CONVEYOR BELT TECHNIQUE

D E S I G N A N D C A L C U L AT I O N

Index

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

Introduction Foreword Development chronology, development aims Dunlop-Enerka test rig Belt Conveyors Basic sketch, concept, description Drive Systems Pulley arrangement, conveying systems Single pulley head drive, Dual pulley head drive, Head and tail drive, general criteria Drive components Pulley motor, Geared motor, Motor-gears-Couplings Couplings Coupling types, fixed coupling, flexible coupling, fluid coupling, hydro dynamic coupling Start-up procedure Run back prevention (holdback) Drive Pulley Force transmission, Eytelwein limitations, slip, creep Friction factor , angle of wrap Take-up (tension) Systems General, fixed take-up, gravity weight take-up, regulated take-up tension Detection Devices Belt tension detection, off-track detection, belt slip detection, longitudinal slitting safety device Cleaning Devices General, ground rules Cable scraper, transverse scraper, fan scraper staggered scraper, rotary scraper (vertical) Rotary scraper (horizontal) rapping roller, belt turnover, high pressure water cleaning Load General, bulk loads, piece loads, bulk density, angle of repose/surcharge, lump size, classification Temperature, moisture, chemical characteristics, pH value, angle of inclination Conveyor Belt General, belt construction Carcase, ply material Covers, cover qualities (DIN/ISO) Special qualities, cover thickness ratio Angle of inclination values, cover thickness values DUNLOP cover qualities, specifications Basic Materials Belt specification, DUNLOP belt types

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.1

7 7.1

8 8.1 8.2 8.3

9 9.1 9.2

10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8

I

Index

11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 12.27 12.28 12.29 12.30 12.31

Design Main data, belt speed, standard values, recommended values Belt widths, standard widths, minimum belt width, idler arrangement, idler spacing Idler spacing (recommended values) idler rotation, idler roll diameter, standard idler roll lengths L Photograph Cross sectional area of load, comparison various cross sections Conveyor capacity, load stream volume, load stream mass, degree of filling, reduction factor Power requirement, electric motor type list Adjustment factors Belt types Pulley diameters, standard diameters Pulley rotation, pulley loading Average surface pressure, transmission capability, start-up torque Troughing transition, pulley lift Convex vertical curve values Concave vertical curve, curve co-ordinates Belt turnover, turnover length, values Horizontal curve, values Basis of Calculation Resistance to motion, main resistance, secondary resistance, slope resistance, special resistances Peripheral force FU (working), summation Factor C (allowance for secondary resistance) Fictitious friction factor f Mass of rotating idler parts. Mass of belt Mass of material load. Peripheral force FA (start-up) friction cut-off material/belt Start-up factor KA, acceleration aA, take-off time, acceleration distance Peripheral force FB (braking), delay, over-run distance, braking torque of motor MM, drive power at pulley PT, motor power PM Degree of efficiency , nominal motor power (DIN) drive system Distribution of drive power with head and tail drive, distribution of drive power with dual pulley head drive Factor x for various drive conditions Distribution of drive power with dual pulley head and tail drive Belt tensions T1 and T2. Belt tension correction, fixed take-up Correction of belt tensions moveable take-up Correction of belt tensions for minimum belt tensions Sequential calculation to ascertain belt tensions T1 to T4, force distribution, individual resistances Sequential calculation for single pulley head drive Sequential calculation for tail drive and tail drive braking Sequential calculation for head and tail drive and dual pulley head drive Section loadings Nominal belt strength, safety factor Selection of belt type (criteria) Selection of belt type (criteria continuation) Selection of belt type (criteria continuation) Belt reference to ascertain a belt type Determination of fall energy at the loading point Influence of stresses on belt selection Photograph Determination of troughing capabilities Determination of cover thicknesses Determination of take-up travel, values

II

6 15. discharging Bucket spacing.3 15. resistance to motion Frictional resistance.9 15.1 15.2 15. belt speeds Conveying capacity. determination of belt type Determination of belt tensions T1 and T2 Safety factor S.11 15. bucket contents.9 13. nominal belt strength KN Bucket Elevator Belts Conveying capacity.5 15.4 15. making endless joint III . speed Loading. pre-tension.6 14.2 13.1 14.10 15. main resistance Loading resistance.3 14. friction coefficient (belt/drive pulley) Belt stress T1 (load dependent) pulley diameter.10 14 14.7 13.3 13.4 14. sequential calculation Sequential calculation for various take-up systems Belt safety. bucket shape Degree of Filling.5 13. belt tension.8 13.1 13. motor power Start-up factor.7 15.5 14.7 15 15.6 13. short calculation Peripheral force FU and motor performance PM Individual resistances. belt width. peripheral force FU Values for degree of filling. troughing transition Convex and concave vertical curve Control of additional stresses Computer calculations Photograph Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Supporting surface.8 15. speed Bucket shapes and dimensions Bucket attachment. secondary resistance.2 14. friction coefficient G (belt/supporting surface) Slope resistance.Index 13 13. peripheral force FA Safety Factor S. peripheral force FU.4 13.12 15. special resistances Special Resistances (continued) Drive power. number of plies Individual resistances.13 Calculation Example Duty data. take-up travel Pulley diameter. bulk density. belt widths.

8 J J.4 I. coiled roll.1 I.1 D.6 I.2 F F.2 a Safety Factor S Belt safety (definition) time/strength behaviour.2 C C.7 I. elongation value kD Troughing transition: safety and elongation Troughing transition with raised pulley Concave vertical curves Convex vertical curves Horizontal curve Belt turnover Roll Diameter Standard rolls.1 G G.1 B. DUNLOPLAST belts Steel cord belts SILVERCORD rubber cleats Secondary Resistances Inertial and frictional resistance at the loading point Frictional resistance from skirt plates (loading point) Frictional resistance from belt cleaners Belt bending (flexing) resistance.5 A.2 I. `S’ form coiled roll. DUNLOFLEX.1 H.2 C. HIGH-CHEVRON. MULTIPROF Slider bed belts. disc idlers Conveyor Belt Thicknesses and weights Belt types SUPERFORT.2 IV .2 I I.1 A.4 A.2 E E. roll on oval core Diameter of standard rolls (table) H H.1 E. TRIOFLEX.3 C.5 I. garland idlers Box section belt Steep conveying belts Corrugated edge belts without cleats Masses of Rotating Idler Rollers Standard idlers Cushion idlers. double coiled roll. pulley bearing resistance Special Resistances Resistance due to idler tilt Frictional resistance from skirt plates beyond the loading point Resistance due to sideways load discharge Resistance from trippers Resistance to belt sealing strip beyond the loading point Resistance from motion of bunker drag-out belts Drive Factors c1 and c2 Drive factors c1 and c2 value e D D.6 B B. STARFLEX.3 A.1 J.Index A A.4 Theoretical Volume Stream Flat carrying idlers.3 I. FERROFLEX Steep incline belts CHEVRON.1 C. 2 roll troughing idlers 3 roll troughing idlers Deep troughing.2 A. reductions Safety factors S for steady and non-steady state working and for temporary localised peak stresses Stress-Strain Curve Elongation characteristics (hysteresis curve) Stress-strain curve (diagram) Additional Stresses Belt safety.1 G. elastic modulus Values for Smin.

1 P.2 P P.2 Q. measurements Chemical Resistance Resistance of the carcase Resistance of the covers Resistance of the covers (continued) Steep Incline Installations Hints for the improvement of installation components Hints for the improvement of installation components (continued) Endless Splicing Methods.3 Q.1 K.4 Q.2 N.2 Q Q. taper Arrangement of Rubber Supporting Idler Discs Installation instructions.3 L L. hot vulcanising Warm vulcanization. mechanical fasteners Material Characteristics Material characteristics Material characteristics (continued) Material characteristics (continued) Material characteristics (continued) Material characteristics (continued) Material characteristics (continued) V .1 O.2 K.1 N N. cold vulcanisation.6 Pulley Diameters Pulley diameters for DUNLOP-ENERKA belt types Pulley diameters for DUNLOPLAST PVG and PVC belts Pulley diameters for steel cord belts SILVERCORD Crowned Pulleys Dimensions.3 O O.1 N.Index K K.5 Q.1 Q.1 M M.

comments etc. Parc. All information.L. Donjetsk The Ukraine Tel. +34 (9)3 80 55 446 Fax +34 (9)3 80 54 269 All information contained in this manual has been assembled with great care. +33 (0)1 3055 5419 Fax +33 (0)1 3054 0238 Telex 695608 Dunlop-CCT s. Visokovol’tnij Proezd. guide values. +44 (0) 1772 433 751 Fax +44 (0) 1772 623 967 Telex 627080 Dunlop-Enerka France Sarl Z. Postbus 14 9200 AA Drachten The Netherlands Tel. Moskow Russia Tel.a. It represents up-to-date knowledge and techniques and is based on our long experience of the industry. Les Comes C/Italia.v.O. +38 0622 955 038 Fax +38 0622 323 977 Dunlop-Enerka GmbH Friedrich-Bergius-Strasse 10 41516 Grevenbroich Germany Tel.v.I.a. Pol. The data and values given are based on average values. +7 095 901 8857 Fax +7 095 901 2921 Dunlop-Enerka b. 1 127577. Ind. des Ebisoires 78370 Plaisir France Tel. +32 (0) 69 254 811 Fax +32 (0) 69 226 270 Telex 57187 Dunlop-Enerka b. Ovnatanyana str. Box 86 Centurion Way Farington. +31 (0) 512 585 555 Fax +31 (0) 512 585 490 Telex 46116 Dunlop-CCT s.Dunlop-Enerka Belting P. +49 (0) 2181 2701 00 Fax +49 (0) 2181 2701 30 Dunlop-Enerka S. are given for guidance purposes only and the ultimate responsibility for the use of this information in conveyor design and any subsequent liability rests with the end user. We would however advise you that modifications may be necessary to cater for new technical developments. Boulevard des Combattants 64 7500 Tournai Belgium Tel. Leyland Preston. particularly where the suitability of our products for certain applications is concerned. Lancashire PR5 2EY United Kingdom Tel. 70 Nave 3 08700 Igualada Barcelona Spain Tel. . 4 340017.

They have proved their worth everywhere because belt conveyor installations can be adapted to meet nearly all local conditions. the selection criteria for an optimum belt type and to recognize a special operating case. values and experiences which can be useful during the planning stage.1 . The demand for ever increasing capacities and ever longer conveying lengths has accelerated the development of the belt conveyor technique. In addition to this every conveying problem is different and needs careful planning and selection of the right elements in order to achieve the optimum conveying capacity in an economical way. In future there will be more and more use of the computer for calculations and dimensioning of belt conveyors. With this often the correlation of the valuation criteria will no longer be recognizable. engineers and project people and provides a substantial amount of elementary data. have been taken into consideration as well as the results of individual research studies. They are work-safe and economical. EN. new materials are being developed. There are a number of practical rules. In addition there are a number of instructions and hints offered to enable accurate calculations or checks on installation components that impinge on the running of the belt. new conveying systems are being planned and tested especially those having regard to the environmental. or ISO. The developments continue and we are grateful for all hints and practical experiences. All new standards DIN. This manual should also help to understand the background to a calculation. This manual aims to be of assistance to operators. The conveyor belt plays the major part in the whole system and has to overcome the many and varied stresses.Introduction Foreword Conveyor belts have been used for decades to transport bulk and unit loads. July 1994 1.

from 1870 up to 1914 1921 1923/1924 1926 from 1928 from 1933 from 1939 1941/1942 1942 from 1945 1954/1955 from 1955 from 1970 from 1980 Trials with plain cotton belts. and the demands of new conveying systems.2 .Introduction Chronological Development Until the mid 1970’s conveyor belt development and technology was concentrated on the search for appropriate materials for the belt and the solving of drive problems. • Adaptation of cover quality to each duty i. • Optimum dimensioning of installation components e. the tube conveyor. hammock conveyor. polyamide and polyester. Use of belts with Maco cotton plies.g. additional requirements effecting the belt had to be considered and researched such as greater work load. cover quality to provide optimum solution at the most economical cost.e. Founding of the Enerka factory. Steelcord belts used for the first time for major long haul installations in the United States. Development and use of steel cord belting in Europe. Development of high tensile strength belts e. Development of Rayon/cotton belts and pure rayon belts. Further development of rayon belts. Use of Aramide as reinforcing material for the carcase Development of new conveyor systems e. The search for new materials became necessary because of the ever increasing demands to optimise installation construction such as pulley diameters.g. slit resistance and endless splice jointing. not a success due to drive problems. Increased use of rayon and synthetic rubber. troughing transitions. As the demand grew for conveyors of larger capacity and longer length. First rubber conveyor belts developed from drive belts. • Manufacture of conveyor belts and installation construction with the environment in mind. Cover rubbers with various surface designs. Introduction of mixed material fabrics includes synthetic weft. idlers. This brief history illustrates the more important stages in conveyor belt development.g. Steep incline belting with profiles and cleats. 1.e. drive and take-up systems. bearings and shafts. First belts with robust Balata reinforced covers. exploit to their maximum strength limits to obtain optimum working life economy. Use of PVC belts above ground. vertical and horizontal curves etc. First use of belts underground. elongation. plies from rayon. Transition from natural rubber to synthetic rubber for protection of carcase. Development Goals • Optimising conveyor belt reinforcing materials i. In the first instance transmission of traction played a part. pulley diameters. Manufacture of drive belts and later conveyor belts.

The principal intention of the testing methods is to simulate actual operating conditions encountered by a belt in service.3 . With this rig it is possible to simulate changing stresses. Dunlop-Enerka have developed and installed a new type of belt testing rig. observe belt slip to capacity limits etc.Introduction DUNLOP-ENERKA Belt Testing Rig To assist in future development of new belt types and splice joining techniques. 1. use various pulley diameters. Analysing the test data can enable optimum use to be made of conveyor belt materials and belt conveyors thereby providing more economical operations. apply maximum pre-tension. bending changes.

additional components and the principal item. Basic Sketch 25 24 17 16 33 34 Components 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Motor Motor Coupling Brake Drive Transmission Anti Runback Drive Coupling Pulley Bearings Drive Pulley Tail Pulley Deflection or Snub Pulley Impact Idler Garland Carrying Side Idler Return Side Idler Guide Roller Counter Weight Take-up Screw Take-up Take-up Weight 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Belt Run Counter Off Track Control Belt Steering Idler Pull Wire Emergency Switch Conveyor Belt Brush Roller Scraper Plough Decking Plate Cowl (Head Guard) Baffle Bar Delivery Chute Chute Lining Skirt Board Upper Belt Location Lower Belt Location Explanation Belt conveyor-fixed position Flat conveying Mobile conveyor With wheels Troughed conveying Without wheels 2.Belt Conveyor Construction An installation consists of a drive system. a take-up system.1 . In addition to the conventional conveyor there are other conveyor system developments in which the belt is the conveying element. the conveyor belt.

Additionally there are a number of new proven developments or those which are still undergoing trials. aerobelt conveyors. Here are some examples: Drive motors Hangers Drive Rollers Loop Belt with Clamp Edges Air Film Material Load Airinlet Loop Belt Conveyor (FMW System) Aerobelt Conveyor System Conveying Through Conveyor belt Material 3. start-up and braking forces. loop belt conveyors and others.Drive Systems Drive Systems A drive system consists of all components that provide for driving.1 . clamp conveyors. piggy-back conveyors. The transmission of traction power from the drive pulley is dependent upon the following factors: • Angle of wrap the belt makes on the drive pulley • Friction coefficient between belt and drive pulley • Pre Tension Tv. for instance. tube conveyors. Pulley Arrangement and Belt Path Eintrommel-Antrieb mit direktem Abwurf Single pulley drive with direct discharge Eintrommel-Antrieb mit Schwenkarm und Single pulley drive with swivel arm and Abwurfausleger discharge jib Eintrommel-Antrieb mit Abwurfausleger Single pulley drive with discharge jib Dual pulley head drive with swivel arm and Zweitrommel-Kopfantrieb mit Schwenkarm discharge jib und Abwurfausleger Zweitrommel-Kopfantrieb mit direktem Abwurf Dual pulley head drive with direct discharge Single pulley head drive with single pulley Eintrommel-Kopfantrieb tail drive mit Eintrommel-Umkehrantrieb Zweitrommel-Kopfantrieb Dual pulley head drive with single pulley mit Eintrommel-Umkehrantrieb tail drive Conveyor Systems The above sketches of drive systems and belt paths are of the classical and most frequently used types.

Under normal circumstances the drive unit comprises motor. the belt characteristics and general operating conditions.2 . For light duty applications the Motorized Conveyor Pulley or V-rope Drive is often used. Start-up and braking is made easier on long installations. flanged coupling or extension gear box. In situations of high belt stress additional deflection of the belt should be avoided thereby preventing unnecessary bending stresses. The pulley shaft is then symmetrically used and able to take a higher loading. With the higher duties the drive pulley is driven on both sides. 2 to 4 drives are possible which as a rule for reasons of standardization. The tail drive overcomes the resistances to motion on the return side run. Almost the same size work load can be achieved by selecting a fluid coupling whose slip characteristic can be modified by adjusting the volume of fluid in the working circuit. One should be particularly aware of dirt build-up. All motors take approximately the same work load. General Criteria The choice of drive system depends on the total working duty. For the higher duty applications the dual pulley drive is used which enables an increase in angle of wrap and traction transmission. With multi-pulley drives the belt should be so reeved that the pulley side is leading over the drive pulley. reversible drives or where high return side resistance can occur. By distributing the drive power in the ratio of 1:1 or 1/3 : 2/3. If slip ring motors are used this can be achieved by adjusting the slip resistance.Drive Systems Single Pulley Head Drive The single pulley head drive is the most common and preferred drive. the transmission capability of the first pulley would not be fully utilized. With higher duty applications the drive units can be located on both sides of the drive pulley. would be of the same size. coupling and gear box located at the side of the drive pulley and connected by means of a flexible coupling. Prompt cleaning can avoid down time and repair costs. Dual Pulley Head Drive Head and Tail Drive P1 P2 The head and tail drive may be used for relatively long installations. the pre-tension at the head drive can be increased. 3.

The high torque when starting can be minimised and adjusted by means of flexible couplings. The geared motor is connected to the drive drum by a flexible or fixed coupling. The heat loss is minimal particularly with lagged pulleys. Geared Motor Utilized up to approximately 30 kW. angle drive. Motor Gears Coupling Drive units comprising these three components are used the most. For use on small to medium duty applications. Possibilities are spur gearing. Small installations up to approximately 10-12 kW can run without intermediate coupling.Drive Systems Drive Components Pulley Motor In principle there are three possibilities for conveyor belt driving systems.02 to 5 m/s. is robust and economical. fluid couplings and slip couplings. Motor Coupling Gearbox In most cases. especially on large installations. Squirrel Cage Motor Slip Ring Motor 3. These are distinguished by their compact construction. Typical are work loads up to 600 kW with maximums up to approximately 1500 kW. special applications up to approximately 120 kW. This type of motor is simple to build. coupling and brake are built into the drive unit. Drive Motor As a rule a belt conveyor has to operate under variable load conditions. The advantage of this arrangement is the good accessibility and interchangeability of components and favourable spares inventory etc. worm gearing.3 . The slip ring motor is used on large installations if a quasi stationary gentle start-up is required. The drive capability has to take account of these changes. The high stresses imposed upon the system during loaded start-up can be limited by step by step increases in resistance or by the Star Delta reduced voltage system. With this type of motor the starting torque can be reduced by the increase of resistances within the electrical circuit. also must run at constant revolutions and even speed. Compact and frequently used for light duty applications. As a rule in the range of approximately 20 kW to a maximum of 100 kW where pulley diameters up to 1400 mm are used and belt speeds in the range 0.

1 . The maximum torque occurring during the start-up process is restricted to lowest possible level. provide a gentle quasi steady state start-up of the belt conveyor.g. Centrifugal Couplings Centrifugal and magnetic type couplings with controlled torque are hardly ever used because of their high cost and are no longer a significantly used item for belt start-up. The conveyor belt and splice joints are relieved and conserved. Depending on the size and type of motor.Couplings Coupling Types When starting up a belt conveyor. is the acceleration torque. The motor in contrast creates by far the greater start-up torque. The difference between the load torque and the start-up torque of the motor. Hydraulic Coupling The principle of a Turbo coupling Empty at Rest Full at Start-up Full Working (Principle of the VOITH Turbo coupling with delay chamber) 4. start-up and acceleration forces. for a short time forces result which are higher than those which occur during normal running conditions e. They permit a load free acceleration of the motor and consequently with increasing oil fill. a gentle start-up is provided when a flexible or hydraulic coupling is used. Fluid couplings or hydraulic couplings are often used for larger drives in combination with squirrel cage motors. Flexible Couplings Flexible couplings of diverse construction are already built into 16-20 kW units. Rigid Coupling Rigid couplings are used only on small installations up to a maximum of 30 kW and at slow speeds.

Couplings Start-up Procedure The electric motor produces a variable torque with speed of rotation which is illustrated below by line M. At the moment of switch on. This type of coupling is only effective on a high speed shaft. As rotation increases the motor torque declines to saddle torque MS and then increases to the brink torque MK. the belt conveyor demands the break away torque MLB. The load increases steadily. The difference between the motor torque MM and the load torque ML is the acceleration torque MB up to the torque intersection of both lines. 4. The belt conveyor as a working unit opposes torque MM at the same rotational speed set against torque ML. the coupling and the belt conveyor reach the drive speed of rotation at point 3. Torque M MM 2 3 ML MK Revolutions n 1 MM ML MK Motor Torque Load Torque Coupling Torque The start-up torque is reached by a continuous filling of the coupling from 0 to break away torque within a period of approximately 10 to 20 seconds. the electric motor delivers the start-up torque MA. Thereafter the motor. When this happens.2 . Thereafter the torque at the nominal speed of rotation reduces to the nominal torque of the motor MN. Squirrel Cage Motor with Fixed Couplings Torque M MK MA MS MB MLb MN MA MS MK MN MLb ML MB Start-up Torque Motor Saddle Torque Motor Brink Torque Motor Nominal Torque Motor Break Away Torque Load Torque Acceleration Torque ML Revolutions n Squirrel Cage Motor with Hydraulic Coupling The start-up of the electric motor occurs practically load free compared with the coupling torque MK up to the cut-off point 1 of the graph line MK and the load graph line ML. Thus the belt is slowly tensioned and longitudinal vibrations are avoided. The motor remains at point 2 and accelerates the belt conveyor up to synchronous speed.

Couplings Holdback A holdback device is necessary if the force due to the loaded incline of a conveyor FSt exceeds that of the peripheral force FH stemming from conveying the load over the horizontal distance. This is the case with all steeply inclined conveyors and with those having a decline of approximately 6° to 10°. FSt > FH stands fast (N) FSt = H * g * m’L FH = f * L * g ( m’L + m’R ) (N) (N) free locked FSt FH m’L m’R L H f g (N) (N) (Kg/m) (Kg/m) (m) (m) (-) (m/s2) Incline Force Force due to Horizontal Conveying Mass of Load Stream on Belt Mass of Rotating Carrying Idler Rollers Conveyor Length Height Difference Artificial Friction Factor Acceleration due to gravity During installation a check should be made as to whether the direction of pulley rotation corresponds with the free wheeling direction of rotation and that reverse travel of the belt is no longer possible.3 . SUPERFORT Belt in Service Conveying Overburden 4.

to the value of T2 over a logarithmic N eo gl ira An le log From the formulae for peripheral force FU and T1 the following relationships can be derived: 1 T1 = FU * ( 1 + e -1 ) = FU * c1 T2 Sp . a decrease in the belt stretch occurs. Creep 5.Drive Pulley Force Transmission T1 The belt tensions required for frictional transmission of peripheral force FU are: T1 = Entry side force = Tight side tension T2 = Leaving side force = Slack side tension FU Because of the friction coefficient between belt and pulley. if the slip limit is about to be reached and the angle of wrap is fully utilized. It is not proportional to the time it occurs at a slower rate. The difference between both forces is peripheral force FU.T2 or T1 = FU + T2 T2 On braking the forces are reversed.1 . then the drive pulley over runs and slip occurs. then at the limit of slip T1 ≤e T1max T1 A of r ngle epo se T1 fw rap Eytelwein Limitations or T2 T1 ≤ T2 * e T1 decreases along the angle of wrap spiral. FU = T1 . Slip If the peripheral force FU is greater than the transmission capability according to the Eytelwein theory borderline conditions. 1 T2 = FU * ( e -1 ) = F U * c2 c1 and c2 are the drive factors. Creep remains on the pulley circumference and often creates a whistling sound. During the reduction of tension from T1 to T2 along the service arc. T1 is greater than T2. Leaving side speed < entry side speed. In the extreme case of friction cut off that is. Entry side speed = pulley peripheral speed.

1 Polyurethane lagging (grooved) 0. Pulley Surface Operating Condition Plain Steel (smooth) 0. In practice the friction coefficient varies within limits which are dependent upon: • Surface condition of the pulley • Lubricating material such as water or load slime between belt and pulley • Temperature • Surface pressure • Slip and creep speed The friction coefficient declines with increasing surface pressure and increases with increasing speed of creep for instance at start-up.4 to 0. the pretension force as well as various other installation components are dependent upon the friction coefficient . coefficient de coefficient Friction frottement 5.35 to 0.25 .0. By using two drive pulleys an angle of up to approximately 450° can be achieved.2 0.3 0. •With friction coefficient value less than 0. ≤ 180° ≤ 230° 1 + 2 ≤ ca.2 .Drive Pulley Friction Coefficient The factors determining the transmission of peripheral force Fu are the friction coefficient. full knowledge of the operation is desirable.1 0. In order to assess the friction coefficient.4 Dry Wet (Clean) Wet (dirty mud.35 Angle of Wrap The angle of wrap can be increased by means of a snub pulley to a maximum of 230°. Tv. 450° c1 c2 Drive Factors Facteurs de commande From the graph the following relationships can be derived. clay) 0.35 to 0.35 to 0. c1 c2 Angle of wrap arc de contact •An increase in value over 0.35 does not result in any great advantage from c1 and c2.3 an increase of the angle is an improvement from c1 and c2.4 0.35 Rubber lagging (grooved) 0.4 0.35 Ceramic lagging (porous) 0. •Values and take into account the values of and with the same value of drive factors c1 or c2.45 0.4 to 0.g. the angle of wrap and the pretension T2 e.05 to 0.45 0. The number of drive pulleys.

During start-up the pre-tension is kept above nominal value. With this a constant pre-tension is achieved at all parts of the installation. Gravity Weight On longer installations a moveable gravity weight tension device is used. The belt is permanently tensioned sufficiently high as is necessary for full load conditions. the start up behaviour. 6. additionally to permanent belt elongation.1 . After reaching the steady running condition the winch is adjusted so as to provide the nominal value of pre-tension. The level of pre-tension force can be determined practically by tensioning the belt until the forces react at all parts of the installation. so called regulated take-up winches are used. Depending on the application one differentiates between: • Fixed take-up • Moveable take-up with a constant pre-tension provided by a gravity weight or with a pre-tension regulated by motor Fixed Take-up Device This simple take-up device is used for relatively short conveyor lengths or with belts having a low elongation such as steelcord.5% based on conveyor centre to centre distance and with steelcord belts approximately 0. before the belt start-up. It is possible to ascertain and actually adjust the tension by means of a sensor.Take-up Systems General Belt conveyors are equipped with take-up (tension) devices. the length stays constant but the belt pull force changes according to the change in load through permanent or elastic stretch. The length changes of the belt are evened out in the take-up travel. By means of electric switching a pre-run of the take-up winch. It must be determined in such a way as to accommodate those changes i. climate and perhaps the conveying distance and the inclination of the installation. Regulated Take-up Winch With especially long installations or to reduce start-up vibrations of belt.e. A value for take-up travel with textile carcase belts is approximately 1. These are necessary to make it possible for the transmission of force on the drive pulley or to accommodate changes in the length of the belt as the load changes and to provide a smooth start-up of the installation. After tensioning the belt.3%. the elongation characteristics of the belt. The choice of take-up system depends on the general conditions of the installation. is achieved.

Detection Devices For the operation of complex belt conveyor installations a range of safety devices were developed. braking and load variations.1 . to guard the conveyor belt and to run and automize the complete installation. With the help of this device the overloading of a transfer point is registered. Slip can occur more often at start up as well as overload conditions or when the pre-tension is too low. In most cases it stems from sharp edged pieces of material being trapped in the transfer chute. Too great or too long a duration of slip leads to overheating of the pulley surface which can lead to fire. A tensiometer measures the changing belt tensions. If the off-track is not adjusted the installation is brought to a halt. Chute detection Belt Slip detection Longitudinal Slitting Safety Device Illustration of the transverse reinforcement in a FERROFLEX Belt 7. Off track detection An off-track of the belt can be limited or corrected by means of a number of mechanical devices. • Carcase with a high resistance to longitudinal slittings such as Dunlop FERROFLEX belt or DUNLOPLAST belt. With an overload. A contact probe is suspended in the chute and adjusted to the required material flow. To avoid such damage the following remedies are possible. contact is made with the probe and the installation is switched off. As soon as the defined limits of the upper and lower belts tensions are exceeded a signal is transmitted to the take-up unit. This device detects the force transmission between belt and drive pulley. Another possibility is to track the belt with light beams. • Rip detection loops at approximately 50 to 100m spacings vulcanised into the belt. They serve to prevent accidents. Belt tension detection This device detects the belt tension changes during different working conditions such as starting. Slitting open of conveyor belts is a relatively frequent cause of damage which leads to prolonged interruptions and incurs great costs. If a deviation beyond the defined limits is detected a motorized steering system is set into operation. • Textile or Steel breaker ply embedded in the cover rubber • Bunched steel cords are embedded in the carrying side cover set at fixed spacing.

Cleaning Devices General Belt conveyors when operating need to be cleaned constantly depending on the type and characteristics of the load residues which stick to the carrying side of the belt. The consequences are. A small gap between the scraper and belt surface provides a sufficient cleaning effect with most bulk loads. perhaps a double or staggered scraper. In nearly every case the most effective and economic solution has to be established. The following need to be observed: • the hardness of the belt and scraper. granulated • degree of cleaning. Sliding friction becomes rolling friction. sticky. The scraper should be designed in such a way that it makes contact with the biggest possible area of the belt. Several well proven systems are listed as follows. rough to `clinically’ clean Basic rules The material from which the scraper is made has to be in accord with the type of belt and the material to be scraped off. The return idlers get dirty which leads to further encrusting of idlers and pulleys.1 . damp. An excessive contact pressure increases energy consumption and wear and tear of the belt. possibly by trial and error. amongst others: • • • • • loss of load soiling of the installation damage to the belt off tracking of the belt damage to idlers The belt cleaning requires special measures having regard to: • material characteristics such as. causing minimum wear and tear. dry. In general the material from which the scraper is made should not be harder than the belt surface. • the contact pressure of the scraper. TRIOFLEX Belt in operation on Garland Idlers 8.

clay and the like. Adjustable versions are available.2 . 8. Rotary Scraper Rotating. Also prevents material from running into the tail pulley. In special cases it can be used in double bladed form. Fan Scraper Used for moderately sticky material Big contact area. Not suitable for sticky materials such as clay or loam.Cleaning Devices Piano Wire Scraper Steel cords tensioned transversely over the belt carrying side behind point of discharge for coarse cleaning of sticky material such as loam. Can be adjusted depending on the load and desired degree of cleaning. Transverse Scraper Fixed or moveable also possible as a double bladed scraper. Staggered Scraper Used for nearly all non-sticky materials. Scratch Action Scraper Used for rough cleaning immediately at the discharge pulley. Plough Scraper For cleaning the under side of the belt often located before tail pulleys. partly self driven brushes with rubber or nylon bristles.

belt driven. For belts with a profiled carrying side and steep inclined belts. Ring scraper in slightly tilted position . Rapping Roller Situated on the belt running side located in the region of the discharge hopper. tunnels or over-passes. Carrying side Pulley side Turnover Length High Pressure Water Good cleaning method where good water supply and drainage are available. Belt turnover Located at inaccessible areas such as bridges.Cleaning Devices Rotary Scraper Horizontally rotating scraper located on return run. 8.3 . The belt is turned over on the return side so that the dirty carrying side is uppermost.

