fils

SiIYJilar/YJ on the )( axi» ().:::. -3 ) /lr C X+~J jJf== 0 so -Ihat

V == ~r.:...v.Z-":"""+-ItI-~-+-)U'-=2,.:: 1(- 3) 2. + (X +If )2. ac: J x3. t 8 x + 2 S ffls J where x,..; f t

A fif.)W' e:at'l~« .fS\l.1~lle·4 b,ptottin. eM voioeiit),

.•..• vetoert)' vee •• It .... live It>eMioRs in ~_ ·~·"s shown tFl Video V4.1 and ~ig. 84.1. Consider the ... ~f;l)' field given in polar coordinates by v, :: -101r ~. 'f. - 101r. This flow approximates a fluid swirling into a ,iM as shown in Fig. P4.2. Plot the velocity field at *ati$As given by r = 1. 2. and 3 with (J = 0, 30, 60. and 91 •• _

'Wilh N;-=-IO/rand N9~/olr then • FIGURE P4.2

Vw. / /Vr2- + /11;/' ::; I(-Iolr l + (Jo/r)" = /I./.;!'IThe Clll9Je ex hetween fhe radial Jire~fion and ~he velocify vee/or is fjiven D,

f 1118 tor»

an eX = -1Ifr == _ (-Iolr) = I

Thlls ()(== .If SO for anv r B

J ./ J

f. e, the ve loeify Vee/or is alway orlen/td ~ (J rel4htle to rlJdia /lines)

.3 6~60

Nole: V IS ,ndepench9"t

0f 9. 8rr:3a

IJ.;:;. 20 y. V ::: _ 2.0 X

. (X2. + Y')~ , (X" + y2)V.2.

ThlJS V =J U2. t V2' or

V= t "00(:: :~~y: ] ~ = 20 {l for Qny X, Y

Also, -20X

f () - V _ (xl. + y2-)~

'In - -rr - 2.oy

or (xl. t y2.) Ii.

'1.3 I

4.3 The veloclty ftel4 Qf lit flow is liven by V .20),/(x2 + yZ)1I2{ - :tOxl(x2 + y2)llZj it/s, wJ:tere x and yare in feet. Determine the fluid speed at pointsalongthe x axis; along the y axis.

-- . -

tan e = _.K.. y

Thus, for (x,y) =(s) 0)

fane = -00 or e == _QOO

-

For (~.y) :::: (s ,5)

tan e ::: -/ or B::: - ~SO

for (X,y) = (Qr5)

fan 9::: 0 or B:::: 0 (J

What is the angle between the velocity vectC)fanfil the x axis at points (x, y) = (5, 0), (5, 5), and (0,5)?

y

20:i

..s

(0,5)

(5,0)

-4----------~~~-X

zaf!

.s

djv

U

'1-3

4.4 The components of a velocity field are given by u = x + y. v == xy3 + 16, and w = O. Determine t,he location of any stagnation points (V "" 0) in tile flow field.

v;: (u2. + /If'" +;.2. == I( X-f y)2.+(XY.3+16)2. -::: 0 Of'

(j. ~ X + Y = 0 :SO thaf X or:: - y

and .3 3

tv' ::: X y -1-/6 -= 0 s o that xy = .. ·/6

Hence (- yJ y3 ,:;-/6 or y::: 2-

J J

Therefore V=o oj X::-;2, v=z

J ) ;

4.5 The x and y component..'ll of velocity for a two-dimensional flow are u = 9y 2 itls and 1:) == 3 ft/s, where x is in feet. Deterllline the eqluatiotl for the slreamlines and graph representative streamlines in the upper half plane.

u::; 9y'1. and Ar ==3 So ihal the streamlines are qiven by

~"f~ 9~ Of S3y~Jy:: fJx

Thus) y3;:; X + C J where C is a cons/anT

Repre sen fa live .s1reQ(nlines correspond,jfJ'I 10 ci,tfererrt valves of C are shown below. Nole i SilJce Ilf':: 3?'0 the (low ie in the directifllJ inJi cated.

y

-----,----c-r-~ ---a--.----------r--

• • e

~.6 ]

4. 6 Show that the streamlines for a flow whose velocity components are u = c( x2 - y2) and v == -2cxy, where c is a constant, are given by the equation x2y - y3/3 ::: constant. At which point (points) is the flow parallel to the y axis? At which point .(points) is the fluid stationary?

___ ... . ~ -".~ •• _._ .. _ .. ~ .. _,~ .. _...L., .•. __ ." .. ,c_ • .' •.. _" •• __ '."~~.~<~. . .,_"

(

u: == C (X" - y~) J V:;: - 2. ex y

Sf rea m lines given hy rf(x) II,? ,stlc.h fhal * "'t

Consider the [unciion x1-y - -f = cons], (I)

7'lo-le; If is=no! easy 10 wrile/his explicitly as y~f('X)

f/owever J we can JifferenfiQfe Efl (I) f(r'livs

2xyr/x l+X'-Jy - y2Jy :; 0 J or

(x:z._y.t) ely + 2Xy dx ::: 0

Thvs.lfhe till8.S /n Ihe x- y plane given b, £r.lII hdv9a slope

_rfL ~_i~XY or for any cons Tan I c .. 11 ~ .. -2.(. Xl.. :; _L

di. (X2._y2.) .. . J x. c(x2.-y:t.) .-(1.

ie.rhe fURy/ion x2y - ~3 =cons{ represeni» ihe.srrealllihO,s

of fhe gIven flow.

The {low isl para/lei fo ihe x- axi« whel}·5f:::O J or v:::O. -r/Jis occons when eifherx =O()r r= J ie'j the X-aXIs or

. .: fhe y-qxis

The £10·11/ i.s, paraJJe I to fhe y-axis when ~::: O()J or=u: =0.

Thi.s()ccur..s when X::: ± X_

The lIvid hfls zer» veloc,lj.- al x::)1 =0

4--6

-•

Lf.7 I

4.7 A velocity field is given by V = xi + x(x - l)(y + I)}, where u and v are in ft/s and x and yare ill feet. Plo~ the streamline tiha:t passes thl'Ourh x = {} and y = O. Compare this streamline with the streakline through the origin.

u ;:: X , V == X(X-J) ()t+I) where fhe streamliaes ore (lbfailJluJ from

* == : =, X (x-~) (~tJ) = (X-/)(y+l)

or I( #1) = J(X-/) dx Wllich when infe9r4ied (I've.s

In (ytf) s: t x:1- - X + C , where C is 0 cOlJsitJlI1 (I)

For the ~/l'e4mJi!1e that pfl-fSeS fhrfJo'gh Ihe ori,/III x::: y.::o the V41ve of C is found from Elj. {JJ as

In (I) == C J or C::.:O

(fx2.-x)

Thus, In(ytl) ==ix2.-x or y - e -I

This .sfreamline i.s pJo#ed be/ow.

3.5 -----.----,---- --

2:~-- E - -~

2 \ ' I

y 1.5 \ j

1 \ I

-1

o

2

3

x

Note; The ..slrf/tJlfJline IS sYlTJmeTrical about ils lOIN ptJird

of X-=J J y:: - 0.39.3 4 III x-==yo::;o fhe velocJly IS o.

For X < 0 } U « 0 4nd foJ' X >o} U >0. T/J~ fhe find flows f ('()l17 fhe origin ( J( -= Y :: 0) •

Stnce fhe {low is steQay J ..sfre4kiif)8.s are Ihe SQlTJe os .sfreQ//Jli!JU..

/f.B

4.8 water flows from a rotating lawn sprinkler as shown in Video V4.6 and Figure P4.8. The end of the sprinkler ann moves with a speed of wR" where w = 10 rad/s is the angular velocity of the sprinkler arm and R = O.S ft is its radius. TIle water exits the nozzle with a speed of V ::::: 10 ftls relative to the rotating ann. Gravity and the interaction between the air and the water are negligible. (a) Show that the pathlines for this flow are straight radial lines. Hint: Consider the direction of flow (relative to the stationary ground) as the water leaves the sprinkler arm. (b) Show that at any given instant the stream of water that came from the sprinkler forms an arc given by r = R + (valw)e, where the

• FIGURE P4.S

(a) Wafer leave.s the no~zle wilh a velocily 0 f V;:: /0 fils af an QfJ9/e of 30" relalive 10 the radial Jireoiion - for 4() ohserller riJinfj on the .sprinkler arm, This is fhe re/4/iV8 'Ie/oeily. /1.1 shOWn in Ihe skelc,h, fhe sprlnklpf 4ffll has

a circllmfyencial veloc/Iy of R tu:: o. s r~ (joraJls) ;::.£ His. The tJbsolv/e velocity J VaJ as olNerveJ hy a persPII sfandillf/ on -Ihe fawn is the vector sum of relative ve/oeily and the n(J"~"Jle ve/oGily_

From ibe geome/f'Y of the fi9tJre :

• •

-fan 0( = 10.sm 30 -.5 z: 0

10 C(J~r30d

That is oG = 0

l. e'j the ahsolvfe wafer veloG/ly is in the radial direction. Since there is

no forceacfill9 on the water

after illeov8S, the w4icr p4f'lic/e..r

coollnu« If) move in /he raJ;aJ d;rec,lion.

Th~ the paihlin8J' are .s1rai9ld r~Jlal lines.

o

)

R=o,s

(b) The Sh4fJ8of the wafer sfrea.m ed a ~il/ell instanT (t:e"a ~1J4fJ sh"fu of Ihe wafer) can he ohlained 4S f()lIolVs. C()lJ.Iider the wafer .stream emQlltlliIJ9 from the end" ,,{-!he nOiile al r:=:R 4"d 19:0 at -lime /.;::()

( con'4)

W:::l0

~ ..

~/osln30-S

/0 COS.30u

¥. B (con'l)

A pari ic.Je in .Jhi.s stream -Ihal fell {('om the nozzl« t seconds 490 did

so when the nozzle waso] B::: wi. SinGe )'--0 -leo

the partle/es in .sfrairh1J raJi41 plllh.s wilh . Va~ .. -:

speed ~ (see pa,.f (a))J flits fiarlir;/e is ~"t sec;o~.Is afD

af a disfanr;e or r = R .,. II,. i from =, / )'~e=(di

ori9in. x:," _j ~ f=O

Tbvs, the sire,,,,, shape is ) {JJ

r= R f Va /; and () elf) t .1 or by eli!»inalill9 i

r = R ~(iY)e

For the qiven data wi1h ~::: V &o~30' :::~o fj) c().r30o :: 8. t6! (seep4rl(4)) 4IJd ()}::: /Q rad/s this heicolfJf:s

r = O.S to. "6.6 e J where r~ fI alia fj,... rad.

