SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS STUDY

RELIABILITY, QUANTITATIVE SURVEY AND
LIFE CYCLE COST METHOD













PRESENTED BY: DIMITRIOS PANAPAKIDIS
Submitted for the degree of MSc in “Energy Systems & Environment
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Strathclyde in Glasgow

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Acknowledgments

I would like my tutor Mr R. C. McLean for his guidance and encouragement. My family for
their continues support from their beginning of my studies. Also my cousins Panagiotis
Vamvakaris and Nikolaos Gougoulis for their help in the quantitative survey part. To the
entire people respondent to my letters and e-mails providing useful data for my project.
Finally, my two good friends Christos Kapatos and Kaliopi Maravelea for their hospitality
during the last month of my course.
SUMMARY PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Summary

This report tries to give an overview with the solar water heating status today. Chapters 1 is
an overview of the systems used today, some new development systems and benefits of solar
water heaters. Chapter 2 is concentrated with the type of solar collector’s currently used,
analysis of the material of frat plate collectors which at the moment they are extensively used
around U.K. There is also a description of materials for heat management and storage as well
as antifreeze solutions. Chapter 3 is referred to current market development in Europe and
some countries around the world. Special attention is given in the market of U.K. Chapter 4
discusses the reliability and quantitative survey carried out compared data from U.K and
Greek responders. Chapter 6 describes the procedure followed for the Life Cycle Costing,
considering three major solar water heating systems. Finally Chapter 6 analyses the results
and proposes some solutions for better market development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS



CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction 1
Objectives 4

CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS
1.1 Introduction 5
1.2 Types of SWH 5
1.2.1 Direct systems (open loop) 5
1.2.1.1 Photovoltaic operated systems 6
1.2.2 Indirect systems (closed loop) 7
1.2.2.1 Drainback systems 8
1.2.3 Thermosiphon systems 9
1.2.4 Integral collectors storage systems (Batch heaters) 10
1.3 New development systems 11
1.3.1 Solar boosted panel 11
1.3.2 Low flow systems 11
1.4 Benefits of solar water heaters 12
1.5 References 13

CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Types of solar collectors 15
2.2.1 Flat plate collectors 15
2.2.1.1 Liquid collectors 16
2.2.1.2 Air collectors 17
2.2.2 Evacuated tube collectors 17
2.2.3 Concentrating collectors 18
2.3 Materials for collector components 20
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2.3.1 Absorber materials 20
2.3.1.1 Absorber coating 21
2.3.2 Glazing 21
2.3.3 Casing 22
2.3.4 Seals 23
2.3.5 Absorber insulation 24
2.4 Materials for heat management and storage 25
2.4.1 Pipes and connections 25
2.4.2 Storage vessels 25
2.4.3 Control system 26
2.5 Freeze protection 26
2.5.1 Non-aqueous solutions 26
2.5.1.1 Silicon fluids 26
2.5.1.2 Hydrocarbon oils 27
2.5.2 Aqueous solutions 27
2.5.2.1 Glycol-water antifreeze 27
2.5.2.2Distilled water 28
2.6 References 28

CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SWH
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 U.K. market 32
3.2.1 System types and data 33
3.2.2 U.K. SWH industry 33
3.2.3 Range of costs for SWH 34
3.2.4 Potential for SWH 35
3.3 The European market 35
3.3.1 France 35
3.3.2 Greece 35
3.3.3 Germany 36
3.3.4 Austria 36
3.3.5 Netherlands 36
3.3.6 Denmark 37
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3.4 U.S.A market 37
3.5 Australian market 38
3.6 Japanese market 38
3.7 References 38

CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY & QUANTITATIVE SURVEY
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Reliability survey 40
4.2.1 Freeze protection 40
4.2.2 Overheat protection 41
4.2.3 Poor water quality 41
4.2.4 Mixing valve and tempering valve failure 42
4.2.5 Storage tank failure 42
4.2.6 Air vent failure 43
4.3 Quantitative survey 43
4.3.1 Purpose of research 43
4.3.2 Awareness and usage of various water heating systems 44
4.3.2.1 Awareness of water heating systems 44
4.3.2.2 Sources of SWH awareness 45
4.3.2.3 Usage of water heating systems 46
4.3.3 Image of SWH 47
4.3.4 Disadvantages of SWH systems 47
4.3.5 Consideration factors 48
4.3.6 Attitudinal statement 49
4.3.7 SWH system cost 50
4.3.8 Reasons for not considering SWH 51
4.4 References 52

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST
5.1 Introduction 54
5.2 Economic Indicators 55
5.2.1 Payback period 56
5.2.2 Life cycle savings and the P
1
, P
2
method 57
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5.3 System specifications 59
5.3.1 Electric water heater 59
5.3.2 Electric water heater and solar systems 59
5.3.3 Gas water heater 60
5.3.4 Gas water heater and solar systems 60
5.4 Financial inputs 61
5.4.1 Loan term and interest rate 61
5.4.2 Nominal discount rate 62
5.4.3 General inflation rate 62
5.4.4 Income tax bracket 62
5.5 Maintenance & replacement costs 62
5.5.1 Pumps 63
5.5.2 Controls 64
5.5.3 Collectors 64
5.5.4 Tanks 65
5.6 Environmental value 65
5.7 Performance rating of systems 66
5.7.1 Solar Energy Factor (SEF) & Solar Fraction (SF) 66
5.7.2 Fuel cost 67
5.7.3 Fuel escalation rate 68
5.7.4 Fuel usage 68
5.8 References 69

CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Introduction 73
6.2 Discussion of reliability and quantitative survey 74
6.3 Discussion of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) method 76
6.3.1 Annual fuel cost and total savings 78
6.3.2 Effective cost 80
6.3.3 Life Cycle Cost results 82
6.4 Conclusions 83
6.5 Recommendations 84

TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE
Figure 1.1: Open loop system 6
Figure 1.2: Closed loop system 7
Figure 1.3: Drainback system 9
Figure 1.4: Thermosiphon system 9
Figure 1.5: Integral collector storage system 10
Figure 1.6: Components of the solar boosted heat pump system 11
Figure 2.1: Flat plate solar collector 16
Figure 2.2: “Z” array liquid collector 17
Figure 2.3: “U” array liquid collector 17
Figure 2.4: Solar air collector 17
Figure 2.5: Evacuated tube collector 18
Figure 2.6: Concentrating collector 19
Figure 3.1: Installed collector area per thousand inhabitants in Europe (1999) 31
Figure 4.1: Awareness of water heating systems 44
Figure 4.2: Sources of SWH awareness 45
Figure 4.3: Usage of water heating systems 46
Figure 4.4: Image of SWH 47
Figure 4.5: Disadvantages of SWH systems 48
Figure 4.6: Consideration factors 49
Figure 4.7: Attitudinal statement 50
Figure 4.8: SWH system cost 51
Figure 4.9: Reasons for not considering SWH 52
Figure 6.1: Electricity and gas cost graph 79
Figure 6.2: Total savings graph 79
Figure 6.3: Effective cost graph 80
Figure 6.4: Effective cost graph (EWH) 81
Figure 6.5: Effective cost graph (GWH) 81
Figure 6.6: Life Cycle Cost graph 82
Figure 6.7: Life Cycle Cost graph (EWH) 83
Figure 6.8: Life Cycle Cost graph (GWH) 83


TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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LIST OF TABLES

PAGE
Table 2a: Thermal conductivities of absorber materials 21
Table 2b: Properties of sealing materials 23
Table 2c: properties of insulation materials 24
Table 3a: Cost and performance data for a typical SWH system 34
Table 4a: Percentage data for awareness of water heating systems 44
Table 4b: Percentage data for sources of SWH 45
Table 4c: Percentage data for usage of water heating systems 46
Table 4d: Percentage data for image of SWH 47
Table 4e: Percentage data for disadvantages of SWH systems 48
Table 4f: Percentage data for consideration factors 49
Table 4g: Percentage data for attitudinal statement 50
Table 4h: Percentage data for SWH system cost 51
Table 4i: Percentage data for reasons for not considering SWH 52

LIST OF APPENDICES


Appendix 1: Electric water heater
Appendix 2: Typical installation diagram of a gas water heater
Appendix 3: Excel spreadsheets

OBJECTIVES PRENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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Objectives

Residential hot water use represents a large proportion of residential energy use. The
residential energy use accounts for approximately one third of the total energy use. Utilities
can use end-use pricing to target solar domestic hot water heating. This offers many benefits
in terms of increased market share and reduced demand at the generation level in an
increasingly competitive environment. The main objectives of this thesis are:
To give a brief overview of the most commonly used SWH systems
To investigate the current market development
To carry out a reliability survey for problems identification
Investigate what people believe about Solar water heating technology
Life Cycle Cost analysis of the 3 most common systems currently used in U.K in
order to compare with gas and electricity water heaters and investigate cost and
economic benefits for a 30 year period.

INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Introduction

A great deal of research has been carried out on solar energy alternatives to heating by
conventional means. The conclusion of a great part of this research is that solar energy is a
viable, clean and sustainable source. Yet nearly 20 years after the energy scare of the early
1970s, solar energy’s market share remains disappointing. In order to propose solutions that
will increase the acceptance of solar energy technology, it is first necessary to understand the
reason for the poor market penetration.

Primary between the obstacles that they noted are: lack of knowledge about solar, concerns
about system reliability, concerns about the effect of weather on performance, concerns about
dealer credibility and competence, high system cost and redundancy with other heating
options. Essentially it seems that a customer would be more willing to consider solar if it
were less expensive and there were someone to whom they could turn for maintenance issues
and to be assured that the system was operating properly.

One proposed solution to both of these problems is to encourage the involvement of electric
utilities. If a utility were to buy a large quantity of solar systems and rent them to
homeowners there would be a number of benefits to all involved. The utility could buy
systems at a volume discount rate, recuperating their cost through a leasing program.
Furthermore, there are business tax incentives for solar options that are available to
corporations, such as utilities, but are unavailable to individual consumers. The other benefit
to the utility is that of avoided generation cost.

Most utilities are summer peaking meaning that the highest demand occurs during the
summer when a large number of air conditioners are in operation. Because this is a problem
for almost all utilities, simple rerouting of power from one utility district to another is not a
sufficient solution. Many utilities maintain extra generating capacity year round so that they
can meet their summertime load, a costly undertaking. If however, a large number of houses
in the utility’s service area heat water without creating an increased load on the utility, the
utility’s extra generating capacity could be reduced at great economic and environmental
benefit. The benefit to the customer is that solar energy collection becomes much less
expensive and that the utility would be in charge of maintenance. Furthermore, the customer
INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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would pay a fixed monthly lease on the collector, and would be charged a reduced electricity
rate, hopefully decreasing the overall bill.

There are a number of barriers that have prevented the widespread acceptance of solar water
heaters by both utilities and homeowners in the past. These have included high capital costs,
a reputation for poor system reliability, an inadequate system infrastructure and limited
public knowledge of the gains and benefits of current technology. With deregulation and new
competition, utilities are seeking innovative new products and services that will add value
and produce customer reliability. Utilities can experience demand reduction from solar water
heating systems during peak times, typically morning and evenings when hot water draws
tend to be the greatest.

The energy reduction eliminates the need for larger power plant generating capacities and
pollution from power plants is reduced as loads decrease. Many electricity-providing utilities
are losing customers who are switching to cheaper gas; solar hot water heating may provide a
means of retaining customers. Many utilities are now employing Energy Service Companies
(ESCOs). The concept presents the possibility of converting solar water heating from a
subsidized Demand Side management program to a profitable business.

The ESCO is typically responsible for the installation, service and maintenance of the solar
hot water system. In return for contributing to an increased market size, the ESCO receives a
portion of performance savings from the utility. The Utility on the other hand receives a
monthly service fee from the homeowner in return for the services the ESCO provides. The
homeowner experiences no first costs and is assured reliability and maintenance of the
system. The ESCO concept is demonstrated below. This end-use pricing, which involves the
sale of solar heated water itself, rather than the sale or lease of equipment that makes it, is
believed to increase market penetration. The increased demand will have a positive effect on
the economics of solar water heating.

Considering all the above mentioned this report tries to give an overview with the solar water
heating status today. Chapters 1 is an overview of the systems used today, some new
development systems and benefits of solar water heaters. Chapter 2 is concentrated with the
type of solar collector’s currently used, analysis of the material of frat plate collectors which
at the moment they are extensively used around U.K. There is also a description of materials
INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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for heat management and storage as well as antifreeze solutions. Chapter 3 is referred to
current market development in Europe and some countries around the world. Special
attention is given in the market of U.K. Chapter 4 discusses the reliability and quantitative
survey carried out compared data from U.K and Greek responders. Chapter 6 describes the
procedure followed for the Life Cycle Costing, considering three major solar water heating
systems. Finally Chapter 6 analyses the results and proposes some solutions for better market
development.





Monthly service Portion of performance
Fee Savings


Installation, service, maintenance




No first costs Increased market size
Positive cash flow Incentive to maintain system
Reliability and maintenance
Choice

















UTILITY

ESCO

HOMEOWNER
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS

1.1 Introduction

This chapter provides basic information on the components and types of solar water heaters
currently available around the world. Solar water heaters most of the time are called
“domestic hot water systems”. These systems use the sun to heat either water or a heat
transfer fluid, such as water-glycol antifreeze mixture in collectors generally mounted on the
roof. The heated water is then stored in a tank similar to a convectional gas or electric water
tank. Some systems use an electric pump to circulate the fluid through the collectors [1,2].

Some water heaters can operate in any climates. Performance varies depending on how much
energy is available and how cold the water is coming into the system. Aspreviously
mentioned, this chapter provides basic information about the systems currently available.
There is a description about the new developed systems of solar water heaters and their
advantages and it concludes with the benefits of the solar water heaters.

1.2 Types of solar water heaters

1.2.1 Direct systems (open loop)

In direct systems the heat from the sun is transferred directly to the water in the collector.
There is no anti-freeze solution used in this type of system. These systems, also known as
“open loop” systems, are the most common systems in use in tropical and sub-tropical
climates where temperatures do not often go below 0°C [3,8,9]. The basic components of an
open loop system are listed below:
Direct storage tank
Circulating pump
Differential control unit
Temperature sensor
Isolation valve
Drain valve
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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A typical open loop system is shown in figure 1.1. A solar collector, typically mounted
on the roof of the structure where the water is to be used, heats the water. The hot water
is stored in a storage tank. The storage tank is typically installed in the basement, garage
and is well insulated [3,10].


Figure 1.1: Open loop system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre)

Sensors are used to monitor the temperatures of the water in the system. A differential
control unit attached to the sensors is used to control a circulating pump. If the temperature at
the collector is 5-7°C greater than the temperature at the bottom of the storage tank the water
in the system is circulated. When the differential of the water temperature is 5°C the pump is
turned off. In this way the water in the system is always being heated when the sun is
shining. When required, a thermally operated valve, installed at the collector, is used to
circulate the warm water into the collector as temperatures approach freezing. Closing the
isolation valves and opening the drain valves instead of using a thermally operated valve can
manually drain the system [3,11,12].

1.2.1.1 Photovoltaic operated systems

This type of solar water heaters is not much different to the ones discussed above. The main
difference comes from the fact that the energy to power the pump is provided by a
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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photovoltaic (PV) panel. The PV panel converts the sunlight into electricity, which then
drives the pump. In this way water flows through the collector when the sun is shining [3,9].

The pump and the PV panel have to be suitable matched in order to ensure optimum
performance of the system. The pump starts when there is sufficient solar radiation available
to heat the solar collector. That system like the previous one, incorporates a thermally
operated valve to provide freeze protection. Timers also used in order to control solar system
operation. Most of them have a battery back up in case of power failure. The timers operate
during the day when solar radiation is available to heat water. In order to avoid loss of energy
from the tank during cloudy days, the collector lines are connected to the bottom of the
storage tank with a special valve [3].

1.2.2 Indirect systems (closed loop)

Indirect systems are designed for use in climates where freezing weather can occur more
frequently. These systems, also known as closed loop systems, are the most commonly used
in cold climates where temperatures often go below 0°C. A solar collector, filled with an
anti-freeze solution, is used to collect the thermal energy in sunlight. Typically a propylene
glycol or ethylene glycol and water mixture is used [1]. A typical closed loop system is
shown in figure 1.2. The basic
components of a drain back
system are listed below:
Heat exchanger
Circulating pump
Differential control
unit
Temperature sensor
Gate valve
Drain valve
Indirect storage tank

Figure 1.2: Closed loop system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre)
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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A pump circulates the solution through the collector and into a storage tank where a heat
exchanger is fitted. The heat exchanger transfers the heat into the water stored in the tank.
The tank is designed to transfer the heat into the coldest water in the tank. The heat
exchanger is a coil of tubing that wraps around inside the perimeter of the storage tank. The
storage tank is typically installed in the basement, garage or utility room and is well insulated
[1,12].

Sensors are used to monitor the temperatures of the anti-freeze solution in the system. A
differential control unit attached to the sensors determines when the circulating pump should
be activated. If the temperature at the collector is about 5-7°C greater than the temperature at
the bottom of the storage tank, the solution in the system is circulated in the closed loop.
When the differential of the water temperature is 15°C, the pump is turned off. Indirect
systems are closed loop systems. There is no contact between the anti-freeze solution and the
potable water in the system [3].

1.2.2.1 Drainback systems

Drain back systems are indirect closed loop systems. There is no contact between the heat
transfer liquid and the potable water in the system. Drain back systems are used in cold
climates to reliably ensure that the collectors and the piping never freeze. This protection is
achieved when the system is operated in drain mode. In drain mode all of the liquid in the
system's collectors and piping is drained back into an insulated reservoir tank when the
system is not producing heat. An indicator on the reservoir tank shows when the collector is
completely drained. Each time the pump shuts off the solution in the collector is drained into
the reservoir tank [1,3]. A typical closed loop system is shown in figure 1.3. The basic
components of a drain back system are listed below:
Indirect storage tank
Reservoir tank
Circulating pump
Differential control unit
Temperature sensor
Gate valve
Drain valve
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Drain back systems work like indirect systems. A
solar collector, filled with distilled water or an anti-
freeze solution, is used to collect the thermal energy.
Typically distilled water or a propylene glycol and
water mixture is used. A pump circulates the solution,
through the collector and into a storage tank where a
heat exchanger is fitted. The heat exchanger transfers
the heat into the water stored in the tank. The tank is
designed to transfer the heat into the coldest water in
the tank. The heat exchanger is a coil of tubing that
wraps around inside the perimeter of the storage tank.
In this systems sensors are also used
Figure 1.3: Drainback system to monitor the temperature [1,12].
(source: Florida Solar Energy Centre)

1.2.3 Thermosiphon systems

The use of thermosiphon systems is accepted world wide due to their simple and reliable
characteristics [3]. A typical closed loop system is shown in figure 1.4. The basic
components of a drain back system are listed below:
Solar collectors
Direct storage tank
Isolation valve
Drain valve
Thermally operated valve


Figure 1.4: Thermosiphon system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre)

The collector absorbs the sun’s energy and the water inside the collector flow-tubes is heated.
As it heats, the water expands and becomes lighter than the cold water in the solar storage
tank mounted above the collector. Gravity then pulls heavier, cold water down from the tank
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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and into the collector inlet. The cold water pushes the heated water through the collector
outlet and into the top of the tank, thus heating the water in the tank [3,16].

A thermosiphon system requires neither pump nor controller. Cold water flows directly to the
tank on the roof. Solar heated water flows from the rooftop tank to the auxiliary tank
installed at ground level.

This system features a thermally operated valve that protects the collector from freezing. It
also includes isolation valves, which allow the solar system to be manually drained in case of
freezing conditions, or to be bypassed completely [16].

1.2.4 Integral collectors storage systems (Batch heaters)

In the integral collector storage solar system, the hot water storage system is the collector.
Cold water flows progressively through the collector where it is heated by the sun. Hot water
is drawn from the top, which is the hottest, and replacement water flows into the bottom.
This system is simple because pumps and controllers are not required. On demand, cold
water from the house flows into the collector and hot water from the collector flows to a
standard hot water auxiliary tank within the house [3,15].

This system is simple because pumps and controllers are not
required. On demand, cold water from the house flows into
the collector and hot water from the collector flows to a
standard hot water auxiliary tank within the house. A flush-
type freeze protection valve is installed in the top plumbing
near the collector. As temperatures near freezing, this valve
opens to allow relatively warm water to flow through the
collector to prevent freezing [1,14].


Figure 1.5: Integral collector storage system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre)

CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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1.3 New development systems

1.3.1 Solar boosting panel

An Australian team has introduced this new concept of solar water heating. It is called “solar
boosting panel” and can achieve an energy reduction of up to 75%, compared to convectional
solar water heating systems. The solar hot water system combines a heat pump with an
evaporator (panels) exposed to atmosphere. The system uses a refrigeration circuit, drawing
heat from one space and discharching to another. An analytical diagram of the system is
presented in figure 1.6 below.

The major components of the solar boosted
heat pump are:
Two heat exchangers
A compressor.

The solar evaporator panels absorb sun’s
energy and use it to vaporise the refrigerant
(usually R-22). This vapour is then
compressed raising its pressure and
temperature [4].

Figure 1.6: Components of the solar boosted heat pump system (source: Australian National Team)

The high temperature vapour is passed to tubing, around the outside of the water storage tank
(condenser). The refrigerant vapour condenses to liquid form giving off latent heat to the
stored water. Then the condensed refrigerant liquid returns to the evaporator panels through
an expansion device, becomes vaporised and the cycle is repeated. The main disadvantages
of such systems are the cost compared to common solar water heaters and the possibility of
the refrigerant to contaminate the water supply [4,5].

1.3.2 Low flow systems

During the last years pumped solar water heating systems use the low flow principle,
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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introduced by many manufacturers around the world. These systems basically use solar tanks
with high thermal stratification. The flow rates are also low between the ranges of 0.15-0.25
l/min per m
2
collector area. Such low flow rates always have been used in thermosiphon
systems [6,7].

The low flow improves the system performance/cost ratio. First of all, using the low flow
principle increases the thermal performance of the system. The thermal increase is influenced
by the system design and by solar fraction of the system. The thermal design of the system
increases with increasing thermal stratification in the solar tank. Low flow rates offer cost
advantages. The smaller the flow rate, the less expensive is the system and the use of
electricity. Investigations have shown that the solar collectors designed for low flow
conditions can benefit from large material reduction making the total manufacturing cost less
[7].

According to tests at Technical University of Denmark [6], the thermal performance of the
system can be increased by improving the design of the system and that the solar tank is the
most important component for the better thermal performance of the system. Investigations
have also shown that the common solar collector systems in Denmark perform worse
compared to laboratory tested ones. And the major reason is the solar tank [6].

1.4 Benefits of solar water heaters

It is a fact that most of the houses build today choose electric water heaters. The main reason
is because they are easy to install and inexpensive. However, research has shown that in an
average household with electric water heater spends about 25% of its home energy costs on
heating water. According to the Florida Solar Energy Centre [3], it was found that U.S.A
homes using solar water heaters can save as much as 50-85% annually on the utility bills
over the cost of an electric water heater. Depending of the fuel sources the solar water heater
can be more economically over the lifetime of the system than heating water with electricity,
fuel oil, propane or natural gas [15,16].

Solar water heaters do not pollute because they avoid carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides,
sulphur dioxide and the other air pollution and wastes. When a solar water heater replaces an
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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electric water heater, the electricity displaced over 20 years represents more than 50 tons of
avoided carbon dioxide emissions [16].

1.5 References

1) www.altenergys.com
“Alternative Energy Systems Incorporated”. General information about solar water
heaters

2) www.ncsc.ncsu.edu
Energy Division, North Carolina Solar Center, Department of Commerce

3) www.fsec.ucf.edu
“Florida Solar Energy Center”

4) www.quantumhotwater.com
“Solar boosted heat pumps for energy efficient water heating”
Prepared by: “Australian National Team”

5) “Developments in solar water heating”
Report by: Graham L. Morrison, School of Mechanical & Manufacturing
Engineering, New South Wales University, Australia

6) “Present & future SDHW systems technology”
Report by: Simon Furbo, Technical University of Denmark

7) “High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems”
University of Wisconsin-Madison 1997, MSc Thesis, Mechanical Engineering
Department.

8) www.solarboston.org/solarwaterheat.html
Description of types of SWH

9) www.eren.doe.gov/erec/factsheets/solrwatr.html
CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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10) www.eren.doe.gov/erec/factsheets/watheath.html

11) www.fpl.com/savings/hes/contents/types_of_water_heaters.shtml

12) webtrain.austin.cc.tx.us/~davidm/power_tools/classif_solarcoll.PDF
Description of active systems, solar collector basic types

13) energyoutlet.com/res/waterheat/passive.html
Passive water heaters

14) www.inforamp.net/~sovran/solar.html

15) www.ases.org/
“American Solar Energy Society”. General information about SWH systems

16) www.eren.doe.gov/femp/prodech/sw_water.html
“Federal Energy Management Program”. Detail description of solar water heaters




CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS
& FREEZE PROTECTION

2.1 Introduction

Solar collectors are the heart of most solar systems. The main task of the collector is to
absorb the energy of the sun and to convert it to heat energy. Solar collectors can be divided
into two main categories:
a) Liquid collectors: these types of solar collectors are mainly used for water heating in
houses and swimming pools. The most common liquid used is water or antifreeze
solutions in cold climates. Antifreeze solutions are discussed in more detail in section
3.5 of this chapter.
b) Air collectors: They are basically used for indoor spaces and to regenerate drying
material in a drying cooling system. In this chapter there is a brief description of air
collectors for reference purposes [1,8].

The most common types of solar collectors are the flat plate, evacuated tube and
concentrating collectors. This chapter deals with the different types of collectors in extensive
format. It also provides analytical information about solar collector covers, insulation,
gaskets and sealants. Finally, and most importantly it deals with antifreeze solutions.

2.2 Types of solar collectors

2.2.1 Flat plate collectors

Flat plate collectors (figure 2.1.) are the most common collectors for water heating (liquid
type) and for space heating installations (air type). In simple words a flat plate collector is an
insulated metal box with either glass or plastic cover, which is called “glazing”. The dark
colour plate is called the “absorber plate” because it absorbs the sun radiation. The glazing
can be “transparent” or “translucent” [8].

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Figure 2.1: Flat plate solar collector (source: U.S.A Department of Energy)

Translucent (transmitting light only), low iron glass is a common glazing material for flat
plate collectors because low iron glass transmits a high percentage of the available solar
energy. The glazing allows the light to strike the absorber plate and reduces the escaped
amount of heat. Usually the sides and the bottom of the plate are insulated to minimise the
heat losses. The absorber plate is usually black. The reason is that dark colours absorb a
higher percentage of sunlight than light colours [2,8,10].

It is very easy to explain how the flat plate collector works. The sunlight passes through the
glazing and strikes the absorber plate. The absorber plate then starts to heat up concentrating
solar radiation into heat energy. The heat then is transferred to the air or liquid passing
through the flow tubes. Flat plate collectors are divided into two categories, a) liquid
collectors and b) air collectors [11]. Both of them can be either glazed or unglazed. Detailed
analysis of materials is presented in part 2

2.2.1.1 Liquid collectors

In a liquid collector solar energy heats the liquid as it flows through the tubes. The flow tubes
are attached to absorber plate so the heat absorbed by the plate is transferred to the liquid.
There are two types of liquid collectors
a) The “Z” array (figure 2.2) where the flow tubes are placed in parallel.
b) The “U” array (figure 2.3)


The most common is the “Z” array. However, the “U” array has an extra advantage. First of
CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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all it eliminates the possibility of leaks and ensures uniform flow. The disadvantage is that
the system cannot be drained completely in order to avoid freezing [8,11,12].

Figure 2.2: “Z” array liquid collector Figure 2.3: “U” array liquid collector
(source: U.S.A Department of Energy)
2.2.1.2 Air collectors

Air flat plate collectors (figure 2.4) are used mostly for space heating. The absorber plate can
be metal sheet or non-metallic materials. The air flows past the absorber plate placed by
natural convection or forced by a fan. A disadvantage of air collectors compared to liquid is
that less heat is transferred between the air and the absorber plate [1,2].

In some air collectors, fins on the absorbers are
used to heat transfer. The disadvantage of this
configuration comes from the fact that it
increases the power needed for circulating fans
and thus increases the systems operating cost.

The advantage of air system is they eliminate
the problems associated with liquid collectors
(e.g. freezing). Leaks can cause less troubles
compared to liquid systems. They also use less
Figure 2.4: Solar air collector expensive materials such as plastic [2,8].
(source: U.S.A Department of Energy)

2.2.2 Evacuated tube collectors

Evacuated tube collectors are mostly used to heat water in residential applications that
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require higher temperatures. Sunlight enters through the outer glass tube and strikes the
absorber tube(s) and changes to heat. The heat is transferred to the liquid flowing through the
absorber tube. The collector consists of rows of parallel transparent glass (figure 3.5). Each
tube contains an absorber tube with selective coating. In such type of solar collectors, tubes
can be either added or removed [10].

The tubes are designed in such a way that air is evacuated from the space between the two
tubes forming a vacuum. Conductive and convective heat losses are eliminated because there
is no air to conduct heat nor to circulate and cause convective losses.



Figure 2.5: Evacuated tube collector (source: U.S.A Department of Energy)

Evacuated tube collectors are available in a number of designs. Some of them use a third
glass tube inside the absorber tube or other configurations of heat transfer fins and fluid
tubes. For additional sunlight it is possible to place reflectors behind the evacuated tubes.
This makes the collector more efficient, offering the advantage of performing better in both
diffuse and beam radiation, making the collectors useful in cold climate areas. Another
positive fact is due to its shape. The circular shape absorbs the sunlight perpendicularly for
most of the day. However the disadvantage of such collectors is that are more expensive
compared to flat plate [8,10].

2.2.3 Concentrating collectors

Concentrating collectors use mirror surfaces to collect sunlight on an absorber called
receiver. They can achieve high temperatures but like evacuated tube collectors, this happens
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when direct sunlight is available. The sun’s energy is collected over a large area onto a
smaller absorber area to achieve high temperatures. Concentrating collectors can be designed
in two methods. In one, which is the most advantageous, the sun’s energy is concentrated
along a thin line called the “focal line” (figure 2.6). The second method is to concentrate the
sun’s energy onto a “focal point” [8,3].

As it was mentioned, the first method offers the advantage of the receiver to be located at the
focal point or along the focal line. In this case a heat transferred fluid flows through the
receiver and absorbs heat.



Figure 2.6: Concentrating collector (source: U.S.A Department of Energy)

Concentrating collectors can reach much higher temperatures compared to flat plate
collectors. However they can only focus direct solar radiation, which affects the performance
of the collectors especially in cloudy days. To improve the performance of the collectors,
trucking mechanisms are used to keep them focused on the sun. There are single axis truckers
moving from east to west, dual axis moving from north to south. There are also passive
trackers using freon on supply the movement [3,4].

Concentrators are mostly used in commercial applications due to high cost and frequent
maintenance of tracking mechanisms. For residential applications the most common type is
the parabolic through collector (figure above) with simple tracking mechanisms, which are
less expensive than dual axis, for either hot water or space heating [5].

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2.3 Materials for collector components

The materials selected for one component will affect the possible choices of other
components of the system. Therefore, it is important to consider all components whether they
play a major role in the system or not. Thus the selection of the optimum materials and
manufacturing processes is of vital importance of solar collectors and more specifically solar
systems. As the project deals with a flat plate solar collector and as flat plate collectors are
most used around U.K., this part gives an analytical overview of the appropriate materials
and their specifications

2.3.1 Absorber materials

The absorber is the central component of the solar collector. Metals such as copper,
aluminium steel and stainless steel are commonly used for absorber materials. Since these are
not strongly absorbing a coating is provided which absorbs the solar radiation. As it was
mentioned in section 2.1, this can be produced in a transparent or translucent form.

Heat transfer to the fluid depends on the thermal conductivity of the plate material and on the
distance between fluid passageways. Thermal conductivities of absorber materials are given
in Table 2a. High thermal conductivities such as copper and aluminium can be economically
used in plate and tubes, where heat conduction takes place along the plate. The passageways
are most of the time closed spaces with medium conductivity materials, such as steel or
stainless steel or copper and aluminium. Novel forming techniques such as superplastic
forming and integral rolling are used to provide good mechanical bond between the absorber
plate and the passageways.

Material Thermal Conductivity (Wm
-1
K
-1
)
Copper 376
Aluminium 205
Mild Steel 50
Stainless Steel 24
Acrylic 0.20
Polyethylene 0.30-0.44
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Polypropylene 0.20
PVC (Polyvinyl Formal)

0.16

Table 2a: Thermal conductivities of absorber materials

Certain polymeric materials are resistant to water and other fluids are suitable for use in solar
absorbers. Another important material is polypropylene, which can be used as absorbing
material [13].

2.3.1.1 Absorber coating

In current solar collector constructions, the absorber is generally made from a material with
poor absorbing properties (e.g. copper, aluminium, steel). A coating, which is highly
absorbent of solar radiation, is generally applied to the upper surface. Two basic types of
coatings are available. These are non-selective and selective coatings. Non-selective coatings
have a high absorptance of solar radiation and a high emmitance of thermal radiation, at high
operating temperatures. Selective coatings have high absorptance of solar radiation but the
emmitance is low [13].

The materials used for non-selective surfaces include matt-black paint based on polyester
acrylic and epoxy resins. Common pigments are carbon black iron oxide, amorphous
graphite, bone black and asphalt bases. Aluminium black paints can be used in concentrating
collectors. For selective surfaces black chrome coatings have been investigated and show that
there is a little change in optical properties after long time at high temperatures. Black nickel
coatings are less stable and degrade with exposure to temperature and to humidity. Copper
cobalt and zinc oxide show significant deterioration with exposure and stain less steel
conversion coatings show a little decrease in absorptivity [13].

2.3.2 Glazing

As previously mentioned, the role of glazing in a solar collector is to reduce heat losses. The
glazing also protects the absorber from the environment and may reduce radiative heat losses
by reflective thermal radiation emitted by the absorber. But the most important property is
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the higher amount of transmittance of solar radiation. Any loss of transmittance will have
direct effect of the collector’s efficiency [13,14].

The important properties are transmission of solar radiation (up to 2µm), which must be as
high as possible, and transmission of thermal radiation (greater than 2µm), which is more
preferably should to be low. Glass, acrylic, polycarbonate and glass-reinforced polyester all
have good optical properties. PVF and FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) have better
transmission of solar radiation but low transmission of thermal radiation. Metal oxide semi-
conducting films such as such as tin oxide and indium oxide are applied increasing the
reflectance of thermal radiation to 75-80% [14].

Glass is highly resistant to weathering compared to some polymers, which are susceptible to
solar radiation. Acrylic has also good resistance to weathering. PVT’s are also resistable and
are used to protect the less durable glassing. Other polymers such as GRP and polycarbonate
are deteriorated by ultra violet radiation but can be stabilised by addition of fillers. The main
disadvantage in this case is the high cost of fillers [14].

2.3.3 Casing

The majority of solar collectors in U.K use aluminium as the major casing material. Other
materials commonly used are GRP and galvanised mild steel. Occasionally polypropylene,
PVC and stainless steel are also used. Many materials with adequate properties are available.
The choice of the material for casing is largely one of cost. Of the metallic materials,
stainless steel and aluminium have good mechanical and weather properties. Coated mild
steel has also good mechanical properties is cheaper but the weathering properties are poor.
Mild steel has the advantage of little maintenance of solar collectors for at least 20 years,
except in dry environments [13].

Cheaper casings are produced using polymeric materials. GRP is suitable for the outdoor
environment although it cost nearly as much as aluminium or stainless steel. Other useful
materials are extruded polypropylene or PVC moulded thermoplastics and vacuum formed
thermoplastic such as polypropylene or ABS. Filled polypropylene appears to be the lowest
cost option. Some potential properties with polymeric casings are UV degradation, high
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thermal expansion coefficients and fire properties. Wood is also cheaper than plastics, but it
is not used so often because it requires maintenance[13].

2.3.4 Seals

Sealing materials are applied to ensure the solar collector is not affected from weather
conditions. The most common materials used are EPDM and silicone rubbers. Neoprene and
butyl rubbers are sometimes used. The sealing material is applied in solid form. In this case it
is known as a seal. Also it can be applied in a butyl form [13]. The important properties of
sealing materials are their temperature resistance, mechanical properties and weathering
resistance. Some properties of the most appropriate materials are presented in Table 2b
below.

