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The Problem and Its Background
Nursing is a profession of art and science that involves interaction with the client equipped with a touch of care. Unlike the other jobs, it opts to give care to those who are sick with a sense of desire to promote wellness and provide treatment. As promoters of health, nurses teach, give care, and treat patients who are physically, emotionally, mentally and socially sick and ill. It is a profession that offers the individual the chance to touch other people’s lives and be sensitive to them.
Nurses are the heart and hands of the team and they are sensitive to the needs of the client that enables them to have a good nurse-client relationship by being more emphatic as well as rendering services in a hands-on manner. This would mean constant contact and exposure with the various nosocomial infections present in the hospital setting. It is the duty and responsibility of the nurse to strictly comply and adhere to the hospital’s preventive measures against nosocomial infections and other infectious diseases. Furthermore, nurses as health care workers should be aware of the ways to slow or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases and be knowledgeable of its potential risk to the client and hospital staffs.
As future nurses, the study aims to identify the ways of preventing nosocomial infections in Far Eastern University – Dr. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center as well as the different kinds of preventive measures that are implemented and foreseen as an effective way in breaking down the chain of infection.
This study would serve as a baseline guide for further development and growth of nursing care and enhance the preventive strategies used to minimize nosocomial infection from the patient or client, hospital setting, and care giver itself.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study aims to determine the prevention of nosocomial infection as perceived by staff nurses of Far Eastern University –Dr. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Educational Attainment 1.4 Length of service
2. What is the nature of nosocomial infection in terms of: 2.1 Mode of transmission
2.2 Prognosis 2.3 Prevention and treatment
3. How effective are the preventive measures implemented by FEU-NRMF Medical
Center in terms of: 3.1 Hand washing 3.2 Use of protective gears 3.3 Proper sanitation 3.4 Controlling spread of infection 3.5 Sterilization 3.6 Surveillance 3.7 Isolation 3.8 Personal hygiene 3.9 Safe injection practices 3.10 Cleaning of the hospital environment
Disinfection of patient’s equipments
4. What are the implications of results and findings of the study to the improvement of
nursing profession and service of the institution?
A host is a living organism capable of being infected by an agent. An agent is a stressor or an environmental factor that must be absent or present for a disease to occur. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center in slowing down or preventing the spread of nosocomial infections. One significant conceptual framework of this study was depicted from an integration of Leavell and Clark’s Ecologic Model: Agent-Host-Environment. Leavell and Clark emphasize health concepts and disease acquisition as: . This is effective for assessing and examining the causes of disease in an individual. host and environment interact in a manner that creates risk factors. and understanding these is important for the maintenance and promotion of health. it also aims to seek an effective way to prevent and avoid the acquisition of nosocomial infections without affecting the quality of health care rendered by the nurse.4 OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine the most effective preventive measures applied and implemented in Far Eastern University-Dr. These concepts are essential in guiding and directing the researchers toward data analysis and interpretation. The agent. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK In this area of study. Moreover. the researchers present concepts tackled in the course of study.
5 1. although identification of risk factors that result from interaction of agent-hostenvironment is helpful in promoting and maintaining health. Person(s) who may or may not be at risk of acquiring a disease. 3.2. chemical. 2. Host. Agent. Any environmental factor or stressor (biologic. 2. 3. physical or psychosocial) that by its presence or absence can lead to illness or disease. Environment. when variables are not in balanced. The model is used primarily in preventing illness rather than promoting wellness. health is maintained. It signifies intervention in the pre-pathogenesis phase of a disease. Defines health as ever-changing state. The model consist of dynamic interaction of three elements: 2.1. Primary prevention can be accomplished by measures of specific protection and health promotion.3. Another significant conceptual framework of this study is one of Leavell and Clark’s Three Levels of Prevention primarily the Primary Prevention which states that: 1. when variable are balanced. All factors external to the host that may predispose the person to develop disease. 2. mechanical. . 2. disease occurs. Primary prevention is the action taken prior to the onset of the disease that removes the possibility that the disease will occur.
disease and disability in a nonspecific way. which promotes wellness and thus reduces the likelihood of premature death. 8.6 4. 9. 10. Primary prevention is a holistic approach. applying population-based intervention programs. Primary prevention keeps the disease process from becoming established by increasing resistance to the disease or eliminating causes of disease. general health and quality of life of people or by certain protective measures. as well as particular protection against the inception of disease. Primary prevention includes the concept of positive health. 7. . assessing their exposure. Primary prevention refers to health promotion. a concept that promotes maintenance and achievement of an acceptable level and degree of health that will allow every individual to lead a normal and productive life. The strategy for prevention starts from the identification of the populations at high disease risk. 6. conducting research on mechanisms. 5. evaluating the intervention programs and ending by modifying the existing intervention programs. Primary prevention precedes dysfunction or disease and is applied to generally healthy individuals or groups. Primary prevention can be accomplished by measures or procedures designed to promote well-being.
