Interactional Leadership Theories - Basic premise is that leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s

personality and the specific situation. - Interaction occurs when a behavior of one member causes change in the behavior of another. This change itself a response that stimulates the follower responding stimulates the leader. Schein (1970) - Was the first to propose a model of human as complex beings whose working environment was an open system to which they responded.

A system may be defined as a set object, with relationships between the objects and between their attributes.

- Schein’s model, based on systems theory, had the following assumptions: o Peoples are very complex and highly variable o People motives do not stay constant but change over time o Goals can differ in various situations o A persons performance and productivity are affected by the nature of the task and by his ability, experience, and motivation o No single leadership strategy is effective in every situation. Hollander (1978)

perceptions and abilities. dependability. leadership effectiveness requires the ability to use the problem-solving process. . . maintain group effectiveness. including his or her personality. and develop group identification. and the community. including formal and informal group norms. as their first priority. perceptions and abilities.Saw leadership as a dynamic two-way process. including employee. with their personalities.He noticed that most successful managers lead in a different way from traditional managers. Greenleaf (1977) - Coined the term servant leadership. - The successful managers shared certain defining qualities. demonstrate leader fairness.- Was among the first to recognize that both leaders and followers have roles outside the leadership situation and that both leaders and followers have roles outside the leadership situation and that both may be influenced by events occurring in their other roles. and creativity. A leadership exchange involve three basic elements: o The leader. - According to Hollander. competence. o The situation within which the leader and the followers function. customers. The managers he termed servant leaders put serving others. size and density. communicate well. o The followers. including: o The ability to listen on a deep level and to truly understand .

Who developed the theory that structural aspects of the job shape a leader’s effectiveness. power and proportion. help. paradoxes and complex issues o The belief that honestly sharing critical challenges with all parties and asking for their input is more than important than personally providing solutions o Being clear on goals and good at pointing the direction without giving orders o The ability to serve.She postulated that the leader becomes empowered through both formal and informal systems of the organization. and teach first. and then lead o Always thinking before reacting o Choosing words carefully so as not to damage those being led o The ability to use foresight and intuition o Seeing things whole and sensing relationship and connections Kanter (1977) .o The ability to keep an open mind and hear without judgment o The ability to deal with ambiguity. . .The three major work empowerment structures within the organization are: opportunity. .

the leader and followers become more future-oriented and hold common driving values. o Reactive-leader focuses on the past.The leader must accept the responsibility of quality of outcomes and quality of life for followers. is crisis-driven. is an expansion of McGregor’s Theory Y and supports democratic leadership. and is frequently abusive to subordinated Responsive. Theory Z. . . motivating them to contribute their unique talents to a common goal.the leader is able to mold subordinates to work together as a team. o o o Brandt’s (1994) .Ouchi (1981) - Was a pioneer in introducing interactional leadership theory in his application of Japanese-style management to corporate America.Suggested that organizations and their leaders have four developmental levels and that these levels influence productivity and worker satisfaction. Proactive. High-performanceassociated with maximum productivity and worker satisfaction are apparent. the term Ouchi used for this type of management.Interactive leadership model suggests that leaders develop a work environment that fosters autonomy and creativity through valuing and empowering followers. although the leader maintains most decision-making responsibility. Nelson and Burns (1984) . - This leadership affirms the uniqueness of each individual.

Emerged in troubled times and in relation to the state of mind of constituents. - Constituents confer the leadership role.Perhaps best summarized the work of the interactive theorists by her assertion that title and position authority were no longer sufficient to mold a work force.This matrix highlights the framework for the development and ongoing support of relationships between and among professionals working together.Wolf. - . Kanter (1989) . endowed with exceptional qualities or powers.Constituents and leaders have an equal influence on each other. . Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Leaders - Gardner defines charisma as the quality that sets one person apart from others: supernatural. Boland and Aukerman (1994) - Also emphasized an interactive leadership model in their creation of a collaborative practice matrix. superhuman. Good constituents select good leaders and make them better. . Influence of Constituents on Leaders . Charismatic Leadership can be good or evil.

Leaders influence their superiors and their subordinates and have the courage to defy their constituents. Influence of Leaders on Constituents . Transforming Leaders . Accurately asses the situation 4. wants. Advocate vision that differs from status quo 3. Make self-sacrifices 7. Habel describes Charismatic Leaders as follows: 1. hopes and expectations.The best leadership may be that which focuses on selfdevelopment and self-actualization. Emerge during crisis 2.Leaders choose to be leaders.Loyal constituent’s supports leader who help them meet their needs and solve problems. Use unconventional strategy . . They may transcend the political system or even attempt to construct it in order to operate within it.. They must adapt their leadership style to situation and their constituents. . Communicate self-confidence 5. Use personal power 6.Innovative .Respond to people’s basic needs.

Interpersonal . . trouble-shooter and negotiator when conflicts arise.) Informational 3.Makes him/her entrepreneur or innovator. liaison Informational .As a symbol.) Interpersonal 2. leader.) Decisional Role. disseminates function and spokesperson Decisional-Role .Roles of Manager Henry Mintzberg categorized the roles of manager into three: 1.As a monitors.

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