Materials Working
temp. range
(°C)
Min. Max.
Elongation
to failure
(%)
Resistance to
compression
set
Resistance
to creep
Resistance to
weathering
Resistance
to water
Acrylic -40 130 400 3 2 4 1
Butyl -50 125 800 2-3 2 4 2-4
Chloroprene
(neoprene)
-20 130 600 3-4 2-3 4 3
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene
-40 120 500 1-2 2 4 3-4
EPDM -40 150 600 3-4 2 4 4
Fluroelastomers -40 230 300 3-4 3 4 4
Silicone -60 230 700 2-4 3 4 3-4
Urethanes -50 100 700 1-4 3 4 1-2

(4=excellent, 3=good, 2=fair, 1=poor) Table 2b: Properties of sealing materials

An important consideration is that sealing materials must withstand low ambient
temperatures, which especially in the U.K may be as low as -15°C. Seals must also withstand
the high temperatures encountered under stagnation conditions, which can be in excess of
100°C [13,14].

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Acrylics, EPDM and have lower maximum service temperatures and fluroelastomers and
silicones but their temperature performance is likely to be adequate [13]. All of these
materials can withstand sub-zero temperatures. Acrylic rubbers are known to have a poor
resistance to water and relative poor creep properties and therefore they are unsuitable. The
performance of EPDM, fluroelastomers, neoprene and silicones seem to be quite satisfactory.

2.3.5 Absorber insulation

A layer of insulating material can reduce heat losses from the back of an absorber. Insulation
materials are commonly cellular, fibrous or granular [13]. Some properties of insulation
materials are presented in Table 2c. The common insulating materials such as glass fibre,
mineral fibre, polystyrene foam, polyisocyanurate foam and polyethene foam, all have
compatible thermal conductivities.

Materials Thermal conductivity @ 24° °° °C
(Wm
-1
K
-1
)
Maximum service temperature
(° °° °C)
Glass fibre (board) 0.032 343
Mineral fibre 0.036-0.055 649-1037
Calcium silicate 0.055 (@90°C) 649
Perlite 0.048 (@90°C) 816
Foamed glass 0.058
Polystyrene foam 0.029-0.039 74
Polyurethane foam 0.023 104
Isocyanurate foam 0.025 121
Phenolic foam 0.033 135
Cellular plastic 0.040 100

Table 2c: Properties of insulation materials

The insulation material in a solar collector is generally in contact with the absorber.
Therefore, it should be able to withstand the collector stagnation temperatures. Inorganic
materials such as glass, fibre, mineral fibre, calcium silicate and perlite can withstand high
temperatures.
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- 25 -
One of the main problems that occur at high temperatures is the outgassing (i.e. vaporisation
of the chemical components of the insulation material) [13]. Polymeric foams may outgas at
ambient temperatures as the cell walls break down. Insulation materials are generally high
surface area materials and therefore constitute fire hazards. Glass or mineral fibre insulants
present no fire hazards compared to other polymeric foams.

2.4 Materials for heat management and storage

The heat management and storage system consists of the pipework, the storage vessel (i.e. as
the project deals with hot water system) and the control system. It is necessary that the
particular conditions to considered for a solar water heating system. The materials aspects of
these components are considered in this.

2.4.1 Pipes and connection.

The pipework in a solar system must be able to withstand circulating fluid at temperatures up
to 100°C without corroding. The most commonly material used is copper. Copper has good
corrosion resistance. Stainless steel also has also excellent corrosion resistance but it is more
expensive than copper. It has several advantages like lower thermal conductivity (leading to
lower heat losses) lower thermal expansion coefficient and higher strength to mass ratio
allowing the use of thinner sections. Some other metals are cheaper than mild steel and
copper but the oxidisation rate is higher [13].

2.4.2 Storage vessels

The primary task of the storage vessels is to contain the hot heat transfer fluid without
corroding, and must withstand the pressures involved. Copper is the most commonly used
material used for storage vessels because of its high thermal conductivity. The corrosion
resistance of the copper is good but its disadvantage lies in its high thermal conductivity
leading to heat losses.

Stainless steel and galvanised steel are used as storage vessel materials. Stainless steel has
much the better corrosion resistance but is more expensive. The thermal conductivity of steel
CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

- 26 -
is lower than copper and therefore less insulation material is required.

Polymerics such as polypropylene and GRP can be used for storage vessels. Corrosion and
degradation resistance are adequate and the polymerics have the major advantage of thermal
conductivity values reducing the need for insulation. The price for GRP is close to copper
[13].

2.4.3 Control system

The control circuit contains several components and depending on the system design it may
include a central control unit, temperature and pressure sensors, pumps flow meters.

The temperature and pressure sensors and the wiring in the collector box must be able to
withstand the temperatures reached during stagnation conditions. The cable insulation is
mostly from a material PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene), which have good high temperature
properties compared to the commonly used PVC.

Pump components, valves are generally made from cast iron, brass, bronze, and stainless
steel and for certain components polymerics such as acetal and nylon [13].

2.5 Freeze protection

The types of heat transfer fluids may be divided into two categories: non-aqueous and
aqueous. Silicon fluids and hydrocarbons are included in non-aqueous group. Inhibited
distilled water and inhibited glycol water mixtures (e.g. ethylene glycol, propylene glycol).
The potable tap water and inhibited distilled water don’t offer freeze protection compared to
glycol solutions which are most preferred in cold climates.

2.5.1 Non-aqueous solutions

2.5.1.1 Silicon fluids

Silicon fluids have many properties, which make them one of the major preferable collector
fluids. Basically they do not freeze, boil or degrade. Most importantly they do not corrode the
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- 27 -
metals used in solar collectors, including aluminium. According to investigations, silicon
fluids are non-toxic with a high flash point. Silicon fluids can last the life of a closed loop
water-heating system under 180-200°C. However, the most common silicon fluids are used
in systems with maximum temperature around 180°C or less. An extra advantage of silicon
fluids is that they do not form sludge or scale so the performance of the system does not
decrease with time [12].

The main disadvantage of silicon fluids is the cost. As a typical example, the price of 100 ml
is around £60. As it was mentioned before, they have the advantage of lasting the life of the
system, but also require less maintenance. This helps to minimise the operating expenses.
However the initial cost of silicon fluids is higher than that of other available heat transfer
fluids. Their use allows absorbers with aluminium fluid passages to be used without
corroding them [12].

2.5.1.2 Hydrocarbon oils

Hydrocarbon oils give long life to the systems and additionally they cost less. They are
relatively non-corrosive, non-volatile, environmentally safe and most important non-toxic.
They are for use in systems with lower operating temperatures. Typically flash points run
from 150-220°C, but the fluids with higher flash points have a higher viscosity [12].

Newer hydrocarbons have been developed which do not harm rubber or materials of
construction, which has been a problem with hydrocarbons. They cannot be used with copper
as it serves as a catalyst to fluid decomposition. The thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons is
as low as water, although the performance of some is better [12].

2.5.2 Aqueous solutions

2.5.2.1 Glycol –water antifreeze

Non-freezing liquids can be used to provide freezing protection. These liquids are circulated
in a closed loop with a double wall heat exchanger between the collector loop and the storage
tank. In this part there is only a description of the antifreeze solutions and their properties.
Glycol water antifreeze solutions are the most commonly used because their cost is less
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- 28 -
compared to silicon fluids. Ethylene and propylene glycol are the two most common
antifreeze solutions. A concentration of 50% ethylene or propylene glycol and 50% water
solution provides freeze protection to about -20°C. The boiling point also rises to about
120°C [12,14].

The use of glycol-water solutions has the disadvantage of corrosion. Glycol-water solutions
corrode galvanised pipes and at high temperatures glycols may break down to form glycolic
acid. This break down usually occurs at 85°C and accelerates as the temperature reaches
95°C. This glycolic acid corrodes almost all the metals used in solar collectors including
copper aluminium and steel. The decomposition rate of glycol varies according to the degree
of exposure to air and the service life of the solution.

Most glycol-water solutions require periodic monitoring of the pH level and the corrosion
inhibitors. The appropriate value of pH is between 6.5-8.0. Also the replacement of the
solution is done every 12-24 months or even sooner in high temperature systems [12,14].

2.5.2.2 Distilled water

Distilled water has been suggested for use in solar collectors since it avoids some of the
problems of untreated potable water. Since the distillation process removes contaminants
such as chlorides and heavy metal ions the problem of galvanic corrosion should be
eliminated. However, distilled water is still subject to freezing and boiling. For this reason
glycol-water concentrations are most preferable [12].

2.6 References

1) “Solar energy engineering” (1986), Jui Sheng Hsieh, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
pp 72-95

2) “Solar engineering of thermal processes” 2
nd
Edition (1991), John. A. Duffy &
William. A. Beckman, John Willey & Sons INC, New York, pp 46-51

CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

- 29 -
3) “Fundamentals of solar energy conversion” (1983), Edward. E. Anderson, Addison-
Wesley, London pp 51-79

4) “Solar engineering technology”(1985), Ted J. Jansen, Prentice Hall, New Jersey pp
13-61

5) “Solar energy engineering” (1977), A. A. M. Sayigh, Academic Press INC, London,
pp 61-81

6) “Renewable energy resources”(1986), John Twidel & Tony Weir, E. &F. N. Spon
Ltd, London, pp 66-109

7) “Active solar collectors and their applications” (1985), Ari Rabl, Oxford University
Press INC, pp 48-80

8) “Residential solar heating collectors”, U.S.A Department of Energy, March 1996

9) www.the-mrea.org
Midwest Renewable Energy Association

10) www.galeforce.uk.com/solar/Solar_Info.htm
“Solar water heating-How it works”

11) www.focus-solar.com
Description of solar collectors and SWH.


12) “Solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water”
U.S.A Department of Defence.

13) “Use of plastics in solar energy applications” (1978) A. Blaga, Solar Energy 21, No 4,
pp331-339


CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

- 30 -

14) “Durability of porous silicaantireflect6ioncoatingsfor solar collector cover plates”
(1981) K. J. Cathro, D. C. Constable and T. Solaga, Solar Energy27, No 6,
pp 491- 497

14) www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ad1.htm
“Freeze protection for solar heating systems”





CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 31 -
CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SWH

3.1 Introduction

The aim of this part of the report is to give an overview of the solar water heating systems
market in U.K, some European countries and some countries around the world. It also
presents some statistical data from various researches. Attention will be concentrated mainly
in the U.K. market. The purpose of the data is the best approximation of how popular solar
water heating systems are. The use of different types of systems and variants of these
systems in different countries is often due to variations in local conditions.

The world market for solar water heaters has expanded significantly during the 1990’s and,
as a result there has been a substantial increase in range and quality of products now
available. Solar water heating production is now a major industry in countries such as China,
Israel, Japan, Netherlands, Germany, Australia and Greece. The self-building industry has
also expanded significantly in Europe. On the other hand there are still countries (U.S.A) that
solar water heating industry is nearly invisible throughout the supply and distribution chain.

The current situation of the solar thermal market can be summarised as follows:
Installed surface in the EU through 1999: 9,000,000
In the past 20 years growth rates of the EU collector market varied considerably per
year, varying from -20% (1987) to +50% (1999) with an average growth rate of 13%
since 1990.
Collector sales 1999: 900,000 m
2
(90% flat plate, 10% evacuated tube collector)
EU market growth in 1999 is approx. 10% per year. It is expected that the market
growth will accelerate in the near future
Sales in Germany represent 50% of the annual EU collector sales at the moment
Market growths per country in 1999 vary from 0% to > 20% [3].

The varying collector sales growth rate per year and per country demonstrates that the market
development of solar systems depends strongly on external factors like the existence of
financial support and information campaigns.

CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 32 -

Installed collector area per thousand inhabitans
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
A
u
s
t
r
i
a
G
r
e
e
c
e
G
e
r
m
a
n
y
S
w
i
t
s
e
r
l
a
n
d

D
e
n
m
a
r
k
N
e
t
h
e
r
l
a
n
d
s
F
i
n
l
a
n
d
S
w
e
d
e
n
S
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a
i
n
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o
r
t
u
g
a
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I
t
a
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y
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.
B
F
r
a
n
c
e
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v
e
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a
g
e
(
m
2

/
1
0
0
0

i
n
h
a
b
i
t
a
n
s
)


Figure 3.1: Installed collector area per thousand inhabitants in Europe (1999)

According to data, the sales figures of the European countries show that the annually
installed collector areas vary between countries. It is clear that Austria, Greece, Germany and
Switzerland lead the market. Countries with similar climates show very low m
2
figures.


3.2 U.K market

The history of the solar water heater market in U.K starts back in 1973 during the oil crisis
and formation of OPEC. It can be characterised by three phases since 1974.
a) Initially, when the government showed a potential interest for research and
development of solar water heaters, the market started to expand rapidly. The
government’s interest push the imports from southern Europe and the market started
to grow till the early 1980.
b) The market collapsed with the installation rates reduced to half in the early years.
This was mainly due to the price of fossil fuels, which surprisingly had not risen
during the period of the oil crisis. Another important reason was poor installations.
The panels provided were not appropriate for U.K weather conditions (i.e. low
temperatures during the winter).
c) Since 1991 there has been a big concern about the advantages offered by solar water
heaters and especially the environmental protection they offer [1,7].
CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 33 -
3.2.1 System types and data

Most of the solar water heating systems used for domestic households. It has been calculated
that the annual savings using a solar water heater are 40-50% [8]. In the summer a solar
water system may provide all the hot water needs of a typical family and the savings in
winter can be significant. The most common systems currently used are:
Evacuated tube collectors
Flat plate collectors with selective surface
Flat plate collectors without selective surface
Freeze tolerant flat plate single pass flat plates with selective and part unselective
surfaces
Unglazed polypropylene collectors (for outdoor swimming pools) [7].

There are two designs widely systems used:
Single water storage cylinder incorporating the solar heat exchanger at the bottom of
the cylinder and a convectional back up source at the top of the cylinder. These types
of systems are considered for the analysis in chapter 5.
A preheat cylinder incorporating the solar heat exchanger which feeds water directly
into the main hot water cylinder [7].

An estimated 169256m
2
of domestic water heating collector area and 106884 m
2
of
swimming pool collector area was installed in 1997. This is equivalent to approximately
47650 systems in the U.K. Of this total installed, 50770m
2
was installed between 1992 and
1997 [2].

3.2.2 U.K SWH industry

The U.K solar industry, as it was mentioned before, was first established in the early 1970’s.
It can be divided into five major areas of activity:
Collector manufacturers
Collector importers
Collector installers
Service providers

CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Over 80% of the solar thermal technology manufactured in U.K is exported to over 40
countries. The majority of the exports are carried out by Thermomax Ltd and are to Germany
[9]. Evacuated tube collectors are the largest amount of production and exportation. The
currently flat plate collectors manufactured in U.K use several variations:
Glazed selective-surface aluminium absorbers
Glazed stainless steel absorbers
Glazed copper absorbers [7]

3.2.3 Range of costs for SWH

The cost of a complete solar water heating system varies due to the different types and sizes
of systems. The following table shows the range of costs in the U.K. Based on these costs
data from different companies [9,10,11,12] a “Life Cycle Costing” is described in full detail
in chapter 5.

Input data Output data
Typical system area 2-7m
2

Typical system price
Complete installed system
DIY including VAT or new built

£2000-£4000
£1000-£2500
Annual pump running cost £6
Installation time 1-2 days
Assumed lifetime 25-30 years
Annual output 1500-2000 kWh

Table 3a: Cost and performance data for a typical SWH system

Selective coated flat plate collector panels cost in the range of £140-£250/m
2
and evacuated
tube collectors cost approximately£550/m
2
. The additional cost is for the hardware and for
the fittings of the installation. The range in prices is basically due to the different companies
and house specifications. However, there are significant cost savings available if solar water
heaters are included into a new building

CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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3.2.4 Potential for SWH

The accessible resource for solar hot water systems by 2025 is estimated to be 12 TWh/year,
based on 50% of the housing stock being suitable for a solar water heating system . A survey
carried in 1995 indicated that 96% of solar water heaters were in homes that were owner
occupied [13].

The greatest potential in the U.K would be the uptake of solar water heaters on all new build
developments orientated in a suitable direction. Planned new buildings in U.K are estimated
as 150000 a year [2]. If it were assumed that 5% of the new houses install a solar water
heater it would increase the growth of solar water heater market furthermore.

3.3 The European market

This part is a brief description about the status of the solar water heater market in some major
European countries. There is just a summary of some statistical data obtained. For each
country there is the total installed collector areas as well as the systems used in each one.

3.3.1 France

Until 1998 an estimated 268 000 m² of collector surface was installed in metropolitan France.
There was no growth rate in the French market, but a drop rate. The installed collector
surfaces decreased from 57,000 m
2
in 1982 to 1800 m
2
in 1998 [6].

The market survey shows the predominance of the classical pump split design (68%),
followed by the mono-block SWH systems (21%), and some thermosiphon split units (9%).
Integrated SWH are marginal (2%) [6].

3.3.2 Greece

Greece with 2,493,000 m
2
installed solar collectors has risen to second place in Europe.
About 95% of the installed systems are in households and the rest 5% in industries and
hotels. Search showed that the number of total area of installed collectors will be doubled
CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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until 2005 and reach to 9.8million m
2
until 2010. Greek market is represented entirely by
glassed collectors [6].

3.3.3 Germany

From the total installed collector area about 80% is used for water heating. Most of them are
for family homes but latest research showed that there have been efforts to develop large-
scale systems.

More than 50%of the installed systems are roof integrated. Two cycle systems with a water-
glycol solution are preferred. About 70% of the systems are flat plate and 30% evacuated
tube collectors [2,3].

3.3.4 Austria

Austrian market has increased rapidly since 1989. From the total solar heaters installed, a
20% are for water heating purpose by self-constructing groups based on the “Association for
Renewable Energy. Austria has a tradition of self-building houses, which is the main reason
for individual construction [5].

The end of 1999 showed the installation of a total of 2,0 million square meters of thermal sun
collectors in Austria. The rate of growth since 1990 has been particularly striking. At the
beginning of the 90’s around 80,000 m² were installed per year. In 1995 however 200,000 m²
(2) collector areas were mounted for the first time [5].

Around one quarter of the collector area installed comprises plastic absorbers, which are used
to heat swimming pools. The remaining 75% of the collector area, mainly flat plate
collectors, are used to prepare warm water in single and multiple family houses and for space
heating in single-family houses. The most common systems are with pump circulation and
freeze protection [5].

3.3.5 Netherlands

According to 1998 data an estimated 10,000 domestic hot water systems had been installed.
CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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By the year 2000 the number of solar water heaters had increased to 50,000.

Unlike other countries drain back systems are primary used in Netherlands. An estimated
95% of domestic hot water systems use a circulation drain back system. That happens
because of the fact; water is most preferable than glycol antifreeze solutions [2,3].

3.3.6 Denmark

There are about 16,000 systems with a total collector area of 150,000 m
2
. By the end of 2001
the total number of water heaters would reach 37,000.

Closed loop systems with antifreeze solutions are mostly used [2,3].

3.4 U.S.A market

The solar water heating industry has difficulties gaining a permanent share of the hot water
market around the U.S.A. According to statistical data [15], in the United States the existing
solar water heaters show energy shaves of nearly 52%. This percentage based on the installed
base of both home and industries. It is estimated that 6-9 million solar water heaters are
installed every year

In the past the solar water heating industry tended to install expensive and oversize systems
to cover about 80-90% of all household water needs. Nowadays solar water heating industry
tends towards cost effective systems. These systems are easier on installation and moreover
require less maintenance expenses. Nowadays the manufacture companies are reduced
compared to mid 70’s early 80’s.

This shows that the solar water heater industry is nearly invisible throughout the supply and
distribution chain, which has serious implications for the success of solar water heating
industry [4].




CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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3.5 Australian market

The solar water heating industry is well established in Australia. The share of the exporting
production is based in large companies. Most of the systems are for domestic purposes and
swimming pool heating. Although the production of solar water heating has decreased
compared to mid 1980’s, it is estimated that 600,000 systems have already been produced of
which 350,000 to 400,000 of them are installed in Australian households.

Thermosiphon systems have taken over the market, as they are cheaper than pumped
systems. The systems basically used are integrated collectors placed on the roofs [2].

3.6 Japanese market

The market for solar water heaters has been shrinking continuously for the past several years
due to the long payback period for solar systems. In 1985 257,000 solar water-heating
systems have been manufactured. Since then there was a huge decrease in annual production.
The number of systems manufactured in 1998 dropped to 80,000.

About 80% of the systems are thermosiphon systems [2,14].

3.7 References

1) ECDG Energy, February 1996. “Sun in action, the solar thermal market. A strategic
plan for action in Europe”. European Solar Energy Federation

2) “Opportunities for large scale purchase of active solar systems, December 1998. A
joint report of the IEA solar heating & cooling program (Task 24: Solar procurement)
and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Program.

3) “Active solar heating: System performance and data review” (ETSU
S/P3/00270/REP). Prepared by: Dr J. Bates, Ms L. Bertarelli, Ms G. Schmidt



CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 39 -
4) www.repp.org
“Transforming the market for solar water heaters. A new model to build a permanent
sales force”, August 1998. Prepared by: S. Hoffman & J. Bruce with William T.
Guiney.

5) “Old technology and social innovations. Inside the Austrian success story on solar
water heaters”. Prepared by: Michael Ornetzeder. Taylor & Fransis Group
publications. Technology studies & sustainable development, Vol. 13, No 1, March
2001.

6) Baro 133. Eurobserv’ER

7) “Untapped market opportunities for solar water heaters in Europe”. Volume 1,
December 2000.

8) www.greenenergy.org.uk/sta/solarenergy/mainframe.htm

9) www.rayoteclt.co.uk

10) www.natenergy.org.uk

11) www.gaia.org/findhorn/eco/solar.html

12) www.sustain.ltd.uk

13) ETSU for DTI, March 1999, “New & Renewable Energy: Prospects in the U.K for
the 21
st
Century: Supporting analysis”.

14) Australian Energy News, “Delegation give insight into Japan’s solar industry”, Issue
14, December 1999

15) www.fsec.ucf.edu
Florida Solar Energy Centre
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY &
QUANTITATIVE SURVEY

4.1 Introduction

There are a number of important reliability issues associated with most types of solar water
heating systems. They are important to understand in order to produce a reliable, properly
functioning solar water heating system. Fortunately, in today’s environment there are
solutions for most of these problems. This chapter starts by describing the basic parts of a
solar water heating system, which are most commonly repaired and replaced. The various
research has been done after conducting a list of companies. The second part of this chapter
is based on a quantitative survey according to data collecting from the same list of companies
and data obtained from Greece. For the quantitave survey two major areas are analysed. First
of all is the awareness people have for the solar water heating systems. Secondly is the image
of solar water heating systems.

4.2 Reliability survey

Most reliability problems associated with solar water heating systems have known solutions.
Although there are also known ways in which to avoid them in the first place, the same
problem continues to surface. This chapter starts describing the basic parts of a solar water
heating system, which are most commonly repaired and replaced. The method followed is
simple and based on the experience of the companies dealing with solar water heating
systems. They were asked to identify the areas where most problems occur and the main
reasons cause them.

4.2.1 Freeze protection

The U.K is a country where the temperature very often drops below zero, especially in
wintertime. The method of the freeze protection used is very critical. If water can freeze
inside a pipe or tank it will split it over as the water expands while freezing.

CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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Most commonly circulation systems freeze on pump failure and on power protection. Freeze
problems are observed in multiple collector array systems with circulation freeze protection
when the controller and pump appear functional. The reason for that is often due to scaling in
some tubes or flow imbalance arrays.

In drainback systems using small modules, sensors and controller failure can lead to frozen
collectors. In severe climates failure of the air vent valve to open in draindown systems
causes draining to be too slow and freezing can occur. In order to avoid these entire problems
collector and all supply/return piping is tilted to allow water to fully drain from the system
where the pump is off.

4.2.2 Overheat protection

It is very common for a solar water heating system to reach very high temperatures for the
reasons stated above:
The system is not operated for a day or longer.
The storage tank is too small compared to collector area.
High temperatures also accelerate problems associated with poor water quality.

Active solar water heating systems using a differential controller generally shut the pump off
at a maximum temperature between 70-80°C. Passive systems generally use temperature
pressure relief valve to discharge water from the storage when it reaches about 80°C. The
disadvantage of the systems is that they are not designed for continuous use and they always
fail prematurely if the system is frequently in a condition of stagnation.

4.2.3 Poor water quality

Most solar water heating systems start to perform poorly if mineral deposits or debris collect
in the system. Most of the companies conducted mentioned that generally poor water quality
leads to early pump and tank failure in systems where cold supply water flows directly
through the collector on the way to the storage tank. Usually this is seen as freeze damage.
There are two common problems associated with poor water quality:
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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a) Corrosion: Corrosion results from acidic water and can be an adequate problem in
well water sites, where water quality is not controlled. Solder flux may cause a
closed loop fluid to become acidic, promoting corrosion.
b) Scaling: Scaling is a problem in areas with hard water. Certain system types are a
problem in areas with hard water. Open loop circulation systems are quite sensitive
to collector scaling. Closed loop systems usually have the scaling at the heat
exchanger, which require regular maintenance to remove. Sensate

4.2.4 Mixing valve and tempering valve failure

Solar water heating systems can reach very high temperatures in summer or when they are
not used for a period of time. One of the most important devices in a solar water heating
system is the mixing valve. Their main task is to mix cold water with hot water in order to
keep the hot water below maximum safety temperatures.

Nowadays certain tempering valves are a major maintenance problem with mean lifetime as
little as 3-4 years. Cold water delivery is generally the result of a tempering valve failure.
Tempering valves cause feed through between hot/cold lines, especially in larger buildings
with large hot water circulation loops as the pressure will not be equal to the hot water
circulation loops.

4.2.5 Storage tank failure

Solar contractors have discovered that fibreglass storage tanks have resins in the material,
which can raise the pH and cause leaks in copper piping. Also fibreglass lifetime is shortened
by exposure to high temperatures, which can be quite high especially when dealing with solar
applications. Water heaters are generally set to 55-60°C

Welded stainless steel tanks are often characterised as the highest quality solar storage tanks
material. They can fail just like fibreglass tanks, depending on the sape of tank, tank wall
thickness, and quality of weld. High temperatures also highlight problems caused by thermal
expansion.

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4.2.6 Air vent failure

In general, most contractors see failures of air vent valves as a real maintenance problem. On
pressurised closed-loop systems, the valve is intended only for air venting during and
immediately after filling. Several solar contractors maintain air vent valves are unnecessary,
if air is properly purged from the system initially. It is believed that air vent valves have close
to a 100% failure rate within 5 years.

When air vents fail the system looses fluid from the loop, fails to operate, and damage to the
system or the mechanical space can result. For glycol systems, solar fluid may boil under "no
load" circumstances. If present, an air vent valve may release fluid vapour, and/or the
pressure relief may exhaust fluid, leading to low fluid levels and potential vapour lock.

4.3 Quantitative survey

While technology and aesthetics of solar water heating systems has been improve during the
past 20 years the number of homeowners installing them has not grown as dramatically. This
is the second part of the survey that has been carried out in order to obtain some statistical
data about the role of solar water heaters in people’s life. The data as explained in the
beginning have been collected from U.K are based on the answers the companies provided. It
has to be mentioned that the data collected from Greece are not official but are based in
research from a village with a population of 3000. However it is believed that some useful
conclusions can be drawn.

4.3.1 Purpose of research

As it was referred, the image of solar water heaters has been improved especially during the
last 20 years, however people are still negative (especially in U.K) of having a solar water
heating system. The purpose of this research is:
Gain an understanding of consumer awareness and image of solar water heating
systems
Identify the extend or lack of consumer knowledge and understanding of solar water
heating systems
Identify the key barriers to purchase and ways to generate increased purchase interest
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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Determine the purchase interest levels in newer solar systems.

4.3.2 Awareness and usage of various water heating systems

As it is seemed from the statistics most of the responders are aware with solar water heating
systems. Only a small number of them use solar energy to heat water (U.K) but on the other
hand it seems that the main source of gaining information is Internet.

4.3.2.1 Awareness of water heating systems

The graph presented below is the statistics of which systems people know for water heating.
It is clear that there is a difference on the data obtains from U.K compared to the data
obtained from Greece. Responders from U.K seem to be more familiar with the traditional
sources of water heating such as gas and electricity (98% and 95% respectively). Surprisingly
nearly 1/3 are aware of solar energy as a primary source of water heating. Greek responders
are more familiar with SWH (95%) but they seem not to consider the idea of gas either by it
self or as a back up.
Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Gas with solar 15% 2%
Electricity with solar 12% 65%
Solar 32% 95%
Electricity 98% 92%
Gas 95% 10%

Table 4a: Percentage data for awareness of water heating systems
Awareness of water heating systems
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Gas with solar
Electricity with solar
Solar
Electricity
Gas
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.1: Awareness of water heating systems
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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4.3.2.2 Sources of SWH awareness

Sources of solar water heating awareness are very different on both countries. While more
than 50% of the responders in U.K have learned about SWH from Internet the percentage in
Greece is only 1%. As it was mentioned in the above the research in Greece is based on data
collected from a village and most of the people are not aware of the Internet. Nearly 30% in
both countries have been informed from magazines. The percentage related to home viewers
is quite high in Greece where most of the people have answered this as the primary source of
awareness.

Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Magazines 28% 30%
Advertising (T.V, radio) 20% 58%
Friend 35% 60%
Have seen on homes 42% 87%
Internet 57% 1%

Table 4b: Percentage data for sources of SWH awareness

Sources of awareness
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Magazines
Advertising
(T.V, radio)
Friend
Have seen
on homes
Internet
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.2: Sources of awareness




CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

- 46 -

4.3.2.3 Usage of water heating systems

In this part of the research there is an extremely high difference of systems used to heat the
water in both countries. According to experience and the data obtained, the people use
electricity and gas for water-heating purpose is more than 90% in U.K. In comparison with
U.K. data the percentage is lower in Greece where only 19% use electricity. On the other
hand the difference is quite high when it is referred to solar as a primary source. The Greeks
seem to use more solar water heating with a percentage as high as 70% compared to 2% of
U.K. people. Another important parameter is that in Greece there are still families (12%) who
use wood and especially wood boilers.

Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Gas with solar 3% 0%
Electricity with solar 7% 15%
Solar 2% 70%
Electricity 93% 19%
Gas 90% 1%
Wood boilers 12%

Table 4c: Percentage data for usage of water heating systems

Usage of water heating systems
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Gas with solar
Electricity with solar
Solar
Electricity
Gas
Wood boilers
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.3: Usage of water heating systems


CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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4.3.3 Image of SWH

Overall these data seem to give the impression that the only reason that the standards are the
same is when safety is concerned. For specific questions like hot water capacity, money
savings and environmental concerns they do not agree. There is a quite big difference in
people’s opinion about hot water capacity where Greeks believe that they can achieve much
more water using a solar water heater. Also the maintenance cost is a big concern where the
systems in U.K require often maintenance

Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Save money 15% 85%
Better for environment 77% 15%
Use less gas/electricity 48% 70%
More hot water capacity 7% 90%
Safer to people 65% 60%
Less maintenance expenses 0% 5%

Table 4d: Percentage data for image of SWH

Image of SWH systems
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Save money
Better f or environment
Use less gas/electricity
More hot water capacity
Saf er to people
Less maintenance expences
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.4: Image of SWH

4.3.4 Disadvantages of SWH systems

The two common perceived disadvantages of solar water heating systems include the cost of
purchase the system. Most U.K responders believe that the limited number of Sunny days
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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during the year is a major disadvantage of purchasing a SWH. High maintenance costs and
not much hot water are the next two negative opinions received from U.K responders. The
aesthetics is a major concern for Greek responders because of the structure of most houses
and the type of system usually used (e.g. thermosiphon systems) effect the overall
appearance of the house.


Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Cost of purchase 70% 80%
Not enough sun 90% 0%
Not much hot water 65% 2%
Appearance 5% 34%
High maintenance cost 68% 10%

Table 4e: Percentage data for disadvantages of SWH systems

Disadvantages of SWH
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Cost of
purchase
Not enough sun
Not much hot
water
Appearance
High maintenace
cost
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.5: Disadvantages of SWH systems

4.3.5 Consideration factors

When asked to rate the importance of a variety of factors on their decision to purchase solar
water heating, if they were interested in it, almost all of the responders consider most of the
factors to be important. A consideration scale was used from 1-5. (1= not at all important,
5=very important)
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Interestingly U.K responders seem not to be concerned about the brand of the system in
comparison with Greek responders who think that brand name is crucial for their system.
Also nearly half of the Greek responders (47%) seem not to consider the environmental
effects of the solar water heaters.

Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Type of warranty 85% 85%
Maintenance costs 87% 78%
Hot water delivery 92% 90%
Price of the system fully installed 90% 88%
Brand name 30% 75%
Help to environment 64% 47%

Table 4f: Percentage data for consideration factors

Consideration factors
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Type of warranty
Maintenance costs
Hot water delivery
Price of the system f ully installed
Brand name
Help to environment
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companie

Figure 4.6: Consideration factors

4.3.6 Attitudinal statement

Again in this part a scale of 1-5 was used (1=completely disagree, 5=completely agree) in
order to give answers to the questions asked. There is no statement where all the respondents
from both countries think the same. The higher percentage is presented at the question related
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to the environment, where 80% of the respondents (78% for Greek respondents) seem to
believe the solar water heaters are environmental friendly.

The part where there is a big difference is when related with the cost, and the existence of
solar water heater in every house. The U.K respondents are quite negative to the fact that
solar water heaters require little maintenance and on the idea of a SWH in every house.


Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Environmental friendly 80% 78%
Economic sense 32% 93%
SWH in every house 22% 67%
Solar require little maintenance 15% 74%

Table 4g: Percentage data for attitudinal statement

Attitudinal statement
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Environmental
f riendly
Economic sence
SWH in every
house
Solar require
little
maintenance
Data from
Greece
Data from U.K
companies

Figure 4.7: Attitudinal statement

4.3.7 SWH system cost

On average respondents feel that a fully installed solar water heating system cost between
£2500-£3000. At this point it has to be mentioned that the cost standards for a solar water
heating system in Greece are much lower. The prices had to be scaled in such a way to be
representative for both countries. In fact people were really aware how much a system would
CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS

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cost. According to companies data, a system for an average family of 4-5 persons would cost
between £2500-£3000. Quite a few believed that the cost of the system would be higher than
£3000.

U.K price (£) Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Greek price
(Drachmas×10
3
)
Under £2000 6% 4% 250-300
£2000-£2500 18% 12% 300-350
£2500-£3000 65% 68% 350-400
£3000-£3500 67% 58% 450-500
£3500-£4000 8% 7% 500-550
£4000-£5000 7% 6% 550-600
Over £5000 4% 1% Over 600

Table 4h: Percentage data for SWH system cost

SWH system cost
0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
Under £2000
£2000-£2500
£2500-£3000
£3000-£3500
£3500-£4000
£4000-£5000
Over £5000
Data from
Greece
Data from U.K
companies

Figure 4.8: SWH system cost

4.3.8 Reasons for not considering SWH

According to the data the basic reasons for not considering a SWH is the weather. People
believe that the conditions are not appropriate for hot water during the whole year. On the
other hand Greek responders thing the weather conditions are appropriate. The major concern
for responders from both countries is the cost. People believe that SWH systems are quite
expensive compared to other sources of water heating. Also a high percentage of responders
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(65% U.K) answered that SWH could not offer them enough money savings. Lack of
awareness or lack of availability appears to be a major reason for not considering SWH.
Quite a few people (34%) responded that SWH has not been proposed to them buy anyone.
This justifies the idea that SWH are not very popular in U.K.

Data from U.K companies Data from Greece
Not mentioned 34% 10%
Too expensive 67% 74%
Not much information 42% 4%
Not save enough money 65% 2%
Weather conditions 88% 0%

Table 4i: Percentage data for reasons for not considering SWH

Reasons for not considering SWH
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Not mentioned
Too expensive
Not much
information
Not save
enough money
Weather
conditions
Data from
Greece
Data from
U.K
companies

Figure 4.9: Reasons for not considering SWH

4.4 References

1) Data obtained after conducting companies around U.K. The list of these companies
was provided from “National Energy Foundation” in Milton Keynes. For further
information refer to: www.natenergy.org.uk.

2) Data from Greece obtained with the help of my brother Nikolaos Panapakidis and my
two cousins Panagiotis Vamvakaris and Nikolaos Gougoulis. The data collected from
the village called Nea Peramos.
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Comment: The investigation areas and the answers had been chosen before. The only
task of the responders was just to choose and “tick” (√ ). They could choose minimum 1
and maximum 3 questions from each section.
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 54 -
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST (LCC)

5.1 Introduction

Economics play a central role in any customer’s decision to purchase a solar water heater
system. The customer, whether a homeowner or a corporation, is unlikely to buy a solar
energy system if they know that its only benefits are to the environment. Obviously, any
company considering solar power generation is going to look very carefully at economics to
ensure that such a project will be profitable to themselves and to their shareholders.

