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The strain energy stored in an element "i" within a general structural system is

the area under the stress-strain diagram integrated over the volume of the

element. For linear systems, the stress-strain matrix )

(*i
*

**E**, including initial thermal

stresses )

(*i
t
*

**f**, can be written in matrix form as:

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

*i
*

*t
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

**f
**

**d
**

**E
**

**f
**

+

=

(3.13)

The column matrices

)

(

)

(

*i
*

*i
*

**d
**

**f
**

and

are the stresses and strain respectively.

Therefore, the strain energy within one element is given by:

∫

∫

+

=

*dV
*

*dV
*

*W
*

*i
*

*t
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

*I
*

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

**f
**

**d
**

**d
**

**E
**

**d
**

**T
**

**T
**

(3.14)

Within each element, an approximation can be made on the displacements. Or:

and

,

*z
*

*i
*

*i
z
*

*y
*

*i
*

*i
*

*y
*

*x
*

*i
*

*i
*

*x
*

*u
*

*u
*

*u
*

**u
**

**N
**

**u
**

**N
**

**u
**

**N
**

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

=

=

=

(3.15)

Hence, after the application of the strain-displacement equations, the element

strains can be expressed in terms of nodal displacements. Or:

**T
**

**T
**

**T
**

**B
**

**u
**

**d
**

**u
**

**B
**

**d
**

)

)

(

)

(

)

(

*(i
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

=

=

or

(3.16)

The column matrix **u**contains all of the node, or joint, displacements of the

complete structural system. In addition, it may contain displacement patterns

within the element. When equation (3.16) is written in this form, it is apparent

that the )

(*i
*

**B** matrix can be very large; however, it only has non-zero terms

associated with the displacements at the nodes connected to nodes adjacent to the

element. Therefore, the )

(*i
*

**B**matrix is always formed and used in compacted form

within a computer program, and an ** integer location array**,

a

**L**, is formed for

ENERGY AND WORK

3-7

each element that is used to relate the local node displacements )

(*i
*

**u**to the *global
*

node displacements **u**.

After integration over the volume of the element, the strain energy, in terms of

the global node displacements, can be written as:

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

*I
*

*W
*

**t
**

**T
**

**T
**

**F
**

**u
**

**u
**

**k
**

**u
**

+

=

(3.17)

Therefore, the element stiffness matrix is by definition:

*dV
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

∫

=

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

**i
**

**T
**

**B
**

**E
**

**B
**

**k
**

(3.18)

And the element thermal force matrix is:

*dV
*

*i
*

*i
*

*i
*

∫

=

)

(

)

(

)

(

**t
**

**T
**

**f
**

**B
**

**F
**

(3.19)

The total internal strain energy is the sum of the element strain energies. Or:

**t
**

**T
**

**T
**

**F
**

**u
**

**u
**

**K
u** +

=

2

1

*I
*

*W
*

(3.20)

The global stiffness matrix **K**is the sum of the element stiffness matrices )

(**i
**

**k**.

Or:

∑

=

)

(*i
*

**k
**

**K
**

(3.21)

The summation of element stiffness matrices to form the global stiffness matrix

is termed the ** direct stiffness method**. The global thermal load vector

**t
**

**F** is the

sum of the element thermal load matrices:

∑

=

)

(*t
t
*

**F
**

**Ft
**

(3.22)

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