9 Safe injection practices 3. 1. 1 Conceptual Paradigm .1 Age 1. nosocomial infection encountered and acquired 2.3 Proper sanitation 3.11 Disinfection of patient’s equipments 4. Preventable Measures to avoid and minimize nosocomial infection and the transmission of other diseases.4 Controlling spread of infection 3.1 Hand washing 3. Demographic profile of the respondents 1.10 Cleaning of the hospital environment 3.4 Length of Service 2.7 Input 1.5 Sterilization 3. Implications to the improvement of nursing profession and services of the institution. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center in slowing down or preventing the spread of nosocomial infections.3 Prevention and treatment 3.8 Personal hygiene 3.2 Prognosis 2. Throughput Evaluation of the preventive measures implemented in Far Eastern University-Dr. Preventive measures Output Implication to Effective Preventive Measures and Modes of Control.1 Mode of transmission 2.7 Isolation 3.2 Gender 1. 3. Nature of the nosocomial infection 2.2 Use of protective gears 3.6 Surveillance 3.3 Educational Attainment 1. Fig.
Primary causes of nosocomial infection originate from the client having contagious disease. This study is significant in the sense that it could improve the nurses’ health awareness and early prevention skills and method thus.8 ASSUMPTION Based on the related problems: 1. suppressing the possibility of the spread and transmission of nosocomial infections. To the future researchers. It could also further contribute to the growth of the nursing profession thus allowing them to grow professionally. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The researcher believed that the study could further help and contribute to the following: To the nurse. The findings in this research can help other studies that are related to prevention of nosocomial infection. . This study may determine the most effective preventive measures in slowing down or preventing the spread of nosocomial infections. care givers and hospital administrators welfare. and hospital personnel or health care provider. 2. Thus. To the hospital administrators. can serve as bases of promoting and implementing standard precautionary measures for the clients. Preventive measures play a vital role in breaking down the chain of infection. hospital environment.
Agent.an environmental factor that must be absent or present for a disease to occur. rules and preventive measures. DEFINITION OF TERMS Aerosolized. hospital setting.acting in accordance to certain accepted standards. Airborne transmission. Aseptic.a condition of abnormal functioning or an impairment of health. .9 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study is focused on the prevention of nosocomial infections as perceived by staff nurses of Far Eastern University-Dr. and care giver itself. Direct contact.involves skin-to-skin contact and physical transfer of microorganisms to a susceptible host from an infected person. practiced and seen as effective in slowing down and preventing the transmission of nosocomial infections among the clients.occurs by dissemination of either small particles or airborne droplet nuclei containing the infectious agent.using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms.in the form of ultramicroscopic liquid or solid particles suspended in air. Disease. procedures. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center with a particular description of the preventive measures implemented and foreseen as effective in preventing the spread of nosocomial infections. It is limited to the hospital settings in terms of the preventive measures and modes of control that are implemented. Compliance.
Effectiveness. Measure.separation between infectious and non-infectious groups or persons.an event that is a beginning.relative incidence of a particular disease.capability of producing desired results.lacking muscular or body strength. Hand washing.ensure observance of rules.non-living things.particle droplets containing infectious microorganisms generated from a person who is a carrier of the microorganism or has a clinical disease. Inanimate. Infirm.10 Droplet transmission. procedures and preventive measures or laws that are enforced and followed.universal precaution in the prevention of the spread of disease. Epidemiology. Ecologic. Isolation. Host.contact.a living organism capable of being affected or infected by an agent. origin Indirect. Morbidity. object Inception.branch of science that deals with the transmission and control of diseases.any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms and thus transferring them from one individual to another. .steps or standards in preventing the acquisition of nosocomial diseases.all factors external to the host that may predispose the person to develop disease.interdependence of living organisms in an environment. Environment.contact of the mucous membranes of the mouth or nose or the conjunctivae of a susceptible person with large. Implemented. Fomite.involves contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated intermediate or inanimate object in the patient’s environment.