This guide was developed to help illustrate the process involved in completing a Life Cycle
Cost (LCC) economic analysis of competing energy solutions [2]. It also introduces the
concept of accounting for subsidies and/or externalities in an economic analysis, an
increasingly important issue to many policy and other decision makers. The intent behind the
"real example format" and links to required resources is to illustrate the type of practical
considerations and resources needed for a comprehensive, yet straightforward comparison of
the economic and environmental costs of alternatives [2].

To help illustrate the number of variables that can influence an economic analysis of SDWH,
the list below has been considered:
a) Performance variables
Solar energy available
Outdoor air temperature & cold water temperature.
Collector tilt and orientation (varies with architectural design, aesthetics)
Collector shading (varies with shade from buildings and/or site objects)
Hot water used, time of use (varies by family size and habits)
Hot water delivery temperature (varies from 50-70°C)
Auxiliary water heater size and type (varies considerably)
Solar energy system size and type (varies considerably) [5]


CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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b) Economic variables
Current and future fuel costs
Current and future inflation rate
Discount rate, or "cost of capital." This is generally the interest rate the homeowner
earns to lend (or pays to borrow) money; also referred to as "time value of money"
from the investor's standpoint.
Homeowners income tax rate (varies with income)
Financing terms (loan period, interest rate, etc.)
Investment time period (length of time homeowner intends to live in home, mortage
period, etc., depending on individual investment considerations)
System replacement and maintenance costs over time [5]

This guide was developed to help illustrate the process involved in completing the “Life
Cycle Cost” (LCC) economic analysis of competing energy solutions. For the “Life Cycle
Cost” a series of spreadsheet templates are developed to represent several different types of
water heating systems. The spreadsheets calculate 10, 15, 20, 25, 30-year LCC as well as the
effective annual cost to own. Examples using three type of SWH as well as general
considerations are provided. These examples include comparison of electric and gas water
heaters with flat plate, evacuated tube and drainback solar water heater systems considering
also a 20% of the amount financed. The complete economic analysis is presented in separate
spreadsheets in Appendix 3. All the data were provided from U.S.A and U.K water heating
companies. The equivalent prices, according to specification (e.g. 1
st
hour rating, energy
factor, rated storage volume and input kWh) for each water heater, were taken after
conducted various companies around U.K

5.2 Economic indicators

An economic analysis takes into account a great number of variables that describe the
strength of the current market. These variables are combined to form a figure of merit that
allows comparison of investment alternatives. In the case of solar energy alternatives, figures
of merit are typically used in two ways. First, they provide a useful comparison between the
SDHW systems and a conventional method of heating such as electricity or natural gas.
Secondly, they allow designers to evaluate and optimise SDHW systems [1,2].
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Many figures of merit are available for comparison of SDHW systems and there is no single
correct choice. Different figures of merit are appropriate to different economic situations [2].
Two such figures of merit have been applied to analyse the convectional SDHW system
comparing it with other domestic systems. The LCC is the sum of all costs associated with a
system over a chosen analysis period, and is adjusted for inflation so that it is reported in
today’s U.K sterlings.

5.2.1 Payback period

The payback period is calculated in the following manner. The fuel savings for the j
th
year,
Cs
j
, are defined in equation 5.2.1.1 in which FL is the energy saved, C
F
is the unit cost of
fuel, and i
F
is the fuel cost inflation rate.

Cs
j
= FLC
F
(1+ i
F
)
j-1
(5.2.1.1)

Summing the expression over the time required for payback yield equation 5.2.1.2

Cs
j
=

=
p
N
j 1
FLC
F
(1+ i
F
)
j-1
(5.2.1.2)


Summing the geometric series results in equation 5.2.1.3

Cs=
F
N
F F
i
i FLC
p
] 1 ) 1 [( − +

(5.2.1.3)

Solving for N
p
, The payback period:

( )
F
F
F s
p
i
FLC
i C
N
+






+
=
1 ln
1 ln

(5.2.1.4)

The above analysis includes the discounting of fuel savings so that they are reported in
today’s U.K pounds. It is common to neglect the fuel savings discounting in which case the
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 57 -
payback period is given by equation 5.2.1.5 and is referred to as simple payback period. N is
the number of years in the analysis and C
SYS
is the initial system cost [1,2,7].

F
SYS
p
NFLC
C
N =
(5.2.1.5)

5.2.2 Life cycle savings and the P
1
, P
2
method

Life cycle savings are calculated using equation 5.2.2.1. P
1
is the ratio of the life cycle fuel
cost savings to the first year fuel cost savings. P
2
is the ratio of the life cycle expenditures
incurred because of the investment to the initial investment amount. C
A
is the cost per unit
area of the system and C
E
is the area independent cost [2].

( )
E C A i
i
i F
C A C P f l C P LCS
i
+ − =

=
2
12
1
1

(5.2.2.1)

Writing equation 5.2.2.1 with the summation allows monthly variation in the cost of fuel. P
1

is given by equation:
) , , ( 1
1
d i N PWF t C P
F e






− =


(5.2.2.2)

P
2
is given by equation:

) , 0 , (
) , 0 , (
) 1 (
min
2
d N PWF
d N PWF
D D P
L
− + =

]
]
]

+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − −

) , 0 , (
) , 0 , (
) , 0 , (
1
1 ) , 0 , ( ) 1 (
min
min
d N PWF
d N PWF
d N PWF
d N PWF D t
L L


+ ) , , ( ) 1 ( ) , , ( 1 d i N PWF t tV d i N PWF t C M
F e F e s
− −
− +






− [2,3,]
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 58 -
- ) 1 (
) 1 (
) , 0 , (
'
min



+
− t C
d
R
d N PWF
N
t C
e
N
v
D

(5.2.2.3)

Where the meaning for each symbol is:
C= income producing flag (1 for income producing installation, 0 otherwise)
D= market discount rate (best alternative investment)
m= annual mortage rate
i= general inflation rate
N
e
= period of economic analysis
N
L
= term of loan
N
min
= years over which mortage payments contribute to the analysis
N
'
min
= years over which depreciation contributes to the analysis
N
D
= depreciation lifetime in years
t = property tax rate


t = effective income tax rate
D= ratio of down payment to initial investment
M
s
= ratio of miscellaneous costs to initial investment
V= ratio of assessed valuation of solar energy system in first year to initial investment
o of the system
R
v
= ratio of resale value at end of period of analysis to initial investment [2,3]

Each PWF (N,i,d) term is the present worth factor calculated from the three given parameters
using equation 5.2.2.4. This factor is useful for calculating the present worth of a series of
regular future payments, discounted at a rate of d, over N years at an inflation rate of i.


=

+
+
=
N
j
j
j
d i
i
d i N PWF
1
1
) (
) 1 (
) . . (

(5.2.2.4)

There is the implicit assumption that the variables (such as inflation rate) will not change
over the course of the analysis, a reasonable assumption when the analysis lasts over a few
years. However, for solar to be profitable, much longer analysis must be employed [2,3,4].
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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5.3 System specifications

In the sections below there is a description of the systems specification used for the LCC. It
is intended to give as exact as possible values for a better understanding. The prices
presented here have been selected after contacting various companies and local plumbing
contractors [10]. However these prices are can be different depending on the companies.

5.3.1 Electric water heater

This section describes each one of the financial inputs used for the economic analysis. The
first type of water heater considered is the electric water heater. As mentioned at the
introduction the systems were selected from a list of electric water heater companies, based
in U.K and U.S.A. The prices, which satisfied the system’s specifications, were taken after
contacting companies based in U.K. The type of electric water heater was selected from “A.O
Smith Water Products” [8], using an ELJF –190L (see Appendix 1) water heater. The cost of
the system was determined equal to £1184 (£584 for the electric water heater + £600
installation costs).

This cost estimate was also obtained from a plumbing contractor [10]. It includes electrical
wiring and circuit breaker materials and installation, connection to hot/cold water piping stub
outs. Also included in the cost of a separate electrical service to serve only the water heater.
Hot and cold water distributions are not included as this is common to all heater types being
compared.

5.3.2 Electric water heater and solar systems

The total cost of the system is plus the actual cost of the flat plate solar collector system.
According to companies prices for an open loop flat plate collector between 2-7 m
2
is £2000-
£4000 [11]. It was decided that a high efficiency flat plate collector to be chosen where the
cost of the system is £2950 [9] (4m
2
collector area suitable for 4-5 persons). The installation
cost for the system is included in the price. The system includes flexible tubing, pump,
fitting, and control unit, temperature sensor. The total cost of the system including the
electric water heater as a back is raised to £4134.
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Similarly, the evacuated tube system is supplied by a company called “Solarsence” [20]. The
tubes themselves are manufactured by “Thermomax” [12]. A typical 20 tube system
comprises manifolds, pre-insulated high hot water cylinder, circulation pump, valves, pipes
and fittings, digital controller with temperature read outs, pipe insulation and antifreeze. A
fully installed system, including VAT (5%) costs £3390. If the cost of the back up electric
water heater is added (£1184 including installation) then the total cost is raised to £4574.

Similarly, the same procedure has been followed for passive system. A drain back system
supplied from “AES Ltd” [13] has been chosen for comparison with the two active systems
described above. The total cost of the system is £3639 including installation (£2455 for the
drainback system + 1184 for the electric water heater as back up).

5.3.3 Gas water heater

The total cost of the gas water heater plus installation was estimated as £1610. This cost is
based on a system using an “MHS Boilers” [22], using a “Tudor NHRE 18” 185L gas water
heater. The cost of the water heater itself is £710 plus the £900 cost obtained from a
plumbing contractor [10] based on a number of assumptions regarding the specific
installation. All water heating system components and installation costs specific to the gas
water heater were accounted for in order to allow a meaningful comparison to electric and
other water heaters. The cost estimate includes the water heater share of the pipe gas line
material and installation and connection to the hot/cold pipe stub outs. A typical installation
diagram of a gas water heater is presented in Appendix 2.

5.3.4 Gas water heater and solar systems

As above, the same solar systems are going to be used. The cost of the solar systems plus the
gas water heater is increased. Using the flat plate solar water heating system, the cost is
£4912 including installation (£3302 for the system +1610 for the gas back up). Similarly the
cost of the evacuated tube collector has increased to £5352 (£3742 for the system + £1610 for
the gas back up). The same system from “AES Ltd” [13] was examined as before. The total
cost of the system including installation and the gas water heater has raised to £4417 (£2807
for the drain back system + £1610 for the gas water heater as back up).
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The main reason for that is the active systems require an extra storage tank when the gas
water heater is used where the price of the tank is £352 [14], as they cannot be used with
single tank. It was attempted to find the best prices for the systems in order to have a
meaningful comparison between the electric and the gas back up water heaters.

At this point it has to be mentioned that the accuracy of installed costs will vary from
contractor, location and the number of system involved. Additional cost associated with
additional structural works depends on the system installed weight and the load bearing
capacity of the existing roof structure. Other costs not included here may be associated with
some installations include added space for solar water heater equipment and the cost of
building details designed to integrate the solar collector in the roof system so they are less
visible.

5.4 Financial inputs

All the examples have been analysed in such a way that it was assumed the homebuyer is
purchasing a home in a residential area with no financed amount. However the spreadsheets
can be used even if an amount is financed on the total home loan amount borrowed.

5.4.1 Loan term and interest rate

A loan term of maximum 360 months was used for the examples, as a 30-year mortgage
equals to 360 months. All the examples assume a 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 years mortgage, as this is
common both for new home purchases as well as refinancing for an addition or remodel. The
maximum 30 years mortgage is a typical example but the proposed analysis can be used in
whatever time is required.

An interest rate of 8% was assumed for this example as the most possible lending rate for the
exact period. As before this is only an assumption. The financial rates vary with the prime
lending rate. For a better analysis an exact value might have better results. It has been noted
that the cost effectiveness of solar water heaters is improved at lower financing rates, longer
mortgage period and lower down payment.

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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5.4.2 Nominal discount rate

A nominal discount rate of 7.5% was taken for the examples. This therefore assumes a real
discount rate of 5.5% [16] along with the inflation rate of 2.0% for the year 2001 [15]. This
results in a nominal discount rate of 7.5 %.

The discount rate is highly variable and being that is therefore independent on a specific
application. Here it is not intended to be represented as a fixed suitable value to all
installations. The examples do not assume a risk adjusted discount rate. That means it was
taken as no difference between the solar and the non-solar cases. Discount rate will vary with
each particular households economic situation. The discount rate was basically selected
based on criteria for the given application.

5.4.3 General inflation rate

A general inflation rate of 2.0% was selected for all the examples using year 2000 [15] as the
reference. It was assumed that the inflation rate would remain almost the same or nearly to
2.0% for the net 30 years. The inflation rate is a general estimation and it is based from data
based on the “Bank of England” website data. The actual future might be different from the
data presented here. But in order to move to a meaningful analysis of then solar water heaters
some assumptions have to be made without considering any other economic parameters.

5.4.4 Income tax

An income tax of 20% was selected for the example using an average annual salary of less
than £29000 [16]. For higher than this amount the income tax bracket increases to 40%. As it
was mentioned the income tax has been chosen as average. For higher salaries, there might
be a difference in saving cost. The chosen value it is not intended to be a representative for as
a fixed value suitable for all.

5.5 Maintenance& replacement costs

Repair and replacement costs are so central to the success of solar water heating. On the
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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other hand they are difficult to obtain. Again it has to be mentioned that the replacement and
repair cost depends on the manufacturer and the type of the system used. The reason for this
is the best approximation of the life cycle costing. For gas and electric water heaters
replacement varies from quality of materials made from and companies specifications. The
life of a water heater depends not only on its construction but also on the type of use.
Commercial water heaters have a shorter life than residential heaters. Some other factors are
the amount of use, degree of regular maintenance water quality and water temperature set
point.

The cost of replacing a solar system or system component varies considerably with the type
of the system and the effort required to service failure components. Again the serviceability
of the solar system components is another major factor. The cost of replacing the solar unit
itself is included when failure components cannot be serviced. From a general view, pumps
differential controllers, collector sensors, special valves and solar storage tanks need to be
replaced every 10-15 years. The collector unit by itself most of the time lasts 20-30 years.

5.5.1 Pumps

Pumps are the solar water heater components most frequently replaced. The most common
pumped systems are draindown, drainback or closed loop. Circulating freeze protection
systems were not so often found. Drainback systems experience the most pump failures,
generally due to insufficient reservoir fluid levels. These were the most expensive to replace
due to their size, head requirements relative to the pumps found in other type systems. Below
there is a summary of findings after conducting companies working with solar water heaters.

The average age of pumps replaced varies between 5-10 years. The oldest pumps were
mostly found in closed loop systems and have never experienced any problems such as
pressure loss. They also appeared to have little or no air loss. The most common reasons
causing a pump failure according to research are:
Plumping leaks, affecting pump and electrical
Air in the pump (cavitation)
Overheating which is a product of poor system design, such as underside pump or
improper collector area to storage volume ratio.
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The average cost of a pump varies from one company to other. According to “Imagination
Solar Ltd” [22], a pump unit with 3 litres drain back for 1 panel including drain back vessel,
power supply, controller, radiation sensor and tank sensor, costs £298.31

5.5.2 Controls

“Energy Engineering” [21] was the company conducted to get all the appropriate information
for controls. According to company’s information most controls are a matter of replacement.
It could be possible to have the electronic circuit repaired but that happens very rarely. A
large part of the repairs involving simple controls had to do with sensors (thermistors)
replacement and not the control itself. Actual control failures were rather uncommon. Below
there are some useful data for control’s cost and replacement:

Average price of differential control unit: £95.00 to £185.00 (Depends on facilities and
Digital Readout includes Sensors) retail prices.
Average age of controls replaced: 20 years
Average control replacement service: (Cost to replace Labour + travelling) £45.00 + tax
25 miles radius
Average repair control cost: Not economic to repair.

According to search the most common causes of sensor or control failure are moisture, in the
case of thermistors, and improperly water proofed wiring connections. With controls the
problem is often due to improper plumping leakage.

As it was mentioned replacement of thermistors is quite cheap and reasonable and would not
cot much. In case of controls with digital readouts, especially those multi-loop systems could
be very expensive to replace them. The actual cost may increase if the labour costs
considered.

5.5.3 Collectors

In terms of lifetime and replacement this is the most difficult section solar water heating
system component to evaluate. From the companies conducted just a few of them were not
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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able to give an exact average replacement age. Most of them certified that the solar collectors
would last for at least 20-25 years.

There is the possibility for the solar collectors to be replaced earlier than a company
proposed. According to discussion from a plumping contractor [10], the main reason that
solar collector replacement is highly acidic or alkaline fluid and poor mounting. In a drain
back or closed loop system the pH and mineral content can be controlled.

5.5.4 Tanks

This section tries to give a brief overview about tanks, including four port water heaters,
stainless drainback. Also some other types of storage tanks are considered (i.e. glass-lined
steel, polypropylene). The most common cause of premature glass lined steel tank failure are
the leaks in plumbing above the tank causing outside corrosion. The main problem arises
from the fact that tank replacement is not so common. Therefore the findings may not be as
accurate as the other parts of solar water heaters.

According to research the average age of tanks replacement varies between 9-12 years. Like
the other parts of solar water heater the cost of the tank varies from one company to another.
The prices are £140-£350 for tanks with storage capacity 100-190L [13,14]. It is possible for
some passive thermosiphon tanks to be repaired.

5.6 Environmental value

The environmental value more commonly referred to as “environmental impact” class of
“externality”. The quality of the environment now and in the future is an important issue
worldwide. For this reason externalities are beginning to show up in the decision making
process, but in limited ways. In general the social cost of gas and electricity generation can
apply to environmental impacts, impacts on production and trade balances. Unfortunately
due to the limited amount of resources externalities were not applied to the “Life Cycle
Costing”. It would be quite interesting if externalities could be calculated and determine the
difference in savings using solar water heaters.

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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5.7 Performance rating of systems

The thermal performance rating is based on the system design and performance projections
derived from testing of the collector components. These components are used in the systems
or from testing and evaluation as a whole. The type of auxiliary system (e.g. gas or electric)
utilised will have a large impact on the overall performance of the system. These differences
arise because different types of auxiliary systems have varying stand by losses and fuel
conversion efficiencies. Although the auxiliary system may affect the solar system’s
performance, the solar output is mostly independent of the auxiliary system used. Because
gas back-up systems have lower efficiencies and higher stand by losses than do electric
systems, it should be expected that the entire system’s performance will be lower even if the
solar output from both system types is equal.

5.7.1 Solar Energy Factor (SEF) & Solar Fraction (SF)

According to “Solar Energy Certification Corporation” (SRCC) [6], Solar Energy Factor
(SEF) is used for performance rating for solar domestic water heating systems. The SEF is
defined as the energy delivered by the system divided by the electrical or gas energy put into
the system. The SEF is presented as a number similar to the Energy Factor (EF) given to
convectional water heaters [6].

PAR AUX
DEL
Q Q
Q
SEF
+
=

(5.8.1.1)

DEL
Q =Energy delivered to the hot water load (kWh)
AUX
Q =Daily amount of energy used by the auxiliary water heater or back up element with a
solar system (kWh)
PAR
Q =Daily amount of energy used to power pumps, controllers or any other item needed to
operate the SDWH (kWh).

The SEF can be converted to an equivalent solar fraction (SF) as follows.

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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SEF
EF
SF =

(5.8.1.2)

The solar fraction is the portion of the total convectional total heating load (delivered energy
and tank standby losses) provided by solar energy. Sometimes an alternate definition for
solar fraction is used. In this definition, SF is the portion of the water heating load (losses not
included) provided by solar energy. The alternate method of calculating solar fraction will
yield higher solar fractions [6].

According to data from companies [17], solar water heaters can achieve 1500-2000
kWh/year. For the entire systems used, the companies were conducted and found that the
solar fraction for each one of the systems is as follows.

a) Electric water heater + solar system
Flat plate: 0.530
Evacuated tube: 0.508
Drain back: 0.463

For flat plate and evacuated tube (active systems) it required additional 150-200 kWh/year
for pump and control in the case of gas water heater as back up.

b) Gas water heater + solar system
Flat plate: 0.365
Evacuated tube: 0.351
Drain back: 0.319

5.7.2 Fuel cost

The rates assumed for the example were obtained form “Scottish Power” [18]. The average
rates for electricity and gas are 7p/kWh and 3.1p/kWh respectively. Because fuel costs
depend on usage, solar savings and weather conditions as a function of the time of the year,
average residential rates were used for simplicity.

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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This fact can have significant impact on the total savings associated with a particular system.
This is easily explained if it is assumed that a home has an electric water heater and the
monthly electricity usage with water heating subtracted out, has already used the baseline
electricity allowance. All of the solar water heating savings for that month would be at the
higher marginal cost.

5.7.3 Fuel escalation rate

The rates assumed for the example are the same as inflation rate for the next 30 years.
Generally the fuel escalation rates are an estimate of future costs of fuel and are based only
on current available sources of data. Here it was assumed as 2.0% due to difficulty of obtain
this kind of information.

5.7.4 Fuel usage

The estimated fuel usage based on data obtained from water heater companies. The annual
energy used of a standard water heater varies between 3000-3500 kWh/day [8,9,19].
Assuming that an average house needs about 3200 kWh/year for water heating the annual
cost of operation is as follows:

For electric water heater: 3200×Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 07 . 0 3200× £/kWh=£224

For gas water heaters: × 3200 Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 031 . 0 3200× £/kWh=£99.2

Considering now the solar systems with electric and gas back up water heaters.

a) Electric water heater + solar system
Flat plate: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 530 . 0 1 ( 3200 − × × 0.07
£/kWh=£105.28
Evacuated tube: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 508 . 0 1 ( 3200 − ×
× 0.07 £/kWh =£110.21
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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Drainback: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 463 . 0 1 ( 3200 − ×
× 0.07 £/kWh =£120.29
Total savings per year:
Flat plate: £118.72
Evacuated tube: £113.79
Drainback: £103.71

b) Gas water heater + solar system
Flat plate: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 365 . 0 1 ( 3200 − ×
× 0.031 £/kWh=£62.99
Evacuated tube: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 351 . 0 1 ( 3200 − ×
× 0.031 £/kWh =£64.38
Drainback: ) 1 ( 3200 SF − × × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= ) 319 . 0 1 ( 3200 − ×
× 0.031 £/kWh =£67.55
Considering also the case of an additional amount of about 200 kWh/year energy required for
the pump costing: 3200×Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 07 . 0 200× £/kWh=£14

Flat plate: £62.99+£14=£76.99
Evacuated tube: £64.38+£14=£78.38
Drainback: £67.55+£14=£82.55

Total savings per year:
Flat plate: £39.5
Evacuated tube: £20.82
Drainback: £16.7

5.8 References

1) “Solar energy engineering” (1986), Jui Sheng Hsieh, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
pp 188-198

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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2) “Solar engineering of thermal processes” 2
nd
Edition (1991), John. A. Duffy &
William. A. Beckman, John Willey & Sons INC, New York, pp 453-484

3) “Fundamentals of solar energy conversion” (1983), Edward. E. Anderson, Addison-
Wesley, London pp 307-332

4) “Solar engineering technology”(1985), Ted J. Jansen, Prentice Hall, New Jersey pp
131-141

5) “Active solar collectors and their applications” (1985), Ari Rabl, Oxford University
Press INC, pp 396-421

6) www.solar-rating.org
“Independent Certification of Solar Water and Swimming Pool Heating Collectors &
Systems”, Report: “Certified solar collector and water heating system ratings” July
2001

7) “A simplified approach to economic analysis of solar heating and hot water systems
and conservation measures” (1982), Peter J. Lunde, Solar Energy 28, No 3, pp 197-
203

8) www.hotwater.com/rgastoc.html
“A.O. Smith Water Products”. Suppliers and manufacturers of electric and gas water
heaters

9) www.solardesign.demon.co.uk/index.htm
Manufacturers and installers of flat plate solar collectors.

10) “William Miller Plumping Ltd”. Replay to e-mail on 28-8-2001. Installation cost for
gas water heater £600 and electric water heater £900

11) www.natenergy.org.uk
“NEF Renewables”. The National Energy Foundation. Suppliers of solar water heaters
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
- 71 -
12) www.rayoteclt.co.uk
“Thermomax Ltd” (Rayotec). Manufacturers of evacuated tubes

13) www.gaia.org/findhorn/eco/solar.html
“AES Ltd”. Suppliers and manufacturers of solar water heaters.

14) www.sustain.ltd.uk
“Sustainable Ltd”. Suppliers and manufacturers of solar water heaters. Replay to e-
mail from Simon Gait on 17-8-2001

15) www.bankofengland.co.uk
Bank of England”. At the end of April 2000 the inflation rate was 2.3%. Similarly at
the end of April 2001 the inflation rate was 1.8%. A value of 2% was assumed

16) Data provided after a short conversation with Mrs Lori McElroy

17) www.greenenergy.org.uk/sta/solarenergy/mainframe.htm
This web page gives some general information about the solar energy in U.K

18) www.scottishpower.plc.uk.

19) www.ecocentre.org.uk
Some useful information about energy consumption of a typical family house

20) “Solarsence Ltd”. Suppliers and manufacturers of evacuated tube collectors. Answer
to letter on 20-8-2001


21) “Energy Engineering”. Manufacturers and installers of flat plate systems. Reply to
email on 1-9-2001

22) www.imaginationsolar.com.
Manufacturers and installers of solar water heaters
CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS
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23) www.mhsdirect.com
“MHS Boilers”. Suppliers and manufacturers of gas water heaters



CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 73 -
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS &
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Introduction

The project overall referred to solar water heaters, their impacts in Europe and some
countries from the rest of the world. There was a quantitative and reliability survey to
examine people’s opinion about the solar water heating technology and finally a Life Cycle
Cost example in order to make a meaningful comparison with gas and electric water heaters.

In Chapter 1 there was a brief overview of the most common solar water heating system
today. Some useful information about components and types of systems was provided. Also
there was a brief description about the new development systems and a comparison with the
systems extensively used nowadays. Chapter 1 concluded with the benefits of solar water
heater.

In chapter 2 there was greater emphasis on the types of solar collectors used, the materials for
collector components and heat management and storage. Each type of solar collector was
described analytically with its advantages and disadvantages. Materials for flat plate collector
components were examined carefully stating the appropriate materials used comparing each
one separately. Finally Chapter 2 concluded with the antifreeze solutions most commonly
used.

Chapter 3 was a basic overview of the solar water heating market around Europe and some
countries of the world. Special attention was given to U.K market where the current situation
was explained. There was an overview of the most common systems used as well as an
estimation of price range. In this chapter there was a discussion about the results of the
reliability and quantitative survey, economic analysis and some strategic guidelines for better
market development of SWH in the U.K. As it was mentioned in Chapters 4 and 5, all the
work been done is only based on sample data and it cannot considered as official for today’s
situation of SWH in U.K. However some useful results can be drawn.


CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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6.2 Discussion of reliability and quantitative survey

As it was referred on Chapter 4 the main objectives were to identify the areas where the most
problems occur when dealing with a solar water heater and to investigate, based on people’s
opinion, how popular is solar technology in U.K compared to data collected from Greece.

Freeze protection was one major problem, especially in U.K., where it is a common fact for
temperatures to fall below 0°C. It was mentioned that the problems were caused usually to
pipes. The main reason for freezing is usually pump failure and power protection. As a
solution it would be proposed that the pipes should be heavily insulated and wrapped with
protective tape or other materials where exposed to outdoors.

The next problem was the overheat protection where the system was not operated for a day or
longer or the storage tank is too small compared to collector area. Different methods for
overheat protection was mentioned for active and passive systems. A good solution would be
the purchase of a system, which is 100% appropriate for climate and pattern of hot water use.
Also the systems used occasionally it should be covered to be protected in some way from
overheating.

An interesting area of problems caused is when the SWH start to perform poorly due to
mineral deposits or debris collects in the system. Most of the companies interviewed,
mentioned that poor water quality could lead to early pump and tank failure. Corrosion and
scaling are the two most common problems resulting from poor water quality. Corrosion
always caused from acidic water, while scaling caused in areas with hard water. When
dealing with poor water quality it is difficult to suggest a specific solution. An alternative
choice would be the checking of water quality before installing any system to ensure that
water is appropriate and therefore to avoid problems in the near future. However if it is not
feasible to avoid hard water use it could be suggested the frequently cleaning of the system.

Two of the main important devices in SWH systems are the mixing and tempering valves.
Their main task is to mix hot water with cold water. There is not an exact solution to be
proposed for mixing and tempering valves. The only thing that can be proposed is careful
installation.
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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Next thing considered was the storage tank failure, especially those manufactured with
fibreglass. The most appropriate proposed high quality storage tanks are the stainless steel
tanks. However they can fail as well, especially when high temperatures occur. As a solution
it would be proposed, that the temperatures to be kept as low as possible when dealing with
fibreglass tanks. It could be suggested also to have an expansion tank if a pressure reducer is
used on the supply.

The most interesting part of the survey was the quantitative survey where opinions of
responders from two different countries were compared. The question areas had been studied
and the most appropriate answers had been chosen before sending the data to SWH
companies and to Greece. As it was mentioned, the research was not based on official data
but on the people’s personal opinion. Some useful results have been obtained which show
what people believe for solar water heating status. There were not many points that
responders declared the same opinion.

It is important to say that the cost of a SWH system was one of the main reasons respondents
considered as negative in both countries. Although the cost of the solar system in U.K.
cannot be compared with a system in Greece, Greek people think that it is still expensive.

Technology plays a central role in British people’s lives as more than 50% answered that any
information related to solar water heating has been obtained from Internet. At this point it
must be reminded again that the results from Greece obtained from a village with 3000
residents, where according to experience people in villages are not familiar with Internet
compared to cities. Therefore only 1% has gained information using web pages. The main
source of information for Greek respondent was advertisements on T.V and radio (58%) and
seen installed on house roofs (87%).

British people seemed to trust more the traditional sources of water heating like gas and
electricity (93% and 90% respectively), although quite a few (32%) are aware of solar
systems as a water heating method. This percentage was far behind the one obtained from
Greece as 95% answered positive to awareness of solar water heating. At this stage a good
point to be mentioned is that gas is not so popular to them as only 2% responded that solar
system with gas or as a back up, can be used.

CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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The factors considered for purchasing solar water heating system is the price of the system
fully installed the hot water delivery and the type of warranty that companies offer.
Responders from countries answered positively with percentages reaching more than 80%.
British people seem to consider more the environmental impacts of SWH compared to
Greeks (47%). Important is the brand name for Greeks as at present, there are quite a few
manufacture companies of solar systems.

Maintenance costs and weather conditions are the two main reasons for discouraging British
people from obtaining a solar water heating system. Life cycle costing comes to prove the
above fact as discussed more analytically below. Maintenance cost are also quite in U.K
compared to Greek standards. The case of replacement costs has not been considered for the
reason that it would decrease people’s interest.

6.3 Discussion of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method

The life cycle cost was carried in an effort to investigate the total system, the effective cost
and total savings for a period of 30 years. It has to be remembered again that the data was
obtained from companies and they are not representative for every system. The most
common systems considered are the ones that are extensively used around U.K such as
systems with flat plate collectors, systems with evacuated tube collectors and drainback
systems. The main task was to complete the life cycle costing using as accurate as possible
economic input data in order to make the system more reliable to people.

The main purpose of the example considered was to provide a meaningful comparison of the
two most common sources, as obtained from Chapter 4, electric and gas water heating. Both
of them were examined individually and as back ups to various solar systems. The life cycle
costing method has been followed for two separate cases. Firstly it was assumed that not
amount was financed and secondly a financed amount of 20% considered.

The important part of the analysis was to choose the appropriate systems suitable for each
occasion. The gas and electric water heater should meet the daily demand of hot water for an
average family as well as being economically feasible. Considering the fact that the price of
each system differs from one company to another and many companies concentrate on
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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production of either gas or water heaters only, it was quite difficult to meet the cost limits set
from the beginning

Using one of “A.O.Smith” the electric water heater was selected with a price of £584.
Similarly the gas water heater was selected from “MHS Boilers” with a price of £710. The
problem was that in the price of water heaters were not included any installation cost. A
plumping contractor was contacted in order to give have a good estimation of the installation
costs.

The same procedure was followed for the choice of the appropriate solar systems. According
to research carried out during the project’s duration, there are many companies, which
manufacture and install solar systems and more specifically, they concentrate on water
heaters. It was assumed that the solar water heater could withstand the demands of an
average family house of 4-5 persons. The flat plate collector considered first. A high
efficiency model with a collector area of 4m
2
was selected. The system included flexible
tubing pump, fitting control unit and temperature sensor.

An evacuated tube collector supplied by “Solarsence” was chosen as the appropriate one.
That system consisting of 20 tubes, compromises manifolds, pre-insulated high hot water
cylinder circulation pumps and valves. Finally a drainback system supplied from “AES Ltd”
was selected in order to have a better comparison between the systems.

All the examples were considered in such a way that is assumed the homeowner purchases a
house with no amount being financed. It was decided that life cycle costing would be used
for a term of maximum 30 years. An interest rate of 8% was assumed as a typical lending
rate for the specified period of analysis. Income tax was taken as 20% based on an annual
salary of less than £29000. All the financial inputs were obtained through research and
conducts with persons familiar with financial inputs.

Maintenance and replacement costs were not considered with specified prices but based on
assumptions. Generally replacement and maintenance costs vary from system to system. The
material quality of each component and companies specifications for each system, are the
two factors considered to be crucial for exact estimations. Therefore, it was not possible to be
considered with exact valued. However a specific method was followed for the best results.
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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Environmental and externality values were not considered in life cycle cost analysis due to
the limited information sources.

For the electric water heater, every 5 years £100 had to be spent on maintenance costs. The
system was supposed to last a maximum of 15 years. That year a replacement system cost
was considered. The same procedure was followed with the gas water heater considering the
replacement cost after 15 years of system’s life.

In the case of solar water heating systems the method followed was different compared to
first one. A standard maintenance cost of £50 was assumed for every single year. There was
no exact answer from companies for maintenance costs therefore it was decided the least
amount to be used. The electric or gas waters used as back up had to be replaced every 15
years. Also a replacement cost of £250 was considered every 10 years for pumps, controls or
valves.

6.3.1 Annual fuel cost and total savings

The graph below (figure 6.1) shows the electricity and gas annually cost for a period of 30
years. In order to complete the life cycle cost example some prices for the electricity and gas
had to be obtained. It was assumed that the prices for fuel cost and electricity as on peak due
to the different rates in off peal values. It was taken for electricity £0.007 p/kWhr and for gas
0.031 p/kWhr.

It is clear that the electric water heater required starts with an annual cost of £224, where
after 30 years the total electricity cost has reached almost £400. The electricity cost required
for the electric water heater is far greater compared to other sources of water heating. The
rest of the systems the cost for the first year is estimated between £75-£120. The lowest cost
is for flat plate collector using gas water heater as back up.

By the time that the electric water heater required higher annual operating cost, and the solar
systems with electric water heaters as back up were required almost less than £100 for only
the first year, it was assumed that the total electricity savings would be very high in the case
of the solar systems using electric water heater as back up. The graph below (figure 6.2)
shows the total annual savings for the period of 30 years. The total saving of solar systems
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
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using electric water heater are greater than the systems using gas water heater. More
specifically for the flat plate collector, they starts with £118 for the first year and at the end
of the 30 year period analysis the savings have raised to £210. At the same time using a gas
back up heater using the same solar system start with nearly £22 and by the end of the 30
year period the total savings have reached only to £39.

Electricity & gas cost graph
£0.00
£50.00
£100.00
£150.00
£200.00
£250.00
£300.00
£350.00
£400.00
£450.00
0 10 20 30 40
Years
C
o
s
t

(
£
)
EWH
EWH+ flat
plate
EWH+ evac.
tube
EWH+
drainback
GWH
GWH+ flat
plate
GWH+ evac.
tube
GWH+
drainback


Figure 6.1: Electricity and gas cost graph

Total savings graph
£0.00
£50.00
£100.00
£150.00
£200.00
£250.00
0 10 20 30 40
Years
A
n
n
u
a
l

s
a
v
i
n
g
s

(
£
)
EWH+ flat plate
EWH+ evac.
tube
EWH+ drainback
GWH+ flat plate
GWH+ evac.
tube
GWH+
drainback


Figure 6.2: Total savings graph
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 80 -
6.3.2 Effective cost

The effective cost is the cost to install, maintain, fix, replace and operate the water heating
system over a 30 year period (figure 6.3). In this case the gas water heating system is the
least costly option followed by the electric water heater. The solar systems, which use
electric or gas water heaters as back up, are far more expensive. Gas water heaters used with
evacuated tube collector is at the top with a total effective cost of more than £500. The
cheapest option from the solar systems is the electric water heater with the drainback system
with a total cost about £470.

