1

TôPm – 1 : UôtßY¯ RLWôß
¾oÜØû\
Ck§V AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕ 39H ¸r
AWNôeLm NhPj Õû\«u ùNVpØû\
¿§ûV ¨ûXSôhÓm úSôdLjÕPu GkRùYôÚ
Ï¥ULàdÏm ùTôÚ[ôRôWªuûU ApXÕ
úYß CVXôûU«]ôp ¿§ ¡ûPdLôUp
CÚdLdáPôÕ GuTRu ùTôÚhÓ
Aû]YÚdÏm ¿§ûV AÔL NU Yônl×m.
RÏkR NhPeLs Utßm ©\ §hPeLs
êXUôL CXYN NhP ER® YZeLÜm
á±Ùs[Õ,
EfN ¿§Uu\Øm ®ûWYô] ®NôWûQdLô]
E¬ûUûV (right to speedy opial) Ck§V
AW£VXûUl× NhPm. `WjÕ 21 ¸r
YZe¡Ùs[Õ,
CkR A±ÜûWûV ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ
SôPôÞUu\m TXYûLVô] Uôtß Y¯
RLWôß ¾oÜ Øû\Lû[ Ae¸L¬jÕs[Õ,
CûY. CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\. NUWN ¾oÜ Øû\.
Uj§VvR Øû\ Utßm UdLs ¿§Uu\eLs
BÏm,
E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\fNhPm. 1908 ©¬Ü 89
TXYûLVô] Uôtß Y¯ RLWôß ¾oÜ
Øû\Ls êXm RLWôßLû[ ¾odL
Y¯YÏjÕs[Õ,
CfNhPjRu ©¬Ü 89(1) ¸r YZdÏRôWoLs
HtßdùLôsÞm YûL«p. ¾oÜdLô]
AmNeLs CÚlTRôL ¿§Uu\m ¨û]jRôp
¿§Uu\m AjRûLV
¾oÜdLô] ¨TkRû]Lû[ YûWkÕ AûR
YZdÏRôWoL°u LÚjÕdLôL ùLôÓjÕ.
AYoLs ReL[Õ LÚjûRd ùLôÓjRl©u]o
¿§Uu\m ¾oÜdLô] ¨TkRû]Lû[ YûWkÕ
AkR RLWôû\ CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\. NUWN ¾oÜ
Øû\. Uj§VvR Øû\ ApXÕ UdLs
¿§Uu\j§tÏ AàlTXôm,
CfNhPj§u ©¬Ü 89(2) ¸r JÚ RLWôß
AqYô\ô] ¾ol©tÏ. ϱl©hÓ
AàlTlTh¥ÚdÏm úTôÕ :
 CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\dÏ
ùNu±ÚkRôp CûNÜ ¾oÜ Utßm NUWN
NhPm. 1996-u ©¬ÜLs CkR CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\ Utßm NUNW Øû\dÏ ùTôÚkÕm,
 UdLs ¿§Uu\j§tÏ ùNu\ôp
NhP úNûYLs BûQVm NhPm. 1987 ©¬Ü
20(1) T¥ Utßm AfNhPj§u ©\ ©¬ÜLs
T¥ SûPùTßm,
 ¿§Øû\ ¾oÜdÏ ùNu\ôp
¿§Uu\m JÚ RÏkR ¨ßY]m ApXÕ
STûW ¨VªjÕ AjRûLV ¨ßY]m ApXÕ
STo UdLs ¿§Uu\UôL AàUô²dLlThÓ
NhP úNûY BûQVf NhPj§u Aû]jÕl
©¬ÜLÞm ùTôÚkÕm,
 Uj§VvR Øû\dÏ ùNu\ôp
¿§Uu\m YZdÏRôWoLÞdÏ CûPúV NUNW
2
¾o®û] HtTÓj§ ϱl©PlThP
SûPØû\Lû[ LûPl©¥dL úYiÓm,
LhPû[ 10 ®§ 1u ¸r Aû]jÕ Jl×RpLs
Utßm Ußl×Lû[Ùm T§Ü ùNnR ©u]o
¿§Uu\m YZdÏRôWoLû[ AYoLÞdÏ
®ÚlTUô] HúRàm JÚ UôtßY¯ RLWôß
¾oÜ Øû\ûV úRoÜ ùNnV á\Xôm,
LhPû[ 10 ®§ 1(©) T¥ NUWN ûUVm
ApXÕ A§Lô¬ Øu× B_o BYRtÏ úR§
ϱjRp Tt±Ùm LhPû[ 10 ®§ 1(£) NUWN
Øû\ ØVt£Ls ùYt±VûPV®pûX
Gu\ôp AkR RLWôû\ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ §Úl©
Aàl×m Øû\l Tt±Ùm áß¡\Õ,
CfNhPm. úYß TX NkRolTeL°Ûm Uôtß
Y¯ ¾oÜ Øû\Lû[ TVuTÓjR
GiÔ¡\Õ,
ÏÓmTeLÞdÏ CûPúV SPdÏm YZdÏLs
Tt± ®Y¬dÏm LhPû[ 32H
T¥ GeùLpXôm Nôj§VUô¡\úRô YZd¡u
RuûU Utßm NkRolTeLÞdÏ ùTôÚkÕm
YûL«p ¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ AkR YZdûL
ÑêLUôL ¾olTRtÏ Y¯ ùNnV LPûU
Es[Õ, CRtLôL. ÏÓmT SX ¨×Q¬u
ER®ûVÙm ¿§Uu\m SôPXôm, CúR
úTôp AWNôeLm ApXÕ ùTôÕ A§Lô¬
YZdÏRôWWôL CÚdÏm JqùYôÚ YZd¡Ûm
¿§Uu\j§tÏ YZd¡u RuûU Utßm
NkRolTeLû[ LÚj§p ùLôiÓ YZdÏ
RôWoLs JÚ NêLUô] ¾olûT AûPV ER®
׬V LPûU Es[Õ,
Uô§¬ E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\ Uôtß Y¯
RLWôß ¾oÜ Øû\ ®§Ls
1996 NhPm Utßm 1987 NhPm ¿§Uu\m
YZdÏRôWoLû[úV CûNÜ úRoÜ Øû\
NUWNm Øû\ ApXÕ UdLs ¿§Uu\m
B¡VYt±p HúRàm JÚ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV
úRoÜ ùNnÙUôß áßm NkRolTjûR
G§oTôodL®pûX, CfNhPeLs ©¬Ü 89u
¸r ¾oÜØû\dÏ AàlTlThP ©\Ï Rôu
ùTôÚkÕm, (Salem Advocates Bar Association V.
Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353).
AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕ 21u ¸r
Es[ ®ûWÜ ®NôWûQdLô] E¬ûU
Utßm YZdLôÓm ùTôÕ UdLÞdÏ
®ûWYôL ¨VôVUôL Utßm A§L
ùNX®pXôUp ¿§ YZeÏm ùTôÚhÓ EfN
¿§Uu\m Aû]jÕ EVo ¿§Uu\eLÞm
NhP BûQVj§]ôp CVt\lThP Uô§¬
E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\ Uôtß Y¯ RLWôß
¾oÜ Øû\ ®§Lû[ Uôt\eLÞPú]ô
ApXÕ CpXôUúXô LûPl©¥dLXôm Guß
T¬kÕûW ùNnÕs[Õ, (Salem Advocates Bar
Association V. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353).
NhP BûQVj§]ôp CVt\lThP CkR
Uô§¬ Uôtß Y¯ ¾oÜ Øû\ ®§Ls. Uôtß
Y¯ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV AÔÏm YZdÏRôWoLs
LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V
SûPØû\Lû[ áß¡\Õ, CkR ®§L°u
¸r ¿§Uu\eLs YZdÏRôWoLÞdÏ RÏkR
T¥VôL Y¯Lôh¥ YZdÏdÏ E¬V Aû]jÕ
Ød¡V AmNeLs. YZdÏRôWoLs LQd¡p
3
GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYi¥V ©\ ®`VeLs
B¡VYtû\ á\ úYiÓm Guß
EjRW®PlThÓs[Õ, Cq®§L°u ¸r
¿§Uu\eLs ùYqúYß ¾oÜ Øû\LÞdÏ
YZdûL ϱl©hÓ Aàl×m Øû\Ùm ¾oÜ
Øû\ ùYt±VûPVôR ùTôÝÕ AûR
¿§Uu\j§tÏ §Úm© Aàl×m Øû\Ùm
YZeLlThÓs[Õ, (Salem Advocates Bar
Association V. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353).
NhPj§u Tϧ 10u ¸r GkR YûL«p ¾oÜ
Øû\ûV úRoÜ ùNnV úYiÓm GuTÕ
ùTôÚjÕm. ®§Ls CVt\
EVo¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ,
ÏÓmT SX ¿§Uu\ NhPj§p
Es[ ®§LÞdÏ áÓRXôL CqYôß
EVo¿§Uu\eL[ôp CVt\lThP ®§Ls
ùNVpTP úYiÓm, (Salem Advocates Bar
Association V. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ GuTÕ JÚ RLWôû\
YZdÏRôWoLs NôoTt\ JÚ êu\ôm ST¬Pm
(CûNÜ ¾olTô[o) Ø¥ùYÓdÏm ùTôÚhÓ
NUol©dÏm JÚ ¿§ ¾oÜ Øû\, CûNÜ
¾oYô[ÚdÏ ¿§Uu\ SÓYûW ®P TX
Lô¬VeLs ùNnYRtLô] Rϧ CÚkRôÛm
SûPØû\ Utßm Nôh£V ®§Ls ùTôßjÕ
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ ¿§Uu\j§p
YZdLôÓRûX úTôuú\ BÏm,
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ ùNpÛT¥VôYRtÏ
Ck§V JlTkR NhPm 1872 ¸r
ùNpÛT¥VôÏm JÚ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL ØR- p CÚjRp úYiÓm,
CkR JlTkR RôWoLÞdÏ JlTkR NhPj§u
©¬Ü 11 Utßm 12 ¸r JlTkRj§p
ÖûZYRtLô] Rϧ CÚdL úYiÓm,
NhPlT¥ úRûYVô] GÝjÕ êXm CÚdÏm
EPuT¥dûL. ¨ÛûY«p Es[ ApXÕ
YÚeLôX RLWôßLs Utßm AYtû\
CûNÜ ¾oÜdÏ Aàl×m úSôdLm. R®W JÚ
JlTkRm ùNpÛT¥VôÏm CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûLVôL LÚRlTÓYRtÏ
úRûYVô]ûY,
 CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u Ø¥Ü
CÚRWl©]ûWÙm LhÓlTÓjÕYRôL CÚdL
úYiÓm,
 CÚRWl©]ÚdÏm
Es[ E¬ûULû[ Tt± Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm
¾olTôVj§u A§LôW YWm× CÚRWl©]¬u
NmURm êXúUô ¿§Uu\j§u EjRWÜ
êXúUô NhPj§u êXúUô ùT\lTP
úYiÓm, úUÛm. CRu êXm RLWôß
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«p ¾odL úYiÓm Guß
ùR°YôL CÚjRp úYiÓm,
 ¾olTôVm êXm CÚ
RWl©]¬u ¨ûXØû\
E¬ûULs ¨oQ«dLlTÓm Guß
JlTkRj§p á\lTP úYiÓm,
 ¾olTôVm CÚ RWl©]¬u
E¬ûULû[Ùm TôWThNm CpXôUp
4
¿§Øû\ NôokR YûL«p CÚ RWl©]ÚdÏm
NUUô] LPûUÙPu ¨VôVUô] Øû\«p
SPdL úYiÓm,
 RLWôûW ¾olTôVj§tÏ AàlT
Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm EPuT¥dûL
NhPlT¥ CÚdL úYiÓm,
 ¾olTôVm HtùL]úY RLWôß
ϱl©hÓ Aàl©«ÚkRúTôÕ YûWVlThP
RLWôß ùTôÚhÓ Ø¥Ü ùNnV úYiÓm,
 ¾olTôVm CÚRWl©]PªÚkÕm
Nôh£Lû[ ùTtß YôReLû[ úLhL
úYiÓm ApXÕ Yô§Óm YônlûTVôYÕ
A°dL úYiÓm, (K.K. Modi v. K.N. Modi, AIR
1998 SC 1297; Bharat Bhusan Bansal V. Uttar Pradesh
Small Industries Corporation, AIR 1999 SC 899, Uttar
Pradesh Rajkiya Nigam Ld. V. Indure (P) Ltd., AIR
1996 SC 1373).
AWNôeLjÕPu L¥R úTôdÏYWjÕ êXm
áP JlTkRm êXm JÚ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûLûV HtTÓjRXôm, (P.B. Ray V.
Union of India, AIR 1973 SC 908). B]ôp
CjRûLV JlTkRm Ck§V AW£VXûUl×
NhPm 299 ¸r JlTkRj§p ÖûZVdá¥V
RÏkR A§LôWm EûPV AWNôeL
A§Lô¬«]ôp UhÓúU HtTÓjR Ø¥Ùm,
CqYôß Ae¸LôWm CpXôRYo HtTÓjÕm
JlTkRm ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ, (State of Punjab V.
Om Prakash, AIR 1988 SC 2149).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ Utßm
YpÛ]o ¨oQ«jRp
YpÛ]o ¨oQ«jRp GuTÕ JÚ RLWôû\
R²lThP êu\ôm STo TôoûY«hÓ
AYÚûPV ¨×QjÕYjûR TVuTÓj§
AûR ¨û\Ü ùNnYÕ BÏm,
AjRûLV ¨oQVm U§lÀÓ. A±ÜNôo
ùNôjÕ¬ûU LQd¡ÓRp úTôu\Yt±tÏ
ERÜm, YpÛ]o RuàûPV ¨oQVj§tLô]
LôWQeLû[ ùLôÓdL úRûY«pûX,
úUÛm CûNÜ ¾ol× úTôuß CjRûLV
YpÛ]o ¨oQVjûR ùNVpTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ,
CRû] ¿§Uu\j§p G§odLÜm Ø¥VôÕ,
JÚ JlTkRm CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ûVúV
HtTÓjÕ¡u\Õ Gußm
YpÛ]o ¨oQVjûRl Tt± á\®pûX
GuTûRÙm E£RlTÓjR ¸rdLiPYtû\
¿§Uu\eLs á±Ùs[],
 YÚeLôX RLWôû\ R®odÏm
ùTôÚhÓ CpXôUp Øû\Vô] ¨LrLôX
RLWôß CÚjRp
 úRokùRÓdLlThP ¾olTôVm
úRûYVô] Nôh£VeLû[ LÚj§p ùLôiÓ
YZdÏRôWoL°u YôReLû[Ùm
úLhÓ ¨VôVUô] Øû\«p ¾olT°jRp,
 ¾ol× CÚRWl©]ûWÙm
LhÓlTÓjÕm úSôdLjÕPu CÚjRp, (K.K.