The choice of conveyor belt is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the materials and possibly by safety regulations and demands. pH value. angle of surcharge etc. cement. They are defined by their physical characteristics such as density. earth.200 > 200 kmax / kmin ≤ 2. Sized load Unsized load Granulometry Measurement Bulk Load Definition Dust Granular Lumps Large Lumps Granulometry (mm) 0.5 0. It is the quotient of the mass and volume V of the bulk load Bulk Loads Unit Loads Bulk Density m = V Angle of repose Surcharge ( t/m3 ) If a load is loosely poured a static angle of slope st will form.1 . abrasiveness.5 . grain.10 10 . If exact values are necessary they have to be determined by practical trials. and are defined by shape. The particles of the bulk load interact and the lower the internal friction of the material the lower the surcharge angle dyn. stone. granulometry.0.5 k = 0. the angle of surcharge dyn is formed. Granulometry k As a measure of granulometry or lump size the maximum diagonal corner to corner dimensions k are used. Approximately: = (0. If the under layer is moved as when being transported on a conveyor belt.9) * dyn st The surcharge angle is only to a degree related to material size. The tabulated values in the Appendix are approximate values. how the material is loaded and the geometry of the conveyor installation. sand. granular or lumps.5 ( kmax + kmin ) kk 9. measurement and weight.5 kmax / kmin > 2. Whichever is the predominant granulation or lump size decides whether the bulk load is sized or unsized. Dusty.. oil and fat content. moisture. blocks etc. It depends on the friction between material and belt. Piece loads comprise such as boxes sacks.5 .Load General It is important to know the exact make-up and material component of the load when constructing a conveyor installation. Loads for instance.

For most bulk loads and belts with a smooth carrying surface. The maximum angle of inclination of a belt conveyor depends on the friction value between material and belt and the form of material. the limit angle lies between 18° and 20°.g. The method of loading such as direction and rate of feeding are also important criteria. • Whether installation is open or enclosed. Large lump and moist material decrease the angle of inclination. belts with cleats or elevator belts are used. 8 Sidewall Belting: with Vertical Cleats with Tilted Cleats with Bucket Cleats Steep Inclining Belts: Multiprof CHEVRON HIGH-CHEVRON Profile Belts: Herringbone Rufftop Smooth Belts 5° Elevators ca. 22° 9.Load Temperature It is important to have as near accurate as possible knowledge of the load temperature and ambient conditions in order to select the optimum cover quality and in certain circumstances the layout of particular installation components. the negative exponent to base 10 of the concentration (hydrogen exponent).2 . Further influencing factors are: • Granulometry of the material and hence the contact density made with the belt. 40° 5° ca. 90° ca. 3 ca. profiled belts. Angle of Inclination ca. It is difficult to give an exact assessment and if necessary practical trials need be conducted. A sound knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the load is necessary when selecting the cover quality and also the carcase reinforcement. Moisture The moisture content of the material has an influence on the surcharge angle dyn. alkalis neutral acid pH > 7 pH = 7 pH < 7 The neutral point is pH = 7 Under 7 indicates acidity Over 7 indicates alkalinity (bases) The pH value indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity and can be important in selecting the cover quality. • The speed of the belt and therefore the heating up and cooling off times. The temperature of the chemical material as well as the proportion of acidity influences the level of attack made on the belt cover. the friction value between material and belt and thus the maximum angle of inclination of an installation. The moisture content is measured in percentage. For steeper inclinations up to 90°. Chemical Characteristics pH Value The pH value is the concentration of hydrogen ions which are present in a solution e. Important are the proportions of oils and fats (mineral and vegetable) and acidity.

Conveyor Belt General The conveyor belt is the most important element of a belt conveyor installation. Absorb the impact energy at the loading point. impact protection. longitudinal slitting prevention etc. Carrying Side Covers Full Rubber Edge Breaker Ply or Longitudinal Slit Preventor Carcase of textile plies Pulley Side Cover Schematic Construction of a Plied Belt 10. The selection of the belt specification depends on the application. acidity etc. • Covers in different qualities of rubber or PVC. cleats or corrugated edges etc. Belt construction The conveyor belt consists of the following components: • Carcase consisting of textile plies. • Meet safety requirements (flame resistant. All items mentioned above should be considered carefully. antistatic etc.1 . Transport the load. • Special construction elements like profiles on steep incline belts. steel weave or steel cord.). oil and fat containing materials.). Withstand temperature and chemical effects (heat. It has to be capable of doing numerous tasks: • • • • Absorb the stresses developed at drive start-up. • Additional components (as required) such as edge protection.

Conveyor Belt Carcase The carcase can be made from various materials and in different constructions. Steelcord Core Rubber SILVERCORD Material For textile. The most frequently used are textile ply carcases and Steel Cord. ST-belts Cover With this belt force is transmitted via steel cords of the appropriate strength. DUNLOPLAST Carcase of the Steel weave type The transmission of force is by means of the longitudinal steelcords laid next to one another in the same plain. The cords are transversely bound together by an intermediate layer of rubber only. Carcase with one or more textile plies (up to a maximum of 6 ply) DUNLOFLEX 2 Ply Carcase of the Solid woven type. Transverse Elements serve to prevent impact damage or longitudinal slitting. FERROFLEX Carcase with Steel Cords. Above this carcase is a transverse layer also of steel which is held in place by a polyamide binder cord. solid woven or steel reinforced types the principal materials used are as follows: Symbol B P E EP D F ST Ply Materials Cotton Polyamide Polyester Polyester-Polyamide Aramid Steel Weave Steel Cord (Natural fibre) (Synthetic fibre) (Synthetic fibre) (Synthetic fibre) (Synthetic fibre) (Ferroflex) (ST belt) 10. polyamide or aramid.2 . Monoply belts TRIOFLEX 3 Ply SUPERFORT Multi Ply Dunloplast Belts have a PVC impregnated textile carcase of monoply construction. Depending on tensile strength and duty the carcase fibres are in polyester.

DIN 22102 (April 1991) Cover grade Tensile strength Breaking elongation Abrasion loss N/mm2 min.g.3 . The basic grades and principal properties are in accordance with ISO and DIN. 10. polyester (E) in the warp (longitudinal direction) and polyamide (P) in the weft (transverse direction). it is sufficient to have heat sealed cut edges. Steel Cord belts have very low elongation and are used predominantly on long haul installations. The carrying side cover should not be more than 3 times thicker than the running side cover. % mm3 H 24 450 120 D 28 400 100 L 15 350 200 Various other special grades exclude laid down mechanical or other values. The abbreviation of this ply construction is called EP. Evaluation of various Material Properties Key and evaluation of the plies Characteristics B Tensile Strength Adhesion Elongation Moisture Resistance Impact Resistance – – = bad Covers – – – –– – P ++ ++ – + + + = good E ++ ++ ++ ++ + EP ++ ++ ++ ++ + D +++ ++ +++ ++ + F ++ ++ +++ + ++ ST +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ – = medium ++ = very good +++ = excellent The carcase is protected against outside influences by the covers which are normally made out of either rubber or PVC. Exceptions are belts requiring special qualities such as oil and fat resistance. W 18 400 90 X 25 450 120 Y 20 400 150 Z 15 350 250 Cover Thickness Ratio Belt Edges Grades ISO 10247 (November 1990) Cover grade Tensile strength Breaking elongation Abrasion loss N/mm2 min. % mm3 max. Carcases from Aramid (D) are in development and are high tensile and low elongation carcases.Conveyor Belt Of the textile ply types the wholly synthetic plies have proved to be the best over the years e. Carrying side : Running Side ≈ 3:1 With wholly synthetic and rot resistant plies it is not necessary to have full rubber edge protection.

Conveyor Belt Special Qualities Characteristics Flame Resistant Anti Static Flame Resistant. smooth. cleated and with corrugated edges. Herringbone Profile Rufftop Profile Multiprof Profile HIGH-CHEVRON Profile 10. profiled. the inclination of the installation or depending on the use of the belt. Anti Static Heat Resistant Low Temperature Resistant Oil and Fat Resistant Food Stuff Chemical Products Type F E S or K T R G A C Cover Surface The carrying side surface depends on the load.4 .

height of fall etc.90° Bulk loads all types Load Gradient angle for conveyor belt with Rufftop profile Herringbone profile 30° 30° 30° 35° 30° 25° Wooden crates Bricks Paper Sacks Jute Sacks Plastic Boxes-dry Plastic Boxes-wet 40° 40° 35° 35° 40° 25° Carrying side Cover thickness The thickness of the carrying side cover depends upon the nature of the load and loading conditions (type of load.Conveyor Belt Gradient values Cover Surface Belt Type Max.20° Profiled Fishbone Rufftop Steep conveyor CHEVRON HIGH-CHEVRON Multiprof Belts with corrugated side walls. coarse Ore large lump Coal 2 2-4 4-8 4-8 8 . Cover Thickness (mm) Cover Thickness Gauges Conveyor Load/Duty Carrying Side Light package Conveying Gravel.12 8 . Potash etc. Gradient Application Unit and bulk loads all types Piece and bulk loads Bulk loads (non-sticky) Piece loads (sacks) Piece and bulk loads Smooth Normal 18° . Ore. with or without T-Cleats up to 35° Steep conveyor profile up to 40° T-cleats with or without corrugated edges up to 90° With Steel or rubber buckets attached Elevator belts 80° .5 . Earth.12 Pulley Side 2 2-3 2-3 2-3 3-5 3-5 10. Ballast. Coal Slag Coarse ballast.). gradient.

such as fertilizer BVO S/G -20° 80° 90° CR/NBR Fire and oil resistant for conveyance of oily materials (vegetable oils and animal greases). e.g. Extra abrasion resistant and cut resistant for heavy duty service conditions (sharp materials and adverse loading conditions).Conveyor belt Dunlop-Enerka Cover Qualities DunlopEnerka Quality RA Quality DIN Y (N) ISO. Basic materials Code NR SBR NBR IIR EPDM CR Rubber type Natural Rubber Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Nitrile Rubber Butyl Rubber Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Rubber Chloroprene Rubber 10. Very heat resistant. sinter. such as embers. duration max. coke etc. for materials at moderate temperatures. for heavy duty service conditions including abrasive materials. for materials with controlled high temperatures. fertilizer. Temperature (˚C) min. SBR/NBR Oil and grease resistant. for vegetable oils and animal greases. Very heat resisant. for oily materials on mineral oil base. for vegetable oils and animal greases. BV S/K -30° 80° 90° CR/SBR Fire resistant for conveyance of materials with fire and explosion danger. at temperatures up to 400°C (or more) at times. derivates etc. e. RE X (M) H -40° 80° 90° NR RS W D -30° 80° 90° NR/SBR Super abrasion resistant.g. for heaviest service conditions. cereals. for normal service conditions encountered in carrying bulk and aggregate materials. -30° 80° 100° Basic base Characteristics Application SBR Abrasion resistant. some isolated burning materials or red-hot cores.6 . BETAHETE STARHETE T T T -20° -20° -20° 150° 180° 200° 170° 220° 400° SBR IIR EPDM Heat resistant. and for heavy service conditions of the cover. The values apply to the materials temperatures Other qualities for special applications are available on request. DELTAHETE ROS ROM MORS G G G -20° -30° -20° 80° 80° 80° 120° 90° 90° NBR SBR/NBR Oil and grease resistant. Oil and grease resistant. abrasive materials with a large proportion of fines.

Butyl rubber is a polymerisation product of Isobutylene and Isoprene. Technical Characteristics • Very good tensile strength and elongation • High heat resistance and elasticity • High tearing and shear strength • Good abrasion resistance characteristics Temperature Stability Generally stable within the temperature range of -30° to + 80°C. depending on compounding. acetone. 10. The physical property values are slightly lower than those of natural rubber. sunlight and ambient weather conditions can be achieved. heat and ozone resistances are better than natural rubber. alcohol. Abrasion. Nitrile Rubber NBR Butyl Rubber IIR Ethylene Propylene Rubber EPDM EPDM is temperature resistant similar to Butyl but with a considerably higher resistance to wear and tear. In addition to a very good resistance to ageing. Butyl rubber is used mainly for heat resistant conveyor belting. Synthetic Rubber SBR SBR is a synthetic polymerisation product consisting of styrene and butadiene whose characteristics are similar to natural rubber. dilute acids and alkalis . It is not resistant to Ketones. because of its special properties is a good basic material for belt cover rubbers. It has a limited resistance to acids and alkalis. Tensile strength and cut resistance are good. it is able to withstand temperatures of -30°C to + 150°C. Special characteristics With special compounding natural rubber based mixes can be made antistatic and flame resistant. It has a very good ozone and temperature resistance.limited resistance to concentrated acids and alkalis where compounding and service temperatures are major consideration. Additionally EPDM has a better ozone resistance than all other basic polymers. resistant to ageing and is used for oil and fat resistant belt covers. NBR is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile. esters aromatics and hydrocarbons.Conveyor belt Basic Materials Natural Rubber NR Characteristics and areas of application Natural rubber. NBR is relatively abrasion resistant. By adding antiozonants a substantial protection against harsh temperature effects.7 . animal and vegetable fats. Chemical Stability Resistant to water. The temperature operating range can be controlled between -40°C to +120°C. With special rubber compounding a widening of this range may be achieved from -40°C to + 100°C. Scope Everywhere where high physical properties are called for and the chemical and temperature demands are not excessive.

The values are Internationally Standardized. D DUNLOFLEX 2 Ply Belt T TRIOFLEX 3 Ply Belt S SUPERFORT Multiply Belt F FERROFLEX Steelweave Belt DLP DUNLOPLAST Monoply Belt ST SILVERCORD Steelcord Belt DUNLOP types Nominal Tensile Strength the Carcase This number gives the nominal or breaking strength of the carcase in N/mm of belt width. NCR is better than CR. The monoply belt has a solid woven carcase. Endless Length is the inside circumference of the endless belt. For cover rubber which requires a high oil and fat resistance whether it be animal. The resistance to animal and vegetable oils and fats is superior to natural rubber as is the ageing resistance. Additionally special types and qualities may be described by the manufacturer or in accordance with Customer wishes.Conveyor belt Chloroprene Rubber CR CR is a Synthetic polymerisation product of Chlorobutadiene. 10. The chlorine in Chloroprene gives the product a high degree of flame resistance. The number of plies is not indicated in specially described types such as DUNLOFLEX. TRIOFLEX or DUNLOPLAST. They provide the principal characteristics of each quality but can be affected by the addition of other compounding ingredients to achieve requirements of standards and regulations. Nitrile Chloroprene Rubber NCR The use of Nitrile in Chloroprene rubber enhances the dynamic properties.8 . 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 Nominal Tensile Strength of Plies The nominal tensile strength of the full thickness carcase is the sum of the ply strengths rounded up to the next nominal tensile strength. The working temperature range is -30°C to +80°C. The foregoing basic materials are main ingredients of cover rubber components. vegetable or mineral and also requiring superior mechanical properties. Open Length is the length around the pulleys plus an allowance for making endless. Conveyor belting is described according to laid down International standards. Ordering Example 100 m 800 mm EP 400/3 4+2 mm X Note Belt Description Belt Length Belt Width Material (carcase) Nominal Tensile Strength Number of Plies Carrying Side Cover Thickness Pulley Side Cover Thickness Cover Quality Belt Length The belt length is generally given in metres either open or endless. The mechanical properties are similar to natural rubber but significantly better in respect of ozone and oil resistance. 125 630 160 800 200 1000 250 1250 315 1600 400 2000 500 2500 Number of Plies The nominal strength of the carcase is made up by a number of plies.

60 ≥ 8.19 .31 ≤ 1.8.66 .4.35 2. Standard Values Speeds V (m/s) 0.52 . Sinter Storage and transhipment.0.68 0.2.68 1.09 .60 .31 .0.09 1.1.35 .05 .62 .1.5. Assembly Lines Mobile Conveyors Very dusty loads such as Flour. Crushed Limestone Gravel.20 .1. High Speed Low Speed - Narrower belt widths Lower belt tension Greater wear and tear Greater belt widths Higher belt tension Less wear and tear The most economical installation is that having the highest belt speed consistent with the type of material and operating conditions.3.40 Duty Unit Loads. Sand Readymix Ores.2.6.2.68 ≤ 1.62 .68 2.1 .6.84 . Belt Speed Belt Width Carrying Idler Arrangement Cross Sectional area of Load Stream Conveyor Capacity v (m/s) B (m) or (mm) A (m2) Q (t/h) Speed V The belt or Conveying Speed V (m/s) must be appropriate for the material composition and operation conditions. overburden Brown coal Thrower belts Steep gradient belts Type CHEVRON and HIGH CHEVRON v (m/s) Recommended Velocity (m/s) ≤ 1.3.Design Main Data Values After establishing the duty of the operation and the type of belt conveyor. Power Stations Long distance conveying.05 .42 . the main data may be determined.62 11.31 .84 . Cement Ash and Refuse Grain.40 0.0.1.52 . Bituminous Coal.

After determining the belt type a check on troughability may be necessary under some circumstances.1600 .400 .015 Return run : hrel = 0. Width (mm) 400 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Lump Size K Sized 50 80 130 200 250 350 400 450 550 600 Unsized 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 800 k With unsized material the large lumps are embedded in the smaller granulated material. Tx * 8 * hrel (m’L + m’G) * g Tx * 8 * hrel m’G * g Tx m’L m’G g hrel (N) ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) ( m/s2 ) (-) Belt tension at point X Weight of load per metre Weight of belt per metre Gravitational acceleration (9. The roller spacing has to be selected in such a way that the sag of a loaded belt is no more than 0.5% of the centre to centre distance. Flat 2 Part 3 Part Deep Trough Garland Distance between Carrying Idlers Tx lo lu h Tx In deciding on the carrying idler spacing one has to take account of the load limitation of the carrying idler (note: Refer to manufacturer’s specification).800 . 300 .Design Belt Width B Wherever possible a standard belt width should be selected.1000 1200 .650 . Carrying Idler Disposition The disposition of the carrying idler varies from application to application.1400 . The number of idler rolls in a carrying idler set and troughing angle determine the cross sectional area of the load stream and thus the conveying capacity. Type and granulometry of the materials determine the minimum belt width.1800 .500 .2200 Standard Widths (mm) Minimum Belt Widths Min.5%-1. After establishing the belt tension the belt sag between idler rollers has to be checked.005-0.81 m/s2) Relative belt sag Carrying run : hrel = 0.030 Carrying Side lo = (m) Return Side lu = (m) 11.020-0. With return side idlers one may allow approximately 2-3% sag.2 .2000 .

Standard Idler Diameter (mm) Carrying Idlers Impact Idlers Return Run Support Discs 51 63.5 88.m.p.9 108 156 138 150 133 180 180 159 215 215 193.0 m Return Side lu = (2-3)*lo Small installation or high impact Normal installation High tension installation Maximum approx 6 m (r.Design Values for Idler Spacing Carrying Side lo = 0. The gap d between 2 adjacent rolls should not be greater than 10mm.p.3 . 11. with belt widths B > 2000mm d = 15mm refer to DIN22107. 1.7 219 250 290 250 290 120 Standard length L (mm) of rollers Belt Width B (mm) Troughing Type 3 roll Deeptrough Flat B 2 roll Garland l l d d l l d l d 300 400 500 600 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 380 500 600 700 750 950 1150 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2500 200 250 315 340 380 465 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1250 160 200 250 250 315 380 465 530 600 670 750 800 200 250 315 380 465 530 600 640 165 205 250 290 340 380 420 460 The length of the middle idler roll determines the cross sectional area of the load and thus the conveying capacity.4 à 4.5 à 1. ) Idler Rotation nR = 60 * v DR DR ( m ) v ( m/s ) Roll diameter Belt speed Idler rotation should not be greater than approximately 650 r.0 m lo = app. carrying idler arrangements.2 m lo = 1.m.

Design FERROFLEX Conveying Broken Stone 11.4 .

one may use as a basis the geometric relationship which can be constructed from the troughing angle .5 .1161 0. 2 and 3 roll carrying idler sets. the usable belt width b and the angle of surcharge ß.1100 0.l ) * cos ] ]2 ( m2 ) ( m2 ) * [ l + l1 * cos l ( m ) Length of middle carrying roll b ( m ) Usable belt width (loadstream width) l1 ( m ) Loading width of outer rolls b = 0.1329 121% Guirlande Garland 11.1007 0.1284 91% 104% 20° 30° 45° 20° 30° 45° Auge Trough Deep profonde 85% 100% 113% 90% 106% 117% Note: The values for the cross sectional area and the comparison are for a belt width B = 1000 mm and for an angle of surcharge = 15°.3 * l )for 5 roll Garland sets ( ° ) Troughing Angle ( ° ) Surcharge Angle Cross Sectional Area Comparison for Various Forms of Troughing.50 mm for belts B ≤ 2000 mm l1 = 0.250 mm for belts B > 2200 mm l1 = 0.1284 0.1145 0.Design Cross Sectional Area of Load Stream To determine the cross-sectional area of the load stream A.25 * tan A2 = l1 * sin * [ l + ( b .1247 0.0483 0.5 ( b .0989 0. 30°/60° 0.9 * B .1145 0. the part cross-sectional area can be calculated as follows: Part Cross-Sectional Area A1 = 0. A1 A2 l1 l b B Cross-Sectional Area of Load Stream A = A1 + A2 ( m2 ) For 1.0935 0.1247 0.5 ( b . Troughing Form Forme d’auge Troughing Angle Angle d’auge Load Cross charSection de Section Area A(m22)) gement A(M 0.0483 CompariComparaison son plat Flat 44% 20° 30° 0.1007 0.l ) for 3 roll idler sets b = B .0935 0.1100 0.0989 0.1161 0.1329 0.

58 0.76 15° 0.0 0.0.95 0.g.99 0.8 .pieces per hour ) Load Stream Qm = ( t/h ) 11.Design Conveying Capacity The conveying capacity is determined from the cross-sectional area A and the belt speed v (m/s).81 0.00 20° 0.6 * v lst + ast QV v mst lst ast ( m3/h ) ( m/s ) ( t/m3 ) ( kg ) (m) (m) Volume (values see Appendix) with v = 1 m/s Belt Speed Bulk density (see Appendix) Piece Weight Piece Length in direction of travel Spacing of pieces Quantity conveyed Qst = ( St/h . the lump size.70 0. QV = A * v * 3600 * ( m3/h ) Load Stream Volume The effective or nominal load stream volume is determined from the effective degree of filling.93 0. tracking or the reserve capacity etc. This takes account of working conditions and the gradient of the installation.47 For Bulk Loads The load stream Qm (t/h) is calculated thus: Qm = Qv * Qm = Qv * * ( t/h ) ( t/h ) Theoretical value Effective value Load stream mass For Unit Loads For the calculation of the conveying capacity for unit loads the following formula applies. the surcharge angle and the working conditions.6 . Gradient 2 for Smooth Belts 2° 4° 6° 8° 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 1. Reduction Factor 2 The reduction factor 2 takes into consideration the reduction in part crosssectional area A1 as a result of the conveying gradient.89 0.g.68 0.85 0. 3600 * v lst + ast mst * 3. = 0. e.97 0.98 0. method of loading. Effective Degree of Filling Degree of Filling 1 = 1 * 2 (-) The degree of filling is dependent upon the characteristics of the load..91 0.89 1.81 0.93 25° 30° 35° – 40° – for Steep Incline Belts Angle of inclination Spharical rolling and coarse Material Sticky material 0.95 for adverse condition. 1 1 Values for 1 =1 for normal working conditions.85 0. e.56 0.

ploughs. Power Requirements With the aid of the following formulae.0 1. From the power calculations. power requirements can be roughly assessed.5 37 160 7. skirtboard friction. the belt type can be closely determined.2 15 18.0 Over 2.0 Belt Width B (mm) 300 400 500 650 31 36 54 59 65 67 76 86 81 92 103 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 108 126 144 133 187 241 194 277 360 227 320 414 291 468 644 554 727 691 957 745 1033 Width factor CB Light Medium Heavy 11.Design This section deals with estimated values and relevant matters primarily to enable the Project Engineer to provide a speedy assessment of requirements from the given service data. Power at Drive Pullley PT = P1 + P2 + P3 CB * v + Qm CL * kf H * Qm 367 (kW) Power for empty Conveyor and Load over the Horizontal Distance P1 = (kW) Power for Lift (or Fall) P2 = (kW) Additional Power P3 is the sum of additional power for trippers.5 45 200 11 55 250 Duty Bulk Density (t/m3) Up to Ca. Required motor power PM = PT / (kW) Installed Motor PN selected motor from standard list. To make an optimum selection of the conveyor belt and conveyor components it is recommended that detailed calculations be done in accordance with subsequent sections. 1.9 for drives with fluid couplings Standard electric motors (kW) 1.5 75 90 315 400 3 22 110 500 4 30 132 630 5.5 2. The actual nominal belt weight can be used in the more precise calculation of the belt. The accuracy is sufficient for normal installations with simple straight-forward running conditions.0 to 2. Qm v CB CL H L kf ( t/h ) ( m/s ) ( kg/m ) ( m-1 ) (m) (m) (°) (-) (-) mass of load stream belt speed width factor (see table) length factor (see table) conveyor elevation H = sin * L conveying length angle of inclination Service factor (see table) efficiency of the drive = 0.7 .

5 * v 2.skirtboard Discharge plough B v lf (m) ( m/s ) (m) beyond loading point Bulk density ≤ 1. low temperature.17 1 0. good alignment.5 * B * v 1.8 * v 1. normal contact heavy contact multifunctional fac scraper Scrapers (for installations L ≤ 80 m) 0.2 Angle = 30° .0.57 Additional Power Values Trippers (throw-off carraiges) Belt Width B (mm) P (kW) 0.87 . high speed Extremely low temperature kf 1.16 * v * lf 1.5 370 90 109 500 31 16 323 100 103 550 28 20 286 150 77 600 26 L (m) Conveying Length Working Conditions Factor kf Working Conditions Favourable. slow speed Normal (Standard Conditions) Unfavourable. dusty.3 * v ≤ 500 ≤ 1000 > 1000 Scraper Type simple.8 * B * v 0.3 * B * v 1.74 0.5 * B * v Material .45° Belt width Belt speed Length of material between skirtboard 11. overloading.8 .Design Length Factor CL L (m) CL L (m) CL L (m) CL L (m) CL 3 667 25 250 200 63 700 23 4 625 32 222 250 53 800 20 5 555 40 192 300 47 900 18 6 526 50 167 350 41 1000 17 8 454 63 145 400 37 1500 12 10 417 80 119 450 33 2000 9 12.

material characteristics (bulk density.70 0.00 0.25 0. an angle of wrap = 200°.30 Belt Width B (mm) 300 400 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 98 69 62 74 52 46 59 45 41 32 37 28 37 26 23 30 21 18 25 17 15 21 15 13 18 13 12 16 12 10 15 10 9 14 9 8 Number of Plies Friction Value Factor cR 0. wet and dirty bare.50 1. height of material fall.Design Belt Type This formula is to enable calculation of belt breaking strength and applies to installations with a single pulley head drive. a safety factor S = 8 to 10.90 1.83 0. troughing etc.40 57 53 43 40 34 26 32 25 21 20 17 16 14 13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 8 7 Breaking Strength Loss at Joint Factor Cv DUNLOP Belt Type DUNLOFLEX TRIOFLEX SUPERFORT Splice Type Ply Rating 2 ply overlap 100% 1 ply overlap 50% 3 ply overlap 100% 2 ply overlap 67% Number of plies 1 2 3 4 5 6 Factor cv 1.90 FERROFLEX DUNLOPLAST Steel Cord Belts Zig-Zag Splice Joint Finger Splice Joint Splice 1 and 2 step 3 step 4 step Mechanical Joints: Refer to Manufacturer Various 11. installation path. cR Breaking Strength k= cv * PT ( N/mm ) v Nominal Breaking Strength The nominal Breaking Strength kN is obtained by rounding up to the next highest belt type.90 0. lagged.15 0. Drive Pulley Surface bare.35 0.50 0.67 0. By using a dual pulley head drive or a head and tail drive a lower strength belt type can result. lump size) and conditions such as transitions. dry Friction Value 0.00 0.80 0. wet rubber lagged. wet rubber lagged.67 0.9 .75 0.00 0. The number of plies or thickness of carcase depends mainly on the belt width. dry.95 0.

Design Pulley Diameters The pulley diameter for a conveyor belt depends upon the belt construction (belt type. Standard Pulley Diameter (mm) 100 630 125 800 160 1000 200 1250 250 1400 315 1600 400 1800 500 2000 11. One can differentiate between 3 pulley groups depending on pulley location and angle of wrap . carcase material and thickness of carcase). Tail Pulleys Pulleys with an angle of wrap ≤ 90°. Value CTr CTr 90 80 95 108 138 145 100 Material of Carcase in Warp or Belt Type Polyamide (P) DUNLOFLEX TRIOFLEX SUPERFORT FERROFLEX SILVERCORD DUNLOPLAST 2 ply Belt 3 ply Belt Multiply Belt (EP) Steel Weave Type Steel Cord Belt Monoply Belt The calculated pulley diameter is rounded up to the next higher standard diameter or if working conditions are favourable may be rounded down. GROUP A B C APPLICATION Pulleys in the areas of high belt stress. Drive Pulleys Pulleys in areas of low belt stress. the duty and the method of splicing. Belt type. DTr = CTr * d d CTr ( mm ) (-) ( mm ) Thickness of carcase (see Appendix C) Value for warp material of carcase i.e.10 . Deflection or snub Pulleys Tail Pulley Drive Pulley Snub Pulley Bend Pulley Snub Pulley Tension Pulley To determine the pulley diameter first ascertain the diameter of the drive pulley with maximum tension.

3 à 0. it is permissible to reduce pulley diameter to 1 to 2 sizes smaller. B and C Group A and B Group C one size smaller 2 sizes smaller one size smaller For pulley diameters of the DUNLOP belt types: see Appendix K. B.Design Once the diameter of the largest pulley has been determined to a standard size the diameter for pulley groups A. v * 60 *D TA1 + TA2 Pulley Loading FT = 9.6 à 1 kA > 0.6 kA < 0. C can be obtained from the following table.3 Pulley Diameter Diameters as table Group A.81 ( kg ) Pulley Revolution nT = ( T/min ) 11. Tmax * S B * kN Tmax S B kN (N) (-) ( mm ) ( N/mm ) Utilisation Percentage kA = * 100 (%) Max.11 . Degree of Utilization kA > 0. belt tension Belt safety factor when running Belt Width Nominal breaking strength of belt When the rated tension of the belt is not fully utilized. Pulley Diameter DTr (mm) 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1400 1600 1800 2000 Diameter Of Pulley Groups (mm) A 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1400 1600 1800 2000 B 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1250 1400 1600 C 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1000 1250 1250 The diameters shown in the above table apply to belts operating at 60% 100% of allowable tension.