This stream .shape is plofled beloll/.

to

*1'.9 J"

,

x, in. y, in.

*4.9 Consider a b~l thrown with initial speed V@ at an angle of f) as shown in Fig. P4.9a. As di$Cussed in be,linning physics, if friction is negligible the path that the ban takes is given by

y::;: (tan 8)x - [g/(2 V02COS2 8))x2

That is, y ::;: CIX + Cit2, where Cl and C2 are constants. The path is a parabola. The pathline for a stream of water leaving a small no~~le is shown in Fig. P4.9b and Video V4.3. The coordinates for th~s water stream are given in the following table. (a) Use ~he liven data to determine appropriate values for CI and C2 in the above equation and, thus, show that these water particles ~so follow a parabolic pathline. (b) Use your values of CJ and C2 to _termine the speed of the water, Va, leaving the nozzle.

o 0

0.25 0.13

0.50 0.16

0.75 0.13

i.o 0.00

1.25 -0.20

1.50 -0.53

1.75 -0.90

2.00 -1.43

-- ...

' .....

fl:l!'I!~---~ ..... -"""'X ..... ,

\

'.

(al

y

(b)

, . i . , • FIGURE P4.9

£¥6IL +PrQ9ktlllrW4J I/.f:erl ttl plrJ/lh, x- yt/IIIA (;l11J

fi/p SeCCftJJ llJrJer cttrfte I~ l/,e r;J4fa. 'Tne re.Jl:llts,.,

y va x for Water Stream

0.04 ,----""""'".,..------,..----.__,-------

o

0.05

0.1 x, ft

0.15

ci=; o.7/1s::::i4n(j

I! . .,

. 4nJ! !

.. , (;1-;\'- 8.#917 f

1 '

0.2

4.10 The x and y components of a velocity field are given b>:y u "" ,ry aM 1I ... - ~. Determine t. equati.on Eor tihe sweamliM5 Qf theirs f1,ow aAd compare with those· in Example 4.2. Is the flow in this problem the same as that in Example 4.2? Explain.

S Iredaftl Jines are 'liven by M "" i- s: - : .. r- == - f or __l :: - r!.! which can be il1ie91"'aled as:

y x

st;=-J¥

Thvs, X y =c

N()ie! These s/realhlines are /heStllJ18 shape (.safIJe '1{low pa/1ernl) as in Example ~ 2 - bvf ih« veJoc/ly fields are dif{ereI'Jl. Howe"'u~ lhe ralios .£ are the same:

f= - ~l; " - ~

and

JL _ (Volt) (-yJ :: _ ~

a - ('Io/t) (x) x

¥-II

if. II

4.11 A flow lin the x-y plane is given by the following velocity field: u = 3 and u = 6 m/s for () < I < 2() s; II == ~4 and u = () m/s for 20 < t < 40 s. Dye is released at the origin (x = y = 0) for t = Q. (a) Draw the pathline at I = 30 s for two particles that were released from the origin-one released at t = 0 and the other released at t = 20 s. (b) On the same graph draw the streamlines at times t = 10 sand t = 30 s.

(0) For' +he pfJrrlicle released at t =0 J U = 3.1f and v:: 6'; for 0 -e t < 20s" D{JrilJlj Ihi-t lime Ihe floN! is .sie4riy tJnd fhe pafhlilJe has (J s/ope1/;:: -f- -::: 1- :: 2. • 1111::0 J x == y:::() rAnd 011.=2.0, X =(3")(1.05):::60", tlnd y=(6.!J!)(20S) «tzom

For 20 <: i <30 J (J. = - ~ f alld V.: OJ' So fhat lhe flow is .s fe4Jy and fbe palhline has Q .slope tJf -#X.: Q. TlJe pOl'I/c;/e moves fl'rJtn )(= tOm fo x = 6f)f(-ttfL)(30-2-0).s =+201» J I)VI keeps the

y = /1.0111 /ocfAtfol'l Juri/It} 20<t c:: 300$. This palhh"e is showII

in the fi9~".e below.

For the pa,.ficle released af the ori9in tit t s: 2.00$ tt follows fhal u==-lf:; ana v=o . Thvs, the c()rrespondilJ9 pflfhline ex/ends frol/l x=o fo X== (-tt.!f)(30-20).s :: -,/-0111 (IT t -:::30.$. This palhline is .shown in the ",lire b(J/oJf'-

(b) /II ,= /o~ J s ireamliae« are "iI/en by ~ ::: ~ ;; ~ ==2

or y == 2X + C, J where c, = cons]. -

IH t = 30s J sfreQ/1/lint:S are 9iven by ~ = ~ == 0

or y = C2_ J where Cz_::: coast, These lines are .showl) be/ow'l

yJm .rp~rlicle af=30,s (releaseaott=o)

-1,20 I _( e. ;,lib

/ sfreom/ines

_1_, - - __ - - ,If I- =/OoS

.sfreamlines

af /=305 _t_ _

"''10 0 lJO 80 x JTf1

porfic/eai t r.30.s (releeeed at t=2.0S)

if-/2

4.12. In addition to the customary horizontal velocity components of the air in the atmosphere (thl~ "wind"), there often are vertical air currents (thermals) caused by buoyant effects due to uneven heating of the air as indicated in Fig. P4.12. Assume that the velocity field in a certain region is approximated by U = Uo, v = lIo (1 - yIh) for (.) < Y < h, and u = UQ, V = 0 for y > h. Plot the shape of the streamline that passes through the origin for values of UO/VII = 0.5, 1, and 2.

:r

."".

/'" /

j

I

f

I

/;~~~~~~~~~~~~

x

o FIGURl} P4.12

lL = Uo J V = Vo (/- f) for 0 < Y..::h s o fhQt streamlines

for y..::: hare qiven by y

dv ::: JL _ Va (1- f) or ( d~

dx u - Uo J (I - f)

y V; 0

Thus, -h /h(J-1I) =--;tx

x

:0 tSdx

o

Note: The lower 11"I/1s 0 f irde,ra.f;o()

(x=o) y ~o) insure fhal thi.s eqllal/on is for fhe stream/ille Ihl'ov'Ih fhe ori9in.

This sireamlin»

X =-h ({;) In (J - i) is ploUed below~

y/h vs xlh

1
0.8
0.6
.s::
.....
>.
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 -uO/vO=2

- -uO/vO = 1

- - - uO/vO = 0.5

1.

2.5

3

1.5. xlti

2

y

4.13* Repeat Problem 4.12 using the same infOtllUltion except that u == uoylh for 0 :s; y :s; h radler than u == uo• Use values of uoh./o = 0,0.1, Ell. G.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0.

;""-

/tf' /

I

I .I. I I

o

U== UhY J' V= \.1, (I--i) for o<.y<h .$0 fha+ sfre4fh//ne.s for y<h are given by

dy_ = ~ = Vo (I-i) = Va (h -y) or wt'fh x ~(J when y:O

~ U U 1 ~ Y

f) h

Y SX

{ (h~ y) dy:: ~ dx This iflle'll'af~ Iq'live

-~ -h bt(h-y);Jlm{h)'.~X or f::~)[ln~)- *J

This sireqrnline is plalled below for 0 ~ *" ~ J J wilh

~ c 0 J O. 1 .I o. '2. I 0.111 O. /J I o.s J Ill"'" I. (J The VfJ IlJe.s were cafe IIkiteJ aIJ·rJ plDyte' os ;')(1 III) EXCliI. p"",,.,,,.

y/h vs xlh

1 ,--~~--'_--~----~----~~-------h~--~~---.

0.9 +--~C'-~-"""---h--~ ~~~€~~;.;:.::.~~~=====i

0.8 +----'~ 0.7 0.6 +--t-J~..-r-.

~ 0.5 -P-I-~~~---+-~- -_- --l---.--- .... --t---.--~----l

o .4 -1tf-LJf4;F- 0.3 0.2 0.1

O+------------+-----------~·--------~----------~

0.5

1 xlh

1.5

o

'I-HI-

x

2

if.lif I

4 •. 14 A vett)f:rty leldfus ,ive:Jl~y lit "'" C,;N2 and 1;1 == cyl, where c iis a constant. Determine the x and y components of the acceleration. At what point (points) in theflow field is the acceleration zero?

su ~U ~U 2. 3

fix =rr +11 JX + V Ty = (CX2.)(l.CX) ;; 2c X

I:lId

dV av iJV . () 3

tly ::"If + II Ti + VTy" := (c y2..) 2-C Y. = 2 c '-'y

Thy'S J (i 'Z IIItI t fly J r; 0 (;If (x I Y) ~ (0,1 ())

if. J S \

4.15 Determine the acceleration field for a three-dimensional flow with velocity components u = -x, v = 4x2y2, and w = x - y.

u= - X IV";; ¥ X~12 and ~rr -;:; x-y so that

I 7 J

a - J~ ill. cHi. su x - rf' f Urx +/If'ry+Vri"

:: 0 f (-X) (-0 + 'l-x2.y1. (0) f (x --Y){O)::: x

0. - d~ dv JAr dlfT_ Y =tr .J.Urx +N"Tf + JU'fT

z: 0 -f(-X) (8xy'") .J.(/fX'y")(9X"y) t(x-y)(o) == - 8 x"y2. +- 32 X""y3 -:: 8 x2.y"'( ¥ rr -I) and

4JJ1' d~ Jpr JP!:

Cl$ :: 1T +u rx +lYry +JlliZ

::; 0 f (-x)(J) + (l/-x"y") (-I) +(x-y)(o) ::: - X - 'Jx'y2.

Thv.r;, ..

.....a.: A

a -::: ax? of Oy J + ae k

. A

::: X f + fx"y1 {lfx2.y-/lJ -( x-tlfry:l) k

If-I.s

'1-./7

4., The velocity of air in the diverging pipe shown in Fig. P4.17 is given by III = 4t ft/s and V2 = 2t ft/s, where t is in seconds. (a) Determine the local acceleration at points (1) and (2). (b) Is the average convective acceleration between these two points negative, zero, or positive? Explain.