close observation of a person or group.Infection Control Committee JCAHO. Acronyms: AHA. Surveillance.a healthy state of well-being free from disease and infirmity.slows or hinders the course of a disease or illness.ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area.particular course of action intended to achieve a result.Department of Health FEU-NRMF. Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation ICC. Sanitation.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DOH.11 Mortality. Preventive. Nosocomial Infections.hospital-acquired infection or infections that develop as a result of stay in the hospital or are produced by viruses and infectious agents acquired during hospitalization.Dr.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations SHEA. expressed per 1000 per year.Society for Hospital Epidemiology of America .American Hospital Association CDC.any agent that carries and transmits a disease. Rapport. Process.making the environment free from germs or state of being clean. neat and conducive to health.a relationship of mutual trust and understanding between people. Wellness. Vector.Far Eastern University.
and disinfection of fomites.12 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the literature. Stephen 2009). air filtration within the hospital. careful handling. reading. using a tissue when you cough or sneeze. FOREIGN LITERATURE Katrena Wells (2009) in her article “Best Ways to Prevent Nosocomial Infections” suggests five ways to help prevent the spread of infections in hospital. and studies that are related to the present study which is prevention of nosocomial infections as perceived by staff nurses of Far Eastern University-Dr. and supplies should be sanitized before they touch your skin. Preventive measures are being implemented for the patients and to the nurses as well in order to prevent nosocomial infections. Other methods of preventing nosocomial infections include observance of aseptic technique. Hospitals may bring diseases and infections to nurses while attending to all the patients' needs because they are the primary caregivers of patients and are more in contact with the patients. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center. frequent hand washing especially between patients. Some precautionary measures must be implemented in the event of any social conflict within the area like using . avoiding infecting others if you are sick. cleaning. These are hand hygiene. ensuring that you are up-to-date on any necessary vaccines. and use of single-use disposable items (Abedon.
This study sought to discover the . FOREIGN STUDY JC Bridger (1997) conducted a study entitled a study of nurses’ views about the nosocomial urinary tract infections which was conducted at school of nursing. Hand washing by health care workers is crucial in preventing and controlling the spread of nosocomial infection. and engage in hobbies or other activities that do not involve caring for someone else. John 2009). happy client care experience for clients and their families. The head nurse must be informed immediately as soon as the nurse starts to manifest any signs and symptoms of a possible communicable disease (Smith. Middlesex university. Care providers who are ill should take care of themselves because they cannot provide the usual quality of care and they can spread germs to others. Maggie Edgar (1996) in her article “Preventing the Spread of Disease: Tips for Providers. Royal Free Hospital at London. stated that care providers can stay healthier by following these guidelines: wash hands properly and frequently. rest sufficiently each day. exercise regularly. A healthy care provider is the key to a healthy. UK. especially tetanus. and appropriate intervention can this common problem be alleviated. Only through staff education and awareness.13 of gloves as a protective gear to prevent transmission of diseases from patients onto the nurses and proper hand washing. According to John Bosso (2004). ongoing surveillance. take scheduled breaks and vacations. observe good nutrition. maintain current immunizations.
what do nurses see as constraints to the prevention of catheter-associated NUTIs? The nurses identified many of the measures that were cited in the literature as effective for preventing NUTIs. 2002) is a study that explored the effectiveness of teaching strategies and the availability of additional hand-carried alcohol dispensers on nurses' compliance with hand disinfection. they stated that their practice differed because of a lack of time to give care and to update themselves. the most commonly occurring nosocomial infection. This study supports the premise that nurses and nursing assistants improve compliance with hand . however in reality. and identified not only the role of medical staff in influencing NUTIs but also their inconsistent approach to care. To determine the amount of disinfectant used. secondly. This qualitative study utilized unstructured interviews to explore the views of 12 registered nurses about three key issues: first. The clinical implications are that hand disinfection is a critical step in minimizing nosocomial infections. what care do nurses give with the aim of preventing catheter-associated NUTIs.14 contribution of nursing practice to the prevention of hospital-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs). Those interviewed identified feelings of powerlessness in effecting preventative measures. (2) Registered nurses and nurse assistants (n = 480) received standardized instruction on alcohol hand disinfection. the volume of the solution was measured before and after each study period. thirdly. what improvements in practice would further prevent catheter-associated NUTIs. Improving Nurses’ Hand Washing Compliance (Journal of Hospital Infection.