Effective cost graph
£0.00 £100.00 £200.00 £300.00 £400.00 £500.00 £600.00
E
W
H
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
G
W
H
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k


Figure 6.3: Effective cost graph

Similarly the same procedure has been followed separately for gas and electric water heaters
with solar systems, considering now the case where 20% of the amount has been financed.
The main difference at this stage is the yearly loan payment for the amount financed. The
annual loan varies depending on the initial system cost. For the systems which no amount has
been finance there is no annual loan payment. For the financed amounts, the lowest annual
loan payment is for drainback system with £291 and the highest for the evacuated tube with
gas back up.


CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 81 -
Even with the amount financed there is not big difference in effective cost. Considering first
the case with electric water heaters, it still has the lowest effective cost with less than £400.
There was expected a decrease in effective cost for the systems financed but as it can be seen
from the graph the difference is least.

Effective cost (EWH)
£0.00 £100.00 £200.00 £300.00 £400.00 £500.00 £600.00
E
W
H
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e

(
2
0
%
)
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e

(
2
0
%
)
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k

(
2
0
%
)


Figure 6.4: Effective cost graph (EWH)

Coming to the case of the gas, there is an obvious difference between the systems financed to
those not. The effective cost of the financed systems is far lower than the other systems. For
the financed systems the flat plate collector has got the lowest effective cost with only £215
pounds compared to drainback system with £498.
Effective cost (GWH)
£0.00 £100.00 £200.00 £300.00 £400.00 £500.00 £600.00
G
W
H
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e

(
2
0
%
)
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e

(
2
0
%
)
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k

(
2
0
%
)


Figure 6.5: Effective cost graph (GWH)
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 82 -
6.3.3 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) results

As was mentioned on Chapter 5 the LCC is the sum of all costs associated with a system over
a chosen analysis period, and is adjusted for inflation so that is reported in today’s U.K
sterlings. The basic objective here was to evaluate the justification of solar equipment. Gas
water heater has the lowest value with less than £4000 where at the same time evacuated tube
system with gas water heater exceeds £8000.
Life Cycle Cost graph
£0.00 £2,000.00 £4,000.00 £6,000.00 £8,000.00 £10,000.00
E
W
H
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
G
W
H
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k

Figure 6.6: Life Cycle Cost graph
Similarly, considering the systems as before with the difference of amount financed for the
systems, it is noticed that the electric water heater has the lowest value compared to other
systems (figure 6.7). It was expected that the life cost of financed systems to be lower. From
the graph it can be seen that the life cycle cost of an electric water heater with drainback
system is lower than the evacuated tube system with 20% of the amount financed. The
financed systems as it can be noticed from graph exceed the cost of £6000.

An obvious difference can be noticed in the case when gas water heaters are considered. Here
the systems with 20% amount financed are over £3000 with the flat plate collector to be the
least costly option (figure 6.8). The most costly is the evacuated tube with a life cycle cost
exceeding £8000.
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 83 -
Life Cycle Cost (EWH)
£0.00 £1,00
0.00
£2,00
0.00
£3,00
0.00
£4,00
0.00
£5,00
0.00
£6,00
0.00
£7,00
0.00
£8,00
0.00
£9,00
0.00
E
W
H
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
E
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e

(
2
0
%
)
E
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e

(
2
0
%
)
E
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k

(
2
0
%
)


Figure 6.7: Life Cycle Cost graph (EWH)

Life Cycle Cost (GWH)
£0.00 £2,000.00 £4,000.00 £6,000.00 £8,000.00
G
W
H
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k
G
W
H
+

f
l
a
t

p
l
a
t
e

(
2
0
%
)
G
W
H
+

e
v
a
c
.

t
u
b
e

(
2
0
%
)
G
W
H
+

d
r
a
i
n
b
a
c
k

(
2
0
%
)


Figure 6.8: Life Cycle Cost graph (GWH)

6.4 Conclusion

Concluding the report it has to be mentioned that comparing to data obtained from the
quantitative survey, reliability survey and life cycle costing, people seem to be a bit confused
about the solar water heating industry today. It seems that there is not much trust in
companies where this using components with cheap materials resulting to usual maintenance
and in the worst case replacement. Especially in the U.K., they even prefer the traditional
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 84 -
sources of water heating such as electricity and gas than using a solar system. Although they
are aware of solar systems they don’t trust them for reasons, more or less expected (i.e. cost
of purchase and installation, maintenance expenses, weather conditions). It appears to be a
lack of information, and that can be considered as a major disadvantage of companies’
profile.

Life Cycle Cost example has come to prove what peoples believes. Considering just some
sample data and making the appropriate assumptions it has been proved that overall to
purchase a solar water heating system is expensive. But alternative solutions can be
considered such as the use of a solar water heating system with gas water heater as back up
which reduces the cost. Grants could be a good solution to encourage people of purchasing a
solar water heater.

6.5 Recommendations

The guidelines have been produced in order to suggest some various methods and solutions
for improvement and better information of the solar water heating technology. Quality
problems, as mainly described in chapter 4, have given a bad name in solar water heating
industry in the past. Although the problems occurred long time ago, people seem not to be
confident having difficulties to trust today’s improvements. As it was mentioned on chapter
4 the main problem concern the durability of the systems as well as problems related with
installation and maintenance.

The only solution to keep the confidence of people is to manufacture systems reliable and
operate according to specifications. Good quality components must be used with good
quality installation. That will help to decrease maintenance cost and extend the system’s life.

Considering the example of the Life Cycle Cost, it has been proved that maintenance and
replacement cost can increase the overall cost of a solar water heating system to high
standards even if a 30 year period is used. The installers should give longer-term warranties
as this seem one of the major factors for people consider about.

Based on the research data from chapter 4 it seem like public awareness of solar water
heating technology is low. People believe U.K does not receive enough solar energy for solar
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS
- 85 -
water heating systems to work efficiently. Advertising and general publicity must be
increased and not only based on Internet information.

Grants to homeowners would be difficult to introduce but it is believed that it would have the
largest impact to market growth. Based on the Life cycle costing analysis grants in some
occasions do not make big difference (solar system + electric water heater) but on the other
hand there are cases where grants would be a big advantage (solar system + gas water
heater).



















Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST-Electric water heater
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £1,184.00 Electric water heater
Amount Financed £0.00
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% E5 Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% E6 Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% E7 Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Elec Usage, kWhr/yr 3,200 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Anual cost Yearly Elec Cost, £/yr £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,101.63 £351.02 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintainance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Replacement
Cost
(Current £)
Environmental
Value (Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 110.41 £0.00 £0.00 £352.87 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 121.90 £0.00 £0.00 £389.60 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 0.00 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,889.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £0.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £148.59 £0.00 £0.00 £474.92 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £164.06 £0.00 £0.00 £524.35 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 1
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
DRAINBACK SYSTEM
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £3,639.00 Drainback+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 46.3%
Amount Financed £0.00
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,862.99 £403.41 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 £1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £286.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.0612 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £291.83 £0.00 £0.00 1.0824 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £297.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.1041 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £303.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £309.69 £0.00 £0.00 1.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £315.89 £0.00 £0.00 1.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £59.75 £0.00 £0.00 £322.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 £60.95 £304.75 £0.00 £633.40 £0.00 £0.00 1.2190 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £335.22 £0.00 £0.00 1.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £341.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.2682 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £348.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £65.97 £0.00 £0.00 £355.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 £67.29 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,956.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.3459 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £370.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £377.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £385.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £72.84 £0.00 £0.00 £392.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £74.30 £371.49 £0.00 £772.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.4859 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £408.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.5157 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £416.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £425.14 £0.00 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £433.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £442.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £451.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £460.19 £0.00 £0.00 1.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £469.39 £0.00 £0.00 1.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £478.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £90.57 £0.00 £0.00 £488.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 2
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,574.00 Evac. tube+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 50.8%
Amount Financed £0.00
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,862.99 £403.41 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 £1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £286.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.0612 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £291.83 £0.00 £0.00 1.0824 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £297.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.1041 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £303.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £309.69 £0.00 £0.00 1.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £315.89 £0.00 £0.00 1.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £59.75 £0.00 £0.00 £322.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 £60.95 £304.75 £0.00 £633.40 £0.00 £0.00 1.2190 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £335.22 £0.00 £0.00 1.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £341.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.2682 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £348.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £65.97 £0.00 £0.00 £355.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 £67.29 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,956.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.3459 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £370.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £377.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £385.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £72.84 £0.00 £0.00 £392.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £74.30 £371.49 £0.00 £772.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.4859 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £408.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.5157 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £416.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £425.14 £0.00 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £433.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £442.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £451.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £460.19 £0.00 £0.00 1.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £469.39 £0.00 £0.00 1.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £478.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £90.57 £0.00 £0.00 £488.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 3
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,134.00 Flat plate+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 53.0%
Amount Financed £0.00
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,862.99 £403.41 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 £1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £286.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.0612 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £291.83 £0.00 £0.00 1.0824 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £297.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.1041 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £303.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £309.69 £0.00 £0.00 1.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £315.89 £0.00 £0.00 1.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £59.75 £0.00 £0.00 £322.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 £60.95 £304.75 £0.00 £633.40 £0.00 £0.00 1.2190 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £335.22 £0.00 £0.00 1.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £341.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.2682 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £348.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £65.97 £0.00 £0.00 £355.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 £67.29 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,956.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.3459 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £370.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £377.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £385.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £72.84 £0.00 £0.00 £392.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £74.30 £371.49 £0.00 £772.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.4859 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £408.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.5157 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £416.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £425.14 £0.00 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £433.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £442.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £451.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £460.19 £0.00 £0.00 1.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £469.39 £0.00 £0.00 1.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £478.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £90.57 £0.00 £0.00 £488.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 4
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
DRAINBACK SYSTEM (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £3,639.00 Drainback+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 46.3%
Amount Financed £2,911.20
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,862.99 £403.41 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 £1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £286.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.0612 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £291.83 £0.00 £0.00 1.0824 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £297.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.1041 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £303.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £309.69 £0.00 £0.00 1.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £315.89 £0.00 £0.00 1.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £59.75 £0.00 £0.00 £322.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 £60.95 £304.75 £0.00 £633.40 £0.00 £0.00 1.2190 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £335.22 £0.00 £0.00 1.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £341.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.2682 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £348.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £65.97 £0.00 £0.00 £355.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 £67.29 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,956.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.3459 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £370.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £377.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £385.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £72.84 £0.00 £0.00 £392.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £74.30 £371.49 £0.00 £772.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.4859 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £408.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.5157 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £416.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £425.14 £0.00 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £433.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £442.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £451.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £460.19 £0.00 £0.00 1.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £469.39 £0.00 £0.00 1.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £478.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £90.57 £0.00 £0.00 £488.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 5
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,574.00 Evac.tube+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 50.8%
Amount Financed £3,659.20
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,862.99 £403.41 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 50.00 £0.00 £0.00 274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 51.00 £0.00 £0.00 279.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 53.06 £0.00 £0.00 286.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.0612 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 54.12 £0.00 £0.00 291.83 £0.00 £0.00 1.0824 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 55.20 £0.00 £0.00 297.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.1041 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 56.31 £0.00 £0.00 303.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 57.43 £0.00 £0.00 309.69 £0.00 £0.00 1.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 58.58 £0.00 £0.00 315.89 £0.00 £0.00 1.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 59.75 £0.00 £0.00 322.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 60.95 £304.75 £0.00 633.40 £0.00 £0.00 1.2190 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 62.17 £0.00 £0.00 335.22 £0.00 £0.00 1.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 63.41 £0.00 £0.00 341.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.2682 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 64.68 £0.00 £0.00 348.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 65.97 £0.00 £0.00 355.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 67.29 £1,593.51 £0.00 1,956.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.3459 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 68.64 £0.00 £0.00 370.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 70.01 £0.00 £0.00 377.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 71.41 £0.00 £0.00 385.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 72.84 £0.00 £0.00 392.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 74.30 £371.49 £0.00 772.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.4859 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 75.78 £0.00 £0.00 408.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.5157 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 77.30 £0.00 £0.00 416.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 78.84 £0.00 £0.00 425.14 £0.00 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 80.42 £0.00 £0.00 433.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 82.03 £0.00 £0.00 442.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 83.67 £0.00 £0.00 451.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 85.34 £0.00 £0.00 460.19 £0.00 £0.00 1.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 87.05 £0.00 £0.00 469.39 £0.00 £0.00 1.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 88.79 £0.00 £0.00 478.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 90.57 £0.00 £0.00 488.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 6
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,134.00 Flat plate+Back up Heater Solar Fraction 53.0%
Amount Financed £3,307.20
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.070 £/kWhr
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year 3200.000 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Elec Cost £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,722.37 £393.73 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintenance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £0.00 £1,184.00 2.00
1 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.02 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £228.48 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £278.48 £0.00 £0.00 1.04 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £233.05 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £283.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.06 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £237.71 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £287.71 £0.00 £0.00 1.08 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £242.46 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £292.46 £0.00 £0.00 1.10 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £247.31 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £297.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.13 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £252.26 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £302.26 £0.00 £0.00 1.15 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £257.31 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £307.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.17 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £262.45 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £312.45 £0.00 £0.00 1.20 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £267.70 £0.00 £50.00 £304.75 £0.00 £622.45 £0.00 £0.00 1.22 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £273.05 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £323.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.24 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £278.52 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £328.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.27 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £284.09 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £334.09 £0.00 £0.00 1.29 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £289.77 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £339.77 £0.00 £0.00 1.32 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £295.56 £0.00 £50.00 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,939.07 £0.00 £0.00 1.35 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £301.47 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £351.47 £0.00 £0.00 1.37 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £307.50 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £357.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.40 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £313.65 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £363.65 £0.00 £0.00 1.43 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £319.93 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £369.93 £0.00 £0.00 1.46 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £326.33 £0.00 £50.00 £371.49 £0.00 £747.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.49 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £332.85 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £382.85 £0.00 £0.00 1.52 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £339.51 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £389.51 £0.00 £0.00 1.55 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £346.30 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £396.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.58 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £353.23 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £403.23 £0.00 £0.00 1.61 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £360.29 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £410.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.64 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £367.50 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £417.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.67 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £374.85 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £424.85 £0.00 £0.00 1.71 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £382.34 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £432.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.74 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £389.99 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £439.99 £0.00 £0.00 1.78 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £397.79 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £447.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.81 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 7
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST-Gas water heater
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £1,610.00 Gas water heater
Amount Financed £0.00
Loan Term 360 Months
Interest Rate 8.0%
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Gas Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Elec Usage, kWhr/yr 3,200 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Anual cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £224.00 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£3,514.20 £241.80 Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Fuel
Cost
Interest
Deduction
Maintainance
Cost
Replacement
Cost
Environmental
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance
Cost (Current £)
Cost
(Current £)
Environmental
Value (Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £99.20 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £99.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £101.18 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £101.18 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £103.21 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £103.21 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £105.27 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £105.27 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £107.38 £0.00 110.41 £0.00 £0.00 £217.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £109.52 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £109.52 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £111.72 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £111.72 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £113.95 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £113.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £116.23 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £116.23 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £118.55 £0.00 121.90 £0.00 £0.00 £240.45 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £120.92 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £120.92 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £123.34 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £123.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £125.81 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £125.81 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £128.33 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £128.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £130.89 £0.00 0.00 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,297.74 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £0.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £133.51 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £133.51 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £136.18 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £136.18 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £138.90 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £138.90 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £141.68 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £141.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £144.52 £0.00 £148.59 £0.00 £0.00 £293.11 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £147.41 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £147.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £150.35 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £150.35 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £153.36 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £153.36 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £156.43 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £156.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £159.56 £0.00 £164.06 £0.00 £0.00 £323.62 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £162.75 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £162.75 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £166.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £166.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £169.32 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £169.32 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £172.71 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £172.71 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £176.16 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £176.16 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 0.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 8
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
DRAINBACK SYSTEM (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,417.00 Drainback+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 31.9% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £3,533.60 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 9
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
DRAINBACK SYSTEM
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,417.00 Drainback+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 31.9% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £0.00 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 10
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £5,352.00 Evac. Tube+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 35.1% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £0.00 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 11
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £5,352.00 Evac. Tube+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 35.1% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £0.00 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 12
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,912.00 Flat plate+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 36.5% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £3,929.60 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Yearly cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 13
Appendix
LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS
FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS
Installed Cost £4,912.00 Flat plate+BackupHeater Solar Fraction 36.5% Fuel Usage met by solar
Amount Financed £0.00 Fuel Usage (Base) 3200 kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar)
Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost 0.031 £/kWhr
Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year
Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage 200 kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc)
Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost 0.07 £/kWh
Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate 2.00 %/year (Nominal)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS
Life Cycle Effective Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr 3200.000 Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% INDIVIDUAL YEARLY
Cost, 30 yrs Yearly cost Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr £0.00 Real Fuel Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS
£5,467.10 £376.17 Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr £224.00 Nominal Discount Rate 7.61%
Year Down Payment
Yearly Loan
Payment
Yearly Electric
Cost
Yearly Fuel
Cost Total cost
Interest
Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost
Environ.
Credits
Net Cash
Flow
Interest
Payment
Unpaid
Principal Inflation rate
Maintenance Cost
(Current £)
Replacement
Cost (Current £)
Environmental Value
(Current £)
0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 2.000 £0.00
1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00
16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00
21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00
Page 14

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS

Acknowledgments

I would like my tutor Mr R. C. McLean for his guidance and encouragement. My family for their continues support from their beginning of my studies. Also my cousins Panagiotis Vamvakaris and Nikolaos Gougoulis for their help in the quantitative survey part. To the entire people respondent to my letters and e-mails providing useful data for my project. Finally, my two good friends Christos Kapatos and Kaliopi Maravelea for their hospitality during the last month of my course.

-i-

SUMMARY

PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS

Summary This report tries to give an overview with the solar water heating status today. Chapters 1 is an overview of the systems used today, some new development systems and benefits of solar water heaters. Chapter 2 is concentrated with the type of solar collector’s currently used, analysis of the material of frat plate collectors which at the moment they are extensively used around U.K. There is also a description of materials for heat management and storage as well as antifreeze solutions. Chapter 3 is referred to current market development in Europe and some countries around the world. Special attention is given in the market of U.K. Chapter 4 discusses the reliability and quantitative survey carried out compared data from U.K and Greek responders. Chapter 6 describes the procedure followed for the Life Cycle Costing, considering three major solar water heating systems. Finally Chapter 6 analyses the results and proposes some solutions for better market development.

- ii -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS

PAGE

Introduction Objectives

1 4

CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of SWH 1.2.1 Direct systems (open loop) 1.2.1.1 Photovoltaic operated systems 1.2.2 Indirect systems (closed loop) 1.2.2.1 Drainback systems 1.2.3 Thermosiphon systems 1.2.4 Integral collectors storage systems (Batch heaters) 1.3 New development systems 1.3.1 Solar boosted panel 1.3.2 Low flow systems 1.4 Benefits of solar water heaters 1.5 References 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 11 12 13

CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS, MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Types of solar collectors 2.2.1 Flat plate collectors 2.2.1.1 Liquid collectors 2.2.1.2 Air collectors 2.2.2 Evacuated tube collectors 2.2.3 Concentrating collectors 2.3 Materials for collector components 15 15 15 16 17 17 18 20

- iii -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS

2.3.1 Absorber materials 2.3.1.1 Absorber coating 2.3.2 Glazing 2.3.3 Casing 2.3.4 Seals 2.3.5 Absorber insulation 2.4 Materials for heat management and storage 2.4.1 Pipes and connections 2.4.2 Storage vessels 2.4.3 Control system 2.5 Freeze protection 2.5.1 Non-aqueous solutions 2.5.1.1 Silicon fluids 2.5.1.2 Hydrocarbon oils 2.5.2 Aqueous solutions 2.5.2.1 Glycol-water antifreeze 2.5.2.2Distilled water 2.6 References

20 21 21 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28

CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SWH 3.1 Introduction 3.2 U.K. market 3.2.1 System types and data 3.2.2 U.K. SWH industry 3.2.3 Range of costs for SWH 3.2.4 Potential for SWH 3.3 The European market 3.3.1 France 3.3.2 Greece 3.3.3 Germany 3.3.4 Austria 3.3.5 Netherlands 3.3.6 Denmark 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37

- iv -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS

3.4 U.S.A market 3.5 Australian market 3.6 Japanese market 3.7 References

37 38 38 38

CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY & QUANTITATIVE SURVEY 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Reliability survey 4.2.1 Freeze protection 4.2.2 Overheat protection 4.2.3 Poor water quality 4.2.4 Mixing valve and tempering valve failure 4.2.5 Storage tank failure 4.2.6 Air vent failure 4.3 Quantitative survey 4.3.1 Purpose of research 4.3.2 Awareness and usage of various water heating systems 4.3.2.1 Awareness of water heating systems 4.3.2.2 Sources of SWH awareness 4.3.2.3 Usage of water heating systems 4.3.3 Image of SWH 4.3.4 Disadvantages of SWH systems 4.3.5 Consideration factors 4.3.6 Attitudinal statement 4.3.7 SWH system cost 4.3.8 Reasons for not considering SWH 4.4 References 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Economic Indicators 5.2.1 Payback period 5.2.2 Life cycle savings and the P1, P2 method 54 55 56 57

-v-

1 Pumps 5.4 Gas water heater and solar systems 5.3.TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D.4. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 6.3.6 Environmental value 5.3 Fuel escalation rate 5.7.1 Solar Energy Factor (SEF) & Solar Fraction (SF) 5.8 References 59 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 68 68 69 CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION.3.2 Electric water heater and solar systems 5.3.3 Gas water heater 5.4 Conclusions 6.2 Nominal discount rate 5.4 Income tax bracket 5.2 Effective cost 6.4 Financial inputs 5.3.4.2 Controls 5.3 Discussion of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) method 6.3 Collectors 5.1 Electric water heater 5.2 Fuel cost 5.7.1 Introduction 6.3.vi - .4.3.4 Tanks 5.3 Life Cycle Cost results 6.4.3 System specifications 5.7 Performance rating of systems 5.5.5.7.5 Maintenance & replacement costs 5.3 General inflation rate 5.5 Recommendations 73 74 76 78 80 82 83 84 .5. PANAPAKIDIS 5.1 Loan term and interest rate 5.1 Annual fuel cost and total savings 6.2 Discussion of reliability and quantitative survey 6.7.5.4 Fuel usage 5.

2: Sources of SWH awareness Figure 4.3: Drainback system Figure 1.1: Installed collector area per thousand inhabitants in Europe (1999) Figure 4.1: Open loop system Figure 1.4: Thermosiphon system Figure 1.1: Flat plate solar collector Figure 2.2: Total savings graph Figure 6.5: Evacuated tube collector Figure 2.4: Image of SWH Figure 4.7: Attitudinal statement Figure 4.2: Closed loop system Figure 1.8: Life Cycle Cost graph (GWH) PAGE 6 7 9 9 10 11 16 17 17 17 18 19 31 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 79 79 80 81 81 82 83 83 .2: “Z” array liquid collector Figure 2.6: Concentrating collector Figure 3.3: Usage of water heating systems Figure 4.vii - .1: Awareness of water heating systems Figure 4.3: Effective cost graph Figure 6.7: Life Cycle Cost graph (EWH) Figure 6.4: Effective cost graph (EWH) Figure 6.5: Effective cost graph (GWH) Figure 6.9: Reasons for not considering SWH Figure 6.1: Electricity and gas cost graph Figure 6.5: Integral collector storage system Figure 1.5: Disadvantages of SWH systems Figure 4. PANAPAKIDIS LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.4: Solar air collector Figure 2.6: Components of the solar boosted heat pump system Figure 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D.6: Consideration factors Figure 4.8: SWH system cost Figure 4.3: “U” array liquid collector Figure 2.6: Life Cycle Cost graph Figure 6.

PANAPAKIDIS LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 2a: Thermal conductivities of absorber materials Table 2b: Properties of sealing materials Table 2c: properties of insulation materials Table 3a: Cost and performance data for a typical SWH system Table 4a: Percentage data for awareness of water heating systems Table 4b: Percentage data for sources of SWH Table 4c: Percentage data for usage of water heating systems Table 4d: Percentage data for image of SWH Table 4e: Percentage data for disadvantages of SWH systems Table 4f: Percentage data for consideration factors Table 4g: Percentage data for attitudinal statement Table 4h: Percentage data for SWH system cost Table 4i: Percentage data for reasons for not considering SWH 21 23 24 34 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1: Electric water heater Appendix 2: Typical installation diagram of a gas water heater Appendix 3: Excel spreadsheets .TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESENTED BY: D.viii - .

This offers many benefits in terms of increased market share and reduced demand at the generation level in an increasingly competitive environment. Utilities can use end-use pricing to target solar domestic hot water heating.PANAPAKIDIS Objectives Residential hot water use represents a large proportion of residential energy use.OBJECTIVES PRENTED BY: D. The residential energy use accounts for approximately one third of the total energy use.K in order to compare with gas and electricity water heaters and investigate cost and economic benefits for a 30 year period. -4- . The main objectives of this thesis are: To give a brief overview of the most commonly used SWH systems To investigate the current market development To carry out a reliability survey for problems identification Investigate what people believe about Solar water heating technology Life Cycle Cost analysis of the 3 most common systems currently used in U.

the utility’s extra generating capacity could be reduced at great economic and environmental benefit. high system cost and redundancy with other heating options. Many utilities maintain extra generating capacity year round so that they can meet their summertime load. Primary between the obstacles that they noted are: lack of knowledge about solar. The utility could buy systems at a volume discount rate. Furthermore. Essentially it seems that a customer would be more willing to consider solar if it were less expensive and there were someone to whom they could turn for maintenance issues and to be assured that the system was operating properly. The conclusion of a great part of this research is that solar energy is a viable. PANAPAKIDIS Introduction A great deal of research has been carried out on solar energy alternatives to heating by conventional means. concerns about dealer credibility and competence. The benefit to the customer is that solar energy collection becomes much less expensive and that the utility would be in charge of maintenance.INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. In order to propose solutions that will increase the acceptance of solar energy technology. it is first necessary to understand the reason for the poor market penetration. Yet nearly 20 years after the energy scare of the early 1970s. solar energy’s market share remains disappointing. recuperating their cost through a leasing program. The other benefit to the utility is that of avoided generation cost. the customer -1- . If however. there are business tax incentives for solar options that are available to corporations. such as utilities. concerns about system reliability. simple rerouting of power from one utility district to another is not a sufficient solution. concerns about the effect of weather on performance. a costly undertaking. One proposed solution to both of these problems is to encourage the involvement of electric utilities. Furthermore. a large number of houses in the utility’s service area heat water without creating an increased load on the utility. Because this is a problem for almost all utilities. If a utility were to buy a large quantity of solar systems and rent them to homeowners there would be a number of benefits to all involved. clean and sustainable source. Most utilities are summer peaking meaning that the highest demand occurs during the summer when a large number of air conditioners are in operation. but are unavailable to individual consumers.

an inadequate system infrastructure and limited public knowledge of the gains and benefits of current technology. and would be charged a reduced electricity rate. analysis of the material of frat plate collectors which at the moment they are extensively used around U. Chapter 2 is concentrated with the type of solar collector’s currently used. The concept presents the possibility of converting solar water heating from a subsidized Demand Side management program to a profitable business. The energy reduction eliminates the need for larger power plant generating capacities and pollution from power plants is reduced as loads decrease. There are a number of barriers that have prevented the widespread acceptance of solar water heaters by both utilities and homeowners in the past. the ESCO receives a portion of performance savings from the utility. utilities are seeking innovative new products and services that will add value and produce customer reliability. Utilities can experience demand reduction from solar water heating systems during peak times. The homeowner experiences no first costs and is assured reliability and maintenance of the system. In return for contributing to an increased market size. Many electricity-providing utilities are losing customers who are switching to cheaper gas. The ESCO concept is demonstrated below. which involves the sale of solar heated water itself. a reputation for poor system reliability. solar hot water heating may provide a means of retaining customers. With deregulation and new competition.K. some new development systems and benefits of solar water heaters. Considering all the above mentioned this report tries to give an overview with the solar water heating status today.INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS would pay a fixed monthly lease on the collector. The ESCO is typically responsible for the installation. This end-use pricing. The Utility on the other hand receives a monthly service fee from the homeowner in return for the services the ESCO provides. rather than the sale or lease of equipment that makes it. These have included high capital costs. hopefully decreasing the overall bill. Chapters 1 is an overview of the systems used today. is believed to increase market penetration. There is also a description of materials -2- . The increased demand will have a positive effect on the economics of solar water heating. service and maintenance of the solar hot water system. Many utilities are now employing Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). typically morning and evenings when hot water draws tend to be the greatest.

Chapter 4 discusses the reliability and quantitative survey carried out compared data from U. UTILITY Monthly service Fee Portion of performance Savings Installation. Chapter 6 describes the procedure followed for the Life Cycle Costing. maintenance HOMEOWNER No first costs Positive cash flow Reliability and maintenance Choice ESCO Increased market size Incentive to maintain system -3- . Chapter 3 is referred to current market development in Europe and some countries around the world. considering three major solar water heating systems.INTRODUCTION PRESENTED BY: D. service. Finally Chapter 6 analyses the results and proposes some solutions for better market development. Special attention is given in the market of U.K. PANAPAKIDIS for heat management and storage as well as antifreeze solutions.K and Greek responders.

this chapter provides basic information about the systems currently available.2 Types of solar water heaters 1.1 Direct systems (open loop) In direct systems the heat from the sun is transferred directly to the water in the collector. The heated water is then stored in a tank similar to a convectional gas or electric water tank. are the most common systems in use in tropical and sub-tropical climates where temperatures do not often go below 0°C [3. 1. The basic components of an open loop system are listed below: Direct storage tank Circulating pump Differential control unit Temperature sensor Isolation valve Drain valve -5- .9]. There is no anti-freeze solution used in this type of system. such as water-glycol antifreeze mixture in collectors generally mounted on the roof. These systems. Solar water heaters most of the time are called “domestic hot water systems”.2.1 Introduction This chapter provides basic information on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available around the world. Performance varies depending on how much energy is available and how cold the water is coming into the system. There is a description about the new developed systems of solar water heaters and their advantages and it concludes with the benefits of the solar water heaters. Aspreviously mentioned. Some systems use an electric pump to circulate the fluid through the collectors [1.8.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS 1. These systems use the sun to heat either water or a heat transfer fluid.2]. also known as “open loop” systems. Some water heaters can operate in any climates.

A differential control unit attached to the sensors is used to control a circulating pump.10].1. is used to circulate the warm water into the collector as temperatures approach freezing.11. The main difference comes from the fact that the energy to power the pump is provided by a -6- .CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. The storage tank is typically installed in the basement. The hot water is stored in a storage tank. PANAPAKIDIS A typical open loop system is shown in figure 1. When the differential of the water temperature is 5°C the pump is turned off. In this way the water in the system is always being heated when the sun is shining. When required. heats the water. a thermally operated valve.2. garage and is well insulated [3. A solar collector.1. Closing the isolation valves and opening the drain valves instead of using a thermally operated valve can manually drain the system [3. Figure 1.1 Photovoltaic operated systems This type of solar water heaters is not much different to the ones discussed above.12]. typically mounted on the roof of the structure where the water is to be used. 1. If the temperature at the collector is 5-7°C greater than the temperature at the bottom of the storage tank the water in the system is circulated.1: Open loop system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre) Sensors are used to monitor the temperatures of the water in the system. installed at the collector.

PANAPAKIDIS photovoltaic (PV) panel. In this way water flows through the collector when the sun is shining [3. The pump and the PV panel have to be suitable matched in order to ensure optimum performance of the system.2: Closed loop system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre) -7- . The pump starts when there is sufficient solar radiation available to heat the solar collector.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. Timers also used in order to control solar system operation. incorporates a thermally operated valve to provide freeze protection. which then drives the pump. also known as closed loop systems. A solar collector. Typically a propylene glycol or ethylene glycol and water mixture is used [1]. are the most commonly used in cold climates where temperatures often go below 0°C. 1. A typical closed loop system is shown in figure 1. The PV panel converts the sunlight into electricity. filled with an anti-freeze solution. the collector lines are connected to the bottom of the storage tank with a special valve [3].2.2 Indirect systems (closed loop) Indirect systems are designed for use in climates where freezing weather can occur more frequently. The timers operate during the day when solar radiation is available to heat water.2. In order to avoid loss of energy from the tank during cloudy days. These systems. is used to collect the thermal energy in sunlight. The basic components of a drain back system are listed below: Heat exchanger Circulating pump Differential control unit Temperature sensor Gate valve Drain valve Indirect storage tank Figure 1. That system like the previous one. Most of them have a battery back up in case of power failure.9].

The heat exchanger is a coil of tubing that wraps around inside the perimeter of the storage tank. A typical closed loop system is shown in figure 1. Indirect systems are closed loop systems. There is no contact between the heat transfer liquid and the potable water in the system. PANAPAKIDIS A pump circulates the solution through the collector and into a storage tank where a heat exchanger is fitted.3]. In drain mode all of the liquid in the system's collectors and piping is drained back into an insulated reservoir tank when the system is not producing heat. The heat exchanger transfers the heat into the water stored in the tank. garage or utility room and is well insulated [1. 1.3. The storage tank is typically installed in the basement.1 Drainback systems Drain back systems are indirect closed loop systems. the solution in the system is circulated in the closed loop. If the temperature at the collector is about 5-7°C greater than the temperature at the bottom of the storage tank.2.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. When the differential of the water temperature is 15°C. Sensors are used to monitor the temperatures of the anti-freeze solution in the system. The basic components of a drain back system are listed below: Indirect storage tank Reservoir tank Circulating pump Differential control unit Temperature sensor Gate valve Drain valve -8- . There is no contact between the anti-freeze solution and the potable water in the system [3]. An indicator on the reservoir tank shows when the collector is completely drained. the pump is turned off. Each time the pump shuts off the solution in the collector is drained into the reservoir tank [1. A differential control unit attached to the sensors determines when the circulating pump should be activated.12].2. Drain back systems are used in cold climates to reliably ensure that the collectors and the piping never freeze. The tank is designed to transfer the heat into the coldest water in the tank. This protection is achieved when the system is operated in drain mode.

In this systems sensors are also used Figure 1. is used to collect the thermal energy.3: Drainback system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre) to monitor the temperature [1. the water expands and becomes lighter than the cold water in the solar storage tank mounted above the collector.3 Thermosiphon systems The use of thermosiphon systems is accepted world wide due to their simple and reliable characteristics [3]. through the collector and into a storage tank where a heat exchanger is fitted.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. cold water down from the tank -9- . A pump circulates the solution. The basic components of a drain back system are listed below: Solar collectors Direct storage tank Isolation valve Drain valve Thermally operated valve Figure 1. 1. Typically distilled water or a propylene glycol and water mixture is used. The heat exchanger is a coil of tubing that wraps around inside the perimeter of the storage tank. filled with distilled water or an antifreeze solution. The tank is designed to transfer the heat into the coldest water in the tank. Gravity then pulls heavier. As it heats.12]. PANAPAKIDIS Drain back systems work like indirect systems. A typical closed loop system is shown in figure 1. A solar collector. The heat exchanger transfers the heat into the water stored in the tank.2.4: Thermosiphon system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre) The collector absorbs the sun’s energy and the water inside the collector flow-tubes is heated.4.

which is the hottest.5: Integral collector storage system (source: Florida Solar Energy Centre) .16]. and replacement water flows into the bottom. A flushtype freeze protection valve is installed in the top plumbing near the collector. thus heating the water in the tank [3. This system is simple because pumps and controllers are not required. which allow the solar system to be manually drained in case of freezing conditions. A thermosiphon system requires neither pump nor controller.10 - . It also includes isolation valves. Solar heated water flows from the rooftop tank to the auxiliary tank installed at ground level. or to be bypassed completely [16].15]. This system is simple because pumps and controllers are not required. cold water from the house flows into the collector and hot water from the collector flows to a standard hot water auxiliary tank within the house. cold water from the house flows into the collector and hot water from the collector flows to a standard hot water auxiliary tank within the house [3. Figure 1.2. As temperatures near freezing. Cold water flows directly to the tank on the roof. This system features a thermally operated valve that protects the collector from freezing.4 Integral collectors storage systems (Batch heaters) In the integral collector storage solar system. The cold water pushes the heated water through the collector outlet and into the top of the tank. PANAPAKIDIS and into the collector inlet. On demand.14]. Hot water is drawn from the top. 1.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D. the hot water storage system is the collector. On demand. Cold water flows progressively through the collector where it is heated by the sun. this valve opens to allow relatively warm water to flow through the collector to prevent freezing [1.