4nd t¥-J == 2~

('-)

b) convective acceleration alon9 the pipe::: U #

where tJ. >0. IN alJr lime' ~ < ~ . TJ;lIs hefween OJ tJI1J(~)

J J .... .I

JU,... \4-""--'0 rx- 1 ....

lienee" II. 1x -c 0 o/' the aver41e cQ/lveclive acceleration i.s nef41l'le.

If -./6

• • e

-¥. '8 1

4.18 Water flows in a pipe so that its velocity triples every 20 s. At t = 0 it has u = 5 ft/s. That is. V = u(t)i = 5 (31120)i ft/s. Determine the accleration when t = 0, 10, and 20 s.

11 :::: 5(3//2°), V -== 0 J W::O

.....

a ..... · _- f-tV + _",V·v ...... V -- ~t [" ~ _.. ~ f

~ ;-" S//'Jce V· v V :; 0 because V is na Q

Q {une. t ion 0 f x 1 y, or z.

Since #- =~ S[ 3t/20 In (3) 2~] == 0.275 (3t/2.0) :t with t~.s

il follows fhQt

..... Aft f t 0

a - 0.2 7S!,s2. a ::

a = O.Lf76tf},. al /=10,$ and.

11 '" 0.82.5 t 1t of t #f :l.O..s

4. I q When a valve is opened, the velocity of water in a certain pipe is given by u = I O( 1 - e -'), U :;::: 0, and w = 0, where u is in ftl s and t is in seconds. Determine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the water.

,q/so" Thvs)

'+-17

1f.20

4.~o The velocity of the water in the pipe shown in Fig. P4.2.ois given by VI = 0.50t m/s and Vz = LOt mis, where t is in seconds. Determine the local acceleration at points (1) and (2). Is the average convective acceleration between these two points negative, zero, or positive? Explain.

aV, m

H ::: 0.5 £i.

«lV2. I m

it= .Osz:

Since ~ > '" ;I (oJlow.s thai ¥X >0 , II/so I V>o so fhai fhe convective acee/era/ion J v¥X J is posif/ve.

==""V2 = LOt m/s ~

FIGURE P4.20

If-I 8

4'·2.'1

4.21 The fluid velocity along the x axis shown in Fig. P4.21 changes from 6 m/s at point A to 18 mls at point B. It is also known that the velocity is a linear function of distance along vtle streamline. Determine the acceleration at points A, B, and C. Assume steady flow.

~

_:. dV - -.

'a ---+V-VV -H

fhi.s becomes

VA = 6 m/s ..

VB = 18 m/s

A C B

~ ~05 m .. •• ' .. ' "'''',1

1------ 0.1 m

• FIG U R IE 1'>4.21

(I)

~(O (J. ~U) A ~U 1\

a = 7f + IJ.R t = I/. JX t

Since U is a /ineqr funcfion QI X J

consianis C'J c". are given 'as :.

ant/. tie = 18= 0, / c, .f C2.,

or C,;::J2.0 J cz::::6, X,...m

(J.::: C, X fez where fhe [JA -6 =c:

Thus, (). =( 120 X + 6)!£- with From £ fl. (I)

a = U ~ ~ t -= (120 X + 6 ) '.f ( 120 ;s) t

or

for XIJ =,0 J ~= 7.2.0 t fi

LJ-/q

~.2lJ

4.22 Water flows in a garden hose with a velocity of 5 ftis, travels ti'H'ough a 2-in.-Iong nozzle. and exits the nozzle with a velocity of 40 ftis. Estimate the average acceleration of the water as it flows through the nozzle.

,.----\--:-~1 : v._

is. tUdU W.· _uYLx -1} (f~_jj£Z"

ax::: ~ t r;: ~ {II' rY -'r)Jf d 'Z '

=0 fu.!M.t 0 of. 0

~x

The averaoe CfcceJerafion can fht/Sbe es4imafed by vsifJg I J • Vi f V,. _ s fils + 'fo/11.r _ 2 L-- ft,'

~ ~ -.2 - 2 - 2.~ r

and

Vi ~ v,. - ~~ c: tf.oF7/s -sH/s == 2/0 l.s

d )( 1 (7- /11.)f/

to obtain:

dx;; U W ~ 2. ;2. • .5# (2"()/.s)::: #730 ~,

Note: Tht» acceleration is equal fo Jf730#,./32.Zjt :: 1'f7-/imes the (J(;ce/eralibn of 9fl4vi-/y (,:lJ'J a, I" :: IJf 7).

41-2..0

• •

-

~I 2.3 J

4.23 As a valve is opened, water flows through the diffuser shown in Fig. P4.23 at an increasing flowrate so that the velocity along the centerline is given by V = ui = Vo(1 - e-cr) (1 - xlf)i, where uo, c, and e are constants. Determine the acceleration as a function of x and t. If Vo = 10 ftls and e = 5 ft, what value of c (other than c =: 0) is needed to make the acceleration zero for any x at t = 1 s? Explain how the acceleration can be zero if the flowrate is increasing with time.

~

a==¥t+v.vV

this becomes

..... (JU 1-'&)/\ a= sr +- U JX l

y 1--~--fI2------I1

~

1

u = -Vo(1 - e-ct)

2 _ .....

u

x

u = Vo(1 - e-et)

-

FIGURE P4.2.~

v::O

J J

and W::O

ThlJ.s,

x -ct 2. _c-l)2. X)( J)

OX - 1fo(J-y)c e +lIo(/-e {/-T-T

or

(X [ - ci ~ ( _d:)2 ] ax == Va /- T) c e - j- /- e

If (}x = 0 for apy X af t = 1 s [c ici _ ~ (1- e-ct)~J =0

-c 10 ( _C)2

ce -5 /-e =0

we mils! htJve

Wilh Vo:: /0 QluJ 1= 5

The so/vlion (rrJfJf) of Ihis erVqlion is C::: O. 'IQO ..$1

For fhe above condifioflJ fhe local tlccelerafio/J (# >0) is precisely ballJ/Jced by fhe COIJV8G/itle deceler(Jlion (it ;~ <o)~

The {/owroie increa.se.s wllh lime J pI/I the {IVid flo~.s 10 an area ot lower veloc/Iy.

4-2.1

• •

-

4.24 A .fluid flows along the x axis with a velocity given by V = (x/t)i, where x is in feet and t in seconds. (a) Plot the speed for Q s x s 10 ft and t = 3 s. (b)P16i the speed for x = 7 ft and 2 :S t S 4 s, (e)· Determine the local and convective acceleration. (d) Show that the acceleration of any fluid particle in the flow is zero. (e) Explain physically how the velocity of a particle in this unsteady flow remains constant throughout itf. motion.

tf

LLJ fp.s_ 3

2 ~ I -

£=3.s

(a) U -:; : 1j so at t::: 3.s J a= f !f

o ~_.L- I_~I __ "___ I_~_l

o .5 X H 10

3- ~

(.4., fp.s

2. ~ X= 7 ff ..

...._

(b) FfJr X:: 7 ff u =.:L Jj.

J f: ~

I -

....:~

(tl) For (lilY f/fJid p4rlicle a=# t V·uV which wdlJ V=Q J w=o becomes

a ==(# +uff)t= (-f,. + f..) t ::0

J I

I

2.1 .9 "',5

(e) The partic/e.s f/Ow in/o areas of /1I1het ve/oc/ly (see Fif·/), huf af all! 9iven IOCtlTiof) fhe ve/f)vilj is decrea.silJfJ liJ lime (see F;,~ 2). For {he 9ill8n velo&ily field the local qna cOhvec,five acceleratiolls are (31//41 and 1l1'1()s/le J fillilly

"2el'O accelerafion fh~o(/9h ()v1~

4.1i A hydraulic Jump is a rather sudden cbange in depth (),f a liqaid layer as it flows in an open channel as shown i'l~ fig. P4.25 and Video VIO.6. In a relatively short distance (thi(;KneSS = f.) the liquid depth changes from ZI to zz. with a corresponding change in velocity from VI to V2• If VI :;: 1.l0 ft/s" V2 = 0.30 ft/s, and f = 0.02 ft, estimate the averllie deceleration of the liquid as it flows across the hydraulic jump. How many gts deceleration does this re.present?

.. FI~VRE. P4.25

...$

a ~ t~ f V·vV so w/f1J V = «(JQt ) Q!" qx t "'" tffi f

W//J, (Juf kn(JVlin9 fhe Q efl/4/ veloc/Iy rii.rll'iblllifll/ J t(:: (I(X)" The (Jcceleralioll call he approximated q.s

( o. 30 -: I."() )#_ . 0.0:2. It

II dLL _ J.. (" 1/) (~- ~O _ ..L(I + ,,11

ax :.r= ColI. IX "":L v I + 'I,. - J - -.2. .1.O O,30J s

= -33.a1{

I"

-===:;:::::;=:

l'lxl :::

-

1

= 1.05

4.2(1 A fluid particle ~wifti alQnl a stagnation stream· line, as shown in Viclet) 'If 4.$ and'~g. 1>'4.26, slows down as it approaches the stagnation point. Measurements of the dye flow in ~he video indicate that the location of a particle startin.g on the stagnation streamline a distance s = 0.6 ft upstream of lne st.8nation point at t = 0 is given approximately by s =0.6e-·o.s" where t is in seconds and s is in ft. (a) Determine the spee.d of III FIG U REP 4 . 2 6 a fhdd particle as a function of time, Vparli~le(t), as it flows along

the steamline. (b) Determine the speed of the fluid as a fune·

ti0n of position along the streamline, V = V(s). (c) Determine

itt fti~id acceleration along the streamline as a function of po.

I'Jt~, Cl~ ,.. litis).

Flu id particle

~tli~ Itlilh .s::: O. /; e ... fJ•S!: jt fO!JDW.s ""4+

\, _ d.s () ... o.sl _O.st

~lIrl;de - 1T ::: 0.6 -o.S e .:: - 0.3 e

His

(I» From parI (a) J

[ '0.5/] -o.sl

V::: (- o. 5) 0.,6 e where s ::: 0.6 e

-rhfl-S_,

V::: (- 0.3')[ s] J or V:: - o.s.s His where S>: ff

dV

(c) For sfe(uJy {JowJ ~::: V 4S

Thus, wif6 V;:' - as s fllld 1)f ::: - 0,.5 ,J

~'f.s ::: (-o.s.s) (-o.s) ::: O.2S S H/s:z. where s .... if

Note: For S >O} t1.s is posilive - the paflic/e~ flcceleralion is 10 th" riyJi Since the papticle is lfJovifJ'I To the le/~a pfJSI1itle as fo/' fhis ca.re imfJ/,-es Ihal fhe pqptlc/e . is deceiel'afiIJ1 (4S ,t Iflf/Sf be for ifo/s

.sT4fR4ti'lI poinf fl,'II], .