Modi V. K.N. Modi, AIR 1998 SC 1297)
CÚRWl©]WôÛm TVuTÓjRlTÓm
AûZdÏm Øû\ûV CߧVôL
ùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ, AkR JlTkRj§u
5
úSôdLm Utßm LôWQjûR BWôV úYiÓm,
“CûNÜ Y¯ ¾olTô[o” ApXÕ “CûNÜ
Y¯ ¾oÜ Øû\” B¡V ùNôtLs Ø¥Yô]
®[dLeLû[ A°dÏm ùNôtLs ¡ûPVôÕ.
CQeL®dLYpX ùNôtLs UhÓúU BÏm,
G-Ó : ReLÞd¡ûPúV Es[ RLWôß Utßm
úYßTôÓLû[ ¾odÏm ùTôÚhÓ JÚ
ÏÓmTj§u CÚ ©¬ÜLÞm JÚ JlTkRjûR
HtTÓj§d ùLôiP], CkR JlTkRj§u
Ød¡VUô] áß. CÚ ©¬®]oL°ûPúV
YÚeLôXj§p ùNôjÕdLû[l ©¬jRp.
AYtû\ JÚ ùTV¬PlThP ¨ßY]m êXm
U§l©ÓRp. AYtû\ JÚ Ï±l©hP ©¬Ü
ApXÕ §hPj§u ¸r úYß
ùTV¬PlThP ¨ßY]j§]ôp U§l©PlTÓRp
B¡VYt±p GÝmTdá¥V Aû]jÕ
RLWôßLû[Ùm R®olTÕ Guß CÚkRÕ,
úUÛm. CkR JlTkRjûR
ùNVpØû\TÓjÕY§p HtTÓm Aû]jÕ
CûPëßLs ùTôßjR Ø¥Ü ¨§
áhPûUl©u RûXY¬Pm ùLôÓdLlThPÕ,
AYo úYß úLs®Lû[ Ø¥Ü ùNnV úYß
VôúWàm ¨VªdL A§LôWm ùTt±ÚkRôo,
CkR JlTkRm Nôh£VeLû[ T§Ü
ùNnVúYô ApXÕ ¿§Øû\«p ¾oÜ
LôQúYô YZeL®pûX, G]úY C§p
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ Gu\ ùNôp
TVuTÓjRlTh¥ÚkRôÛm CÕ JÚ
YpÛ]o ¨oQVm Gußm CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\ CpûX Gußm ¾oUô²dLlThPÕ,
(K.K. Modi V. K.N. Modi, AIR 1998 SC 1297).
¨ßY]m NôokR CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\
CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV Es[ JlTkRm
ùTÚmTôÛm CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûLûV
ùLôiÓs[Õ, CRu êXm
Øu× ¨ßYlThP ®§L°u T¥ HúRàm
JÚ ¨ßY]m CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV SPj§
AûR ¨oYô¡dL ¨VªdLlTÓ¡u\Õ,
CjRûLV ¨ßY]eL°u G-Ó : International
Chamber of Commerce (ICC), London Court of
International Arbitration (LCIA), and American
Arbitration Association (AAA).
CjRûLV ¨ßY]j§u ¨oYô¡l× ùNXÜ
ªÏ§VôL CÚlTÕ Ød¡VªpûX Gu\ôp
CkR ¨ßY] Y¯ CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\
ùTÚmTôÛm ®ÚmTlTÓ¡\Õ, CkR
Øû\ûV ùNXÜ ùNnÕ
©uTt\dá¥VYoLs
¸rLiP ¨û\Lû[ LÚj§p
ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
 ØuúT ¨ßYlThÓ Su\ôL
TVuTÓjRlThP ®§LÞm SûPØû\LÞm,
CR]ôp CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ EP]¥VôL
BWm©jÕ ºWôL ùNpÛm,
 ¨oYôL Utßm ùRô¯pÖhT ER®
 úRokR Utßm AàTYØûPV
CûNÜ ¾olTô[oLs,
 ¾olTô[oLû[ ¨VªjRp
YZdLô[oL°u ®iQlTj§u
úT¬p ¨ßY]j§]ôp ùNnVlTÓm,
6
 CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV SPjÕm
ùTôÚhÓ £\kR YN§Ls Utßm úNûYLs,
 RVdLUôL CÚdÏm
SToLû[ CûNÜ ¾oÜ Y¯«p
úUtùLôs[ FdLlTÓjR ER®,
 CûNÜ ¾oûY EߧTÓjÕm
Øu]o AûR CߧVôL Uß BnÜ ùNnÕ
G°V Øû\«p SûPØû\lTÓjRÜm
Ae¸LôWm ùT\Üm Y¯ YÏjRp,
 RÏkR A±®l× ùLôÓlTRtLô]
ùNVpØû\ TVuLs,
 HúRàm JÚ CûNÜ
¾olTô[¬u ¨Vªl× G§odLlThPôúXô AYo
Wô´]ôUô ùNnRôúXô EP]¥VôL úYß
JÚYûW ùTßYRtÏ G°RôL JÚ CûNÜ
¾olTô[o ÏÝ,
¨ßY] CûNÜ ¾ol©u A¥lTûP Ïû\Ls
¸rLiPYôß :
 CÕ ùUÕYôL Utßm Lh¥ßdLUô]
Øû\
 ùT¬V ùRôûL
Es[ RLWôßL°p ¨ßY]eL°p
Es[ YN§Ls Utßm úNûYLû[l
TVuTÓjR LhPQØm AdLhPQm
RLWô±p Es[ ùRôûLûV ùTôßjÕ
CÚdÏmùTôÝÕ ªÏ§VôL CÚdÏm,
RLWô±p £±V A[®p ùRôûL
CÚkRôÛm ¨ßY] LhPQm. AkR
ùRôûLûV ®P ªÏ§VôL CÚdLXôm,
 £dLp ¨û\kR T¦jÕû\ ®§Ls
úUÛm ùNXÜLû[ Ht\Xôm, LôX RôURØm
ùNnVXôm,
RtLô- L CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\
YZdÏRôWoL[ôúXúV (¨ßY]m Utßm
êu\ôm STo ApXôR) JqùYôÚ YZd¡tLôL
HtTÓjRlTÓm ®§L°u T¥ ¨oY¡dLlTÓm
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ RtLô- L CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\ G]lTÓm, CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«p
Aû]jÕ ®`VeLÞdÏm ARôYÕ. GkR
NhPm ùTôÚkÕm. GkR ®§L°u ¸r CûNÜ
¾oÜ Øû\ ùNVpTÓm. GkR Øû\«p
¾olTô[ûW úRokùRÓdLXôm. GkR CPjRp
CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV úUtùLôs[Xôm.
ùUô¯. CߧVôL Utßm ªL Ød¡VUôL
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Y¯ êXm ¾odLlTPúYi¥V
Ød¡V ®`VeLs B¡V Aû]jûRl
Tt±Ùm YZdÏRôWoLú[ HtTôÓ ùNnYo,
YZdÏRôWoLs JÚYúWôÓ JÚYo
JjÕûZdÏm úSôdLjÕPu Cj¾oÜ
Øû\ûV AÔ¡]ôp CÕ
£dL]Uô]RôLÜm. ¨ßY] CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\ûV ®P ®ûWYô]RôLÜm G°RôL
Uôt\dá¥VRôLÜm CÚdÏm,
RtLô- L CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«u Ïû\Ls
7
 Øu©ÚkúR ®§Ls CpXôRRôp CÚ
RWl©]Úm Cߧ YûW Su\ôL JjÕûZdL
úYi¥V úRûY Es[Õ, C§p CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm A§LlT¥Vô] A§LôWm
Es[Õ,
 ùNVpØû\TÓjR Ø¥VôR ¾oÜ Øû\
áßLû[ CÚ RWl©]Úm
YûWk§ÚdLdá¥V ATôVm, ùTôÕYôL
©¬ÜLs ªL ®YWUôLÜm TXYûLVô]
ùTôÚs TÓjÕRpLs CÚdÏmT¥Ùm
Yû]VlTÓYRôp TXØû\ CûY
¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ ùNuß YZdLôPlTP
úYi¥V ¨ûXûU HtTÓ¡u\Õ,
 ©ûZVô]
SûPØû\Lû[ Jl×dùLôiÓ AûY
LûPl©¥dLlTh¥ÚkRôp CûNÜ ¾ol×
ØÝYÕúU ùNVpTÓjRlTP
Ø¥VôRT¥ úTôLXôm,
 LhPQm. ùUô¯
ùTVolTô[oLû[ ¨VªjRp. YZdÏ
SûPùTßm Sôs ϱjRp
B¡VYt±tÏ ¨oYôL úUtTôoûY CÚdLôÕ,
 EhLhPûUl×Ls Utßm úRûYVô]
YN§Ls Ïû\Ü,
RtLô- L CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ ¨ßY] CûNÜ
¾oÜ Øû\ûV Øt±Ûm R®ojÕ CÚdL
úYi¥V AY£Vm CpûX,
JÚ ¨ßY]j§tÏ Øt±Ûm EhTPôUp
Ak¨ßY]j§u ®§Lû[ Utßm
LûPl©¥dL CÚ RWl©]Úm Ø¥Ü
ùNnVXôm, CpûXùVu\ôp.
JÚ ¨ßY]jûR. CûNÜ ¾ol×
Øû\ûV ¨oYô¡dL ¨VªjÕ B]ôp.
AkR ¨ßY]j§u ®§L°p JÚ TϧûV
®Xd¡d ùLôs[Xôm,
YZdÏRôWoLs ¨ßY]jûR CûNÜ
¾olTô[ûW ¨VªlTRtÏ UhÓm TVuTÓj§d
ùLôs[Xôm, RtLô- L CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV
úUtùLôsÞm RWl©]o ReLÞûPV ùNôkR
®§Lû[ LûPl©¥dÏmùTôÝÕ AYoLs
GkRùYôÚ CûNÜ ¾oÜ ¨ßY]j§u
®§Lû[Ùm LûPl©¥júRô ApXÕ I,Sô,
Uô§¬ ®§Lû[ LûPl©¥dL úRoÜ
ùNnVXôm,
8
NhP Øû\ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
TX Uj§V Utßm Uô¨X NhPeLs ϱlTôL
CfNhPeL°u ¸r GÝm×m RLWôßLÞdÏ
¾oÜ LôQ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV
TVuTÓjR ϱl©hÓs[Õ, G-Ó : ªuNôW
NhPm 1910. ªuNôW YZeÏRp NhPm 1948
CjRûLV CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ 1996
NhPj§]ôp LhÓlTÓjRlTÓYRôp CqYô\ô]
NhPeL°p Es[ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV
TVuTÓjR úYiÓm Gu\ ©¬ÜLs CûNÜ
¾ol× EPuT¥dûLL[ôL LÚRlTÓm, (Grid
Coporation of Orissa V. Indian Change Chrome Ltd.,
AIR 1998 Ori 101).
®ûWÜ Y¯ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ Utßm
BYQeLs UhÓm CÚdÏm CûNÜ ¾ol×
Øû\
CÚ RWl©]Úm YônùUô¯VôL YôReLs
NUol©dL úYiPôm Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnRôp
¾olTôVm ®ûWYôL CÚ RWl©]Úm ReLs
YZd¡tÏ NôRLUôL
NUol©jÕs[ BYQeL°u A¥lTûP«p
UhÓúU ¾ol× YZeLXôm,
1996 NhPj§u ¸r CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
1996 NhPm CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ ùTôßjR
ØkûRV NhPeL[ô] CûNÜ ¾ol× NhPm
1940. CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ (áhÓ
EPuT¥dûL Utßm ùTôÕ CQdL
JlTkRm) NhPm 1937. Utßm ùY°SôhÓ
Ø¥ÜLs (Ae¸LôWlTÓjÕRp Utßm
ùNVpTÓjÕRp NhPm) 1961 B¡VYtû\
¿dÏ¡\Õ,
CfNhPm. NoYúRN ®VôTôW NhPm ϱjR
Id¡V SôÓL°u ÏÝYôp (UNCITRAL)
CVt\lThP ®§Lû[ NôokÕ EsSôhÓ
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\. NoYúRN Y¦Lm NôokR
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\Ls. ùY°SôhÓ
Ø¥ÜLû[ ùNVpTÓjÕRp Utßm NUWN
Øû\Lû[ NôokR NhPeLû[ YûWVßjRp.
B¡VYtû\l Tt±V
©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ, CkR Uô§¬ NhPm
Utßm ®§Ls CfNhPjûR ׬kÕ
ùLôs[ TVuTÓjR úRûYVô]Rôp 1996
NhPj§u TϧVôdLlTP®pûX, (Union of
India V. East Cost Boat Builders & Engineers Ltd., AIR
1999 Del 44).
1996 NhPm Uôtß Y¯ RLWôß ¾oÜ
Øû\L°p JÚ ×§V Øuú]t\jûR
ϱd¡\Õ, 1940 NhPj§u ¸r Ø¥Ü
ùNnVlThP YZdÏLs CfNhPj§u ¸r
GÓdLlTP úYi¥V Ø¥ÜL°p úRôußm
©WfNû]Lû[ ¾oÜ ùNnV LY]jÕPu
TVuTÓjRlTP úYiÓm, (Sundaram Finance
Ltd. V. N.E.P.C. India Ltd., AIR 1999 SC 565).