The main disadvantages of such systems are the cost compared to common solar water heaters and the possibility of the refrigerant to contaminate the water supply [4. This vapour is then compressed raising its pressure and temperature [4].5]. becomes vaporised and the cycle is repeated. The solar hot water system combines a heat pump with an evaporator (panels) exposed to atmosphere.6 below. PANAPAKIDIS 1.3.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D.11 - . .3. drawing heat from one space and discharching to another.3 New development systems 1.1 Solar boosting panel An Australian team has introduced this new concept of solar water heating. around the outside of the water storage tank (condenser). The refrigerant vapour condenses to liquid form giving off latent heat to the stored water. The system uses a refrigeration circuit. The solar evaporator panels absorb sun’s energy and use it to vaporise the refrigerant (usually R-22). compared to convectional solar water heating systems. Then the condensed refrigerant liquid returns to the evaporator panels through an expansion device. It is called “solar boosting panel” and can achieve an energy reduction of up to 75%. 1.6: Components of the solar boosted heat pump system (source: Australian National Team) The high temperature vapour is passed to tubing.2 Low flow systems During the last years pumped solar water heating systems use the low flow principle. The major components of the solar boosted heat pump are: Two heat exchangers A compressor. An analytical diagram of the system is presented in figure 1. Figure 1.

The smaller the flow rate. The thermal design of the system increases with increasing thermal stratification in the solar tank.7].CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D.15-0.S. 1. nitrogen oxides. Solar water heaters do not pollute because they avoid carbon dioxide. First of all. Such low flow rates always have been used in thermosiphon systems [6. However. According to tests at Technical University of Denmark [6]. propane or natural gas [15. These systems basically use solar tanks with high thermal stratification.25 l/min per m2 collector area. When a solar water heater replaces an . And the major reason is the solar tank [6]. the thermal performance of the system can be increased by improving the design of the system and that the solar tank is the most important component for the better thermal performance of the system.12 - . the less expensive is the system and the use of electricity. Investigations have shown that the solar collectors designed for low flow conditions can benefit from large material reduction making the total manufacturing cost less [7]. using the low flow principle increases the thermal performance of the system. PANAPAKIDIS introduced by many manufacturers around the world. The flow rates are also low between the ranges of 0.16]. The low flow improves the system performance/cost ratio. Low flow rates offer cost advantages. it was found that U. The main reason is because they are easy to install and inexpensive. The thermal increase is influenced by the system design and by solar fraction of the system. sulphur dioxide and the other air pollution and wastes. research has shown that in an average household with electric water heater spends about 25% of its home energy costs on heating water. According to the Florida Solar Energy Centre [3]. fuel oil. Investigations have also shown that the common solar collector systems in Denmark perform worse compared to laboratory tested ones.A homes using solar water heaters can save as much as 50-85% annually on the utility bills over the cost of an electric water heater.4 Benefits of solar water heaters It is a fact that most of the houses build today choose electric water heaters. Depending of the fuel sources the solar water heater can be more economically over the lifetime of the system than heating water with electricity.

Mechanical Engineering Department.ucf.fsec.quantumhotwater.org/solarwaterheat.doe. 1.ncsu. PANAPAKIDIS electric water heater.edu Energy Division.5 References 1) www.com “Solar boosted heat pumps for energy efficient water heating” Prepared by: “Australian National Team” 5) “Developments in solar water heating” Report by: Graham L. Technical University of Denmark 7) “High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems” University of Wisconsin-Madison 1997.edu “Florida Solar Energy Center” 4) www. the electricity displaced over 20 years represents more than 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emissions [16]. North Carolina Solar Center.html .html Description of types of SWH 9) www. School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering. Department of Commerce 3) www. General information about solar water heaters 2) www. 8) www.solarboston.com “Alternative Energy Systems Incorporated”.altenergys.gov/erec/factsheets/solrwatr. New South Wales University. MSc Thesis. Australia 6) “Present & future SDHW systems technology” Report by: Simon Furbo. Morrison.13 - .ncsc.eren.CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D.

CHAPTER 1: SOLAR WATER HEATERS BASICS PRESENTED BY: D.com/res/waterheat/passive.gov/femp/prodech/sw_water.org/ “American Solar Energy Society”.PDF Description of active systems.fpl.eren.inforamp.shtml 12) webtrain.cc.net/~sovran/solar.doe.tx.html 11) www. solar collector basic types 13) energyoutlet.html 15) www.14 - .gov/erec/factsheets/watheath.com/savings/hes/contents/types_of_water_heaters. General information about SWH systems 16) www. PANAPAKIDIS 10) www.austin.us/~davidm/power_tools/classif_solarcoll.doe. Detail description of solar water heaters .html Passive water heaters 14) www.eren.html “Federal Energy Management Program”.ases.

Finally.1 Introduction Solar collectors are the heart of most solar systems. gaskets and sealants. This chapter deals with the different types of collectors in extensive format. The most common types of solar collectors are the flat plate. The main task of the collector is to absorb the energy of the sun and to convert it to heat energy. insulation. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.15 - . . The most common liquid used is water or antifreeze solutions in cold climates.) are the most common collectors for water heating (liquid type) and for space heating installations (air type). Antifreeze solutions are discussed in more detail in section 3.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.5 of this chapter.2 Types of solar collectors 2.PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.1.1 Flat plate collectors Flat plate collectors (figure 2. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION 2.8]. evacuated tube and concentrating collectors. Solar collectors can be divided into two main categories: a) Liquid collectors: these types of solar collectors are mainly used for water heating in houses and swimming pools. b) Air collectors: They are basically used for indoor spaces and to regenerate drying material in a drying cooling system. In simple words a flat plate collector is an insulated metal box with either glass or plastic cover. It also provides analytical information about solar collector covers. In this chapter there is a brief description of air collectors for reference purposes [1. which is called “glazing”. The dark colour plate is called the “absorber plate” because it absorbs the sun radiation.2. and most importantly it deals with antifreeze solutions. The glazing can be “transparent” or “translucent” [8]. 2.

However.2) where the flow tubes are placed in parallel. Both of them can be either glazed or unglazed.16 - .3) The most common is the “Z” array. The reason is that dark colours absorb a higher percentage of sunlight than light colours [2. The glazing allows the light to strike the absorber plate and reduces the escaped amount of heat.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.2. The sunlight passes through the glazing and strikes the absorber plate. The absorber plate is usually black. Usually the sides and the bottom of the plate are insulated to minimise the heat losses. It is very easy to explain how the flat plate collector works.PANAPAKIDIS Figure 2. The flow tubes are attached to absorber plate so the heat absorbed by the plate is transferred to the liquid. The absorber plate then starts to heat up concentrating solar radiation into heat energy.1 Liquid collectors In a liquid collector solar energy heats the liquid as it flows through the tubes. The heat then is transferred to the air or liquid passing through the flow tubes.1: Flat plate solar collector (source: U.10].A Department of Energy) Translucent (transmitting light only).8. Flat plate collectors are divided into two categories. a) liquid collectors and b) air collectors [11].S. There are two types of liquid collectors a) The “Z” array (figure 2. low iron glass is a common glazing material for flat plate collectors because low iron glass transmits a high percentage of the available solar energy. First of . Detailed analysis of materials is presented in part 2 2. b) The “U” array (figure 2. the “U” array has an extra advantage. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.1.

S. The disadvantage is that the system cannot be drained completely in order to avoid freezing [8. The absorber plate can be metal sheet or non-metallic materials.2].11. 2. freezing).S. The air flows past the absorber plate placed by natural convection or forced by a fan.2.2: “Z” array liquid collector Figure 2.2 Evacuated tube collectors Evacuated tube collectors are mostly used to heat water in residential applications that . In some air collectors.g.3: “U” array liquid collector (source: U.2. The disadvantage of this configuration comes from the fact that it increases the power needed for circulating fans and thus increases the systems operating cost.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.A Department of Energy) 2. A disadvantage of air collectors compared to liquid is that less heat is transferred between the air and the absorber plate [1.2 Air collectors Air flat plate collectors (figure 2. The advantage of air system is they eliminate the problems associated with liquid collectors (e.4) are used mostly for space heating.17 - . MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.4: Solar air collector (source: U. fins on the absorbers are used to heat transfer.8].PANAPAKIDIS all it eliminates the possibility of leaks and ensures uniform flow. They also use less Figure 2.12].1. Leaks can cause less troubles compared to liquid systems.A Department of Energy) expensive materials such as plastic [2. Figure 2.

3 Concentrating collectors Concentrating collectors use mirror surfaces to collect sunlight on an absorber called receiver. The circular shape absorbs the sunlight perpendicularly for most of the day. The collector consists of rows of parallel transparent glass (figure 3. They can achieve high temperatures but like evacuated tube collectors.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. this happens .S. offering the advantage of performing better in both diffuse and beam radiation. Figure 2. Sunlight enters through the outer glass tube and strikes the absorber tube(s) and changes to heat. The heat is transferred to the liquid flowing through the absorber tube. making the collectors useful in cold climate areas. Some of them use a third glass tube inside the absorber tube or other configurations of heat transfer fins and fluid tubes. This makes the collector more efficient.PANAPAKIDIS require higher temperatures. 2.A Department of Energy) Evacuated tube collectors are available in a number of designs. In such type of solar collectors. tubes can be either added or removed [10]. The tubes are designed in such a way that air is evacuated from the space between the two tubes forming a vacuum. Conductive and convective heat losses are eliminated because there is no air to conduct heat nor to circulate and cause convective losses. However the disadvantage of such collectors is that are more expensive compared to flat plate [8. For additional sunlight it is possible to place reflectors behind the evacuated tubes.2.5: Evacuated tube collector (source: U. Another positive fact is due to its shape.18 - .10].5). MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. Each tube contains an absorber tube with selective coating.

which are less expensive than dual axis. which affects the performance of the collectors especially in cloudy days.PANAPAKIDIS when direct sunlight is available. Figure 2. The second method is to concentrate the sun’s energy onto a “focal point” [8.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. Concentrators are mostly used in commercial applications due to high cost and frequent maintenance of tracking mechanisms. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. trucking mechanisms are used to keep them focused on the sun. .19 - .4].3]. Concentrating collectors can be designed in two methods. the sun’s energy is concentrated along a thin line called the “focal line” (figure 2.A Department of Energy) Concentrating collectors can reach much higher temperatures compared to flat plate collectors. There are single axis truckers moving from east to west. To improve the performance of the collectors. There are also passive trackers using freon on supply the movement [3.6). dual axis moving from north to south. The sun’s energy is collected over a large area onto a smaller absorber area to achieve high temperatures. For residential applications the most common type is the parabolic through collector (figure above) with simple tracking mechanisms. which is the most advantageous.S. However they can only focus direct solar radiation. the first method offers the advantage of the receiver to be located at the focal point or along the focal line. In one. As it was mentioned.6: Concentrating collector (source: U. In this case a heat transferred fluid flows through the receiver and absorbs heat. for either hot water or space heating [5].

Heat transfer to the fluid depends on the thermal conductivity of the plate material and on the distance between fluid passageways. As it was mentioned in section 2.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.1.. The passageways are most of the time closed spaces with medium conductivity materials.3. Novel forming techniques such as superplastic forming and integral rolling are used to provide good mechanical bond between the absorber plate and the passageways.20 - .PANAPAKIDIS 2. aluminium steel and stainless steel are commonly used for absorber materials.20 0. As the project deals with a flat plate solar collector and as flat plate collectors are most used around U.3 Materials for collector components The materials selected for one component will affect the possible choices of other components of the system. High thermal conductivities such as copper and aluminium can be economically used in plate and tubes.1 Absorber materials The absorber is the central component of the solar collector. Thermal conductivities of absorber materials are given in Table 2a. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. Thus the selection of the optimum materials and manufacturing processes is of vital importance of solar collectors and more specifically solar systems. this can be produced in a transparent or translucent form. Since these are not strongly absorbing a coating is provided which absorbs the solar radiation.44 Material Copper Aluminium Mild Steel Stainless Steel Acrylic Polyethylene . it is important to consider all components whether they play a major role in the system or not. Thermal Conductivity (Wm-1K-1) 376 205 50 24 0.30-0. where heat conduction takes place along the plate. Therefore. Metals such as copper. such as steel or stainless steel or copper and aluminium. this part gives an analytical overview of the appropriate materials and their specifications 2.K.

bone black and asphalt bases. which can be used as absorbing material [13].3.16 Table 2a: Thermal conductivities of absorber materials Certain polymeric materials are resistant to water and other fluids are suitable for use in solar absorbers. is generally applied to the upper surface. These are non-selective and selective coatings. Black nickel coatings are less stable and degrade with exposure to temperature and to humidity. But the most important property is . Common pigments are carbon black iron oxide. A coating. which is highly absorbent of solar radiation.PANAPAKIDIS Polypropylene PVC (Polyvinyl Formal) 0.g. Non-selective coatings have a high absorptance of solar radiation and a high emmitance of thermal radiation.1 Absorber coating In current solar collector constructions. Another important material is polypropylene. For selective surfaces black chrome coatings have been investigated and show that there is a little change in optical properties after long time at high temperatures.20 0. The materials used for non-selective surfaces include matt-black paint based on polyester acrylic and epoxy resins. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. the absorber is generally made from a material with poor absorbing properties (e. Aluminium black paints can be used in concentrating collectors.21 - . Copper cobalt and zinc oxide show significant deterioration with exposure and stain less steel conversion coatings show a little decrease in absorptivity [13]. steel). 2. The glazing also protects the absorber from the environment and may reduce radiative heat losses by reflective thermal radiation emitted by the absorber. 2. aluminium.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.3. copper. at high operating temperatures. Two basic types of coatings are available. amorphous graphite. Selective coatings have high absorptance of solar radiation but the emmitance is low [13]. the role of glazing in a solar collector is to reduce heat losses.2 Glazing As previously mentioned.1.

Filled polypropylene appears to be the lowest cost option. which are susceptible to solar radiation.14]. Occasionally polypropylene. Many materials with adequate properties are available. which must be as high as possible. Other useful materials are extruded polypropylene or PVC moulded thermoplastics and vacuum formed thermoplastic such as polypropylene or ABS. polycarbonate and glass-reinforced polyester all have good optical properties.3.PANAPAKIDIS the higher amount of transmittance of solar radiation. stainless steel and aluminium have good mechanical and weather properties. Of the metallic materials. 2. except in dry environments [13].K use aluminium as the major casing material. acrylic. Any loss of transmittance will have direct effect of the collector’s efficiency [13. PVT’s are also resistable and are used to protect the less durable glassing. PVC and stainless steel are also used. Glass is highly resistant to weathering compared to some polymers. Metal oxide semiconducting films such as such as tin oxide and indium oxide are applied increasing the reflectance of thermal radiation to 75-80% [14].3 Casing The majority of solar collectors in U. and transmission of thermal radiation (greater than 2µm). The important properties are transmission of solar radiation (up to 2µm). The main disadvantage in this case is the high cost of fillers [14]. GRP is suitable for the outdoor environment although it cost nearly as much as aluminium or stainless steel. Other materials commonly used are GRP and galvanised mild steel. Acrylic has also good resistance to weathering. Some potential properties with polymeric casings are UV degradation.22 - . Coated mild steel has also good mechanical properties is cheaper but the weathering properties are poor. Cheaper casings are produced using polymeric materials. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. PVF and FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) have better transmission of solar radiation but low transmission of thermal radiation. high .CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. Other polymers such as GRP and polycarbonate are deteriorated by ultra violet radiation but can be stabilised by addition of fillers. The choice of the material for casing is largely one of cost. Mild steel has the advantage of little maintenance of solar collectors for at least 20 years. which is more preferably should to be low. Glass.

1=poor) Table 2b: Properties of sealing materials An important consideration is that sealing materials must withstand low ambient temperatures. range (°C) Min. 3=good. In this case it is known as a seal. Materials Working temp. Also it can be applied in a butyl form [13]. Elongation to failure (%) Resistance to compression set Resistance to creep Resistance to weathering Resistance to water Acrylic Butyl Chloroprene (neoprene) -40 -50 -20 130 125 130 400 800 600 3 2-3 3-4 2 2 2-3 4 4 4 1 2-4 3 Chlorosulphonated -40 polyethylene EPDM Fluroelastomers Silicone Urethanes -40 -40 -60 -50 120 500 1-2 2 4 3-4 150 230 230 100 600 300 700 700 3-4 3-4 2-4 1-4 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3-4 1-2 (4=excellent.23 - . 2. which can be in excess of 100°C [13.3. 2=fair. The important properties of sealing materials are their temperature resistance. The sealing material is applied in solid form. which especially in the U. Seals must also withstand the high temperatures encountered under stagnation conditions. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. mechanical properties and weathering resistance. Wood is also cheaper than plastics. Some properties of the most appropriate materials are presented in Table 2b below.14].PANAPAKIDIS thermal expansion coefficients and fire properties.4 Seals Sealing materials are applied to ensure the solar collector is not affected from weather conditions. but it is not used so often because it requires maintenance[13]. Neoprene and butyl rubbers are sometimes used.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. The most common materials used are EPDM and silicone rubbers. Max.K may be as low as -15°C. .

Inorganic materials such as glass.5 Absorber insulation A layer of insulating material can reduce heat losses from the back of an absorber.023 0.025 0. fibrous or granular [13].055 (@90°C) 0. Thermal conductivity @ 24°C ° (Wm-1K-1) Glass fibre (board) Mineral fibre Calcium silicate Perlite Foamed glass Polystyrene foam Polyurethane foam Isocyanurate foam Phenolic foam Cellular plastic 0.032 0. 2. .029-0.048 (@90°C) 0. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.055 0. Therefore.036-0.24 - . EPDM and have lower maximum service temperatures and fluroelastomers and silicones but their temperature performance is likely to be adequate [13].040 74 104 121 135 100 Materials Maximum service temperature (°C) ° 343 649-1037 649 816 Table 2c: Properties of insulation materials The insulation material in a solar collector is generally in contact with the absorber.058 0.039 0. neoprene and silicones seem to be quite satisfactory. mineral fibre. polyisocyanurate foam and polyethene foam. The performance of EPDM. fibre. Some properties of insulation materials are presented in Table 2c. mineral fibre. All of these materials can withstand sub-zero temperatures. calcium silicate and perlite can withstand high temperatures. Acrylic rubbers are known to have a poor resistance to water and relative poor creep properties and therefore they are unsuitable. polystyrene foam. The common insulating materials such as glass fibre. it should be able to withstand the collector stagnation temperatures. Insulation materials are commonly cellular.033 0.3. fluroelastomers. all have compatible thermal conductivities.PANAPAKIDIS Acrylics.

It has several advantages like lower thermal conductivity (leading to lower heat losses) lower thermal expansion coefficient and higher strength to mass ratio allowing the use of thinner sections.4 Materials for heat management and storage The heat management and storage system consists of the pipework. Glass or mineral fibre insulants present no fire hazards compared to other polymeric foams. The pipework in a solar system must be able to withstand circulating fluid at temperatures up to 100°C without corroding. The thermal conductivity of steel .PANAPAKIDIS One of the main problems that occur at high temperatures is the outgassing (i. as the project deals with hot water system) and the control system.1 Pipes and connection. Stainless steel also has also excellent corrosion resistance but it is more expensive than copper. the storage vessel (i. Copper has good corrosion resistance. The most commonly material used is copper.e. The corrosion resistance of the copper is good but its disadvantage lies in its high thermal conductivity leading to heat losses. and must withstand the pressures involved. 2. Stainless steel has much the better corrosion resistance but is more expensive. 2. Stainless steel and galvanised steel are used as storage vessel materials. Insulation materials are generally high surface area materials and therefore constitute fire hazards. The materials aspects of these components are considered in this.4.2 Storage vessels The primary task of the storage vessels is to contain the hot heat transfer fluid without corroding. Some other metals are cheaper than mild steel and copper but the oxidisation rate is higher [13].CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.25 - . vaporisation of the chemical components of the insulation material) [13].4. Copper is the most commonly used material used for storage vessels because of its high thermal conductivity. It is necessary that the particular conditions to considered for a solar water heating system. 2. Polymeric foams may outgas at ambient temperatures as the cell walls break down.e. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.

The potable tap water and inhibited distilled water don’t offer freeze protection compared to glycol solutions which are most preferred in cold climates. 2. Corrosion and degradation resistance are adequate and the polymerics have the major advantage of thermal conductivity values reducing the need for insulation. brass. Basically they do not freeze.1. 2. boil or degrade. The price for GRP is close to copper [13].5.26 - . propylene glycol). pumps flow meters.1 Non-aqueous solutions 2. The cable insulation is mostly from a material PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). Pump components. The temperature and pressure sensors and the wiring in the collector box must be able to withstand the temperatures reached during stagnation conditions.3 Control system The control circuit contains several components and depending on the system design it may include a central control unit. 2. Inhibited distilled water and inhibited glycol water mixtures (e. which have good high temperature properties compared to the commonly used PVC. temperature and pressure sensors. Polymerics such as polypropylene and GRP can be used for storage vessels. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.1 Silicon fluids Silicon fluids have many properties.PANAPAKIDIS is lower than copper and therefore less insulation material is required.g.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.4. valves are generally made from cast iron. bronze. Most importantly they do not corrode the . Silicon fluids and hydrocarbons are included in non-aqueous group. ethylene glycol. which make them one of the major preferable collector fluids.5. and stainless steel and for certain components polymerics such as acetal and nylon [13].5 Freeze protection The types of heat transfer fluids may be divided into two categories: non-aqueous and aqueous.

The main disadvantage of silicon fluids is the cost. They are for use in systems with lower operating temperatures.2. they have the advantage of lasting the life of the system. They cannot be used with copper as it serves as a catalyst to fluid decomposition. 2.5. However the initial cost of silicon fluids is higher than that of other available heat transfer fluids. non-volatile. As a typical example. Glycol water antifreeze solutions are the most commonly used because their cost is less . As it was mentioned before. but also require less maintenance. Newer hydrocarbons have been developed which do not harm rubber or materials of construction. environmentally safe and most important non-toxic. An extra advantage of silicon fluids is that they do not form sludge or scale so the performance of the system does not decrease with time [12]. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D.5.1. They are relatively non-corrosive. 2. However. The thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons is as low as water. Their use allows absorbers with aluminium fluid passages to be used without corroding them [12]. the most common silicon fluids are used in systems with maximum temperature around 180°C or less.2 Hydrocarbon oils Hydrocarbon oils give long life to the systems and additionally they cost less. the price of 100 ml is around £60. which has been a problem with hydrocarbons. Silicon fluids can last the life of a closed loop water-heating system under 180-200°C. although the performance of some is better [12].PANAPAKIDIS metals used in solar collectors.27 - .2 Aqueous solutions 2. These liquids are circulated in a closed loop with a double wall heat exchanger between the collector loop and the storage tank. In this part there is only a description of the antifreeze solutions and their properties.5.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. Typically flash points run from 150-220°C. but the fluids with higher flash points have a higher viscosity [12]. including aluminium. According to investigations.1 Glycol –water antifreeze Non-freezing liquids can be used to provide freezing protection. silicon fluids are non-toxic with a high flash point. This helps to minimise the operating expenses.

2. distilled water is still subject to freezing and boiling. A concentration of 50% ethylene or propylene glycol and 50% water solution provides freeze protection to about -20°C. Duffy & William. pp 72-95 2) “Solar engineering of thermal processes” 2nd Edition (1991). However. For this reason glycol-water concentrations are most preferable [12]. A. The decomposition rate of glycol varies according to the degree of exposure to air and the service life of the solution.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. New Jersey. This break down usually occurs at 85°C and accelerates as the temperature reaches 95°C.2. The use of glycol-water solutions has the disadvantage of corrosion.14]. This glycolic acid corrodes almost all the metals used in solar collectors including copper aluminium and steel. A. Prentice Hall.PANAPAKIDIS compared to silicon fluids. Ethylene and propylene glycol are the two most common antifreeze solutions. John.2 Distilled water Distilled water has been suggested for use in solar collectors since it avoids some of the problems of untreated potable water.0. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. Also the replacement of the solution is done every 12-24 months or even sooner in high temperature systems [12. The appropriate value of pH is between 6. Most glycol-water solutions require periodic monitoring of the pH level and the corrosion inhibitors. New York.14]. The boiling point also rises to about 120°C [12. Jui Sheng Hsieh.6 References 1) “Solar energy engineering” (1986). John Willey & Sons INC. Glycol-water solutions corrode galvanised pipes and at high temperatures glycols may break down to form glycolic acid. Beckman. Since the distillation process removes contaminants such as chlorides and heavy metal ions the problem of galvanic corrosion should be eliminated.5.28 - . 2.5-8. pp 46-51 .

E.A Department of Energy. 13) “Use of plastics in solar energy applications” (1978) A. London. A.A Department of Defence. pp 66-109 7) “Active solar collectors and their applications” (1985). Ted J.com/solar/Solar_Info.focus-solar. U. March 1996 9) www.org Midwest Renewable Energy Association 10) www. John Twidel & Tony Weir.galeforce.S.com Description of solar collectors and SWH. Edward. AddisonWesley. Spon Ltd.the-mrea. Academic Press INC. pp 61-81 6) “Renewable energy resources”(1986). Jansen.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS.S. &F.PANAPAKIDIS 3) “Fundamentals of solar energy conversion” (1983). Prentice Hall.htm “Solar water heating-How it works” 11) www. M. Sayigh. No 4. 12) “Solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water” U. Anderson. pp331-339 . Solar Energy 21. Ari Rabl. London. London pp 51-79 4) “Solar engineering technology”(1985). E.29 - . pp 48-80 8) “Residential solar heating collectors”. New Jersey pp 13-61 5) “Solar energy engineering” (1977). Blaga.uk. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. Oxford University Press INC. N. A.

Solar Energy27.eren. MATERIALS & FREEZE PROTECTION PRESENTED BY: D. Solaga.CHAPTER 2: COLLECTORS. J. No 6. C. D.30 - . pp 491.htm “Freeze protection for solar heating systems” . Constable and T.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ad1.497 14) www.doe. Cathro.PANAPAKIDIS 14) “Durability of porous silicaantireflect6ioncoatingsfor solar collector cover plates” (1981) K.

Collector sales 1999: 900. The use of different types of systems and variants of these systems in different countries is often due to variations in local conditions.S. Israel. some European countries and some countries around the world. PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SWH 3.1 Introduction The aim of this part of the report is to give an overview of the solar water heating systems market in U. Attention will be concentrated mainly in the U.000 In the past 20 years growth rates of the EU collector market varied considerably per year. The current situation of the solar thermal market can be summarised as follows: Installed surface in the EU through 1999: 9. Australia and Greece. Netherlands. On the other hand there are still countries (U. varying from -20% (1987) to +50% (1999) with an average growth rate of 13% since 1990.A) that solar water heating industry is nearly invisible throughout the supply and distribution chain. Japan. Solar water heating production is now a major industry in countries such as China. The purpose of the data is the best approximation of how popular solar water heating systems are.31 - .CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. . as a result there has been a substantial increase in range and quality of products now available. 10% evacuated tube collector) EU market growth in 1999 is approx. The world market for solar water heaters has expanded significantly during the 1990’s and. It is expected that the market growth will accelerate in the near future Sales in Germany represent 50% of the annual EU collector sales at the moment Market growths per country in 1999 vary from 0% to > 20% [3]. It also presents some statistical data from various researches.000 m2 (90% flat plate. The self-building industry has also expanded significantly in Europe.K. The varying collector sales growth rate per year and per country demonstrates that the market development of solar systems depends strongly on external factors like the existence of financial support and information campaigns. Germany. market. 10% per year.000.K.

3. PANAPAKIDIS Installed collector area per thousand inhabitans 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 us tr ia G re ec G e er m Sw an y its er la nd D en m N a et he rk rla nd s Fi nl an Sw d ed en Sp a P o in rt ug al I ta ly .B Fr an ce A ve ra ge A G . c) Since 1991 there has been a big concern about the advantages offered by solar water heaters and especially the environmental protection they offer [1.K market The history of the solar water heater market in U. Greece.e.2 U. when the government showed a potential interest for research and development of solar water heaters. low temperatures during the winter). It can be characterised by three phases since 1974.K weather conditions (i. Another important reason was poor installations.1: Installed collector area per thousand inhabitants in Europe (1999) According to data. which surprisingly had not risen during the period of the oil crisis. the market started to expand rapidly.32 (m2 /1000 inhabitans) Figure 3.K starts back in 1973 during the oil crisis and formation of OPEC. . It is clear that Austria. This was mainly due to the price of fossil fuels. Countries with similar climates show very low m2 figures. The government’s interest push the imports from southern Europe and the market started to grow till the early 1980.7]. b) The market collapsed with the installation rates reduced to half in the early years. the sales figures of the European countries show that the annually installed collector areas vary between countries.CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. Germany and Switzerland lead the market. a) Initially. The panels provided were not appropriate for U.

2.2 U. 50770m2 was installed between 1992 and 1997 [2].K. It can be divided into five major areas of activity: Collector manufacturers Collector importers Collector installers Service providers . An estimated 169256m2 of domestic water heating collector area and 106884 m2 of swimming pool collector area was installed in 1997. There are two designs widely systems used: Single water storage cylinder incorporating the solar heat exchanger at the bottom of the cylinder and a convectional back up source at the top of the cylinder. was first established in the early 1970’s.K solar industry. The most common systems currently used are: Evacuated tube collectors Flat plate collectors with selective surface Flat plate collectors without selective surface Freeze tolerant flat plate single pass flat plates with selective and part unselective surfaces Unglazed polypropylene collectors (for outdoor swimming pools) [7]. as it was mentioned before. This is equivalent to approximately 47650 systems in the U. These types of systems are considered for the analysis in chapter 5. A preheat cylinder incorporating the solar heat exchanger which feeds water directly into the main hot water cylinder [7]. 3.K SWH industry The U.2. It has been calculated that the annual savings using a solar water heater are 40-50% [8].CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. PANAPAKIDIS 3. In the summer a solar water system may provide all the hot water needs of a typical family and the savings in winter can be significant. Of this total installed.33 - .1 System types and data Most of the solar water heating systems used for domestic households.

Evacuated tube collectors are the largest amount of production and exportation. Input data Typical system area Typical system price Complete installed system DIY including VAT or new built Annual pump running cost Installation time Assumed lifetime Annual output Output data 2-7m2 £2000-£4000 £1000-£2500 £6 1-2 days 25-30 years 1500-2000 kWh Table 3a: Cost and performance data for a typical SWH system Selective coated flat plate collector panels cost in the range of £140-£250/m2 and evacuated tube collectors cost approximately£550/m2.3 Range of costs for SWH The cost of a complete solar water heating system varies due to the different types and sizes of systems. The majority of the exports are carried out by Thermomax Ltd and are to Germany [9].10. The additional cost is for the hardware and for the fittings of the installation. The range in prices is basically due to the different companies and house specifications. However.K use several variations: Glazed selective-surface aluminium absorbers Glazed stainless steel absorbers Glazed copper absorbers [7] 3.CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D.34 - .2.K.12] a “Life Cycle Costing” is described in full detail in chapter 5. PANAPAKIDIS Over 80% of the solar thermal technology manufactured in U.K is exported to over 40 countries. The currently flat plate collectors manufactured in U. there are significant cost savings available if solar water heaters are included into a new building .11. Based on these costs data from different companies [9. The following table shows the range of costs in the U.

Integrated SWH are marginal (2%) [6]. followed by the mono-block SWH systems (21%). The greatest potential in the U. There is just a summary of some statistical data obtained.1 France Until 1998 an estimated 268 000 m² of collector surface was installed in metropolitan France. PANAPAKIDIS 3. If it were assumed that 5% of the new houses install a solar water heater it would increase the growth of solar water heater market furthermore.000 m2 installed solar collectors has risen to second place in Europe.493. The installed collector surfaces decreased from 57. For each country there is the total installed collector areas as well as the systems used in each one. and some thermosiphon split units (9%). but a drop rate.3.000 m2 in 1982 to 1800 m2 in 1998 [6].35 - .K are estimated as 150000 a year [2].CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D.K would be the uptake of solar water heaters on all new build developments orientated in a suitable direction. Planned new buildings in U.3. based on 50% of the housing stock being suitable for a solar water heating system .2 Greece Greece with 2. 3. 3. About 95% of the installed systems are in households and the rest 5% in industries and hotels. A survey carried in 1995 indicated that 96% of solar water heaters were in homes that were owner occupied [13]. The market survey shows the predominance of the classical pump split design (68%).2. Search showed that the number of total area of installed collectors will be doubled .4 Potential for SWH The accessible resource for solar hot water systems by 2025 is estimated to be 12 TWh/year. 3. There was no growth rate in the French market.3 The European market This part is a brief description about the status of the solar water heater market in some major European countries.

Two cycle systems with a waterglycol solution are preferred.000 m² (2) collector areas were mounted for the first time [5].8million m2 until 2010. About 70% of the systems are flat plate and 30% evacuated tube collectors [2. The most common systems are with pump circulation and freeze protection [5].3. Austria has a tradition of self-building houses. are used to prepare warm water in single and multiple family houses and for space heating in single-family houses. In 1995 however 200. .3 Germany From the total installed collector area about 80% is used for water heating. a 20% are for water heating purpose by self-constructing groups based on the “Association for Renewable Energy. Greek market is represented entirely by glassed collectors [6]. Around one quarter of the collector area installed comprises plastic absorbers. Most of them are for family homes but latest research showed that there have been efforts to develop largescale systems. PANAPAKIDIS until 2005 and reach to 9. From the total solar heaters installed.000 domestic hot water systems had been installed.3]. The remaining 75% of the collector area. which is the main reason for individual construction [5].CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D.4 Austria Austrian market has increased rapidly since 1989.3.3. The end of 1999 showed the installation of a total of 2. At the beginning of the 90’s around 80.36 - . The rate of growth since 1990 has been particularly striking. which are used to heat swimming pools. 3. 3. 3. More than 50%of the installed systems are roof integrated.000 m² were installed per year.0 million square meters of thermal sun collectors in Austria. mainly flat plate collectors.5 Netherlands According to 1998 data an estimated 10.

3]. PANAPAKIDIS By the year 2000 the number of solar water heaters had increased to 50. It is estimated that 6-9 million solar water heaters are installed every year In the past the solar water heating industry tended to install expensive and oversize systems to cover about 80-90% of all household water needs. water is most preferable than glycol antifreeze solutions [2. An estimated 95% of domestic hot water systems use a circulation drain back system.37 - . which has serious implications for the success of solar water heating industry [4]. 3. That happens because of the fact.S.000. This shows that the solar water heater industry is nearly invisible throughout the supply and distribution chain.000 m2.3.3].CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D.S. According to statistical data [15].000. Nowadays solar water heating industry tends towards cost effective systems. 3. By the end of 2001 the total number of water heaters would reach 37. Nowadays the manufacture companies are reduced compared to mid 70’s early 80’s. This percentage based on the installed base of both home and industries.6 Denmark There are about 16. Unlike other countries drain back systems are primary used in Netherlands. in the United States the existing solar water heaters show energy shaves of nearly 52%. These systems are easier on installation and moreover require less maintenance expenses. . Closed loop systems with antifreeze solutions are mostly used [2.A market The solar water heating industry has difficulties gaining a permanent share of the hot water market around the U.4 U.A.000 systems with a total collector area of 150.

as they are cheaper than pumped systems.38 - .000 solar water-heating systems have been manufactured. A strategic plan for action in Europe”.14]. Bates.000. 3) “Active solar heating: System performance and data review” (ETSU S/P3/00270/REP). the solar thermal market. About 80% of the systems are thermosiphon systems [2. Ms L. European Solar Energy Federation 2) “Opportunities for large scale purchase of active solar systems.5 Australian market The solar water heating industry is well established in Australia.6 Japanese market The market for solar water heaters has been shrinking continuously for the past several years due to the long payback period for solar systems. 3. The systems basically used are integrated collectors placed on the roofs [2]. In 1985 257.000 of them are installed in Australian households. “Sun in action.7 References 1) ECDG Energy. Prepared by: Dr J. The number of systems manufactured in 1998 dropped to 80. PANAPAKIDIS 3. Thermosiphon systems have taken over the market.000 to 400. December 1998. it is estimated that 600. 3. The share of the exporting production is based in large companies. Although the production of solar water heating has decreased compared to mid 1980’s. Ms G.000 systems have already been produced of which 350.CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D. Most of the systems are for domestic purposes and swimming pool heating. Bertarelli. A joint report of the IEA solar heating & cooling program (Task 24: Solar procurement) and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Program. Since then there was a huge decrease in annual production. Schmidt . February 1996.