• • e

'I~.2 7 I

4.:2.7 A nozzle is designed to accelerate the fluid from VI to

V2 in a linear fashion. That is, V = ax + b, where a and bare constants. If the flow is constant with VI = 10 m/s at XI = () and Vz = 25 m/s at Xz = 1 m, determine the local acceleration, the convective acceleration, and the acceleration of the fluid at points (1) and (2).

.....

_.:o. dV _.. ~

Wllh U ==QX fb J V=O J and w:o the alee/erafion a =ll"'V'vv

can be written CIS

,L au

a = Ox t wnere ax -= I).. 1X •

Since u-= V;=lo-f at x=o 4nd ~=Vz=-25.p. al x=l we ()bl4in

10 = O"*" b

25 ==Q + b so fhQt a = /5 and b= 10

That is~ ().:: (15X+IO) f .I where x~ m I $0 fhaT from EZ,{I)

(Jx = (/5 X +10) -If ( 15 f) = (~2-SX+ /50) fi

,-- .....

/Vote: The local acceleration is zero J 't¥:: 0 J and fhe

convective acceleration is l/. ~ f _(2.25X+I.50)" ~

IIf x=o J a==150F.tJ1.s3. • at s=l m a=37st ~

==,~ } J

tf-25

(1)

If. ~8 I

4.28 A company makes cars that are shipped to be sold throughout the country. At a dealership near the factory the cars cost $20,000. At other dealerships the cost is higher because Of shipping charges which are $0.50 per mile. Determine the price of a new car at a location 800 miles from the factory and the rate of increase ($ per hour) in thecal' price as it is being transported to that location on a truck traveling 55 mph on the highway. JB;)(plain your answer in terms of the material derivative.

Lei X t:: dis/oflce from Jhe ffU;10ry J c =css! of -fhe car, qnd co::: cost of Ihe car 01 the fqc1op)', 7~h(/~ wdh r " rde per mile for shipp//J9J

C ::: Co t rX :: ~~ 000 +o.s: X J whel'e c-I dnd r .v.,f/lIJi Hence 'I,lIth X -:;: 800 hli

.I

C -= '20000 -l-O.S (BOO) :: 12.0 LfIJO

800 ..1 • ~

qnd

!J;i e: rete of if/ere ase 0 f cas! '" fff + r 11- where ¥r ~Q ood If:: V ... 551f1pn

Th{}~ .

%f do.simi. (ss1h "" Ins/hr.

In ferms of the-materia I QerivafilfcJ,

~ :;: #- + u ~ ::: 0 + ($$!Jf X/o.sim;) :: 12 r s /hr.

• • e

4.29 Repeat IPrQb'lem 4.27 with the assumption that the flow is n~t stea~)', tilUit at the time w'hen VI "" Hil m/s and V2 = 25 mis, it is known that (Wlli# "" 2.0 m/s2 and iJV2!iJt = 6.0 m/s2•

-

J I t IV - ~

WiTh u=tJ.(x)l:) J v=o} and w=q the accetera ion 1/-=Tf+V'VV

can be wriffen as

"it -= Ox t where ax::: #- +u ¥X J wt'lh (J. ~ a{t)x +btl), (I)

III the 9iven lime (feio) U -== Itj s: IO.!j cd X =0 and tt:: ~ =25* aT X:/m

Thus) 10 = 0 + bOo)

25 :: a(fo) + hao) s o fhal a(l:,):: IS (llId 1>(/0)::: /0 I//so af t-=to J #-:;: Jd'f- :: 2.0 -ft al X.:()

su: JV2. '!lL f M I -r

rr ::;: Tr -= 6 fl $.2- a X:: / IJJ 0 e: I hose (Ire local

and

accelerafions of time t=to The convective (Jcceler(Jt;on af x-=o (Ef' (I) is

{j, ~~ == (ox t b) (<1;) =: ( /5 (0) tIO).p[15 -t )=ISo1'i while af '1= / if is

lit¥- ::;; (15 (I) fJQ)!f-(lS ~) == 37S~

The fluid acceleration cd i::to 10$

a = (#- +It -¥f)2 == (2.0-1 ISO); ii. == 170t -'fa. af X=(/ and

a =t 60+375)( ~ =.Lf.9stitcrf X'=/m

4.30 An incompr8s.sil\de fluid flows past a turbine blade a'S shown in Fig, P4,3~ and Video V4.S, Far upstl'ealll and QoWllstream of the blade the velocity is Vo. Measurements show tbat the velocity of the fluid along streamline A-F near the blade is as indicated in Fig. P4.30b. Sketch the stream wise component of acceleration, (ls' as a function of distance, ,Y, along the streamline.lOiscuss the important characteristics of your l'esuIt.

(u)

v

.~- .....

I I I I I I I

~_~+-~~ __ ~ __ ~~ _L_

Q A C F

(b)

Q.s :::: v-df where from the li9vre fJf V = Vis) the fVllction d!- has fhe folloWi1J1 s haps.

F

s

The flwJ decelerates from 1/ 10 C.J· 4ccs/er4/es (rum c III IJJ IInJ fhe Jeceler41es arflJJIJ fro", lJ 10 F. -rhe I")el accelIJr41ifJIJlrpm A If) F is zero (i.,/ ~:: l!;S'VF),

4.311 * Airflows steadily tbro~gh a variable 3rea pipe with a velocity of V :;;:: ll(x):i tt/s, where the approximate meas~red values of u(x) are given in the table. Plot the acceleration as a function. of x for 0 -s x -s 12 in. Plot the acceleration if the flowrate is increased by a factor of N (i.e., the values of u are increased by a factor of N), for N = 2, 4, 10.

x (in.) if (fit/s)

......,......-..,.. ...... 1 -~....,

o 10.0

1 10.2

2 13.0

3 20.1

4 28.3

5 28.4

6 25.8

x (ia.]

u (ft/s)

7 8 9

10 11 12 13

20.1 17.4 13.5 11.9 10.3 10.0 10.0

.."..

Since' lI..::::/.I,(xJ J rv=o, Qndw=o if {oj/olAlS fhai Q=1¥+v·vv

simplifies 10 a == ax t where Qx -== U 5~ (I)

The valves U are given ill the fabie ;fhe correspr;nding va/ve.s

of :~ C4n be ()blCfined hy an approximale nvmeriC4/ differen-fiaTion.

The re.slllls are $noWl/ bslow for the . 9 ive» allre ( i», wi1h #=/).

Note fhal since ox:::' u #- ilfollflws fhat and increase in ve/oc/I) ["'''111 I./. 10 Nu Incre(/ses /he t1ccelerali'lJ IrQ'" Qx to ;Y2dx

x, in. u, ft/s du/dx. 115 u duldx
0 10 2.4 24
1 10.2 18 184
2 13: 59.4 772
3 20.1 91.8 1845
4 28.3 49.8 1409
5 28.4 -15 .,426
6 25.8 -49.8 -1285
7 20.1 -50.4 -1013
8 17.4 -39.6 -689
9 13.5 -33 -446
10 11.9 -19.2 -228
11 10.3 -11.4 -117
12 10 -1.8 -18
13 10 0 0 The resolts are p/ofterJ onthe next parle.

if-2q

ItJf.3/ (con'/J

+----------+-~

40 -----r---t----i\---+----+----+------l- .. -_.- .-_.1

au/ax, 1/s 20 --j--- -t =~j

o·~---~--~~·-+---~

-20 -'F-----'I'.--. --f--4~'-----·--~ --.I~---'J!'- 40T----;----~--~-

-60 -'--------"-------l..- L- __ L~_ ~~_~_

u,ftls 15

2500 2000 1500 1000

ax, ftlsA2 500 o -500

-1000

-1500

25

,~-- r=; .. _-
J
J '~ --
I ~ ~
J V ~
~

-~-

·-r- 20

10

5

o

o

2

8

14

6

10

12

4

x, in_

100 ,--------,------T 80

x,ft

-- .-_-.
N-..:/
A For N~ '_trJIJlfiJ J'I_Jk__
/ \ "--- byN~
J - \ ----_ 1----
~ \ -_
~ l .....4 rr""-12 ----l
\ ./ V I
r------ '\ V
- x, in.

if-30

4 .. U Water flows stea<;tUy through a 30-ft-long pipe from a hot water heater to a faucet in the bathroom. The velocity is 10 (tis. At the outlet of the water heater the temperature is a constant 180 ~F. Because of heat transfer between the pipe ~U'Hd the cooler surroundings, the water temperature at the faucet outlet is a constant 150 OF. Determine the time fate of change of the temperature of the water as it flows through tile pi!pe. Assume the temperature gradient along the length of the pipe is constant.

JJJ =.9J + u rr wher u::: /011 and J1. ::: 7i-!!_ _ IGo°F -180'(

D t J t sx J e s Ix ---:Ax - .. 3 off

Thvs.l H::: I of/If $(7 fhaT willi 4f-c 0 bec(Jl/se the flow is $tead~

%f ~ u}f ;: /0 if (I 'Fill) =: IO!.}

4.1$. As is indicated in Fi:1. 1>4.3,3, tIle speed ~t'~l\aust. in a car's exhau.st p:ipe varies in time a'filltldistance because of the periodic nature of the enaitle's operation and the damping effect with Qii&t8;nce from the engine. Assume that the speed i is .ven by V = Vo[l + ae:" sin(wt)J, where i Va == 8 fps, a = 0.05, b = 0.2 ft ", and OJ = 50 radls .. Calculate and plot the fluid acceleration at x "" 0, 1,2,3, 4, and 5 ft for 0:5 t -s n/25 s.