3500 N/mm2 under ground This formula is no longer used to determine the pulley diameter. the pulley may be raised slightly to the value h (mm) (see Page 11. the belt bending stresses being ignored. Torque at Start-Up MA = FA * D 2 * 1000 ( Nm ) D B FA v FU ( mm ) ( mm ) (N) (°) ( m/s ) (N) Pulley diameter Belt width Peripheral force at start-up Angle of wrap Speed Peripheral force when running Troughing Transition The distance between a terminal pulley and the adjacent fully troughed idler set at either the head or tail end of a conveyor is know as the transition distance. In this distance the belt changes from a fully troughed to a flat profile or vice versa respectively.Design Average Surface Pressure pT = TA1 + TA2 D*B ( N/cm2 ) With rubber lagged drive pulleys the average surface pressure limit is approximately 70 N/cm2. pü = 1600 . This limit is only reached on heavy drives and relatively small pulley diameters. With high belt stresses the pulley diameter becomes too large because of the low values for pü. Transmission Capability pü = *D* *B 360 * FU ( N/mm2 ) The transmission capability pü is not to be confused with surface pressure! The surface pressure is summary calculated.12 .2000 N/mm2 above ground pü = 3000 . S L 1 l LM Elevation of Pulley To relieve the belt and edge stresses. 11. h Lred The necessary transition length for tension distribution with or without pulley elevation when designing can be estimated or taken from the table. The belt stretches additionally at its edge zone and buckling in the middle of the belt is also possible.13).

Lift-off from the centre roller is not desirable as this would have an adverse effect on belt tracking.Design Troughing Transition LM = x * s * sin s2 ( mm ) Pulley Rise h = B * sin ( mm ) Reduced Transition Distance Lred = x * (s * sin LM Lred l s x h ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) (-) (°) ( mm ) .3) Portion of belt in contact with side idler roller. Pulley Lift h (mm) Belt Width (mm) 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Troughing Angle 30° 37 48 56 68 78 89 98 112 40° 47 62 72 87 100 114 126 143 45° 52 68 80 96 110 125 138 158 11. Trough Transition Values Troughing Angle Troughing Belt Width (mm) 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Textile belts LM (mm) Lred1) (mm) 20° 30° 30° 40° 45° ST Belts Lred1) (mm) 30° 45° 410 550 665 850 1000 1190 1370 1550 1710 1920 600 800 970 1240 1470 1740 2000 2260 2500 2800 680 860 1020 1200 1380 1550 1720 1900 870 1100 1310 1540 1770 1990 2200 2450 950 1210 1440 1700 1950 2200 2430 2700 1350 1710 2040 2400 2750 3100 3432 3800 1900 2420 2870 3380 3890 4390 4860 5390 Values apply to 3 roll idler sets. belts Troughing angle Pulley lift The pulley lift should not exceed the value h (mm) in order not to get a “ski jump” effect.5 * (B-l) Factor for carcase x = 8 for Textile belts x = 16 for ST. s = 0.h) ( mm ) Normal transition length Reduced transition length with raised pulley Length of centre carrying roller (see page 11.13 . 1) Reduced lengths Lred apply to the raised pulley with the value h (mm) according to the table.

0 100.5 62.5 17.0 31.0 50.0 38.0 24.0 113.0 44. as a rule 0.0 48.5 13.5 8.3 12.0 30° ST Belts 45° 68.0 44.0 18.8% additional stretch.0 Minimum radii for 3 roll carrying idlers.0 27.5 30. Carrying side l0 L Re Return side S l Convex Radius s x Re = x * s * sin ( mm ) (-) (m) Portion of belt in contact with side idler roller Factor for carcase x = 125 for textile belts x = 400 for steel cord belts Curve Length Number of Idlers in Curve Idler Pitch L = z = * / * Re / 180 (Pieces) (m) (m) lo = L / z (°) (°) Deviation per idler = approx 2˚ for 30˚ troughing = approx 3˚ for 20˚ troughing Gradient of installation Values of Radius Re (m) Belt Width (mm) 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 20° 6. the belt edge zone is subjected to additional stretch.0 104.0 32.5 88.0 40.Design Convex Vertical Curve In the transition from inclined to horizontal.5 10.0 39.0 198.5 15.0 74.0 140.0 27.0 35.0 62.5 87.0 177. the transition radius Re has to be dimensioned accordingly.0 160.0 19.0 141.0 123.0 45° 13.0 16.5 21.5 23.0 125.0 26. 11.0 30.0 Textile belts 30° 9.0 55.5 21.14 . In order not to exceed certain limits.

the belt path goes from horizontal to incline.) 11.Design Concave Vertical Curve With a concave vertical curve. At start-up or load change there may be a risk of the belt lifting off the carrying idlers in this region.15 . buckling of the belt edges and overstress of the middle of the belt can occur. (To check calculation see Appendix I. up to 18° use 18°.5 * Ra * tan2 horizontal distance vertical distance Additional Stretch-buckling With a concave vertical curve.5. If due to special circumstances a brief lift-off can be tolerated then the lifting belt can be restrained by rollers mounted above the troughing idlers. Lx Tx Ra ya xa Tx Ra = m’G * cos Tx m’G (N) ( kg/m ) (°) Concave Radius (m) *g Tension at start of curve when fully loaded Belt weight Gradient angle. In any event action must be taken to ensure that the belt does not lose load material. This can lead to a reduction in pre-tension. cos 1 Co-ordinates of Curve xa = Ra * tan ya = 0.

BELTS For smooth running of the belt through the turnover stretch. At the entry and exit points the belt is fed through a pair of horizontal rollers.5 * B (m) for ST belts Lw = 1. With this turnover the belt is fed over support rollers which run on a lengthwise axis. To avoid excessive strain in the edge region of the belt. the turnover must be a certain minimum length. With textile belts up to a width of 1200 mm and a thickness of 10 mm. With textile and steel cord belts up to 2200 mm wide. This method is employed in inaccessible areas such as conveyor bridges and tunnels. the belt is fed through a pair of rollers. Lw * m’G * g 8*h Lw h m’G B (m) (%) ( kg/m ) (m) Length of Turnover Stretch Degree of sag 1.36 * B * 71 = 11. 11. Un-guided Turnover Lw Guided Turnover Supported Turnover Turnover Lengths for EP belts Lw = 1. At the entry and exit points of the turnover lengths. the belt may be turned over unguided and without support. a pair of vertical rollers is used.55 * B * 245 = 24 * B (m) Values for Turnover Lengths LW (m) Belt Type Method of guiding belt in Turnover Lengths free or with support rollers 12 * B 16 * B 17 * B 18 * B guided with a middle roller 13 * B 19 * B 20 * B 22 * B EP belts DUNLOPLAST FERROFLEX ST. a minimum belt tension is necessary.015) Load due to conveyor belt Belt Width Min. depending on the method of turnover. With textile and steel cord belts up to 1600 mm wide to support the belt in the middle of the turnover length.16 . belt type and belt width.5% is recommended (h = 0. Tx = (N) If Tx is > than T2 or T3 then belt tensions have to be corrected. Belt Tension at Turnover min.Design Belt Turnover One method of solving belt cleaning problems on the return side run is the use of belt turnover.

17 .Design Horizontal Curve Within limits. l RH Inside of Curve R RH Value of Curve Radius RH = k * [ l + B * ( 1 l B R l B ) * cos ] (m) k ( mm ) ( mm ) (°) (°) (-) Length of middle carrying roller (see Page 11. Belt width (mm) EP belts DUNLOPLAST FERROFLEX ST belts Belt width (mm) EP belts DUNLOPLAST FERROFLEX ST belts 300 20 42 - 400 26 56 - 500 33 69 - 650 42 89 134 146 800 52 110 165 180 1000 65 137 206 224 1200 1400 72 165 248 270 91 192 289 314 1600 1800 2000 104 220 329 359 117 247 370 404 130 275 412 449 2200 2400 2600 142 452 493 156 169 - 2800 182 - The values RH apply to a troughing angle of 30° 11. To do this the carrying idlers on the inside of the curve are slightly raised by the angle R according to radius and belt tension by approximately 5°-15°. 5° to 15°) Factor (consider belt type and duty) for EP belts k = 71 DUNLOPLAST k = 150 FERROFLEX k = 225 ST belts k = 245 For design purposes the following radii may be selected being the smaller permissible radii RH (m). The exact position has to be determined by adjustment. belts are able to negotiate horizontal curves.3) Belt width Troughing angle Lifting of the carrying rollers (ca.

resistance due to belt flexing on pulleys. Resistance due to impressions made in the belt by idlers and the flexing of the belt. • If the secondary resistance relative to the total resistance is high as for instance with conveyors less than approximately 80 m long with several loading points. Resistance due to the friction on the side walls of the chute.Main resistance . pulley bearing resistance.Basis of calculations After the design of the installation and the main data has been determined an exact calculation can be undertaken.Slope resistance . 12. Information not available such as pulley diameters etc. Note • With normal installations with one loading point. Formulae for calculation: see Appendix E.1 ) * FH Resistance occurring mainly in the loading area such as the acceleration of the material at the loading point. FSt = H * g * m’L (N) Slope Resistance FSt Resistance from load and elevation. (N) FN = ( C .3. The belt selection can be undertaken according to forces that have been established and other relevant criteria. Factor C depends on the conveying length and can be taken from the table on Page 12. Established installation components can be checked and dimensioned. a separate calculation is necessary. With gradients Secondary Resistance FN ≤ 18° Cos = 1. Resistance to Motion FH The resistances to motion within a belt installation may be categorised thus: . the secondary resistance can be calculated by using the factor C as part of the main resistance.Special resistances FH = f * L * g * [ m’R + ( 2 * m’G + m’L ) * cos ] (N) Main Resistance FH Resistance due to moving the mass of idlers.1 . Special Resistances FS The special resistances are due to installation components such as: • • • • the forward tilt of outer idler rollers to improve tracking material deflection ploughs and belt cleaners.Secondary resistance . can be estimated for initial calculation formulae or taken from the appropriate table. continuous skirtboards trippers (throw-off carriages) bunker drag out belts The resistances to motion are relatively simple to calculate. Running resistance of idlers (bearing and seal friction). belt and material on the carrying and return runs.

as a rule the following summation applies: Summation FU = C * f * L * g * [m’R + (2 * m’G + m’L) * cos ] + H * g * m’L + FS C f L g m’R m’G m’L H FS (-) (-) (m) ( m/s2 ) ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) (°) (m) (N) Length factor Artificial friction factor Conveyor length Acceleration due to gravity Mass of the rotating carrying and return idlers Mass of the belt Mass of the load Gradient of the installation with ≤ 18° cos = 1 Conveying height H > 0 inclined conveying H < 0 declined conveying Sum of the special resistances. (N) Herringbone Belt in Operation 12. For separate calculations see Appendix. FU = FH + FN + FSt + FS (N) For installations with one loading point.2 .Basis of calculations Peripheral Force FU Working Conditions Peripheral force steady state working The sum of the resistances to motion is equal to the peripheral force FU at the drive pulley (or shared over several drive pulleys).

0 250 1.0 120 1.20 2000 1.17 6 5.9 50 2.20 4 7.2 200 1.1).50 600 1.78 400 1.00 Förderlänge L in m Conveying Length in mm 12.Basis of calculations Factor C This adjustment factor makes allowance for secondary resistances (See page 12.86 350 1.18 5 6.38 800 1.70 450 1.10 13 4.9 140 1.6 40 2. The influence of Factor C will decrease the greater the conveyor length.6 160 1.12 10 4.63 500 1.6 32 2.3 .45 700 1.6 100 1. For installations less than a conveying length of approximately 80m or having several loading points see appendix D.0 25 2.06 20 3.09 16 3.0 90 1.92 300 1.5 80 1.14 8 5.27 1000 1.25 1500 1.4 180 1.31 900 1. Beiwert C Coefficient C L (m) C L (m) C L (m) C L (m) C 3 9.1 63 2.56 550 1.

Basis of calculations

Friction Factor f

The friction factor f is used for the calculations of the resistances to motion. It provides an estimate of the resistance to rotation of the idlers, the belt resistance (flexing and idler impressions) and material impression resistance. Values for the factor f are dependent upon the working conditions and construction characteristics of the installation. Horizontal, inclined or slightly declined installations - Motor driven Favourable working conditions, easily rotating idlers, material with low internal friction and good tracking, good maintenance Normal installation, normal material Unfavourable conditions, low temperature, material with high internal friction, subject to overload, poor maintenance Installations with steep declines creating regenerative conditions

0.017

0.020

0.023 - 0.027

0.012 - 0.016

The above table values are relevant for v = 5 m/s and a temperature of + 20°C. Adjustments Under certain circumstances the following adjustments are possible or necessary: a) With other speeds the following applies: With v <> 5 m/s f = c * f5m/s 2 0.80 3 0.85 4 0.90 5 1.00 6 1.10

v (m/s) Factor c

b) With other temperatures the following applies: With T < 20°C f = c * f20°C +20° 1.00 0° 1.07 -10° 1.17 -20° 1.28 -30° 1.47

T (°C) Factor c

For central European regions and normal working conditions the value of f = 0.020 - 0.021 would be used. In extreme temperatures such as those in tropical regions a value for f = 0.017 would apply. In extremely low temperatures a value for f up to 0.035 would be used.

12.4

Basis of calculations

Mass of Rotating Parts m’R Weight of rollers per m

The mass of rotating parts m’R (kg/m) is calculated from the weight of the rotating idler rollers on the carrying and return runs. mRo m’R = lo
mRo mRu lo lu ( kg ) ( kg ) (m) (m)

mRu + lu ( kg/m )

Mass of one set of carrying idler rollers Mass of one set of return idler rollers Pitch of carrying idlers Pitch of return idlers

Mass of rollers mRo et mRu Roller Pitch

For the masses mRO and mRu (kg). Applicable to standard rollers diameters and belt widths 300 mm to 2200 mm. See table in the Appendix. If this information is not available roller pitch values as per Page 11.3 may be used. Standard idler roller diameters (mm) of flat or troughed rollers according to DIN 15107 are: (51) 63.5 88.9 108 133 159 193.7 219.1

Idler Roller Diameter

Tube dia. mm. Disc rollers dia. mm.

51 120

57 133

63.5 150

88.9 180

108 180 215

133 215 250

The idlers and discs may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. For location of disc rollers see Appendix M.1. Mass of Belt m’G Belt weight per m The mass of the belt m’G is determined from the weights of the various belt types. m’G = m”G * B
m”G ( kg/m2 ) B (m)

( kg/m )

Belt weight per m2 Belt width

For the belt weights m”G (kg/m2) of the DUNLOP-belt types see Appendix C.

12.5

Basis of calculations

Mass of the Load m’L Material weight per m

The load m’L is derived from the cross sectional area of the bulk load stream Qm alternatively with piece loads, from the weight of one piece. Qm For bulk loads m’L = 3.6 * v mst For unit loads m’L = lst + ast
Qm v mst lst ast ( t/h ) ( m/s ) ( kg ) (m) (m) Loadstream mass Belt speed Weight of each piece Length of each piece Spacing of pieces

( kg/m )

( kg/m )

Peripheral Force FA at Start-Up

Peripheral force FA in a non-steady state running condition At the breakaway and start-up of a loaded installation, the inertial resistances to motion of the masses to be moved, have to be overcome. The belt stresses during acceleration have to be kept to a minimum. The initial pulley peripheral force at start-up must not exceed a certain value.

Recommendations

• The maximum peripheral force FA should not be greater than approx (1.3 to 1.5) * Fu, the steady state running peripheral force. • In order to accelerate the masses on the conveying length, a force equivalent to a minimum of 20% of the motional resistances should be available. • The peripheral force FA should be applied to the belt over such a period of time that the installation is maintained at almost a steady state and so accelerates with minimum additional dynamic forces. • At start-up with acceleration aA and peripheral for FA one should seek to ascertain the friction cut-off value between material and belt ( perhaps also when braking)

Friction cut-off Material Belt

aA ≤ (
(°) (-)

1

* cos

max

- sin

max

)*g

( m/s2 )

1

aA

( m/s2 )

angle of slope of the installation > 0 inclined conveyors < 0 declined conveyors friction value belt/material 1 = 0.5 à 0.7 acceleration (calculationl, see Page 12.7)

12.6

kA = 1.5 * FU.Basis of calculations Start-Up Factor kA The peripheral force FU increases at start-up.FU aA = L * ( m’Red + 2 * m’G + m’L ) + m’Ared + m’red m’Red m’Ared m’red ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) Reduced mass of idlers m’Red ≈ 0. gears) and the non-driven pulley resistances are higher than the remaining resistances. a near steady state running condition can be achieved. Rigid couplings are used on small installations up to approx.6 The installed motor power may be substantially higher than is necessary therefore FA should be less than or equal to FU * 2. At start-up and braking the acceleration and deceleration forces of the mass being moved have to be considered. kA = 1. (cut-off torque) Rigid Couplings FA = kA * PN v kA ( kW ) (-) ( m/s ) (-) (N) Flexible Coupling With this type of coupling the start-up torque of the motor is reduced. 30kw motor power and squirrel cage type.2 if FA > FU * 2. coupling.2 to 1. Hydraulic Coupling With hydraulic couplings the start-up torque can be regulated and limited to the desired start-up factor and by doing this.7 . PN FA = kA * FU * PM kA ( kW ) (-) (N) PM required motor power start-up factor. PN * * 1000 v installed motor power degree of drive efficiency speed start-up factor KA = 2. If the drive elements (motor. Acceleration aA FA . this has to be taken into account. To take account of the start-up resistances a factor kA is applied resulting in peripheral force FA. FA = kA * FU kA (-) (N) start-up factor. 12.5 regulated by the volume of oil in the working circuit.0 to 2.9 * m’R Reduced mass of drive elements Reduced mass of non-driven elements (bend pulleys etc) ( m/s2 ) Acceleration time tA = v / aA sA = v * tA / 2 (s) Acceleration Distance (m) If the acceleration time tA is greater than 10 s. The value of kA is dependent on the drive unit motor/coupling used. depending on the size of the installation.2 to 1.5. in the case of squirrel cage motors a start-up coupling is necessary because of thermal effects. The peripheral force FA is derived from the installed motor power.5 then FA should = 2.

Delay aB = v / tB sB = v * tB / 2 ( m/s2 ) Overun Distance (m) Peripheral Force FB FB = aB * L * ( m’Red + 2 * m’G + m’L ) + FU + FT FT (N) (N) If a great proportion arises from the non-braked elements these forces must be added. FT = aB * mred (N) mred ( kg ) Reduced masses of the non-braked elements or pulleys PN Braking torque of the Motor MM = 975 * g * ( Nm ) n The brake has to take account of the braking duty and delay. FB * i B Delay Moment MV = ( Nm ) Braking Torque of the Motor n MBr = MM + MV ( T/min ) (-) (N) (-) ( Nm ) B FB i Motor revolutions Friction value of brake disc Peripheral force on braking Transmission ratio Drive Motor at Pulley PT = FU * v 1000 ( kW ) Required Motor Power Motor Power on Braked Installation PM = PT / ( kW ) FU > 0 PM = PT * ( kW ) FU < 0 Installed Motor Power PN ( kW ) selected motor power 12.8 . The braking time tB has to take care of safety requirements (emergency stop) or the braking distance sB because of the possibility of continuing flow due to over-run of the conveyor.Basis of calculations Peripheral Force FB on Braking The peripheral force FB on braking has to be determined for the most adverse circumstances.

94 0. The drive becomes a generator and acts as a brake.9 . Fo P2 FU2 Fu P1 FU1 12.2 22 30 160 200 3.96 0.5 75 500 11 90 630 15 110 18.9 .0 45 315 5. T2 FUB T3 T1 T4 Head and Tail Drive When a relatively high proportion of motional resistance is due to the return run.95 .0 Nominal Power PN (kW) Selected according to DIN 42973 1.1. position and number of motors can be established.0.7 .Basis of calculations Degree of Efficiency (Values) Types of Drive Wormgear drive Toothed chain drive V-Rope drive Pulley motor Normal coupled drive Geared and hydraulic coupling Hydraulic motor Braked installations 0.0.86 0. this drive system provides the most favourable belt stress condition.5 55 400 7.8 0.0 37 250 4. With horizontal and inclined conveyors these give the most favourable belt stresses and with declined conveyors with gradients of 1° to 2° providing the peripheral force remains positive.5 2.95 0.5 132 Drive System After the peripheral force FU has been ascertained and hence the drive power PT requirement. The single pulley head drive is the most common all drive systems.95 0. T1 FU T2 Single Pulley Head Drive Tail Drive The preferred location of the drive on a declined conveyor is at the tail end. the drive system.90 0.

FU2 Fo (Primary force) = x ( kW ) With identical drives i.e. The angle of wrap can thus be increased to approx 420°. T4 may be less than Tmin and the pretension has to be increased accordingly. 12. Dual Pulley Head Drive With high drive powers it is often necessary to distribute the available peripheral force over two pulleys.10 .FU2 (N) As a rule the friction coefficient is taken to be the same for both pulleys.Basis of calculations Head and Tail Drive The most favourable distribution of the total power is as follows: Total Power PT = P1 + P2 P1 Distribution P2 Motor 2 Peripheral force Pulley 2 Peripheral force Pulley 1 ≈ Fu (Secondary force) ( kW ) (N) (N) P2 = PT / ( x + 1 ) FU2 = FU / ( x + 1 ) FU1 = FU . P1 = P2. T1 Pulley 1 P1 FU1 T2 Pulley 2 P2 FU2 The most favourable drive distribution is as follows: Total Power PT = P1 + P2 P1 Distribution P2 Motor 2 Peripheral force Pulley 2 Peripheral force Pulley 1 ≈ FU2 FU1 ≈ e 2 ( kW ) e 1 -1 e -1 2 =x Value for factor x see Table ( kW ) P2 = PT / ( x + 1 ) FU2 = FU / ( x + 1 ) FU1 = FU .

71 1.30 2.00 180° 2.79 2.02 1.76 2.48 2.41 2.00 210° 4.57 2.15 2.03 3.67 160° 2.35 160° 170° 180° 190° 200° 210° Angle of Wrap 160° 2.70 3.51 3.18 3.62 2.90 1.29 170° 2.02 1.75 2.20 2. the drive powers for individual pulleys are thus: Total Power PT = P1 + P2 P1 FU1 ≈ P2 FU2 =x ( kW ) Distribution Peripheral force Pulley 2 Peripheral force Pulley 1 FU2 = FU / ( x + 1 ) FU1 = FU .11 .35 180° 3.31 210° 3.15 170° 2.92 2.95 1. As a result of this the drive pulleys are not equally utilized.97 160° 2.57 2.82 2.92 2.67 2.08 3.22 2.11 3.65 2.52 1 Pulley 1 180° 2.03 2.31 2.55 190° 3.70 3.38 2.80 3.00 2.35 2.28 3.89 2.74 2. With unequal distribution of the total power.91 3.33 200° 3.28 2.08 2.06 2.58 2.48 2.19 3.20 2.56 2.14 3.83 1.80 2.83 170° 2.10 2.18 4.21 2.85 2.93 2.25 160° 170° 180° 190° 200° 210° = 0.FU2 (N) (N) 12.10 3.77 1.40 2.70 2.17 190° 3.60 2.39 3.53 3.39 3.86 2.50 210° 3.53 2.77 190° 2.41 2.00 1.66 2.20 3.43 2.89 1.40 2.48 2.00 2.40 3.29 3.26 3.12 2.30 2.00 2.59 3.84 2.Basis of calculations Factor x for various drive conditions Pulley 2 = 0.48 3.66 2.23 2.03 200° 2.66 2.57 2.84 3.48 2.35 2.61 2 2 2 In practice the most favourable distribution of power does not often occur because the norm is to use equal drive units.77 200° 3.3 160° 170° 180° 190° 200° 210° = 0.

FU2 T1 = T2 + FU T2 = FU2 * c22 T1 = T2 + FU 1 1 c12 = e 1 c22 = -1 e 2 -1 The distribution of peripheral forces at start-up and determination of belt stresses follows analogously. Drive Factor Pulley 1 Dual Pulley Head and Tail Drive Drive Factor Pulley 2 This drive system is treated in the same way as a dual pulley head drive system.FU2 The calculation of belt stresses is as described under Dual Pulley Head Drive. Pulley 1 P1 FU1 Pulley 3 P3 FU3 Pulley 2 P2 FU2 The peripheral forces can be ascertained as follows: Total Power Peripheral Forces PT = P1 + P2 + P3 FU = FU1 + FU2 + FU3 P1 + P2 ≈ P3 Peripheral for Pulley 3 Peripheral force at Head FU3 (N) (N) FU3 = FU / ( x + 1 ) FU1 + FU2 = FU . Distribution proportion P1/P2 > x P1/P2 ≤ x Utilization of peripheral force Pulley 1 full utilization Pulley 2 full utilization Belt stresses T2 = FU1 * c12 .12 .FU3 = Fk P1 Distribution Pulley 1 and 2 P2 Peripheral Force Pulley 2 Peripheral Force Pulley 1 ≈ FU2 (N) (N) FU1 =w FU1 + FU2 ≈x ( kW ) (N) Distribution Head and Tail FU2 = Fk / ( w + 1 ) FU1 = Fk . Other Drive Systems Besides the drive systems described further drive distributions and arrangements are possible. 12. These are treated in a similar fashion.Basis of calculations Before the belt tensions are determined it necessary to check whether the peripheral force of Pulley 1 or peripheral force of Pulley 2 are fully utilized.

05 A 1 c1A = 1+ e A 1 c2A = -1 e A -1 Drive Factor tight side at start-up Belt Tension Correction Drive Factor slack side at start-up Belt tensions thus calculated are not yet the belt tensions that will actually occur when working. a correction of the belt tension is necessary. T1A and T2A can be ascertained for the steady state and non-steady state running conditions respectively. For all working condition. The location of the take-up pulley does not matter. Correction with fixed take-up With a fixed take-up the tension pulley is at a fixed location after tensioning. the belt stretches and contracts within its elastic limits. Fv T4 T1 Return T3 T2 Drive 12. Depending on the type of take-up system. For exact and ongoing calculations the following corrections are necessary. Friction value at start-up ≈ + 0.13 . They may be used for estimating purposes on small installations. the tail end or the middle of the conveyor installation.Basis of calculations Belt Tension From the calculated peripheral forces FU and FA maximum belt tensions T1 and T2. 1. The centre to centre distance does not change. The total elongation is constant. TWorking = TStart-Up = Constant Location of take-up Pulley The pre-tension has to be calculated and set so as to take account of the nonsteady state running conditions such as start-up and braking. T1 = FU * c1 T2 = FU * c2 Steady State Running 1 c1 = 1+ e -1 Drive Factor tight side c2 = e -1 Drive Factor slack side (N) (N) T1A = FA * c1A T2A = FA * c2A (N) (N) Non-Steady State Running 1 At start-up of the installation the friction value increases slightly for a short period of time. Depending on changing loads. the sum of the belt tensions has to be constant. therefore calculate thus. It can be at the discharge end.

The take-up weight has to be calculated to cater for the non-steady state running conditions such as start-up and braking.Basis of calculations Stress Distribution The belt tensions on the bend pulleys are higher at rest than they are when running. T1 g Runnin T4 At Rest TM T3 T2 Belt tension at rest Average belt tension at start-up TM = TB / 4 T = TA / 4 (N) (N) Because the length of the belt does not alter. the tail or at any location. The take-up weight can be installed at the drive. the take-up is constant.14 . Take-up sB = sA SB SA ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) Take-up when running Take-up at start-up The pre-tension has to cater for start-up therefore all belt tensions increase by the difference between running and start-up conditions. 1. The belt tensions at the take-up location are always the same. all belt tensions when running are increased by the correction value T. Correction with moveable take-up With the movable take-up the belt length is not constant. With changes in belt stress the take-up weight adjusts to the various belt elongations/length changes.TB T= 4 With a fixed take-up. The belt tensions at the take-up location are always higher than those necessary for the steady state running condition. T4 T1 (N) Location of take-up weight Fv T3 T2 Fv 12. Correction value for fixed take-up TA .

Basis of calculations Stress Distribution The size of the take-up weight depends on the location of the take-up system.030 for return side Distance between the carrying idlers Belt sag (see Page 11. Tmin is necessary in order that the belt sag between carrying idlers at the loading point does not exceed a certain value.T2 (N) The control of minimum belt tension. Correction T = TA2 . all belt tensions increase by the correction value T.T4 (N) 12. Correction Value 2.005 to 0.020 to 0. To avoid this.2) If the loading T4 < Tmin the belt would sag between the idlers.15 . Correction Value T = Tmin . all belt tensions have to be increased by the correction value T. Running At rest T1 T4 T3 T2 Take-up tension FV = T3 + T4 GV = FV / g or FV = 2 * T2 ( kg ) (N) Take-up weight Because the tension weight is effective both at rest and during running.015 for carrying side 0. Minimum belt tension Tmin = hrel = h / lo hrel = hrel = lo (mm) h (mm) ( m’L + m’G ) * lo * g 8 * hrel (N) Sag ratio 0.

1 ) * FH Fo = f * L * g * (m’Ro + m’G + m’L) Fu = f * L * g * (m’Ru + m’G) Fsto = H * g * (m’G + m’L) Fstu = H * g * m’G Fao = L * a * (m’Redo + m’G + m’L) Fau = L * a * (m’Redu + m’G) Acceleration aA or deceleration aB Reduced mass of carrying idlers Reduced mass of return idlers Reduced mass m’Red ≈ 0.Fao 0 = T3 .FU .Fau 0 = T1 .9 * m’R For other formulae symbols see Page 12. This method enables the tension to be ascertained at any given point on the installation as well as under certain working conditions such as start-up and braking. 12. friction resistances. The forces that affect the belt are determined according to their size and direction in which they operate.2.T2 0 = T4 + FU Heck .FN .T3 Individual Resistances The individual resistances are calculated as follows: Main resistance Secondary resistance Friction resistance Carrying side Return side Slope resistance Carrying side Return side Inertial resistance Carrying side Return side a m’Redo m’Redu ( m/s2 ) ( kg/m ) ( kg/m ) FH = f * L * g * (m’R + 2 * m’G * m’L) FN = ( C .Fo . The force diagram can be applied to the carrying side. Those are the secondary resistances which arise at the loading point.T4 .16 . Fao Fo Fsto FN aB aB T4 FUTail T3 T3 FUTail Tail drive Force Distribution Fbo T1 FU T2 v aA aA v Fstu Fbu Fau T4 Fu T1 FU T2 Carrying side Return side with Head Drive with Tail Drive 0 = T1 .T2 .Fu + Fstu .Fsto . the slope resistance and the inertial resistances at start-up and braking.Basis of calculations Sequential Calculation The tensions T1 to T4 are best determined according to the sequential calculation principle. return side as well as to drive and return pulleys. The point tensions T1 to T4 can be calculated from the condition F = 0.

12. The sequential calculation for non-steady state working then begins with TB2 = FB * c2A The inertial mass resistance Fbo and Fbu is determined with the deceleration aB.Basis of calculations Single Pulley Head Drive Determination of the point tensions (T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 with the help of individual resistances (for peripheral force FU ≥ 0. Otherwise the sequential calculation can be done along the same lines. With fixed take-up 2.15.FA Correction of belt tensions The tensions T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 must be increased by wing conditions apply: 1.Fstu + Fau TA4 = TA3 TA1 = TA4 + FN + Fo + Fsto + Fao Non-steady state working Belt Tension (start-up) Control T2 = T1 . With movable take-up 3.FU TA2 = TA1 . positive).17 .13 -12. Braking To calculate braking forces the peripheral force FB on braking has to be determined. With minimum belt tension if TA > T if TA2 > T2 if Tmin > T4 T.Fstu = T3 = T4 + FN + Fo + Fsto TA2 = FA * c2A TA3 = TA2 + Fu . T1 FU FN T4 T3 T2 T2 T3 T4 T1 = FU * c2 = T2 + Fu . The belt tension TB2 lies on the tight side of the drive pulley. if the follo- For correction formulae see Pages 12.

