This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CDM – Executive Board
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) Version 03 - in effect as of: 22 December 2006 CONTENTS A. B. C. D. E. General description of the small scale project activity Application of a baseline and monitoring methodology Duration of the project activity / crediting period Environmental impacts Stakeholders’ comments Annexes Annex 1: Contact information on participants in the proposed small scale project activity Annex 2: Information regarding public funding Annex 3: Baseline information Annex 4: Monitoring Information
PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) - Version 03
CDM – Executive Board
Revision history of this document
Version Number 01 02
Date 21 January 2003 8 July 2005
Description and reason of revision Initial adoption • • The Board agreed to revise the CDM SSC PDD to reflect guidance and clarifications provided by the Board since version 01 of this document. As a consequence, the guidelines for completing CDM SSC PDD have been revised accordingly to version 2. The latest version can be found at <http://cdm.unfccc.int/Reference/Documents>. The Board agreed to revise the CDM project design document for small-scale activities (CDM-SSC-PDD), taking into account CDM-PDD and CDM-NM.
22 December 2006
PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) - Version 03
CDM – Executive Board
SECTION A. General description of small-scale project activity A.1 Title of the small-scale project activity:
Title: 5 MW Solar PV Power Project in Sivagangai Village, Sivaganga District, Tamil Nadu Version: 01 Date: 05/03/2010 A.2. Description of the small-scale project activity:
Sapphire Industrial Infrastructures Private Limited (SIIPL), a subsidiary of Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited proposes to develop a 5 MW (P) grid connected solar PV power project in Sivaganga District in the State of Tamil Nadu in Southern India. The project activity is expected to generate 8322MWh of net electricity per annum. The entire power generated from this project will be sold to Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) by connecting it to southern grid through a power purchase agreement with TNEB. The purpose of this project is to generate electricity by utilizing clean solar energy and to reduce the green house gas emissions that have been emitted by the carbon intensive southern grid in India.
Project’s contribution to sustainable development The implementation of this project activity would contribute to the sustainable development of the region in the following ways as stipulated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in the interim approval guidelines for CDM projects1 – Social well being There will be a good amount of employment opportunities created for the local workforce during the project construction phase. The project after implementation will continue to provide employment opportunities for the local populace in a sustained manner over the project life time. As both the genders of the society will be given equal opportunity this will aid to social parity and women enlistment, thereby elevating the social standards. Economic well-being The enhanced employment opportunities created by this project activity will lead to alleviation of poverty, and educated unemployment, as it is ideal and more feasible for the project developer to employ local workforce during the construction period and operational life time. Environmental well-being This project activity would be using the available solar potential in Sivagangai region for power generation process, which has no associated GHG emissions. This will certainly have a positive impact on the environment both at local and global level. Technological well-being The project activity will be making use of the reliable and proven technology available locally to ensure that an environmentally safe technology is only being implemented in the proposed project activity.
4.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . A. Host Party(ies): Region/State/Province etc.184.108.40.206. The location map of the project is as given below – 4 .4. Project participants: Private and/or public entity(ies) project participants (as applicable) Sapphire Industrial Infrastructures Private Limited (Private Entity) Kindly indicate if the Party involved wishes to be considered as project participant (Yes/No) No Name of Party involved ((host) indicates a host Party) India (Host Party) A.1. Technical description of the small-scale project activity: A.: City/Town/Community etc: Rettaipillai Ayyanarkulam Village Arasani Muthupatti Panchayat.1. State: Tamil Nadu A. Pudukkottai district on Northern side and Ramanathapuram district on Southern side.4. Sivaganga district is situated in southern part of India near South Eastern coast and is bound by Madurai district on Western side.3. Details of physical location.2. Host Party: India A.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Setting up of this project will also increase the private sector participation in this project category thereby contributing to more green power to the grid system.4. Sivagangai District: Sivaganga A.220.127.116.11. including information allowing the unique identification of this small-scale project activity : The project location is situated about 8 km from the Sivagangai town in Sivaganga district in the State of Tamil Nadu. Location of the small-scale project activity: A.
Version 03 CDM – Executive Board (Map indicating Sivaganga district) (Site route map) 5 .PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .
geothermal and renewable biomass. 3 phase. AC power in a number of outdoor inverters. that supply electricity to and/or displace electricity from an electricity distribution system that is or would have been supplied by at least one fossil fuel fired generating unit. A technical detail of different equipment of the proposed solar PV system is summarized below: SN 1 2 Type of PV Modules Capacity of each Module proposed Parameters Description 1. 11/110kV power transformer with its associated 110kV outdoor switch gear located in a switch yard for interconnection to the 110kV transmission line of TNEB. tidal/wave. From the outgoing side of the transformers. Technical description The project activity is solar photovoltaic based power generation. hydro. As the proposed project activity is the implementation of grid connected solar power generation project. Type and category(ies) and technology/measure of the small-scale project activity: Type 1 – Renewable energy projects Category – Grid connected renewable electricity generation – AMS I. power will be transmitted through a set of cable feeders to 11kV indoor switchboard in a centrally located grid interface substation. which forms the fundamental building blocks of the complete PV generating unit. such as photovoltaics.D.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . A. it falls under this category.2. The proposed plant will be predominantly north south oriented and layout with flat panel of thin film type modules of PV array will be prepared. The geographic co-ordinate of the project location is 78026’42. wind. Photovoltaic module consists of several photovoltaic cells connected by circuits and sealed in an environmentally protective laminate.7” to 9048’31. Several PV panels mounted on a frame are termed as PV Array. The nearest airport is in Madurai and is 41 km from the project site. the total power generated will be stepped up to 110kV in a 6. 6 .3MVA. The DC electric power generated by the photo voltaic modules will be converted into 415V. 50Hz.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board The nearest railway stations are in Karaikudi and Manamadurai they are at distances of 65 km and 16 km respectively from the project site. In the substation.7” to 78027’56./Version 15/EB 50 Technology/Measure This category comprises renewable energy generation units. The project site is well connected from airport and railway station by NH 49 and NH/SH 7 & 45B respectively.3” (E) Longitude and 09048’04. 250C ambient temperature and 1.4. stepped up to 11000V through a set of outdoor transformers located in a distributed manner all over the plant. Flat panel or thin film type PV modules 78W (P) / any other compatible size.3” (N) Latitude.5 air mass. The rated capacity of the power plant will be 5MW at standard test conditions of 1000W/m2 solar radiation.