CfNhPj§u ©¬ÜLû[ 1940 NhPj§u
ùLôsûLLÞdÏ EhTÓjRôUp R²lThP
Øû\«p ׬kÕùLôs[ úYiÓm, (Furest Day
Lawson Ltd. V. Juridal Exports Ltd., AIR 2001 SC
2293).
1940 NhPm JÚ CûNÜ ¾oûY
ùNVpTÓjÕYRtÏ Øu× AûR
9
¿§Uu\j§p RôdLp ùNnÕ ¿§Uu\
EjRWYôL UôtßYRtÏ úRûYVô]
SûPØû\ûV YZdÏ¡\Õ, 1996 NhPj§u
Ød¡V úSôdLm ®ûWYôLÜm Uôtß
Y¯«Ûm RLWôßLû[ ¾odL úYiÓm
GuTRôp úUtá±V SûPØû\ CfNhPj§p
¡ûPVôÕ, ùY°SôhÓ
Ø¥ÜLû[ ùNVpTÓjÕYRtÏ áP ARu
ùNVpTÓjÕm RuûUûV Ø¥Ü ùNnÕ
AûR ¿§Uu\ EjRWYôdÏYRp Utßm
AûR ùNVpTÓjÕRp G] CWiÓ R²lThP
SPY¥dûLLs úRûY«pûX, ùY°SôhÓ
Ø¥ûY ùNVpTÓjÕm ¿§Uu\m AkR ØÝ
YZdûLÙm JúW SPY¥dûL«p GÓjÕd
ùLôs[Xôm, (Furest Day Lawson Ltd. V. Juridal
Exports Ltd., AIR 2001 SC 2293)
1996 NhPj§u ùRôPdLm
CfNhPm BLvÓ 16. 1996 Auß
_]ô§T§«u Jl×Rp ùTt\ôÛm CÕ
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Utßm NUWNm (AYNW NhPj§u)
ùRôPof£VôL LÚRlThPRôp CÕ _]Y¬ 25.
1996. ARôYÕ AYNW NhPm AUÛdÏ YkR
úR§«- ÚkÕ AUÛdÏ YkRRRôL
LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ, (Furest Day Lawson Ltd. V. Juridal
Exports Ltd., AIR 2001 SC 2293), G]úY. _]Y¬
25. 1996dÏ Øu× ùRôPe¡V Aû]jÕ
CûNÜ ¾oÜ SPY¥dûLLÞdÏm 1940 NhPm
ùTôÚkÕm, (Shetty’s Construction Co. (P) Ltd. V.
Konkan Railway Construction, (1998) 5 SCC 599).
1996 NhPm ©¬Ü 85(2)(G) ¸r 1940 NhPm
¿dLlTh¥ÚkRôÛm YZdÏRôWoLs úYß
®RUôL Jl×dùLôi¥ÚkRôXu±
AfNhPj§u ©¬ÜLs _]Y¬ 25. 1996 Øu×
ùRôPe¡V Aû]jÕ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
SPY¥dûLLÞdÏm ùTôÚkÕm, ©¬Ü 21 ¸r
YZdÏRôWoLÞdÏ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
SPY¥dûLûV ùRôPeÏYRtÏ úYß
úR§ûV ϱlTRtÏ ®Úl׬ûUûV
YZeÏ¡\Õ, G]úY. CûNÜ ¾ol©p
TeúLtÏm CÚ RWl©]Úm CûNÜ ¾oÜ
SPY¥dûL _]Y¬ 25. 1996dÏ ©\Ï ùRôPeL
úYiÓm Guß Ø¥Ü ùNn§ÚkRôp 1996
NhPj§u ©¬ÜLs ùTôÚkÕm,
CûNÜ ¾oÜ SPY¥dûLLs 1996 NhPj§tÏ
ØuTôLúY ùRôPe¡«ÚkÕ CûNÜ
¾olTô[¬u Øu²ûX«p ¨ÛûY«p
CÚkRôp YZdÏRôWoLs 1996 NhPm AkR
SPY¥dûLdÏ ùTôÚkÕm Guß Jl×d
ùLôs[Xôm, (Thyssen Stanlunion Gmbh V. Steel
Authority of India, (1999) SCC 334).
EsSôhÓ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
EsSôhÓ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ GuTÕ 1996
NhPj§p YûWVßdLlTP®pûX,
Ck§Vô®p SPdÏm CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûL. Cߧ«p CfNhPj§p Tϧ 1-u
¸r EsSôhÓ ¾ol©p Ø¥kRôp AÕ
EsSôhÓ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ BÏm, (©¬Ü
2(2) – 2(7) ) G]úY. Ck§Vô®p
Ck§VoL°ûPúV Ck§V ¨ûXØû\
NhPj§uT¥ SûPùTßm CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
10
EsSôhÓ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ BÏm, (©¬Ü
28(1)(H)),
1996 NhPm Tϧ - 1
Tϧ 1-u ¸r Ck§Vô®p CûNÜ ¾ol×
Øû\ûV Tt±V NhPm Utßm SûPØû\l
Tt± Y¬ûNVôL CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\«u
JqùYôÚ ¨ûX Yô¬VôL. ARôYÕ CûNÜ
¾ol× EPuT¥dûL. ¾olTôVjûR ¨VªjRp.
CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV SPjÕRp. ¾olûT
YZeÏRp. ¾ol×Ls Ae¸LôWm ùTtß
ùNVpTÓjRlTÓRp Guß Aû]jûRl
Tt±Ùm ®Y¬d¡\Õ,
CÚ RWl©]Úm RLWôû\ CûNÜ ¾ol×
Øû\dÏ AàlT Jl×d ùLôiP ©\Ï
AYoL°p JÚYo JÚU]RôL C§- ÚkÕ
Ruû] ®Xd¡d ùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ, CûNÜ
¾olTôVm CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm CߧVôL
©ûQdÏm YûL«p ¾ol× A°dÏm, (©¬Ü
35) AjRûLV ¾ol× RϧÙs[ A§LôW
YWm×ûPV ¿§Uu\j§]ôp
RsÞT¥ ùNnVlThPôp Au±. E¬ûU«Vp
SûPØû\ NhPj§u ¸r ¿§Uu\ ¾olTôûQ
úTôXúY ùNVpTÓjRlTPXôm (©¬Ü 36),
LhÓlTôPô] ¿§Uu\ RûXÂÓ
CfNhPj§u ¸r ¿§Uu\ RûXÂÓ êXm
JÚ YZdûL CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\dÏ AàlT
Y¯ ¡ûPVôÕ, ©¬Ü 5 ¿§ Õû\«u
RûXÂhûP ªLÜm Ïû\d¡\Õ, CÕ
CfNhPj§u ©\ úSôdLeLÞPu JjÕ
RLWôßLû[ ®ûWYôLÜm Ïû\kR
ùNXÜPàm ¿§Uu\j§u RûXÂÓ
CpXôUÛm CÚdÏm ùTôÚhÓ
HtTÓjRlThÓs[Õ, (P. Anand Gajapathi Raj V.
P.V.G. Raju, AIR 2000 SC 1886).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL
©¬Ü 11-u ¸r CûNÜ ¾olTô[ûW ¨VªdÏm
A§LôWm CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL
CÚlTRtÏ EhThúP TVuTÓjRlTPXôm,
CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL ùNpÛT¥VôÏUô
GuTÕ AÕ CPm ùTt±ÚdÏm
JlTkRj§- ÚkÕ úYßThPÕ, CkR
JlTkRm ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ Guß
A±®dLlThPôÛm A§- ÚdÏm CûNÜ
¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL Re¡«ÚdÏm,
Hù]u\ôp CkR áßLs JlTkRj§u ©\
áßL°- ÚkÕ ©¬dLdá¥VûY, CûNÜ
¾oÜ áßLs R²úV JÚ JlTkRm
úTôu\ûY, (Firm Ashok Tradors V. Gurumukh Das
Saluja, (2004) 3 SCC 155).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ áß CÚkRôp CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL«p
Es[ ¨TkRû]LsT¥ CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\dÏ AàlT úYi¥V
Li¥lTô] LPûU ¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ
Es[Õ (©¬Ü 8), B]ôp. CfNhPm
CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL«u CÚ
RWl©]Úm ©¬Ü 8u ¸r RÏkR SPY¥dûL
GÓdL®pûXùVu\ôp E¬ûU«Vp
¿§Uu\j§u A§LôW YWmûT ¿dLôÕ,
11
AúR úTôp ¿§Uu\m ©¬Ü 8u ¸r CûNÜ
¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL«p
Es[ ®`VeLû[ ùTôßjÕ UhÓúU
CÚRWl©]ûWÙm CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\dÏ
AàlTXôm, CûNÜ EPuT¥dûLdÏ
ùY°úV Es[ HúRàm JÚ ®`VjûRl
ùTôßjÕ YZdÏ ùRôPWlThÓ AûY
EPuT¥dûLdÏ EhTPôR RWl©]ÚdÏ
CûPúV CÚkRôp ©¬Ü 8 ùTôÚkRôÕ,
“®`Vm” G]lTÓm ùNôp JÚ YZd¡u
Aû]jÕ AeLeLû[Ùm ϱdL úYiÓm,
CûY Aû]jÕm EPuT¥dûL«p
AeLeL[LÜm CÚdL úYiÓm, (Sukanya
Holdings Pvt. Ltd. V. Jayesh H. Pandya, (2003) 5 SCC
531).
©¬Ü 8 CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\Vôp RϧÙûPV
CûNÜ ¾olTô[Wôp ¾odLdá¥V
RLWôßLÞdÏ UhÓúU ùTôÚkÕm,
G-Ó : JÚ ¨ßY]jûR êÓYûR ùTôÚhÓ
GÝm úLs®Lû[ Ø¥Ü ùNnV £X RWl©]o
AûR CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\dÏ AàlT
HtßdùLôiÓs[]o, B]ôp. LmùT²
NhPj§u ¸r LmùT² ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
UhÓúU JÚ ¨ßY]jûR êÓm A§LôWm
Es[Õ, CûNÜ ¾olTô[ÚdÏ
JÚ ¨ßY]jûR êÓYRtLô] A§LôW YWm×
CpûX GuTRôp ¿§Uu\m ©¬Ü 8u ¸r
CRû] CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ
AàlT Ø¥VôÕ, (Haryana Telecom Ltd., V.
Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd. AIR 1999 SC 2354).
G-Ó : £X RWl©]o JÚ E«p NhP Øû\
BdLlTP úYiÓUô Gu\ úLs®ûV
CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dÏ AàlT
HtßdùLôiÓs[]o, CjRûLV
YZdÏL°p Ck§V Yô¬Ñ¬ûU NhPj§u ¸r
YZeLlTÓm ¾ol×Ls inrem GuTRôp CkR
úLs®ûV CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ
AàlT Ø¥VôÕ, (Chiranjilal Shrilal Goenka V.
Jasjit Singh, (1993) 2 SCC 507).
©¬Ü 8-u ¸r Es[ ®iQlTm AúR
YZd¡úXô ApXÕ AúR ¿§Uu\j§p JÚ
R²lThP ®iQlTUôLúYô RôdLp
ùNnVlTPXôm,
ùTôÕYôL ©¬Ü 8u ¸r Es[ ®iQlTm
AkR YZd¡p G§o EûW RôdLp
ùNnVlTÓYRtÏ Øu]ôp RôdLp
ùNnVlTP úYiÓm, B]ôp. ©W§Yô§ G§o
EûW RôdLp ùNnR ©\Ï CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ AàlT ®iQlTm
ùNnÕ ARtÏ Yô§ BhúNTûQ
ùR¬®dL®pûX ùVu\ôp ¿§Uu\m AkR
RLWôû\ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ
AàlTXôm, CkR SPY¥dûL
¿§Uu\j§tÏ ùLôiÓ YÚYRtÏ ØuúT
CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL CÚdL úYiÓm
Gu\ AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ, CkR
SPY¥dûL ¨ÛûY«p CÚdÏmùTôÝÕ
HtTÓjRlTPXôm, JÚ YZdÏ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ AàlTlThP ©\Ï
E¬ûU«Vp YZd¡p Es[ SPY¥dûLLs
Ø¥YûPkRRôL LÚRlTÓm, CûNÜ ¾olûT
12
G§ojÕ ¨YôWQm ùTßYRtÏ CÚ
RWl©]Úm AÔL úYi¥V ¿§Uu\m Tt±
©¬Ü 2(D)«p ϱl©Pl ThÓs[Õ, CÕ
©¬Ü 8u ¸r ®iQlTm ùNnR AúR
¿§Uu\m ¡ûPVôÕ, (P. Anand Gajapathi Raju V.
P.V.G. Raju, AIR 2000 SC 1886).
¿§Uu\m Øu× SPY¥dûLLs ¨ÛûY«p
CÚdÏmùTôÝÕ CÚ RWl©]Úm CûNÜ
¾oÜ Y¯«p ¾oÜ LôQ JlTkRj§p
ÖûZkRôp AYoLs 1996 NhPj§u
©¬ÜL°u T¥ úUp SPY¥dûL GÓdL
úYiÓm,
G-Ó : EVo ¿§Uu\m RuàûPV BûQ
©\l©dÏm A§LôW YWmûT TVuTÓj§
GkRùYôÚ YZdûLÙm CûNÜ ¾olTô[ÚdÏ
ϱl©hÓ Aàl© ARuT¥ ¾ol×
NUol©dLlThP ©\Ï EjRWÜ YZeL
Ø¥VôÕ, (Tamil Nadu Electricity Board V. Sumathi,
AIR 2000 SC 1603).
¿§Uu\j§p YZeLlTÓm CûPdLôX ùNVp
EjRWÜLs
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\Ls ùRôPeLlTÓYRtÏ
Øu]úW ©¬Ü 9u ¸r ¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ
CûPdLôX ùNVp EjRWÜLû[ ùLôÓdL
A§LôWm Es[Õ, CûNÜ ¾ol×
áßLû[ ùNVpTÓjÕm YûL«p A±®l×
Aàl×YRtÏ Øu× áP CkR EjRWÜLs
©\l©dLlTPXôm, (Sundaram Finance Ltd. V.