Fstu + Fau Belt tensions non-steady state working (start-up) T2 = T1 .FU TA2 = TA1 . 12.FA Belt tensions steady state working Control Correction of belt tensions The tensions T1 to T4 and TA1to TA4 must be corrected as described under single pulley head drive.Fstu = T3 = T4 .FN .Fo + Fsto TA2 = FA * c2A TA3 = TA2 .Fstu TA2 = FA * c2A TA3 = TA2 + FN + Fo + Fsto + Fao TA4 = TA3 TA1 = TA4 + Fu .Fu .FA Belt tensions steady state working Control Correction of belt tensions Tensions T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 must be corrected as described under single pulley head drive.Fu . T1 FU T2 T4 FN Tail Drive (Braking) For FU < 0 T3 T2 T3 T4 T1 = FU * c2 = T2 .18 .Fo + Fsto + Fao Belt tensions non-steady state working (start-up) T2 = T1 .Basis of calculations Tail Drive FN T2 FU T3 T4 For FU ≥ 0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 = FU * c2 = T2 + Fu + Fo + Fsto = T3 = T4 + Fu .FN .Fstu + Fau TA4 = TA3 TA1 = TA4 .FU TA2 = TA1 .

T1 FU1 Dual Pulley Head Drive T4 T2 For FU ≥ 0 T3 FU2 T2 T3 T4 T1 = refer to page 12.FU2 = T4 + FN + Fo + Fsto TA2 = FA1 * c2A TA3 = TA2 + Fu .FU TA2 = TA1 .FA Belt tensions steady state working Control Correction The tensions T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 must be corrected as described under single pulley head drive.FA2 TA1 = TA4 + FN + Fo + Fsto + Fa Belt tensions non-steady state working (start-up) T2 = T1 .e.Fstu = T3 . Correction of Belt Tension 12.13 TA3 = TA2 + Fu .Fstu + Fau TA4 = TA3 .FU2 = T4 + FN + Fo + Fsto TA2 = refer to page 12. The tensions T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 must be corrected as described under single pulley head drive.13 = T2 + Fu .12.Fstu = T3 .FA2 TA1 = TA4 + FN + Fo + Fsto + Fao Belt tensions non-steady state working (start-up) T2 = T1 . of the utilization of the peripherical force by drive pulley 1 or 2.19 .Fstu + Fau TA4 = TA3 .FA Belt tensions steady state working Control Belt Tension T2 The belt tension T2 is dependent on the destribution of the start-up force i. Refer to page 12.Basis of calculations Head and Tail Drive T1 FU1 T2 T4 FU2 For FU ≥ 0 T3 T2 T3 T4 T1 = FU1 * c2 = T2 + Fu .FU TA2 = TA1 .

greater or lesser resistance to motion can occur.. e.Basis of calculations Section Calculation A belt conveyor can be divided into sections according to certain working and topographical conditions with differing lengths and heights. The resistance to motion for these sections can be calculated as previously with loading point and discharge point or other special resistances being apportioned to the section where the resistance occurs. L2 L1 L3 L4 Continuous Load sec sec sec 1 2 3 sec 4 H4 H3 H2 Continuous Empty Start of Loading Ending of Loading To determine the individual resistances the values of L and H have to be substituted in the formulae by Lx and Hx of the respective sections. belt force with continuous loading. At the same time it can be established whether the installation has to be driven by or braked by the motor. the resistances have to be ascertained under various working conditions such as load run-on and run-off conditions and running unloaded. Ftot = FU = Fsec1 + Fsec2 + .g. 12. (N) Total Resistance Peripheral Force With varying conditions and changing loads on certain sections.20 . • Declined loaded sections. To determine these points. Under certain circumstances the following working conditions may have to be examined: • Inclined loaded sections..

small pulleys. 12. Values see Page 11. frequent bending stress changes 6. Nominal belt strength steady state working Tmax * SB B * cv Nominal belt strength non-steady state running kN = TAmax * SA B * cv Tmax TAmax cv B (N) (N) (-) ( mm ) maximum belt tension steady state working maximum belt tension non-steady state working factor for loss of strength at the splice joint.4 9. For certain running conditions there are laid down minimum safety values. the maximum belt tension for the steady state and non-steady state working conditions is calculated.21 .5 6. kN * B * cv Tmax Steady state kN * B * cv TAmax Non-steady state SB = (-) SA = (-) For textile and steel cord belts the following safety factor values can be used: Working Conditions Drive Conditions Steady state Non-steady state SB SA Favourable: few loading changes. Safety Factor The safety factor of the selected belt is determined and verified.7 8.0 4.8 5. the nominal breaking strength kN of the belt can be ascertained and the belt type chosen.9 belt width kN = ( N/mm ) ( N/mm ) The nominal belt strength is equivalent to the minimum breaking strength rounded up and observing other selection criteria results in the belt type.0 For mechanical joints and cold splices other factors apply (see manufacturers recommendations). large pulleys. few bending stress changes Normal Unfavourable: many loading changes.Basis of calculations Nominal breaking strength After the belt width B (mm) has been established.

Firstly is the maximum belt tension decisive in the dimensioning of the carcase. For the start-up condition the value TAmax is used when calculating because at startup the friction values of the drive pulley increase for a brief period of time.21 should be observed. When hot materials are to be conveyed the appropriate heat resistant quality rubber covers have to be selected. If this is not possible or only so to a limited extent more or higher strength plies should be considered. Installation location (inside or outside. The values according to the table on page 12.25) the appropriate belt type can be determined depending on the belt width. This does not apply to special constructions such as DUNLOFLEX and TRIOFLEX. ageing etc. Further influences are: The belt speed and hence the heating up and cooling down periods. As well as these calculations. In so doing it is necessary to differentiate between the temperature of the load and the permissible temperature of the belt. With highly stressed and impacted belts this has to be taken into account additionally. With the safety factor S the influence of the following are considered: • Additional stresses at curves • Overload at start-up • Tensile strength loss due to disproportionate contribution of the plies • Strength loss due to impact • Deleterious effects from penetration.22 . Impact energy High Temperature 12. open or closed) and hence perhaps the effect of a heat concentration. With smaller installations it is not always necessary to verify the calculated value of SA. In general the carcases of wider belts should contain more plies. can be reduced at the loading point by means of deflection plates. chute and screen bars etc. With a belt of a lesser type than that recommended there is no guarantee of stable running. the strength of one ply is lost at the joint. lump size and bulk density. The impact energy due to the free fall height of material. The wider the belt and the heavier the load the higher the strength and the thicker the belt construction irrespective of the calculated strength requirement. Further Criteria have to be observed. With the help of the Belt Selection Table (see page 12. The belt nominal strength KN is rounded up to the next standard belt type. Belt Nominal Strength Belt Safety Load support Certain characteristics of the material load may in turn affect the belt width dimensioning. In this way the heat absorption capability is increased and the elongation due to the influence of heat is reduced. the safety factor needs to be checked. In special cases a breaker ply is embedded in the carrying side cover to project the carcase. The carrying side cover should be thicker than normal and stronger plies specified. number of plies and quality of the belt have to be considered. further conditions which could influence the strength. Number of Plies In the case of multiply belts such as the SUPERFORT range. It is essential to observe the factors of safety for both the running and start-up conditions. The material lump size and the contact density on the carrying side cover.Basis of calculations Selection of Belt Type For the selection and correct dimensioning of the belt type a number of criteria and principal influences need to be taken into account. When rounding down.

The cover quality should be one containing a high percentage of natural rubber. Also the temperature and possibly acidity has to be taken into consideration. BGA • British Code of Practice for Food Contact Applications.30). Some requirements demand: • Flame resistant quality (to DIN 22103) A belt is classed as flame resistant if it does not burn or does not reignite after the source of the flame has been removed. For good troughing conditions approx 40% of the belt width when running empty should be making tangential contact. • Electrical conductivity (Antistatic) A conveyor belt is classed as being antistatic if the average value of the surface resistance of the covers does not exceed 3 * 108 Ohm.23 . Troughability Cover Thickness Steep Angle Conveying Oil & Fat Effects Food Stuffs Chemical Effects If materials contain acids or alkalis the appropriate quality has to be selected. (Recommendations see Page 12. the cover quality must comply with National and International regulations. not only the quality appropriate for the load material has to be considered. To convey food stuffs. With steep inclined conveying using profiled belts from the Chevron or High Chevron ranges. When selecting belt covers. With increasing concentration and temperature the durability of the covers declines. Depending upon the compounding of the rubber.Basis of calculations Low Temperature With extreme low temperature conditions account must be taken of the higher flexing resistance of the belt. a carcase should be selected that is 1 or 2 plies stronger than calculated or in accordance with the belt selection table. Safety regulations can be important criteria in selecting the belt particulary with installations where there is a risk of fire or explosions. Under certain conditions regard has to be paid to the chemical resistance of the carcase. PVC belts down to -15°C. Safety Regulations 12. By doing this the running stability is improved especially under wet and frosty conditions. • Unbedenklichkeitsempfehlung XXVII. The most important regulations at present are: • FDA/USDA: Food and Drug Administration U. belts can be used down to -30°C (maximum to -40°C). With thicker and stronger belts it is necessary to verify whether the belt will conform to the troughing angle of the idlers. but it is also necessary to ensure there is sufficient thickness of cover on both the carrying and pulley sides of the belt. Approximately 10% should make contact with the centre carrying idler roller (Recommendation see Page 12.29). If the carrying side cover is much thicker than 3 times the pulley side cover there is the risk of the belt curling at its edges. One has to differentiate between unpacked and packed food-stuffs. Normal cover qualities tend to swell even if the load to be conveyed has only the smallest percentage of oil or fats and the rubber tends to soften. The concentration and temperature play a decisive part. Rubber and PVC react differently. This can also be an advantage with smooth surface belts which convey steeper than 12°.S. Select the fiction factor f accordingly. Account has to be taken as to whether the oil or fat is mineral or vegetable based. They are attacked by chemicals and swell.

Method of Tensioning Take-up Travel 12. Decomposition products must not come into contact with the skin. The appropriate data and testing regulations are laid down in National and International Standards.24 . The type of tensioning system and the amount of available take-up travel can be important considerations when selecting the belt type having particular reference to elongation behaviour. See Appendix 1. Design of the Installation The course of the installation having certain dimensions.74) Propane Burner Test Drum Friction Test sample 200 sample 200 450 remaining piece G remaining piece n = 190 ± 10 min-1 Number of samples 6(3+3) 5 Time in Flame 45 s 15 min Requirements a) Sum of after flame < 45 s b) Individual <15 c) No ignition after air current b) No sample residual length 0 mm a) Average value of residual length ≥ 400mm Residual piece full width not affected a) No reignition b) With flame glow preventative substitute (slipobservation necessary) 10 min – 1 6 • Occupational hygiene characteristics. vertical curves.Basis of calculations • Self extinguishing quality (Underground mines) The definition of self extinguishing conveyor belting means a quality which does not promote the spread of flame from the initial fire. Flame Test DIN 22103 (12. To determine the combustion characteristics a number of tests have to be conducted. horizontal curves and belt turnover can be decisive when selecting the belt. troughing. must not be harmful to the respiratory system nor increase filter resistance as a result of clogging.74) 25 1200 x 90 sample 2000 x B Gallery Test DIN 22118 (12. transition.

5-10 – 100 + 100 – 100 + 100 – 100 + 100 400 1 1 - 500 1 1 - 650 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 800 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 1000 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 1200 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 1400 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 1600 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 1800 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 2000 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 1. sag and transverse stability need to be taken into account. The second table contains a number of alternatives for the belt type under the same reference number.1.5 Lump Size (mm) ≤ 0.Basis of calculations Belt Reference Number In the first instance the belt is selected according to the tensile strength requirements.1 .6 . would be inappropriate because they do not take into account the belt width. Select the reference number from the first table according to belt width. Indication number of belt type (mm) Material characteristics Bulks Density (t/m3) up to 1 1. With a lump size over approximately 400 mm select one reference number higher possibly. 2. bulk density and lump size. 2. Final selection may have to take into account other criteria dependent on the working conditions. With lump sizes over 100 mm it is desirable that approximately 30% fines be present. Without such fines the load impact energy has to be taken into account. EP 250/4 EP 315/4 EP 500/3 EP 630/3 EP 400/4 EP 500/4 EP 315/5 EP 400/4 EP 500/5 EP 630/4 EP 500/5 EP 630/5 EP 800/4 EP 800/5 D 500 T 315 T 400 T 500 5 6 T 630 7 T 800 12.25 . Belt Type Reference 1 2 SUPERFORT EP Multiply EP 200/3 EP 315/3 DUNLOFLEX 2 Ply Belt D 200 D 250 D 315 D 400 T 250 TRIOFLEX 3 Ply Belt 3 Instruction for the use of the tables 4 1.5 over 2. 3. It is recommended that the belt type selected should be verified according to the belt type reference number.2. the bulk density and the material lump size.5 1. In many cases types selected on this basis alone. Tracking.

2 3.7 1. the volume Vst can be established Material Angular.0-2.083 * k3 k = 5.2.8 0. With coarse material and high falls the carcase of the belt is subject to additional stresses.192 * k3 k = 3*l 1 type lower k l Vst = 2 * l3 l 2l Vst = 0. Fresh Tile The surface condition of the material influences what effect the impact energy has.0 Anthracite Concrete (Gravel) Brown Iron Stone Brown Coal (Lignite) Manganese Dioxide Earth Fluorspar Gypsum Burnt Granite Timber.2 1.0 3.27 Vst = 0.1. Seasoned Lime. Ef = mst * g * Hf ( Nm ) Vh V1 Vv mst g Hf ( kg ) massof a piece (lump) ( m/s2 ) acceleration due to gravity (m) delivery height (free fall or via chute) With the value Ef and with the help of the diagram on Page 12.9 Material Density (kg/dm3) 1.3 0.52 * l3 l – k Vst = l3 l Vst = 0.3 .3.25 * l l 2l 12.0 t/m3 Correction Type according to table.1.2 .3.4 2.8 2. These have to be taken into account when dimensioning the belt. Physical Shape Volume Vst (dm3) Edge Length Diagonal l (dm) Measurement k (dm) Volumes Vst If the mass of a piece of material is not known. Green Timber.2 1. an appropriate belt type can be selected.4 2.8 2.5 .1. slag ≥ 2.27.0 1.2.2.5 * l Vst = l3 Vst = 0. sharp edged such as ores. The load has to be accelerated to the belt speed and often at the same time it changes in direction of travel and elevation.5 5.26 .1.0 0.5 .7 2.1.0 t/m3 Rounded.7 .2 t/m3 Hard.3 . V The impact energy Ef is a measure of the demands when loading a belt from a height with large lumps.5 .4 1.1. Burnt Limestone State of Material Coke Marble Paper Coal Briquette Sandstone Shale Slag (Furnace) Soapstone Bituminous Coal Rock Salt Clay. With soft rounded material the belt is less stressed compared with that struck by hard sharp edged material.3 2.6 1.7 .2 . Mass of a piece mst = Vst * Vst ( dm3 ) ( kg/dm3 ) ( kg ) volume of piece (see below) density (see table) Material Density Material Density (kg/dm3) 1.4 .2 .5 .0 2. irregular such as limestone and gravels ≤ 1.7 2.5 .2.2 1.1. Dry Clay.3 .4.0 2.3.136 * k3 k = 6*l 1-2 types higher k 0.2.4 .3 . it can be estimated from it volume. With regard to physical shape and by taking the edge length 1 or the diagonal measurement corner to corner k. See page 12.5 2.Basis of calculations Load Demands At the loading point the demands made of the belt are particularly high. soft such as brown coal = 1.0 1.

40 00 30 00 20 00 15 Fa ll E n ie erg Ef (N m) 00 10 00 75 0 50 0 0 40 30 0 20 0 15 0 10 0 1000/4 1250/5 1600/5 2000/5 2500/5 250/3 315/3 400/3 500/3 630/4 800/4 200 250 315 400 500 630 1000 1250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 800 50 Belt Type SUPERFORT 3-5 ply DUNLOFLEX TRIOFLEX Steel Cord Impact Arrangements Height of chute To reduce the stress at the loading point there are a number of constructive measures that can be taken such as impact deflection plates. The friction due to granulated material acceleration increases the abrasion and irregular lump acceleration causes more cover damage.30). grizzly bars or roller grids. (Recommendations see Page 12. grooves and tears. Covers The thickness of the covers also contributes to the reduction of the impact energy and should be calculated to suit.Basis of calculations Belt Selection This diagram shows belt types in relation to impact energy and makes an allowance of safety over that of the critical impact energy which could otherwise lead to damage.27 . all of which help to protect the belt. V1 V2 V Cover Quality Abrasion length Acceleration relating to friction Acceleration relating to lump shape According to the predominating material characteristics either a high abrasion resistant quality or a cut resistant quality has to be used. 12. A freely tensioned belt is able to absorb greater impact energy than a supported belt. garland idlers. shaker tables and accelerating belts etc. cushioned impact idlers.

Basis of calculations Terminal with Slatted Pulley. 12.28 .

44 0.18 0.23 0.345 0.26 12.77 30° 0.29 .50 0.35 0.Basis of calculations Troughability An appropriate measure of troughability is necessary in order to provide good belt tracking.00 Material of Weft Value kW Belt Weight (kg/m2) Factor cG Test of Troughability B Z P ST 0. Approximately 10% should make tangential contact with the centre idler roller. This depends mainly on the transverse stiffness of a belt and its own weight.71 25° 0.20 0. After 5 minutes the sag s is measured and the sag ratio s/B is determined.47 0.93 45° 1.41 0. For normal belt types minimum belt widths for a certain troughing angle can be estimated.40 0.44 0.38 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 0.83 35° 0.89 40° 0 . makes contact with the carrying idlers.355 0. by means of cords whose lengths are according to the belt width.38 0. friction free.08 0.14 0.37 0.34 The test of troughability may be carried out according to ISO R 703 (1975) or DIN 22102 (1991). A 150 mm long full width belt test piece is suspended.36 0.29 0. A sufficiently straight run may be expected if approximately 40% of the belt width when running empty.16 0.64 20° 0. Minimum Belt Width B B ≥ d * c * kW * cG d c kW cG ( mm ) (-) (-) (-) thickness of carcase factor for troughing angle value for carcase material factor for belt weight (m) b 1 b3 b2 b ≈ 40% of B b2 ≈ 10% of b Troughing Angle Factor c 15° 0.12 0. Sag Ratio s/B (minimum values) Suspension cords Troughing Angle S 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° 60° B Belt sample Sag s/B 0.10 0.

temperature) and conditions at the loading point. Carrying side cover dM dZ (mm) (mm) dT = dm + dz ( mm ) Minimum thickness For textile belts : 1 to 2 mm depending on fabric For ST belts: 0.vo Relative speed * 100 (%) v Damping at loading point Favourable < 500 < 30 good Average 500-2000 30-60 normal Unfavourable > 2000 60-100 moderate Rating Number Influence Factor Loading condition Criteria Favourable Average Unfavourable > 60 20 to 60 < 20 < 50 50 to 100 > 150 < 1. density. Loading Conditions Loading Conditions Height of fall (mm) v . abrasiveness.7 * cord diameter.Basis of calculations Cover Thickness The cover thicknesses are selected in such a manner as to provide protection to the carcase throughout a belts life and hence economic viability.) and the effects of material temperature are considered separately.8 > 1. Cover thicknesses should be such that the ratio carrying side to pulley side does not exceed 3:1. acidity etc.0 1 to 1. minimum 4mm Addition to minimum thickness The value dz is determined from the sum of the rating numbers for different loading conditions and material characteristics.30 .8 Slight Average Severe Rating Number 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Loading cycle fB = 2*L v (s) Lump size (mm) Bulk density (t/m3) Abrasiveness Value dz Sum of rating numbers 5 to 6 7 to 8 9 to 11 12 to 13 14 to 15 dz (mm) 0 to 1 1 to 3 3 to 6 6 to 10 ≥ 10 12. Chemical effects (oil. The thickness of the carrying side cover is mainly dependent upon the characteristics of the load materials (lump size.

Basis of calculations

Take-Up

During running the conveyor belt has to accommodate the stress changes that occur between start-up, running, full load running and running empty. These result in elastic elongation of the belt and thus a change in belt length. This difference between the elongation under the installed pre-tension with the conveyor at rest and the total elongation under full load running conditions is the additional running elongation. The elongation is not spread proportionally over the belt circumference but is dependent upon the effective belt tension and the elongation behaviour of the plies i.e. the carcase materials. The length change resulting from the pre-tension and the running elongation is accommodated by an appropriately dimensioned take-up unit (see Page 6.1). The elongation of the belt increases with increasing temperature (hot material and high ambient temperature). The take-up travel is calculated from the relation E = T/B/ (Hooks Law). This is calculated utilizing the average tensions TMo on the carrying side run and TMu on the return side run.
Tension of the fully loa ded belt

Tension of stationary or empty belt

T1 + T2
ges

T3 + T4 + = 2*B*E sp = 2 T*L 2 * B * kD * kN

T (-) 2*B*E L (m)

= 2*B*E

Length Changes

L

=

T*L*2 2*B*E

Take-up Travel Lengths

sp
E B L Lges kD kN

=

T*L 2*B*E

=

(m)

(-) (m) (m) (m) (-) ( N/mm )

Elastic modulus Belt width Conveying length Belt length ≈ 2 * conveying length Elongation value (see Appendix 1.2) Nominal belt strength

For design purposes the following calculation may be used: Take-Up Travel for Design Purposes ( Sp = L *
bl

+

el

) (m)

100
EP belts 0.2 - 0.4 % ST belts EP belts 1 - 2 % ST belts 0.1 - 0.5%

bl el

( % ) Permanent elongation ( % ) Elastic elongation

For further information regarding the elongation behaviour of conveyor belts see Appendix H.

12.31

Calculation Example

Service Data

Belt Conveyor with a single pulley head drive conveying sand and gravel, lump size up to 200 mm. Capacity Bulk Density Degree of Filling Conveying Length Conveying Height Belt Width Troughing Qm = 1000 t/h = 1.5 t/m3 = 70% L = 258 m H = 17.9 m B = 1200 mm = 35° 3 Roll Carrying Idler Rollers mRo = 22.3 kg Return Idler Rollers mRu = 19.3 kg Surcharge Angle = 15° Belt Speed v = 1.68 m/s Layout horizontal 40 m inclined 212 m ca 4.8° horizontal 6 m
6

212
17.9 40 4.8°

Short Calculation

Power Empty + horizontal Conveying

P1 =

cB * v + Qm cL * kf

=

277 * 1.68 + 1000 52 * 1

= 28.2 kW

Width Factor Length Factor Factor

cB cL kf

(see table 11.7) (see table 11.8) (see table 11.8)

Power for Lift

P2 =

H * Qm 367

=

17.9 * 1000 367

= 48.8 kW

Power at drive pulley Required motor power Installed motor power

PT = P1 + P2 77 PM = 0.9

= 77 kW

= 85.6 kW

PN = 110 kW (selected) cR * PT cv * v
Friction factor cR Breaking strength loss cv used = 0.3 Belt with 4 plies

Belt breaking strength

k =

=

15 * 77 0.75 * 1.68
(see table Page 11.9) (see table Page 11.9)

= 917 N/mm

Belt selection

EP 1000/4

8 + 4 mm covers

Belt weight 25.4 kg Carcase thickness 5.8 mm

13.1

Calculation Example

Drive Power and Belt Tension Peripheral Force FU = C * f * L * g [ m’R + ( 2 * m’G + m’L ) * cos
Factor C = 1.37 Friction factor f = 0.02

] + H * g * m’L

Load due to idlers m’R =

22.3 + 1.2

19.3 = 18.6 + 9.6 = 28.2 kg/m 2

Load due to belt

m’G = 25.4 kg/m 1000 m’L = 3.6 * 1.68 = 4.8° kA = 1.5 = 165.3 kg/m

Load due to material

Incline Start-up factor

cos 4.8° = 0.997 (hydraulic coupling)

Peripheral Force

FU = 1.37 * 0.02 * 258 * 9.81[28.2+(2 * 25.4+165.3) * 0.997]+17.9 * 9.81 * 165.3 Steady state Non-steady state FU = 16897 + 29027 = 45924 N FA = 45924 * 1.5 PT = 45923 * 1.68 1000
drive degree of efficiency = 0.9

= 68885 N

Power at pulley

= 77.2 kW

PT Motor power PM = 0.9 Installed motor power PN = 110 kW (selected) ( m’L + m’G ) * g * lo 8 * 0.01
With belt sag Carrying side idle pitch 1% lo = 1.2m

= 85.7 kW

Min. belt tension

Tmin =

= 28061 N

68885 - 45924 Acceleration aA = 258 * ( 165.3 + 25.4 + 50.8 ) 1.68 Start-up time tA = 0.368 1.68 * 4.56 2 = 4.56 s

= 0.368 m/s2

Start-up distance

sA =

= 3.83 m

13.2

i.3836 = 22961 N = 20269 N = 20269 N = 68884 N = 132383 N = 68884 N = 26424 N = 26969 N = 26969 N = 95309 N = 175671 N = 95309 N = 19725 N = 3237 N Control T1 Start-up (non-steady state) Control TA1 Case 1) Tension Weight at Discharge Point (close to T2) 1st Adjustment TA2 = T2 (constant tension) T = TA2 .7 + 25.368 * 258 * ( 16.T2 = 26424 .5 TA2 TA3 TA4 TA1 TA1 = FA * c2A = 68886 * 0.e.8 + 165.3836 = 26424 + 1768 .4 ) Sequential Calculation T1 to T4 Running (steady state) T2 = FU * c2 = 45924 * 0.81 * ( 9.T4 = 28061 .81 * [ 28.4 + 165.6 + 25.4 ) * 0.81 * 25.2 + ( 50.5 T3 = 22962 + 1768 .23732 = 4328 N With the value T all belt tensions T1 to T4 and TA1 to TA4 will be increased T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = 76675 N 30752 N 28061 N 28061 N TA1 = TA2 = TA3 = TA4 = 99637 N 30752 N 31297 N 31297 N Belt Tensions T = 163549 N TA = 192983 N The stipulations T2 = TA2 and T4 ≥ Tmin are fulfilled.9 * 9.368 * 258 * ( 8.997 ] = 10566 N Fu = 0. 13.Calculation Example Individual Resistances for Sequential Calculation Main resistance Secondary resistance Frictional Resistances Carrying side Return side Slope Resistance Carrying side Return side Inertial Resistance Carrying side Return side FH = 0. T4 ≥ Tmin T = Tmin .81 * [ 18.4460 T4 = T3 T1 = 20269 + 4563 + 10566 + 33486 Sum T1 = FU * c1 = 45924 * 1.4 + 165.997 = 1768 N Fsto = 17.3 ) * 0.3 .02 * 258 * 9.1 ) * FH = 12333 * 0.997 ] = 12333 N FN = ( C .02 * 258 * 9.6 + ( 25.3 ) * 0.3 ) = 33486 N Fstu = 17.7 + 25.4 = 4460 N Fao = 0.4 + 165.02 * 258 * 9.4460 + 3237 = TA3 = 26969 + 4563 + 10566 + 33486 + 19725 Sum = FA * c1A = 68886 * 1.37 = 4563 N Fo = 0.3 ) Fau = 0.22961 = 3463 N With the value T belt tensions T1 to T4 are increased T1 = 72347 N T2 = 26424 N T3 = 23732 N T4 = 23732 N 2nd Adjustment TA1 = 95309 N TA2 = 26424 N TA3 = 26969 N TA4 = 26969 N Tmin = 28061 N est nécessaire pour la flèche de 1%.81 * ( 25.9 * 9.

To transmit the peripheral force FU friction cut off wise.0118 13.35 and = 210° : Running Start-up : T1/ T2 = 72347 / 26424 = 2.3 + 25.Calculation Example Case 2) .74 ≤ 3 : TA1/ TA2 = 95309 / 26424 = 3. The belt would undulate excessively resulting in high wear and tear and extra energy consumption.3.20269 = 1092 N T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = 76675 N 30752 N 28061 N 28061 N TA1 = TA2 = TA3 = TA4 = 96401 N 27516 N 28061 N 28061 N T = 163549 N Stipulation 1. T4 or TA4 ≥ Tmin For Case 1 (tension weight at discharge) the belt tensions T1 and T2 would suffice after Adjustment 1.2 23732 * 8 The degree of sag desired was 1% = 0.132383) / 4 = T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = 79706 N 33783 N 31091 N 31091 N TA1 = TA2 = TA3 = TA4 = 10822 N 95309 N 26424 N 26969 N 26969 N = 175671 N 2nd Adjustment Belt Tensions TA = 175671 N T = Tmin . Sag without adjustment: hd = ( 165. T = TA TA = 180037 N 2.TA4 = 28061 .4 ) * 9.T3 = 26969 .T4 = 28061 . T4 = TA4 TA = 180039 N 2.26969 = 1092 N T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = 80797 N 34874 N 32183 N 32183 N TA1 = TA2 = TA3 = TA4 = 96401 N 27516 N 28061 N 28061 N T = 180037 N Stipulation Note 1. A = 0.6 = e With this condition however the belt would not have the desired degree of sag of 1% at the tail end and fine grained material could escape under the skirtboards at the loading point. The condition T1/T2 ≤ e would be fulfilled with = 0.Tension Weight at Tail (close to T4) 1st Adjustment TA3 = T3 (constant tension) T = TA3 .81 * 1.20269 = 6700 N T1 = 75584 N T2 = 29661 N T3 = 26969 N T4 = 26969 N 2nd Adjustment Belt Tensions TA1 = 95309 N TA2 = 26424 N TA3 = 26969 N TA4 = 26969 N T = Tmin .4 . Location no Influence 1st Adjustment T = TA T = (175671 . T4 ≥ Tmin Case 3) Fixed Take-up Tension.

33 Pre-tension Force (kg) Pre-tension Tension force (kg) Case 1 2 * TA2 6265 Case 2 2 * TA4 5720 Case 3 T/4 * 2 9176 Take-up Travel sp = T*L 2 * B * k D * kN ( mm ) T in Case 1 at rest running at start-up elongation value T = 4 * 30752 = 123008 N T = 163549 N T = 192983 N kD ( .71 Comparison of Tension Systems Discharge 11.5 Working condition at rest steady state non-steady state Take-up Travel (mm) Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 1259 1674 1975 1149 1674 1843 1843 1843 1843 Evaluation of Belt Safety Factor. b) With the fixed take-up.13 9. Result of the Computer Calculation DUNLOP-ENERKA Safety Factors Running Start-up Pre-tension Minimum Maximum kg kg 5387 6268 0. The pretension is substantially less in case 2 and results in the lowest stresses for both the belt and the installation.33 11.3 Working elongation % Total elongation % 13.28 0. Pre-tension and Take-up Travel a) For the belt and installation.7 9.1 9. The belt safety is almost the same in all three cases.0 Tail 11.73 9.Calculation Example Comparison of various Take-up Systems kN * cv * B TX kN cv B TX ( N/mm ) (-) ( mm ) (N) Nominal belt strength Loss of strength at the joint Belt width Belt tension at point X Belt Safety S= Working condition steady state non-steady state Belt Safety S Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 11.7 9.3 Fixed Take-up 11. the calculated travel must be taken into account otherwise a shortening of the belt may be necessary later on.27 0.73 9. Case 2 (take-up weight at tail) is the most favourable.71 8955 9175 0.) = 10.77 5500 5721 0.03 11.5 .

h ) L) ( 367 .63 68885UA 0.3 N/cm2 = = 17.68 * 60 v * 60 1.14 * 0.81 ( TA1 + TA2 ) pT = Surface pressure DA * B DA und B in cm ( TA1 + 130389 130389 TA2 ) pT = = = 17.63 DA * * DA DA (m) DA (m) Trommeldurchmesser Pulley diameter = 51 R/min FUA * DA Maximum torque MA = 2 F * * DA 68885 * 0.63 3.8 = 626 mm Parameter for the belts types.h red = 8 *mm * sin 35° .14 * 0.Calculation Example Pulley Diameter DA = cTr * d cTr d (-) ( mm ) = 108 * 5.68 * 60 * 60 Pulley revolutions = nT = = 51 = U/min nT = 3.65 ) = 1164 mm Lred = 8 * ( 367 * sin 35° .81 ( TA1 30752 99637 + 30752 99637 ++ TA2 ) FAT = = 13291 kg = == 13291 Kg 9.81 9.10 Carcase thickness Drive pulley Bend pulley Snub/deflection pulley DA = 630 mm (selected) DB = 500 mm DC = 315 mm v 1.81 9.3 N/cm2 63 * 120 63 * DA * B 120 DA and B in cm Troughing Transition LM = x * s * sin = 8 * 367 * sin 35° = 1684 mm x=8 Factor for carcase s = 367 mm Side idler roller contact made by belt = 35° Troughing angle Lift of pulley for troughing 30° s2 h= * sin B Reduced transition length Lred = x * ( s * sin s2 h= 3672B = * sin = 3672 1200 * sin 35° = 65 mm * sin 35° = 65 mm 1200 Lred = x * ( s * sin .6 .65 ) = 1164 mm 13.63 = MA = == 21699 Nm 2 2 2 = 21699 Nm Pulley loading+ TA2 ) ( TA1 Drive = FAT pulley 9. See Page 11.