~x V = Vo[l + ae-lJx sin(wt)}

F1GURF;: P4.33

Since u -:::. U (x J t) v=o and w:: 0 if (ol/oW.5 Ihaf

...... J I

.... QV -V ~v A h 'f)..AM.

a = ""it + ·V :: Qx I. J VI ere t.1x:: IT + U JX

Thvs, w/lh u=Vo[Jtae-bXsm(wt)] Ef.(/) qives

ax == Va CI w e-bx COoS (wi) +- Vo[ I + a e-DX sin (wO] Vo a (- b) e-b)( sin (wt)

=~ a ebX[ 41 cos (rut) - Vo b sin (41t) (J fa e-bX .si!} (wt »)] Wilh Vo::: 8!f J a == C).OS J b == 0.2 It J and fA) == 50 ~d fhis becomes

ax = 0.'1- e-O•2X[so co.s(sot) -1.6 sin (50i) (J+o.O,5 iO.2Xsin(Sot))] ~:lL ()J where t = s and x- fI

Plot (Ix (rom £,. (2.) (or 0:5 t ~ it s w/I/, X =:0J I) 1.J3) I.fJ (lAtls 1~'.

(I)

All Excel Prorl'ahl Wa.r v.reJ to G4/cv/4Ie ax frpm £y. (:;.)..7he f"e;fV}bl are shown QIJ Ihs nexl P"'Ie.

(con'l)

t, IS 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065 0.070 0.075 o.eso 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115 0.120 0.125

x=Oft 20.00 19.22 17.24 14.18 10.24 5.67 0.74 -4.23

-8.93

-13.08

-16.42

-18.73

-19.89

-19.81

-18.51

-16.06

-12.61

-8.37

-3.62

1.36 6.26 to,77 14.61 17.54 19.38 20.01

Acceleration at various x locations, ftlsA2

x=1ft 16.37 15.73 14.11 11.61 8.39 4.65 0.61 -3.46

-7.31

-10.71

-13.44

-15.34

-16.29

-16.22

-15.15

-13.14

-10.32

-6.85

-2.96

1.12 5.13 8.82 11.96 14.36 15.87 16.38

x=2ft 13.41 12.88 11.56 9.51 6.87 3.81 0.51 -2.83

-5.98

-8.76

-11,00

-12,56

-13.33

-13,28

-12.41

-10.76

-8.45

-5.61

-2.42

0,92 4.20 7.22 9.80 11.76 12.991 13.41

)(:;: 3 ft 10.98 10.55 9.46 7.79 5.63 3.12 0.42 -2.31

-4.90

-7.17

-9.01

-10,28

-10,92

-1 Cl.87

-10.16

-R81

-6.91

-4.59

-1.98

0.75 3.44 5.92 8.02 9.63 10.64 10.98

x:;:4ft 8.99 8.64 7.75 6.38 4.61 2.55 0.34 -1.89

-4.01

-5.87

-7.37

-8.42

-8.94

-8.90

-8.32

-7.21

-5.66

-3.76

-1.62

0·62 2.82 4.84 6.57 7.88 8.71 8.99

x=5ft 7.36 7.07 6.34 5.22 3.77 2.09 O.2~ -1.55

-3.28

-4.81

-6.04

-6.89

-7.32

-7.29

-6.81

-5.90

-4.63

-3.07

-1.32

0.51 2.31 3.97 5.38 6.45 7.13 7.36

20
15
10
5
N
~ 0
i<
cu
-5
-10
-15
-20
0.00 Acceleration, ax, va Time, t

XJ .ff

~------~------~----~-------~-------r-------- 0

__ t

2. 3 If .5

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

t,s J

[_-----~-~- --------

vt JT.J. JT JT PJ.;( . tI/2.) / o/.'h

15f ~ tr Urx::: U~ ::: ;l0n; -O.S /Il/J :.. - 0111'

-:----

.If. 3~ ] 4.34 A bicyclist leaves from her home at 9 A.M. and rides to a beach 40 mi away. Beca\.Jse of a breeze off the ocean, the temperature at the beach remains 60 OF throughout the day. At the cyclist's home the temperature increases linearly with time, going from 60 OF at 9 A.M. to 80 OF by 1 P.M. The temperature is assumed to vary linearly as a function of position between the cyclist's home and the beach. Determine the rate of change Qf temperature Qb.served by the cyclist for the following cQnditions: (a) as she pedals 10 mph through a town 10 mi from her home at 10 A.M.; (b) as she eat.s lunch at It fest stop 30 mi fl'(}m her home at n()On; (c) as she alTives enthusiastically at the beach at 1 P.M., pedaling 20 mph.

From fhe qiven daf4 fh~ lemffJf'4fvl'eJ -r; varies as a ftlnGtion of locali on) xJ and

time l 4S' .shown iJ1 the fiovrfJ•

) J I

Ih IISJ %f:= ff t u ff

(a) 11+ X =:j 0 mi and i= /0 IJIH J

st : (7S°..,.600) IS "A

1"f - l/- hI" :::. V ' nr

'DrrJ. _ (60'-'S~) _ - .L8. 'Imi

~X - - ¥OR/i

Th liS, W i.Jh u. c 10 mi /hr,

~f :: ~ ~hr t lo!fr(-i '/miJ

T

= 2.5 ~hr

~ T 16so-60') r

(b) IIf noon wi-lhu.=:o (re.r+in9) 4nd rr== ,. /foil;' ~-fi1Jr

f+ = ff + u~ t: 1f =.:fj 'iIJ,. ~ 1.25 U(hr

(c) VpOIJ ofiLlal aI -Ihe he4c.h If! ifh U::: 2 a IfJIJh J H :::: ~

4.35

is by T:::;

IiVJlLVllUiU and vertical coordinates in meters and T is in centigrade. Determine the time rate of change of temperature of a fluid particle traveling (a) horizontally with u ::::: 20 m/s. I) :::: 0 or (b) vertically with u = 0, v = 20 ml s.

d J 7- d T 1.1","''''£1 J r- ::: 0

+ttrx-+VTjJ 1T

~ ::1J.f{=(2.of})(IO!.£) :::200~

Thvs; I s: o!fL 1/::
If U :::0 1/::: .!J1.
a .J'j 4.36 Water over crest of Ii Vas shown in P4.36. Determine the speed if the magnitude of the: normal acceleration at (1) is to the acceleration of

g.

FIGURE P4.36

r---------,

v=lan 1/::: (32.2!AJ(2ft)

z: 8.02-!f

4':37

4.37 As shown ill Video V4.1 and ri'l. P4 .. 37, a Hying airplane produces swirling flow near the end of its wings. In certain c~:reumstances this flow can be approximated by the velocity field u = -Ky/(x2 + y2) and v = Kx/(x2 + y2), where K is a 001\1- stant depending on various parameter associated with the a~'f-

plane (i.e .• its weight. speed) and x and yare measured fro01·~ • F I 9 1,J R e P4.37

c'enter 11)[ tIle swirl. (a) ShQw that f()f this fl0W Hle velocit~i$

inverse'fy propol'tional to the distance fl'om the origin. That ts,

V:::: K/(x2 + y2)l/2. (b) Show that the streamlines are circles.

or

j{

r J

V=

Kx

(x:t.iyJ.) -J<y (X".,. y'-)

which when jllle,raled qlves

dy_ dX

(b) Streamlines are 9iven /;y Thv.s) ydy = -xix

t y2. = - t x1. + C, J where 0 is 4 COIJ.r/tJlli. or

X 2..,. y"J. ;;f C On.If4f1 I

x

-y

'1-.39

4_lK Ass.ume that the streamlines fQr the wingtip vortices from an airplane (see Fig. P4.37 and Vidt'o V 4.2) can be approxim.id\:)y elEeles tilf _ius r and that the speed is V ::::: Kir, where K is a constant. Determine the streamline acceleration, as·, and the normal acceleration, am for this flow.

• FIG U R Iii , 4 . 37

as == V If where since V"'} ,#!:: 0 ThllSJ

Cis ::: 0

-

IJlso

J 2-

fi" = f :::

K ~ r

'f ... .3.7

• •

-

4.3Q A fluid flows past a sphere with an upstream velocity of Vo = 40 m/s as shown in Fig. P4.3Q. From a more advanced theory it is found that the speed of the fluid along the front part of the sphere is V = ~Vo sin (). Determine the stream wise and normal components of acceleration at point A if the radius of the sphere is a = 0.20 m.

.FIGURE P4.3Q

v:= f ~ sin e :::: 4- (r-o 'i) sine:::: 60 $/iJB f (I)

.2. (6 . 0)2. m2.

_ V _ . Q sm'l-O :jl: -7.'f'fO tYJ

an - 1< - V.2m .- . S'l-

and ___,~

dV ". sv JV _ ~v ;,6

t:ls :: V 4S ;::: (60 smO) JS J wher» 1.s - HJ 1:s

From Et{. (J)) j~ ::: 60 cosf)

II/SQ s:: of:) :::: 0.2. f) m J where e""ra4 J so fha+ I!- ::: 0/2-/11 Thus, for B::: '1-0"

as = (60 sin If()O,'r; ) (60 cos 1/-0° ~ ) (o.J WI) = 886() ~

• •

4.40* Fer flow past a as i~ Problem 4.39, plot a graph of the streamwise ac(leleration, as, the normal acceleration, al" and the magnitude of the acceleration as a function of e for 0 ::s e ::s 90° with Va = 50 ft/s ands ::: 0.1, 1.0, and 10 ft. Repeat for Vo = 5 ft/s. At what point is the acceleration a maximum; a minimum?

\'0

.! P

;""

40·

__ 1-

a ;::r =(fVosine)~:;: 9Vo2 sJi/e

n 1'{ a JfQ

~v JV ~e

and a~:: V"'iS ::: V 18 n- J

A n Ii X off) ~ tl<$ I tip I till d 'tt f rfJ),JI/

£qfJs. (fJ./).~ alJ.d (1). The re..rvlt.s are shpwn J~/()J4I. The re.silfls f'"r OTher valves are ,sill'JIlar iI/he f4~1pr V, '"fa is 4cc,fJflnied f,/',

I nefoi'fJw iry data is ie;r ~:t:.5 i1/J i f;1: / Itt

e, dag an, ftls2 all' ftls2 G, ft;Fs2
0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.4 4.9 4.9
10 1.7 9.6 9.8
15 3.8 14.1 14.6
20 6.6 18.1 19.2
25 10,0 21.5 23.8
30 14.1 24.4 28.1
35 18.5 26.4 32.3
40 23.2 27.7 36.2
45 28.1 28.1 39.8
50 33.0 2-'.7 43.1
55 37.7 26.4 46.1
42.2 24.4 48.7
65 46.2 21.5 51.0
70 49.7 18.1 52.9
75 52.5 14.1 54.3
80 54.6 9.6 55.4
55.8 4.9 56.0
56.3 0.0 56.3 60

Acceleration 'tiS Angular position Yo~5f1/s a= IN

-normal accel, ftS.Q,21

I

- -streamwise accel, ftfsA2

- - - accel, ftlsA2

1 0 +-4--+--.;I'c-i-----l O~~-f

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 9,deg

,----.-----------------------,----

(I)

(2.)