N.E.P.C. India Ltd. AIR 1999 SC 565) ©¬Ü 9u ¸r
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u CߧVô] ¾ol×
YZeÏmúTôÕ TôÕLôdL úYi¥V
E¬ûULs Åi BLôUp CÚdÏm ùTôÚhÓ
¿§Uu\eLs CûPdLôX
EjRWÜLû[ YZeLXôm, (Firm Ashok Traders V.
Gurumukh Das Saluja, (2004) 3 SCC 155).
©¬Ü 21u ¸r A±®l× AàlTlTÓYRtÏ
ØuTôLúY ©¬Ü 9u ¸r
CûPdLôX ¨YôWQm úLô¬ ¿§Uu\j§u
Øu× ®iQlTm RôdLlThPôp ¿§Uu\m
ØR- p ùNpÛT¥VôÏm CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL Es[Rô Gußm.
®iQlTRôWo RLWôû\ CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\dÏ GÓjÕ ùNpX GiQm
ùLôiÓs[ôo. Gußm Ruû] EߧlTÓj§
ùLôs[ úYiÓm, AqYôß Eߧ AûPkR
©u]o ©¬Ü 9u ¸r ¿§Uu\m YZd¡u
úSoÜLs Utßm NkRolTeLû[ LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ RÏkR CûPdLôX ùNVp EjRWûY
©\l©dLXôm, CqYôß EjRWÜ
©\l©dÏmùTôÝÕ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV
ùRôPeL ®iQlTRôWo RÏkR SPY¥dûL
GÓdL úYiÓm ùTôÚhÓ ©¬Ü 9u ¸r
¿§Uu\m JÚ ¨TkRû] EjRWûY
©\l©dLXôm, CRu ¸r ®iQlTRôWo
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ûV úUtùLôs[ RÏkR
SPY¥dûL GÓlTRtLôL ¨TkRû]LÞm
úNodLlTPXôm, (Sundaram Finance Ltd. V. N.E.P.C.
India Ltd., AIR 1999 SC 565).
JÚ YZdÏ CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«u ¸r ùNu\
©\Ï EVo¿§Uu\m CûNÜ ¾olTô[o
ApXÕ CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u Ø¥ÜLú[ôÓ
13
SPY¥dûLLs SPkÕ ùLôi¥ÚdÏm
NUVj§p RûX«PôÕ, YZdÏRôWoLÞdÏ
©¬Ü 34 Utßm 37dÏ ¸r UhÓúU
¿§Uu\jûR AÔL AàU§ Es[Õ (SBP
and Co. V. Patel Engineering Ltd., 2005 (3) Arb L R
285 (SC)).
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u AûUl×
©¬Ü 2¥ ¸r CûNÜ ¾olTôVm GuTÕ ©¬Ü
10 Utßm 11u ¸r ¨VªdLlThP JÚ R²
CûNÜ ¾olTô[o ApXÕ JÚ CûNÜ
¾olTô[o ÏÝûY ϱdÏm, CûNÜ
¾olTô[oL°u Gi¦dûL
CWhûPlTûP«p CÚdLdáPôÕ, Hù]²p
LÚjÕ úYßTôÓ CÚl©u NUUô]
Gi¦dûL«p CÚ RWl©Ûm ¾olTô[oLs
CÚdÏm ¨ûX GÝmTXôm,
CûNÜ ¾olTô[o ÑRk§WUôLÜm. TôWThNm
CpXôUÛm CÚdL úYiÓm,
¾olTô[o ¨VªdLlTÓYRtÏ Øu×
RuàûPV ÑRk§Wm Utßm TôWThNm
CuûUûV ϱjÕ NkúRLm GZdá¥V
NkRolTeLs Tt±V Aû]jÕ
®YWeLû[Ùm GÝjÕ êXm
YZdÏRôWoLÞdÏ ùLôÓdL úYiÓm, (©¬Ü
12(1)), úUÛm CfNhPj§u ¸r CûNÜ
¾olTô[¬u ¨VU]jûR G§odLÜm.
AYÚûPV SPY¥dûLLû[ Ø¥Ü
ùNnVÜm. AYÚdÏ T§XôL úYù\ôÚYûW
Uôt\m ùNnVÜm. SûPØû\Ls
YZeLlThÓs[] (©¬Ü 13-15),
1996 NhPj§u ¸r CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ GuTÕ
NmURj§u A¥lTûP«p SPlTÕ, G]úY.
CÚRWl©]Úm JlTkRjûR ReLÞdÏ
Ht\Yôß AûUjÕd ùLôs[Xôm, CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm CûNÜ
¾olTô[oLû[ úRokùRÓlT§p A§LThNm
ÑRk§Wm ùLôÓdLl ThÓs[Õ UhÓªpXôUp
¾olTô[oL°u
Gi¦dûLûV ¨oQ«lT§Ûm ÑRk§Wm
Es[Õ,
CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV Es[ JlTkRj§u
A¥lTûP«p ¾olTôVm AûUdLl
Th¥ÚkRôp AûR AûUjR Øû\ Utßm
A§- ÚlTYoLs NhPj§u Tϧ 1-dÏ
G§WôL ¨VªdLlTh¥ÚkRôÛm AûR
G§odÏm E¬ûU ¡ûPVôÕ, úUÛm. 1996
NhPj§u T¥ JÚ ¾ol× YZeLlTh¥ÚkRôp
AlùTôÝÕ ¾olTôVj§u AûUl× Utßm
SûPØû\ CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV
Es[ JlTkRj§tÏ ØWiThÓ CÚkRôÛm
AûR G§odL Ø¥VôÕ, CÚ
RWl©]¬ûPúV CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u
AûUl× Utßm CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dLô]
SûPØû\Ls Tt± GkR®R JlTkRØm
CpûXùVu\ôp ¾olTôVj§u ¾oÜ 1996
NhPj§tÏ G§oUô\ôL CÚkRôp AûR
G§odLXôm, (Narayan Prasad Lohia V. Nikunj
Kumar Lohia, (2002), 3 SCC 572).
CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV Es[ JlTkRm CWiÓ
CûNÜ ¾olTô[oLû[ ¨VªlTRôL CÚkRôp
AÕ UhÓúU AkR JlTkRjûR
14
ùNpÛT¥ CpXôRRôL Uôt\ôÕ,
CqYôß ¨VªdLlThP CWiÓ CûNÜ
¾olTô[oLÞm RûXûU CûNÜ ¾olTô[WôL
T¦×¬V JÚ êu\ôYÕ CûNÜ
¾olTô[ûW ¨VªdL úYiÓm (©¬Ü 11(3)),
CÚ RWl©]Úm BhúNTûQ Cu± CWiÓ
ApXÕ CWhûPlTûP GiÔûPV CûNÜ
¾olTô[oLs EûPV CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u
Øu× SPY¥dûLL°p DÓTh¥ÚkRôp
AYoLÞdÏ AjRûLV ¾olTôVj§]ôp
YZeLlTÓm ùTôÕYô] ¾olûT G§odÏm
E¬ûU ¡ûPVôÕ, CYoLs CkR E¬ûUûV
©¬Ü 4u ¸r ®hÓ ùLôÓjRRôL LÚRlTÓm,
(Narayan Prasad Lohia V. Nikunj Kumar Lohia, (2002),
3 SCC 572).
CûNÜ ¾olTô[oL°u
Gi¦dûLûV ¨oQ«jRp Utßm CûNÜ
¾olTô[oLû[ ¨VªjRp ùYqúYß
R²lThP ùTôßl×Ls BÏm, CûNÜ
¾olTô[oL°u Gi¦dûL ØR- p CÚ
RWl©]WôÛm ¨oQ«dLlTP úYiÓm,
CpûXùVu\ôp CûNÜ ¾olTôVm JúW JÚ
CûNÜ ¾olTô[ûW ùLôi¥ÚdÏm, B]ôp.
CûNÜ ¾olTô[¬u ¨VU]m CÚ
RWl©]¬ûPúV Es[ JlTkRj§u
A¥lTûP«p CÚdL úYiÓm,
CpûXùVu\ôp NhPj§u ©¬Ü 11u ¸r
Es[ Øû\lT¥ CÚdL úYiÓm,
RûXûU ¿§T§ ©¬Ü 11-u ¸r CûNÜ
¾olTôVjûR ¨VªdÏm A§LôWm JÚ
¿§Õû\ NôokR A§LôWm BÏm, C§p
Ø¥ùYÓdÏm RuûU Es[Rôp CÕ JÚ
¿§jÕû\ EjRWYôL LÚRlTÓm, RûXûU
¿§T§ ApXÕ AYWôp ¨VªdLlThPYo
¸rLiP Ytû\ CûNÜ ¾olTô[o ùTôÚhÓ
Li¥lTôL Ø¥Ü ùNnV úYiÓm,
 AYÚdÏ A§LôW YWm× Es[Rô.
 CûNÜ ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL
Es[Rô.
 ®iQlTRôWo AjRûLV CûNÜ
¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL«p ûLùVôlTm
ChÓs[ôWô.
 A§LôWjûR
TVuTÓjÕRtLô] ¨TkRû]Ls
LûPl©¥dLlThÓs[Rô. Utßm
 CûNÜ
¾olTô[o ¨VªdLlTPúYi¥V ùTôÝÕ
AYÚdÏ ARtúLt\ Rϧ Es[Rô,
(SBP and Co. V. Patel Engineering Ltd., 2005 (3) Arb
LR 285 (SC)).
CkR SûPØû\ ¾oUô²dÏm RuûUûV
ùLôiÓs[Rôp RûXûU ¿§T§. ¿§jÕû\
ApXôR ©\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ CkR ùTôßlûT
ùLôÓdL Ø¥VôÕ, G]úY. EfN
¿§Uu\j§u RûXûU ¿§T§ CkR
A§LôWjûR EfN ¿§Uu\j§u úYù\ôÚ
¿§T§«PmRôu ùLôÓdL Ø¥Ùm, AúR
úTôp EVo ¿§Uu\j§u RûXûU ¿§T§
CkR A§LôWjûR EVo ¿§Uu\j§u
15
úYù\ôÚ ¿§T§«PmRôu ùLôÓdL Ø¥Ùm,
CkR A§LôWjûR UôYhP ¿§T§«Pm
ùLôÓlTRtÏ AàU§ ¡ûPVôÕ, (SBP and Co.
V. Patel Engineering Ltd., 2005 (3) Arb LR 285 (SC)).
©¬Ü 11u ¸r CûNÜ ¾olTô[ûW ¨VªdÏm
Øu× ®iQlTRôWo ApXôR Cuù]ôÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏ Yônl× A°dÏm ùTôÚhÓ
A±®l× AàlTlTP úYiÓm, (SBP and Co.
V. Patel Engineering Ltd., 2005 (3) Arb LR 285 (SC)).
©¬Ü 11 (6)T¥ EfN ¿§Uu\j§u RûXûU
¿§T§VôúXô ApXÕ AYo ¨VªdÏm
¿§T§VôúXô GÓdLlTÓm Ø¥ÜdÏ G§WôL
GkRùYôÚ úUp Øû\ÂÓm ¡ûPVôÕ,
AÕúY CߧVô]Õ, B]ôp. EVo
¿§Uu\j§u RûXûU ¿§T§ ApXÕ
AYo ¨VªjR ¿§T§«u Ø¥ûY
AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕ 136u ¸r úUp
Øû\ÂÓ ùNnVXôm, (SBP and Co. V. Patel
Engineering Ltd., 2005 (3) Arb LR 285 (SC)).
©¬Ü 11(2) ¸r CûNÜ ¾olTô[ûW NoYúRN
Y¦L CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
ùTôÚhÓ ¨VªlTRtLôL ®iQlTm
ùNnVlTÓmùTôÝÕ G§o RWl©]o AkR
RLWôû\ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dÏ Ï±l©hÓ
AàlT úYi¥ GkRùYôÚ Li¥lTô]
áßm CpûX Guß á±]ôp Ck§Vô®u
RûXûU ¿§T§ AkR EPuT¥dûL«p AkR
RLWôß CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«p
¾odLlTPúYiÓm Guß Es[Rô Guß
¾oUô²dÏm A§LôWjûR ùTtßs[ôo, AkR
EPuT¥dûL “ùNnVXôm” Gu\ ùNôpûX
TVuTÓj§ CÚ RWl©]ÚdÏm YZdÏ RôdL
ùNnVúYô ApXÕ CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\«p
RLWôû\ ¾ojÕd ùLôs[úYô ÑRk§Wm
A°j§ÚkRôp EfN ¿§Uu\m ©¬Ü 11(12) ¸r
CûNÜ ¾olTô[ûW ¨VªdÏm A§LôW
YWmûT ùNVpTÓjRdáPôÕ, (Wellington
Associates Ltd. V. Kirit Mehta, AIR 2000 SC 1379).
CûNÜ ¾olTô[o ¨VªdLlTP úYi¥V
ùTôÝÕ EfN ¿§Uu\m CÚ RWl©]¬u
ùN[L¬VjûRÙm LÚj§p ùLôiÓ RuàPV
®Úl׬ûUûV TVuTÓjRXôm, (Dolphin
International Ltd. V. Ronarks Enterprises Inc., (1998) 5
SCC 724).