and Registered within the previous two years.4. a small-scale project is considered as a debundled component of a large project activity if there is a registered small-scale CDM project activity or an application to register another small-scale activity: • • • • With the same project participants In the same project category and technology/measure.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .4. Therefore the proposed project is not a debundled component of a larger CDM project activity.pdf 7 . Public funding of the small-scale project activity: There is no public funding involved in this project activity. 2 3 Renewable crediting period of 7 years is assumed http://cdm.int/EB/Meetings/007/eb7ra07. A. Confirmation that the small-scale project activity is not a debundled component of a large scale project activity: According to paragraph 2 of Appendix C3 to the Simplified Modalities and Procedures for Small-Scale CDM project activities (FCCC/CP/2002/7/Add.4.unfccc.3).3 Estimated amount of emission reductions over the chosen crediting period: Years Estimation of annual emission reductions in tonnes of CO2 e 7866 7866 7866 7866 7866 7866 7866 55062 7 7866 2010 – 2011 2011 – 2012 2012 – 2013 2013 – 2014 2014 – 2015 2015 – 2016 2016 – 2017 Total estimated reductions (tonnes of CO2e) Total Number of crediting years2 Annual average of the estimated reductions over the crediting period A.5.4. and Whose project boundary is within 1km of the project boundary of the proposed small scale activity at the closest point None of the above applies to the proposed project activity and the project participant has not registered or applied for registration of another project.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board 3 4 Inverters Capacity Proposed area 500 kW each 66 acres A.
• The project activity is implemented in an existing reservoir. hydro. Hydro power plants with reservoirs that satisfy at least one of the following conditions are eligible to apply this methodology: • The project activity is implemented in an existing reservoir with no change in the volume of reservoir. geothermal and renewable biomass. wind. the The project activity is a 5MW (P) solar PV based power generation project that generates and exports renewable electricity to the southern grid system. is greater than 4 W/m2. Reference: Version 02/EB – 50 Annex 14” B. If the unit added co fires fossil fuel. Title and reference of the approved baseline and monitoring methodology applied to the small-scale project activity: Title Reference : Grid connected renewable electricity generation : AMS I. the eligibility limit of 15MW for a small-scale CDM project activity applies only to the renewable component. as per definitions given in the Project Emissions section. such as photo-voltaics. that supply electricity to and/or displace electricity from an electricity distribution system that is or would have been supplied by at least one fossil fuel fired generating unit.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) ..D is described in the following table.2 Justification of the choice of the project category: The position of the CDM project activity vis-à-vis applicability conditions in the AMS-I. Application of a baseline and monitoring methodology B. The project activity is only 5 MW (P) solar PV based renewable electricity generation project. is greater than 4 W/m2. The project activity is not a hydro power plant. • The project activity results in new reservoirs and the power density of the power plant./Version 15/ EB 50 AMS I-D draws into following tool to determine baseline for electricity system “Tool to calculate emission factor for an electricity system.g. as per definitions given in the Project Emissions section. tidal/wave. If the unit added has both renewable and nonrenewable components (e. where the volume of reservoir is increased and the power density of the project activity.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board SECTION B. It does not include any non renewable unit and cofiring system.1. 8 . a wind/diesel unit). Applicability Conditions Position of the project activity vis-à-vis applicability conditions This category comprises renewable energy generation units.D.
The project activity is not the retrofitting or modification of an existing facility for renewable energy generation. which is also fed by other fuel sources such as fossil and non-fossil types. Since the project generates and exports renewable electricity to the grid system and the capacity of the project activity is well below the qualifying limit of 15 MW. the added capacity of the units added by the project should be lower than 15 MW and should be physically distinct from the existing units.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board capacity of the entire unit shall not exceed the limit of 15MW. B. The project activity is not the extension of an existing renewable energy facility. the physical. B. Description of baseline and its development: The project activity is generation of electricity using solar energy and exporting the same to the grid system. The project activity does not involve combined heat and power generation system. SUN SOLAR PV SYSTEM METERING/ SUBSTATION POWER TO GRID Project boundary Hence the project boundary includes the Solar PV system and metering/substation system. geographical site of the renewable generation source delineates the project boundary. Emission reductions due to the project activity are considered to be equivalent to the emissions avoided in the baseline 9 .4. To qualify as a smallscale project. Project activities that seek to retrofit or modify an existing facility for renewable energy generation are included in this category. the total output of the modified or retrofitted unit shall not exceed the limit of 15 MW. The project activity is installation of 5 MW (P) of solar PV modules and there would not be any change in the capacity of the project during its crediting period. Description of the project boundary: As per Para 7 of Indicative simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small scale CDM project activity category. Hence the choice of project Type and category is justified. Combined heat and power (co-generation) systems are not eligible under this category. In the case of project activities that involve the addition of renewable energy generation units at an existing renewable power generation facility.3.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .
The Operating Margin has been taken as an average of the past 3 years: Operating Margin4 Year Operating Margin (tCO2/MWh) 2006-07 0. tCO2e/kWh The emission factor can be calculated in a transparent and conservative manner as follows: (a) A combined margin (CM).9729247 Average 0. Emission reductions are related to the electricity exported by the project and the actual generation mix in the grid system.9875564 According to ‘Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system’. Option (a) has been considered to calculate the grid emission factor as per the ‘Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system’ as data is available from an official source. Calculations must be based on data from an official source (where available) and made publicly available.9991209 2007-08 0. tCO2 is the energy baseline in year y.in/planning/c%20and%20e/Government%20of%20India%20website. OR (b) The weighted average emissions (in kg CO2e/kWh) of the current generation mix. Build Margin of the last one year has been selected: Build Margin5 Year Build Margin (tCO2/MWh) 2008-09 0.htm 5 4 10 .nic. expressed in kWh of electricity produced by the renewable generating unit multiplied by an emission factor. http://www.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . Grid emission factor has been calculated and fixed ex-ante. the baseline emissions is the product of electrical energy baseline EGBL.y. The data of the year in which project generation occurs must be used.nic.y EFCO2 is the baseline emissions in year y.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board scenario by displacing the grid electricity. As per applied methodology. consisting of the combination of operating margin (OM) and build margin (BM) according to the procedures prescribed in the ‘Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system’. BEy EGBL. http://www. In this project activity. kWh is the CO2 emission factor in year y.y × EFCO2 Where. BEy = EGBL.cea.in/planning/c%20and%20e/Government%20of%20India%20website.9906235 2008-09 0.8179232 Baseline carbon dioxide database version-05 published by Central Electricity Authority.htm Baseline carbon dioxide database version-05 published by Central Electricity Authority.cea.
Annex 34). The additionality for the Project Activity has been demonstrated as per “Non-binding best practice examples to demonstrate additionality for SSC project activities” (EB35. Annex 34.nic. type of investment and investor. As per EB35 report. market etc.8179232 0. The proposed project activity is implementation of 5 MWp grid connected solar power project in Sivaganga District in the State of Tamil Nadu in Southern India. the demonstration that project is among the first of its kind in terms of technology. please refer Annex-3 in this PDD.htm 11 . (e) Other barriers: such as institutional barriers or limited information. organizational capacity. Description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered small-scale CDM project activity: This project activity is an initiative of Sapphire Industrial Infrastructures Private Limited (SIIPL). India6.cea. or capacity to absorb new technologies. the prime financial indicator that has been used is the Internal Rate of Return of the project activity i. The Project IRR is one of the most commonly used tools to assess the feasibility of the project. a subsidiary of Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited. For more detail calculation. As per Guidance on the Assessment of 6 http://www. Project participants shall provide an explanation to show that the project activity would not have occurred anyway due to atleast one of the following barriers: (a) Investment Barrier: a financially more viable alternative to the project activity would have led to higher emissions (b) Access-to-finance barrier: the project activity could not access appropriate capital without consideration of the CDM revenues (c) Technological barrier: a less technologically advanced alternative to the project activity involves lower risks due to the performance uncertainty or low market share of the new technology adopted for the project activity and so would have led to higher emissions (d) Barrier due to prevailing practice: prevailing practice or existing regulatory or policy requirements would have led to implementation of a technology with higher emissions. Central Electricity Authority. the Project IRR. B. sector. Investment Barriers: For the purpose of carrying out an investment analysis. geography.e.5. managerial resources. The additionality for this project activity is established with a more in depth investment analysis and barrier due to prevailing practice which may affect the successful implementation and operation of the proposed project activity.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . Best practice examples include but are not limited to.in/planning/c%20and%20e/Government%20of%20India%20website.9875564 0.9451481 Remarks Weighted Average considering 75:25 weightage on OM & BM respectively Source: Baseline Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Sector.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Grid Emission factor (Combined Margin) Particulars Operating Margin (tCO2/MWh) Build Margin (tCO2/MWh) Combined Margin (tCO2/MWh) • Details 0.
pdf .in/resources/DepCoAct.3 1956. Rs.rtf As per income tax act 2008-09 As per income tax act 2008-09 As per project report As per project report TNERC endorsement letter dated 25/09/2009 As per MNRE guideline.34% on Civil works SLM depreciation 10. In lacs Rs. EB48. Financial parameters: Parameters Value Total project cost Rs. para 4.33% Alternative Tax SLM depreciation 3. EB 51/Annex 58.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .in/resources/DepCoAct.99% Minimum 11. % % Lakhs/MW % Rs. Letter from IFC.rtf As per company’s law www. 3170 lacs Interest rate 12% Corporate tax 33. In lacs % % % % % As per project report As per project report As per project report IT act (2008-09) IT act (2008-09) As per company’s law www.nic. 4900 lacs Equity Rs./KWh Rs.50 Moratorium 12 Unit Rs. In lacs Reference/Remarks As per project report. 9. This is in line with “GUIDELINES FOR THE REPORTING AND VALIDATION OF PLANT LOAD FACTORS. Version” 1.co. version-03. The project profitability statement has been developed by taken into consideration the following assumptions – Technical Parameters: Parameters Project capacity Plant load factor Value 5 19% Unit MW (P) % Reference/Remarks The PLF has been taken from detailed project report prepared by a third party contracted by PP./KWh Months As per project report 7 http://rbidocs.72% on O & M cost Power tariff 4. 9990 Lacs Grant from Rs. The same report was submitted to Bank for Loan approval.org. 1920 lacs International finance corporation (IFC) Debt Rs.rbi.in/pdf/guidelines_spg.34% on Plant & machinery IT depreciation on 10% civil works IT depreciation 15% Annual O & M cost Rs. http://mnes.co. the benchmark chosen is the Prime Lending Rate (PLR) published by RBI in a weekly statistical supplement dated 25th July 2008 which is 12.50 MNRE incentive 10. 1956.pdf 12 .Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Investment Analysis. In lacs Rs.75%7.00 Annual escalation 5.fastfacts.fastfacts.in/rdocs/Wss/PDFs/86374.