• • e

4.4· I A fluid flows past a circular cylinder of radius a with an upstream speed of Vo as shown in Fig. P4.41. A more advanced theory indicates that. if viscous effects are negligible, the velocity of the fluid along the surface of the cylinder is given by V = 2Vo sin e. Determine the streamline and normal components of acceleration on the surface of the cylinder as a function of Vo, a, and e.

v -

-

FIGURF; P4.4J

= -¥:~2. sin2.tJ

=

J where ~~ == 2 Vo CIS e

or :: ==f

Thus}

as == (2 Vo .sif)f)) (2 Yo C()sfJ)-t = t.fC sine c()sB

on.d s ~ (J f)

~.'f 2." r 4.4.2.* Use the results of Problem 4.41 to plot graphs of as and an for 0 :::; 0 :::; 90° with Vo = 10 mls and a = 0.01,0.10, 1.Q, and 10.0 m.

L 0 bJ #Vo2 ·2.fJ d flt· f) a

rrOIJ? rro em 'f.Jfl J Cln:::: -a $JI) an as == a sm cos«.

These re.svll.s wilh v,-== 10.f- and a= 0.0/ JO.IO) I. oJ tin&! /ao#} are plofteJ b, 10 w.

a::: 0.01 m a= 0.10 m a::: 1.0 m a'" 10 m a = 0.10 m a=0.10m a= 1.0 m iii'" 10 m
6) aeg as. fitfs,2 as. fitfs2 as. ft/s2 as. ftls2 an. ft/s2 an. ft/s2 an, ft/s2 an, ftls2
,
0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
I) 3473 347 35 3.47 304 30 3 0.30
'10 6840 6.84 68 6.84 1206 121 12 1.21
'15 10000 1000 100 10.00 2679 268 27 2.68
20 12856 1286 129 12.86 4679 468 47 4.68
25 15321 1532 153 15.32 7144 714 71 7.14
~~O 17321 1732 173 17.32 10000 1000 100 10.00
35 18794 1879 188 18.79 13160 1316 132 13.16
.ikO 19696 1970 197 19.70 16527 1653 165 16.53
45 20000 2000 200 20.00 20000 2000 200 20.00
50 19696 1970 197 19.70 23473 2347 235 23.47
55 18794 1879 188 18.79 26840 2684 268 26.84
60 17321 1732 173 17.32 30000 3000 300 30.00
ss 15321 1532 153 15.32 32856 3286 329 32.86
70 12856 12.86 129 12.86 35321 3532 353 35.32
7'5 10000 1000 100 10.00 37321 3732 373 37.32
80 6840 684 68 6.84 38794 3879 388 38.79
es 3473 347 35 3.47 39696 3970 397 39.70
90 0 0 0 0.00 40000 4000 400 40.00
(COtl't)
'1-· .. 1/0 •

100000 a§tE§tEjtl

100

---a = 0.01 m

- - -a=0.10m

······a=1.0m - • - ·a = 10. m

100000 ~- r-f-'

f...... f......f......_.

r-I--
p
1/- I_f--
1/
) .j- 1--1-
10000 V
.~_.
f...... r- fl--

vi'

'/
.. -
f
1000 100

I

1-· .

L_.---- J.L __ - ... _

I IV r"1\

10000 al~ '==t=tl:t"a=l

.v-- ...... +---f......

I' 1\ I

,

-a=0.01m

- - -a =0.1 m

··---a=1.0m - . - ·a = 10 m

1000 l=f......i1~~~§t-§f\.!~~I-§

1= I ~-

.. -f- .... --f-'-

I-I!

H+-',I-+-+-+-J-+.;;-i.- f J.-I+rt·-+-f--+··.;f·-~ f...... f...... r-'

, ..

I

'/ [I

-1---++-+- t-i-+-·-

f'--'~ .. _-- .-._"f i

I

_J -J..,._ J-,--+--+-i--+-I-I

I i i-'r--

'i I

J • V~

, ~I -t-r-t-r-t-r-

-+i- - f-- L+-_-+-++-+--I

,

10~Ef~~=tt=~~~r-~

f-4-' -H.L~t-I·-t-- ,.-j-._+- 1-*-+.-+-1--+-1-+-+ I I->+-I-+-r-+-'r-- ++-

, I

:

1 +-,~-'-.y.-i,_..J,_L.-L.-l o

50 a,deg

100

I'

f......f- -,. ~ -.+--_"-.. ' ..

, i
I
/y 1',1
10 I



,1
I I
t- I-~ '-I-- o

50 a,deg

;

,!--.lfl

• • e

4.4 a Determine the x and y components of acceleration for the flow given in Problem 4.6. If c > 0, is the particle at point x = xo > 0 and y = 0 accelerating or decelerating? Explain. Repeat if Xp < o.

Since {L:::: C(X"%._y2) and v= -2cxy it fo/low~ fhaf

- A A h

a = ()x!. +(/)'j J w· ere

Qx:::: f + u.¥X ... v.zy. == C(x2--Y'")(2-~X) +(-.2.cxy){-2CY) or

Ox = 2C2)((X2-+y2)

and

Oy = 4f + u ¥X + v¥y- == ctx'> y") (-2(' y) +(-2cxy )(-2cx) ot-"

Qy == 2C2.y( x2.+y:z.)

For x=xo and y =o We obfain:

u=cx2 \(<::0

do J

an

ox= 2C~X; , Oy ==0

Thos J wilb c>o and Xo>O ;i foUow.s +haf u >0) Ox >0; i.e . .! the fluid i« Qcceleratinq.

With cs-o and xo<o if fo#o..,s +hal: U >0 J (}x<o j ,,1.8,) the fluid is decelerating .

4.44 When flood !gates in a channel are opened, water Hows ailong the channel dewnsueam of the gates with an increasing speed given by V::::; 4(1 + O.lt) ft/s, forO:$ t:$ 20 s, where t is in seconds. For t > 20 s the speed is a constant V = 12 ft/s. Consider a location in the curved channel where the radius of curvature of the streamlines is 50 ft. For t = 10 s determine (a) the component of acceleration along the streamline, (b) the component of acceleration normal to the streamline, and ~<t) the net acceleration (magnitude and direction). Repeat fOI" t = 30 s.

v = 'f.{ 1+ 0.1 t) fils {Of' 0 ~ t: ~ 2Qs CllJd V::: /2. fils fol' t >20.$ CIs .:: V M +-%¥ where #-::: 0

1/}vs 2-

o, : ff and an ::: ¥ J where /( ==- 5 Q fI

(I) For t =: IO.s :

(a) as:::: #:: If(o.l) ::::q.Jf{t2.~

(h) On::: V"/~ -::: [If( I-I-Q;/(Io»] rt2./s2 /(~Otf) :: /.28 fl/.s-'" and ~ ~ ... i-

(c) a=:( a; + fJ.s'") 2.:;:[( 0/1-#.)'· f{l.left)'·] ::: 1.3Jf-b

(2)[or t == 30s:

(a) S if/ce V = 1;1. {.fir- z: conrlalJl f¥.::: 0 an d ¥s -:; 0 so +ha~ aJ' == V If -I- ft COl

(b) an ::: V"'/'f( :::. (/2 fIls t/: 5 oln ~ :2.88fj~

on~ ~

(c) a:: {an'}.. .f(Js2.) 'j_ = an :: 2.B8 !~

• •

-

4.4,5 Water flows steadily throQgh the funnel shown in Fig. P4.45. Throughout most of the funnel the flow is apPJ;Oximately radial (along rays from 0) with a velocity of V = clr", where r is the: radial coordinate and c is a constant. If the velocity is Q.4 mls when r = 0.1 m, determine the acceleratioriat.points A and 1~.

o m

O. m

FIGURE P4.4.5

2-

- A A h V o·

a = an n + as .s, were an -::: 1<:: Since

f)J - V ~v - ~v h V - c

n so) t1.s _.. "tS _- V ),.. J IN ere. -,.'"Y

Since V= 0.11-;' when r=Dilm if folJow,g fhaT -.3

( )2. -3 !!C If x/a

c = V ,..'J. =(0. if!}) o. J m z: If X/O -:s I or V = r1.

"1(1$00 (i,e:; [h« streamlines are .sfraighl)

.!!l where ,..~m .s J

o.tz m

111 poinf 8!

-.3 m3)2

= z( ,+x 10 -:s = 1/18 "i

a.s (0, II!J 7 rn),s .s

O,Jm

o

• •

-

4.4·~~ Water flows thro~gh the slit at the bottom of a twodimensional water trough as shown in Fig. P4.46. Throughout most of the trough the flow is approximately radial (along rays fr0l'll 0) with aiyelQCity of 11 ==clr, where r is the ra<iialcoordinate and c is'a·constani.if thiv-eloclty·rs--O.04- mls when r "" 6.1 mj'determine the acceleration at points A and B.

FIGURE 1)4.4'6

'1?::: 0<;) (/,:8" the sfreamline.s are .sfraiqhf)

• •

--

"'Ii 7 I

4 •. 47 Air flows from a pipe into the region between two parallel circular disks as shown in Fig. P4.'f7. The fluid velocity in the gap between the disks is closely approximated QY V = VoRlr, where R is the radius of the disk, r is the radial coordinate, and Vo is the fluid velocity at the edge of the disk. Determine the acceleration for r = L, 2, or 3 it if Vo = 5 ft/s and R = 3 ft.

Disks

1\

I

FIGURE P4 .. 47

a - <;In n + Cis g J where Qn:;:: f ::: 0 Since 1(:: 00 (l. e) fhe :streamline~s

av jY VDR are .sfra/qh-t )

Also} as - VE - V sr J where V== r

Since ~:::5* and R::::.3f./ J v::: Irs !i J where r",fl

Thlls, ( .. ft)~( )2-

Cls==(V;.R)(- V;~) = - V~3R2 =="'"" 5~ r3:;1 == - z;:- ::1.) ,..",f-l

III r= I fl) as::: - 2 2.5 !1s..