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u A§LôW YWm×
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§tÏ RuàûPV A§LôW
YWmûT Tt± Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm A§LôWm
YZeLlThÓs[Õ, úUÛm. CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL Es[Rô ApXÕ
ùNpÛT¥VôÏUô Tt±V
BhúNTûQLû[Ùm Ø¥Ü ùNnV ARtÏ
A§LôWm EiÓ, CûR ùTôÚhÓ CûNÜ
¾oÜ áßLs AkR JlTkRj§u TϧVôL
CÚkRôÛm AkR JlTkRj§u
©\ ¨TkRû]L°PªÚkÕ R²lThP
Øû\«p LÚRlTPúYiÓm, C§- ÚkÕ
CûNÜ ¾olTôVm JlTkRm. CpXô ¨ûX
ùLôiPÕ Utßm ùNpÛT¥ BLôÕ Guß
Ø¥Ü ùNnRôÛm CûNÜ ¾oÜ áßLs ipso
jure ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnV
Ø¥VôÕ GuTÕ ùR°Yô¡\Õ, (Olympus
16
Superstructures (P) Ltd. V. Meena Vijay Khetan, AIR
1999 SC 2102).
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u A§LôW YWm× Ï±jR
Aû]jÕ BhúNTûQÙm ¾olTôVj§u
Øu× GÝlTlTP úYiÓm, ¾olTôVm
A§LôW YWm× CpûX Gu\ YôRjûR Htßd
ùLôiPôp AÕ CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV
ùTôßjÕ úUp SPY¥dûL GÓdLôUp ©¬Ü
32(2)(£) T¥ CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûLLû[ Ø¥jÕd ùLôsÞm,
B]ôp. CkR Ø¥ûY G§ojÕ úUp
Øû\ÂÓ ùNnVXôm, (©¬Ü 37(2)(G)),
¾olTôVm A§LôW YWm× CpûX Gu\
YôRjûR ¨WôL¬jRôp CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
SPY¥dûLLú[ôÓ úUp ùNuß CûNÜ ¾ol×
YZeLXôm, CûR G§ojÕ Tô§dLlThP
RWl©]o ©¬Ü 34(2)u ¸r úUp Øû\ÂÓ
ùNnVXôm, ¿§Uu\j§tÏ CûNÜ
¾olTôVj§u A§LôW YWm× Ï±jR
úLs®Lû[ Tt± Ø¥Ü ùNnV A§LôWm
¡ûPVôÕ,
RûXûU ¿§T§ ©¬Ü 11u ¸r CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL ùNpÛT¥VôÏUô Guß Ø¥Ü
ùNnÕ ARu ©u]o AkR RLWôß CûNÜ
¾olTô[¬Pm CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\dLôL
ϱl©hÓ AàlTlTP úYiÓUô Guß
Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm A§LôWjûR ©¬Ü 16 B]ôp
®[dL ®pûX, (Wellington Associates Ltd., V.
Kirit Mehta, AIR 2000 SC 1379).
CûNÜ ¾olTôVm CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûLL°uùTôÝÕ RLWôßdϬV
ùTôÚû[ TôÕLôdÏm ùTôÚhÓ CûPdLôX
EjRWûY YZeLXôm, úUÛm. ©¬Ü 17u ¸r
CjRûLV EjRWÜ ùTôÚhÓm TôÕLôl×
YZeLXôm, CjRûLV CûPdLôX
EjRWÜdÏ G§WôL ©¬Ü 37(2) ¸r úUp
Øû\ÂÓm ùNnVXôm,
©¬Ü 17u ¸r CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§tÏ
CûPdLôX EjRWÜLs YZeÏm A§LôWm
YWm©tÏhThPÕ, ¾olTôVm ¿§Uu\m
CpXôRRôp ARàûPV EjRWÜLs
¿§Õû\ EjRWÜLs úTôp BLôÕ,
¾olTôVm ϱl©hÓ Aàl×Rp (reference)
ApXÕ CûNÜ ¾ol× EPuT¥dûLdÏ
G§WôL ApXÕ AYtû\ ®P ®¬YôL
GkRùYôÚ EjRWûYÙm ©\l©dL Ø¥VôÕ,
CûNÜ ¾ol× SPY¥dûLL°p TeÏ ùT\ôR
SToLÞdÏ G§WôL CYtû\ ùNVpTÓjR
Ø¥VôÕ, CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§tÏ CkRl
©¬®u ¸r RuàûPV EjRWûY
ùNVpTÓjR GkR JÚ A§LôWØm
YZeLlTP®pûX, úUÛm. ¿§Øû\«p
ùNVpTÓjRÜm A§LôWm YZeLlTP®pûX,
(M.D. Army Welfare Housing Organisation V.
Sumangal Services (P) Ltd., AIR 2004 SC 1344).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ SPY¥dûLLû[ SPjÕRp
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 18 ØRp 27 YûW CûNÜ
¾oÜ SûPØû\Ls Tt±V TpúYß
®§Lû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 18u ¸r CÚ
RWl©]Úm NUUôL SPjRlTP úYiÓm
Gu¡u\ ¨TkRû]dÏhThÓ ©¬Ü 19u ¸r
CÚ RWl©]Úm ReLÞdÏ YN§Vô]
17
SûPØû\Lû[ HtTÓj§d ùLôsÞm
ÑRk§WjûR ùTtßs[]o, ©¬Ü 20 CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\«p TeúLtÏm CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ SûPùT\
®ÚdÏm CPjûR úRokùRÓdÏm E¬ûUûV
YZeÏ¡\Õ,
CûNÜ ¾olTôVm E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\
NhPj§u ¸r
YZeLlThÓs[ SûPØû\L[ôp
LhÓlTPôÕ, CÚ RWl©]Úm SûPØû\ûV
Jl×d ùLôs[ úYiÓm, AYoLs AqYôß
Jl×dùLôs[®pûX Gu\ôp CûNÜ
¾olTô[o SûPØû\ûV YZeL úYiÓm,
AqYôß YZeLlTÓm SûPØû\ CVtûL
¿§ ùLôsûLLÞdÏ EhThÓ CÚdL
úYiÓm, CVtûL ¿§ ùLôsûL ¨VôVUô]
Øû\«p SPY¥dûLLs ùRôPW
Cu±VûUVôRÕ GuTRôp CÕ SûPØû\
NhPjûR ®P úUXôL LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ,
CûNÜ ¾ol×
¾ol× YZeÏm Øû\ LhPôVUôL
CfNhPj§u £ßûUTÓjÕm
©¬ÜLû[ Ïû\ÜTÓj§ Ød¡VUôL CûNÜ
¾olTô[o ¾ol× YZeÏYûRl Tt±
áß¡\Õ (©¬Ü 28-33),
©¬Ü 28 RLWô±u Ød¡V AmNeLÞdÏ
ùTôÚkÕ¡u\ ®§Lû[ ¨oQ«lTûRl
Tt±VÕ, ©¬Ü 29 ¾olTôVj§tÏs
Ø¥ùYÓdÏm Øû\ûV Tt±VÕ, ©¬Ü 30
CÚ RWl©]Úm ReLÞdÏsú[úV RLWôû\
¾ojÕd ùLôsYûR Tt±VÕ, CkR ©¬Ü CÚ
RWl©]¬u Jl×RúXôÓ CûNÜ ¾olTôVm
Uj§VvR Øû\. NUWN Øû\ ApXÕ úYß
SûPØû\Lû[ CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûL«u GkRùYôÚ LhPj§Ûm
¾olûT FdÏ®dÏm ùTôÚhÓ
TVuTÓjRXôm Guß áß¡\Õ,
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 31. CûNÜ ¾ol©u
Y¥Ym Utßm Es[PdLjûR ϱd¡\Õ,
1940 NhPm úTôp ApXôUp CfNhPm CÚ
RWl©]Úm ¾ol©p LôWQeLs ùLôÓdL
úYiPôm Guß JlTkRm êXm ©¬Ü 30u
¸r Jl×d ùLôi¥ÚkRôXu± ¾olTôVm
JqùYôÚ ¾ol©tÏm GkR A¥lTûP«p
Aj¾ol× YZeLlThPÕ Gu\
LôWQeLû[ Li¥lTôL YZeL úYiÓm
Guß ©¬Ü 31 áß¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 32 CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûLLû[ ¨oQ«jRp Tt±Ùm ©¬Ü
33 ¾olûT ׬kÕ ùLôsÞRp Utßm
§ÚjÕRp Tt±Ùm úUÛm áÓRp ¾ol×
YZeÏRp Tt±Ùm áß¡\Õ,
CûNÜ ¾olûT G§ojÕ ¨YôWQeLs
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 34 CûNÜ ¾olûT
G§ojÕ Es[ ¨YôWQeLû[l Tt±
áß¡\Õ, CûNÜ ¾olûT RsÞT¥ ùNnV
ªLd Ïû\kR LôWQeLú[ Es[], AûY :
 HúRàm JÚ RWl©]¬u
Rϧ«uûU
18
 ùNpÛT¥VôLôR JlTkRm
 JÚ RWl©]ÚdÏ Øû\Vô]
A±®l× CpXôûU
 ϱl©hÓ Aàl×RÛdÏ G§Wô]
¾ol× (beyond reference)
 ¾olTôVj§u AûUlúTô ApXÕ
CûNÜ ¾ol× SûPØû\úVô NhPj§tÏ
×\mTôL CÚjRp,
 RLWôß CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\«]ôp
¾odL Ø¥VôRRôL CÚkRôp,
 ¾ol× ùTôÕ SX ùLôsûLLÞdÏ
G§WôL CÚkRôp,
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 34 I,Sô, Uô§¬ NhPj§u
`WjÕ 34I A¥lTûPVôL ùLôiPÕ,
¾olûT RsÞT¥ ùNnV. 1940 NhPj§u ©¬Ü
30 ApXÕ 33u ¸r Es[ LôWQeLû[ ®P
1996 NhPj§p Es[ LôWQeLs ªL
Ïû\Yô]ûY, (Olympus Superstructures (P) Ltd.
V. Meena Vijay Khetan, AIR 1999 SC 2102).
CûNÜ ¾olTô[o CÚ RWl©]ÚdÏ CûPúV
Es[ RLWôû\ ùTôßjR Cߧ ¾olTô[o,
CûNÜ ¾olTô[o úSoÜLû[ N¬VôL T¬ºXû]
ùNnV®pûX Gußm AYo RôUôLúY Ø¥Ü
ùNnÕs[ôo Gu\ LôWQeLÞdLôL ¾olûT
G§odL Ø¥VôÕ, (Sudershan Trading Co. V.
Government of Kerala, AIR 1989, SC 890).
CûNÜ ¾olTô[úW Nôh£VeL°u RWm
Utßm A[ûY Tt± Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm JúW
SÓYo BYôo, AúR Nôh£VjûR ¿§Uu\m
Uß T¬ºXû] ùNnRôp ¾olTô[¬u
¾ol©tÏ Uô\ôL úYù\ôÚ Ø¥Ü YWXôm
Gu\ôÛm ¿§Uu\m ¾olTô[o Øu×
Es[ Nôh£VjûR Uß T¬ºXû] ùNnV
Ø¥VôÕ, (M.C.D. V. Jagan Nath Ashok Kumar,
(1987) 4 SCC 497). AúR úTôp NhPm Tt±V
úLs® CûNÜ ¾olTô[o Øu× ùNuß AYo
Ø¥Ü ùNnRôp AkR NhPjûRl ùTôßjÕ
úYß úSôdLm ùLôs[Xôm Gu\
A¥lTûP«p G§odL Ø¥VôÕ, (Alopi Parshad
& Sons Ltd., V. Union of India, (1960) 2 SCR 793).
CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§tÏ ¾ol× YZeÏm
A§LôWm ARtÏ SûPØû\ EjRWÜLs
YZeL Es[ A§LôWjûRÙm. CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûL«u CûPúV EjRWÜ YZeÏm
A§LôWjûRÙm ®P úYßThPÕ, AjRûLV
EjRWÜLs ¾ol×Ls CpXôRRôp AYtû\
©¬Ü 34-u ¸r AûY ¾olûT
RsÞT¥ ùNnVÜm §Úl© AàlTÜm
LôWQUôL CÚdLdá¥VûYVôL CÚkRôÛm
G§odL Ø¥VôÕ, G-Ó : CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§u
A§LôW YWm× ApXÕ TVuTÓjRlTP
úYi¥V ¨ûXØû\ NhPm Tt±V
úLs®Lû[ ¾olTôVm Ø¥Ü ùNnÕ ARu
®û[YôL JÚ ¾olûT YZeLXôm, B]ôp.
Nôh£VeL°u Ht×jRuûU
LiÓ©¥l×L°u GpûX úTôu\ûY
SûPØû\ RuûUûV ùLôiÓs[Rôp
19
AûY JÚ EjRWÜ êXUôLúY Ø¥Ü
ùNnVlTÓ¡u\], AûY ¾ol×Ls BLôÕ,
Acquiescence Utßm estoppel
ùLôsûLL°]ôp JÚYo CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûLL°p TeúLt\ ©u]o CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\ áßLû[úV G§odL Ø¥VôÕ,
G-Ó : JÚ RWl©]o CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
á±uT¥ CûNÜ ¾olTôVj§]ôp CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\ SPjRlTÓYRtÏ NmU§jÕ
A§p TeúLt\ ©u]o AjRûLV áß
CpûX Gu\ YôRjûR ùLôÓdL Ø¥VôÕ,
(Krishna Bhagya Jala Nigam Ltd., V. G. Harish
Chandra Reddy, (2007) 2 SCC 720).
Acquiescence ùLôsûL CûNÜ ¾olTô[o JÚ
RûX ThNUôL RuàûPV A§LôWjûR
®¬Yôd¡d ùLôiÓ Ru Øu× CpXôR
®`VeLû[l ùTôßjÕm A§LôWjûR
Htßd ùLôiPôp ùTôÚkRôÕ,
G-Ó : £X RWl©]o ùY°lTûPVô]
JlTkRm êXm YôPûL TQjûR §ÚmT
ùTßYRtLô] úLô¬dûLLû[ ùTôßjÕ
UhÓúU CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ûV
LûPl©¥dL Ø¥Ü ùNnR]o, CûNÜ
¾olTô[o ϱl©hÓ Aàl×RÛdÏs
ÖûZkR ©u]o RuàûPV A§LôWjûR
®¬ÜTÓj§d ùLôiPôo,
BhúNTûQLÞdÏl ©\Ïm AYo AqYôß
ùNnRRôp úYß Y¯«u± Aû]jÕ
RWl©]Úm SPY¥dûLL°p TeúLt\]o,
AjRûLV TeúLt× Acquiescence
BLôÕ, ¨Vªl©tÏ ©u]o CûNÜ
¾olTô[o Ru Øu× CÚ RWl©]WôÛm
ùLôiÓ YWlThÓs[ ®`VeLû[l Tt±
UhÓúU Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm, ¾olTô[o úYß
úSôdLjÕPu NhPlT¥ RYß ùNnRôp AkR
¾ol× Rs° ûYdLlTPXôm, (Union of India V.