A study was also conducted by Suzanne Beyea (2003) entitled Nosocomial Infections. al (2004) which is the hand washing program for the prevention of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit that was held at a level-III NICU in a teaching hospital. In this study. Hand-washing Compliance. This prospective.Evidence For Practice. clinicians from the units involved were instrumental in evaluating infection control measures and relating and implementing strategies to reduce the risk of infection. and the control group comprised four hospitals. The study focused on surgical departments. The participants are Nurses. The result was Clinicians should be aware of opportunities to use quality improvement and surveillance activities as strategies to reduce the risks of infection. Comparing hand hygiene protocols. It also supports the importance of having handwashing supplies in adequate supply and readily available at the point of care. Sensoroperator faucets . Another study was conducted by Sau-Pin Won et. physicians. and other healthcare workers in the NICU and the objective of this study is to To evaluate the effects of a hand hygiene program on compliance with hand . controlled study was conducted in eight medium-sized hospitals and examined the effect of appropriate quality management activities on nosocomial infection rates during a 26-month period. Intensive care units (ICUs) were included to capture data for patients requiring this type of treatment after surgery.15 washing when teaching is provided. The intervention group comprised four hospitals.
staff.. staff. Masellis M.. The results showed environmental strains presenting a profile identical to that of the clinical strains. and patients in the Intensive Care Unit of the Palermo Bums Centre (Italy).16 hygiene and the rate of nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (2000) entitled Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Palermo Center. economical and effective method for preventing nosocomial infections. suggesting a link between the environment. A programme of routine microbiological monitoring proved to be effective as a surveillance programme for the reduction of nosocomial infection. This study reports on an extensive epidemiological survey of the microbiological monitoring of the environment. Cucchiara P..V. tap water. and the patients. Sucameli M. Strains collected from air. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the presence and distribution of environmental sources of pathogens and opportunistic bacterial agents of nosocomial infection in immunocompromised hosts. The result was improved compliance with hand washing was associated with a significance decrease in overall rates of nosocomial infection and respiratory infections in particular and that washing hands is a simple. Valentino L. and medical and nursing staff were compared with strains isolated from burn patients in order to study the potential transmission route of bacteria.. Another study was conducted by Torregrossa M. .
health maintenance . the DOH will submit a report to the congress summarizing all the data submitted by the hospitals. academic researchers. Hand washing and improving hygiene practices in the hospital is the most effective way for reducing the spread of these infectious agents.acquired infection or more generally known as healthcare-associated infections that is responsible for the large number of deaths in the world. but secondary to the patient’s original condition. The House Bill 5905 suggests that all hospitals should maintain and gather records of data on the hospital-acquired infection cases for a particular surgical procedure and surveillance in the intensive care units. is a result of treatment in a hospital or a health care service unit.acquired infection cases to the Department of Health then. Jazmin. (Camero.17 LOCAL LITERATURE Nosocomial infections according to Rep. Santiago III (Party-list. ARC). Jazmin. Under the house bill. 2009) House Bill 5905 also known as the "Hospital-Acquired Infections Disclosure Act of 2009" requires all hospitals to submit a yearly report of all the collected data regarding hospital. Narciso D. (Camero. representation of infection control department of both private and public hospitals. 2009) The Department of health shall also appoint members of the advisory committee which includes the physicians. epidemiologists. It is a hospital. the Secretary of Health shall determine the different types of infections present in the hospital.
Its goal. etiologic agents and antimicrobial susceptibility. M. Surveillance data also includes information on risk factors. 2.18 organization and health insurers who will help the department formulate and establish standards. 3. 5. it was stated that “nosocomial infections continue to be of major clinical and epidemiological importance” and this might be because of the continuous incidence of transmission of nosocomial . Jazmin. “surveillance is the close and continuing observation of an individual or group.. (Camero. Surveillance of nosocomial infections is not a control measure by itself and the presence of ICC personnel can possibly lead to a stricter adherence on infection control practices among the hospital staff. give and provide a basis for comparison with other services. in the hospital is the collection of accurate. 4. detect the areas of concern in terms of infection control. rules and regulations needed to execute this bill.” The specific aims of surveillance are the following: 1. 2009) According to Tessa Tan-Torres. assess and consider the effectiveness of infection control measures. reliable and timely data on infections and notifiable diseases acquired within the hospital. remind the personnel about the infection control practices.D. In the Philippine journal of microbiology and infectious diseases. identify potential epidemics.