0839 = 10.81 * cos = 29703 = 120 m 25.1 m Y = 0.4 m = 4.81 * cos 35° Tx = T4 + f * Lx * g * ( m’Ro + m’G + m’L ) = 29703 N Belt tension at start of curve Belt tension when running T4 = 28061 N Horizontal distance before the curve Lx = 40 m Co-ordinates of beginning and end of the curve 17.7 .4 * 9.Calculation Example Convex Vertical Curve Re = x * s * sin x = 125 (factor for carcase) = 125 * 367 * sin 35° = 26.3 m Tx Concave Vertical Curve Ra = m’G * 9.5 * Ra * tan2 = 0.9 sin = 212 = 0.8° Ra Y X 13.0844 X = Ra * tan = 120 * 0.

1 = 10.61052 16842 * 3673 = 0.61056 3672 * 12002 * ( 0.0018049 = 0.61052 16842 Total elongation ges = 0. For additional information see Appendix 1.7 3.1 Additional elongation Total elongation M min min = 0.5 * 32.0018049 3 * 12003 Additional elongation M= Total elongation min min = 0.003692 .00705 = 0.1 1 Elongation at T1 empty 0= (value from computer calculation) = 0.0.5 367 ) = 0.01519 1 = 6.0. safety at running empty Smin = 32. This can result in a reduction in the permissible minimum safety at the belt edges or belt centre. The required values for the calculation for the belt safety running empty at head and tail were extracted from the computer calculation. trough vertical and horizontal curves or is turned over.00814 Safety in the edge zone Elongation at T1 (running) 0 Curve length Additional elongation K= 12002 * 0.003692 12002 * 0.0029669 .5 * 0. safety at running empty Smin = 25.8 .Calculation Example Additional Tension Adjustment In the regions where the belt goes from flat to troughed.00705 3 * 1200 = 0.8 = 0.001162 ≥0 no buckling 13.0018049 = 0.01519 Elongation at Belt Centre Discharge Point Min.27 ≥ 4 Smin = 10.0018049 = 0. The tension can become negative creating buckling at the centre or flapping at the edges.14 = 180 * 35° = 0.8 1 Elongation at T1 empty 0 no overstress at discharge point (head) = 10.5 * 25.00814 + 0.0018871 ≥0 no buckling Elongation at Belt Centre at Tail Min.0029669 10. additional stresses and strains occur at the edge zones or in the belt centre.5 * 11.

...1259 mm Full Load Running .............0 Belt EP 1000/4 Discharge L normal Tail L normal Discharge L reduced Tail L reduced Pulley Lift Belt Centre Criteria = = = = = 1686 mm 1686 mm 1170 mm 1170 mm 65 mm Discharge L normal Tail L normal Discharge L reduced Tail L reduced 0... Carrying 133 mm Roller dia... 65 mm Reduced Troughing Transition .00 m Loading........ Return 133 mm Roller Weight Carrying 22...... Torque Drive Pulley Rev Load-Drive Pulley “ Tension Pulley Friction Factor Drive Pulley Weight Safety Factor : Running SB = 11......7 : Start-up SA = 9..3 kW Roller Weight Return 19...51 SLIP SAFETY FACTOR Running At Start-up 72349 26425 23743 23743 146260 5387 kg Belt Elongation: Under Pre-tension ...... 1170 mm Convex Vertical Curve .4 m For calculation purposes missing data assumed......0 % 1000 t/h 258........... 1686 mm Pulley Lift .3 kg Roller Pitch Carrying 1.. 0.....1674 mm Full Load Start-up .....00146 0. 415 mm Full Load Start-up ...0 m Measurement ya vertical .. Tensile Strength Smin Belt Edge Troughing Transition Transition Lengths KD = 10..49 % Working Elongation .10.. 26 m Concave Vertical Curve .. 0..5 Belt Sag 1.m 0 kg Idler Type 3 Port 35° Acceleration Line : Loaded 4.4 r........ 119 m Measurement xa horizontal . Carrying Roller 241.1976 mm Elongation Value ...0 R/min 13290 kg 6268 kg Roller dia..08..01516 0.... not fed in..01586 0....p...7 25....56 S : Empty 0... 717 mm 99629 30743 31297 31297 192967 Take-up Travel (absolute): Weight at Rest .......Calculation Example Computer Calculation DUNLOP-ENERKA CONVEYOR BELT CALCULATION Firm : Project : Position : DATE 06... 0 mm Full Load Running . We cannot take responsibility for the calculation...01 8..0 kW Required Power 85...01071 6.00074 Belt Turnover (5) No buckling No buckling No buckling No buckling Continue Calculation (1) Vertical Curve (3) Change Transition Length (2) Horizontal Curve (4) 13......4 kg/m Drive Pulley Tension Pulley Snub Pulley Max...01001 0.00189 0.020 Drive Factor 1.77 % 95311 26425 26979 26979 175695 BELT SAG Running At Start-up 76667 30743 28061 28061 163532 6268 kg Movement Distance Weight: At Rest . Adjustments of Transition Lengths Adjustment of Additional Tension Drive : Single Pulley Head Drive Weight at Discharge Belt Width : 1200 mm 3 roll 35° T1 Full T1 Empty T4 Full T4 Empty = = = = 76667 N 34939 N 28061 N 28064 N Discharge Full SB Discharge Empty SB Heck Full SB Heck Empty SB Dyn....... Carrying 229 kg Loading.......90 Angle of Wrap 210° Friction Coefficient 0..........5 (-) Measurement of Installation Elements: Troughing Transition ...0 PRE-TENSION CRITERIA Belt Tension T1 (N) Belt Tension T2 (N) Belt Tension T3 (N) Belt Tension T4 (N) Belt Tension Sum Tension Weight 630 mm 500 mm 315 mm 21699 Nm 51...........e...7 kW Installed Power 110.68 m/s MATERIAL Material Density Lump Size (mm) Temperature Surcharge Angle PULLEYS Sand & Gravel Ambiant 1. 10.0 kW Additional Power 0.0 kW Degree of Efficiency 0..51 6......93 Musterman Example 12 CONVEYOR BELT Drive System : Single Pulley Head Drive Tension : GTU at Head Drive Coupling : Hydraulic Coupling INSTALLATION Capacity Conveying Length Lift belt Width Belt Speed DRIVE Power Running Empty 7..8 32. Data with Value 0 were not calculated i.......9 m 1200 mm 1........89 0.... 0... 0........28 9..9 .....1 4.......... 50 15° Belt Type Belt Type Covers Quality Weight IDLER ROLLERS multiply EP 1000/4 8 + 4 mm RA 25.50 t/m3 max.................28 % Total Elongation.00116 0..0 m 17........... Return 51 kg 0........30 Rev.20 m Roller Pitch Return 2.........5 = = = = = 11.1 32....

10 .Calculation Example DUNLOP Conveyor Belts at Crusher Plant. 13.

z*(l+a) 3600 v= l a ( m/s ) With a load of z pieces per hour l+a v= t z l a t ( pieces/hour) (m) (m) (s) Number of pieces per hour Length of piece Spacing of pieces Loading interval ( m/s ) With a load at time interval t 14. With heavy loads or long length conveying. edge length + 100 ( mm ) Belt Width Speed v The speed of the slider belt must be in keeping with the type of unit load.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Slider Belts The conveying of unit loads is generally done by slider belts with conveying lengths up to about 100m. the belt is tracked over flat or slightly troughed idlers. wood or synthetic. Belt Widths The belt width should be somewhat greater than the longest edge length of a single piece except with pieces loaded in the direction of belt travel. transverse slots can be made at intervals in the supporting surface and perhaps relieving rollers fitted.2 to 1. steel.5 m/s. Drive Pulley Carrying Side Return Side Tail and Tension Pulley Supporting Surface Idlers Support Surface The supporting or slider surface can be made from various materials with different friction values e.1 . To avoid a `suction’ effect with the belt. B ≈ max.g. As a rule V is from 0.

FU = Cg * ( Fo + Fu ) + Fst + FS† (N) Peripheral Force Secondary Resistances The secondary resistances are independent of the installation length and only occur at certain points. The value is dependent on the average surface loading.6 * v * zm * m L ( t/h ) Qm = z*m 1000 ( t/h ) v m zm z L ( m/s ) ( kg ) ( St/m ) ( St/h ) (m) Belt speed Mass of piece Number each metre zm = L / ( l + a ) Pieces per hour Conveying Length For bulk loads see appropriate tables.02 1.6 * v * l+a ( t/h ) Qm = 3.04 1. The secondary resistances are estimated using factor Cg. m Qm = 3. Factor Cg Conveying Length L (m) 2.2 1.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Conveying Capacity The conveying capacity can be evaluated from the given data.5 5 10 25 50 >100 Average Surface Loading pm (kg/m2) 5 -10 up to 300 1.8 1.4 1.2 . Resistance to Motion The total resistance to motion and therefore the pulley peripheral force FU is calculated from the sum of the individual resistances.05 ≈1 1. The effect of the secondary resistances is considerably smaller than obtained from the friction value g between belt and supporting surface. With slider belts the sum of the main resistances from friction on the carrying and return side is relatively high compared with belts supported by idlers. Only with relatively short installations is the value greater that 1.09 1.01 ≈1 ≈1 ≈1 Average Surface Loading m’G pm = B For unit loads + m’L b ( kg/m2 ) m’G + m’L pm = B For bulk loads ( kg/m2 ) b B m’G m’L B b l (kg/m) (kg/m) (m) (m) (m) Load due to belt Load due to material (see page 12.6) Belt width Load width or width of piece Length of piece l 14.

50 0.70 0.6 Friction value g 0.45 0.50 Steel Sheet Polished 0° +18° +40° 0.30 1.95 0.6 / v ( kg/m ) Load due to belt Number of rollers Friction value between belt and supporting surfaces (see table) Friction Value g The average friction value between belt and supporting surface was determined thus: • Surface load p = 20 .40 0.6 0. impregnated) Rubber covered Cotton (PVC impregnated) PVC (film) PVC (smooth) PVC (textured) 0.60 1.10 Hard Wood +18° 0.35 0.02 * L * g * m’G m’L (kg/m) m’G (kg/m) zR (pieces) (-) g (N) Load due to material m’L = Qm / 3.02 * L * g * ( m’L + m’G ) Fu = * L * g * m’G (N) Sliding g (N) On rollers Fu = 2 * zR + 0.8 0.4 1.4 0.00 0.55 1.35 0.90 0.30 0. With increasing temperature the friction value g increases with PVC running side surfaces and decreases with fabric surfaces. Z.0 0.0.70 1.4 0.2 0 Friction value PVC Cotton Rayon (bare) B.45 0.25 0.2 .6 0.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Frictional Resistances Frictional resistance occurs on the carrying and return side either sliding or rolling resistance depending on how the belt is supported.60 0.75 0.2 0 0 0.60 1.30 0.4 0.60 0. the friction value g increases with increasing speed and decreases with increasing surface loading. Sliding Fo = g Carrying Side * L * g * ( m’L + m’G ) (N) On rollers Return Side Fo = 2 * zR + 0.Upper Surface Temperature (°C) -20° Cotton (bare) EP (bare.8 0.70 0.30 0.55 0. 14. the speed and the surface loading.6 steel plate hard synthetic hard wood Speed Surface Loading Friction value g 0.65 0.30 0.80 0.8 0.2 0 10 20 30 4050 100 200 300 400 Belt speed v m/s Surface pressure p in N/mm2 Independent of the characteristics of the slider surface.40 0. EP The friction value g is mainly dependent upon the combination of the belt under side surface and the temperature.25 0. When selecting the friction value these parameters can be taken into account according to the given working conditions.8 0.50 0.4 0.3 .2 1.500 N/mm2 • Speed v = 0.2 0.60 0.30 Synthetic +18° 0.8 m/s Slider Bed Surface .75 Temperature g 1.55 0. -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature t in °C steel plate hard synthetic hard wood 0.35 0.

At such knife edges relatively high temperatures may develop.1 * B (N) z B (-) (m) Number of knife edges Belt width 14.500 650 800 1000 1200 >1200 Resistance FAb Factor k for Tripper fixed movable 1000 1500 2000 3500 4400 4700 1100 1700 2200 3600 5100 5400 Resistance due to simple scraper for cleaning belts upper surface. up to approx. • • • • • • Resistance FA1 Resistance FAw Resistance FAb Resistance FMe Resistance FSp Resistance FLa Skirtboard seals Tripper (throw-off carriage) Scraper Knife edges Unit load barrier Load deflector FS = FAl + FAw + FAb + FMe + FSp + FLa Resistance FAl Resistance from side skirtboards used to channel the load stream (value). FAl = 160 * lf lf (m) (N) Length of skirtboards per metre of conveying length Resistance FAw Resistance due to trippers (values) z k (-) (-) number of trippers factor FAw = z * k (N) Belt Width (mm) 300 .4 . Knife edges are used to change the direction of very thin slider belts where particularly small transition gaps are necessary.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Slope Resistance Fst Fst = H * g * m’L H (m) elevation (lift or fall) (N) Special Resistance FS The special resistances have to be calculated separately according to the conditions existing. FAb = z * 800 * B (N) z B (-) (m) Number of scrapers Belt width Resistance FMe Resistances due to knife edges (value). 150°C. FMe = z * 0.

This friction resistance can be very high in comparison to the frictional resistance on the belts running side. Slider Hold-up Device Slider Surface L1 FSp = L1 l l * g * L1 * m’L * cos . When conveying unit loads temporary hold-ups may occur due to congestion. With sideways transfer of the load. the belt is deflected in the opposite direction.m’L * H1† (N) (m) (°) (-) (m) ( kg/m ) H1 m’L Hold-up length Gradient of installation Friction factor belt/load This friction value can differ widely and depending on the load can be greater than the friction value µg between belt and slider surface. Appropriate tracking devices need to be built in. Belt Width (mm) FLa (N) ≤ 500 800 650-800 1500 1000-2000 3000-3500 For light bulk and unit loads these values may be reduced. For bulk and unit loads the following values can be used. 14. Lift (or fall) Load due to material Resistance FLa Deflector Resistance due to sideways transfer of load when conveying horizontally (load deflector).Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Resistance FSp Resistance due to unit load blockage.5 . that is. the belt slides underneath the loaded units resulting in a frictional resistance.

2 . Peripheral Force FA The drive force of a slider belt installation is as a rule over-dimensioned because of the lower power requirements.2. The start-up torque is approx.22 0. At start-up the following may be used: A = + 0.5 * FU * PM Note If FA ≥ 2. the highest value is the deciding factor. then calculate thus: FA = 2.25 0.15 0.6 * FU . Belt Tensions The belt tensions are calculated from the peripheral forces FU et FA. Running Side of belt Rubbered Drive Pulley Condition Friction value 0.6 * FU (N) (N) This prevents excessive over-dimensioning of the motor and thus the use of an overstrength belt. PN FA = 1.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Drive Power PT = FU * v 1000 ( kW ) PT Motor Power PM = ( kW ) Installed Power PN ( kW ) The motor power PN is selected from the standard list with the appropriate rounding up or from existing stock.22 0.20 0.30 0. Friction Value The friction value depends on the running side of the belt and the surface of the drive pulley.15 Lagged dry damp dry damp dry damp dry damp Bare Fabric Lagged Bare Drive Factor c1 For factors c1 and c1A: see Appendix F. Mostly squirrel cage motors with direct on-line starting are used.6 .05 14.25 0. T1 = FU * c1 T1A = FA * c1A (N) (N) In selecting the belt.6 times higher than the nominal torque.1.

As a rule a check on the factor of safety of the selected belt is sufficient. extremely small pulleys are used. The advice of the belt manufacturer should be sought.7 . See Page 11.Slider Bed Belt Conveyors Belt Types In selecting the belt type for a slider application. Nearly always the belts are over dimensioned. Rufftop Belt for Sack Conveying 14. particularly about problems of making the belt endless. Transverse stability and the location of the belt are particular considerations.9. to enable the bridging of gaps between two installations. for example. (N) Maximum belt tension PN S=(6-8)* PM Pulley Diameter Often with slider belt installations. kN * B * cV Safety Factor S= Tmax Tmax * S Belt type kN = B * cV KN B CV Tmax ≥ 10-12 N/mm ( N/mm ) Nominal breaking strength ( mm ) Belt width (-) Factor for the loss of breaking strength at the joint. the tensile strength is largely of secondary consideration because of the low stresses.

cement.42 to 1. great heights for example.05 m/s) the deep closed buckets are used (gravitational discharge). chippings.Bucket Elevators Bucket Elevators With bucket elevators different bulk loads such as sand.3. see Page 15. gravel. semolina. coal. For low speeds (v = 0. For dimensions.05 to 4.12. DIN 15231 DIN 15232 DIN 15233 DIN 15234 Flat bucket for light loads such as flour.2 m/s) according to the type of material as a rule the flat. capacities and weights. grain. Flat rounded bucket for light granulated loads such as grain. fertilizer etc. hB DIN 15231 DIN 15234 DIN 15235 eB ( mm ) Bucket Projection hB ( mm ) Bucket Height For high speeds (V = 1. over 100m can be surmounted with high strength belts. Medium deep bucket for sticky loads such as cane sugar. Belts with buckets attached are used as the carrying medium. silos and warehouses. With bucket elevators. They run with low noise levels and low vibrations at a relatively high speed. flour.6 * v * ( t/h ) Goulotte deFeed chute chargement Bucket capacity ( litres ) Système de against Protection protection contre les poussières falling material Tambour depulley Return renvoi Pied de l’élévateur Elevator boot Weight of material per bucket Qm * a Vm = 3. Bucket Types eB eB hB DIN 15232 eB hB DIN 15233 eB hB eB hB The type of bucket is determined in the main by the material and the method of discharge either by gravitational or centrifugal emptying.1 . See also Page 15.6 * v * VB ( l ) (-) v ( m/s ) a (m) ( t/m3 ) Nominal capacity of one bucket Degree of filling Speed Bucket Pitch Bulk density of load ( kg ) Nominal Capacity VB (l) The nominal capacity VB of the bucket is determined from the geometric dimensions and a horizontal surface filling level (water filling). can be conveyed either vertically or sloping upwards. grain. They require only a small ground area and are preferred in buildings. coal. DIN 15235 Deep buckets with curved back wall for light flowing or rolling loads such as fly ash and potatoes. Deep buckets with a flat back wall for heavy pulverized loads or coarse ground loads such as sand. cement. 15. flat hB rounded or medium deep buckets are used (centrifugal discharge).6 * v * * a ( m3/h ) Load mass Hauteur elevators Height of d’élévation Qm = QV * QV * a VB = 3. Discharge Déchargement Tambour de commande Drive pulley Racleur Scraper Rouleaux pour la Support rollers stabilisation de la bande Load volume VB QV = 3.

only with free flowing or light easily scooped material such as grain V (m/s) Up to 1 m/s 1 .7 0. Loading direct or by scoop action. Salt Moulding sand . Loading direct or by scoop action.5 0. gravitational discharge.4 m/s and more 15.dry Soya beans.5 0.Bucket Elevators Degree of Filling The measure of the effective utilization of the bucket capacity. Rye Earth.75 Speed The speed depends upon the function of the bucket elevator. Centrifugal discharge for normal material such as sand and fertilizer.65 0. Sand .7 0.75 0.75 0. Pulses Cement Degree of Filling 0.7 0.6 0.5 0. centrifugal discharge.5 0. slow moving for heavy materials such as ballast and earth. eff. the type of loading and discharge.damp dry Sugar beet Sliced beet Fertilizer Coal. very fast running. Stone .2 . Coke .large fine Sugar.2 m/s 2 . Onions Grain. As a rule.large fine Gravel. bucket filling = nominal capacity Major influences are: • Method of loading • Speed • Bucket spacing • Bucket shape Type of Material Potatoes. Barley.75 0.7 0. is the degree of filling . The following speeds are recommended: Type of Bucket Elevator Loading direct or by scoop action. Turnips.6 0.

Bucket with large opening is necessary.05 1.31 15.Bucket Elevators Loading The loading i. Gravitational Discharge With low speeds.P.3 ..66 0. It depends on the speed and the pulley diameter. The pole lies within the disc.19 n (R.M. the resulting force gravitational and centrifugal alter in size and direction but Pole P stays the same for each bucket position. Danger of buckets being torn off. The centrifugal discharge only applies when speeds are > 1.) 54 50 50 51 50 50 53 57 50 v (m/s) 0.P. With direct loading the base area (boot) has to be kept clean. inner radius centre of gravity radius outer radius pole distance ri rs ra l = = = = Centrifugal Discharge With high speeds and light flowing loads or coarse granulated. The material slides down over the inner wall of the bucket.62 3.M.84 1. hard materials.68 2. l > ra Gravitational Discharge. When running around the pulley. The pole lies outside the bucket brim.52 0. Scoop Loading Direct Loading Direct Loading close pitch buckets (continuous buckets) Discharging Pole P Pôle The discharging of bucket contents can be done by gravitational or centrifugal means. The bucket attachments and bucket brim are subject to arduous duty.09 2. Scoop loading is only possible with free flowing materials and is to be recommended.M.05 1.) 27 25 25 25 25 25 Low v (m/s) 0.84 1.35 4.2 m/s.P.19 4. ) eB S G l < ri Centrifugal Discharge.42 0. the filling of the bucket can be done either directly or by dredging action.31 1. l ra rs ri g l= 4* 2 2 *n 895 = n2 (m) n= v * 60 *D ( R.e. heavy loads with large lumps or light dusty materials Speed Pulley Diameter (mm) 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 High n (R.

The material runs over the back of the preceding bucket. a ≈ ca. a= Bucket Pitch Gravitational Discharge 0. Bucket Pitch Centrifugal Discharge Gravitational Discharge Centrifugal Discharge v > 1. FU = FH + FB + FN (N) Main Resistances FH The main resistance is derived from the capacity and the height.81 ) FH = (N) 15.6 * v Qm H v g ( t/h ) (m) ( m/s ) ( m/s2 ) Capacity Height of Elevation Speed Acceleration due to gravity ( 9.2 m/s Centrifugal Discharge with staggered rows of buckets Belt Width The belt width is determined by the bucket width. the bucket geometry.4 . the bucket pitch can be small. the pitch has to be greater. With gravitational discharge. bucket height hB ( mm ) With the centrifugal discharge or gravitational discharge with staggered rows of buckets. B ≈ bB + ( 30 to 100 ) Usual belt widths B (mm) 150 200 250 300 400 500 550 650 800 1000 1250 1500 1600 ( mm) Peripheral Force FU The peripheral force FU is determined from the sum of resistances to motion. the type of loading and discharge. Qm * g * H 3.Bucket Elevators Bucket Pitch The bucket pitch depends on the speed.5 * *D (m) 2 to 4 2 to 4 buckets are positioned on half of the pulley circumference.

Bucket Elevators

Loading Resistance FB

The method of bucket loading and the force required to accelerate the load to conveying speed determines the loading resistance. FB is dependent upon the speed. The loading resistance can be accounted for with sufficient accuracy using an additional height factor. Qm * g * H0 3.6 * v The following additional height factor values can be taken according to material and speed. Type of material Dry and powdery flour, rice, grain, cement Fine grained sand, salt, sugar Coarse grained up to approx. 50 mm gravel, coal, limestone Rough of sticky Clay, earth, broken stone (t/m3) <1 H0 (m) 4 * v + 1.5 4*v+4 6*v+4

FB =

(N)

1 - 1.5

1.5 - 1.8

> 1.8

6*v+6

Secondary Resistance FN

The secondary resistance FN takes into account the frictional forces, flex resistances of the belt, pulley bearing resistance and acceleration to the circumferential speed of the drive pulley. FN is very small by comparison to the other resistances and is adequately covered by the factor cN as part of the total resistances. FN = ( cN - 1 ) * ( FH + FB ) Qm * g * ( H + H0 ) (N) cN ≈ 1.1 for bucket elevators

Peripheral Force FU

FU = cN *
Qm H H0 cN v ( t/h ) (m) (m) (-) ( m/s )

(N) 3.6 * v
Capacity Elevating height Additional height (see table) Factor for secondary resistances Speed

The determination of FU including consideration of individual resistances: see Page 15.10. FU * v 1000 Drive Power at Pulley
(-)

PT ( kW ) PM = ( kW )

PT =

Motor Power

Degree of efficiency (in general 0.5 - 0.95)

Installed Power

PN

from standard range.

15.5

Bucket Elevators

Start-up Factor kA

PN kA = k * (-) PM k 2.2 1.4 - 1.6 1.25

Values for k

Type of drive Squirrel cage, full voltage starting Drive with fluid coupling Slip ring motor

The couplings need to be adjusted to the nominal values. Determination of Belt Type From the preceding calculations, the bucket capacity, the bucket width and thus the belt width can be determined. For further calculations especially that for belt safety factor, the belt type has to be assessed as well as the weight of the take-up (tension) pulley. T1 * S B
S (-) Safety Factor S = 10 up to 60° C S = 12 up to 80° C S = 15 up to 150° C Belt width

Nominal Belt Strength

kN =

( N/mm )

B

( mm )

Belt Type Assessment

For the assessment of a belt type, initially the belt stress T1 can be approximately estimated. Tension T1 Peripheral Force T1 = FU + FSt + Tv + TT FU = 3 * Qm * ( H + H0 ) v (N) (N) (N) (N)

(N)

Slope Resistance Pre-Tension Weight of Take-up Pulley
m’B m’G ( kg/m ) ( kg/m )

FSt = H * 9.81 * ( m’B + m’G ) Tv = c2 * kA * FU - FSt - TT TT = GT * 9.81 / 2

Weight of bucket and fastenings Belt weight estimated depending on bulk density Bulk Density (t/m3) ≤1 1 - 1.8 > 1.8 Weight of Belt m’G (kg/m) 18.5 * B 11.5 * B 15 * B

kA

(N)

c2 GT

(-) ( kg )

kA = 1.8 - 2.2 kA = k * PN / PM (max 2.5) k = 1.2 - 1.6 + 0.05 A= = 180° Weight of take-up pulley can be ascertained from the table or obtained from exact data if available

Start-up factor estimated P ≤ 30 kW direct on line P > 30 kW coupled depending on coupling Drive factor, see Appendix

If Tv ≤ 0 then Tv stays at 0, an additional pretension is not necessary.

15.6

Bucket Elevators

Weight GT (kg) of Take-up Pulley

Pulley Width (mm) 125 160 250 350 450 550 650 850 1000 1250 1400

315 16 20 25 40 42 50 55 65 80 100 110

Pulley Diameter (mm) 400 500 630 800 1000 20 25 30 45 60 70 75 90 100 115 125 27 35 45 70 75 80 95 115 140 160 175 35 45 55 90 115 130 150 180 200 230 260 45 60 80 125 160 190 210 250 300 350 370 70 80 115 180 230 300 350 450 540 670 750

1250 110 135 175 270 310 360 420 550 680 840 959

Once the belt type has been established, a back calculation can be done and safety factors catered for. Belt Tensions T1 and T2
t ec

After the belt nominal tension has been determined, a belt type can be selected and the factor of safety checked.

Eff ec tiv

e

co Ar

Arc w on t itho ran ut sm ef iss f io

n

T1 = FU + FSt + Tv + TT TA1 = FA + FSt + Tv + TT T2 = TA2 = FSt + Tv + TT

(N) (N) (N)

sion mis ans f tr

T1

FU FN FH FSt Tv

T2

F Tv St

The necessary pre-tension for the power transmission is produced by the belt weight, the bucket weight (empty), the weight of the take-up pulley and possibly additional tension by screw take-up or take-up weight.

Additional pre-tension

Tv = c2 * FU – FSt –

GT * 9.81 2

(N)

Tv

Tv

Take-up weight

GS =

2 * Tv 9.81

(N)

Gs

If Tv is >0 then this is additional pre-tension. For a frictional cut off of power transmission the following criteria according to the Eytelwein formula have to be fulfilled. T1 T2
(-) A

Power Transmission

≤ e

TA1 T2

≤ e

A

(-)

Friction factor drive pulley Friction factor at start-up + 0.05 A=

15.7

20 Drive Pulley Bare Lagged A B A 0.60 0. the safety factor whilst running and at startup can be checked.87 0.30 0.20 1. Values for e if = 180° e Friction Value 0.25 0.10 0.25 0.19 0.15 0.35 0.56 0.30 0.8 . B T1 B TA1 SB ≥ kN * SA ≥ kN * Safety running state Values for SB Bucket Vulcanised to belt Hole punched according to DIN Safety at start-up Working Temperature (°C) 60° 80° 120° 140° 8 8 10 10 8 12 14 9 to 10 15 Textile Steel cord Textile Steel cord The hole punching can be estimated depending on the choice of S or by subtracting the hole cross section from the belt width B.15 0.45 4.25 B 0.15 0.30 2.10 1.45 Wet Damp Dry B = Running A = Start-up 0.00 0.15 15.35 4.35 0.40 3.40 0.Bucket Elevators Safety Factor After the calculation T1 and TA1.25 2.15 1.52 0.10 0.37 0.11 Pulley Surface Cage Pulley B A 0.

6 * v GT * g 2 + Tv (N) Values for Pulley Diameter Number of plies Belt Type SUPERFORT Pulley Diameter (mm) 315 315 Number of plies Belt Type SUPERFORT S 630/5 S 800/5 S 1000/5 S 1250/5 S 1600/5 S 1000/6 S 1250/6 S 1600/6 Pulley Diameter (mm) 630 800 1000 1000 1200 1000 1200 1400 3 S 315/3 S 400/3 500/3 S 400 S 630/3 S 400/4 S 500/4 630/4 S 630 S 800/4 S 1000/4 S 1250/4 5 400 500 500 6 630 800 800 4 1) for kN < 60%. 15. additional numbers of plies may be required.Bucket Elevators Belt Tension T1 The calculation thus far is based upon the work dependent belt tension.30 mm 0 .60 mm 0 .80 mm Bucket width (mm) 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 EP 100 EP 125 EP 160 Ply type 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 6 5 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 EP 160 EP 200 EP 200 EP 250 Depending on type of bucket attachment and the pull through strength of the bolts. Qm T1 = H * g * ( + m’G + m’B ) + 3.1. 1 diameter smaller 2) take-up pulley 1 diameter smaller When installing the buckets a slightly convex arc should be formed.60 mm 0 .5 t/m3 0 .30 mm 0 . Table for Number of Plies Load Bulk Density (t/m3) Lump size (mm) ≤ 1 t/m3 light flowinge grain. fertilizer oil seed = 1 .9 . For spacing see Appendix.5 t/m3 0 .100 mm ≥ 1. Under certain circumstances it is the load dependent tension that determines the maximum tension T for the loaded state at rest: The higher value of T1 is the determining factor for belt safety and belt type. Bucket attachment using flat iron strips should be segmented.