M/s. G.S. Afwal, AIR 1996 SC 2965).
CûNÜ ¾ol×Ls Cߧ RuûU ùTßRp
Utßm ùNVpTÓjÕRp
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 35T¥ AfNhPj§u Tϧ
1dÏ EhThÓ JÚ CûNÜ ¾oÜ CÚ
RWl©]ûWÙm AYoLs êXm
úLôÚTYoLû[Ùm ùTôÚhÓ CߧVôLÜm
©ûQdÏmT¥Ùm CÚdÏm, Cߧ Gu¡u\
ùNôpûX ¾olûTl ùTôßjÕ CkRl ©¬®p
TVuTÓjÕmùTôÝÕ “Cߧ ¾ol× ”
GuTÕPu ÏZlTdáPôÕ, “Cߧ” Gu¡u\
ùNôp JÚ ¾ol× ©tTôÓ Uôt\lThPôXu±
GkR ®`VeLû[l ùTôßjÕ Es[úRô
AûYl Tt± CÚRWl©]ûWÙm AYoLs
êXm úLôÚTYoLû[Ùm ùTôßjÕm
Ø¥Yô]RôÏm, ϱl©hÓ Aàl×R- p
HúRàm ®`VeLs ÁRªÚkRôp áP ¾ol×
ùNVpTÓjRlTPXôm,
CfNhPj§u ©¬Ü 36T¥ CûNÜ ¾ol× Ut\
¾ol×ûWLû[ úTôu\ AúR Y¯«p
AYtû\ G§ojÕ Ï±l©hP LôXj§tÏs
Øû\ÂÓ CpXô®hPôúXô ApXÕ
AqYôß CÚkÕ AÕ
RsÞT¥ ùNnVlThPúXô
ùNVpTÓjRlTPXôm, CûNÜ ¾ol× YZdÏ
20
¾ol×ûWûV úTôuú\ ùNVpTÓjRlTPXôm
GuTRôp CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ SPY¥dûLLs
E¬ûU«Vp YZdÏLs úTôuß BLôÕ,
CûNÜ ¾olûT G§odÏm LôX YWm×
Ø¥YûPkRÜPu ¿§Uu\m úYß GÕÜm
ùNnVôUúXúV Aj¾ol× EP]¥VôL ©¬Ü
34-u ¸r ùNVpTÓjRdá¥VÕ, ©¬Ü 34u
ùTôÚsTÓR- p úYú\àm NkúRLm
CÚkRôp AûY 1996 NhPj§u AûUlûTd
ùLôiÓ. ¿§Uu\j§u
A§LôWeLû[ LôXYWm× NhPm ©¬Ü 5u
T¥ LhÓlTÓjÕm YûL«p Ø¥Ü
ùNnVXôm, (Union of India V. Popular
Constructions, (2001) 8 SCC (470)).
CûNÜ ¾oÜ Øû\ SPY¥dûLLs 1996
NhPm AUÛdÏ YÚYRtÏ Øu× ùRôPeLl
Th¥ÚkÕ ¾ol× 1996dÏ ©\Ï YkRôp
Aj¾ol× CûNÜ ¾ol×f NhPm
1940T¥ ùNVpTÓjRlTÓm, (Thyssen Stanlunion
Gmbh V. Steel Authority of India, (1999) SCC 334).
NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\Ls
Utßm ùY°SôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs
NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\ 1996
NhPm ©¬Ü 2Gl ¸r Ck§V NhPj§u ¸r
Y¦LjÕYm YônkRÕ Guß LÚRlTÓm
NhPlT¥Vô] E\ÜL°p HúRàm JÚ
RWl©]o
 ùY°SôhÓ Ï¥UL]ôLúYô
ApXÕ Ck§Vô®tÏ ùY°úV YZdLUôL
Ï¥«ÚlTYWôLúYô CÚkRôp
 Ck§Vô®tÏ ùY°úV T§Ü
ùNnVlThP JÚ áhPûUlTôLúYô
 JÚ ¨ßY]m. R² SToL°u
áhPûUl× ARàûPV Ød¡V ¨oYôLm
Utßm LhÓlTôÓ Ck§Vô®tÏ ùY°úV
CÚkRôp
 ùY°SôhÓ AWNôeLUôL CÚkRôp
CYt±p ùTôÚkRdá¥V NhPm
JlTkRjûR ùTôßjÕ Ck§V NhPUôLúYô
ApXÕ ùY°SôhÓ NhPUôLúYô CÚdLXôm
(©¬Ü 2(1)(Gl) Utßm 28(1)(©),
1996 NhPj§u Tϧ 1 Ck§Vô®tÏ ùY°úV
SûPùTßm NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ ¾oÜ
Øû\LÞdÏm CÚ RWl©]Úm
ùY°lTûPVô] ApXÕ Uû\ØLUô]
JlTkRj§u êXm ®Xd¡ «ÚkRôp R®W
ùTôÚkÕm, ©¬Ü 2(1)(Gl)p
YûWVßdLlThÓs[ NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\ Ck§Vô®tÏs SPdÏm CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\Lû[Ùm ùY°úV
SPlTûYLû[Ùm úYßTÓjR®pûX,
Tϧ 2 CQdL SôÓL°p SûPùTßm CûNÜ
¾ol× SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ UhÓúU ùTôÚkÕm,
B]ôp. NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ ¾ol× Øû\
CQdL SôÓ ApXôR úYß SôÓL°Ûm
SPdLXôm, 1996 NhPm Tϧ (1) CQdL SôÓ
21
ApXôR úYß SôÓL°p SPdÏm CûNÜ
¾ol× Øû\LÞdÏ ùTôÚkRôÕ Guß
á\®pûX, CfNhPj§u Ød¡V úSôdLm
VôùR²p NoYúRN Y¦L CûNÜ ¾ol×
Øû\LÞdÏ JÚ ºWô] NhP AûUlûT
HtTÓjR úYiÓm GuTÕRôu (Bhatia
International V. Bulk Tradings, AIR 2002 SC 1432).
G-Ó : CûNÜ ¾ol×
EPuT¥dûL«u ¨TkRû]L°u T¥ CÚ
ùY°SôhÓ RWl©]oL°ûPúV CûNÜ ¾ol×
SPY¥dûL I££ ®§Ls T¥ Ck§Vô®tÏ
ùY°úV SPkRôÛm AjRûLV
SPY¥dûLL°p JÚ RWl©]o CûPdLôX
EßjÕdLhPû[ ©¬Ü 9u ¸r úLhLXôm,
AjRûLV EßjÕd
LhPû[ AWNôeL ¨ßY]Uô] ONSC-dÏ
G§WôL AÕ G§o RWl©]ÚdÏ SPY¥dûLLs
Ø¥Ùm YûW GkRùYôÚ ùRôûLÙm
ùLôÓdLd áPôÕ Guß úLôWlThPÕ,
AjRûLV EßjÕd LhPû[ Ck§V
GpûXdÏs CÚdÏm
ùNôjÕdLû[ ùTôßjÕ ùNpÛT¥VôÏm,
B]ôp. Ck§Vô®tÏ ùY°«p CÚdÏm
ùNôjÕdLû[ ùTôßjÕ EßjÕd
LhPû[ úLhLlThPôp ©¬Ü 9u ¸r
Es[ ®iQlTm Ck§V ¿§Uu\eL°p
ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ, (Olex Focas Pty. Ltd. V.
Skodaexport Co. Ltd., AIR 2000 Del 161)).
1996 NhPj§u Tϧ 2 ùY°SôhÓ
Ø¥ÜLû[ ùNVpTÓjÕRp Tt± áß¡\Õ,
C§p CWiÓ Aj§VôVeLs Es[],
ØRp Aj§VôVm ¨ëVôod CQdLm NôokR
¾oÜLû[ Tt±VÕ, CûYl Tt±
CfNhPj§u ØRp AhPYûQ«p
ùLôÓdLlThÓs[Õ, CWiPôm Aj§VôVm
ù_ÉYô CQdLm NôokR ¾oÜLû[l
Tt±VÕ, CYtû\ 2YÕ Utßm 3YÕ
AhPYûQLÞPu úNojÕ T¥dL úYiÓm,
“ùY°SôhÓ Ø¥Ü” Gu¡u\ ùNôp Ck§V
NhPj§u T¥ Y¦Lm NôokRÕ Guß LÚÕm
NhPlT¥Vô] E\®- ÚkÕ GÝm RLWôß
Tt±V CûNÜ ¾olûT ϱdÏm, JÚ ¾ol×
ùY°Sôh¥p CVt\lThPRôp
UhÓªpXôUp AÕ Ck§V NhPj§]ôp
LhÓlTÓjRl TPôR CûNÜ ¾oÜ
EPuT¥dûL«u úT¬p Ht\lTÓYRôp
AûR ùY°SôhÓ Ø¥Ü Gu¡ú\ôm, (N.T.P.C.
V. Singer Company, AIR 1993 SC 998).
JÚ ùY°SôhÓ Ø¥Ü 1996 NhPm AUÛdÏ
YkRRRtÏ ©\Ï CVt\lThPôp AûR
ùY°SôhÓ ¾ol× (Ae¸LôWm Utßm
ùNVpTÓjÕRp) NhPj§u ¸r ùNVpTÓjR
E¬ûU CpXôRRôp AûR 1996 NhPm Tϧ
2u ¸r ùNVpTÓjR úYiÓm, ùY°SôhÓ
A§LôW YWm×L°p 1996dÏ Øu]úW CûNÜ
¾oÜ SPY¥dûLLs ùRôPe¡ CÚkR]
GuTûR LÚj§p ùLôs[ úYiÓm, (Thyssen
Stanlunion Gmbh V. Steel Authority of India, (1999)
SCC 334).
Uj§VvR ¾oÜ
22
Uj§VvR ¾oÜ Øû\ GuTÕ
ØWiTÓúYôûW ûUVUôLd ùLôiÓ
AYoLs Ru²fûNVô] Øû\«p.
©ûQdLôR YûL«p. UkRQUô] YûL«p.
LhPûUl×Pu SPjRlTÓm JÚ ¾oÜ Øû\,
CûR £\l× T¡oRp AÔÏØû\. úTfÑ
YôojûR Øû\L°p úRokR JÚ NôoTt\.
SmTLUô] êu\ôm STo LhÓlTÓjÕYôo,
CmØû\ êXm úTfÑ YôojûR SPj§ CÚ
RWl©]ûWÙm ©ûQdÏm JÚ Ø¥Ü
JlTkRjûR HtTÓjR Y¯ ùNnYôo,
CmØû\ Ø¥Ü JlTkRjRp ¨û\YûPÙm,
¿§Uu\ ¾ol× ¡ûPVôÕ,
Uj§VvR Øû\«u Ød¡V LY]m JÚYo
ÁÕ JÚYo LPkR LôXj§p SPkRYtû\l
Tt± T¯ ÑUjÕYÕ ApX.
E\ÜLû[ Y[olTRôÏm, CRu úSôdLm
JÚYo Ït\Yô°Vô ApXÕ ¨WTWô§Vô
Guß ¨ì©lTÕ ¡ûPVôÕ, B]ôp. TWvTW
׬RûX Y[ojÕ CÚ RWl©]Úm
AYoLÞûPV SuûUûV U]§p ùLôiÓ
RôUôLúY JlTkRjûR HtTÓjRd
ùLôs[ FdÏ®lTRôÏm,
CmØû\«u A¥lTûP ®§Ls
¸rLiPYôß :
 NôoTt\ RuûU : Uj§VvRo
YZd¡p Utßm CÚ RWl©]o ÁÕm
GkRùYôÚ ®ÚlTØm. Nôo× RuûUÙm
CpXôUp CÚdL úYiÓm,
 ÑV ¨oQVm : UjRVvR Øû\
CÚRWl©]¬u ÑV ¨oQVjûR A¥lTûPd
ùLôsûLVôL ùLôiÓs[Õ, ARôYÕ. CÚ
RWl©]Úm ÑRk§WUôL ØÝ RLY- u
A¥lTûP«p Ø¥ÜLû[ úRokùRÓdLXôm,
Uj§VvRo CkR Øû\ûV
LhÓlTÓjÕYRtÏ ùTôßl×ûPVYo, CÚ
RWl©]Úm CmØû\«u ®û[ûY
LhÓlTÓjÕYo,
 UkRQm LôjRp : CÕ ùYt±LWUô]
Uj§Vv§tÏ úRûYVô] Ød¡V AeLm,
CÚ RWl©]Úm GkRùYôÚ IVØm Cu±
Aû]jÕ ®`VeLû[Ùm ùY°lTÓjR
úYiÓm, AqYôß ùY°lTÓjÕRp
©tLôXj§p AYoLÞdÏ G§WôL
TVuTÓjRlTPXôm Guß IVlTPdáPôÕ,
CqYôß CpXô®hPôp úSoûUdúLPô]
RWl©]oLs CkR Uj§VvR Øû\ûV
RY\ôL TVuTÓj§ CûR JÚ ùT¬V
RiPû]Vt\ LiÓ©¥dÏm Øû\VôL
TVuTÓjRXôm,
JÚ Uj§VvRo ¸rLiPtû\ ùNnV
Øû]V úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvR Øû\ûVl Tt±V
Aû]jÕ ®`VeLû[Ùm AYÚm. CÚ
RWl©]Úm UkRQm LôdL úYiÓm, CÕ
JlTkRjûR ùNVpTÓjRÜm.
SûPØû\lTÓjRÜm ùY°lTÓjÕRp
Aj§VôY£VUôL CÚkRôp R®W Ø¥Ü
JlTkRj§tÏm ùTôÚkÕm,
23
 CÚ RWl©]WôÛm úYß Y¯«p
Jl×Rp CpXô®hPôp Uj§VvRm ùNnTYo
CûNÜj ¾oYô[WôLúYô. Nôh£VôLúYô
GkRùYôÚ CûNÜ ¾ol× SPY¥dûL«úXô.