5) “Old technology and social innovations.CHAPTER 3: THE MARKET OF SDWH PRESENTED BY: D.uk 11) www. December 1999 15) www.fsec. 14) Australian Energy News.gaia. Volume 1. No 1.org.uk/sta/solarenergy/mainframe.ucf. A new model to build a permanent sales force”. PANAPAKIDIS 4) www. “Delegation give insight into Japan’s solar industry”.greenenergy.rayoteclt. 6) Baro 133.co. Hoffman & J. Technology studies & sustainable development.ltd.natenergy. March 2001.org.sustain.39 - .edu Florida Solar Energy Centre .org “Transforming the market for solar water heaters. “New & Renewable Energy: Prospects in the U. Guiney.html 12) www. August 1998.repp. Issue 14. 8) www. Eurobserv’ER 7) “Untapped market opportunities for solar water heaters in Europe”.K for the 21st Century: Supporting analysis”. Taylor & Fransis Group publications.htm 9) www. 13. December 2000. Vol. Inside the Austrian success story on solar water heaters”.uk 10) www. March 1999. Prepared by: Michael Ornetzeder. Bruce with William T.uk 13) ETSU for DTI.org/findhorn/eco/solar. Prepared by: S.

This chapter starts by describing the basic parts of a solar water heating system. Secondly is the image of solar water heating systems. The method followed is simple and based on the experience of the companies dealing with solar water heating systems. They were asked to identify the areas where most problems occur and the main reasons cause them. which are most commonly repaired and replaced. First of all is the awareness people have for the solar water heating systems. properly functioning solar water heating system. in today’s environment there are solutions for most of these problems. For the quantitave survey two major areas are analysed. 4. This chapter starts describing the basic parts of a solar water heating system. 4.PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY & QUANTITATIVE SURVEY 4. the same problem continues to surface. The various research has been done after conducting a list of companies.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.1 Freeze protection The U.K is a country where the temperature very often drops below zero. which are most commonly repaired and replaced. If water can freeze inside a pipe or tank it will split it over as the water expands while freezing. The method of the freeze protection used is very critical.2 Reliability survey Most reliability problems associated with solar water heating systems have known solutions. Although there are also known ways in which to avoid them in the first place. .40 - . Fortunately.1 Introduction There are a number of important reliability issues associated with most types of solar water heating systems. The second part of this chapter is based on a quantitative survey according to data collecting from the same list of companies and data obtained from Greece. especially in wintertime.2. They are important to understand in order to produce a reliable.

2. In drainback systems using small modules. There are two common problems associated with poor water quality: . 4. Active solar water heating systems using a differential controller generally shut the pump off at a maximum temperature between 70-80°C. In severe climates failure of the air vent valve to open in draindown systems causes draining to be too slow and freezing can occur. High temperatures also accelerate problems associated with poor water quality.3 Poor water quality Most solar water heating systems start to perform poorly if mineral deposits or debris collect in the system. In order to avoid these entire problems collector and all supply/return piping is tilted to allow water to fully drain from the system where the pump is off. sensors and controller failure can lead to frozen collectors. Freeze problems are observed in multiple collector array systems with circulation freeze protection when the controller and pump appear functional.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.2. Passive systems generally use temperature pressure relief valve to discharge water from the storage when it reaches about 80°C. The reason for that is often due to scaling in some tubes or flow imbalance arrays.PANAPAKIDIS Most commonly circulation systems freeze on pump failure and on power protection. The disadvantage of the systems is that they are not designed for continuous use and they always fail prematurely if the system is frequently in a condition of stagnation. 4. Most of the companies conducted mentioned that generally poor water quality leads to early pump and tank failure in systems where cold supply water flows directly through the collector on the way to the storage tank. The storage tank is too small compared to collector area. Usually this is seen as freeze damage.41 - .2 Overheat protection It is very common for a solar water heating system to reach very high temperatures for the reasons stated above: The system is not operated for a day or longer.

which require regular maintenance to remove.PANAPAKIDIS a) Corrosion: Corrosion results from acidic water and can be an adequate problem in well water sites. which can raise the pH and cause leaks in copper piping. Also fibreglass lifetime is shortened by exposure to high temperatures. and quality of weld. High temperatures also highlight problems caused by thermal expansion. 4. tank wall thickness. Solder flux may cause a closed loop fluid to become acidic.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D. promoting corrosion. depending on the sape of tank. Open loop circulation systems are quite sensitive to collector scaling.42 - . They can fail just like fibreglass tanks. Nowadays certain tempering valves are a major maintenance problem with mean lifetime as little as 3-4 years. Their main task is to mix cold water with hot water in order to keep the hot water below maximum safety temperatures. which can be quite high especially when dealing with solar applications. especially in larger buildings with large hot water circulation loops as the pressure will not be equal to the hot water circulation loops.2. Sensate 4. b) Scaling: Scaling is a problem in areas with hard water. . Closed loop systems usually have the scaling at the heat exchanger.5 Storage tank failure Solar contractors have discovered that fibreglass storage tanks have resins in the material. Tempering valves cause feed through between hot/cold lines. Water heaters are generally set to 55-60°C Welded stainless steel tanks are often characterised as the highest quality solar storage tanks material. where water quality is not controlled.4 Mixing valve and tempering valve failure Solar water heating systems can reach very high temperatures in summer or when they are not used for a period of time. Certain system types are a problem in areas with hard water.2. One of the most important devices in a solar water heating system is the mixing valve. Cold water delivery is generally the result of a tempering valve failure.

When air vents fail the system looses fluid from the loop.K) of having a solar water heating system. fails to operate. 4.PANAPAKIDIS 4.2. and/or the pressure relief may exhaust fluid. It is believed that air vent valves have close to a 100% failure rate within 5 years. and damage to the system or the mechanical space can result.3. Several solar contractors maintain air vent valves are unnecessary. For glycol systems. The data as explained in the beginning have been collected from U. most contractors see failures of air vent valves as a real maintenance problem.6 Air vent failure In general. On pressurised closed-loop systems. This is the second part of the survey that has been carried out in order to obtain some statistical data about the role of solar water heaters in people’s life. if air is properly purged from the system initially.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D. the image of solar water heaters has been improved especially during the last 20 years. leading to low fluid levels and potential vapour lock. It has to be mentioned that the data collected from Greece are not official but are based in research from a village with a population of 3000.43 - . solar fluid may boil under "no load" circumstances. However it is believed that some useful conclusions can be drawn. the valve is intended only for air venting during and immediately after filling. however people are still negative (especially in U.K are based on the answers the companies provided. The purpose of this research is: Gain an understanding of consumer awareness and image of solar water heating systems Identify the extend or lack of consumer knowledge and understanding of solar water heating systems Identify the key barriers to purchase and ways to generate increased purchase interest .1 Purpose of research As it was referred. 4. If present. an air vent valve may release fluid vapour.3 Quantitative survey While technology and aesthetics of solar water heating systems has been improve during the past 20 years the number of homeowners installing them has not grown as dramatically.

Data from U. 4.K) but on the other hand it seems that the main source of gaining information is Internet.1 Awareness of water heating systems The graph presented below is the statistics of which systems people know for water heating.K companies Figure 4. It is clear that there is a difference on the data obtains from U.K seem to be more familiar with the traditional sources of water heating such as gas and electricity (98% and 95% respectively). Greek responders are more familiar with SWH (95%) but they seem not to consider the idea of gas either by it self or as a back up.3.2 Awareness and usage of various water heating systems As it is seemed from the statistics most of the responders are aware with solar water heating systems.K companies Data from Greece Gas with solar 15% 2% Electricity with solar 12% 65% Solar 32% 95% Electricity 98% 92% Gas 95% 10% Table 4a: Percentage data for awareness of water heating systems Aw areness of w ater heating systems Gas Electricity Solar Electricity w ith solar Gas w ith solar 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Data from Greece Data from U. 4.1: Awareness of water heating systems .2.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.PANAPAKIDIS Determine the purchase interest levels in newer solar systems.K compared to the data obtained from Greece.3. Only a small number of them use solar energy to heat water (U. Surprisingly nearly 1/3 are aware of solar energy as a primary source of water heating.44 - . Responders from U.

2.2: Sources of awareness . radio) 20% 58% Friend 35% 60% Have seen on homes 42% 87% Internet 57% 1% Table 4b: Percentage data for sources of SWH awareness Sources of awareness Internet Have seen on homes Friend Advertising (T.3.V.V. The percentage related to home viewers is quite high in Greece where most of the people have answered this as the primary source of awareness.K companies Data from Greece Magazines 28% 30% Advertising (T.2 Sources of SWH awareness Sources of solar water heating awareness are very different on both countries.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D. While more than 50% of the responders in U. radio) Magazines 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Data from Greece Data from U. As it was mentioned in the above the research in Greece is based on data collected from a village and most of the people are not aware of the Internet.45 - . Nearly 30% in both countries have been informed from magazines.PANAPAKIDIS 4. Data from U.K have learned about SWH from Internet the percentage in Greece is only 1%.K companies Figure 4.

3.2.46 - . Data from U. In comparison with U. Another important parameter is that in Greece there are still families (12%) who use wood and especially wood boilers.K companies Data from Greece Gas with solar 3% 0% Electricity with solar 7% 15% Solar 2% 70% Electricity 93% 19% Gas 90% 1% Wood boilers 12% Table 4c: Percentage data for usage of water heating systems Usage of water heating systems Wood boilers Gas Electricity Solar Electricity with solar Gas with solar 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Data from Greece Data from U. According to experience and the data obtained.K. the people use electricity and gas for water-heating purpose is more than 90% in U.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.K. data the percentage is lower in Greece where only 19% use electricity. The Greeks seem to use more solar water heating with a percentage as high as 70% compared to 2% of U. On the other hand the difference is quite high when it is referred to solar as a primary source. people.PANAPAKIDIS 4.K companies Figure 4.K.3: Usage of water heating systems .3 Usage of water heating systems In this part of the research there is an extremely high difference of systems used to heat the water in both countries.

PANAPAKIDIS 4.3. money savings and environmental concerns they do not agree. There is a quite big difference in people’s opinion about hot water capacity where Greeks believe that they can achieve much more water using a solar water heater.K companies Data from Greece Save money 15% 85% Better for environment 77% 15% Use less gas/electricity 48% 70% More hot water capacity 7% 90% Safer to people 65% 60% Less maintenance expenses 0% 5% Table 4d: Percentage data for image of SWH Image of SWH systems Less maintenance expences Safer to people More hot w ater capacity Data from Greece Data from U.4: Image of SWH 4. For specific questions like hot water capacity. Most U. Also the maintenance cost is a big concern where the systems in U.3 Image of SWH Overall these data seem to give the impression that the only reason that the standards are the same is when safety is concerned.47 - .K responders believe that the limited number of Sunny days .3.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.K companies Use less gas/electricity Better for environment Save money 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4.K require often maintenance Data from U.4 Disadvantages of SWH systems The two common perceived disadvantages of solar water heating systems include the cost of purchase the system.

Cost of purchase Not enough sun Not much hot water Appearance High maintenance cost Data from U. 5=very important) . The aesthetics is a major concern for Greek responders because of the structure of most houses and the type of system usually used (e. A consideration scale was used from 1-5.K companies Not enough sun Cost of purchase 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4. if they were interested in it.g.PANAPAKIDIS during the year is a major disadvantage of purchasing a SWH. (1= not at all important. High maintenance costs and not much hot water are the next two negative opinions received from U.K companies Data from Greece 70% 80% 90% 0% 65% 2% 5% 34% 68% 10% Table 4e: Percentage data for disadvantages of SWH systems Disadvantages of SWH High maintenace cost Appearance Not much hot w ater Data from Greece Data from U.5: Disadvantages of SWH systems 4.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.5 Consideration factors When asked to rate the importance of a variety of factors on their decision to purchase solar water heating.48 - .3.K responders. thermosiphon systems) effect the overall appearance of the house. almost all of the responders consider most of the factors to be important.

PANAPAKIDIS Interestingly U. Data from U.6 Attitudinal statement Again in this part a scale of 1-5 was used (1=completely disagree.K responders seem not to be concerned about the brand of the system in comparison with Greek responders who think that brand name is crucial for their system.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.3.K companies Data from Greece Type of warranty 85% 85% Maintenance costs 87% 78% Hot water delivery 92% 90% Price of the system fully installed 90% 88% Brand name 30% 75% Help to environment 64% 47% Table 4f: Percentage data for consideration factors Consideration factors Help to environment Brand name Price of the system fully installed Data from Greece Data from U.49 - . The higher percentage is presented at the question related . There is no statement where all the respondents from both countries think the same.K companie Hot w ater delivery Maintenance costs Type of w arranty 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4.6: Consideration factors 4. 5=completely agree) in order to give answers to the questions asked. Also nearly half of the Greek responders (47%) seem not to consider the environmental effects of the solar water heaters.

Environmental friendly Economic sense SWH in every house Solar require little maintenance Data from U.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.3. and the existence of solar water heater in every house.7: Attitudinal statement 4. In fact people were really aware how much a system would . At this point it has to be mentioned that the cost standards for a solar water heating system in Greece are much lower. The U. The prices had to be scaled in such a way to be representative for both countries.K respondents are quite negative to the fact that solar water heaters require little maintenance and on the idea of a SWH in every house.7 SWH system cost On average respondents feel that a fully installed solar water heating system cost between £2500-£3000. where 80% of the respondents (78% for Greek respondents) seem to believe the solar water heaters are environmental friendly.50 - .K companies Data from Greece 80% 78% 32% 93% 22% 67% 15% 74% Table 4g: Percentage data for attitudinal statement Attitudinal statement Solar require little maintenance SWH in every house Data from Greece Data from U.K companies Economic sence Environmental friendly 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4.PANAPAKIDIS to the environment. The part where there is a big difference is when related with the cost.

K price (£) Data from U.PANAPAKIDIS cost.3. According to companies data. On the other hand Greek responders thing the weather conditions are appropriate. The major concern for responders from both countries is the cost. Quite a few believed that the cost of the system would be higher than £3000. Also a high percentage of responders . People believe that the conditions are not appropriate for hot water during the whole year.51 - . People believe that SWH systems are quite expensive compared to other sources of water heating.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D. a system for an average family of 4-5 persons would cost between £2500-£3000.K companies Figure 4. U.8: SWH system cost 4.K companies Data from Greece Under £2000 6% 4% £2000-£2500 18% 12% £2500-£3000 65% 68% £3000-£3500 67% 58% £3500-£4000 8% 7% £4000-£5000 7% 6% Over £5000 4% 1% Table 4h: Percentage data for SWH system cost Greek price (Drachmas × 103) 250-300 300-350 350-400 450-500 500-550 550-600 Over 600 SWH system cost Over £5000 £4000-£5000 £3500-£4000 £3000-£3500 £2500-£3000 £2000-£2500 Under £2000 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Data from Greece Data from U.8 Reasons for not considering SWH According to the data the basic reasons for not considering a SWH is the weather.

Data from U.natenergy.4 References 1) Data obtained after conducting companies around U.K.K) answered that SWH could not offer them enough money savings. This justifies the idea that SWH are not very popular in U. For further information refer to: www. . 2) Data from Greece obtained with the help of my brother Nikolaos Panapakidis and my two cousins Panagiotis Vamvakaris and Nikolaos Gougoulis.K companies Data from Greece Not mentioned 34% 10% Too expensive 67% 74% Not much information 42% 4% Not save enough money 65% 2% Weather conditions 88% 0% Table 4i: Percentage data for reasons for not considering SWH Reasons for not considering SWH Weather conditions Not save enough money Not much information Too expensive Data from Greece Data from U.org.K companies Not mentioned 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D.K. Quite a few people (34%) responded that SWH has not been proposed to them buy anyone. The data collected from the village called Nea Peramos.uk.9: Reasons for not considering SWH 4.PANAPAKIDIS (65% U. The list of these companies was provided from “National Energy Foundation” in Milton Keynes. Lack of awareness or lack of availability appears to be a major reason for not considering SWH.52 - .

.CHAPTER 4: SWH RELIABILITY SURVEY PRESENTED BY: D. The only task of the responders was just to choose and “tick” (√ ). They could choose minimum 1 and maximum 3 questions from each section.53 - .PANAPAKIDIS Comment: The investigation areas and the answers had been chosen before.

To help illustrate the number of variables that can influence an economic analysis of SDWH. yet straightforward comparison of the economic and environmental costs of alternatives [2].1 Introduction Economics play a central role in any customer’s decision to purchase a solar water heater system. is unlikely to buy a solar energy system if they know that its only benefits are to the environment. Collector tilt and orientation (varies with architectural design. It also introduces the concept of accounting for subsidies and/or externalities in an economic analysis. time of use (varies by family size and habits) Hot water delivery temperature (varies from 50-70°C) Auxiliary water heater size and type (varies considerably) Solar energy system size and type (varies considerably) [5] . whether a homeowner or a corporation. Obviously. PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST (LCC) 5. This guide was developed to help illustrate the process involved in completing a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) economic analysis of competing energy solutions [2]. the list below has been considered: a) Performance variables Solar energy available Outdoor air temperature & cold water temperature. aesthetics) Collector shading (varies with shade from buildings and/or site objects) Hot water used. an increasingly important issue to many policy and other decision makers.54 - . The customer. any company considering solar power generation is going to look very carefully at economics to ensure that such a project will be profitable to themselves and to their shareholders.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. The intent behind the "real example format" and links to required resources is to illustrate the type of practical considerations and resources needed for a comprehensive.

1st hour rating.K 5. PANAPAKIDIS b) Economic variables Current and future fuel costs Current and future inflation rate Discount rate. evacuated tube and drainback solar water heater systems considering also a 20% of the amount financed.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. figures of merit are typically used in two ways. or "cost of capital. according to specification (e.g.K water heating companies.55 - .2]. These examples include comparison of electric and gas water heaters with flat plate. energy factor. Secondly. etc." This is generally the interest rate the homeowner earns to lend (or pays to borrow) money. they allow designers to evaluate and optimise SDHW systems [1. In the case of solar energy alternatives. were taken after conducted various companies around U. First. 15. . etc. interest rate. also referred to as "time value of money" from the investor's standpoint. For the “Life Cycle Cost” a series of spreadsheet templates are developed to represent several different types of water heating systems.S. Examples using three type of SWH as well as general considerations are provided. 20. The equivalent prices.2 Economic indicators An economic analysis takes into account a great number of variables that describe the strength of the current market. 30-year LCC as well as the effective annual cost to own.. rated storage volume and input kWh) for each water heater. they provide a useful comparison between the SDHW systems and a conventional method of heating such as electricity or natural gas. Homeowners income tax rate (varies with income) Financing terms (loan period.) Investment time period (length of time homeowner intends to live in home. The complete economic analysis is presented in separate spreadsheets in Appendix 3. The spreadsheets calculate 10. These variables are combined to form a figure of merit that allows comparison of investment alternatives. All the data were provided from U.A and U. depending on individual investment considerations) System replacement and maintenance costs over time [5] This guide was developed to help illustrate the process involved in completing the “Life Cycle Cost” (LCC) economic analysis of competing energy solutions. mortage period. 25.

2.1. Two such figures of merit have been applied to analyse the convectional SDHW system comparing it with other domestic systems. Csj. It is common to neglect the fuel savings discounting in which case the .1 Payback period The payback period is calculated in the following manner.K sterlings.2. and is adjusted for inflation so that it is reported in today’s U. Csj= FLCF (1+ iF)j-1 Summing the expression over the time required for payback yield equation 5. 5.1.1) Csj= ∑ FLCF (1+ iF)j-1 j=1 Np (5. The fuel savings for the jth year.1.1 in which FL is the energy saved.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.3) Cs= Solving for Np.1.2. are defined in equation 5.2 (5.1. The payback period: Ci  ln  s F + 1 FLC F  Np =  ln (1 + i F ) (5.1. Different figures of merit are appropriate to different economic situations [2].3 FLC F [(1 + i F ) iF − 1] Np (5.4) The above analysis includes the discounting of fuel savings so that they are reported in today’s U.1.2) Summing the geometric series results in equation 5.2.2.2.2.K pounds. and iF is the fuel cost inflation rate.2. CF is the unit cost of fuel. PANAPAKIDIS Many figures of merit are available for comparison of SDHW systems and there is no single correct choice.56 - . The LCC is the sum of all costs associated with a system over a chosen analysis period.

1 with the summation allows monthly variation in the cost of fuel. d ) PWF ( N L .CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. d ) −    PWF ( N min . d ) + tV (1 − t ) PWF ( N e . (5. d )  + PWF ( N . d )   L L     − −   + M s 1 − C t  PWF ( N e .2. N is the number of years in the analysis and CSYS is the initial system cost [1.57 - .0.2.0. P2 is the ratio of the life cycle expenditures incurred because of the investment to the initial investment amount. d ) [2. P1 is the ratio of the life cycle fuel cost savings to the first year fuel cost savings. LCS = P1 ∑ C Fi li f i − P2 (C A AC + C E ) i =1 12 (5. d )1 −  PWF ( N .2. d )   (5. d )  1 − t (1 − D)  PWF ( N min . i F .2 Life cycle savings and the P1.0.1.2. i F .2.2.1.5) Np = C SYS NFLC F 5. CA is the cost per unit area of the system and CE is the area independent cost [2].2) P2 is given by equation: P2 = D + (1 − D ) PWF ( N min .0.2.2.2.5 and is referred to as simple payback period.2.]   . P1 is given by equation: −   P1 = 1 − C t  PWF ( N e . i F .1) Writing equation 5.2.1. PANAPAKIDIS payback period is given by equation 5.7].0. P2 method Life cycle savings are calculated using equation 5.3.0.2.

d ) − (1 − C t ) ND (1 + d ) N e − (5. However. PANAPAKIDIS − Rv Ct ' PWF ( N min .2.2.58 - . 0 otherwise) D= market discount rate (best alternative investment) m= annual mortage rate i= general inflation rate Ne= period of economic analysis NL= term of loan Nmin= years over which mortage payments contribute to the analysis N 'min = years over which depreciation contributes to the analysis ND= depreciation lifetime in years t = property tax rate − t = effective income tax rate D= ratio of down payment to initial investment Ms= ratio of miscellaneous costs to initial investment V= ratio of assessed valuation of solar energy system in first year to initial investment o of the system Rv= ratio of resale value at end of period of analysis to initial investment [2.2.i.2. (1 + i ) j −1 j j =1 (i + d ) N PWF ( N .d ) = ∑ (5.4) There is the implicit assumption that the variables (such as inflation rate) will not change over the course of the analysis.3) Where the meaning for each symbol is: C= income producing flag (1 for income producing installation.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. This factor is useful for calculating the present worth of a series of regular future payments.i. much longer analysis must be employed [2.3] Each PWF (N.3. over N years at an inflation rate of i.0.2. . for solar to be profitable. a reasonable assumption when the analysis lasts over a few years.d) term is the present worth factor calculated from the three given parameters using equation 5. discounted at a rate of d.4].4.2.

2 Electric water heater and solar systems The total cost of the system is plus the actual cost of the flat plate solar collector system. The prices presented here have been selected after contacting various companies and local plumbing contractors [10]. connection to hot/cold water piping stub outs. PANAPAKIDIS 5. The first type of water heater considered is the electric water heater.K. According to companies prices for an open loop flat plate collector between 2-7 m2 is £2000£4000 [11]. were taken after contacting companies based in U. As mentioned at the introduction the systems were selected from a list of electric water heater companies.A. The type of electric water heater was selected from “A. 5. It is intended to give as exact as possible values for a better understanding.O Smith Water Products” [8]. using an ELJF –190L (see Appendix 1) water heater.3. . fitting.S. Also included in the cost of a separate electrical service to serve only the water heater. temperature sensor. The system includes flexible tubing.3 System specifications In the sections below there is a description of the systems specification used for the LCC.3.59 - . The total cost of the system including the electric water heater as a back is raised to £4134.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. Hot and cold water distributions are not included as this is common to all heater types being compared. This cost estimate was also obtained from a plumbing contractor [10].1 Electric water heater This section describes each one of the financial inputs used for the economic analysis. The prices. It includes electrical wiring and circuit breaker materials and installation. 5. However these prices are can be different depending on the companies. which satisfied the system’s specifications. and control unit. based in U. The installation cost for the system is included in the price. The cost of the system was determined equal to £1184 (£584 for the electric water heater + £600 installation costs). pump. It was decided that a high efficiency flat plate collector to be chosen where the cost of the system is £2950 [9] (4m2 collector area suitable for 4-5 persons).K and U.

the same procedure has been followed for passive system. circulation pump.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.60 - . 5. Similarly the cost of the evacuated tube collector has increased to £5352 (£3742 for the system + £1610 for the gas back up). 5. The cost of the solar systems plus the gas water heater is increased. The cost of the water heater itself is £710 plus the £900 cost obtained from a plumbing contractor [10] based on a number of assumptions regarding the specific installation. A drain back system supplied from “AES Ltd” [13] has been chosen for comparison with the two active systems described above. The total cost of the system is £3639 including installation (£2455 for the drainback system + 1184 for the electric water heater as back up). The tubes themselves are manufactured by “Thermomax” [12]. A fully installed system. using a “Tudor NHRE 18” 185L gas water heater.3. If the cost of the back up electric water heater is added (£1184 including installation) then the total cost is raised to £4574. Similarly. All water heating system components and installation costs specific to the gas water heater were accounted for in order to allow a meaningful comparison to electric and other water heaters.4 Gas water heater and solar systems As above. the evacuated tube system is supplied by a company called “Solarsence” [20]. the same solar systems are going to be used.3 Gas water heater The total cost of the gas water heater plus installation was estimated as £1610. digital controller with temperature read outs. pre-insulated high hot water cylinder.3. This cost is based on a system using an “MHS Boilers” [22]. . the cost is £4912 including installation (£3302 for the system +1610 for the gas back up). Using the flat plate solar water heating system. including VAT (5%) costs £3390. PANAPAKIDIS Similarly. The cost estimate includes the water heater share of the pipe gas line material and installation and connection to the hot/cold pipe stub outs. valves. pipes and fittings. A typical 20 tube system comprises manifolds. The total cost of the system including installation and the gas water heater has raised to £4417 (£2807 for the drain back system + £1610 for the gas water heater as back up). A typical installation diagram of a gas water heater is presented in Appendix 2. pipe insulation and antifreeze. The same system from “AES Ltd” [13] was examined as before.

4 Financial inputs All the examples have been analysed in such a way that it was assumed the homebuyer is purchasing a home in a residential area with no financed amount. The financial rates vary with the prime lending rate. PANAPAKIDIS The main reason for that is the active systems require an extra storage tank when the gas water heater is used where the price of the tank is £352 [14]. 5. At this point it has to be mentioned that the accuracy of installed costs will vary from contractor. 15. All the examples assume a 10. longer mortgage period and lower down payment. location and the number of system involved. Additional cost associated with additional structural works depends on the system installed weight and the load bearing capacity of the existing roof structure. 30 years mortgage.61 - . Other costs not included here may be associated with some installations include added space for solar water heater equipment and the cost of building details designed to integrate the solar collector in the roof system so they are less visible. 25. An interest rate of 8% was assumed for this example as the most possible lending rate for the exact period. 20. 5. However the spreadsheets can be used even if an amount is financed on the total home loan amount borrowed. It has been noted that the cost effectiveness of solar water heaters is improved at lower financing rates. For a better analysis an exact value might have better results. It was attempted to find the best prices for the systems in order to have a meaningful comparison between the electric and the gas back up water heaters. as they cannot be used with single tank. The maximum 30 years mortgage is a typical example but the proposed analysis can be used in whatever time is required. as a 30-year mortgage equals to 360 months.4.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.1 Loan term and interest rate A loan term of maximum 360 months was used for the examples. . as this is common both for new home purchases as well as refinancing for an addition or remodel. As before this is only an assumption.

5% [16] along with the inflation rate of 2.4. As it was mentioned the income tax has been chosen as average. But in order to move to a meaningful analysis of then solar water heaters some assumptions have to be made without considering any other economic parameters.3 General inflation rate A general inflation rate of 2. It was assumed that the inflation rate would remain almost the same or nearly to 2. PANAPAKIDIS 5. That means it was taken as no difference between the solar and the non-solar cases.0% was selected for all the examples using year 2000 [15] as the reference. This results in a nominal discount rate of 7.0% for the year 2001 [15].4. On the . The actual future might be different from the data presented here.5 %. The discount rate was basically selected based on criteria for the given application.5 Maintenance& replacement costs Repair and replacement costs are so central to the success of solar water heating. 5.2 Nominal discount rate A nominal discount rate of 7. For higher salaries. The discount rate is highly variable and being that is therefore independent on a specific application.0% for the net 30 years. For higher than this amount the income tax bracket increases to 40%. Here it is not intended to be represented as a fixed suitable value to all installations.4 Income tax An income tax of 20% was selected for the example using an average annual salary of less than £29000 [16]. This therefore assumes a real discount rate of 5. The chosen value it is not intended to be a representative for as a fixed value suitable for all. there might be a difference in saving cost. Discount rate will vary with each particular households economic situation. 5.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. The inflation rate is a general estimation and it is based from data based on the “Bank of England” website data.5% was taken for the examples. The examples do not assume a risk adjusted discount rate.4.62 - . 5.

The life of a water heater depends not only on its construction but also on the type of use. These were the most expensive to replace due to their size. pumps differential controllers. The average age of pumps replaced varies between 5-10 years. head requirements relative to the pumps found in other type systems. The cost of replacing the solar unit itself is included when failure components cannot be serviced. From a general view. collector sensors. affecting pump and electrical Air in the pump (cavitation) Overheating which is a product of poor system design. Again the serviceability of the solar system components is another major factor. The oldest pumps were mostly found in closed loop systems and have never experienced any problems such as pressure loss. The most common reasons causing a pump failure according to research are: Plumping leaks.63 - . generally due to insufficient reservoir fluid levels.5. Circulating freeze protection systems were not so often found.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. degree of regular maintenance water quality and water temperature set point. PANAPAKIDIS other hand they are difficult to obtain.1 Pumps Pumps are the solar water heater components most frequently replaced. special valves and solar storage tanks need to be replaced every 10-15 years. Drainback systems experience the most pump failures. The cost of replacing a solar system or system component varies considerably with the type of the system and the effort required to service failure components. The reason for this is the best approximation of the life cycle costing. For gas and electric water heaters replacement varies from quality of materials made from and companies specifications. Some other factors are the amount of use. The most common pumped systems are draindown. drainback or closed loop. Again it has to be mentioned that the replacement and repair cost depends on the manufacturer and the type of the system used. 5. They also appeared to have little or no air loss. . such as underside pump or improper collector area to storage volume ratio. The collector unit by itself most of the time lasts 20-30 years. Commercial water heaters have a shorter life than residential heaters. Below there is a summary of findings after conducting companies working with solar water heaters.

Actual control failures were rather uncommon.31 5. The actual cost may increase if the labour costs considered.5. controller. According to search the most common causes of sensor or control failure are moisture. in the case of thermistors.00 + tax 25 miles radius Average repair control cost: Not economic to repair.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. and improperly water proofed wiring connections. PANAPAKIDIS The average cost of a pump varies from one company to other. From the companies conducted just a few of them were not . In case of controls with digital readouts. a pump unit with 3 litres drain back for 1 panel including drain back vessel. A large part of the repairs involving simple controls had to do with sensors (thermistors) replacement and not the control itself. According to “Imagination Solar Ltd” [22]. Average age of controls replaced: 20 years Average control replacement service: (Cost to replace Labour + travelling) £45. According to company’s information most controls are a matter of replacement. 5.00 to £185. As it was mentioned replacement of thermistors is quite cheap and reasonable and would not cot much. Below there are some useful data for control’s cost and replacement: Average price of differential control unit: £95. With controls the problem is often due to improper plumping leakage.3 Collectors In terms of lifetime and replacement this is the most difficult section solar water heating system component to evaluate. costs £298. power supply.64 - .5. radiation sensor and tank sensor.00 (Depends on facilities and Digital Readout includes Sensors) retail prices. especially those multi-loop systems could be very expensive to replace them.2 Controls “Energy Engineering” [21] was the company conducted to get all the appropriate information for controls. It could be possible to have the electronic circuit repaired but that happens very rarely.

including four port water heaters. It would be quite interesting if externalities could be calculated and determine the difference in savings using solar water heaters. Unfortunately due to the limited amount of resources externalities were not applied to the “Life Cycle Costing”. In general the social cost of gas and electricity generation can apply to environmental impacts. 5. It is possible for some passive thermosiphon tanks to be repaired.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.65 - . . According to research the average age of tanks replacement varies between 9-12 years. There is the possibility for the solar collectors to be replaced earlier than a company proposed. PANAPAKIDIS able to give an exact average replacement age. The prices are £140-£350 for tanks with storage capacity 100-190L [13.14].e. The most common cause of premature glass lined steel tank failure are the leaks in plumbing above the tank causing outside corrosion. 5. the main reason that solar collector replacement is highly acidic or alkaline fluid and poor mounting. stainless drainback. Like the other parts of solar water heater the cost of the tank varies from one company to another. In a drain back or closed loop system the pH and mineral content can be controlled. Most of them certified that the solar collectors would last for at least 20-25 years. According to discussion from a plumping contractor [10]. The main problem arises from the fact that tank replacement is not so common. glass-lined steel. Therefore the findings may not be as accurate as the other parts of solar water heaters. impacts on production and trade balances. Also some other types of storage tanks are considered (i.6 Environmental value The environmental value more commonly referred to as “environmental impact” class of “externality”. but in limited ways. For this reason externalities are beginning to show up in the decision making process. The quality of the environment now and in the future is an important issue worldwide.5. polypropylene).4 Tanks This section tries to give a brief overview about tanks.

g. Because gas back-up systems have lower efficiencies and higher stand by losses than do electric systems. Solar Energy Factor (SEF) is used for performance rating for solar domestic water heating systems. it should be expected that the entire system’s performance will be lower even if the solar output from both system types is equal.1 Solar Energy Factor (SEF) & Solar Fraction (SF) According to “Solar Energy Certification Corporation” (SRCC) [6]. gas or electric) utilised will have a large impact on the overall performance of the system.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.66 - .7. 5. . the solar output is mostly independent of the auxiliary system used.1) QDEL =Energy delivered to the hot water load (kWh) Q AUX =Daily amount of energy used by the auxiliary water heater or back up element with a solar system (kWh) QPAR =Daily amount of energy used to power pumps. The SEF is defined as the energy delivered by the system divided by the electrical or gas energy put into the system. The SEF can be converted to an equivalent solar fraction (SF) as follows. PANAPAKIDIS 5.8.7 Performance rating of systems The thermal performance rating is based on the system design and performance projections derived from testing of the collector components. These components are used in the systems or from testing and evaluation as a whole. Although the auxiliary system may affect the solar system’s performance. controllers or any other item needed to operate the SDWH (kWh).1. SEF = QDEL QAUX + QPAR (5. The type of auxiliary system (e. The SEF is presented as a number similar to the Energy Factor (EF) given to convectional water heaters [6]. These differences arise because different types of auxiliary systems have varying stand by losses and fuel conversion efficiencies.

1.508 Drain back: 0.319 5.463 For flat plate and evacuated tube (active systems) it required additional 150-200 kWh/year for pump and control in the case of gas water heater as back up.530 Evacuated tube: 0. average residential rates were used for simplicity.1p/kWh respectively. the companies were conducted and found that the solar fraction for each one of the systems is as follows.351 Drain back: 0.2) The solar fraction is the portion of the total convectional total heating load (delivered energy and tank standby losses) provided by solar energy. For the entire systems used. Sometimes an alternate definition for solar fraction is used. SF is the portion of the water heating load (losses not included) provided by solar energy.2 Fuel cost The rates assumed for the example were obtained form “Scottish Power” [18].7.8. solar water heaters can achieve 1500-2000 kWh/year. The average rates for electricity and gas are 7p/kWh and 3.365 Evacuated tube: 0.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. solar savings and weather conditions as a function of the time of the year.67 - . According to data from companies [17]. Because fuel costs depend on usage. b) Gas water heater + solar system Flat plate: 0. a) Electric water heater + solar system Flat plate: 0. The alternate method of calculating solar fraction will yield higher solar fractions [6]. PANAPAKIDIS SF = EF SEF (5. In this definition. .