6 * v Qm Loading resistance FAw FAw = 3.2 0. FU = FH + FAw + FS + FBA + FBU H * Qm * g 3.6 * ( v1 + v ) * g (N) (N) Lift resistance FU FH = (N) Dredging resistance FS FS = fk * ws * Qm * g 3.10 .75 Lump size (mm) ~ 0.05 2 to 5 2 to 10 5 to 20 18 to 30 ws (kpm/kp) 1 2 3 4 5 v (m/s) 15.74 1.25 0.50 1.6 (N) T1 + T2 Bending Resistance FBA at drive pulley FBA = 2 * x * ( 2 * y * B + g )* d D *g (N) Tv Bending Resistance FBU at take-up pulley v1 v fk ws x y D d ( m/s ) ( m/s ) (-) (-) (-) (-) ( cm ) ( cm ) d )* D *g (N) FBU = 4 * x * ( y * B + g average loading speed belt speed reduction factor depending on relative bucket spacing (see table) specific scooping factor depending on v and type of material (see table) factor x = 0.09 for textile belts x = 0.Bucket Elevators Peripheral Force FU The peripheral force FU can also be derived from the individual resistances. clinker Bituminous coal Density (t/m3) 1.12 for ST belts factor y = 14 for textile belts y = 20 for ST belts pulley diameter belt thickness Specific Scooping Factor WS Curve Load Portland cement Grain Sand. Gravel Cement.

8 0.7 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.75 Fill Factor Ash (slag) Barley Basalt Basalt lava Beets Blast furnace slag .2 2.5 2.7 0.5 2.3 2.2 2.7 0.7 0.7 2.8 0.25 2.0 1.5 0.0 2.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.7 0.5 2.4 2.8 2.4 2.0 1.8 0.6 2.1 0.7 Lump coal Malt Marble Mortar Cement Mortar Gypsum Mortar Lime Moulding sand Oats Potatoes Pulses Pumice Pumice ground Raw flour Rye Sand dry Sand wet Sawdust Shell limestone Slag coal Slate Sugar Sugar beet chopped Super phosphate Volcanic limestone Wheat 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.8 2.0 0.5 0.9 2.7 3.7 0.8 2.0 Load Bulk Density p (t/m3) 0.6 Fill Factor Load Bulk Density p (t/m3) 0.8 0.5 2.8 0.8 0.0 2.7 0.ground Blast furnace slag Briquette Brown coal Cement Charcoal Clay Coal dust Coke Crushed coal Earth Fly ash Granite Gravel wet Gravel dry Gypsum Lime Limestone Loam moist Loam dry 0.0 2.5 0.0 1.5 3.75 0.0 1.5 0.9 0.0 2.5 0.8 0.8 2.5 3.6 3.0 1.7 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.7 3.7 2.5 0.7 1.8 0.7 2.0 2.7 0.8 1.4 0.5 0.5 1.0 2.8 0.9 1.5 0.85 1.7 1.5 2.0 2.6 0.6 2.55 2.3 0.0 Recommended maximum speed v (m/s) 1.8 1.6 2.65 0.7 3.5 3.Bucket Elevators Reduction Factor fk The reduction factor or scooping factor depends on the relative bucket sequence tF.7 0.0 2.2 2.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.7 0.3 2.0 1.9 2.6 0.0 1.0 2.4 0.3 0.5 1.7 0.7 1.55 0.7 2. Reduction factor fk a tF = 0. bulk density and conveying speed.6 2.224 * a eB v ( mm ) ( mm ) ( m/s ) (s) eB * v bucket spacing bucket discharge speed Reduction factor fk Values for fill factor.7 0.2 1.7 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.5 1.5 2.0 2. Recommended maximum speed v (m/s) 2.7 15.5 0.11 .8 0.7 1.7 0.2 0.6 1.5 3.2 1.0 0.0 1.8 1.7 0.

8 16.6 37.0-- hB hB DIN 15231 DIN 15231 0.9 2.3 53.20 5.80 6.38 1.28 3.5 44.4 26.10 9.36 0.5 15 23.02 1.23 1.17 1.80 3.85 5.6 7.5 16.5 15.40 1.0 17.Bucket Elevators Bucket According to DIN eB eB Width bB (mm) 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 Flat buckets to DIN 15231 for light materials such as flour.74 Weight of Bucket in kg with steelsheet Thickness in mm 3 2.65 0.5 0.75 1.5 15 23.55 5.96 5.16 0.66 2.59 11.2 5 6 8 Bucket capacity vB in litres 1.80 3. potatoes.5 1.12 .7 24.86 2.2 27.86 1.96 1.09 7.4 20.48 0.49 Weight of Bucket in kg with steelsheet Thickness in mm 3 1.51 0.5 0.50 0.75 6 9.33 0.06 4 3.59 1.90 6.3 61.40 3.53 0.32 0.30 1.90 2.22 0.24 Weight of Bucket in kg with steelsheet Thickness in mm 3 1.5 2.95 2 3 4 Bucket capacity vB in litres 0.14 5.0 3.46 13. semolina.75 6 9.2 1.94 1.9 50.30 Weight of Bucket in kg with steelsheet Thickness in mm 1 0.1 19.5 21.48 0.59 7.72 8.2 60 eB eB hB hB DIN 15235 DIN 15235 9.1 32.3 49.0 19.3 33.6 37.80 Flat rounded buckets to DIN 15232 for light granular materials such as grain.6 37.60 4.40 1.34 0.00 1.25 1.15 5.25 2.5 60 eB eB DIN 15234 DIN 15234 3.5 38.03 4 5 6 8 Bucket capacity vB in litres 1.17 0.76 4.0 39.41 2.15 5.6 36.3 0.60 3.2 Deep buckets flat rear wall to DIN 15234 for heavy pulverized to coarse materials such as sand.2 24.90 2.36 3 3.6 67.6 42.20 7. eB eB Width bB (mm) 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 Projection eB (mm) 140 160 180 200 224 250 280 315 355 Height hB (mm) 160 180 200 224 250 280 315 355 400 2 1.1 5 6 8 Bucket capacity vB in litres 0. Width bB (mm) 160 200 250 hB hB 315 400 500 630 800 1000 Projection eB (mm) (125) 140 (140) 160 (160) 180 (180) 200 224 250 280 315 355 Height hB (mm) 160 180 180 200 200 224 224 250 280 315 355 400 450 2 1.50 8.56 7.95 1.85 2.36 3.57 3.82 9.51 2.75 6 9.04 2.4 2.60 4. cement.28 0.41 10.5 15 23.1 22.0 44.24 3.21 0.26 3. coal.95 6.85 10.75 4.15 11.6 9 DIN 15232 DIN 15232 0.07 4.20 0.77 4.36 3.24 3.60 Medium deep buckets to DIN 15233 for sticky material such as sugar cane.8 17.5 2.3 46.08 8.68 0.28 Weight of Bucket in kg with steelsheet Thickness in mm 1 0.37 4. eB B hB hB Width bB (mm) 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 Projection eB (mm) 75 90 106 125 140 160 180 200 224 Height hB (mm) 80 95 112 132 150 170 190 212 236 0.14 0.95 1.10 2.68 1.88 0.13 0.56 6.75 2.15 2.08 2.40 12.5 0.1 30.70 0.5 71.24 0.36 4.60 3.16 0.48 6.44 5.64 0.0 Deep buckets with curved rear wall to DIN 15235 for light flowing or rolling materials such as fly ash.1 0.4 29.30 7.4 14.5 hB hB DIN 15233 DIN 15233 7.3 14.72 4 4.46 4.9 1.78 2.30 1.88 0. Width bB (mm) 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 Projection eB (mm) 140 160 180 200 224 250 280 315 355 Height hB (mm) 200 224 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 2 1.55 2.8 1.15 0. Projection eB (mm) 75 90 106 125 140 160 180 200 224 Height hB (mm) 67 80 95 112 125 140 160 180 200 0.80 2 3 4 Bucket capacity vB in litres 0.

soft rubber pads are fitted between belt and bucket. plastic or rubber may be bolted to the belt.Bucket Elevators Bucket Attachment The bucket made of steel. • Angle joint This type is the simplest and most cost effective but cannot be used in all cases. Endless Joint Elevator belts can be made endless by the following methods. vulcanized on rubber plies or flexible steel plate. The pulley diameter and the bending zone of the belt around the angle. • Hot vulcanized splice • Bolted lap joint • Bolted on butt strap This method of joining is preferred on fast moving elevators for instance if the velocity is greater than 3 m/s. butt strap Bolted on butt strap 15. have to be taken into consideration. C Bucket b i d n n d r d Belt In addition to this most commonly used method of attachment. there are a number of special. partly patented possibilities such as attachment to rear bolt mouldings. The plies of the butt strap should be stepped down.13 . The principal factor to consider is resistance the belt carcase has to bolt pull through. Often to prevent dirt penetration and thereby reduce wear.

Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) Flat Carrying Idlers b Belt Width B (mm) Surcharge Angle 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° Volume Steam QV (m3/h) 4 8 11 16 8 15 23 31 12 25 38 52 22 45 68 93 35 71 108 147 57 114 174 236 Belt Width B (mm) Surcharge Angle 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° 5° 10° 15° 20° Volume Stream QV (m3/h) 84 168 256 347 115 232 353 479 152 306 465 632 194 391 594 807 240 486 738 1003 300 604 916 1245 300 1200 400 1400 B v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 500 1600 650 1800 800 2000 1000 2200 2 Roll Troughing Idlers Belt Width B (mm) Surcharge Angle 20° 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 14 20 24 28 28 41 48 55 46 68 80 92 82 122 143 165 129 192 225 259 208 309 362 485 306 455 532 613 423 628 735 846 558 829 970 1117 712 1058 1237 1425 885 1314 1537 1771 1099 1632 1909 2199 30° Troughing Angle 35° 40° 20 26 28 31 40 51 56 62 67 85 93 103 121 151 167 184 190 238 262 288 305 382 422 464 449 561 620 681 619 775 856 941 817 1022 1129 1242 1042 1305 1441 1584 1295 1621 1790 1968 1608 2013 2223 2444 21 26 28 31 42 51 56 61 70 86 93 101 126 153 167 182 198 240 262 285 320 387 422 459 469 568 620 673 648 785 855 930 856 1036 1129 1227 1092 1321 1441 1566 1356 1642 1790 1945 1604 2039 2223 2415 45° – – – – – – – – – – – – 129 151 163 176 202 238 256 275 325 382 412 443 477 561 605 650 659 775 835 899 869 1022 1102 1186 1109 1305 1406 1513 1378 1621 1747 1880 1711 2013 2169 2334 300 18 24 27 30 37 48 55 61 62 81 91 101 111 145 163 181 174 228 255 285 201 367 412 459 413 539 605 673 570 744 835 930 752 982 1102 1227 960 1253 1406 1566 1193 1557 1747 1945 1401 1934 2169 2415 b B 400 v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 A.1 .

Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) 3 Roll Troughing Idlers b Belt Width B (mm) 400 Surcharge Angle 20° 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 21 35 42 50 36 59 72 85 67 109 131 155 105 171 206 243 173 280 336 394 253 411 493 578 355 572 685 803 472 758 906 1062 605 969 1159 1357 750 1204 1439 1685 948 1509 1801 2107 Troughing Angle 30° 35° 40° 30 43 50 57 51 73 84 97 95 134 155 176 149 210 243 276 246 344 396 449 360 505 580 659 504 703 806 915 669 931 1067 1209 858 1194 1364 1546 1064 1478 1694 1919 1343 1855 2121 2399 34 47 53 60 58 79 90 102 108 145 165 184 168 227 257 289 278 370 419 469 406 543 614 688 567 755 852 954 753 1000 1128 1263 965 1279 1443 1614 1197 1588 1791 2003 1509 1990 2241 2503 – – – – – – – – 118 153 176 190 185 240 268 299 304 391 436 484 445 573 640 709 622 797 888 984 825 1055 1175 1301 1057 1350 1502 1662 1311 1675 1865 2064 1650 2099 2332 2576 45° – – – – – – – – 127 159 176 193 198 249 276 303 326 407 448 492 477 596 658 722 666 828 912 1001 883 1096 1207 1323 1131 1402 1543 1690 1404 1741 1916 2099 1765 2178 2393 2618 l1 500 l 650 v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 A.2 .

Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) Deep Trough B Belt Width B (mm) 1000 Surcharge Angle 20° 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 196 301 356 413 286 441 521 605 393 606 717 834 512 794 941 1095 651 1012 1199 1396 807 1255 1488 1732 1012 1567 1856 2158 Troughing Angle 30° 35° 40° 275 369 417 469 401 540 612 687 552 743 843 947 720 974 1107 1245 917 1242 1410 1587 1136 1540 1750 1970 1423 1922 2182 2454 307 394 440 487 449 577 644 714 617 795 888 985 806 1043 1166 1295 1026 1330 1487 1652 1272 1649 1845 2050 1591 2057 2299 2552 333 413 454 498 487 605 666 731 670 834 919 1008 877 1095 1209 1328 1117 1396 1541 1693 1384 1732 1913 2103 1731 2159 2382 2615 45° 352 424 462 501 516 623 678 737 711 859 936 1017 932 1131 1234 1342 1188 1442 1574 1712 1473 1789 1954 2127 1839 2228 2431 2643 l1 l b 1200 1400 l < l1 v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 1600 1800 2000 2200 Garland Idlers Belt Width B (mm) 800 = 60° = 30° l Surcharge Angle 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 Troughing Angle 25°/55° 30°/60° – – – – 345 425 467 510 504 623 684 749 702 864 948 1036 915 1132 1244 1362 1174 1449 1592 1741 1466 1806 1982 2167 1838 2255 2472 2699 210 260 286 313 349 427 468 510 516 630 689 751 722 876 957 1041 947 1153 1260 1371 1218 1476 1609 1749 1527 1846 2011 2185 1868 2252 2452 2661 1000 b B 1200 l = l1 = l2 v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 A.3 .

90° 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 0 10 15 20 1000 v = 1 m/s inclination = 0° 1200 1400 1600 1800 Conveying of Sinter A.4 .Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) Box Section Belt Belt Width B (mm) Surcharge Angle Edge Zone h (mm) 100 125 150 151 208 237 266 201 302 362 410 252 410 489 576 302 529 648 774 352 662 824 993 403 806 1018 1238 169 216 241 266 234 320 367 417 295 435 511 590 360 568 676 792 421 709 860 1015 482 860 1058 1267 187 226 244 266 262 334 378 421 338 464 532 601 414 604 705 810 489 756 896 1040 565 921 1105 1299 800 h b h1 = 80° .

Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) Steep Conveying Belts Beldt Width B (mm) Surcharge Angle CHEVRON 16 mm Qv (m3/h) 25 33 40 49 58 25 33 40 49 58 43 56 68 85 100 65 86 106 128 151 65 86 106 128 151 HIGH CHEVRON Qv 32 mm (m3/h) 400 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 C 330/14 400 C 390/15Z Chevron Profile 500 C 430/16 HC 450/32 48 63 78 94 110 42 57 72 88 105 42 57 72 88 105 88 115 141 160 189 78 105 132 160 189 149 196 244 293 345 235 307 384 461 542 348 454 562 673 789 326 432 541 652 769 600 C 530/16 HC 450/32 Chevron Profile 650 C 530/16 HC 450/32 650 333 HC 600/32 High Chevron Profile 800 C 650/16 97 129 160 193 227 149 196 244 293 345 235 307 384 461 542 HC 600/32 1000 C 800/16 HC 1000/32 1200 C 1000/16 HC 1000/32 Multiprof 1400 HC 1200/32 1600 HC 1200/32 Note With sticky materials. The table values are based on v = 1 m/s 20° troughing For Multiprof belts the values for CHEVRON belts are valid. A.5 . a surcharge angle ca.5° higher than that for smooth surface belting can be used.

Theoretical Volume Stream Qv (m3/h) Corrugated Sidewall Belting Without Cleats The table values are valid for Speed v = 1 m/s Gradient angle = 0° Fill factor 1 HW Effective width B Corrugated Sidewall height 60 mm Effective width (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Surcharge Angle 0° 25 38 50 63 76 88 101 113 126 5° 28 45 63 83 104 127 151 177 205 10° 32 52 76 103 133 166 202 242 285 15° 35 60 89 123 162 206 255 309 367 20° 38 67 103 145 194 249 310 379 454 Corrugated Sidewall height 80 mm Effective width (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Surcharge Angle 0° 40 59 79 99 119 139 158 178 198 5° 43 66 92 119 147 177 209 242 277 10° 46 74 105 139 176 216 260 307 357 15° 49 81 118 159 206 257 313 374 439 20° 53 89 132 181 237 299 368 444 526 Corrugated Sidewall height 120 mm Effective width (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Surcharge Angle 0° 68 103 137 171 205 239 274 308 342 5° 72 110 149 191 234 278 324 372 421 10° 75 117 162 211 262 317 375 436 501 15° 78 124 175 231 292 358 428 503 583 20° 82 132 189 253 323 400 483 573 670 Corrugated Sidewall height 200 mm Effective width (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Surcharge Angle 0° 126 189 252 315 378 441 504 567 630 5° 129 196 265 335 406 480 554 631 709 10° 132 203 277 355 435 519 606 696 789 15° 136 211 291 375 465 559 658 762 871 20° 139 218 304 397 496 602 714 832 958 A.6 .

4 80.6 11.1 51.0 50.3 6.6 2.7 5.0 9.2 15.2 3.6 14.3 20.0 16.0 97.3 9.3 14.0 46.3 7.7 39.6 12.5 88.6 7.4 8.1 76.8 23.3 47.3 17.8 5.7 5.7 3.5 88.4 8.5 31.5 2.1 26.8 3.2 18.2 10.2 15.0 69.2 63.5 49.7 31.1 89.6 6.3 2.6 2.1 3.0 9.4 42.9 24.3 13.9 19.1 13.7 21.0 38.0 26.7 13.3 31.7 7.5 6.2 2.9 3.3 25.1 28.9 2.5 35.1 30.3 15.8 8.5 27.4 4.8 21.2 95.0 33.5 42.2 4.1 111.0 28.1 4.6 35.0 111.4 2.4 4.8 12.Masses of Rotating Idler Rollers Idler Rollers Carrying and Return Carrying Side Rollers Mass m’R (kg) Belt width B (mm) Idler Rollers 51 300 flat 2 part flat 2 part 3 part flat 2 part 3 part flat 2 part 3 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part flat 2 part 3 part 5 part 1.5 28.4 11.9 4.2 31.0 6.3 25.3 28.6 7.3 21.1 13.0 2.5 6.3 37.5 30.8 33.2 14.0 24.6 6.8 18.6 93.4 3.1 5.7 26.8 82.9 29.7 4.0 13.1 Flat Belt 400 500 650 Box Section Belt 800 1000 2 Part Idlers 1200 1400 3 Part Idlers 1600 1800 5 Part Garland Idlers 2000 Return Idlers 2200 B.5 46.0 9.5 77.0 4.9 17.2 13.2 43.8 Idler Roller Diameter 108 133 159 193.6 4.7 5.8 10.4 11.3 33.1 .5 40.7 219.6 29.4 35.8 9.0 24.6 16.5 5.8 39.5 22.2 4.

5 45.0 6.0 34.0 Disc-dia (mm) 120 133 133 150 150 180 180 180 215 180 215 180 215 215 250 Return idlers 1 part 3 part 4.1 73.0 5.0 2200 133.7 6.0 71.0 2000 108.1 32.5 57.5 For number and arrangement of disc idlers see Appendix M. B.1.Suspended disc idlers 1800 108.9 33.8 62.1 13.3 44.Carrying idler Flat belt with cushion rings 3 part cushion ring troughing idlers Disc Support Idlers Disc idlers can be installed on the return side run to reduce the effect of dirt build-up.2 31.9 108.5 88.8 73.5 57.0 22.7 42.2 67.1 21.8 59.9 44.5 23. Mass m´R (kg) Beldt width (mm) 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Tube-dia (mm) 88.8 40.8 35.3 48.9 25.1 77.8 Flat belt with disc idlers V-troughing with disc idlers 400 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 V-troughing .9 108 108 108 133 133 133 Ring-dia (mm) 156 180 180 180 215 215 215 Cushion ring idlers 1 part 3 part 19.1 Loading point .6 84.8 11.8 8.0 51.3 47.2 .3 40.2 24.9 88.5 63.8 76.2 14. To assist tracking of the belt it is recommended that guide rollers be installed at ca.5 63.7 13.6 80. 50 m intervals.8 5.9 42.1 30. Mass m´R (kg) Belt width (mm) Tube-dia (mm) 51.9 38.Masses of Rotating Idler Rollers Impact Idlers To moderate the effect of impact cushion ring idlers may be installed at the loading point.5 36.

1 21.7 13.9 16.5 18.0 13.4 10.9 12.4 14.7 2.2 16.5 14.7 4.1 11.7 6.8 11.2 14.8 13.3 20.7 10.2 16.7 16.6 14.7 18.1 18.0 10.2 25.6 18.7 20.1 7.2 3.9 8.4 9.2 11.4 11.5 12.5 9.5 7.2 10.6 11.8 12.2 11.7 14.0 18.5 17.2 8.2 8.4 17.2 7.5 7.0 3.2 13.5 17.0 18.4 17.8 10.9 6.9 4.8 16.5 8.6 13.3 9.4 14.4 10.4 16.3 8.3 3.3 7.5 17.2 12.2 14.7 19.1 19.0 16.0 17.9 10.6 8.8 6.8 18.8 18.9 11.3 8.0 10.2 22.8 16.7 16.3 17.9 13.1 15.9 10.0 10.1 12.9 17.5 1.2 4.8 15.6 15.3 21.3 12.1 20.9 15.2 13.8 7.0 15.4 21.6 13.0 8.7 15.6 14.8 4.2 7.3 11.9 16.8 8.9 22.3 11.7 6.8 5.1 12.8 19.0 17.6 26.9 16.5 14.3 24.5 3.0 12.0 4.3 18.6 7.7 12.2 19.8 10.9 14.6 20.6 15.1 .8 1.3 8.0 15.6 6.2 3.9 15.2 25.0 5.1 9.1 18.3 19.6 19.4 6.9 8.0 21.0 21.2 6.9 10.2 6.0 3.2 5.9 7.8 8.5 15.1 22.8 12.3 16.3 18.3 24.8 10.0 14.0 8.2 13.5 6.3 5.6 5.1 14.8 18.3 14.3 3.8 17.6 11.8 9.3 18.2 18.4 6.4 11.0 10.8 13.6 4.2 8.4 14.5 7.5 10.5 4.1 10.2 14.9 14.9 11.0 15.9 9.9 23.2 3.6 13.9 14.3 11.7 16.3 18.4 6.1 11.7 9.2 15.0 18.4 12.1 14.8 11.5 4.4 22.1 8.4 13.9 11.3 4.5 4.9 17.3 11.6 15.4 6.5 12.7 4.4 1.4 11.6 9.0 5.5 7.8 8.9 9.4 12.7 19.0 17.5 15.8 17.5 28.2 15.4 1.1 STARFLEX belts DUNLOFLEX belts TRIOFLEX belts FERROFLEX belts Weight of 1 mm cover rubber normal quality: 1.7 3.2 24.5 16.5 10.9 2.9 12.3 5.0 3.5 7.3 10.0 16.6 10.8 3.5 20.8 11.9 3.3 12.3 10.6 18.2 17.4 5.1 3.6 10.6 11.7 8.0 4.3 7.1 15.9 20.4 9.4 21.3 13.3 9.2 14.8 8.2 4.7 5.2 7.0 6.0 9.4 17.0 10.6 3.5 18.6 7.6 23.8 8.1 21.5 11.5 10.9 12.7 12.4 9.6 10.1 4.9 2.8 9.7 20.9 23.1 20.3 12.9 12.7 8.1 12.8 12.2 7.3 15.4 24.0 10.3 2.3 2.3 19.9 12.0 17.4 8.7 7.6 21.6 21.6 21.5 9.4 5.9 13.1 19.2 15.1 10.0 25.1 6.5 14.0 9.9 17.2 16.6 9.8 13.1 9.8 12.2 17. C.2 12.9 5.7 12.1 3.9 8.3 17.5 7.5 6.7 12.Conveyor Belt Thicknesses and Weights Belt type (mm) Carcase thickness (kg/m2) Carcase weight Belt Weight m’G (kg/m2) Sum of carrying and pulley side covers (mm) 3 4 5 6 8 10 6.6 6.3 16.0 5.0 13.9 9.2 15.3 10.7 7.7 16.2 11.6 14.0 6.0 3.9 9.8 9.7 17.9 22.7 19.1 15.2 3.5 10.8 9.8 10.6 7.7 11.4 11.5 16.5 10.5 8.3 13.0 11.3 15.1 10.5 18.9 13.5 4.7 15.3 8.1 3.9 11.3 6.4 4.6 17.6 12.3 5.9 19.1 4.15 kg/m2.5 15.9 13.2 11.0 11.6 4.7 3.6 8.5 17.7 8.7 3.9 6.5 4.1 15.9 9.7 9.6 11.7 8.1 11.4 14.0 4.7 4.8 18.6 21.5 20.3 8.9 9.5 17.0 13.4 17.6 13.8 19.1 17.5 13.2 8.1 19.5 11.6 19.1 13.3 16.7 26.7 14.3 13.4 17.0 21.7 23.7 14.3 19.6 9.6 11.4 9.5 10.1 2.4 13.4 14.8 8.2 10.6 19.4 18.1 5.2 18.9 SUPERFORT Belts S 200/3 S 250/3 S 315/3 S 315/4 S 400/3 S 400/4 S 500/3 S 500/4 S 630/3 S 630/4 S 630/5 S 800/3 S 800/4 S 800/5 S 1000/4 S 1000/5 S 1000/6 S 1250/4 S 1250/5 S 1250/6 S 1600/4 S 1600/5 S 1600/6 S 2000/5 S 2000/6 S 2500/6 SF 250/2 SF 315/2 SF 400/3 SF 500/3 SF 500/4 SF 630/4 SF 800/4 SF 1000/4 D 160 D 200 D 250 D 315 D 400 D 500 D 630 D 800 T 315 T 400 T 500 T 630 T 800 T 1000 T 1250 F 500 F 630 F 800 F 1000 F 1250 F 1600 2.8 19.6 7.9 12.0 16.1 15.8 7.0 6.4 17.2 15.2 13.0 13.7 15.6 11.5 5.6 12 16.0 6.7 8.8 20.5 15.7 7.1 7.8 19.3 27.8 16.0 12.6 15.1 11.7 14.8 5.7 23.2 4.4 14.2 19.1 12.1 9.0 9.2 10.5 15.0 5.5 7.3 12.8 9.

9 17.4 6.7 7.0 8.6 5.6 20.5 4+2 4+2 4+2 4+2 5.1 4.3 5.9 23.3 6.5 15.2 4.8 C.2 High Chevron Profile Belt Width (mm) 550 650 800 1000 1200 Belt Type S 200/3 S 200/3 S 400/3 S 500/4 S 500/4 Profile Width (mm) 500 500 650 800 800 Cover Thickness Total Thickness (mm) (mm) 2+1 2+1 3 + 1.3 10.5 3 + 1.7 10.5 3.6 6.7 7.6 7.5 3 + 1.2 8.5 3.6 5.5 Weight (kg/m2) 6.4 4.2 .2 Chevron Profile 500 600 650 650 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 400/3 S 400/3 S 500/4 S 500/4 S 630/4 S 630/4 HC 450/32 HC 450/32 HC 450/32 HC 600/32 HC 450/32 HC 600/32 HC 800/32 HC 1000/32 HC 1200/32 HC 1200/32 Type MULTIPROF 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3 + 1.5 3 + 1.5 11.2 14.5 4+2 4+2 5.8 14.2 9.6 7.5 3 + 1.3 Weight (kg/m) 4.Conveyor Belt Thicknesses and Weights Steep Conveying Belts Belt width (mm) Belt Type Profile Type CHEVRON Cover Thickness (mm) Weight (kg/m) Chevron Profile 400 400 500 500 600 650 650 800 1000 1200 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 200/3 S 400/3 S 400/3 S 400/3 S 500/4 C 330/16 C 390/15Z C 330/16 C 430/16 C 530/16 C 530/16 C 530/16 C 650/16 C 800/16 C 1000/16 Type HIGH-CHEVRON 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3 + 1.0 * Belt thickness excluding profile Multiprof Profiled Belts Belt Type S 200/3 S 200/2 Cover Description Herringbone profile ( 3 ) + 1 mm Rufftop profile ( 3.5 ) + 1 mm Total Thickness (mm) 6.7 5.6 12.

00 5.20 24.00 DLP 630 RS DLP 800 RS DLP 1000 RS DLP 1250 RS DLP 1600 RS DLP 2000 RS DLP 2500 RS Monoply Belts DUNLOPLAST PVC Belt Type Cover Thickness (mm) 2+0 2+1 1.80 16.20 19.00 24.20 26.50 10.50 18. Quality “RS” Belt Type Carcase Thickness (mm) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Belt weight m’G (kg/m2) Top and Bottom covers (mm) 5+3 14.1 5.45 21.5 + 0 mm smooth GB-Standard 3.85 22.50 10.5 2+2 2+2 3+3 3+3 3+3 2+1 3 + 1.3 .00 5.60 29.Conveyor Belt Thicknesses and Weights Slider Belting Belt Type S 200/2 S 200/2 S 200/2 S 250/3 S 250/3 Cover Description GB-Standard 1.9 6.00 22.80 26.75 21.75 5.40 23.5 + 1.60 27.60 19.00 6.75 13.75 20.00 27.5 + 1.5 1.75 7.80 8+3 19.00 13.20 8 + 4 10 + 4 20.00 7.60 21.3 Monoply Belts DUNLOPLAST PVG.5 4+2 5+3 5+3 5+3 Cover Thickness (mm) 3 4 4 5 7 9 11 14 15 16 4 6 8 11 11 6 8 11 15 17 Weight (kg/m2) 3.0 Weight (kg/m2) 5.5 1.75 DLP 250 PVC FDA DLP 250 PVC FDA DLP 315 PVC FDA DLP 400 PVC FDA DLP 630 PVC FDA DLP 800 PVC FDA DLP 1000 PVC FDA DLP 1600 PVC FDA DLP 2000 PVC FDA DLP 2500 PVC FDA DLP 250 PVC BLS DLP 315 PVC BLS DLP 400 PVC BLS DLP 630 PVC BLS DLP 1000 PVC BLS DLP 315 PVC A DLP 400 PVC A DLP 630 PVC A DLP 1000 PVC A DLP 1600 PVC A C.00 31.65 18.5 + 0 mm Rufftop GB-Standard 3 + 0 mm Herringbone GB-Extra 1.75 17.40 22.5 + 0 mm smooth GB-Extra 3.00 6+3 16.20 18.0 7.80 23.25 17.5 + 0 mm Rufftop Total Thickness (mm) 4.80 18.5 + 1.00 13.00 22.40 21.80 22.20 28.80 25.00 29.60 20.40 25.80 24.25 13.60 25.40 7+3 17.40 23.2 6.05 20.75 11.9 6.00 20.00 21.25 8.85 15.5 6.75 18.5 4+2 5+3 2+2 3 + 1.2 5.6 6.