M. The awareness of the extent and significance of this problem became apparent in the past two or three decades as more studies have been published. who made an unpublished study about treatments and guidelines for nosocomial infections. M. LOCAL STUDY A study about the incidence of nosocomial infections within a tertiary hospital was formulated by “Bienvido Alora. a prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence and identify the major determinants of morbidity and mortality to serve as basis for recommending preventive measures against nosocomial infection. according to Rebecca Littaua. and Thelma Tupasi.” With this the researchers can say that due to the increase of the studies made for this topic the incidence of nosocomial infection within a hospital is still on hand. Moreover. Moreover. and Ludovico Jurao. nosocomial infections continue to be of major clinical and epidemiologic importance. they stated. mortality and expense for the hospitalized patient.D. M. Because nosocomial infections constitute a major source of morbidity.D. nosocomial infections are not limited to patients but also the health care workers can also acquire this situation which usually gives a significant effect on the health workers lifestyle. “Health care .” they stated that “the problem of hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections have baffled physicians for a long time. According to her.19 infections.D. “despite major advances in antimicrobial therapy. M. M. but not also that this can be manifested even after the client is discharge. Enrique Carandang. This kind of infection develops during a client’s confinement at the clinical facility.” Another important contribution is Katz SS.D. Jr M.. which is greatly associated with improper delivery of health.D.D.
in-service education and on-the-job training. . RELEVANCE OF THE REVIEWED LITERATURE AND STUDIES TO THE PRESENT STUDY The researcher’s present study relates to the previously gathered and reviewed literatures which show the relevance on the study about the prevention of nosocomial infections as perceived by staff nurses of FEU-NRMF. skills and attitudes for good infection control practices. The present study conducted by the researchers used a descriptive method such like other studies and made use of questionnaires that be given to the respondents and to be answered while interviewing the respondents. provide periodic re-training or orientation of staff. The infection control team should: assess training needs of the staff and provide required training through awareness programs. and review the impact of training. organize regular training programs for the staff for essential infection control practices that are appropriate to their job description.20 workers should be equipped with requisite knowledge.” Hence the researchers further belief that the study should not only focus on the frequency of the nosocomial infections but also the preventive strategies that can be used to lessen the incidence rate of the problem.
It is used to determine if there is certain relationship between variables. SUBJECT This study about the prevention of nosocomial infections as perceived by the staff nurses involved a target total of 33 nurses positioned within the service wards of selected station of Far Eastern University – Dr. Descriptive research was defined as “research studies in which phenomena are described on the relationship between variables is examined. no attempt is made to determine the cause-and-effect relationships”. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS The researchers used the questionnaire for gathering and researching the information needed in the study. It is aimed towards determining the prevention of nosocomial infections as perceived by staff nurses of Far Eastern University – Dr.21 CHAPTER III Research Methodology RESEARCH DESIGN This study used the descriptive research. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center as our respondents. Nicanor .
including the name. nurse’s action and the length of service. the obtained data are carefully and manually tabulated and tallied by the researchers. The questionnaire was formulated with the use of the researcher’s basic knowledge acquired from literary sources and class discussions. The third part contains gathered data about the respondent’s practiced precautionary measures. The percentage of each item is also reflected on the tabulation to help the researchers have a clearer analysis of the survey’s result.22 Reyes Medical Center. The second part contains gathered data about the most common nosocomial infections present and encountered in the hospital as perceived by the staff nurses of FEU-NRMF. The first part was used to gather data about the personal profile of the respondents. civil status. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE The descriptive method was used by the researchers of this study. educational attainment. age. The questionnaire contains three parts. STATISTICAL TREATMENT The following are statistical tools we used to treat research data for in depth solution of problems: . The items with the most frequency were identified in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results. After the retrieval of the questionnaires.
23 1. Formula: P = f / n x 100 Where: P = percentage f = frequency n = total umber of respondents . 2. 3.is computed to determine the proportional part to a whole such as given numbers of respondents in relation to the entire population. Slovin’s Formula.is the tabulation of data by category or class intervals with corresponding frequency with each class. since the preferred confidence level in sampling is 95%). Frequency Distribution . Formula: n = N (1+Ne^2) Where: n= sample size N= population size e= margin of error (usually 0.is the scientific way of determining a representative or acceptable sample size from any given population.05. Relative Frequency – is used to convert distribution to percentage distribution. Formula: % = f / n x 100 Where: % = is the relative frequency f = frequency n = number of respondents 4. Percentage.