5. Generally the fuel escalation rates are an estimate of future costs of fuel and are based only on current available sources of data.3 Fuel escalation rate The rates assumed for the example are the same as inflation rate for the next 30 years. PANAPAKIDIS This fact can have significant impact on the total savings associated with a particular system.07 £/kWh=£105. a) Electric water heater + solar system Flat plate: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0.07 £/kWh =£110.28 Evacuated tube: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0.21 . Here it was assumed as 2.508) × 0.7.530) × 0.2 Considering now the solar systems with electric and gas back up water heaters.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.0% due to difficulty of obtain this kind of information. The annual energy used of a standard water heater varies between 3000-3500 kWh/day [8.7. All of the solar water heating savings for that month would be at the higher marginal cost.9.4 Fuel usage The estimated fuel usage based on data obtained from water heater companies. 5. This is easily explained if it is assumed that a home has an electric water heater and the monthly electricity usage with water heating subtracted out.68 - .031 £/kWh=£99. Assuming that an average house needs about 3200 kWh/year for water heating the annual cost of operation is as follows: For electric water heater: 3200 × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × 0.19]. has already used the baseline electricity allowance.07 £/kWh=£224 For gas water heaters: 3200 × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × 0.

72 Evacuated tube: £113.365) × 0.79 Drainback: £103.031 £/kWh =£64.55 Considering also the case of an additional amount of about 200 kWh/year energy required for the pump costing: 3200 × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 200 × 0.07 £/kWh =£120. PANAPAKIDIS Drainback: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × 0.351) × 0.7 5.29 × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0.82 Drainback: £16.99+£14=£76. Prentice Hall.55+£14=£82.031 £/kWh=£62.031 £/kWh =£67.463) Total savings per year: Flat plate: £118. pp 188-198 .71 b) Gas water heater + solar system Flat plate: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0.55 Total savings per year: Flat plate: £39. New Jersey.38 Drainback: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0. Jui Sheng Hsieh.69 - .38+£14=£78.38 Drainback: £67.5 Evacuated tube: £20.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.99 Evacuated tube: £64.8 References 1) “Solar energy engineering” (1986).319) × 0.07 £/kWh=£14 Flat plate: £62.99 Evacuated tube: 3200 × (1 − SF ) × Unit cost of fuel (£/kWh)= 3200 × (1 − 0.

10) “William Miller Plumping Ltd”.htm Manufacturers and installers of flat plate solar collectors.org “Independent Certification of Solar Water and Swimming Pool Heating Collectors & Systems”. Jansen. A. pp 453-484 3) “Fundamentals of solar energy conversion” (1983).uk/index. London pp 307-332 4) “Solar engineering technology”(1985). Ari Rabl.uk “NEF Renewables”.demon. New Jersey pp 131-141 5) “Active solar collectors and their applications” (1985). John Willey & Sons INC. Solar Energy 28. Oxford University Press INC. E.org. Prentice Hall. pp 197203 8) www.hotwater. Replay to e-mail on 28-8-2001. Installation cost for gas water heater £600 and electric water heater £900 11) www. AddisonWesley. Duffy & William. The National Energy Foundation. Edward. Lunde.com/rgastoc.70 - . Anderson. Ted J.natenergy. PANAPAKIDIS 2) “Solar engineering of thermal processes” 2nd Edition (1991). John. Report: “Certified solar collector and water heating system ratings” July 2001 7) “A simplified approach to economic analysis of solar heating and hot water systems and conservation measures” (1982).CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.O.co.solardesign. Suppliers of solar water heaters . New York.html “A. No 3. pp 396-421 6) www. Peter J. Beckman. Suppliers and manufacturers of electric and gas water heaters 9) www.solar-rating. A. Smith Water Products”.

uk “Sustainable Ltd”. Manufacturers and installers of flat plate systems. PANAPAKIDIS 12) www.org/findhorn/eco/solar. Replay to email from Simon Gait on 17-8-2001 15) www.co. Suppliers and manufacturers of solar water heaters.html “AES Ltd”.bankofengland.gaia.ltd.uk/sta/solarenergy/mainframe. 14) www. Similarly at the end of April 2001 the inflation rate was 1.com.71 - .imaginationsolar.htm This web page gives some general information about the solar energy in U. Reply to email on 1-9-2001 22) www.plc.org.org.3%.uk “Thermomax Ltd” (Rayotec).scottishpower.greenenergy.K 18) www.CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D. Suppliers and manufacturers of evacuated tube collectors. Manufacturers and installers of solar water heaters .8%.uk Bank of England”. A value of 2% was assumed 16) Data provided after a short conversation with Mrs Lori McElroy 17) www. Manufacturers of evacuated tubes 13) www.rayoteclt. At the end of April 2000 the inflation rate was 2. 19) www. Suppliers and manufacturers of solar water heaters. Answer to letter on 20-8-2001 21) “Energy Engineering”.uk Some useful information about energy consumption of a typical family house 20) “Solarsence Ltd”.uk.co.ecocentre.sustain.

CHAPTER 5: LIFE CYCLE COST PRESENTED BY: D.72 - . PANAPAKIDIS 23) www.com “MHS Boilers”. Suppliers and manufacturers of gas water heaters .mhsdirect.

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 6. Special attention was given to U. Finally Chapter 2 concluded with the antifreeze solutions most commonly used.K market where the current situation was explained. In this chapter there was a discussion about the results of the reliability and quantitative survey.K. Chapter 1 concluded with the benefits of solar water heater. the materials for collector components and heat management and storage. Some useful information about components and types of systems was provided. Each type of solar collector was described analytically with its advantages and disadvantages. Also there was a brief description about the new development systems and a comparison with the systems extensively used nowadays. .PANAPAKIDIS CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION. Chapter 3 was a basic overview of the solar water heating market around Europe and some countries of the world. all the work been done is only based on sample data and it cannot considered as official for today’s situation of SWH in U. economic analysis and some strategic guidelines for better market development of SWH in the U.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. As it was mentioned in Chapters 4 and 5. There was an overview of the most common systems used as well as an estimation of price range. In Chapter 1 there was a brief overview of the most common solar water heating system today.73 - .1 Introduction The project overall referred to solar water heaters. In chapter 2 there was greater emphasis on the types of solar collectors used. their impacts in Europe and some countries from the rest of the world. There was a quantitative and reliability survey to examine people’s opinion about the solar water heating technology and finally a Life Cycle Cost example in order to make a meaningful comparison with gas and electric water heaters.K. Materials for flat plate collector components were examined carefully stating the appropriate materials used comparing each one separately. However some useful results can be drawn.

especially in U.PANAPAKIDIS 6. However if it is not feasible to avoid hard water use it could be suggested the frequently cleaning of the system. where it is a common fact for temperatures to fall below 0°C.2 Discussion of reliability and quantitative survey As it was referred on Chapter 4 the main objectives were to identify the areas where the most problems occur when dealing with a solar water heater and to investigate. When dealing with poor water quality it is difficult to suggest a specific solution.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.K. Their main task is to mix hot water with cold water. The only thing that can be proposed is careful installation. Freeze protection was one major problem. mentioned that poor water quality could lead to early pump and tank failure. which is 100% appropriate for climate and pattern of hot water use. . Two of the main important devices in SWH systems are the mixing and tempering valves. Most of the companies interviewed. Also the systems used occasionally it should be covered to be protected in some way from overheating.. An interesting area of problems caused is when the SWH start to perform poorly due to mineral deposits or debris collects in the system. A good solution would be the purchase of a system. The main reason for freezing is usually pump failure and power protection. how popular is solar technology in U. based on people’s opinion. Corrosion and scaling are the two most common problems resulting from poor water quality. Corrosion always caused from acidic water. Different methods for overheat protection was mentioned for active and passive systems. while scaling caused in areas with hard water. An alternative choice would be the checking of water quality before installing any system to ensure that water is appropriate and therefore to avoid problems in the near future. It was mentioned that the problems were caused usually to pipes. There is not an exact solution to be proposed for mixing and tempering valves. The next problem was the overheat protection where the system was not operated for a day or longer or the storage tank is too small compared to collector area.74 - .K compared to data collected from Greece. As a solution it would be proposed that the pipes should be heavily insulated and wrapped with protective tape or other materials where exposed to outdoors.

The question areas had been studied and the most appropriate answers had been chosen before sending the data to SWH companies and to Greece. Some useful results have been obtained which show what people believe for solar water heating status. especially those manufactured with fibreglass. Therefore only 1% has gained information using web pages. However they can fail as well. where according to experience people in villages are not familiar with Internet compared to cities. British people seemed to trust more the traditional sources of water heating like gas and electricity (93% and 90% respectively). It is important to say that the cost of a SWH system was one of the main reasons respondents considered as negative in both countries. As it was mentioned. the research was not based on official data but on the people’s personal opinion. The most appropriate proposed high quality storage tanks are the stainless steel tanks. As a solution it would be proposed. At this point it must be reminded again that the results from Greece obtained from a village with 3000 residents. This percentage was far behind the one obtained from Greece as 95% answered positive to awareness of solar water heating. Greek people think that it is still expensive. Technology plays a central role in British people’s lives as more than 50% answered that any information related to solar water heating has been obtained from Internet. There were not many points that responders declared the same opinion.PANAPAKIDIS Next thing considered was the storage tank failure. The main source of information for Greek respondent was advertisements on T. that the temperatures to be kept as low as possible when dealing with fibreglass tanks.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. The most interesting part of the survey was the quantitative survey where opinions of responders from two different countries were compared. especially when high temperatures occur. can be used.75 - .V and radio (58%) and seen installed on house roofs (87%). cannot be compared with a system in Greece. At this stage a good point to be mentioned is that gas is not so popular to them as only 2% responded that solar system with gas or as a back up. although quite a few (32%) are aware of solar systems as a water heating method. Although the cost of the solar system in U. It could be suggested also to have an expansion tank if a pressure reducer is used on the supply.K. .

K compared to Greek standards.76 - . the effective cost and total savings for a period of 30 years. The gas and electric water heater should meet the daily demand of hot water for an average family as well as being economically feasible. systems with evacuated tube collectors and drainback systems. The main task was to complete the life cycle costing using as accurate as possible economic input data in order to make the system more reliable to people. as obtained from Chapter 4. British people seem to consider more the environmental impacts of SWH compared to Greeks (47%). 6. there are quite a few manufacture companies of solar systems. It has to be remembered again that the data was obtained from companies and they are not representative for every system. Firstly it was assumed that not amount was financed and secondly a financed amount of 20% considered. Responders from countries answered positively with percentages reaching more than 80%. Both of them were examined individually and as back ups to various solar systems. Maintenance costs and weather conditions are the two main reasons for discouraging British people from obtaining a solar water heating system. Life cycle costing comes to prove the above fact as discussed more analytically below. The important part of the analysis was to choose the appropriate systems suitable for each occasion.3 Discussion of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method The life cycle cost was carried in an effort to investigate the total system.K such as systems with flat plate collectors.PANAPAKIDIS The factors considered for purchasing solar water heating system is the price of the system fully installed the hot water delivery and the type of warranty that companies offer. The life cycle costing method has been followed for two separate cases. The main purpose of the example considered was to provide a meaningful comparison of the two most common sources. The case of replacement costs has not been considered for the reason that it would decrease people’s interest. electric and gas water heating. Maintenance cost are also quite in U.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. The most common systems considered are the ones that are extensively used around U. Important is the brand name for Greeks as at present. Considering the fact that the price of each system differs from one company to another and many companies concentrate on .

they concentrate on water heaters. which manufacture and install solar systems and more specifically. All the examples were considered in such a way that is assumed the homeowner purchases a house with no amount being financed.O. compromises manifolds. The problem was that in the price of water heaters were not included any installation cost. An evacuated tube collector supplied by “Solarsence” was chosen as the appropriate one. However a specific method was followed for the best results. pre-insulated high hot water cylinder circulation pumps and valves. there are many companies.Smith” the electric water heater was selected with a price of £584. The same procedure was followed for the choice of the appropriate solar systems. It was decided that life cycle costing would be used for a term of maximum 30 years. The system included flexible tubing pump. fitting control unit and temperature sensor. According to research carried out during the project’s duration. Therefore. Generally replacement and maintenance costs vary from system to system. it was quite difficult to meet the cost limits set from the beginning Using one of “A. An interest rate of 8% was assumed as a typical lending rate for the specified period of analysis.77 - .PANAPAKIDIS production of either gas or water heaters only. Income tax was taken as 20% based on an annual salary of less than £29000. it was not possible to be considered with exact valued. . The material quality of each component and companies specifications for each system.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. Finally a drainback system supplied from “AES Ltd” was selected in order to have a better comparison between the systems. are the two factors considered to be crucial for exact estimations. A high efficiency model with a collector area of 4m2 was selected. That system consisting of 20 tubes. A plumping contractor was contacted in order to give have a good estimation of the installation costs. Maintenance and replacement costs were not considered with specified prices but based on assumptions. Similarly the gas water heater was selected from “MHS Boilers” with a price of £710. The flat plate collector considered first. It was assumed that the solar water heater could withstand the demands of an average family house of 4-5 persons. All the financial inputs were obtained through research and conducts with persons familiar with financial inputs.

every 5 years £100 had to be spent on maintenance costs. The electric or gas waters used as back up had to be replaced every 15 years.PANAPAKIDIS Environmental and externality values were not considered in life cycle cost analysis due to the limited information sources. For the electric water heater.2) shows the total annual savings for the period of 30 years. 6. The graph below (figure 6. The system was supposed to last a maximum of 15 years. Also a replacement cost of £250 was considered every 10 years for pumps. The total saving of solar systems . The lowest cost is for flat plate collector using gas water heater as back up. A standard maintenance cost of £50 was assumed for every single year. There was no exact answer from companies for maintenance costs therefore it was decided the least amount to be used.78 - .CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.1) shows the electricity and gas annually cost for a period of 30 years. By the time that the electric water heater required higher annual operating cost.3. In order to complete the life cycle cost example some prices for the electricity and gas had to be obtained. controls or valves. and the solar systems with electric water heaters as back up were required almost less than £100 for only the first year.007 p/kWhr and for gas 0.1 Annual fuel cost and total savings The graph below (figure 6. where after 30 years the total electricity cost has reached almost £400. it was assumed that the total electricity savings would be very high in the case of the solar systems using electric water heater as back up. The same procedure was followed with the gas water heater considering the replacement cost after 15 years of system’s life. It is clear that the electric water heater required starts with an annual cost of £224.031 p/kWhr. It was taken for electricity £0. It was assumed that the prices for fuel cost and electricity as on peak due to the different rates in off peal values. That year a replacement system cost was considered. In the case of solar water heating systems the method followed was different compared to first one. The rest of the systems the cost for the first year is estimated between £75-£120. The electricity cost required for the electric water heater is far greater compared to other sources of water heating.

2: Total savings graph .00 Annual savings (£) EWH+ evac.PANAPAKIDIS using electric water heater are greater than the systems using gas water heater.00 Figure 6.00 GWH+ flat plate £100.79 - .1: Electricity and gas cost graph Total savings graph £250.00 EWH+ flat plate £200.00 £400.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. tube EWH+ drainback £150.00 0 10 20 Years 30 40 EWH+ flat plate EWH+ evac. tube EWH+ drainback GWH GWH+ flat plate GWH+ evac.00 £350.00 £50.00 £0.00 GWH+ evac. tube GWH+ drainback Figure 6. More specifically for the flat plate collector.00 £300.00 Cost (£) £250. Electricity & gas cost graph EWH £450.00 £200.00 £100.00 £0. tube GWH+ drainback 0 10 20 Years 30 40 £50. At the same time using a gas back up heater using the same solar system start with nearly £22 and by the end of the 30 year period the total savings have reached only to £39. they starts with £118 for the first year and at the end of the 30 year period analysis the savings have raised to £210.00 £150.

80 - .t W E ac e ev at + pl H W at fl E H H+ W EW E £0.PANAPAKIDIS 6. Gas water heaters used with evacuated tube collector is at the top with a total effective cost of more than £500. are far more expensive. In this case the gas water heating system is the least costly option followed by the electric water heater. Effective cost graph k ac nb ai dr + be H tu W c. fix. maintain.00 £600. G a ev te + la H tp W la f G H H+ W W G G ck ba in a dr e ub H+ . The cheapest option from the solar systems is the electric water heater with the drainback system with a total cost about £470. The annual loan varies depending on the initial system cost.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. the lowest annual loan payment is for drainback system with £291 and the highest for the evacuated tube with gas back up. The main difference at this stage is the yearly loan payment for the amount financed.00 £500.3).3.3: Effective cost graph Similarly the same procedure has been followed separately for gas and electric water heaters with solar systems. For the systems which no amount has been finance there is no annual loan payment.00 Figure 6.00 £300. replace and operate the water heating system over a 30 year period (figure 6. For the financed amounts.2 Effective cost The effective cost is the cost to install. . which use electric or gas water heaters as back up.00 £200. considering now the case where 20% of the amount has been financed.00 £400. The solar systems.00 £100.

00 £400.00 G n ai dr 0 (2 ) % £100.t 0% EW vac (2 e te la H+ ck tp W ba E fla in a H+ dr be EW H+ tu W c. For the financed systems the flat plate collector has got the lowest effective cost with only £215 pounds compared to drainback system with £498. Considering first the case with electric water heaters.00 £500.00 £200.00 £400.00 Figure 6. there is an obvious difference between the systems financed to those not.00 £600. a G te ev la H+ tp W fla G H H+ W W G £0.81 - .00 Figure 6. it still has the lowest effective cost with less than £400.t W (2 ac G te ev k la ac H+ at p l nb W f ai G H+ + dr be W H tu G W c. Effective cost (EWH) ) 0% (2 ck ) ba % in a 20 ( dr e ) ub H+ . Effective cost (GWH) ck ) ba 0% (2 e ) ub H+ 0% . E a ev te + la H tp W la E f H H+ W EW £0.PANAPAKIDIS Even with the amount financed there is not big difference in effective cost.00 £300.00 £600.4: Effective cost graph (EWH) Coming to the case of the gas.00 E £100.00 £200.00 £300.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. There was expected a decrease in effective cost for the systems financed but as it can be seen from the graph the difference is least.00 £500. The effective cost of the financed systems is far lower than the other systems.5: Effective cost graph (GWH) .

It was expected that the life cost of financed systems to be lower. The basic objective here was to evaluate the justification of solar equipment.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. t u W va G te e la H+ a t p W fl G H H+ W G W G ck ba in a dr be H+ c .8).3.000. Here the systems with 20% amount financed are over £3000 with the flat plate collector to be the least costly option (figure 6.PANAPAKIDIS 6.3 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) results As was mentioned on Chapter 5 the LCC is the sum of all costs associated with a system over a chosen analysis period.00 £8.000.000. The financed systems as it can be noticed from graph exceed the cost of £6000.000. it is noticed that the electric water heater has the lowest value compared to other systems (figure 6.00 £4.6: Life Cycle Cost graph Similarly. considering the systems as before with the difference of amount financed for the systems. From the graph it can be seen that the life cycle cost of an electric water heater with drainback system is lower than the evacuated tube system with 20% of the amount financed.7).00 £6.K sterlings. The most costly is the evacuated tube with a life cycle cost exceeding £8000. Gas water heater has the lowest value with less than £4000 where at the same time evacuated tube system with gas water heater exceeds £8000. t u W va E te e la H+ a t p EW + fl H H EW £0.00 £10. and is adjusted for inflation so that is reported in today’s U. An obvious difference can be noticed in the case when gas water heaters are considered.000. .82 - .00 Figure 6. Life Cycle Cost graph k ac nb ai dr be H+ c .00 W E £2.

00 0.00 EW 0.000.4 Conclusion Concluding the report it has to be mentioned that comparing to data obtained from the quantitative survey.K.00 £6.00 £5.00 0.00 0.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.00 £1.000.7: Life Cycle Cost graph (EWH) Life Cycle Cost (GWH) ck ) ba 0% in (2 ra d e ) ub H+ .00 £3.00 £9. EW eva te la H+ a t p EW + fl H H EW £0.t W vac (2 E te e la ck H+ a t p ba l W in f E ra H+ + d be tu W H E c. people seem to be a bit confused about the solar water heating industry today. reliability survey and life cycle costing.00 0.00 0.00 £4.000.00 0.00 £4.00 0 (2 ) % Figure 6..000.00 £2.00 Figure 6. Especially in the U. they even prefer the traditional .00 0.t W 0% c G (2 va e e at ck H+ pl W ba at fl G in a H+ dr be W H+ tu G W c. It seems that there is not much trust in companies where this using components with cheap materials resulting to usual maintenance and in the worst case replacement.83 - .00 £7. a G ev te + la H tp W la f G H H+ W W G £0.00 £8.00 £8.PANAPAKIDIS Life Cycle Cost (EWH) ) ck ba 0% in (2 ra e d ) ub H+ 0% .00 G (2 0% ) £2.00 £6.00 0.8: Life Cycle Cost graph (GWH) 6.

CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D. maintenance expenses.PANAPAKIDIS sources of water heating such as electricity and gas than using a solar system. more or less expected (i. Although they are aware of solar systems they don’t trust them for reasons. People believe U. it has been proved that maintenance and replacement cost can increase the overall cost of a solar water heating system to high standards even if a 30 year period is used.84 - . As it was mentioned on chapter 4 the main problem concern the durability of the systems as well as problems related with installation and maintenance. Life Cycle Cost example has come to prove what peoples believes. cost of purchase and installation. But alternative solutions can be considered such as the use of a solar water heating system with gas water heater as back up which reduces the cost. Although the problems occurred long time ago. It appears to be a lack of information. That will help to decrease maintenance cost and extend the system’s life. and that can be considered as a major disadvantage of companies’ profile.K does not receive enough solar energy for solar . Good quality components must be used with good quality installation. Considering just some sample data and making the appropriate assumptions it has been proved that overall to purchase a solar water heating system is expensive. Quality problems. 6. weather conditions). The installers should give longer-term warranties as this seem one of the major factors for people consider about. Based on the research data from chapter 4 it seem like public awareness of solar water heating technology is low. Considering the example of the Life Cycle Cost. The only solution to keep the confidence of people is to manufacture systems reliable and operate according to specifications.5 Recommendations The guidelines have been produced in order to suggest some various methods and solutions for improvement and better information of the solar water heating technology. Grants could be a good solution to encourage people of purchasing a solar water heater.e. have given a bad name in solar water heating industry in the past. as mainly described in chapter 4. people seem not to be confident having difficulties to trust today’s improvements.

PANAPAKIDIS water heating systems to work efficiently. Advertising and general publicity must be increased and not only based on Internet information. Based on the Life cycle costing analysis grants in some occasions do not make big difference (solar system + electric water heater) but on the other hand there are cases where grants would be a big advantage (solar system + gas water heater). . Grants to homeowners would be difficult to introduce but it is believed that it would have the largest impact to market growth.CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION & GUIDELINES PRESENTED BY: D.85 - .

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00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.45 £267.34 £389.00 £0.00 Unpaid Principal £0.00% 0.00 £0.776 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.50 £374.00 0.77 £295.00 £0.00 0.00 £0. £/yr Yearly Electric Interest Cost Deduction £224.00 £0.593.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.31 £262.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £164.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.30 £353.00 £0.082 1.00 £0.00 %/year Yearly Elec Usage.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8. kWhr/yr Yearly Elec Cost.486 1.0% Income Tax 20.09 £289.243 1.172 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 Net Cash Flow £1.00 £0.00 Electric water heater Amount Financed £0.0% ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.0% Real Discount Rate 5.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.294 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.02 Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Down Payment £1.34 £389.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.200 £224.26 £257.41 0.00 £0.90 0.516 1.184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.707 1.00 £0.99 £397.85 £339.00 0.00 0.00 £0.93 £474.319 1.60 £273.00 £0.23 £360.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.50 £313. 30 yrs Anual cost £5. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.184.46 £247.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.577 1.00 £0.040 1.79 £0.00 £228.00 £0.51 £346.00 £0.00 £0.673 1.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.77 £1.79 Real Elec.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.31 £262.00 £0.070 £/kWhr 2.29 £367.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £1.268 1.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.31 £252.00 £0.00 £0.020 1.00 £0.00 £0.05 £237.346 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.71 £352.00 0.59 £0.00 £0.50 £313.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £100.85 £382.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.149 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.52 £284.00 £0.00 £0.99 £397.00 0.00 £0.05 £278.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 121.00 £0.00 £0.48 £233.00 £0.00 £0.428 1.00 ENERGY INPUTS E5 Electric Usage (Base) E6 Electric Cost E7 Elec.101.00 £0.00 £0.219 1.00 £0.70 £273.85 £339.00 £0.71 £242.00 £0.811 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Replacement Maintenance Cost Environmental Cost (Current £) (Current £) Value (Current £) £0.00 £0.00 £0.184.56 £301.00 0.00 £0.30 £353.00 £0.00 £148.00 £0.00 £0.0761 Inflation rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.45 £389.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Maintainance Replacement Environmental Cost Cost Credits 0.00 £0.00 £0.47 £307.00 0.00 £0.35 £367.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.31 £252.00 £0.457 1.00 £0.608 1.00 £0.33 £332.00 £0.00 £100.00 £0.00 110.00 £0.00 £0.07 £301.00 £0.00 £0.546 1.00 £0.65 £319.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £100.23 £524.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.47 £307.000 1.889.00 £0.05 £237.00 Page 1 .00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate Interest Payment £0.00 £0.26 £257.05 £278.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.85 £382.00 £0.00 £0.373 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.5% Gen.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.65 £319.48 £233.00 £0.50 £374. Escalation Rate 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage 0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST-Electric water heater ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS Installed Cost £1.00 £0.00 £228.00 £100.00 £0.00 £0.09 £289.00 £0.126 1.00 Yearly Loan Payment £0.00 £0.195 1.00 £0.061 1.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.400 1.87 £247.00 £0.741 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.93 £326.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.63 £351.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.51 £346.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.184.00 3.00 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.641 1.06 £0.51 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.92 £332.00 £0.00 0.00 £0.52 £284.00 £0.104 1.00 £0.

00 £0.00 1.3728 £50.00 £53.30 £75.00 £0.00 £355.00 1.862.00 £0.93 £0.00 £0.97 £67.8114 £50.41 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1.00 £0.00 1.00 £295.00 £0.26 8 £0.00 £0.31 9 £0.00 £0.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.00 £0.00 £291.05 4 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.5769 £50.40 £0.12 £55.00 £0.33 21 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £469.00 1.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 1.3% 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.17 £0.00 £0.000 £224.00 £0.00 £633.00 £0.11 £0.46 6 £0.00 £1.184.00 £297.0200 £50.20 £56.00 £0.51 23 £0.00 £0.64 £70.34 29 £0.00 1.00 £0.2190 £50.00 £346.00 £0.00 £460.00 £0.00 £0.00 £433.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.00 £286.00 £301.78 £0.00 £0.00 £0. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.47 17 £0.79 £90.0824 £50.00 £360.41 £64.00 £0.00 £0.48 £0.99 £403.58 £59.00 £367.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.77 15 £0.00 £0.00 Maintenance Cost £50.65 19 £0.00 £348.00 £0.00 1.3195 £50.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.11 £0.00 £307.00 £237.00 £262.78 £77.00 £278.75 £60.00 £0.00 £416.00 £442.00 £392.67 £85.00 £0.00 1.00 £408.00 £0.00 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .64 £0.00 £0.49 £0.79 46.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.23 25 £0.00 £0.00 £0.29 26 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.41 £72. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.52 13 £0.00 £0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.05 12 £0.84 £74.0612 £50.00 £0.52 £0.21 £304.1262 £50.00 £267.00 £273.77 £371.0% Real Discount Rate 5.00 2 £0.00 £335.00 £289.99 30 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.45 10 £0.6406 £50.67 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.14 £0.00 £0.31 7 £0.00 £0.00 £0.03 £83.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £353.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.93 20 £0.00 £0.00 £332.00 £478. Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.00 £0.32 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £242.00 £252.00 £284.07 £0.85 22 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 Page 2 .00 £341.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.36 £0.00 £0.84 £80.00 £339.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.50 27 £0.00 £0.184.00 £389.05 £88.00 £0.5460 £50.30 24 £0.65 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.6084 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.06 £54.00 £0.00 £315.42 £82.68 £65.51 £0.83 £0.00 £772.00 £0.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.50 18 £0.00 £224.57 3200.00 £0.4568 £50.00 £0.89 £0.00 1.00 £382.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.184.00 £247.00 £0.00 £257.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen.00 1.00 £0.1041 £50.3459 £50.00 £370.00 £0.00 £250.00 £385.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £233.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.956.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.31 £57.71 5 £0.19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.0404 £50.00 £0.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £0.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £451.62 £0.00 £0.00 £0.593.00 1.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.17 £63.00 £0.00 £0.2682 £50.22 £0.1951 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.070 £/kWhr 2.6734 £50.00 1.00 £228.Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater DRAINBACK SYSTEM ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £3.00 £0.00 £0.639.56 16 £0.00 £397.00 1.34 £87.00 £313.00 £374.00 £0.00 1 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Drainback+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £0.43 £58.00 £488.70 11 £0.00 £0.0% Elec.1717 £50.00 £0.11 £0.00 £0.4002 £50.7069 £50.00 £0.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.7758 £50.00 £0.48 3 £0.00 £1.00 £303.01 £71.00 £0.39 £0.00 £319.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £326.00 £0.00 £0.00 £309.00 £322.09 14 £0.30 £78.00 £377.00 £0.29 £68.00 1.85 28 £0. Escalation Rate 0.5157 £50.00 £0.81 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1487 £50.00 %/year (Nominal) Elec.00 £0.75 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £425.95 £62.4859 £50.00 1.69 £0.00 1.77 £0.74 £1.36 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec.

862.00 £0.00 £284.00 £0.00 1.593.00 £0.11 £0.00 £0.40 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 %/year (Nominal) Elec.2190 £50.000 £224.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.00 £0.34 29 £0.0404 £50.00 1.84 £80.0% Real Discount Rate 5.00 £252.48 £0.00 £286.00 £0.93 20 £0.00 £313.57 3200.00 £397.20 £56.41 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1.00 1.00 £0.93 £0.00 £0.00 £0.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.39 £0.34 £87.184.6084 £50.00 £360.00 1.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.6406 £50. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.70 11 £0.32 £0.00 £0.3195 £50.00 £301.81 £0.99 £403.00 £0.0612 £50.65 £0.00 £0.00 £267.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.184.00 1.00 £0.64 £70.29 £68.00 £273.1041 £50.00 £0.17 £63.78 £77.97 £67.67 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1262 £50.00 £370.00 £0.00 £0.23 25 £0.00 £0.17 £0.00 1.3459 £50.65 19 £0.00 £0.06 £54.00 £335.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.83 £0.19 £0.43 £58.29 26 £0.00 £341.00 £0.00 £224.00 £332.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 1.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.64 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.4282 £50.00 £0.00 £326.84 £74.00 £0.00 £0.30 £75.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.00 £348.00 1. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.12 £55.31 9 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £367.00 £0.01 £71.1487 £50.00 £309.30 £78.67 £85.26 8 £0.00 £295.05 £88.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £262.79 50.00 £0.7410 £50.00 £0. tube+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £322.56 16 £0.11 £0.2682 £50.00 £279.00 £0.50 27 £0.00 £0.00 £297.00 £339.00 £0. Escalation Rate 0.00 £0.00 £0.4002 £50.00 Maintenance Cost £50.00 £0.0200 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £228.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.03 £83.5157 £50.00 £0.49 £0.00 £355.00 £0.00 £0.00 £303.00 £53.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £1.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £433.00 1 £0.36 £0.00 £51.00 £374.69 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.574.00 £633.00 1.00 £0.00 1.00 £346.00 £233.00 £392.00 £242.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.2936 £50.77 £0.00 £385.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.50 18 £0.00 £0.2434 £50.00 £0.00 £377.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.42 £82.00 £0.79 £90.00 £772.00 £0.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.68 £65.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.05 12 £0.00 £319.00 £0.75 £60.00 £0.00 £0.11 £0.00 £0.89 £0.00 £0.4859 £50.99 30 £0.00 £307.00 £0.00 £315.41 £64.00 £257.00 1.00 Evac.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £425.070 £/kWhr 2.956.71 5 £0.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen.00 1.00 £0.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.75 £0.74 £1. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.95 £62.45 10 £0.00 £0.00 £469.00 £0.51 £0.00 £0.00 £488.00 £0.00 1.77 15 £0.14 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 1.00 £250.30 24 £0.00 £416.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £278.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.85 28 £0.00 1.00 1.31 7 £0.51 23 £0.00 £353.00 £451.00 £0.00 £442.00 £0.52 £0.00 £0.00 £0.184.00 £0.09 14 £0.00 £0.62 £0.00 1.48 3 £0.31 £57.00 £0.05 4 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £408.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0824 £50.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.00 1.00 £0.47 17 £0.36 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec.00 £0.00 £0.78 £0.46 6 £0.00 £0.5769 £50.8114 £50.00 £0.00 Page 3 .00 £237.7758 £50.00 £0.1717 £50.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £478.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.77 £371.00 £0.85 22 £0.00 £0.07 £0.8% 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.00 £291.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .41 £72.00 £382.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.52 13 £0.00 £274.1951 £50.Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4.00 £0.00 1.22 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £389.21 £304.00 £0.3728 £50.00 £289. Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.00 £0.00 £460.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.58 £59.00 £0.00 £247.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% Elec.

00 £433.00 £0.50 27 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £442.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £339. Escalation Rate 0.593.3195 £50.00 £0. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £633.1041 £50.00 £0.40 £0.97 £67.00 £0.00 £451.00 £0.00 £237.78 £0.00 £0.71 5 £0.4568 £50.45 10 £0.00 £0.00 £0.17 £63.85 28 £0.05 £88.00 1.00 £0.00 £53.00 £247.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.4859 £50.00 £0.00 £0.14 £0.00 £1.00 £0.1951 £50.00 £416.67 £0.00 1.00 £0.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.21 £304.32 £0.00 £0.00 £262.79 53.00 £307.1487 £50.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen.77 15 £0.19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.6084 £50.95 £62.84 £74.84 £80.51 23 £0.34 £87.4282 £50.00 £301.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £348.00 £0.00 Page 4 .00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.31 9 £0. Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.03 £83.00 £0.00 £0.184.93 20 £0.00 £0.00 £392.00 1.00 1.134.48 £0.956.00 £0.5157 £50.30 £75.64 £0.99 £403.11 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.67 £85.0612 £50.00 1.31 7 £0.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.0404 £50.00 Flat plate+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.62 £0.00 £425.30 24 £0.52 £0.00 £297.00 £0.00 £0.26 8 £0.00 £233.00 £0.00 1.00 £408.00 £0.8114 £50.36 £0.00 £335.01 £71.00 1.31 £57.56 16 £0.77 £371.00 £0.00 £0.4002 £50.00 £286.00 £0. Inflation Rate 2.11 £0.65 19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.83 £0.00 £0.00 £0.05 12 £0.00 £0.00 £0.7410 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £315.43 £58. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.22 £0.00 £341.00 £284.00 £0.00 1.51 £0.00 £0.00 £0.68 £65.00 £0.64 £70.0% Elec.00 2 £0.00 £326.42 £82.00 £0.81 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £478.00 £0.00 £0.00 £313.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4.50 18 £0.47 17 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.06 £54.184.00 £291.00 £0.2936 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.70 11 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.05 4 £0.2190 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £385.00 £278.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.58 £59.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.6406 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £309.00 £0.3459 £50.00 1.00 £257.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.17 £0.00 £289.00 1.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.3728 £50.41 £64.2434 £50.41 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1.00 £355.93 £0.00 £374.00 £242.00 £0.00 £0.30 £78.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.20 £56.12 £55.00 1.23 25 £0.07 £0.77 £0.00 £772.00 £0.75 £60.00 £0.57 3200.00 £346.49 £0.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.2682 £50.00 £0.09 14 £0.99 30 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 %/year (Nominal) Elec.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.46 6 £0.00 1.00 £51.41 £72.00 1.00 £224.00 £488.00 £332.36 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.070 £/kWhr 2.00 £469.862.48 3 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £228.00 £0.00 £0.00 £295.5460 £50.00 £319.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.69 £0.00 £0.00 £397.29 26 £0.65 £0.00 £382.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.85 22 £0.00 £0.00 £0.184.0% Real Discount Rate 5.11 £0.52 13 £0.00 Maintenance Cost £50.29 £68.00 £367.00 1.000 £224.00 1 £0.00 £0.78 £77.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.00 £0.00 £322.00 £0.00 £273.74 £1.00 £250.00 £252.00 £0.39 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .5769 £50.1717 £50.00 £0.6734 £50.00 1.00 1.00 £460.00 £353.00 £0.00 £267.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.79 £90.00 £0.00 £0.00 £389.75 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £360.00 £0.00 £377.00 £0.00 £370.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.89 £0.34 29 £0.00 £0.0200 £50.0824 £50.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1262 £50.33 21 £0.00 £303.00 £0.