2 27.6 30.5 37.5 18.0 52.6 25.6 4.6 8.1 26.8 45.6 41.8 44.0 35.3 24.5 46.4 28.4 26.90 0.2 33.9 21.4 47.7 2.4 34.5 20.0 22.4 34.4 42.0 25.7 26.82 1.4 22.6 10.8 27.3 24.9 37.8 41.5 21.8 36.4 35.4 16.7 37.6 36.0 31.6 3.3 34.7 33.7 38.2 18.4 7.7 23.9 34.6 28.8 23.9 54.4 19.1 23.3 43.7 23.8 24.1 32.1 25.0 25.1 23.4 19.9 30.6 47.0 41.8 49.6 25.9 6.3 48.0 19.2 23.90 2.2 45.5 27.3 ST 500 ST 630 ST 800 ST 900 ST 1000 ST 1150 ST 1250 ST 1400 ST 1600 ST 1800 ST 2000 ST 2250 ST 2500 ST 2750 ST 3150 ST 3500 ST 3750 ST 4000 ST 4250 ST 4500 ST 4750 ST 5000 Weight 1 mm cover rubber normal quality 1.27 0.7 45.9 25.2 24.3 40.1 42.8 29.5 24.7 22.9 40.5 31.8 20.7 35.7 38.3 6.7 32.2 42.2 47.6 19.49 2.7 36.0 28.20 H B Sloping T-Cleat Bucket Cleat Sloping T-Cleat H Block Cleat B Bucket Cleat C.5 33.1 36.3 43.9 42.6 35.04 1.9 30.5 20.6 9.6 22.5 43.0 22.5 48.4 44.83 3.4 30.3 51. Rubber Cleats D Form Type Designation Measurements (mm) H B D 15 20 40 60 80 100 50 70 80 110 25 50 75 80 20 40 70 80 90 100 65 80 80 80 36 80 80 100 8 5 4 4 4 4 7 6 – – 11 25 10 15 Weight (kg/m) H B T-Cleat Straight T-Cleat D T 15/20 T 20/40 T 40/70 T 60/80 T 80/90 T 100/100 TS 50/65 TS 70/80 B 80 B 110 TB 25/11/ 36 TB 50/25/ 80 TB 75/10/ 80 TB 80/15/100 0.9 50.8 39.7 31.2 33.6 30.8 9.4 5.2 31.2 23.5 56.6 22.9 40. Minimum cover thickness is 5 mm each side.5 24.9 7.4 25.3 25.1 30.8 39.12 kg/m2.70 1.1 26.9 49.8 20.7 48.9 24.0 43.7 35.2 33.6 31.9 21.0 5.3 26.6 34.7 3.0 5.8 47.8 27.8 29.1 32.1 29.1 51.2 8.1 Belt Weight m’G (kg/m2) Sum of Carrying and Pulleyside Covers (mm) 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 17.6 32.10 1.3 46.8 39.4 19.6 21.6 28.1 41.5 26.9 46.2 40.3 21.1 26.1 29.0 31.1 39.2 35.0 29.2 40.3 45.6 22.5 20.7 28.5 26.6 44.1 4.2 30.6 27.9 18.0 22.1 39.55 2.0 46.2 20.0 24.6 28.3 41.Conveyor Belt Thicknesses and Weights Steel Cord Belts Type `SILVERCORD’ Belt Type Cord Diameter (mm) 10 2.3 43.4 50.9 45.3 32.6 8.0 5.00 0.9 23.1 4.1 3.18 0.88 0.4 .7 16.8 38.7 43.5 29.

35 .8 for heavy piece loads Resistance FGr Frictional Resistance due to belt cleaners.vo2 / ( 2 * g * ) = 0.4 for damp overburden 0.03 bis 0.1 .1 N/mm2 Effective contact area between cleaner and belt For simple scrapers the following estimate formula can be applied: FGr = kR * B Friction values for kR (N) B kR (m) ( N/m ) Belt width Frictional resistance Scraper Thickness (mm) kR Pressure (N/mm2) normale élevée 15 20 20 25 340 450 1500 1875 30 2250 D.5 .6 Bulk density Length of sidewalls at loading point Distance between skirt plates The length of the skirt plates should be not less than the acceleration distance lmin = v2 . FN = FAuf + FSch + FGr + FGb + FTr (N) Resistance FAuf Inertial and frictional resistances due to acceleration of material at the loading point.0.0.6 for small piece loads = 0.v0 ) (N) Belt speed Initial velocity of material in direction of belt travel Capacity Resistance FSch Frictional resistance on the skirt plates at the loading point area.Détermination of Secondary Resistances Secondary Resistances It is possible to obtain a close estimate of secondary resistances from individual components. FGr = (-) *p*A (N) Scraper Racleur p A ( N/mm2 ) ( mm2 ) Friction factor between cleaner and belt in general = 0. Qm2 * 330 * 2 * ( v + v0 ) l * (N) b2 FSch = For installations with a normal construction v > v0 > 0 l (-) l b ( t/m3 ) (m) (m) Friction value between material and skirt plate for grain 0. Qm v vo FAuf = 3.6 à 0.75 Pressure between cleaner and belt p = 0.25 for dry coal 0.6 v (m/s) v0 (m/s) Qm (t/h * ( v .

are small and need be determined only in special cases. These resistances like belt bending resistances.09 steel cord belts c = 0. dw Tx GT Tb FTr = 0.005 friction coefficient of roller bearings.Determination of Secondary Resistances Resistance FGb T1 T1 T2 T2 Belt Bending Resistance Tm FGb = c * B * ( k + Tm d D c k (N) ( mm ) ( mm ) (-) ( N/mm ) d )* (N) D B average belt tension belt thickness pulley diameter factor for the belt textile belts c = 0.12 factor for the belt textile belts k = 14 N/mm steel cord belts k = 20 N/mm Resistance FTr Ta Pulley bearing resistance for non-driving pulleys. D.2 .005 * Tx * dw D GT ( mm ) ( mm ) (N) (N) D Tx GT Ta Tb shaft diameter of bearing seating pulley diameter pulley weight bearing force vectorial sum from both the belt tension force on the pulley and the weight of the rotating parts of the pulley (axle loading) Tx = ( Ta + Tb )2 + GT2† ( N ) with angle of wrap = 180° 0.

800 1500 1000 .Special Resistances Special Resistances The special resistances occur beyond the loading point area and can be calculated individually.59 = 20° C = 0. Resistance caused by forward tilt of idler rollers Carrying side Fso = ZRst * C * Fsu = ZRst * C * * cos * cos * sin ( m’G + m’L ) * sin * m’G (N) Resistance Fs des rouleaux porteurs rouleaux latéral wing idler Résistance Resistance due au pincement to tilted idlers pincement4° tilt max.2000 3000 .4 for = 45° C = 0. Resistance FB (N) 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Belt Width (mm) Fixed tripper Moveable tripper 650 1500 2000 2300 3000 4000 4000 5000 5500 1500 2000 2500 4000 4500 5200 5500 6000 E. max.0.83 = 10° C = 0.2 . 4° Return side ZRst C ( pieces ) (-) (-) (-) (-) (N) number of tilted rollers on carrying and return run load factor for = 30° C = 0.7 gradient angle of the installation tilt angle of the rollers = 1° à 3° (maximum 4°) Resistance FSch Frictional resistance from skirt plates beyond the loading point area C * Qm2 * 1316 * Qm v l b C ( t/h ) (-) ( m/s ) ( t/m3 ) (m) (m) (-) 2 *v l * (N) b2 FSch = capacity friction value between material and skirt plate (for values see Page D1) belt speed bulk density length of skirt plate distance between skirt plates factor for surcharge angle = 5° C = 0.70 = 15° C = 0.1 .3500 Resistance FB Resistance due to trippers (values) The resistance due to trippers can be estimated and depends on the belt width.5 friction value between belt and bare roller: 0.49 Resistance FL Deflector Resistance due to sideways discharge (values) Load deflector on flat belts running horizontally. Belt Width (mm) FL (N) ≤ 500 800 650 .

5 6.5 4.3 12.Special Resistances Resistance FMf Resistance from skirting material beyond the loading point area.3 Factor k H (m) k 1.0 8.0 5.5 9.0 2.0 10. FMf = ( 80 to 120 ) * lf lf (m) (N) length of skirting material that makes seal with belt lf = 2 * conveying length Resistance FBa Resistance to motion of bunker drag-out belts Can be determined according to the following empirical formula: FBa = 1000 * k * B2 * LB * B H LB v (m) (m) (m) ( m/s ) (-) (N) drag-out width.4 13.2 11.7 13.0 1.0 3.4 2.5 14.5 12.7 H Bunker or Silo v Drive LB E.7 14.5 3.0 4.0 11.2 .2 = 1. silo opening material height in bunker length of out-let belt speed continuous running up to 30 charges per hour over 30 charges per hour =1 = 1.5 5.

01 2.40 3.88 2.15 1.89 4.61 0.10 0.07 4.77 4.06 0.15 0.73 1.10 1.27 0.18 0.18 0.50 0.32 3.37 1.17 0.80 5.34 1.93 0.09 0.92 1.78 1.20 0.90 2.11 0.05 0.75 1.36 0.48 0.15 0.29 2.40 3.26 0.88 1.08 0.38 0.05 0.49 0.10 0.46 1.07 0.27 0.17 3.52 1.42 0.13 0.46 0.07 0.14 2.72 0.99 0.78 1.84 0.54 0.04 0.29 0.10 3.23 0.35 9.81 0.10 2.08 2.05 4.59 0.69 1.14 1.20 27.24 1.59 0.52 3.25 5.81 0.35 10.30 8.96 0.44 1.30 2.27 3.07 0.05 8.95 6.51 5.55 0.25 0.06 0.31 0.00 9.74 6.30 0.29 0.44 2.64 6.33 0.70 0.50 2.12 0.60 1.79 0.00 3.33 0.39 2.60 0.40 0.35 3.40 0.50 0.00 3.43 0.04 4.41 0.44 4.82 5.14 0.81 1.24 0.50 0.30 0.04 0.40 14.40 14.00 10.11 0.05 0.00 19.93 0.32 3.24 0.23 2.56 0.10 1.06 3.40 4.85 3.39 1.36 1.12 0.08 0.32 2.06 1.21 0.03 0.05 0.01 0.70 12.02 1.03 0.24 0.36 0.00 0.06 0.11 0.09 6.31 0.49 1.16 0.26 2.64 0.45 0.06 0.25 0.35 0.83 1.25 0.18 0.57 2.60 12.76 1.25 0.99 0.54 2.86 3.35 0.50 17.64 1.62 0.10 16.00 0.30 0.22 0.35 0.20 5.92 1.22 1.08 0.60 3.09 0.20 2.87 0.16 0.1 .35 5.40 2.05 0.60 2.05 0.32 0.38 0.22 0.19 0.36 0.80 23.66 1.64 0.18 3.03 Value e Angle of wrap ° 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 320 340 360 380 400 420 Friction coefficient 0.32 4.26 0.51 3.41 1.Drive Factors c1 and c2 1 Factor c1 c1 = 1 + c2 = 1 + e -1 Factor c2 Angle of wrap ° 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 Friction coefficient 0.13 0.46 0.94 2.08 0.46 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.85 4.67 0.21 4.58 0.94 2.70 2.07 0.89 0.04 0.91 0.20 11.99 0.74 0.14 1.10 0.75 4.17 0.84 0.45 1.20 1.25 0.04 0.16 2.07 0.71 2.45 4.45 0.55 1.44 0.54 0.33 0.34 7.04 0.65 4.43 0.06 0.01 2.54 0.71 2.05 4.50 18.57 2.13 0.03 0.60 13.10 F.40 0.40 0.58 7.15 9.88 1.14 0.15 1.87 0.07 0.16 0.52 0.35 0.40 0.26 0.20 0.20 1.97 5.28 1.25 2.76 0.60 0.73 2.

Belts with planned relatively low working durations.2) (values see G.5 SA SB 5.2) = NV k N *c V Reduction r1 Reduction r2 Time-Strength Behaviour Safety SS Sécurité Dynamic Time-strength le temps Résistance dynamique dans 3. belt turnovers and vertical curves. pour des conditions de manutention normales. regular servicing and no extreme environmental influences. This factor takes into account the peak stresses of temporary occurrence for instance at start-up and stopping. can be calculated with low r0 values. transition zones. This factor takes into consideration the influence of additional strains caused by the belt flexing around pulleys. infrequent stopping and starting. Low r0 values result from favourable working conditions with few additional stresses from the physical and chemical characteristics of the load. The values of r1 apply to standard dimensioning of the pulleys and transitions without belt turnover. normal running conditions. % de k 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 r1 20 r2 10 0 r0 Facteur cv : = Loss of strength at the joint jonction Factor c V perte de tension de rupture dans la (valeurs voir page Page G. sont valables G. 1 Steady State SB = 1 .( r0 + r1 ) With= the factor r0 and r2 the various additional stresses are determined. Reduction r0 With this factor the time-strength behaviour under dynamic conditions is determined.4 8 Number de rotations nombre of rotations The above reductions rfacteurs de sécurité toconcernantles bandes EP Les réductions r et les and safety S apply S EP belts. few changes of conveying elevation.1 .Belt Safety Factor S Belt Safety The safety factor S is reduced by additional stresses which cannot be determined by calculation.( r0 + r1 + r2 ) 1 Non-Steady State SA = 1 .

5 12.715 Basic reduction for dynamic stresses and time-strength behaviour Dynamic time-strength 28.4 Taking into account all additional stresses Smin shall not be less than 1 S= 1 1 .060 ≥ 0.5 {} {} favourable normal unfavourable favourab le normal unfavourable ≥ 0.5% The values given are valid for a textile belt under normal working conditions.150 ≥ 0.5% r1 = 0.691 ≥ 0.0 ≥ 9.7 ≥ 8.684 ≥ 0.r0 Smin = 3.4 ≥ 6. braking Temporary occurrence localised peak stresses 1 .715 ≥ 0.7 ≥ 8.060 1) With extraordinary favourable installation conditions (for instance untroughed belt or belt conserving start-up conditions) lower values for r1 and r2 can be used.2 . Minimum values based on joint strength.5 ≥ 6.0 ≥ 9.641 ≥ 0.Belt Safety Factor S Safety Factor 100% KNV = Breaking Strength at Joint Belt Safety Factor (DIN 22101) r0 = 0.( r0 + r1 ) SA = 5.5% r2 = 0.0 ≥ 4. Sinsta Ssta belt safety at start-up (braking) belt safety running G.100 ≥ 0.0 maximum stress steady-state working r1 r2 Ssta ≥ 6.665 ≥ 0.4 ≥ 6.8 ≥ 5. The mathematical inter relationship between the additional stresses and the values r1 and r2 is at present still unknown.060 Reduction for temporary peaks (start-up. safety factor S and reduction r Safety factors and reductions 1) carcase material working conditions basic reduction r0 B (Cotton) P (Polyamide) E (Polyester) Steel Cord non-continuous peak stresses r1 Sinsta ≥ 4.8 ≥ 5. braking) S= 1 S= 1 . Start-up.150 ≥ 0.734 ≥ 0.100 ≥ 0.( r0 + r1 + r2 ) SB = 8 0% Steady state working Non-steady state working.100 Reduction due to the effect of additional strains 18.

1 .5% Permanent elongation 0.74% Stress-Strain Curve The practical stress of the belt should be within these limits.43% Elastic Elongation Total Elongation 0.886% H.5% of the nominal tensile strength of the belt.Stress-Strain Curve Elastic Characteristics When working a conveyor belt has to undergo constant load changes and hence constant length changes.G Max. The test piece is subject to a pre-tension of 0. 10% Results of the tests L . elongation L .E Elastic elongation L . It is then subjected to a test programm of 200 load cycles of between 2% and 10% of the nominal tensile strength of the belt.A Pre-tension elongation L . These are catered for by the elastic characteristics of the carcase and are also partly reduced by the take-up system.P Permanent elongation 2% Pre-tension elongation 0.42% 0. The elongation behaviour of a belt can be determined with the aid of a stressstrain curve.433% Elastic elongation 0. a fatigue and diminution of elasticity occurs compared as with the as manufactured belt.88% 1. The following example is derived from the hysteresis loop thus obtained: Initial Elongation Permanent Elongation 0. As a result of constant stress changes.

2 . braking.0 40 Permanent elongation Smin 2.5 T1A T1B B A zus. terminal pulleys. 5 6 10 10 1 2 3 4 5 Eastic Elastic elongation el Stress-Strain curve for a belt with Smin = 2. (N) (N) (%) (%) (%) (%) Belt tension at start-up Belt tension working Elongation in working condition Elongation at start-up Additional elongation due to additional stresses Working stress/breaking stress H. belt turnover and pulley build-up etc. 0 1 2 3 4 0 B A zus. (%) 60 Safety Factor S 50 2. edge stresses at troughing transitions.Stress-Strain Curve The quasi elastic area remaining above the 12% stress means an elongation reserve for temporary or local occurring over-stresses such as at start-up. In addition to this over elongation results in a slow destruction of the plies or carcase structure.5 30 20 T1 A T1 B 10 Permanent elongation bl.

If additional tensions or peak tensions and therefore additional elongations occur the elongation increases by the value K at the belt edge that is to say M in the centre of the belt. • With Sx the actual belt stresses at point x apply. • With the elongation value kD the belt characteristics that is to say.1 . that is to say. the conditions at the relevant points can be checked: T E= = B* T B = E* 1 The belt safety appears thus: k Sx = kN = E* kN * B 0 Tx = E*B = kN (%) E * Sx Tx Belt safety Factor Hysteresis loop of a conveyor belt under initial tension Elongation at working tension kN kD (%) (-) (-) Belt elongation Nominal belt strength Elongation value of the belt Elongation 0 is the elongation under working tension at point x under the stress Tx or the safety Sx. I. that is. positive or negative may give rise to • Overstraining of belt edges and thereby a reduction of the belt safety or • Compression. the belt compresses resulting in arching or buckling.Additional Stresses For a flat untroughed belt with uniform tension distribution over it’s cross section the belt safety can be calculated from the breaking or nominal tensile strength of the belt and the working tension at point x. is considered. negative elongation. The total elongation results thus: Belt edge kN ges Belt centre ≥0 = 0 + K = E * Smin ges = 0 - M For further calculations the elongation value kD = E/kN is introduced. Elastic Modulus E With the help of the elastic modulus which can be determined from the stress-strain diagram and the following relationships. the dynamic time-strength behaviour. kN * B Tx belt breaking strength = working tension Belt Safety S= In reality the belt is subject to the effects of temporary and local additional stresses in particular at the edge region and in the belt centre which are caused by such as: troughing transitions convex vertical curves concave vertical curves horizontal curves belt turnover These additional stresses. • With Smin the minimum permissible belt tension. the elongation behaviour of the belt is taken into account. • With the geometric relations which result from belt tracking are determined.

These conditions decide the dimensions for the belt path. Edge Elongation High belt elongations always occur if the belt is troughed or turned and the belt tension Tx at this point is especially high for instance at discharge with Tmax. In individual cases the kD value of a certain belt type can differ from the values in the diagram. A check of min is recommended. Therefore a check of Smin is recommended. They are values for the planning of an installation. Buckling Elongation Value kD 60 50 S T- b el ts 40 Elongation Value kD 30 Ferro flex 20 D u nlo plast 10 Superfort 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Nominal Belt Resistance k N ( N/mm ) The elongation values of the various Dunlop belt types may be taken from the above diagram. I.0 3. Buckling occurs mostly at those points where the belt tension Tx is particularly low for instance at the tail when running empty.5 3.2 .7 2.2 3. In separate cases it is recommended that the advice of our engineers be sought.8 3.Additional Stresses Values for Smin Carcase Working Conditions favourable normal unfavourable favourable normal unfavourable Smin 3.2 Textile belts ST-belts In practice the operation as a rule is determined by geographical or working conditions.

I. †† 1 Safety = Smin Factor ††kD * ges Total Elongation ges = 0 + K Average/ Elongation 0 = 1 ( kD * SB ) zulässige Werte sieheSSeite . min = 1 kD * + ges permissible values see Appendix I.2 ges = 0 K 0 = 1 / ( kD * SB ) s2 * L2 2 † s2 * 2 1†s =†† Elongation -† ) Additional* ( K †† L2† 2 3 * B kD l s B L SB (-) ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) (-) ( mm ) (-) 1 *( – 2 s ) 3*B K = Elongation value of belt Length of centre carrying idler Lenght of belt in contact with the side carrying idler roller Belt width Arc measurement = * ° / 180 Transition Length Safety factor at discharge with T1 at tail with T4 Belt Centre The belt centre is checked to determine whether the total elongation that is no buckling of the belt is expected. Total Elongation >0 ` ges = 0 - M ≥0 Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * Smin ) s3 * 2 Additional Elongation M= 3 * B * L2 Smin ( .3 .) Safety factor with the lowest belt tension at discharge and tail with Tempty.Additional Stresses Troughing Transition S L l Belt Edges The belt edges are examined to maintain Smin. that is to say actual belt tensions present at discharge and tail.

2 ges 0 K Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * SB ) K= 1 Additional Elongation - 2 1 = s2 * L2 2 1 *( – 2 s ) 3*B l2 (1– B2 ) 2 = h * B * sin 4 * Lred2 h ( mm ) Lred ( mm ) lift of pulley reduced transition length Centre of Belt Check of Elongation i. ≥0 Total Elongation ges = 0 - M Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * Smin ) M= 1 Additional Elongation - 2 1 = s2 * L2 2 1 *( – 2 s ) 3*B l (1– B )2 1 2 = 8 h * B * sin * Lred2 I.4 .e. Possible Buckling.Additional Stresses Troughing Transition with Raised Pulley h S L red l Belt Edge Check of Minimum Safety Smin. 1 Safety Factor Smin = kD * Total Elongation = + ges Permissible values see Appendix I.

Total Elongation ges = 0 - K ≥0 Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * Sempty ) s * sin Ra s *(1– ) B Additional Elongation K= Belt Centre Check on Minimum Safety Smin. Total Elongation ges = 0 - M Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * SB ) s2 M=* B sin Ra 1 Permissible values see Appendix 1.2 ges Additional Elongation Safety Factor Smin = kD * I.Additional Stresses Concave Vertical Curve Ra S l Belt Edges Check on Buckling Risk.5 .

6 .Additional Stresses Convex Vertical Curve Re S l Belt Edge Check on Minimum Safety Smin. 1 Safety Factor Smin = kD * Total Elongation = + ges Permissible values see Appendix I2 ges 0 K Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * SB ) s * sin Re s *(1– ) B Additional Elongation K= Belt Centre Check on Buckling Risk. Total Elongation ges = 0 - M ≥0 Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * Sempty ) s2 Additional Elongation M= B * Re * sin I.

Additional Stresses Horizontal Curve L l R Inside of Intérieur de curve la courbe R RH Belt Edge Outer Radius Check on Minimum Safety Smin.7 . 1 Safety Factor Smin = kD * Total Elongation = ges Permissible values see Appendix I2 ges 0 K Average Elongation 0 = 1 / ( kD * SB ) l B–1 + cos 2R R Additional Elongation K = +( 2R ) cos( + R) Belt Edge Inner Radius Check on Buckling Risk. Total Elongation ges = 0 - K ≥0 1 Average Elongation 0= kD * Sempty I.

13 Minimum Turnover length when buckled.4 cV (-) kD * Sx * (m) cV Lw = Loss of breaking strength at the joint.36 Supported 1. T2 at discharge Tx = ca. c*B 1. Sx * Smin Sx .Additional Stresses Belt Turnover Lw Tx Sx Lw kN (N) (-) (m) ( N/mm ) Belt Tension at region of turnover Tx = ca. 1 Safety Factor Smin = kD * Total Elongation = + ges ges x K Elongation under Working Tension 1 x= kD * Sx kN * B Tx B2 Safety Factor at Working Stress Sx = Additional Elongation x =c* Lw2 Turnover Section The length of the turnover section can be calculated once Sx and Smin are determined. Belts Belt Centre Turnover Guided 1.36 1.Smin Lw = c * B * kD * (m) B c (m) (-) Belt Width Factor c (see table) Factor c Textile Belts ST.55 1. T3 at tail Belt safety with belt tension Tx Length of turnover section Nominal strength of the belt Belt Edges Control of minimum safety Smin.8 . I.

conveyor belts are coiled on wooden cores or drums.27 * d * L + dk2 roll diameter belt thickness core diameter belt length (m) DR DR d dk L (m) (m) (m) (m) Innenvierkant Internal Hole Double Coiled Roll dk DR L DR = 1.27 * d * L + ( dk + (m) 2 2 *a) - *a (m) S-Form Coiled Roll dk DR ( DR2 . The length or weight of the belt determines the size of core to use. Core Diameter dk (mm) 150 250 400 600 Internal Square Hole (mm) 55 110 205 205 Application Stock belts.Roll Diameter For transport purposes.dk2 ) L= 2*d (m) J.27 * d * + dk2 2 (m) 2DR Roll on Oval Core dK DR - a = d*L DR . general Wide and heavy belts Steel cord belts The roll diameter can be calculated using the following formulae: Coiled Roll DR = dk 1.dk 4 * ( DR + dk ) (m) a Lw Lw = a + Dk 2 DR = 1.1 .

Roll Diameter

Roll Diameter in m

L (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400

5 0.44 0.50 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.80 0.84 0.91 0.98 1.04 1.10 1.16 1.21 1.26 1.31 1.36 1.40 1.45 1.49 1.53 1.57 1.61

6 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.67 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.99 1.06 1.13 1.20 1.26 1.32 1.38 1.43 1.48 1.53 1.58 1.63 1.68 1.72 1.77

7 0.49 0.57 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.83 0.88 0.93 0.98 1.06 1.14 1.22 1.29 1.36 1.42 1.48 1.54 1.60 1.65 1.71 1.76 1.81 1.85 1.90

Belt Thickness (mm) 8 9 0.52 0.61 0.68 0.76 0.82 0.88 0.94 0.99 1.04 1.14 1.22 1.30 1.38 1.45 1.52 1.58 1.64 1.71 1.76 1.82 1.88 1.93 1.98 2.03 0.54 0.64 0.72 0.80 0.87 0.93 0.99 1.05 1.10 1.20 1.29 1.38 1.45 1.53 1.61 1.68 1.74 1.81 1.87 1.93 1.99 2.05 2.10 2.15

10 0.56 0.67 0.76 0.84 0.91 0.98 1.04 1.10 1.15 1.26 1.36 1.45 1.53 1.61 1.69 1.76 1.83 1.90 1.97 2.03 2.09 2.15 2.22 2.27

11 0.58 0.69 0.79 0.87 0.95 1.02 1.09 1.15 1.21 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.61 1.69 1.77 1.85 1.92 1.99 2.06 2.13 2.19 2.26 2.32 2.38

12 0.61 0.72 0.82 0.91 0.99 1.06 1.13 1.20 1.26 1.38 1.48 1.58 1.68 1.76 1.85 1.93 2.00 2.08 2.15 2.22 2.29 2.36 2.42 2.48

dk

DR

Innenvierkant Internal Hole

Core diameter dk = 250 mm

J.2

Pulley Diameters

The pulley diameter in general depends upon the thickness of the carcase (see Appendix C). In regions of low tension such as at the tail pulley or with small angles of wrap such as snub pulleys (90°) smaller pulley diameters may be used.
Tail Pulley Drive Pulley

Snub Pulley

Bend Pulley

Snub Pulley Tension Pulley
Tension Pulley (take-up) see Tail Pulley

Pulley diameters for belt types SUPERFORT STARFLEX DUNLOFLEX TRIOFLEX FERROFLEX S SF D T F

Belt Type

Pulley A

Diameter B 200 200 250 315 250 315 315 315 315 400 500 400 500 500 500 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 1000 1200

(mm) C 160 160 200 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 315 400 315 400 400 400 500 500 500 630 630 630 630 800 1000

Belt Type

Pulley A

Diameter B 160 200 200 250 315 400 400 500 200 200 200 200 250 250 315 400 250 315 400 500 630 800 400 400 500 500 630 630

(mm) C 125 160 160 200 250 315 315 400 160 160 160 160 200 200 250 315 200 250 315 400 500 630 315 315 400 400 400 400

S 200/3 S 250/3 S 315/3 S 315/4 S 400/3 S 400/4 S 500/3 S 500/4 S 630/3 S 630/4 S 630/5 S 800/3 S 800/4 S 800/5 S 1000/4 S 1000/5 S 1000/6 S 1250/4 S 1250/5 S 1250/6 S 1600/4 S 1600/5 S 1600/6 S 2000/5 S 2500/6

250 250 315 400 315 400 400 400 400 500 630 500 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1400

SF 250/2 SF 315/2 SF 400/3 SF 500/3 SF 500/4 SF 630/4 SF 800/4 SF 1000/4 D 160 D 200 D 250 D 315 D 400 D 500 D 630 D 800 T 315 T 400 T 500 T 630 T 800 T 1250 F 500 F 630 F 800 F 1000 F 1250 F 1600

200 250 250 315 400 500 500 630 250 250 250 250 315 315 400 500 315 400 500 630 800 1000 500 500 630 630 800 800

Belt Type de bande

Profile C C C C C C C 330/16 390/15Z 430/16 530/16 650/16 800/16 1000/16

Drive Pulley (mm) 250 250 250 250 315 315 500

Bend Pulley (mm) 250 250 250 250 250 250 400

Snub Pulley (mm) 160 160 160 160 200 200 250

CHEVRON Belts

S 200/3

S 400/3 S 500/4

Belt Type de bande

Profile HC HC HC 450/32 450/32 600/32

Drive Pulley (mm) 315 315 315 500 500 500

Bend Pulley (mm) 315 315 315 400 400 400

Snub Pulley (mm) 200 200 200 250 250 315

HIGH CHEVRON Belts

S 200/3 S 400/3 S 500/4 S 630/4

HC 800/32 HC 1000/32 HC 1200/32

K.1

Pulley Diameters

DUNLOPLAST DLP

Belt Type

Cover Thickness* (mm)

Total Thickness (mm) 3 4 4 5 7 9 11 14 15 16 4 6 8 11 11 6 8 11 15 17 13 16 18 21 23 25 26 27

Weight

Pulley minimum Diameter A (mm) 100 100 200 250 400 500 500 630 800 1000 160 250 315 500 500 250 315 500 630 800 400 500 630 800 800 1000 1000 500 B (mm) 80 80 160 200 315 400 400 500 630 800 125 200 250 400 400 200 250 400 500 630 315 400 500 630 630 800 800 400 C (mm) 60 60 125 160 250 315 315 400 500 630 100 160 200 315 315 160 200 315 400 500 250 315 400 500 500 630 630 315

(kg/m2) 3.75 5.00 5.00 6.25 8.75 11.25 13.75 17.50 18.75 20.00 5.00 7.50 10.00 13.75 13.75 7.50 10.00 13.75 18.75 21.75 16.25 20.00 21.00 26.25 27.00 29.00 31.00 31.00

PVC

DLP 250 PVC FDA DLP 250 PVC FDA DLP 315 PVC FDA DLP 400 PVC FDA DLP 630 PVC FDA DLP 800 PVC FDA DLP 1000 PVC FDA DLP 1600 PVC FDA DLP 2000 PVC FDA DLP 2500 PVC FDA DLP 250 PVC BLS DLP 315 PVC BLS DLP 400 PVC BLS DLP 630 PVC BLS DLP 1000 PVC BLS DLP 315 PVC A DLP 400 PVC A DLP 630 PVC A DLP 1000 PVC A DLP 1600 PVC A

2 +0 2 +1 1.5 +1.5 1.5 +1.5 1.5 +1.5 2 +2 2 +2 3 +3 3 +3 3 +3 2 +1 3 +1.5 4 +2 5 +3 2 +2 3 +1.5 4 +2 5 +3 5 +3 5 +3 6 +3 8 +3 8 +3 10 +4 10 +4 10 +4 10 +4 15 +5

RUBBER

DLP 630 RS DLP 800 RS DLP 1000 RS DLP 1250 RS DLP 1600 RS DLP 2000 RS DLP 2500 RS DLP 630 DB RS

* Total cover thickness (including reinforcing fibre) PVC-Quality FDA Colour: white. For transport of food stuffs, meeting International recommendations. Resistant to Fats, Oils and Solvents. Temperature range: -15° to +80°C Colour: white. Food quality and flame resistant according to International recommendations. Temperature range: -15° to +80°C Colour: grey. Non-toxic, highly abrasion resistant, Chemical, Fat and oil. Temperature range: -20° to +80°

BLS

A

Rubber-Quality

RA

Highly abrasion resistant under normal working conditions for bulk and unit loads.