the sum of all responses are calculated to arrive at degree at which an individual possesses the attribute measured. . Kozier and Erb.24 5. By sau-pin won et. BIBLIOGRAPHY Fundamentals of Nursing. by Margie Edgar. Seventh Edition. al 2004 . 2009 Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. R. by John A. 7. by John Smith. Littaua. 2004 Nosocomial Infection in a Tertiary Hospital: a Two Year surveillance at Sto. 6. by Katz Ss. is the most widely used scale. The largest frequency is ranked 1 and the second is 2 and so and so on down to the last rank. by Stephen abedon. MD. MD. B. Tomas Hospital. Weighted Mean – is the sum of item values times the weight divided by the number of items. Alora. Bosso. Et al. is used in determining the perceptions of the respondents on effects of physical environment in reducing nursing care. Nurses on Duty. 1996 Treatment and guidelines for Nosocomial Infection.2009 Preventing the Spread of Disease: tips for Providers. Supplemental lecture. Nosocomial Infection at Makati Medical Center: A Prospective Study and Analysis of Risk Factors. Ranking is used to determine the order of decreasing or increasing magnitude of variables. 2004 Handwashing program for the prevention of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit. Likert Scale – summated rating scale.
. Comparing hand hygiene protocols. al. 2009 Bridger JC. Hand-washing Compliance. et. 2009 Solon moves to prevent the spread of hospital.Evidence For Practice 2003 Improving Nurses’ Hand Washing Compliance by Journal of Hospital Infection. by Senator Miriam Santiago. al.V. Second Regular Session. 2009 Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease.D.acquired infection. Sensor-operator faucets . 2002 Torregrossa M. Tessa M. 2001 Best Ways to Prevent Nosocomial Infections by Katrena Wells.. by Celia Aitken et. A Study of Nurses’ Views about the Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections 1997 Suzanne Beyea. by Tan-Torres. Nosocomial Infections. 1997 Fourteenth Congress of the Republic of the Philippines.25 Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Palermo Center 2000 . by Jazmin Camero.
We are third year nursing students of Far Eastern University-Dr. Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation and we would like to ask you to honestly answer our questionnaire for our thesis regarding the prevention of nosocomial infection as perceived by staff nurses of Far Eastern University-Dr. Thank You! The researchers Fill in the following needed information: Name: Age: Civil Status: Educational Attainment: Length of service in the hospital: Legend: 5. Nicanor Reyes Medical Center. We promise to keep your answers confidential.Often .26 Dear respondents.Always 4.
Sometimes 2.27 3.Never Mark the item that corresponds to your answer: 1. How often do you encounter the following nosocomial infections in the hospital? 5 Chicken pox Cholera Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Diarrhea Diphtheria Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Influenza Measles Mumps Pertussis Pneumonia Tuberculosis 4 3 2 1 2. how often do you perceive each modes of transmission as being the common cause of incidence of nosocomial infection in the hospital setting? 5 Direct contact Indirect contact Droplet transmission Airborne transmission 4 3 2 1 . In your own opinion.Seldom 1.
mask. how frequent does the following symptoms of nosocomial infection being exemplified. How often do you practice the following precautionary measures in the hospital? 5 Hand washing Use of protective gears (e. cap.28 Common vehicle transmission Vector borne transmission 3. shown or referred to by the clients? 5 Breathing difficulties Fever Inflammation Infection Night sweats Pain Swelling 4 3 2 1 4. gloves) Proper Sanitation Controlling spread of infection Sterilization Surveillance 4 3 2 1 . In your own opinion.g.
How often do you practice the following nursing responsibilities? 5 ■ promoting the improvement of nursing techniques and review of aseptic nursing policies ■ monitoring of nursing adherence to rules and policies ■ maintaining hygiene.29 Isolation Personal hygiene Safe injection practices Cleaning of the hospital environment Disinfection of patients equipments 5. consistent with hospital policies ■ instructing collection of culture specimens from patients 4 3 2 1 .
or equipments used for treatment and diagnosis. ■ maintaining an adequate and safe supply of drugs or medications. visitor.30 showing any signs of having a communicable disease. other patients. when the physician is not immediately available and initiating patient isolation ■ participating in the outbreak investigation ■ Informing quickly the attending physician for any signs or evidence of infection in patients under the nurse’s care ■ limiting client’s exposure to infections from hospital staff. .
■ monitoring aseptic techniques.31 ward equipments. and patient care supplies. including use of isolation and hand washing ■ Excellent nursing practice on the ward .
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