The generation capacity of a solar PV power plant is often computed on a system performance model. PLF in base value has been taken from the detailed project report prepared by a third party contracted by PP. As per the power purchase agreement with Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). As it is clear from the result.47% - -10% PLF +10% 10.11% 11.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . losses within the system as well as operator defined factors such as dust rating. the Plant load factor (PLF) and power tariff. PLF is another critical parameter which may change and have an impact on the financials of the project activity. 4. This is conservative. Any downward change in CUF would have a negative effect on project IRR and hence this is excluded from the analysis. a 10% positive change does not help much and Project IRR remains below the benchmark rate. the tariff rate for the power sold to the grid is Rs. Any upward change in O&M cost would have a negative effect on project IRR and hence this is excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity on tariff rate has been undertaken from 11th year onwards.75%. Sensitivity analysis with respect to identified parameters has been tabulated below: Parameters Project cost % change +10% IRR Remarks Any upward change in project cost would have a negative effect on project IRR and hence this is excluded from the analysis.18% 13 . grid interaction and transmission losses. voltage generation at solar PV module. taking in to account the working temperature.99% as against the Benchmark of 12.91% -10% - Tariff rate 10% 10. The same PLF was submitted to bank for loan approval. Even with a reduction of 10% from the base value. This is conservative.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Considering the above mentioned assumptions and working out a project profitability statement over project life time the Project IRR without considering the revenues from CDM works out to 9.50/kWh and this is fixed for 10 years. Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity analysis has been carried out to test the project additionality for the reasonable variation of critical parameters that may impact the performance of the project activity. As required by Annex 58 EB 51 “Guidance on the assessment of investment analysis” only those parameters that constitute more than 20% of either total project costs or total project revenues are subjected to reasonable variation. Even after a reduction of 10% from the base value. a -10% O & M cost +10% 12. As it is clear from the result. IRR remains below benchmark rate. This is conservative. etc. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) expenses. IRR remains below the benchmark rate. The critical parameters thus identified are Project cost.
pdf 10 11 12 13 http://mnes. interest subsidy to provide soft loan to users and the manufacturers.nic.in/press-releases/press-release-13072009.in/planning/c%20and%20e/user_guide_ver4.nic.nic.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . and 6. Any downward revision in tariff would have a negative effect on project IRR and hence this is excluded from the analysis.cea. The National Action Plan on Climate Change has also identified development of solar energy in the country by setting up a Solar Mission11. 80% accelerated depreciation in the first year etc.pdf http://www.nic.nic. This is conservative.in/planning/c%20and%20e/user%20guide%20ver1.pdf 14 http://www.pdf 14 . 5. The Government has taken several measures to promote grid connected solar energy systems.2 MW13 as on 31/03/2006 to 144130. There was not any grid connected solar PV power plant in India 8 9 http://mnes. private companies are eligible to get production based incentive for power fed to the grid from megawatt capacity solar power plants set up on build own and operate basis in the country10.in/press-releases/press-release-12102007.cea. especially for power generation12. 2. which include: 1.nic. concessional or nil import duty on some of the raw materials. research and development to improve performance and reduce the consumption of materials. In addition to this.in/press-releases/press-release-19112007-1.in/press-releases/press-release-31032008.1. excise duty exemption. components and products. This is because of the high initial cost of solar energy systems which is a barrier in large scale utilization of solar energy systems.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board -10% - 10% positive change does not help much and Project IRR remains below the benchmark rate. In India the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is implementing a wide range of programmes for the development and deployment of solar energy9. Barrier due to prevailing practice: India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5.000 trillion kWh per year.nic.pdf http://mnes. Though the Ministry is implementing several schemes to promote solar energy but the growth of utilization of solar PV power systems is very nominal in the country. 4. The growth of Indian Power Sector is quite impressive as the installed capacity has grown from 124287.2 MW14 as on 31-03-08 but at the same time the growth of grid connected solar PV power is negligible.in/press-releases/press-release-15122008-3.pdf http://mnes. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 -7 kWh per square meter depending upon the location8. subsidy on selected solar energy systems.pdf http://mnes. 3.
nic.nic.12MW with a contribution of 0. KM17.htm http://www. In 15 16 http://mnes.00147% of total installed grid power. The following table clearly demonstrates the growth of grid connected power sources in India.84 91906.76 25% Nuclear 4120.pdf http://mnes.77 35908.84 64% Hydro 35908. with the financial support from Indian Government a total of 33 grid interactive solar PV power plants have been installed with aggregate capacity of 2.12MW against the estimated potential of 50MW/Sq.in/planning/c%20and%20e/user_guide_ver4.1.pdf 17 18 19 20 http://mnes.55 million units of electricity in a year16.pdf http://www.86 7760. under the demonstration programme of MNRE a 2MW capacity grid interactive solar photovoltaic power plant is being set up by West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation Limited in Asansol district in West Bengal and it is likely to be commissioned in December 2009. 3% from nuclear stations and 8% from renewable sources.77 34653.in/planning/c%20and%20e/user_guide_ver2.in/annualreport/2006_2007_English/HTML/ch2_pg4. In the financial year 2007-08.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . the grid connected solar PV power projects in operation in India is only 2.nic.00 4120.12 0.in/press-releases/press-release-28042008-5.12 Megawatt with estimated generation of 2.cea.pdf http://www.nic.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board till 31/01/200715.57 8% solar energy Grid connected Solar PV 2. Apart from this.76 3360.54 86014.nic.00 3% Renewable including 12194. 25% from hydro.12 Table: % share of different grid connected power sources Sources Installed capacity as % share on 31/03/2008 Thermal 91906. which is negligible.cea.60 12194.84 32325.in/planning/c%20and%20e/user%20guide%20ver1.in/annualreport/2008-09EN/overview.nic.nic.htm http://mnes.in/press-releases/press-release-31032008. Table: Growth of different grid connected power sources in India Thermal Hydro Nuclear Renewable including solar energy 82410.00 6190.pdf 15 .cea.57 Installed capacity (MW) as on 31/03/200618 31/03/200719 31/03/200820 Grid connected Solar PV power 00 00 2.00147% power It is evident from the table above that around 64% of installed capacity comes from thermal stations.00 3900. Against this. There was no further addition to the installed grid interactive solar PV power generation till 31/03/2009 and the total cumulative achievement on grid connected solar PV power capacity as on 31/03/2008 is only 2.