00 £0.70 11 £0.00 £0.85 22 £0.00 £0.31 7 £0.49 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1041 £50.00 1.00 £0.00 £233.74 £1.3% 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.00 £0.00 1.00 £301.00 £0.00 £0.11 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £451.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.58 £59.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.00 £0.0824 £50.3728 £50.00 £0.00 £346.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.36 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec.00 £313.0% Real Discount Rate 5.83 £0.7069 £50.00 £0.00 £0.4002 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £389.00 £0.06 £54.00 £0.00 £0.4859 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.77 15 £0.00 £0.67 £85.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.000 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £385.00 1.41 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1.00 Page 5 .00 £0.84 £74.00 £247.41 £64.97 £67.00 £291.00 £425.00 £433.2190 £50.00 1.00 £0.00 1.00 £0. Escalation Rate 0.00 £0.00 £307.00 £0.52 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.32 £0.00 £0.00 £0.20 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.52 13 £0.00 £0.00 £397.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.00 1.79 46.00 £0.00 £0.29 26 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £257.00 £0.95 £62.00 £460.14 £0.31 £57.00 £0.51 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.2682 £50.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.40 £0. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.00 £0.00 £1.00 £51.00 £0.7410 £50.00 1.56 16 £0.00 £0.184.00 £319.862.93 20 £0.26 8 £0.00 £377.00 £0.00 £252.00 £273.00 £0.00 £0.2434 £50.7758 £50.00 £303.01 £71.00 1.6406 £50.00 1.00 £0.00 £309.99 £403.00 1.00 £326.00 £0.00 1.07 £0.00 £0.00 £0.93 £0.99 30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £382.00 £0.48 £0.64 £0.1487 £50.00 £0.00 £267.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £469.00 £0.00 £0.00 £488.1717 £50.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £392.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.6084 £50.00 Drainback+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £2.00 £0.00 £286.4282 £50.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen.00 £0.00 £295.00 1.0404 £50.00 £341.00 £0.00 £0.85 28 £0.00 £374.00 £284.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.34 29 £0.00 £442.00 £279.67 £0.00 £0.00 £0.77 £371.62 £0.3195 £50. Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.00 1.00 £228.78 £77.00 £478.00 £0.00 £278.00 £0.45 10 £0.00 £297.00 £0.00 £332.00 £0.00 £0.00 £335.00 £0.30 £78.84 £80.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £315.30 24 £0.00 £0.070 £/kWhr 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.09 14 £0. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.8114 £50.00 £348.00 £0.00 £339.29 £68.00 £0.00 £0. Inflation Rate 2.50 27 £0.00 £0.00 £0.6734 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £353.00 £416.46 6 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £370.34 £87.00 £0.00 £322.00 £0.03 £83.30 £75.48 3 £0.184.00 £0.Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater DRAINBACK SYSTEM (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £3.00 £0.05 12 £0.00 1.00 £0.0200 £50.00 £0.00 1.00 1.3459 £50.00 £0.81 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1 £0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £53.31 9 £0.00 1.5769 £50.00 1.05 4 £0.00 £0.51 23 £0.00 £408.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% Elec.00 £0.39 £0.00 1.00 £237.00 £0.00 £0.5157 £50.00 £367.00 £772.639.00 £0.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.75 £60.1951 £50.78 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.75 £0.00 Maintenance Cost £50.00 1.22 £0.17 £0.00 1.57 3200.11 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.12 £55.00 £242.00 £0.19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.64 £70.00 %/year (Nominal) Elec.956.00 £0.00 £0.00 £633.00 £0.79 £90.184.593.00 £0.68 £65.00 £355.42 £82.00 1.00 £0.69 £0.43 £58.20 £56.00 £0.41 £72.00 £0.00 £289.00 £0.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £250.23 25 £0.00 £0.00 £0.71 5 £0.00 £0.00 £1.00 1.47 17 £0.05 £88.21 £304.00 £0.00 £0.65 19 £0.50 18 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.89 £0.00 £0.00 £262.4568 £50.00 £0.00 £0.0612 £50.00 £0.911.00 £0.17 £63.77 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.36 £0.00 £1.65 £0.2936 £50.00 2 £0.00 £360.00 £0.11 £0.00 £0.

7069 £50.00 £0.6406 £50.79 90.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1. Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.00 £0.3459 £50.00 355.00 £319.00 £237.00 £0.30 78.00 £0.593.41 64.32 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 348.00 £273.00 £0.00 £284.30 75.00 £0.21 £304.00 1.89 £0.79 50.97 67.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 303.77 £0.52 £0.00 £0.40 £0.00 274.4282 £50.48 £0.78 £0.49 £0.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 469.2682 £50.00 £301.00 51.00 385.31 7 £0.67 85.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £382.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 1.00 £339.00 291.00 £0.68 65.36 £0.52 13 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1951 £50.00 1.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.00 451.00 £0.Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4.00 488.20 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.00 £0.00 1.00 £374.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.8% 3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.84 80.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.11 £0.00 £0.12 55.00 £0.51 £0.00 392.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 1.00 £0.00 £289.47 17 £0.01 71.00 £0. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.3728 £50.00 £0.00 1.00 £262.00 £0.43 58.00 £0.00 £0.00 335.00 £353.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.862.00 £0.184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.77 15 £0.00 442.2936 £50.00 433.00 £0.1487 £50.00 £0.00 1.00 £346.00 £0.00 £0.00 408.00 £0.11 £0.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen.00 1.00 £0.45 10 £0.00 1.83 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.4859 £50.00 £0.99 30 £0.00 £0.0% Elec.00 53.00 £0.00 633.00 1.00 1.6084 £50.00 £307.93 20 £0.574.00 1.00 1.00 £397.00 £0.00 £0.00 315.00 £0.070 £/kWhr 2.00 £0.57 3200.00 £233.29 26 £0.00 £0.46 6 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0.51 23 £0.00 478.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.00 £0. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.00 1.29 68.00 Maintenance Cost 50.00 £0.17 63.00 £0.00 Page 6 .00 £0.14 £0.00 1.69 £0.00 £0.00 Evac.41 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1.1041 £50.00 £0.6734 £50.81 £0.00 £0.06 54.41 72.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.00 £0.39 £0.5460 £50.00 £0.00 £0.85 28 £0.00 £0.00 341.00 £0.70 11 £0.184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 %/year (Nominal) Elec.0612 £50.30 24 £0.64 70.00 425.05 12 £0.00 £0.00 £389.00 £0.00 £0.00 £228.00 1.00 1.00 £0.4568 £50.78 77.00 £0.07 £0.00 1.00 460.00 £1.00 £267.00 £0.00 £252.00 £0.00 £0.00 297.00 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .2190 £50.00 £0.1262 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £332.00 1.56 16 £0.956.17 £0.184.0200 £50.00 £360.00 £0.58 59.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £278.00 £0.00 279.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.8114 £50.00 £0.00 1.11 £0.3195 £50.67 £0.00 £0.00 377.00 £0.00 £0.31 57.4002 £50.50 18 £0.74 £1.71 5 £0.00 £0.75 £0.00 £0.77 £371.00 £0.7410 £50.00 1.00 309.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 370.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £0.7758 £50.00 £0.00 £0.26 8 £0.00 £0.00 £295.00 1.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0404 £50.tube+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £3.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate 0.75 60.00 £313.20 56.00 £0.48 3 £0.00 £0.09 14 £0. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £247.00 416.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.000 £224.00 £0.19 £0.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £0.64 £0.00 1.0% Real Discount Rate 5.65 £0.50 27 £0.00 £257.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.00 £0.1717 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.659.5157 £50.34 87.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £367.00 £0.00 £0.36 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec.00 £0.00 £0.85 22 £0.00 £0.05 88.84 74.65 19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 286.00 £0.00 772.00 £0.00 322.00 1 £0.22 £0.93 £0.00 £0.42 82.31 9 £0.62 £0.00 1.00 £326.95 62.00 £242.99 £403.00 £0.2434 £50.0824 £50.34 29 £0.5769 £50.00 £0.05 4 £0.00 £0.03 83.23 25 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.

Appendix

LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Electric Backup Water Heater FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4,134.00 Flat plate+Back up Heater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £3,307.20 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.0% Real Discount Rate 5.5% Electric Usage (Base) Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost Income Tax 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost £5,722.37 £393.73 Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1,184.00 1 £0.00 £224.00 2 £0.00 £228.48 3 £0.00 £233.05 4 £0.00 £237.71 5 £0.00 £242.46 6 £0.00 £247.31 7 £0.00 £252.26 8 £0.00 £257.31 9 £0.00 £262.45 10 £0.00 £267.70 11 £0.00 £273.05 12 £0.00 £278.52 13 £0.00 £284.09 14 £0.00 £289.77 15 £0.00 £295.56 16 £0.00 £301.47 17 £0.00 £307.50 18 £0.00 £313.65 19 £0.00 £319.93 20 £0.00 £326.33 21 £0.00 £332.85 22 £0.00 £339.51 23 £0.00 £346.30 24 £0.00 £353.23 25 £0.00 £360.29 26 £0.00 £367.50 27 £0.00 £374.85 28 £0.00 £382.34 29 £0.00 £389.99 30 £0.00 £397.79

53.0%

3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage (usage without solar) 0.070 £/kWhr 2.00 %/year (Nominal)

Elec, Usage (solar) kWh/year Yearly Elec Cost Interest Deduction £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Maintenance Cost £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00 £50.00

3200.000 £224.00 Replacement Environmental Net Cash Cost Credits Flow £0.00 £1,184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.00 £278.48 £0.00 £0.00 £283.05 £0.00 £0.00 £287.71 £0.00 £0.00 £292.46 £0.00 £0.00 £297.31 £0.00 £0.00 £302.26 £0.00 £0.00 £307.31 £0.00 £0.00 £312.45 £304.75 £0.00 £622.45 £0.00 £0.00 £323.05 £0.00 £0.00 £328.52 £0.00 £0.00 £334.09 £0.00 £0.00 £339.77 £1,593.51 £0.00 £1,939.07 £0.00 £0.00 £351.47 £0.00 £0.00 £357.50 £0.00 £0.00 £363.65 £0.00 £0.00 £369.93 £371.49 £0.00 £747.81 £0.00 £0.00 £382.85 £0.00 £0.00 £389.51 £0.00 £0.00 £396.30 £0.00 £0.00 £403.23 £0.00 £0.00 £410.29 £0.00 £0.00 £417.50 £0.00 £0.00 £424.85 £0.00 £0.00 £432.34 £0.00 £0.00 £439.99 £0.00 £0.00 £447.79

INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Value Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) (Current £) 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.02 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.04 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.06 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.08 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.10 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.13 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.15 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.17 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.20 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.22 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.24 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.27 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.29 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.32 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.35 £50.00 £1,184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.37 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.40 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.43 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.46 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.49 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.52 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.55 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.58 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.61 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.64 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.67 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.71 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.74 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.78 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.81 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00

Page 7

Appendix

LIFE CYCLE COST-Gas water heater ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS Installed Cost £1,610.00 Gas water heater Amount Financed £0.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.0% Real Discount Rate 5.5% Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Income Tax Bracket 20.0% ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost, 30 yrs Anual cost £3,514.20 £241.80 Yearly Loan Yearly Fuel Year Down Payment Payment Cost 0 £1,184.00 1 £0.00 £99.20 2 £0.00 £101.18 3 £0.00 £103.21 4 £0.00 £105.27 5 £0.00 £107.38 6 £0.00 £109.52 7 £0.00 £111.72 8 £0.00 £113.95 9 £0.00 £116.23 10 £0.00 £118.55 11 £0.00 £120.92 12 £0.00 £123.34 13 £0.00 £125.81 14 £0.00 £128.33 15 £0.00 £130.89 16 £0.00 £133.51 17 £0.00 £136.18 18 £0.00 £138.90 19 £0.00 £141.68 20 £0.00 £144.52 21 £0.00 £147.41 22 £0.00 £150.35 23 £0.00 £153.36 24 £0.00 £156.43 25 £0.00 £159.56 26 £0.00 £162.75 27 £0.00 £166.00 28 £0.00 £169.32 29 £0.00 £172.71 30 £0.00 £176.16

ENERGY INPUTS

Fuel Usage (Base) Fuel Cost Gas Escalation Rate

3200 kWhr/yr Base Elec Usage 0.031 £/kWhr 2.00 %/year

Yearly Elec Usage, kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr Interest Deduction £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00

3,200 £224.00 Net Cash Flow £1,184.00 £99.20 £101.18 £103.21 £105.27 £217.79 £109.52 £111.72 £113.95 £116.23 £240.45 £120.92 £123.34 £125.81 £128.33 £2,297.74 £133.51 £136.18 £138.90 £141.68 £293.11 £147.41 £150.35 £153.36 £156.43 £323.62 £162.75 £166.00 £169.32 £172.71 £176.16

Maintainance Replacement Environmental Cost Cost Credits 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 110.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 121.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 £0.00 £148.59 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £164.06 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £2,166.85 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00

INDIVIDUAL YEARLY Real Elec. Escalation Rate 0.00% ECONOMIC INPUTS Nominal Discount Rate 0.0761 Interest Unpaid Maintenance Cost Environmental Payment Principal Inflation rate Cost (Current £) (Current £) Value (Current £) 2.000 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.020 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.040 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.061 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.082 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.104 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.126 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.149 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.172 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.195 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.219 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.243 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.268 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.294 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.319 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.346 £0.00 £1,610.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.373 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.400 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.428 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.457 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.486 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.516 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.546 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.577 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.608 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.641 £100.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.673 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.707 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.741 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.776 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 1.811 0.00 £0.00 £0.00

Page 8

Appendix

LIFE CYCLE COST - Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater DRAINBACK SYSTEM (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4,417.00 Drainback+BackupHeater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £3,533.60 Fuel Usage (Base) Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost Interest Rate 8.0% Fuel Escalation Rate Real Discount Rate 5.5% Pump Electric Usage Gen. Inflation Rate 2.0% Electric Cost Income Tax Bracket 20.0% Elec. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost, 30 yrs Annual cost £5,467.10 £376.17

31.9% 3200 0.031 2.00 200 0.07 2.00

Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy, etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal)

Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost, £/yr Yearly Electric Cost, £/yr

3200.000 £0.00 £224.00

Real Elec. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate

0.00% 0.00% 7.61%

INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS

Year

Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint. Cost Replace. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1,184.00 £1,184.00 1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £274.00 2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275.00 3 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £52.02 £0.00 £0.00 £276.02 4 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £53.06 £0.00 £0.00 £277.06 5 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £54.12 £0.00 £0.00 £278.12 6 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.20 £0.00 £0.00 £279.20 7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £56.31 £0.00 £0.00 £280.31 8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £57.43 £0.00 £0.00 £281.43 9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £58.58 £0.00 £0.00 £282.58 10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £59.75 £304.75 £0.00 £588.50 11 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £60.95 £0.00 £0.00 £284.95 12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.17 £0.00 £0.00 £286.17 13 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.41 £0.00 £0.00 £287.41 14 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.68 £0.00 £0.00 £288.68 15 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £65.97 £2,166.85 £0.00 £2,456.82 16 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £67.29 £0.00 £0.00 £291.29 17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.64 £0.00 £0.00 £292.64 18 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.01 £0.00 £0.00 £294.01 19 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £71.41 £0.00 £0.00 £295.41 20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.84 £371.49 £0.00 £668.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.30 £0.00 £0.00 £298.30 22 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £75.78 £0.00 £0.00 £299.78 23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.30 £0.00 £0.00 £301.30 24 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £78.84 £0.00 £0.00 £302.84 25 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £80.42 £0.00 £0.00 £304.42 26 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £82.03 £0.00 £0.00 £306.03 27 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £83.67 £0.00 £0.00 £307.67 28 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £85.34 £0.00 £0.00 £309.34 29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.05 £0.00 £0.00 £311.05 30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £88.79 £0.00 £0.00 £312.79

Interest Payment £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00

Unpaid Principal £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00

Inflation rate 2.000 1.020 1.040 1.061 1.082 1.104 1.126 1.149 1.172 1.195 1.219 1.243 1.268 1.294 1.319 1.346 1.373 1.400 1.428 1.457 1.486 1.516 1.546 1.577 1.608 1.641 1.673 1.707 1.741 1.776 1.811

Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £1,610.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £250.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00

Page 9

00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% Real Discount Rate 5.97 £2.00 £0.00 £276.00 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Year Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ.00 £0.00 £299.428 1.79 Inflation rate 2.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.040 1.00 £0. £/yr 3200.00 £224.417.172 1.00 £282.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.811 Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.58 10 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £280.00 £0.00 £298.00 £0.00 £52.00 £0.00 £0.67 28 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £312.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.00 £224.00 £54.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00% 0.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate 31.00 £68.00 £224.00 £50.00 £668.00 £224.41 14 £0.00 £0.319 1.30 24 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.149 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 1 £0.00 £78.31 £0.00 £70.00 £224.031 2.00 £0.00 £250.00 £224.95 12 £0.58 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.64 £0.00 £82.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 Real Elec.268 1.00 £224.00 £0.373 1.00 £0.00 £288.00 £0.00 £0.577 1.42 26 £0.00 £51.00 2 £0.84 25 £0.00 £0.00 £0.42 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.84 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £287.06 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £58.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £80.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.41 20 £0.546 1.456.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.03 £0.00 £50.00 £50.486 1.00 £0.30 22 £0.00 £0.00 £295.02 4 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.0% Income Tax Bracket 20.00 £292.00 £0.00 £279.00 £0.68 15 £0.00 £1.03 27 £0.68 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.50 11 £0.00 £274.00 £50.00 £0.20 £0.00 £0.00% 7.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.34 29 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £284.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.12 6 £0.00 £62.00 £72.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50. etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal) Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost.00 £0.05 30 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £83.05 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.457 1. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1.00 £250.641 1.00 £0.01 £0.467.00 £1.126 1.00 £50.00 £306.00 £64.34 £0.00 £0.41 £0.00 £224.195 1.61% Interest Payment £0.020 1.00 £0.00 £53.95 £0.00 £0.84 £371.00 £0.00 £588.00 £0.184.00 £67.12 £0.00 £71.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Unpaid Principal £0.00 3 £0.00 £0.400 1.00 £0.00 £278.00 £0.00 £0.33 21 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £63.01 19 £0.00 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £65.20 7 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £74.00 £224.00 £56.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.5% Gen.Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater DRAINBACK SYSTEM ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS Installed Cost £4.00 £0.346 1.00 £0. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £224.00 £55.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.000 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.85 £0.00 £0.43 £0.00 £0.00 £50.17 13 £0.00 £302.00 £0.00 £0.00 £307.00 £0.00 £224.00 Drainback+BackupHeater Amount Financed £0.00 £75.00 £224.07 2.00 £0.29 £0.00 £0.00 £224.219 1.610.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.608 1.00 £77.02 £0.00 £294.00 £0.673 1.741 1.00 £0.00 £0.10 £376.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.49 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £311.00 £60.00 £277.00 £304.00 £0.64 18 £0.00 £2.00 £57.78 £0.00 £0.67 £0.00 £0.00 £0.17 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Cost Replace.00 Page 10 .00 £0.41 £0.79 £0.00 £0. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.29 17 £0.00 £0.00 £291.00 £224.00 £0.00 £87.00 £0.00 £224.00 £85.00 £224.00 £50.104 1.00 £275.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0. £/yr Yearly Electric Cost.31 8 £0.00 £0.43 9 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.30 £0.00 £50.00 £309.00 200 0.166.00 £59.00 £281.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.243 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.06 5 £0.00 £0.00 £50. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate 0.000 £0.00 £224.00 £301.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.17 ENERGY INPUTS Solar Fraction Fuel Usage (Base) Fuel Cost Fuel Escalation Rate Pump Electric Usage Electric Cost Elec.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.061 1.00 £0.75 £0.00 £88.00 £0.00 £0.82 16 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.75 £304.30 £0.00 £0.00 £0.516 1.00 £0.0% ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £224.00 £0.00 Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy.00 £0.00 £0.776 1.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.184.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.082 1.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.294 1. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint.707 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.9% 3200 0.78 23 £0.00 £286.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.

64 18 £0.00 £0.17 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.000 1.00 £281. Inflation Rate 2.58 10 £0. £/yr Yearly Electric Cost.0% Fuel Escalation Rate Real Discount Rate 5.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0. etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal) Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.673 1.00 £50.00 £276.00 £0.00 £224.29 £0.00 £224.00 £50.61% Interest Payment £0.20 £0.00 £224.00 £307.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.68 15 £0.00 £0. £/yr 3200.031 2.00 £62.01 19 £0.00 £0.219 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 200 0.78 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.294 1.00 £588.41 14 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.243 1.00 £0.166.00 £0.00 £50.50 11 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £68.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £74.104 1.00 £0.00 Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy.00 £50.00 £85.00 £56.5% Pump Electric Usage Gen.346 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.184.00 £224.49 £0.00 £0.00 £52.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £0.00 £82.17 35.00 £0.00 £65.00 £67.41 20 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £224.020 1.00 £0.00 £87.00 £224.06 £0.00 £292.00 £0.00 £0.00 £60.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.30 24 £0.776 1.00 £286.00 £0.00 £224.42 26 £0.00 £0.00 £312.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.061 1.00 £54.00 £0. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint.00 £0.95 £0.00 £50.00 £224. Cost Replace.00 £224.00 £224.64 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £78.00 £224.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £311.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £291.00 £1.00 £0.10 £376.00 £2.00 £55.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.20 7 £0.03 £0.00 £0.00 £57.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.79 Inflation rate 2.352.00 £295.149 1.00 £0.00 £0.67 28 £0.00 £50.00 £0.67 £0.00 £80.43 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.31 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 1 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.29 17 £0.00 £224.31 8 £0.00 £224.12 £0.00 £0.00 £224.184.00 £63.00 Page 11 .00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.486 1.126 1.811 Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £83.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.68 £0.00 £302.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £64.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.41 £0.00 £70.00 £0.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £287.0% Electric Cost Income Tax Bracket 20.Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £5.608 1.00 £0.741 1.00 £72.30 £0.00 £0.00 £224.456.00 £0.00 Evac. Tube+BackupHeater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £0.00 £275.00 £50.00 £0.05 £0.00 £0.373 1.00 £50.00 £224.00 £50.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £75.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £309.610.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.82 16 £0.00 3 £0.00 £88.00 £224.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.34 29 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 Unpaid Principal £0.040 1.00 £0.12 6 £0.00 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Year Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ.00 £0.00 £0.75 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £53.00 £0.195 1.00 £224.75 £304.00 £0.43 9 £0.00 £0.577 1.00 £224.00 £277.03 27 £0.00 £0.00 £0.02 £0.00 £0.00 £0.01 £0.546 1.00 £284.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £280.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 Fuel Usage (Base) Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost Interest Rate 8.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £282.00 £77.34 £0.00 £299.641 1.00 £0.00 £288.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.42 £0.0% Elec.00 £0.85 £0.00 £0.95 12 £0.00 £224.00 £278.00 £0.00 £304.06 5 £0.00 £59.00 £0.07 2.00 £224.00 £224.516 1.00 £224.78 23 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £301.00 £294.00 £0.00 £298.00 £0.00 £50.082 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.30 22 £0.84 £371.58 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.30 £0.00 £50.00% 7.33 21 £0.00 £224.172 1.00 £224.00 £224.00 £224.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £58.00 £0.97 £2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.02 4 £0.00 £0.00 £0.268 1.457 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £71.319 1.84 £0.41 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.84 25 £0.00 £0.00 £0.05 30 £0.00 £0.79 £0.00 £0.707 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.467.400 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.1% 3200 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £51.00% 0.00 £0.17 13 £0.00 £0.428 1. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.00 £50.00 Real Elec.00 £668.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £306.000 £0.00 £50.00 £0.

00 £0.00 £0.061 1.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.03 £0.373 1.00 £309.577 1.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.41 20 £0.00 £60.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £50. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £284.02 4 £0.00 £292.00 £71.00 £0.00 £668.29 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.34 £0.00 £224.31 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £288.0% Income Tax Bracket 20.06 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £279.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.43 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.000 1.00 £0.79 Inflation rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £58.00 £277.10 £376.34 29 £0.00 Real Elec.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £88.00 £0.00 £0.07 2.30 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.456.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £68.00 £2.00 £0.00 £64.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £588.00 £0.00 £0.00 £82.00 £0.00 £224.95 £0.00 £224.30 £0.020 1. Inflation Rate 2.00 £0.00 £0.00 £287.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £286.608 1.84 £371.00 £59.00 £224.00 £0.30 22 £0.31 8 £0.00 £280.00 £50.00 £50.00 £282.195 1.41 £0.00 £274.00 £0.00 £0.84 25 £0.00 £0.00 £301.00 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Year Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ.00 £0.428 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £57.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.516 1.00 £50.00 £83.00 £0.00 £87.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.243 1.184.00 £0.00 £304.00 £74.00 £0.97 £2.61% Interest Payment £0.467.00 £224.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Cost Replace.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.12 6 £0.00 £0.00 £67.00 £54.610.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.457 1.17 ENERGY INPUTS Solar Fraction Fuel Usage (Base) Fuel Cost Fuel Escalation Rate Pump Electric Usage Electric Cost Elec.546 1.00 £0.00 £0.268 1.00 £0.85 £0.05 £0.00 £80.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.68 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £78.00 £0.0% Real Discount Rate 5.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £276.00 £0.67 28 £0.00 £224. Tube+BackupHeater Amount Financed £0.00 £53.00 £0.00 £0.00 200 0.040 1.68 15 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £250.00 £0.01 19 £0.00 £77.00 £0.78 23 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.776 1.00 £0.00 £299.00 £50.00 £0.104 1.03 27 £0.1% 3200 0. etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal) Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost.00 £50.00 £224.58 10 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £55.00 £50.00 £0.00 £291.00 £250.00 £0.352.00 £70.00 £0.00 £0.75 £0.00 £56.00 £0.00 £307.00 £0.00 £0.00 3 £0.00 £0. £/yr 3200.00 £0.00 £0.42 £0.00 £224.01 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.79 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.486 1.00 £62.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £72.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.84 £0.00 £224.00 Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy. £/yr Yearly Electric Cost.00 £0.00 £275.00 £224.00 1 £0.00 £281.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Page 12 .00 £224.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.02 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £311.00 £0.17 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.126 1.78 £0.000 £0.00 £0.673 1.64 18 £0.43 9 £0.20 £0.00 £298.00 £224.00 £224.400 1.00 £0.05 30 £0.00 £75.641 1.00 £0.20 7 £0.00 Unpaid Principal £0.00 £0.082 1.00 £0.00 £0.30 24 £0.0% ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.5% Gen.00 £0.811 Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.707 1.00 £51.00 £294.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £278.00 £0.00 £0.294 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.42 26 £0.29 17 £0.00 £224.00 £0.50 11 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00% 0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.031 2.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate 35.00 £224.17 13 £0.49 £0.00% 7.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.41 £0.58 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 Evac.00 £224.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £302.00 £0.149 1.00 £224.00 £1.319 1.00 £224.346 1.00 £65.00 £224.172 1.06 5 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £312.64 £0.741 1.00 £50.00 £85.41 14 £0. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1.12 £0.Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS Installed Cost £5.82 16 £0.00 £224.00 £52.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.75 £304.00 £0.95 12 £0.00 £0.166.219 1.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.67 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.184. 30 yrs Annual cost £5.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £295.00 £0.00 £63.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £306.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.

Inflation Rate 2.00 £250.00 £0.00 £0.29 17 £0.00 £0.00 £0.79 Inflation rate 2.184.00 £291.00 £0.00 £0.06 5 £0.00 £0.67 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £64.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.30 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £62.00 £0.34 29 £0.00 £0.12 6 £0.00 £0.0% Fuel Escalation Rate Real Discount Rate 5.17 £0.00 £0.00 £51.00 £0.707 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £83.61% Interest Payment £0.00 £0.00 £0.811 Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.00 £0.195 1.00 £311. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1.00 £0. £/yr Yearly Electric Cost.00 £1.00 £224.00 £0.34 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00% 7.05 30 £0.577 1.00 £0.00 £295.00 £54.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £59.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.05 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £275. Cost Replace.00 £224.00 £278.95 12 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.0% Electric Cost Income Tax Bracket 20.00 £0.00 £0.00 £309.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.06 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £78.00 £0.00 £286.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £77.00 £65.00 1 £0.00 £0.78 £0.172 1.00 £50.00 £63.00 £50.00 £0.00 £304.00 £0.00 £0.641 1.17 36.00 £75.00 £0. etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal) Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.43 £0.Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (20% of the amount financed) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS ENERGY INPUTS Installed Cost £4.00 £224.00 £224.78 23 £0.00 £67.486 1.00 £0.294 1.00 £224.00 £0.184.00 £0.42 26 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 Real Elec.00 £0.00 £0.104 1.00 £50.00 £224.610.00 £224.0% Elec.00 £0.457 1.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £2.00 Page 13 .00 £50.00 £0.00 Unpaid Principal £0.00 £0.00 Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy.00 £68.428 1.00 £0.00 £0.79 £0.00 £224.00 £0.43 9 £0.00 £0.97 £2.741 1.516 1.00 Flat plate+BackupHeater Solar Fraction Amount Financed £3.00 £0.49 £0.00 £0.75 £0.00 £298.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £276.268 1.00 £0.00 £80.319 1.031 2.00 £224.082 1.00 £0.00 £0.17 13 £0.00 £0.00 £71.00 £0.68 £0.00 £0.00 £57.346 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.5% 3200 0.00 £224.00 £0.67 28 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.84 25 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.000 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £58.00 £50.00 £0.00 £56.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.456.00 £224.00 £0.00 £284.00 £0.00 £82.00 £50.00 £50.00 £224.00 £224.85 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.219 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.58 £0.00 £302.00 £0.00 £277.00 £0. 30 yrs Yearly cost £5.84 £0.00 £87.84 £371.00 £250.00 £50.00 £0.00 £50.00 £292.00 £0.00 £0.00 £301.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £74.00 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Year Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £50.00 £0.929.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.673 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.02 4 £0.546 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.373 1.00 £281.061 1.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.42 £0.00 £50.00 £299.00 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £0.00 £307.00 £52.00 £0.00 £0.41 14 £0.00 £50.10 £376.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.95 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.64 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.912.00 £0.00 £50.41 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £50.20 7 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. Escalation Rate ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £0.00 £224.00 £279.00 £224.467.00 £0.00 £0.00 £53.00 £0.00 £0.00% 0.31 £0.12 £0.00 £0.41 £0.00 £588.68 15 £0.00 £0.30 24 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £50.00 £224.00 £72.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £668.00 £224.166.75 £304.00 £224.00 £50.00 £0.00 3 £0.00 200 0.00 £224.020 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £274.608 1.00 £0.00 £0.07 2.00 £288.00 £0.01 £0.60 Fuel Usage (Base) Loan Term 360 Months Fuel Cost Interest Rate 8.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £88. £/yr 3200.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £312.00 £60.00 £0.00 £70.400 1.00 £0.00 £0.776 1.00 £50.00 £287.03 27 £0.00 £0.00 £0.41 20 £0.00 £224.30 22 £0.00 £0.29 £0.00 £224.126 1.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.58 10 £0.00 £0.000 1.00 £0.00 £0.040 1.00 £50.02 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £280.82 16 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.50 11 £0.149 1.00 £0.00 £294.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate 0.64 18 £0.00 £282.00 £0.03 £0.20 £0.31 8 £0.00 £0.243 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £55.01 19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.5% Pump Electric Usage Gen.00 £0.00 £50.00 £306.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.30 £0.00 £50.00 £85.00 £50.

00 £0.20 £0.467.00 £50.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.07 2.776 1.00 £0.5% Gen.00 £0.00 £57.00 £224.01 19 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £70.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.42 £0.00 £50.00 £0.400 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.50 11 £0.20 7 £0.00 £0.00 £63.31 8 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £250.00 £0.68 15 £0.00 £0.03 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £288.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.84 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £279.00 £224.00 £0.42 26 £0.00 £64.00 £0.41 20 £0.00 £0.00 £224.811 Maintenance Cost Replacement Environmental Value (Current £) Cost (Current £) (Current £) £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £60.00 £280.104 1.294 1.00 £0.00 £0.577 1.00 £224.00 £72.00 £0.00 £50.68 £0.00 £224.00 £0.912.00 £224.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.166.00 £0.00 £224.00 £274.00 £0.00 1 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £588.00 £0.00 INDIVIDUAL YEARLY ECONOMIC INPUTS Year Yearly Loan Yearly Electric Yearly Fuel Interest Environ.82 16 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £67.00 £0.33 21 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.41 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.17 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224. Inflation Rate 2.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £306.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.608 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £85.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.58 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.02 £0.00 £0.00 £0.06 5 £0.30 24 £0.00 £0.79 Inflation rate 2.00 £250. Escalation Rate Real Fuel Escalation Rate Nominal Discount Rate 0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £668.00 £0.428 1.00 £298.00 £0.41 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.03 27 £0.00 £50.00 £224.184.00 £0.95 £0.05 30 £0.040 1.00 £281.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.43 9 £0.00 £0.00 £294.64 £0.00 £224.610.00 £0. 30 yrs Yearly cost £5.00 £291.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £62.00 £50.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0. £/yr Yearly Electric Cost.00 £0. etc) £/kWh %/year (Nominal) Yearly Fuel Usage kWhr/yr Yearly Fuel Cost.00 £0.00 £0.84 25 £0.00 £0.00 £83.373 1.172 1.00 £75.00 £50.00 £224.30 £0.184.00% 0.00 £0.707 1.00 £0.00 £53.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 3 £0.00 £82.00 £0.00 £0.00 £80.0% Income Tax 20.00 £65.85 £0.00 £224.268 1.00 £0.00 £71.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.319 1.00 200 0.00 £59.00 £0.00 £224.00 Flat plate+BackupHeater Amount Financed £0.00 £77.05 £0.00 £0. Cost Replace.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.97 £2.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.0% ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OUTPUTS Life Cycle Effective Cost.00 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £224.00 £55.00 £299.00 £0.00 £307.00 £50.43 £0. Escalation Rate 36.00 £278.00 £224.00 £50.00 £224.00 £224.00 £0.0% Real Discount Rate 5.00 £0.31 £0.00 £0.00 £68.00 £224.Solar Water Heating with Gas Backup Water Heater FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INPUTS FINANCIAL INPUTS Installed Cost £4.00 Unpaid Principal £0.126 1.00 Loan Term 360 Months Interest Rate 8.12 6 £0.17 ENERGY INPUTS Solar Fraction Fuel Usage (Base) Fuel Cost Fuel Escalation Rate Pump Electric Usage Electric Cost Elec.00 Page 14 .00 £224.30 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £286.00 £78.00 £224.00 £312.00 £1.00 £292.00 £0.00 £0.5% 3200 0.00 £0.061 1.00 £58.67 £0.00 £0.149 1.00 £0.00 2 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £295.031 2. Net Cash Down Payment Payment Cost Cost Total cost Deduction Maint.00 £287.00 £0.00 £0.00 £276.243 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £301.84 £371.00 £0.06 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.00 £50.00 £0.020 1.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £50.00 Fuel Usage met by solar kWhr/yr Base Gas Usage (without solar) £/kWhr %/year kWhr/yr (pump's energy.49 £0.75 £304.00 £56.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.000 1.00 £224.00 £0.34 £0.457 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.673 1.00 £54.00 £51.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.10 £376.00 £50.00 £224.00 £0.00 £224.00 £302.00 £224.02 4 £0.00 £0.00 £50.78 £0.00 £0.41 14 £0.00 £50.00 £0.219 1.00 £52.00 £304.00 £0.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.Appendix LIFE CYCLE COST .00 £0.29 17 £0.79 £0.00 £0.61% Interest Payment £0.58 10 £0.346 1.95 12 £0.00 £0.00 £282.00 £0.30 22 £0.00 £0.741 1.00 £0.00 Real Elec.00 £224.456.516 1.00 £224.00 £0.00 £0.00% 7.000 £0.00 £0.00 £74.00 £0.67 28 £0.00 £0.00 £87.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.486 1.01 £0.00 £0.00 £277.00 £311.00 £309.082 1.00 £0.00 £224.78 23 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0. £/yr 3200.00 £0.00 £275.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £284.00 £50.00 £0.195 1.00 £0.00 £224. Cost Credits Flow 0 £1.34 29 £0.00 £0.75 £0.00 £0.29 £0.00 £0.64 18 £0.00 £88.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.17 13 £0.00 £0.12 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.546 1.00 £0.641 1.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 £224.00 £2.00 £0.

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