IN r ==2 f1 J Os = - 28,/{t

'-/-tfb

4.48 Air flows into a pipe from the region between a circu,lar disk a.nl1 a cone as shown In Fig. P4.48. The fluid velocity in the gap between the disk and the cone is closely approximated by V = VoR2/,.2. where R is the radius of the disk. r is the radial coordinate, and Vo is the fluid velocity at the edge of the clisk. Ile'ennine the acceleration for r = 0.5 and 2 ft if Vo = 5 ft/s and R = 2 ft.

I

• FIG u R E P4.48

_... A A II vol. 0 .,. .o (. . IL.J. /'

a ~ tin n of as s were (;In::: 7! :;. SInce rc=» I, e. lie oS 11'eQ/IJ tnes

f V J d V . are .strai ,pI)

fI/s~ Q,s :; V IT ;:; - V-r,: stnce rands ore pointed in 0PfQ.site'direc/ions.

7nv.r wHh V == Yo R/r7. if fo/lows fh4t

J

a ;:; - (\10 R'2./r2.) (- 2 Vo R"Lfr3) == 2. v,2,R"/r s:

.S

~:2 (,sff/.s)"(2f-l/'/'rS :::: 800/rs Jft J UlnSI'8 r- ff

IN r :: Q~S It J Cis == e()o~,.sr{ 1j~ ::: 2 ~600£{

~'f r ;;: ~ 11" as':: 800 /(2 .oJ~ f\ :::: 2£ it

B

4. "f Water ftows through a duct ()f square cross section as shown in Fig. P4.4'1with a constant, l,lnifonn velocity of V ;:;: 2'0 m/s. Consider fluid particles thaI tie aiOOlline A~8 Ilt time t :;: (). Detennine the position of these particles, qenot¢(J by line A' -8', when-T~O.20s~-Use tlievolume of fluid in the region between lines A -8 and A' -8' to determine the flowrate in the duct. Repc!at the problem for fluid particles originally along line C-£); along line E-F. Compare your three answers.

C 'C'

FIGURE P4.4Q

V"" 20 fTII$ __....

A

Since V is coos/onl in lime anti sPQce J (1/1 p4rtic/e.s on lin8 fJB rnOV8 a di.s/(J/Jce £:::: VAl :(20 . .;-) (o.2.S) :;: 1fm (rum i==() If) -/::1},2.s ThIlS, the volume of /lB/I'8' is ~8A'81 ::;: (O.SmY'-( ifill) ::: I. 00 {rl so th(.ft

Q = "i~A~1 == I.QO m~ ::: s.o ~~3

f).2s s

Sil1Ji/(Jr~ from t=o fo t=:o.2.s fhe {/virl a/oil! JilJes CI) and EF move fo C'[)' and E'F;resp(JcfiveV'. II/so, ~.oC~/;:; ~FE~I ::: ~BAQ/ se 14,,1 We -o.iJJtain ((:I! £- ::: s.rJ1f re'larJI8.s.sWlllic.h line ,.,8 CfJl1sl'ri/el'.

~50

20 m/$

4 .. JAi. R ... pe.at Pl'OOle)l1 4.49 if viae velocity prot lIe is linear 'from €l to 20 l11/s across the duct as shown in Fig. P4.50.

o m/s FIGURE P4.S0

From I =cO fo i~ O./.s fhe pqrlicle illilio//y a7 B trflve/s a J/~/4hce 18 == ~At =={2.0/f)(O./s)=2/IJ 4S ShoUl1 Par/icle /I r,/fJtlln fixed sine»

~ = 0, Since the velo(;lty profile is linear J line /I B remail}s sfl'aiyJd} but "hlls'14S indl(;aferi. ThvsJ the volumll 01 f/vld crossill, Ihe IAili1l1 lil/e I/B is ~8B/ ::: ~ J:s IJ = ± (2111) (0 •. s hI)'-:: O.2-Sm.3 so fhaf

Q ~a8' Q,2.5P13 m3 S· .JJ -v. _11 'f

- 'At . == o.,r-:s- == 2.5 -:s race vCDD' - EFF' - vABB' I

follows fhq/lhe StllIJC vtllve of G is oblained rB94rrJle.ss whi&n volvme i..s IJsed.

• •

--

- - - - - - - vControl surface

sate I

4.$:1 In the region Just downstream of a sluice gate, the water may develop a reverse flow region as is indicated in Fig. P4.51 and Video V 1O,S. The velocity profile is assumed to consist of two uniform regions. one with velocity VI. = 10 Cps and the other with V,) :::; 3 fps, I)etermine the net flowrate of water across the portion of the control. surface at section (2~ itf

~be channel is 20 ft wide. (1)

Q -

FIGUR~ 114.51

~ A - \i fJJ. == (10 if) (I .. 2. H) (1-0(1) -(3fj)(':8ff)(j.Q{fJ

Q a u 3

.:;: /32 1j_

~

4.52. At time t = 0 the valve on an initially

t-------'empty (perfect vacuum, p = 0) tank is opened and air rushes in. If the tank has a volume of ¥o and the. (j{!nsity.()f air within the tank increases

bl'1

For t eo J p:: PD [I - i .I so th4+

1./.. s 2.

as p = poo{l - e-"'), where b is a constant, determine the time rate of change of mass within the tank.

M -:: mass of ail' /n fank == eVo ::: po Va [1- e-b-6 ]

4.S4 Water enters the bend of a river with the I,miform velocity profile shown in Fig. P4.S4. At the end of the bend there is a region of separation or reverse flow. The fixed control volume ABCl) coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the system at time t = ~ s and (b) the fluid tn:at has entered and exited the control volume in that thne period.

• FlO U R e P4.54

Since Me disiance fhe {Ivi J fr~vel.s if) lillie Jt:;.5$ is i-:: V It fhe flviJ

./

fAt II-B whell i=o has fraf/()/~d jr::(j",/s) ( ss) r:..5m when t=JI:::s.s. Tins

is .show/} in the fi111re he/ow. SillJ//Af/y.; the flvid aorus c-b at 1=0 h4,s mf),(6J asinrJic4feri when t = at :: oS s, Thv~ fhe bOVfJdrAPJ of 1he sy.r/ehl a! l ~ 5.s are (JS .show ill the fi,1Jre b8low. /he flllid fht.tl enfered 4f}d exiled lhe control vO/(}ble if) 1hat -lime perilc/ is also .shown.

B

_' -- -- control volvme and sysfem tAl toeo

-------- systel1l (AI t:Ss

If-50

If.S S

4.5~ A lay<er of oil flows down a vertical plate as shown in Fi,. P4.55 with a velocity of V ... (Vo/h2) (2hx - .x2) J where Vo and h are cQn$.tants. (a) Show that the fluid sticks to the plate and that the shear stress at the edp of the layer (x ... h) is zero. (b) Determine the f10wrale across $urface AS. Assume the width of the plate is b. (Note: The velocity profile for laminar flow in a pipe has a similar shape. See Vidt.~() V (lit.)

----x

v(x)

a) tv: ==~(2hx-x2.) Thvs~

N" I ::: it· (0 - 0) :: 0 and

X:O

'/ = ~ 1fj"'JI{i: [2h ~2xl ~ 0

x~h x=h x:h

lienee" fhe flvid slicks to the plafe and there is no shear slress al the (flee so» f(u:. e ..

~:h h

b) IY"'B '" {IV'" d& '" r'7rbJx = J~ (zh« _X2) b ~

x:o 0

or

h

Q - Vo b. [ .. h 2. I X 31·· - 2. 1/ h· b

118 _- -hf. • X - 3" · - _3 Yo

IJ

If- 5/

~.S6

4.,5' Water flows in the branching pipe shown in Fig. N.s6 wilh uniform velocity at each inlet and outlet. The fixed control voll,lme indicated coincides with the system at time t == 2~ s. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the boundary of the system at time t =.: 20.2 s, (b) the fluid that left the control volume during tBa,t ()'2~s interval, and (c) the fluid that entered the control volume during that time interval.

m/s

\{z = 1 m/s

• F t 9 U R IE P4.§6

Since V is c()nsftlnf J The flvld froveJs a disianc« i:=:. V Jt In fime .si , Thus J "';::: Vt 6 t ::; (2. -P) (').0. -1.0).$ = O. If tn

12..:: V:2. Jt = (J -If) (20. - 20)S = 0.2./17

and 13 = ~ 6i == (1.5 'f-) (20. - ')..o).s :: O. ~ m

The system of 1= 2.0.2..$ and fhe {lviJ fhal has entered or exi/etl. the COlJ'''''/ V()/vPJf! fAre in,dicaf,yJ in file fl9vr~ be/ow.

'( ..1.3 = 0.3 In

_l .',

..-;~\ ......

~.~" .. '

~ .. , \.,

r-o'

. .# .# t#

~ H

(0 t. ~

l.~-~ (2.)

12 =o.:z."',; ...•.. !

- - - con/rol vtJlllmfJ 4nri .syslem a! lczo..s

... . .. .sys/em af t:: 7-0:;' S

tf-SZ

t,j..57J

4.!7 Two liquids with different densities and viscosities fiFl bile ~J1 between parallel plates as shown in Fig. P4.57. The lOcI' plate moves to the left with a speed of 5 ft/s; the bottom plate moves to the right with a speed of 2 ftls. The velocity profiie consists of two linear segments as indicated. The fixed control volume ABeD coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a $ketch to indicate (a) the system at tim.e t = 0.1 s and (b) the fluid that has entered and exited the control volume in that time period.

• F I a U R E P4.57

From i= 0 fo t:: 0./.$ the boi/oln pJa/e (find the lifllid th"l sfi&ks ff) i-I)

moves i :: V.ot ::::. (2 fils) (Q,/ s) ::; Q.'}.. It t» the ri9h-f ~ S'nJ//APt) fhl} fop plalc moves 10 the lefl 4 Jisll.IlltNJ L P VAt -(Sli/.s) (Od.s) ::: ().S fl. The fluid alon9 Jines IJ-b tlnJ Brc al.$o mol/e di.$1(JllC8.,~ 'Ii'lfll hy

.t ~ V ~i. For cX4R1f}ie, the /nierl4ce between ihl' 2 li1V~'rk mpVeu tI' d/stanoc j::: V1l1:::' (2111s) (o.i»)» o.z It. The flvid layer o.s fl4bPV8

fhe- hol1Qfh plrl,lc has V -;: 0 4fJ~ fhere{Ql'ft JfJ().!- nol mtJ.vIJ. TlJe cQrf'fJ.fponri/IJ!I Ji.spI4v8R/61J1 of fhe fl"id ori9ilJtI/~ a/p/)9 A-I) lAllA P-c /s .sh()w/} ;11 t);e {;9"re be/frw.