The quantum of grid connected solar system in Tamil Nadu is at present only 0. From above analysis it can be concluded that implementation of solar PV power project is not a common practice in the Host Country.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board addition. CDM revenues will help to bridge the gap and enhance viability of the project.in/orders/Order%20No%206-11. CDM Consideration: As per the GUIDANCE ON THE DEMONSTRATION AND ASSESSMENT OF PRIOR CONSIDERATION OF THE CDM.tn. Table: % share of different grid connected power sources in Tamil Nadu Sources % share Thermal 29% Central Share 28% Hydro 21% IPP 12% Gas 5% Grid connected solar 0. VERSION-3– 21 22 23 http://mnes.07.pdf 16 . Other than this.pdf http://www. the state has installations in renewable energy sources like windmill up to 4300 MW22. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited is also setting up a mega watt capacity solar photovoltaic power plant under the same programme in Raichur district at the tail-end of the grid21.08.80%.in/press-releases/press-release-13072009-2.00162%.165 MW23.nic. The % shares of these sources are summarized in Table below.nic.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .in/template_3. It also demonstrates that the project activity is the country’s largest grid interactive solar PV power plant and country’s first private sector megawatt size grid connected solar PV power plant.tneb. Hence it is clearly evident that the project is not a business as usual scenario and this needs additional revenue stream to make the project viable. Table: Solar PV Power Projects under Implementation Location Developer Capacity (MW) 2 Asansol district. The contribution of total grid connected solar PV power in India is 0. CDM Impact on Project activity: Only after incorporating the revenues from CDM the Project IRR improves to 12.php?tempno=3&cid=0&subcid=184 http://tnerc. The project activity will be used as a demonstration project to the other developer in the region. West bengal West Bengal Green energy development corporation limited Raichur district in Karnataka Karnataka Power corporation 1 limited The power generation capacity of Tamil Nadu is around 10214 MW which includes Central share and Independent Power Producers.00147% of total installed capacity and the share of grid connected solar PV power in Tamil Nadu is only 0.00162% The above analysis demonstrates that the installed grid connected power is predominantly thermal based (64%) and the contribution of grid connected solar PV power in India is negligible.
Emission reductions: B. So. Explanation of methodological choices: This is a renewable power generation project. Project start date - 2 3 4 5 Board resolution Approval from Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency Agreement with CDM consultant Letter to UNFCCC 12/08/2008 21/09/2008 01/10/2008 20/02/2009 6 Letter to Host country DNA 20/02/2009 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Letter from IFC on grant Validation proposal from DOE Stakeholder consultation DOE engagement for validation Approval from State pollution control board Power Purchase agreement PDD submitted for HCA Land sale deed Contract signed for EPC Loan sanction 14/04/2009 14/04/2009 24/06/2009 09/07/2009 19/08/2009 20/08/2009 11/11/2009 24/11/2009 29/01/2010 12/02/2010 B.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board The project activity falls under “New Project Activities”. Baseline emission (BEy): 17 . The project participant informed the Host Party DNA and the UNFCCC secretariat in writing of the commencement of the project activity and of their intention to seek CDM status. The PP informed the Host country DNA of the commencement of the project activity and of their intention to seek CDM status. the emission reductions will just depend on the quantity of electricity being supplied to the grid system. Following demonstrates the serious consideration of CDM by PP in implementation of the project under discussionSN 1 Event Detail Project report preparation Date July 2008 Remarks The DPR for the 5 MW solar PV power plant was prepared and PP decided to goahead with considering CDM revenue for the project activity. Decision to apply for CDM registration. This form of energy generation has no associated GHG emissions.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . The PP informed the UNFCCC secretariat of the commencement of the project activity and of their intention to seek CDM status.6.6. supplying the entire power generated from the solar farm to the grid.1. Such notification was made within six months of the project activity start date.
2. Latest available is used EFBM tCO2/MWh Build Margin of the Southern Grid Central Electricity Authority(CEA) of India Database 18 . Baseline emission factor is calculated as combined margin. Project emission (PEy): There are no project activity emissions as this is a renewable project activity. ERy = BEy – (PEy + Ly) B. consisting of a combination of operating margin (OM) and build margin (BM) factors (For detailed calculation.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board The baseline emission is the kWh produced by the renewable generating unit multiplied by an emission coefficient (measured in kg CO2e/kWh) calculated in a transparent and conservative manner. Data and parameters that are available at validation: (2) (1) Data / Parameter: Data unit: Description: Source of data used: Value applied: Justification of the choice of data or description of measurement methods and procedures actually applied : Any comment: Data / Parameter: Data unit: Description: Source of data used: EFOM tCO2/MWh Operational Margin of the Southern Grid Central Electricity Authority(CEA) of India Database 0. BEy is the baseline emissions in year y.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .9875564 Calculated by CEA for all the regional grids in India.6. Emission reduction (ERy): The emission reduction achieved by the project activity will be the difference between the baseline emission and the sum of the project emission and leakage. refer Annex-3). Specifically meant for use in CDM project activities. kWh EFCO2 is the CO2 emission factor of the grid in year y (tCO2/kWh). tCO2 EGBL.y × EFCO2 Where.y is the energy baseline in year y. Leakage (Ly): Leakage due to transfer of equipments from another activity: The equipments installed in the project activity are not transferred from any other activity. Hence leakage for this part is zero. BEy = EGBL.