¿§Uu\ SPY¥dûL«úXô Uj§VvR
Øû\«p ®Yô§dLlThP ùTôÚhLû[l Tt±
B_WôL Ø¥VôÕ, úUÛm. CÚ RWl©]Úm
Uj§VvR Øû\l Tt±V GkRùYôÚ
Nôh£VjûRÙm A±ØLlTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ (JÚ
RWl©]o £X
úLô¬dûLLû[ Jl×dùLôiPûRl Tt±.
AYoL°u LiúQôhPm AYoLs ùLôÓjR
BúXôNû]Ls. AYoLs Jl×d ùLôiPûY
Tt±),
 CmØû\«- ÚkÕ CÚ RWl©]Úm
Uj§VvRj§tÏ B_Wô]ôoL[ô CpûXVô.
HúRàm ¾oÜ LôQlThPRô Gu\ RLYp
UhÓúU T§Ü ùNnVlThÓ A±dûL«Ûm
CPm ùT\Xôm,
 ¨VôVUô] Øû\ : Uj§VvRm
SûPùTßm Øû\ ARu Cߧ ®û[ûY
úTôuú\ Ød¡VUô]Õ, CÚRWl©]Úm
RôeLs ¨VôVUô] Øû\«p
SPjRlTÓYRôLÜm AYoLÞûPV
©WfNû]LÞdÏ Ød¡VjÕYm
ùLôÓjÕs[RôLÜm LÚRúYi¥VÕ
AY£Vm,
 Ru²fûNVô] SûPØû\ :
Uj§VvR Øû\ CÚ RWl©]¬u ØÝ
NmURjÕPu UhÓúU SPdLdáÓm, CYoLs
Uj§VvRj§p ¨û\YûPkR Ø¥Ü
JlTkRj§p ûLùVôlTªhÓ AR]ôp
©ûQdLlTPXôm,
Uj§VvRj§tÏ Øu× RVôo ùNnRp
Uj§VvRo ùTÚmTôÛm RLWôßl Tt±
A±kÕd ùLôsYRtLôL CÚ RWl©]¬PØm
Uj§VvRm ùRôPeÏYRtÏ Øu× RLWôßl
Tt±V JÚ ùRôÏlûT úLhLXôm,
ØWiTôÓ EûPVYoLs UhÓúU
Uj§VvRj§p TeúLtL úYiÓm Guß
AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ, ©WfNû]dÏ ¾oÜ
LôQdá¥V Aû]YÚm C§p TeúLtLXôm,
JÚ YZd¡tÏ RVôo ùNnÙmúTôÕ
Uj§VvRo Utßm Aû]jÕj RWl©]Úm
AkR RLWôû\l Tt± SuÏ BWôV úYiÓm,
CRtÏ Uj§VvRo AkR RLWôßdÏ
ùTôÚkÕm NhPm Utßm SûPØû\Lû[l
Tt±Ùm. CÚ RWl©]¬u LiúQôhPjûRl
Tt±Ùm. JqùYôÚ RWl©]Úm ªL
Ød¡VUôL LÚÕm ©WfNû] Tt±Ùm SuÏ
A±k§ÚdL úYiÓm,
Uj§VvR¬u SPjûR / TôYûQLs
(Demeahour)
Uj§VvRo RuàûPV NôoTt\ RuûU
Utßm CmØû\«u ÁÕ AYo
ùLôiÓs[ LhÓlTôÓ B¡VYtû\ SuÏ
ùY°lTÓjR úYiÓm, AqYôß
ùNnÙmúTôÕ G°Rô]. NôoTt\
YôojûRLû[ TVuTÓj§ TWvTW
24
RuûUûV ùY°dLôhP úYiÓm,
AYÚûPV úTÑmùRô² ¨Rô]UôLÜm
®VôTôWm úSôdÏPàm Utßm BWôÙm
YûL«Ûm ØÝ LY]jÕPu CÚdL
úYiÓm, Aû]YÚm EhLôÚm Øû\dÏ
Ød¡VjÕYm ùLôÓjÕ. Aû]YÚm úSÚdÏ
úSo úT£d ùLôsYRtÏm. JÚYo úTÑYûR
JÚYo SuÏ úLhTRtÏm ÑTXUôL AûUdL
úYiÓm,
ÕYdL YôdÏêXm
JqùYôÚ Uj§VvRØm Uj§VvRWôp JÚ
ÕYdL YôdÏêXjÕPu ÕYeL úYiÓm,
CÕ CÚ RWl©]¬u ©u]¦dúLtT G°V
ùUô¯«p CÚdL úYiÓm, CkR ÕYdL
YôdÏêXj§p Uj§VvRo
 Ruû] A±ØLlTÓj§d ùLôiÓ
RuàûPV T«t£ Utßm Uj§VvRWôL
CÚkÕ ùYt±dLiP AàTYeLû[l
Tt±Ùm á\ úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvR SPY¥dûLLs JÚ
JlTkRj§p Ø¥YûPV úYiÓm Gu\
R]Õ Sm©dûLûV ùY°lTÓjR úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm
A±ØLlTÓj§d ùLôsÞUôß
AYoLû[ ®iQl©dL úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬PØm AYoLs úRoÜ
ùNnÙm ùUô¯ Tt±Ùm
AYoLû[ AûZdÏm Øû\Lû[l Tt±Ùm
úLhÓd ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬u
YZdL±OoLû[Ùm YWúYtL úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvR Øû\«p CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm AYoLÞûPV
YZdL±OoLÞdÏ HRôYÕ Øu AàTYm
Es[Rô GuTûR úLhP±V úYiÓm,
 RuàûPV TôWThNªuûU Utßm
NôoTt\ RuûUl Tt± A±®dL úYiÓm,
 UkRQm LôjRp. RÏkR
YôojûRLû[l TVuTÓjÕRp. EPpùUô¯.
úSÚdÏ úSo TôojÕ úTÑRp B¡VYt±u
Ød¡VjÕYjûR EQojR úYiÓm,
 CmØû\ JÚYûW JÚYo
G§Wô°VôL LÚRôR Øû\ Gußm C§p
Nôh£VeLs T§Ü ùNnVlTPôÕ. ¾ol×
A°dLlTPôÕ Gußm A±ÜßjR úYiÓm,
 CmØû\ Ru²fûNVô]
RuûUûV EûPVÕ Guß A±ÜßjR
úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]o Utßm
AYoLÞûPV YZdL±OoLÞdÏ AYoLs
YôÕûWL°p á±Ùs[Yt±tÏ úUXôLÜm.
úYß RLWôßLû[l Tt±Ùm CmØû\«p
úT£j ¾ojÕd ùLôs[Xôm Gu\ RLYûX
ùLôÓdL úYiÓm,
25
 ©uTt\ úYi¥V SûPØû\ûV
®[d¡d á± R²lThP AUoÜLÞm
CÚdLdáÓm GuTûR ®[dL úYiÓm,
 Ø¥Ü JlTkRm CÚkRôp ApXÕ
CpXô®hPôp Øû\úV ARtϬV
SûPØû\Lû[Ùm ®[d¡d á\ úYiÓm,
 ¿§Uu\ LhPQm. Ø¥Ü JlTkRm
ûLùVÝj§hPl ©u]o §Úl© A°dLlTÓm
GuTûR ùR¬®dL úYiÓm,
CÚRWl©]ÚdÏm Uj§VvR Øû\ úYiÓm
GuTûR Uj§VvRo EߧlTÓjRd
ùLôs[ úYiÓm, CÚ RWl©]¬u §¼o
EQof£ ùY°lTôÓ
Lû[ LhÓlTÓjÕRp. ¨oYôL
£dLpLû[ ¨oY¡jRp (KnÜ úSWm.
YzeÏm Øû\ úTôu\ûY) B¡VûY
Uj§VvR¬u ùTôßlTôÏm, úUÛm. CÚ
RWl©]Úm LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V
SûPØû\Lû[ ùR°YôL ׬kÕ
ùLôiÓs[]Wô GuTûR EߧlTÓjRd
ùLôs[ úYiÓm, GkR RWl©]o
úYiÓUô]ôÛm ØR- p úTNXôm, B]ôp.
ARtÏ Øu× CÚYÚdÏm NUUô] Yônl×
ùLôÓdLlTÓm GuTûR Uj§VvRo á\
úYiÓm,
Uj§VvRj§u ¨ûXLs Utßm AUoÜLs
A±ØLj§tÏ ©\Ï ¸rdLiP ¨ûXLs
ùRôPÚm,
 ©WfNû]ûV
׬kÕdùLôsÞm ¨ûX
 úRûYLs Utßm
®ÚlTeLû[ ׬kÕ ùLôsÞm ¨ûX
 ©WfNû]ûV YûWVßdÏm ¨ûX
 ¾oÜ LôQ úYi¥V
®`VeLû[ AûPVô[m LôÔm ¨ûX
 ùYqúYß Y¯Lû[ AûPVô[m
LôÔm ¨ûX
 ¾oÜLû[ U§l©Óm ¨ûX
CkR ùYqúYß ¨ûXLû[j ùRôPokÕ
áhPUoÜLs Utßm R²lThP AUoÜLs
CÚdLXôm,
áhPUo®p.
 CÚ RWl©]Úm AYoLÞûPV
YZdL±OoLÞm CÚlTôo;
 G§o RWl©]ûW úYRû]lTÓjÕm
YûL«p GûRÙm á\úYiPôm Guß CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm BúXôNû] YZeLlTÓm,
AjRûLV RLYpLs R² AUoÜL°p
á\Xôm GuTÕm ùR¬®dLlTÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]o AYoL[Õ
YZdL±OoLs RûP«pXôUp úTN
AàU§dLl TÓYo,
26
 NôRôWQUôL ØR- p RWl©]Úm
ARtÏ ÕûQ ùNnÙm YûL«p
AYoLÞûPV YZdL±OoLÞm NhP
NmTkRlThP ®`VeLû[l Tt± ùRôPokÕ
úTNXôm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬u SiTo ApXÕ
E\®]oLÞdÏm úTN Yônl× A°dLlTÓm,
 JqùYôÚ RWl©]o YZdL±Oo
úT£ Ø¥jRÕm Uj§VvRo AYoLs
á±VYtû\ ùRôÏjÕ §Úm©d á± HúRàm
®[dLeLs úRûYlThPôp AYtû\d
úLhLXôm,
 JqùYôÚ RWl©]o YZdL±Oo
úUÛm HúRàm RLYûX úNojÕd á\Xôm,
 Uj§VvRo Vôo úTN úYiÓm
Guß úYiÓúLôs ®ÓjRôÛm ARtÏ
CQeL úYiÓm,
 JÚYo úTÑmùTôÝÕ GkRùYôÚ
RûPÙm SÓ®p AàU§dLlTPôÕ,
CqYôß Rôu Uj§VvR Øû\«u
Li¦Vm LôdLlTÓm,
R²lThP AUo®tÏ JÚ RWl©]o
®iQl©dÏm ùTôÝÕ Uj§VvRo
áhPUoûY ØR- p ¨û\Ü ùNnV úYiÓm,
JÚ RWl©]ÚPu R² AUoÜ Ø¥kRûRj
ùRôPokÕ Utù\ôÚ RWl©]ÚPàm R²
AUoÜ CÚdL úYiÓm, Uj§VvRo Øu
áh¥úV CÚ RWl©]ÚPàm CjRûLV R²
AUoÜLs JÚYÚPu Utù\ôÚYûW ®P
A§L úSWm ùNpX Yônl× Es[Õ Guß
ùR°ÜlTÓjR úYiÓm,
Uj§VvRo JÚ R² AUoûY ¸rLiP
LôWQeLÞdLôL TVuTÓjRXôm,
 áhPUoÜL°p T¡W Ø¥VôR
R²lThP ®`VeLs Utßm
RLYpLû[ T¡okÕ ùLôs[
 GkRùYôÚ RWl©]¬u SPjûRûV
LhÓlTÓjR
 Uj§VvR Øû\«p úRdL ¨ûX
HtThPôp
 ºWô] Øû\«p CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm
ReL[Õ EQof£Lû[ ùY°lTÓjR
AàU§dL
 GRôojRUt\
G§oTôol×Lû[ ùY°lTÓj§ AûY
SûPØû\dÏ JqYôÕ GuTûR ùR¬®dL
 LXkÕûWVôPûX ¨ßj§. ¾oÜ
LôÔRûX úSôd¡ ùNpX
 Ø¥Ü JlTkRj§tLô]
Y¯Lû[ BWôV
 JÚ RWl©]¬u Øû]Ü. T§p
Øû]ÜLû[Ùm ØuYÚûL – úLô¬dûLûV
Cuù]ôÚYÚdÏ ùR¬®jRp
27
Uj§VvRo R² AUoûY ¸rLiP
ãr¨ûXL°p R®odL úYiÓm,
 JÚ RWl©]ûW úSW¥VôLúY
CQeL ûYdL Ø¥Ùm Gu\ôp
 JÚ RWl©]o Cuù]ôÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏ Øu× RuàûPV YôRjûR
CQeL ûYdÏm Øû\«p ùR¬®dL
Ø¥Ùm Gu\ôp
Uj§VvRj§u ÖhTeLs
Uj§VvRm GuTÕ
ØWiTôÓLû[ EÚUôtßRp Tt±VRôÏm,
CÚ RWl©]ÚdÏm Es[ úYßTôh¥û]
Uj§VvRo ùY°úVt\ úYiÓm, JÚY¬u
×iTÓjÕm ApXÕ çiÓRXô]
YôdÏêXeLû[ Uj§VvRo NôoTt\
Øû\«p Uôt± çiÓRp CpXôR
YûL«p §Úm©d á± AkR YôdÏêXj§p
Es[ Ød¡V úRûYLû[ UhÓm
ùY°lTÓjR úYiÓm, G-Ó :
Uj§VvRj§uúTôÕ JÚYo Utù\ôÚYûWl
Tt± ""AYo Guû] ªÏ§VôL LhÓlTÓjÕm
TZdLm EûPVYo, G]úY Sôu
GpXôYtû\Ùm Es[Pd¡ ûYjÕd
ùLôs[ Yt×ßjRlThÓsú[u@@ Guß
áß¡\ôo,
CRtÏ Uj§VvRo ""¿eLs áßYûR AYo
ùN® ùLôÓjÕ úLhL úYiÓm Guß
G§oTôod¡ÈoLs@@ Guß Uôt±d á\Xôm,
CqYôß áßYRu êXm JÚ G§oUû\
YôNLjûR BdLléoYUô] YôNLUôL Uôt±d
á\Xôm, úUÛm. AkR YôdÏêXj§u
Ød¡V úSôdLm. ARôYÕ AYo
G§oRWl©]¬u ©WfNû]Lû[ ùN®d
ùLôÓjÕ úLhL úYiÓm GuTûR ùR°YôL
ùR¬®dLXôm,
©\ Uj§VvR ÖhTeLs
 ùRôÏjR°jRp : Uj§VvRo CÚ
RWl©]¬u YôdÏêXeL°u Ød¡V
AmNeLû[ ùR°ÜlTÓj§ ÑÚdLUôL.
