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Water Chemistry and Pre-treatment: Biological Fouling Prevention,
Dow FILMTEC Membranes, Tech Manual Excerpt, Form No. 60902034-1004.
G. Migliorini and E. Luzzo, Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant Using the
Pressure Exchanger for Energy Recovery: a Calculation Model,
Desalination, 165 (2004) 289.
S. Al-Malek, S.P. Agashichev and M. Abdulkarim, Techno-economic
aspects of conventional pretreatment before reverse osmosis (AlFujairah Hybrid Desalination Plant), IDA World Congress, Singapore,
(2005).
P.H. Wolf and S. Siverns, The new generation for reliable RO pretreatment, International Conference on Desalination Costing,
Limassol, (2004).
M. O. Saeed, Effect of De-chlorination Point Location and Residual
Chlorine on the Biofouling in a Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant.
Desalination, 143 (2002) 229.
P.H. Wolf, S. Siverns and S. Monti, UF Membranes for RO
Desalination Pretreatment, Desalination, 182 (2005) 293.
G.K. Pearce, S. Talo, K. Chida, A. Basha and A. Gulamhusein, Pretreatment Options for Large Scale SWRO Plants: Case Study of UF
Trials at Kindasa, Saudi Arabia, and Conventional Pre-Treatment in
Spain, Desalination, 167 (2004) 175.
M. Wilf, Fundamentals of RO–NF Technology, International
Conference on Desalination Costing, Limassol, (2004).

[10] D. Vial and G. Doussau, The Use of Micro Filtration Membranes for
Seawater Pre-Treatment Prior To Reverse Osmosis Membranes,
Desalination, 153 (2002) 141.
[11] D. Vial, G. Doussau and R. Galindo, Comparison of Three Pilot
Studies Using Microza® Membranes for Mediterranean Seawater
Pre-Treatment, Desalination, 156 (2003) 43.
[12] M. Kumar, S. Adham and W. Pearce, Investigation of Seawater
Reverse Osmosis Fouling and Its Relationship to Pre-Treatment Type,
Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 (2006) 2037.
[13] P. Côte, S. Siverns and S. Monti, Comparison of Membrane-Based
Solutions for Water Reclamation and Desalination, Desalination, 182
(2005) 251.
[14] Todd K. Reynolds, P.E., Desalination in San Francisco Bay; Results
From The MMWD Pilot Program, Membrane technology conference
& exposition, March 18-21, Tampa, Florida, (2007).

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