8179232 Calculated by CEA for all the regional grids in India. LEy = 0 Emission reductions: ERy = BEy – PEy .4 Year Summary of the ex-ante estimation of emission reductions: Estimation of project activity emissions (tCO2e) 0 0 0 0 Estimation of baseline emissions ( tCO2e) 7866 7866 7866 7866 Estimation of leakage ( tCO2e) 0 0 0 0 Estimation of overall emission reductions ( tCO2e) 7866 7866 7866 7866 2010 – 2011 2011 – 2012 2012 – 2013 2013 – 2014 19 . EFy = 0.6.LEy or ERy = BEy as PEy = 0 and LEy = 0 ERy = 7866 tCO2/annum B.6. PEy = 0 Leakage emissions: No leakage emissions occur due to this project activity. The same PLF has been given by a third party contracted by PP. Latest available is used B.9451481 tCO2e/MWh BEy = 7866tCO2/annum Project emissions: Not applicable as this is a solar power generation project.6. Specifically meant for use in CDM project activities.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Value applied: Justification of the choice of data or description of measurement methods and procedures actually applied : Any comment: 0.1 BEy = EGy * EFy EGy = 5MW*19%*365days*24 hrs = 8322MWh PLF (19%) in base value has been taken from the report of Central Electricity Regulatory Commission on Tariff regulation of Renewable energy.3 Ex-ante calculation of emission reductions: Baseline emissions: Baseline emission is calculated as per equation (1) in section B.
The day-to-day operation like planning the routine maintenance. The recording will be done on a chosen date in a month by TNEB personnel in the presence of representative of the PP. He will be assisted by shift in charge and maintenance technicians. The energy meter used will be tested and calibrated as per power purchase agreement.1 Data and parameters monitored: EGy MWh Net Electricity supplied to the grid Monthly billing records provided by TNEB for the electricity supplied -The Electricity will be measured continuously using calibrated energy meters and the readings will be recorded on monthly basis. All administrative functions like personnel. industrial relations.7.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board 2014 – 2015 2015– 2016 2016 – 2017 Total (tonnes of CO2 e) 0 0 0 0 7866 7866 7866 55062 0 0 0 0 7866 7866 7866 55062 B. monitoring and data recording has been mentioned below: Director Site Engineer Shift engineer Maintenance technician 20 .7 Application of a monitoring methodology and description of the monitoring plan: B.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . labour welfare and financial functions will be looked after by SIIPL. - Data / Parameter: Data unit: Description: Source of data to be used: Value of data Description of measurement methods and procedures to be applied: QA/QC procedures to be applied: Any comment: B. He will be positioned at site and will directly report to the Board of Directors. safety and environmental control will be placed under the care of the shift in charges. The organizational structure and responsibilities on project operation.7.2 Description of the monitoring plan: The organisation structure for the proposed power plant envisages a Site Engineer as the in-charge for the entire power plant operations and maintenance.
All the monitoring data will be stored in log book and kept under safe custody. Main meter and check meter will be installed with facilities to record export and import of energy and as per the standards stipulated in the Central Electricity Authority’s Regulation 2006 and regulation issued by the State electricity regulatory commission.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . The contact details of the entity responsible for same is as below – Mr.8 Date of completion of the application of the baseline and monitoring methodology and the name of the responsible person(s)/entity(ies) The date of completion of baseline and monitoring methodology is 17/12/2009. The energy generation data would be available for a period of 2 years beyond the crediting period date. Measurement methods and procedures will be according to that detailed in the Power Purchase Agreement. B. In order to maintain a close knit operation and safe maintenance. Okhla Industrial Estate.in 21 . New Delhi – 110 020.narang@moserbaer.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Organizational Structure Designation Director Site Engineer Responsibilities Holds complete control over pertaining to the project • Operation & Maintenance • Recording • Storage of Data • Day to day Operation • Storage of data • Data Recording monitoring aspects Shift engineer & Maintenance technician Operating and maintaining a solar PV power plant requires certain degree of skills and exposure to state of the art equipment and technology. India Phone: 011 – 4762 4101 E-mail: dinesh. This data would be measured monthly and achieved annually. sufficient training will be imparted to the O&M team before the implementation of the project. The electricity generated in the project activity will be monitored using energy meter as specified in the project boundary. Energy meters used would be in the custody of TNEB and they will be maintained as per the norms stipulated in the PPA with TNEB. The energy generation readings will be taken on a said date on a month by TNEB personnel in the presence of SIIPL site in-charge. Dinesh Narang Vice President – Finance Sapphire Industrial Infrastructure Private Limited 213 – B. Phase III. The parameters required for monitoring would be the energy supplied to TNEB grid.
Version 03 CDM – Executive Board SECTION C.1.2. Expected operational lifetime of the project activity: 25 years C. NA C. Starting date of the project activity: 29/01/2010 (Date of EPC contract signed) C. Fixed crediting period: NA C.1.2.2 Choice of the crediting period and related information: C.1.1. 7 years C.2.1 Duration of the project activity: C.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .2. Renewable crediting period Yes C.18.104.22.168. Duration of the project activity / crediting period C. documentation on the analysis of the environmental impacts of the project activity: 22 .22.214.171.124.2.1.2. If required by the host Party. Starting date of the first crediting period: The start date of the crediting period is 01/05/2010 or a date not earlier than the date of registration of the small scale project activity C. Environmental impacts D.2.1. NA Length: Starting date: Length of the first crediting period: SECTION D.