{-o.5H-1

AI R 8' 8

V'l--r--- ---- -- -=--~~

\~I \§

,~ ~

'~I\ "l

O.5Fl~ . ~

~- - - ----= --=-r- =-=-- --=--=r d 2~

}) D' , C c'

-l O.2#~ --r O.l.ft I-

- - - control volilme anr1 sysfef)J (At l::: 0

- - - - - - - - sysfem at I ~ 0.1-3

@/ f Illid -fhd'l exited control vfI!VhJe

\\ \ \, flvid tho.1 entered confrol volvtn e

., Water is s,quirt~d from a ~yrtnge ~ of V "'"

m/s by pushing in the plunger with a speed of l!~ = OJ)3 m/s as shown in Fig. P4.:S8. The surface of the deforming control volume consists of the sides and end of the cylinder and the end of the plunger. The system consists of the water in the syringe at t = 0 when the plunger is at section (1) as shown. Make a sketch to indicate the control surface and the system when t = 0.5 s.

FIGURE P4.,59

Dllrin9 the i >:: 0.5s 'f ime i n!1e?rllaJ fhe P/U/}9tU' moves J,::: lip «( t :::0.0151», and [he waier jn;"liollj al Ihe exd move'S 12. :;:: V 6t ;2..5m. The corresponciifJ9 conir»! s{/ilace.sand. systems al t.-::o 4I'Jdt;o.ss

, show» in fhe 1/1ure he/oW,

,

- -- - control volom« al t «ols:e

.' '-:'.:.~~J. system rI,,' t::=0.5.s

e • '&, ._, ". ""'f

\. ":'1 q " -

4.5~ii Water enters a 5-ft-wicie. 1-ft-deep channel as shown in .Fig. P4.S9. Across the inlet the water velocity is 6 ft/s in the center portion of the channel and 1 ft/s in the remainder of it . Farther downstream the water flows. at a uniform 2 tt/s velocity across the entire channel. The fixed control voh,lme ABeD coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the system at time t = 0.5 s and (b) the fluid

thtlt l:i:as entered and exited the control volume in that time period.

_ _ .. _ __ _ Control surface

.. FIGURE P4.59

Dvrin9 fhe l :: 0, S S fiPJS /,,/efJl/a I the {lv;J fhal was a /()1l9 //fJ6 Be /At lime t=() hes /J7()v'ed to -/he riyhl iii di.ff4llce

l= V I::: 2.fi ((),s.s):: Iff. S;t?JIIti"IyJ portions ollhe flvir) a/un9 hAell/) have t»pverJ )e:::l j (fJ,.f'.r)-::(),,$'lf andi ~ '!! to.s sJ ~ 3/1/7Ih~ ·4J'.rt//H8$ fhe lfilJlld

6 ~ fillid stre4ms dQ 110/ nux or /IJtfJrmillf/e tluriJlJ91IJe (),S s time li1fel'l/a/. Seeft9111'e be/ow.

A ~I B 9/

I-::-::i""- -~ .::::-=- - --= - -::-:. - ~ - ::-;..- - =-=-r :- ; -:

., ~ ·0 ... ' •

.. . ~' ..,

• "1 .,. I (f

flvij~ flbf ~;: --.r'· .. /~

enfe·red ~ ;,/: .. ~ :: ;~ 14: .: ,! flf)id fhat

c.on1rol I:-:-_.·:- .~ :.: y, -.: ".' : ..... .-.J._ exiler/, contfrJ/

VolO'lHe f.:~.:- - - -c-~~ - - r. .: .': VOIV/JI8

_· ...... O • ....,rr • '1

(:.::=----=-=-- _ -----:_- =-=.- _ r~~#:; I

1> /)1 C C

._ - - fixed cOlllrlJ1 volvme .. ---------- sy.rfem 411:::0.5s

~-55

4.(,c) Water flows through tl\e 2-m-wicle rectangular channel shown in Fig. P4.60 with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s. (a) Directly integrate Eq. 4.16 with b ~ 1 to determine the mass fiowrate (kg/s) across section CD of the control volume. eb) Repeat part (a) with b ::; 1/ p. where p is the density. Explain the physical interpretation of the answer to part (b).

V=3m/s B

c

- - - - - Control surface

• Fly U R E P4.60

a) 130111'::: S r h V·~ rAil

cSouf

/I.

n

- .1\

With b =/ and V·n ::: V cosO

B I :: JoV cos fJ dlJ ~~V cosO S JIJ

011 CD\ CD

=pV co..rB ACJ) J where lIe/)::: ~ (211))

=(:~5:)(1-m) _/. I ) 2-

-lcos B In

Thus, Wilh V=311/S,

tt'l :::: (31f) cos f) ( (;(Jie) fYI'" (q'l~' ~) == 3OOO.!;I

i o.sm e

= ("f)S() . 0.5 m

b) With b;::: I/p Elf. (j) becomes

Bout ~ S V·B dll =J V coso dlJ::: VCQs8 ~/)

CD c»

m3

=(3~)cose (c.o~8)l1l" :: 3.00--;S

W/lh b= Vp :: (d~.l ::: !~ if ({)//{)w.s fhal M8"" V'/lIlIIe Q

Vol J ,.,a

(t:e:; b= ",!as--f) So fhal f 'lOh rJlI :: B,gt ref11'8s8111.s Ihe vV/rllf/e floJ,/f41e (/JJ3)s) {rpm fhe ClJldl'tI/ J/()/vme.

(I)

if-56

15 ft/s

I I

1 r~ ~

I n 1:,

............

20fd

Y Lx ..Ji,UIlt.J.t¢d.~~~~~~~~.t4l~~ A

4.61 The wind blows across a field with an approximate velocity profile as shown in Fig. P4.61. Use Bq. 4.16 with the parameter b equal to tile velocity to determine the momentum flowrate across the vertical surface A-B, which is of unit depth int.o the paper.

• FIGURE P4.61

Y==20.ff

- ~ YVt)[(Vl').t](JUJJy

'1::#0

a :;: ((,bV';; dA '" jr v V,R dl/

ItB ~~

2,.0 A13

== ~(S V,. dy

o

BlIt) V= ~Y!f fur o~y~/{)F1(l:e.J V:Oo.fy::o; V=/SU.afY=lo) and V = /s_y. tor r"!" Ff

Thus, 1.0 2.0 10 '0

~g - et[f(1fyfJy t SOddy] = flrZ.Z5fl H7-5yl]

o 10 roo

== O~0023B .s~~j.$ [7£0 ~~: + 2250 !~¥]{

_ 7. /'1- At .s 1119 ff

• $2.

x at t = 0 s Cft)

x at t ::;; 0.002 s (It)

Particle

4.'1 (See, "Follow those partldes:' Section 4.1.) Two phom,ntphs of four particles in a flow past a sphere are superposed as shown in Fig. P4.62. The time interval between the photos is ~t ::;; 0.OQ2 s. The locations of the panicles, as determined from the photos, are shown in t.he table. (a) Determine the fluid velocity for these panicles. (b) Plot a graph to compare the resl.Jits of part (1:1) with the theoretical 'Velocity which is given by

V:;o: Vo(l + cllx3). where tI is the sphere radius and Vo is ~~ fluid speed far from the sphere.

-0.500

-0.250

-0.140

-0.120

-0.480

-0.232

-0.128

-0.112

1 2 3 4

.Y.1t

1/=0

(j 1 = 0.002 s

a = 0.1 It

-

• FIG U R E P4.62

The lIvid velOCity (which is 4fSPflIed 10 be the .saln' 4'( -Ihe p4r~·c./e lie/oed;) can he e.s-lilllafed hy

V =:.AX /141

Thus, fur particle (I): \{ == [-O.!fIOH-(-o .. ~()()H)J/(O.002s} - IQ His

DvrtiUI to O.002·,s rime tniervaJ theaver41~ JQca1iQiI oflhe pa(\./ic/e Was' X II:: [(-o.1ftoft) ~(-O..soolt)J ::: -O.o¥9uf/

By Sibil/At ca /cvlaliof}S the foJlQwiIJ9 experiment,,1 rtsvJIs were oJltlllIPd;

~ fl ~ fils

Part; ,Ie

10 9

6 ¥-

1IJe.se ~Xp81'1i»Qnt(l1 resu /Is dnd fhe fheorr:liG41 re.rv/fs (V::: v" (j+ (l/x~) Where Vo = 10 Ills 40J a ::: 0,/ If) 4rc pJolltd ill ihe

fi"flre be/ow.

I

- 0./.190

- 0.2.1./01

- a. 13'1-

- O. 116

V, ftls

I----------t------t--~---~ -od-l"_.----+--- '~ f-------+-- __+_-~-__+_~--__+_---&_

1-------+------"-+----"" -\--c\----t-----...,

-----+-----__+_----- ~-\- __ _t___---_6_

t-------+- ---.. \ !::

-- '\

I~-~----~---+---+\+----a-

--theory f-- \ 2

~ • experiment f----"--" ----11-----4-

"----- "

---+-~"-r--------+--"---+---"-G~

o

-0.5

-0.3

-0.1

-0.2

-0.4

x,ft

if-58

4.til (See, "Winds on Earth and Mars," Section 4.1.4.) A l{))~ft-diatnetef dust devil that rotates one revolution per second travels across the Martiau surface (in the x-direction) with a s,"d of 5 ftls. Plot the pathline etched Q11 the surface by a fluid particle 10 it from the center of the dust devil for time o :$ t S 3 s. The particle position is given by the sum of that ft)f a atationary swirl (x == 10 cos(21Tt), y == 10 sin(21Tt)] and tbat ,fcll' a uniform velocity (x = 5t, Y == constant), where x and yare 1ft feet and t is in seconds.

me ptilh lln» ,'.s ,iI/en by x::: lOcos (1-1l1) 't £ t

4nd

y:::: /0 sin (J.71t) J where XN f(y"'f~ /llJd i NoS

Tills pa;lh is pIQUed for O-St~3~ be/ow.

Particle Path

y, ft

- 0

x, ft

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