K.2

8 25.9 14.3 Belt Weight (kg/m2) 16.14 42.6 29.0 19.4 16.4 33.98 22.6 22.38 32.08 60.45 20.12 kg/m2.98 29.50 Minimum Pulley Diam. Belt thickness and belt weight apply to belt with the minimum cover thickness top and bottom.8 19.40 50.61 46.40 16.0 30.3 16.01 24.3 .5 12.6 26.7 15.48 24.Pulley Diameters Steel Cord Belts SILVERCORD Belt Type Min. A B C (mm) (mm) (mm) 630 630 630 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1250 1250 1400 1400 1400 1400 1600 1600 1800 2000 2250 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1250 1400 1400 1600 1800 2000 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 630 630 630 630 800 800 1000 1000 1250 1600 ST 500 ST 630 ST 800 ST 900 ST 1000 ST 1150 ST 1250 ST 1400 ST 1600 ST 1800 ST 2000 ST 2250 ST 2500 ST 2750 ST 3150 ST 3500 ST 3750 ST 4000 ST 4250 ST 4500 ST 4750 ST 5000 ST 6000 ST 7000 Additional weight for each 1mm additional cover thickness: 1.3 15.5 13.37 19.05 54.39 19.2 26.3 15.8 13. Cover Thickness Top Bottom (mm) (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 Belt Thickness (mm) 12. K.4 22.79 20.69 68.29 34.16 23.05 41.9 13.2 13.81 39.8 13.92 18.63 27.51 48.0 22.

L.3 * b T 0.5 3 Taper h Pulley Diameter (mm) L < 3000 mm < 200 > 200 à 400 > 400 à 800 > 800 Notes 0. Belt runof Bandablauf Empirical determinations: •The belt runs towards the slack side. In most cases for reasons of price and manufacture. •The belt wanders towards the side to which it first makes contact with the pulley surface.5 1. Pulley crown should be carefully dimensioned to ensure belt life.25 2 2.7 1.Crowned Pulleys bT h Ballige Trommel Crowned Pulley bk bz bk The tracking of conveyor belts will in practice be effectively achieved using crowned pulleys.4 * b T B h 0.5 1 1.D2 f= 2 f < 0. well rounded D1 D2 bT B D h bz ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) Belt width Pulley diameter Taper Width of cylindrical section D1 .5 * B 0.5 1.5 2 •If the taper h is too great or if bz is too small differential belt tensions result which has an adverse effect on belt life.1 . •Crowned pulleys can also be lagged.5 2. wear and tear and working behaviour are not influenced determinately.4 * B 0. •The transition from the cylindrical to the tapered part of the pulley must be well rounded. 0.005 * D1 2 Taper to ISO/DIN 5286 Cylindrical Mid Section bz Belt Width B (mm) > 300 > 300 à 800 > 800 bz (mm) 0. the pulley is shaped in a cylindrical-tapered manner. •If the taper h is too great diagonal creases can appear in the belt.5 0.3 * b T Cylindrical Tapered Trommel Zylindrisch-konische Pulley D h bz Kanten Edges to be gut abrunden. The tracking effect is reduced.5 2.65 * B B/bz 2. •If the belt in the taper area does not make full contact this will lead to wear and tear on the pulley side of the belt.5 Taper h (mm) L > 3000 mm B ≤ 800 mm B > 800 mm 0.

These idlers sometimes influence the tracking of the belt in a negative manner.9 108 Disc Diam. mm) 108 137 140 130 122 128 136 140 Number of Discs each roller total end 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 8 8 9 14 16 17 18 21 Tube Diam.5 63.Arrangement of Rubber Supporting Idler Discs Supporting Discs on Return Side Run Rubber supporting discs on the return side run will behave as a belt surface cleaner.9 88. R (mm) 51 57 57 63. D (mm) 120 133 133 150 150 180 180 180 215 180 1800 2000 40 145 6 22 108 215 180 2000 2200 40 156 7 24 108 215 M.5 88. Installation Instruction B Untertrum B Return Run RØ DØ b b b b b c c a c Measurements (Values) Belt Width B (mm) 400 500 650 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 a (mm) 425 530 680 890 1090 1305 1505 1800 b (mm) 25 30 30 30 30 35 35 40 c (ca.1 .

In many cases the quantity.Chemical Resistance The conveyor belt must not only meet the mechanical and thermal demands of the load but also be resistant to diverse chemicals. concentration and temperature of the substances being handled is not exactly known or defined. Light Swelling Phenol 10% Pine Tar Potassium Bichromate 10% Sulphuric Acid 10% Trichloroethylene Urea 50% Water 20°C Water 80°C + = resistant B P E D Cotton Polyamide Polyester Aramid + + + + + + + + 0 + + + – + + 0 + + + + + – + + + + Carcase Material P E 0 + 0 + + – + + 0 0 0 + – 0 + – + + – + 0 – + 0 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + D + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 0 = limited resistance – = not resistant N. solid form or gaseous form.1 . At ca. 8-10% swelling the physical properties decline. or with lower concentration and higher temperature. Resistance of the Carcase Chemical B Acetic Acid 10% Acetone Ammonia 10% Benzine Benzol Creosote Diesel Oil Drilling Oil Ethylacetate Formaldehyde 10% Formic Acid 10% Glycerine Hydrochloric Acid 10% Latic Acid 10% Machine Oil Methylalcohol Oil. The chemicals can be in liquid. Heavy Swelling Oil. also with relatively low temperature. The reaction will intensify through higher concentration. The chemical resistance of the belt will be judged by the swelling of the covers. the belt loses its working capability and its life will be reduced.

2 .Chemical Resistance Resistance of the Covers Chemical Acetic Acid Acetic Acid Acetic Acid Acetone Ammonia Aniline Axle Oil Axle Oil Benzine Benzine/Benzol 1:1 Benzol Caustic Soda Caustic Soda Caustic Soda Caustic Soda Chloroform Copper Sulphate Creosote Cyclohexane Detergent P3 Detergent P3 Diesel Oil Drilling Oil Drilling Oil Drilling Oil Ethylacetate Ethylalcohol Formaldehyde Formic Acid Formic Acid Glycerine Glycerine Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Latic Acid Latic Acid Machine Oil Machine Oil Magnesium Sulphate Magnesium Sulphate Maleic Acid Maleic Acid Methylalcohol Methylene Chloride Nitro Solvent Oil Heavy Swelling Oil Heavy Swelling Oil Swelling Oil Swelling Olive Oil Olive Oil Oxalic Acid Oxalic Acid Condition K% °C 100 10 10 100 10 100 100 100 100 50/50 100 10 40 40 10 100 10 50 100 3 3 100 2 10 100 100 100 38 10 100 100 100 10 10 30 30 10 10 100 100 10 10 10 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 10 10 20 20 80 20 20 20 80 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 20 20 20 20 20 80 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 20 80 30 80 20 20 80 80 20 80 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 20 80 20 80 20 NR SBR – + – + + 0 – – – – – + 0 0 0 – 0 0 – + + – 0 – – 0 + + + 0 + + – + – + – + – – + + – + + – 0 – – – 0 – – – + Basic Material NBR Butyl NCR – – – – + – 0 + 0 – – + 0 0 0 – 0 0 – + 0 0 + + + – 0 0 – – + + – + – + – 0 + 0 + + 0 0 0 – – + 0 0 + 0 + – + 0 + – + + + – – – – – + + + + – + + – + + – 0 – – 0 + + + + + + – + – + 0 + 0 – + + – + + – 0 – – – – – + + + PVC – 0 – – + – 0 + + + – + – – – – + – – + 0 + + + + – 0 + + 0 + + – + – + 0 + + 0 + + – 0 0 – – + – – + 0 + + + N.

Chemical Resistance Chemical Condition K% °C NR SBR + – – – 0 + + + – 0 + 0 0 + 0 – + + + – – + – – 0 – – – – + + + Basic Material NBR Butyl NCR – 0 + – – + + – – 0 + 0 0 + + – + + + 0 – + – – + – – – – + + + 0 – – – + + + + – + + + + + + – + + + – – + – + + – – – – + + + PVC Paper Pulp (damp) Paraffin Oil Paraffin Oil Phenol Phenol Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric Acid Pitch for Wood Impregnation Potash Potash Potash Potash Potassium Dichromate Potassium Dichromate Potassium Permanganate Sea Water Sea Water Stearic Acid Powder Stearic Acid Powder Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid Tallow Tallow Tetralin Toluol Trichloroethylene Urea Water (tap) Water (tap) K% NR SBR NBR NCR Butyl PVC Concentration in % Pulp 100 100 10 10 10 50 10 100 40 10 10 40 10 10 10 100 100 100 100 50 10 50 10 100 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 20 80 20 80 20 20 20 80 20 20 20 80 80 20 80 20 80 20 20 80 20 20 80 80 20 80 20 20 20 20 20 80 – 0 + – – + + 0 – – + – – + + – + + + 0 – + – – + – – – – + + + Natural Rubber Styrene Butadiene Rubber Nitrile Rubber Nitrile Chloroprene Rubber Butyl Rubber Polyvinyl Chloride N.3 .

Troughing Angle 3. The belt tension will be less. as with smooth surface belts. Idler Spacing 6. Loading Height 9.1 . To improve the running of the return side belt. The tail pulley should as a minimum be one profile length behind the back of the loading chute so that back flowing material can be re-admitted. Drive Pulley The drive pulley should be rubber lagged. Return Side 5. On the carrying and return side run. greater than 25° (for jute sacks etc. Drive Pulley 2 3 part Idlers 2 part Idlers 1 8 ce tan dis ween t ns be tio sta 9 10 7 Drive Pulley Tail Pulley 6 ce tan dis ween bet tions sta 3 4 5 1. and the running of the belt stabilized. Deflector 7. Where there is back flowing water on the pulley side of the return belt. The belt must not sag excessively between idlers (pre-tension).) The angle of wrap on the drive pulley should not be more than ca. The height of fall of material being loaded to the belt should be kept as small as possible. If wet materials are conveyed. 2. Snub Pulley 4. The pressure on the profile caused by the snub pulley would otherwise be too high such that the profile can be pressed through to the pulley side of the belt. prevented. slip at start-up under load. Tail Pulley 8. Changes in the direction of bending of the belt are not recommended.Steep Incline Conveyors Hints for Installation Improvements To obtain optimum performance from steep incline belts in the CHEVRON and HIGH-CHEVRON range with regard to smooth running and working safety. a range of constructive measures are recommended which have proved themselves in practice. standard idlers are used. The idler pitch should not be divisible by the pitch of the profile pattern on the belt. Belt Sag O. A plough scraper should be fitted immediately before the tail pulley so that material does not get trapped between belt and pulley. the loading being in direction of belt travel. otherwise the load stream becomes broken up causing loss of conveying capacity and an increase in power demand. a water scraper (plough scraper) should be used. If 3 part idlers are used. water shedding grooved pulley lagging is recommended because of the risk of off-track running. can be fitted. 190°. the troughing angle should not be greater than 20° and with 2 part idlers. two idlers with reduced diameter and set next to one another.

2 . Cleaning Steep incline belting cannot be scraped by normal mechanical cleaning devices. If conditions permit. sledge-hammer devices can be used which impact the pulley side of the belt during rotation. Clinging and sticky materials will result in build-ups. the belt surface beyond the discharge pulley can be hosed with water or cleaned by compressed air.Steep Incline Conveyors 10. Eccentric rapping rollers that vibrate the belt can also be fitted. O. For lumpy and dry materials.

The vulcanisation takes place under a certain pressure and depending on cover quality.300 mm a 70 70 150 Diagonal Splice Chevron Splice Zig-Zag Splice For Steel Cord Belts depending on tensile strength and the cord diameter the 1 to 4 step splice is used. the best results are achieved by the hot vulcanisation process with regard to strength and the retention of strength after prolonged periods of usage. at a certain time and temperature.3*B a = 200 . With this the cords are laid together in a particular design. In general the vulcanising temperature lies between 140°C and 155°C. With almost all belt types. depending on carcase construction there are the stepped splice method (1 or more steps) and the finger splice method. 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step P. The advice of the belt manufacture should be observed particularly the special recommendations that apply to certain belt types and qualities. the Chevron splice and the zig-zag splice (for short centre to centre distances or for weigher belts). lv lst lst lst B la B lü Stepped Splice bt lt Finger Splice Depending on the application one differentiates between the straight joint (90° across the belt) the diagonal splice. vulcanising presses are necessary. Angle 16°40' " B B " 0. splicing materials and the proficiency of the splicing personnel. Hot Vulcanisation With hot vulcanising. Vulcanisation times depend on the belt thickness and are of 20 to 45 minutes duration. With textile belts.1 .Endless Splice Joints Methods of Making Endless Conveyor belting can be made endless using the following jointing methods: • Hot Vulcanised • Warm Vulcanised • Cold Vulcanised • Mechanical Fastener The durability obtained from these various methods depends on environmental conditions.

The quality of the joint is very dependent upon the ambient conditions. dustiness etc. The mechanical fastener is well suited for quick emergency splicing or belt damage repair. 24 hours.Endless Splice Joints Warm Vulcanisation For the warm vulcanisation method. The strength however is significantly lower than that of a vulcanised splice joint. The optimum strength is reached in ca. the process takes place under ambient temperature conditions. a press is likewise required. Cold Vulcanisation Mechanical Splice Steel Wire Hook Fastener Hinged Fastener Bolted Plate Fastener (Flexco) P. The vulcanisation temperature lies between 100°C to ca.2 . Expenditure on equipment and time is much reduced. For the warm vulcanising process special vulcanising materials are required. With cold vulcanisation. 115°C. The quickest and most cost effective joint is the mechanical splice. humidity. The joint can however be constructed with shorter overlap lengths.

95 . coarse Bran Brown Coal briquettes Brown Coal.30 0.70 25 15 6 15 20 15 25 10 15 15 15 15 20 15 10 25 15 15 30 30 15 5 20 15 15 20 20 15 10 15 15 20 15 20 15 15 10 20 20 15 10 20 15 15 20 17 20 20 17 17 15 23 15 15 17 17 10 .96 . earth broken Bauxite.0.50 .12 .RS RE .09 2.RS .36 0.RAS RA RA RA RA RA Q.Nitrate Ammonium . raw Bicarbonate Bituminous coal. fine Aluminium .70 1.0. broken 80mm and under Bauxite.0.72 .30 0.Turnings Ammonium . broken Barium carbonate Barley Barytes.0. coarse Aluminium.80 .30 0.30 . caustic salt Ash.Chloride (crysalline) Ammonium .0.70 . wet Anthracite Coal Apples Asbestos ore Asbestos.11 .0. raw Beans Beet pulp Beets Bezonite.0.2.RS RA .30 1.BV RA .13 0.24 0.36 1.65 .48 .90 0.RS RA RA RA RA RA RE .2. paving Bagasse Bakelite.60 0.55 0.80 1.28 .64 0.90 .65 0. granulated Ammonium .65 0.4 .0.15 0. coarse grained Barytes.1.64 1.Oxide Aluminium .0.wet 80mm and under Ash.RS RA .Sulphate (granular) Aluminium . dry Ammonium .86 0. damp Blast furnace slag.10 0.70 2.9 .56 .Silicate Aluminium .RS RA RA RA RA .45 .35 1. dry Bone meal Bones Borax.60 .40 0.50 .80 1.Sulphate.80 0.85 0.32 .0.72 1.92 0.9 1.1.80 0. granulated.83 0.28 0.30 0.1. shred Ash.1.20 24 15 .04 0. fine or nuts Bituminous coal up to 50mm Blast furnace slag.80 1.1.RAS RA .0.81 0.Sulphate. fly coal slack Asphalt Asphalt.Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Alum Aluminium. dry Calcium carbide Calcium oxide 0.93 1.40 0.1.25 .0.78 0.1.05 0.1.1.64 0. coal .00 0.90 0.12 .50 0.12 18 22 18 20 15 15 20 25 20 12 18 17 17 20 18 20 12 14 12 15 18 .54 .64 .60 0.1 .72 .3 1.RS RE .20 18 15 15 17 15 12 15 20 18 18 20 22 20 22 22 20 18 22 - 25 25 35 30 25 25 35 30 25 20 25 25 35 25 20 30 35 25 25 25 25 25 30 25 - 30 30 40 35 30 30 40 35 30 25 30 30 40 25 30 35 40 30 30 30 30 30 20 40 30 - RS RA RA RA RA . powdered Basalt Basalt lava Bauxite. broken Asphalt. coal .0.RS .2.60 1.30 1. fine Ballast.72 1.0.00 .3 2. granulated.Sulphate.65 .1.85 0.RS RE .1.0. fly Ash.04 0.dry 80mm and under Ash. binder for motorways Asphalt.6 .80 1.20 . broken Blast furnace slag.

80 .40 1.35 1.2. dry.2.72 0. wet Coal Coal. clinker Cement.2.56 .0.20 2.0.60 1.40 1.44 1.32 .1.20 0.60 0.92 . dry Clay.20 .20 .0.1.2.56 0.08 . dry Clay. granulated Cornmeal Cotton seed Cotton seed flock Cryolite.4 . stone Concrete.BV RA RA RA RA RA RA RA .35 .RS RA .36 0.RS RA .1. anthracite up to 3mm Coal dust Coal. roasted Coke breeze up to 7mm Coke.1. lumps Clay. excavated dry Earth. dry Cement Mortar Chalk.20 .20 1.45 0.1. pieces Earth.1.80 2.0.28 2.1.RS RA RA Q. pulverised Charcoal Chestnuts Chrome Ore Clay.0. pelletized Cocoa beans Cocoa powder Coffee beans.65 0.0.00 0.1.2.08 .60 .10 17 18 15 28 15 20 15 .80 0.69 0.RS RA ROM .11 0.30 1.RS RA .ROS RA RA RE .60 .18 10 18 5 12 20 12 5 5 20 18 18 15 15 18 10 15 15 17 15 17 17 15 15 10 17 15 17 20 20 20 22 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 20 20 20 25 23 25 30 30 30 30 25 30 30 25 30 30 25 30 35 25 25 25 25 35 25 25 25 27 25 25 25 25 30 30 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 30 35 35 30 40 30 35 30 30 30 30 35 30 30 30 32 30 30 30 30 35 35 40 30 45 30 RA RS RA RE .95 0. broken Cork. Lumps Dicalcium Phosphate Disodium Phosphate Dolomite.60 1.0.0.06 .96 . loose Coke.60 1.65 0. petroleum calcined Coleseed Compost Concrete. wet Clay. dry Earth.00 .60 2.RS RA ROM .0.12 .20 .40 1.00 1.60 1.55 0.20 0.76 5 10 15 20 15 10 10 15 15 15 5 10 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 .40 . broken Chalk.24 0.44 .25 0.60 1.40 0.24 1.95 0.2 .1.50 0.65 0. calcined Clay.60 0. raw Coffee beans.30 . wet (Readymix) Concrete with gravel Concrete with limestone Copper ore Copper sulphate Copra flakes Cork.15 20 10 10 5 10 5 5 20 20 20 5 15 10 15 15 15 10 15 15 10 10 20 15 15 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 22 18 20 8 17 15 . green Coffee beans. wet loamy 0. broken Dolomite.2.10 .55 0.45 .60 .35 1.0.60 0.ROS RE . fine Cork.RS .40 .1.56 0.20 2.10 .50 1.19 .0.1.00 .5 0.Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Carbon pellets Carborundum up to 80mm Casein Cast Iron swarf Cement.45 1. dust Cryolite.76 .20 1.BV RE .1.40 .44 .80 2.37 .28 .00 1.0.3.18 20 8 .80 2.35 0. wet Earth.00 1.0.0.RS RA RA RA RE .

20 1. screened Flourspar Fly ash Foundry waste Fruit Fullers earth.28 .0.0.0. broken Kaolin clay up to 80mm Kaolin.12 .0.45 .6 1. burnt Fullers earth. broken Grain Granite.60 1.22 1.90 .00 0.60 1.48 .65 0.30 0. up to 13mm Graphite flock Graphite.RAS RA RA RA RA .45 0.50 2. broken Gypsum.1.44 .56 . burnt Gypsum mortar Gypsum.45 0.65 0.60 1.56 .4. crushed Iron Ore. with shells Ground nuts.64 0.80 0.1.1.70 . oil filter.36 0.RS RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA ROM ROM RA RA RA RA .90 0.35 0.3 .40 5.44 .1. screened to 13mm Fertilizer Filter cake Filter mud Fishmeal Flaxseed Flourcalcium 40-80mm Flourcalcium.1.68 2.35 1.95 . without shells Guano.00 1.1. dry Husks. pulverized Kieselguhr Kiln Brick 1. wet Green fodder Ground nut kernels Ground nuts.80 0. 40-50mm lumps Granite ballast Granite.36 .1.45 0.80 1.12 .ROS RA .90 2.76 .RAS RS .40 .0.30 25 . dry Gravel. broken Felspar. lump size 40-80mm Felspar.1. broken Granite.80 1.1.1.44 1.16 .04 .50 1.1.70 .60 0.17 .2. screened.40 2.00 .60 .90 0.00 1.92 0.30 . sieved Household refuse Husks.35 1.44 0.52 .30 RS MORS-ROM MORS RE .12 1. pellets Iron Oxide.0.40 .50 1. oil filter raw Fullers earth.60 . broken Iron Ore.Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Ebonite up to 13mm Felspar.0.80 .76 1. dry Gypsum.1.1.64 0.20 20 20 18 12 19 19 20 15 17 25 25 20 25 18 20 8 22 20 25 - 25 30 30 35 30 30 30 35 25 30 25 30 25 30 25 30 30 35 30 35 25 30 20 25 25 30 20 25 25 30 25 30 30 30 25 30 25 30 30 35 20 25 25 .50 0. pulverized Gypsum.56 0.80 1.RS Q.22 1.0. oily Glass.60 20 15 10 10 5 5 15 15 10 10 20 15 15 10 5 5 10 15 20 10 10 18 15 10 10 10 15 10 22 22 15 5 20 20 30 5 17 18 20 15 12 14 14 17 15 15 15 20 18 .0.1.35 0.60 0. pulverized Grass seed Gravel Gravel.1.35 0.96 .15 0.20 0.20 12 15 15 15 15 17 18 10 . pigment Iron turnings (Swarf) Kaolin.ROS RS .75 1.12 1. wet Iron Ore.1.04 1.1.55 .00 0.15 14 14 12 15 15 18 17 15 . dry Fullers earth.

30 .1.96 .20 0.50 1.00 .20 1.50 1.30 0.30 .04 1.32 .36 15 15 5 .96 1.12 1.45 0. knock-out Moulding sand.92 .40 0. shelled Malt.75 .40 0.10 3.1.15 15 17 20 17 16 17 10 .60 .1.RS RA RA RA BV .70 .20 .70 1.1.0 .80 3.00 . sand. Iron Ore.96 1.ROM .20 0. Zinc Overburden Peas. Broken Limestone.60 1. broken Phosphate.70 .44 .BVO - ROS RA .RS RS .1.2.40 2. hydrated Lime.3 1. Lime Moulding sand.45 . wet Phosphate.64 0.10 2.RS RA RA RA RA RA .80 0.Arsenate Lead Ore Lead .1.1.85 0.2 .4 .00 1.2.52 1.12 10 15 20 15 20 15 17 17 20 18 8 20 18 20 15 15 15 15 18 17 20 15 17 14 15 12 15 - 22 22 20 20 25 22 25 20 25 18 25 - 25 25 25 25 30 25 30 25 25 25 25 25 30 25 25 25 30 20 20 20 30 25 25 25 30 25 25 20 25 25 25 - 30 30 20 27 30 35 30 35 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 25 30 35 35 30 30 30 35 30 30 25 30 30 30 - RA .1.0.RS RA .20 .51 1.RS RA .50 1. dry Manganese dioxide Manganese ore Manganese sulphate Manure Marble. cement 0.36 1.55 1.80 0.0 .15 3. Gypsum Mortar. dust Linseed Linseed cake Magnesite Magnesite. Lead Ore.0.1. prepared Mushrooms Nickel Ore Oats Oil Sand Ore.RAS RA RA - Q.65 .04 .40 .20 0.2. up to 13mm Marl. fine Magnesium chloride Magnesium oxide Magnesium sulphate Magnetite Maize Maize. fertilizer Phosphate. cement Mortar. powdered Mortar. pulverized Lime.40 0. dry Peat. dry Meal Molybdenite. Manganese Ore.0.0.70 0.20 .52 1.0. slaked Lime up to 3mm Limestone.10 15 20 18 18 15 12 .4.4.40 2.Oxide Legumes Lime.40 1.71 2.Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Lactose (milk sugar) Lead . crushed. dried Peat.30 .70 1.1.60 1.00 1. Copper Ore.0.10 15 5 15 15 5 5 10 15 20 10 10 15 5 10 5 25 10 15 15 15 10 5 15 10 10 10 15 10 10 10 5 15 15 15 15 25 15 15 5 15 15 15 - 17 15 8 .75 0. broken Marble.RS RA RA RA RS RE . core sand Moulding sand.72 0. lumps Lime.70 1.2.70 0.00 0.3 2.50 3.7 2.90 1.7 0.00 1.28 2.4.

44 .40 .Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Phosphate.1.67 .45 1. broken Slate.36 . Iron Sulphide Pyrites.75 1.28 1.1. lump size 40-80mm Quartz sand Rape seed Rice Roadstone.88 1.75 0.12 .20 0.0.55 15 10 20 15 10 10 15 15 15 15 10 15 15 15 15 5 5 15 10 10 10 10 15 5 10 10 5 10 10 15 10 20 5 15 15 20 15 15 15 10 15 15 15 15 18 15 17 20 12 15 12 17 15 15 15 17 17 12 8 20 15 20 20 20 18 15 17 17 15 16 18 20 17 17 15 20 17 18 15 18 15 15 15 17 20 20 20 15 12 22 22 20 25 20 20 25 20 20 25 20 25 - 25 20 30 25 30 20 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 30 30 25 25 25 35 30 30 30 25 30 30 25 30 25 35 30 25 25 25 30 25 25 25 30 30 30 35 25 30 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 25 35 35 30 30 30 40 35 35 35 30 35 35 30 35 30 35 35 25 30 30 30 30 30 RA RA RA RA .32 2.1.96 1.0. pellets Quartz.88 0. blast furnace Slag. Iron lump size 50-80mm Pyrites. Broken (Porphyry) Rock salt Rubber.60 .1. lump size 40-80mm Sinter.0. pelletized Rubber.RS RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA .28 1.50 0.0. porous.25 0.5 .RAS RA .64 . common. blast furnace.0.2.80 0.35 1.20 . dry Sand. dry Pulp.44 0.52 1.80 .70 1.1.0.10 .70 2.1. dry Sand and gravel.64 . wet Sandstone Sawdust Sewage Sludge Shale Shale.28 1.0.35 .2.65 0.1.20 0. broken Potash salts.60 2.1.50 .12 . broken Quartz.80 . dust Rubber.44 .44 0. broken Plaster Portland cement Portland cement. dry Slag.50 .RS RA . blast furnace.70 1.ROS RA .RE Q.1.80 1. fine Saltpetre Saltpetre Sand and gravel.1.0.1. coarse Salt.20 .50 1.60 1.20 1.60 .1. wet Sand.70 . reclaim Run of mine coal Rye Salt.1.2.00 .50 1. common.RS RA RA .30 0.80 .40 .RS . prepared Sand pebble.70 1.1.1.60 1.10 1. loose Potash Potash Potash.RS .00 . pulverized Phosphate rock.28 . wet Pumice stone Pumice stone sand Pyrites.36 .2.RS . sylvite etc Potassium (Saltpetre) Potassium chloride pellets Potassium sulphate Potatoes Pulp.80 0.36 . foundry.2.90 0.08 0.50 1.40 1. dry Sand.2.00 1. dry Salt.RAS ROM RA .RAS RA .0.92 .48 0.70 . broken Shale dust Shale.60 .1.16 .1.80 0.0.1.92 .22 1.00 0.60 1.1.80 2.00 1. broken 0.70 1.1.77 0.60 1.52 1.70 .20 .80 1.96 .30 .70 .35 1. broken Slag.10 1.0.08 1.

40 0.60 .60 .2.96 0.50 .Material Characteristics Material Bulk Density (t/m3) Surcharge Maximum Angle of Inclination Angle Smooth height of profiles (°) Belts 6 mm 16 mm 32 mm Recommended Dunlop Quality Soap beads or granules Soap flakes Soda Soda ash.70 0. broken. heavy Soda ash. washed Tomatoes Wheat Wheat.80 1. raw Sugar.40 1.1.20 0.80 2. pulverized Table Salt Tile. shredded Stone.ROM RA .65 1.1. dry Sugar-beet.40 .0.RAS - ROM RA .00 1. flour Wood chips Wood chips.1.RS .1. sized Sugar cane.20 1.0.80 . light Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium nitrate Soot Soya beans Steel trimmings.70 10 10 5 15 15 15 10 10 5 0 15 18 15 15 5 10 15 10 10 5 10 5 15 15 15 15 12 18 17 15 18 15 15 15 19 15 12 20 18 18 .60 0.0.1.48 2.90 0.56 0.90 0.0.0.70 0. hard Tile.15 .28 0.80 1.20 .48 .0.24 3. sliced. large.40 1.56 0.1.04 0.56 0.0.65 0.40 0. wet Sulphate.30 . broken Sulphur. crushed Zinc Oxide.RAS RA RA Q.60 2.88 .90 .0.96 .32 . sized Stone.0.16 .04 0. sliced.25 0.88 .75 0.50 0.12 .1. powdered Sugar.0.0.6 .80 . light Zinc Sulphate 0. damp Sugar-beet.04 0. granulated Sugar.75 0.85 0.0.60 .60 1.80 0. burnt Zinc Ore.35 0. heavy Zinc Oxide.12 0.40 0.90 .RS .1.1.55 .1. small Stone.1. raw Sugar-beet Sugar-beet.0.88 .20 18 17 19 20 17 10 .16 .55 .40 .12 14 20 15 20 12 15 17 17 17 18 22 20 22 20 16 20 20 25 25 20 22 18 - 25 25 20 25 25 20 22 25 25 20 25 25 25 30 30 30 20 30 30 20 20 20 25 25 20 25 30 25 30 30 25 27 25 30 30 30 35 35 35 30 35 35 25 30 30 25 30 RA RA RA ROS RA RA RA RA RA RA RA .24 . ferrous Sulphur. wet Wood shavings Zinc Ore Zinc Ore.30 0. soft Titanium.

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