Brief description how comments by local stakeholders have been invited and compiled: Stakeholder consultation for the project activity has been conducted to account for the views of the people impacted either directly or indirectly due to the project activity. the list of project activities which require prior environmental clearance is stipulated. Muthupatti Village Panchayat. If environmental impacts are considered significant by the project participants or the host Party. or mercury into the atmosphere as many traditional forms of electrical generation do. please provide conclusions and all references to support documentation of an environmental impact assessment undertaken in accordance with the procedures as required by the host Party: Following positive environmental impacts have been envisaged: 1.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board As per the notification from MoEF dated September 14. no references or procedures specified here. B. Samuel Rajasekaran – Executive Engineer. Stakeholders’ comments E.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . The solar panels operate silently. SECTION E. D.1. C. global warming. and don't release offensive smells. Using solar panels does not pollute the air. Sivagangai. Ganesan – President. This has been carried out at all levels of stakeholders – A. Nagarajan . the Block Development Officer and Mr. Using solar panels doesn't release carbon dioxide. 2. D. Through this notice SIIPL had expressed their plan to develop the proposed 5 MW grid connected project as a CDM project activity and called for the suggestions/comments of the local stakeholders.2. 24 http://envfor. 4. District Advisory committee on Renewable energy Local gram panchayat Local people Tamil Nadu electricity board SIIPL had published public notices in leading news papers on 17/06/2009. 200624. Mr. No significant negative impacts considered due to implementation of project activity by the host party.nic. Tahsildar. S. nitrogen oxide.Honourable Additional Collector and Secretary – District Advisory Committee on Renewable Energy. Does not contribute to acid rain. have no moving parts. a meeting was held in the Community Hall. TNEB. sulpher dioxide. or smog and it reduces the emission into environment. This meeting was attended by Mr. 3.pdf 23 . In line with the public notice. This does not include the proposed small scale project activity type as it involves solar power generation.in/legis/eia/so1533. Hence. Muthupatti Village Sivagangai District on 24/06/2009.
The Muthupatti Panchayat president also conveyed his best wishes to the project and extended his support along with local people for success of the project.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . Sivagangai expressed his views and welcomed this solar power project and mentioned that the necessary departmental support will be given to the project. 24 . It was not necessary to take due account of any of the other comments received.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board E.2.3. Following is the summary of the stakeholder consultation process:The Executive engineer of Tamil Nadu. Therefore. Report on how due account was taken of any comments received: There were no negative comments received from the stakeholders. Summary of the comments received: The representatives of SIIPL explained all stakeholder’s about the project activity and the likely social benefits to the local populace from the proposed project in terms of employment opportunity. E.
New Delhi Delhi 110 020 India 011 – 4762 4105/4762 4100 011 – 4762 4229 dinesh. Dinesh Narang Vice President – Finance Mr.O. Narang Dinesh Finance + 91 9810126719 011 – 4762 4229 011 – 4762 4105/4762 4100 dinesh.in Mr.Box: Building: City: State/Region: Postfix/ZIP: Country: Telephone: FAX: E-Mail: URL: Represented by: Title: Salutation: Last Name: Middle Name: First Name: Department: Mobile: Direct FAX: Direct tel: Personal E-Mail: Sapphire Industrial Infrastructures Private Limited 213 – B. Okhla Industrial Estate.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Annex 1 CONTACT INFORMATION ON PARTICIPANTS IN THE PROJECT ACTIVITY Organization: Street/P.in 25 .PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .email@example.com@moserbaer. Phase III.
PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Annex 2 INFORMATION REGARDING PUBLIC FUNDING There is no public funding involved in this project activity. 26 .
i. Select a method to determine the operating margin (OM). Eastern. and NorthEastern. Eastern.1 Geographical Scope of regional grids in India NEWNE Grid Northern Eastern Western Chandigarh Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Jharkhand Gujarat Southern grid North-Eastern Arunachal pradesh Assam Andhra Pradesh Karnataka 27 . Since August 2006. consisting of the combination of operating margin (OM) and build margin (BM) according to the procedures prescribed in the ‘Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system’. STEP 7. Southern. The data of the year in which project generation occurs must be used. all regional grids except the Southern Grid have been integrated and are operating in synchronous mode. Keeping this into consideration. Baseline Methodology Procedure: Project participants shall apply the following six steps: STEP 1: Identify the relevant electricity system. Calculate the build margin emission factor.1). Western and North-Eastern grids will be treated as a single grid and is being named as NEWNE grid. Identify the group of power units to be included in the build margin (BM). Table 3. Calculations must be based on data from an official source (where available) and made publicly available. Consequently. Option (a) has been considered to calculate the grid emission factor as per the ‘Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system’ as per the methodology as data is available from an official source. OR (b) The weighted average emissions (in kg CO2e/kWh) of the current generation mix. STEP 3. STEP 2: Choose whether to include off-grid power plants in the project electricity system (optional). Calculate the combined margin (CM) emissions factor. the Northern. the Indian grid system was divided into five independent regional grids.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Annex 3 BASELINE INFORMATION Calculation of Grid emission factor: As per methodology: (a) A combined margin (CM). STEP 4.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . STEP 6. Each grid covered several states (see Table 3. Western.e. Identify the relevant electric power system: The tool defines the electric power system as the spatial extent of the power plants that are physically connected through transmission and distribution lines to the project activity and that can be dispatched without significant transmission constraints. Calculate the operating margin emission factor according to the selected method. at same frequency. STEP 1. however. namely Northern. STEP 5.
Table below analyses whether simple OM can be used in the project case or not: Generation source 2004-0525 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Average (last five years) 147. The Option I has been chosen to calculate the OM and BM. or (c) Dispatch data analysis OM. STEP 3. however.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . Select a method to determine the operating margin (OM): The calculation of the operating margin emission factor (EFOM.336 Net generation and % of low cost/must run sources has been taken from “Baseline carbon dioxide database”. 157315.y) is based on one of the following methods: (a) Simple OM. or 2) based on long-term averages for hydroelectricity production.5 152205.841 Southern grid 138328. STEP2: Choose whether to include off-grid power plants in the project electricity system (optional) Project participants may choose between the following two options to calculate the operating margin and build margin emission factor: Option I: Only grid power plants are included in the calculation. http://www.nic. version-05 published by Central Electricity Authority. which is connected to Southern Grid.36 Net Generation (GWh) 25 134675.972. Thus the Southern grid has been considered for estimating the grid emission factor.cea.htm 28 . or (d) Average OM. Option II: Both grid power plants and off-grid power plants are included in the calculation. the simple OM method (option a) can only be used if lowcost/must-run resources constitute less than 50% of total grid generation in: 1) average of the five most recent years. 157. or (b) Simple adjusted OM.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Orissa West Bengal Sikkim Andaman-Nicobar Daman & Diu Dadar & Nagar Haveli Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Goa Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Tripura Kerala Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Lakshadweep The project activity is in the state of Tamil Nadu.in/planning/c%20and%20e/Government%20of%20India%20website. These states under the regional grids have their own power generating stations as well as centrally shared power-generating stations. Any of the four methods can be used.
Identify the group of power units to be included in the build margin (BM): The value of the data has been taken from the data published by CEA as referred in earlier step. requiring the emissions factor to be updated annually during monitoring. STEP 4. not including low-cost / must-run power plants / units.9875564 STEP 5. y-1 or y-2) should be used throughout all crediting periods. The CEA Baseline Database has been calculated as per the tool and the details of the key assumptions considered to calculate the figure can be found in the User Guide of the same. If the data required to calculate the emission factor for year y is usually only available later than six months after the end of year y. based on the most recent data available at the time of submission of the CDM-PDD to the DOE for validation.61% 27. If the data is usually only available 18 months after the end of year y. The simple OM emission factor is calculated as the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation (tCO2/MWh) of all generating power plants serving the system. (ex-ante) the generation-weighted average for the most recent 3 years for which data are available at the time of PDD submission to DOE has been considered. It is confirmed that exante vintage is considered in the project activity and cannot be changed during the crediting period. average Southern Value (tCO2/ MWh) 0.9991209 0.08% 22. alternatively the emission factor of the previous year (y-1) may be used.9729247 0.9906235 0.00% 95 28. The data is published by the Central Electricity Authority.31% 02 25.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board 5 % of Low cost/ Must run sources 21. Calculate the operating margin emission factor according to the selected method: For the simple OM. the simple adjusted OM and the average OM. 29 . Thus. The same data vintage (y.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . This is designed to be consistent with of the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system published by CDM Executive Board.79% The above table clearly shows that the percentage of total grid generation by low-cost/must-run plants (on the basis of average of five most recent years) is much lesser than 50% of the total generation. the emissions factor can be calculated using either of the two following data vintages: • Ex ante option: A 3-year generation-weighted average. Method adopted for Simple OM in the project activity: In the project activity. Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Simple OM. Simple OM method can be used for calculating the emission factor. or • Ex post option: The year in which the project activity displaces grid electricity. without requirement to monitor and recalculate the emissions factor during the crediting period.36% 27. the emission factor of the year proceeding the previous year (y-2) may be used.
y EFgrid. CM.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Project participants can choose between one of the following two options: Option 1: Calculate the Build Margin emission factor EFBM. BM.y must be updated annually ex-post for the year in which actual project generation and associated emissions reductions occur. the Build Margin emission factor EFBM. Calculate the build margin emission factor (EFgrid. Project participants should use from these two options that sample group that comprises the larger annual generation.y * WOM + EFgrid.y WOM WBM Detail Build Margin CO2 emission factor in the year y (tCO2/MWh) Operating Margin CO2 emission factor in the year y (tCO2/MWh) Weighting of operating margin emission factor (%) Weighting of build margin emission factor (%) Where: 30 . y ): The CM can be calculated as per the following: EFgrid. The sample group m consists of either the five power plants that have been built most recently or the power plant capacity additions in the electricity system that comprise 20% of the system generation (in MWh) and that have been built most recently. STEP 6. Calculate the combined margin (CM) emissions factor (EFgrid.y * WBM Where: Parameter EFgrid. EFBM. as described in option 1 above. BM.8179232 STEP 7. Grid Southern grid BM (tCO2/ MWh) 0.y): Option 1 as described above is chosen in the project activity.y ex-ante based on the most recent information available on plants already built for sample group m at the time of PDD submission. The sample group m consists of either the five power plants that have been built most recently or the power plant capacity additions in the electricity system that comprise 20% of the system generation (in MWh) and that have been built most recently.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) . Option 2: For the first crediting period. OM. BM is calculated ex-ante based on the most recent information available at the time of submission of PDD and is fixed for the entire crediting period.BM. For subsequent crediting periods.CM.y = EFgrid.OM. Project participants should use from these two options that sample group that comprises the larger annual generation.y should be calculated ex-ante.
pdf 31 .9451481 Reference: Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system Source of Data: CO2 Baseline Database for the Indian Power Sector.Version 03 CDM – Executive Board A weightage of 75:25 is assumed in the calculation of emission factor as this is a solar based power generation project.in/planning/c%20and%20e/Government%20of%20India%20website.9875564 BM.0. Combined Margin 0.htm 26 http://www.nic.nic. Build Margin Value (tCO2/ MWh) 0.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .in/planning/c%20and%20e/user_guide_ver5. November 2009 http://www. Version 5. Sub bundle Southern Grid OM.cea. The value chosen is taken from relevant official sources and is publicly available26.8179232 CM. Operating Margin 0.cea.
Version 03 CDM – Executive Board Annex 4 MONITORING INFORMATION The detailed monitoring plan is as provided in Section B. ----- 32 .7.2.PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM (CDM-SSC-PDD) .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.