ØÝûUVôL. ©ûZ Atß ùRôÏjÕ
A°dLXôm,
 LiúQôhPjûR Ht\p :
Uj§VvRo CÚ RWl©]¬u
YôdÏêXeLû[l Tt±Ùm £k§jÕ
JqùYôÚY¬u LiúQôhPjûRÙm Htß
Øu²ßjÕm YûL«p AûRl Tt± úTN
úYiÓm,
 §ûN §Úl×Rp : Uj§VvRo JÚ
©Wf£û]«- ÚkÕ Utù\ôÚ ©Wf£û]dÏ
CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm §ûN §Úl©
AYoLû[ ®YWeLs ÁÕ LY]m ùNÛjR
ûYjÕ ApXÕ A§L çiÓRXô]
YôdÏêXj§- ÚkÕ AYoLs LY]jûR
§ûN §ÚlTXôm,
 Rs°ûYjRp : JÚ ØWiTôPô]
ãr¨ûXûV R®odÏm ùTôÚhÓ Uj§VvRo
HúRàm JÚ úLs®dLô] T§ûX Rs°
ûYdLXôm, CûR áÓRp RLYp ùTßYRtÏ
28
ApXÕ Y¬ûNVôL
©WfNû]Lû[ ûLVôÞmùTôÚhÓm
ùNnVXôm,
 SPY¥dûL úUtùLôsYRtLô]
Th¥Vp : Uj§VvRo ©WfNû]Lû[ GkR
Y¬ûN«p ®Yô§dL úYiÓm GuTûR
Ø¥Ü ùNnYôo,

T§ÛdÏ U§lÀÓ Ïû\jRûX ûLVôÞRp
 Uj§VvRo JÚ RWl©]¬u
YôdÏêXj§tÏ ùTôßlúTtß Utù\ôÚ
RWl©]o ARtÏ G§oUû\VôL AkR
YôdÏêXm G§o RWl©]Wôp á\lThP
LôWQj§tLôL UhÓúU T§p áßYûR
R®odÏm ùTôÚhÓ RLYûX R]dÏ
ùNôkRUôd¡d ùLôs[Xôm,
JÚ Uj§VvRo CÚ RWl©]¬u
®ÚlTeL°- ÚkÕ AYoLû[ §ûN
§Úl×YRtÏ
 CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm AYoL[Õ
¿iP LôX úSôdLeLû[ LÚj§p
ùLôs[ ùNnÕ ARu êXm HúRàm ùTôÕ
®ÚlTeLs Es[]Yô GuTûR
LiÓ©¥dLXôm,
 úUÛm
RLYpLû[ úNL¬dÏmùTôÚhÓ TpúYß
T§pLs A°dLdá¥V Yônl×ûPV
úLs®Lû[ úLhL úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬PªÚkúR Ø¥ÜdLô]
Y¯Lû[ úLhP±V úYiÓm,
 Ïû\kR Ød¡VjÕYm
ùLôÓdLdá¥VRôL CÚkRôÛm Aû]jÕ
Ø¥Ü Y¯Lû[Ùm ùY°lTÓj§ BúXôNû]
ùNnV úYiÓm,
 Aû]jÕ Y¯Lû[Ùm LY]UôL
BWôV úYiÓm, Hù]u\ôp ¾®WUô]
BWônf£dÏ ©\úL AkR ¾oûY JÚ RWl©]o
Jl×dùLôs[ ØuYWXôm,
 Aû]jÕ ¾oÜ Y¯Lû[Ùm
¸rLiPYtßPu Jl©hÓ TôodL úYiÓm,
o ¿§Uu\m ùNpYÕ êXm
JÚYÚdÏ ¡ûPdLdá¥V ªLf £\lTô]
Ø¥Ü, (B.A.T.N.A. – Best Alternative to a negotiated
agreement).
o ¿§Uu\m ùNpYÕ êXm
JÚYÚdÏ ¡ûPdLdá¥V ªL úUôNUô]
Ø¥Ü, (W.A.T.N.A. – Worst Alternative to a
negotiated agreement).
o ¿§Uu\m ùNpYÕ êXm
JÚYÚdÏ ¡ûPdLdá¥V ªÏkR
Nôj§Vdáß EûPV Ø¥Ü, (M.L.A.T.N.A. –
Most likely alternative to a negotiated agreement).
29
EQof£Lû[ ûLVôÞRp
RuàûPV EQof£Ls ùY°lTÓmúTôÕ
Uj§VvRo AûR GqYôß ûLVô[Xôm
GuTûR Øu áh¥úV úVôNû] ùNnÕ
A±V úYiÓm,
EQof£Lû[ ûLVôÞYRtLô] ùNVp
ÖhTeLs ¸rLiPYôß,
 £X ùY°lTôÓLû[ HtL úYiÓm,
(R²lThP AUoÜL°p CÚkRôp Suß)
 EQof£Ls úSoûUVô]ûYVô
GuTûR AYtû\ SuÏ úLhÓ EߧlTÓjR
úYiÓm,
 AkR EQof£«u êXd
LôWQjûR AûPVô[m ùLôiÓ AkR
EQof£dÏ ¾oÜ LôQôUp AkR
LôWQj§tLô] ¾oûY LôQúYiÓm,
 ºWô] ¨ûXûUûV TôÕLôdL
Øû]V úYiÓm,
 G°Rô] ©WfNû]LÞdÏ
®YôRjûR §ûN §ÚlT úYiÓm,
 ©WfNû]Lû[ Ju\u ©u Ju\ôL
ûLVôÞRp,
 CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm ReLÞûPV
EQof£Lû[ Utù\ôÚYÚPu T¡okÕ
ùLôs[ AûZjÕ AkR ãr¨ûX«u
EQof£léoYUô] RôdLp Tt±
ùY°lTÓjR FdÏ®dL úYiÓm,
 KnÜ úSWm GÓjÕd ùLôsÞRp
Uj§VvRj§p AûU§«u CÚl× ¨ûX
Uj§VvRj§p AûU§ûVl TVuTÓjÕYÕ
Cu±VûUVôRÕ, Uj§VvRo CÚ
RWl©]¬u CûP¨ßjRm Utßm
AûU§L°u Ød¡VjÕYjûRÙm
LôWQeLû[Ùm ׬kÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
ùTÚmTôÛm JÚ AûU§Vô] RÚQj§tÏ
©\Ï Ød¡VUô] RLYpLs
ùY°lTÓjRlTÓm,
AûU§ úTÑm JÚYÚdÏ ¸rLiP
LôWQeL°]ôp ER®VôL CÚdÏm,
 úTÑTYo EûWVôP- u úYLjûR
CRu êXm LhÓlTÓjR AàU§d¡\Õ,
 úTÑYRtÏ Øu× úVô£dL
AYLôNm ¡ûPd¡\Õ,
 úTÑTYo EûWVôPûX ùRôPW
úYiÓUô ApXÕ úYiPôUô Guß úRoÜ
ùNnV AàU§d¡\Õ,
AûU§ úLhTYoLÞdÏ ¸rLiP
LôWQeL°]ôp ER®VôL CÚdÏm,
 JÚY¬u ®ÚlTm. U¬VôûR.
ùTôßûUûV ùY°lTÓjR ERÜ¡\Õ,
 YôojûRVôp á\Ø¥VôR
®`VeLû[ ׬kÕd ùLôs[Üm úTÑTYûW
SuÏ LY²dLÜm Yônl× A°d¡\Õ,
30
Uj§VvRj§p Uu²l× úLôÚRp Utßm
""ØLjûR LôlTôtßRp@@ AÔÏØû\
Uu²l× úLôÚRp GuTÕ G§oYôRm
CpXôUp JÚ RYßdLôL Rôu YÚkÕYRôL
Jl×dùLôsÞRp BÏm, JÚ ùNnûLûV
§Úm© ùT\ Ø¥Vô®hPôÛm AÕ LY²l×
CpXôUp ùNpXô§ÚdL CÕ Ød¡VUô]Õ,
JÚYo Rôu AYUô]lTPd áÓm Guß
AfNlTÓRp JÚ YÛÜûPV EQof£, CÕ
CÚRWl©]Úm ReLÞûPV ¨ûXL°- ÚkÕ
Uô\ôUp CÚdLÜm ¿§Uu\j§p YZdûL
ùRôPWÜm Y¯YÏdÏm, G]úY. Uj§VvRo
CqYô\ô] ãr¨û«p CÚkÕ G°RôL
ùY°úVßm ¾oÜ Y¯Lû[ BWôV úYiÓm,
úRdL ¨ûXûV ûLVôÞRp
úRdL ¨ûXûV G§odùLôsÞmúTôÕ
Uj§VvRo ¸rdLiP HúRàm JÚ
Øû\ûV ûLVô[Xôm,
 R² AUoÜ Utßm
áhPUoÜLû[ Uôt± Uôt± úUtùLôiÓ
CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm AYoLÞûPV YZdÏ
GqY[Ü ºWô]Õ GuTûR A±V ùNnV
úYiÓm,
 JÚ RWl©]¬u YZdL±Oo
RuàûPV Lh£ LôWÚdÏ NhPj§]ôp HtL
Ø¥VôR BúXôNû] ùLôÓjÕ AYo
¿§Uu\j§p ùYt±VûPVXôm Guß
ùTônVô] YôdÏ A°j§ÚkRôp AkR
YZdL±OÚPu R² AUoûY
úUtùLôs[Xôm,
 CÚ RWl©]ûWÙm GfN¬jÕ
Aû]YûWÙm Juß úNojÕ ©WfNû]ûV
HtL ùNnVXôm,
 LûP£ LhPj§p ¾oûY úSôd¡
ùNpXdá¥V GkRùYôÚ ØVt£ûVÙm
AàU§dLXôm,
 ãZûX Uôt± Aû]YûWÙm
Cû[lTô\ ûYdL SûLfÑûYûV
TVuTÓjRXôm,
 Jl×Rp EûPV ®`VeLû[l
Tt± ÁiÓm úTNXôm,
 G°Rô] ©WfNû]Lû[l Tt±
ùRôPokÕ ®Yô§dLXôm,
 CÚ RWl©]ûWÙúU úRdL ¨ûX
LôWQjûRl Tt± úLhLXôm,
 CjRûLV úRdL ¨ûXûV
AÔÏYRtLô] Y¯Lû[Ùm
Aû]Y¬PØm úLhLXôm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬u EûZl× Utßm
NôRû]Lû[ ×LrkÕ á\Xôm,
 JÚYo Utù\ôÚY¬u
©WfNû]ûVl Tt± £k§dÏUôß
®iQl©dLXôm,
31
 CÕYûW«Ûm ¨LZôR
NmTYeLû[ A¥lTûPVôL ùLôiP
(hypothetical) ¾oÜLû[ Øu ûYdLXôm,
 Uj§VvRjûR Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm
Guß BúXôNû]d á\Xôm ApXÕ
TVØßjRXôm,
 JÚ YpÛ]o ApXÕ êu\ôm
ST¬u TeúLtûT LÚÕUôß úVôNû]
á\Xôm,
 EQof£ ùY°lTôÓLû[ AàU§
dLXôm,
 Uj§VvR Øû\«- ÚkÕ
RtLô- LUô] KnÜ GÓjÕd ùLôs[Xôm,
Ø¥Ü JlTkRm
Ø¥Ü JlTkRm GÝj§p CÚdL úYiÓm
úUÛm
 CÚ RWl©]¬u G§oLôX E\Ül
Tt±V YôdÏêXjûR ùLôi¥ÚdL úYiÓm,
 JlTkRjûR ùNVp
Øû\lTÓjÕYRtÏ CÚ RWl©]¬u
ùTôßlûT Tt± ®[dL úYiÓm,
 ùR°YôL. ØÝûUVôL.
ùNVpØû\lTÓjRdá¥VRôL SûPØû\dÏ
ELkRRôL CÚjRp úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]¬u
XôTeLû[ ©W§T- dL úYiÓm, úUÛm
NUUôL CÚdL úYiÓm,
 Vôo ÁÕm T¯ ÑUjRôUp
BdLléoYUôL CÚdL úYiÓm,
 ¿§Uu\ ¾olûTl úTôu\
ùUô¯«p CpXôUp CÚdL úYiÓm,
Ø¥Ü JlTkRm Uj§VvRWôp Yû]VlTP
úYiÓm, CpûXùVu\ôp CÚ RWl©]o
áP CûR Yû]VXôm, CûR Yû]Ùm
Uj§VvRo YônùUô¯VôL Aû]jÕ
JlTkR ¨TkRû]Lû[Ùm á± Aû]jÕ
ùNôtL°u ùTôÚû[Ùm
®[d¡ ¨TkRû]Lû[ EߧlTÓj§d
ùLôiP ©u]úW AûR GÝjÕ Y¥®p
Uôt\Xôm,
CqYô\ô] JlTkRjûR Yû]ÙmúTôÕ
Uj§VvRo áoûUVVô] / ϱlTô]
ùNôtLû[ TVuTÓj§ GkR®R
NkúRLjûRÙm GÝlTdá¥V
ùNôtLû[ R®odL úYiÓm,
GÓjÕLôhPôL ¨VôVUô]. ®ûW®p.
A¥dL¥. JjÕûZl×.
SûPØû\lTÓjRdá¥V úTôu\ûY,
ùR°YôL GûR. Vôo. GlùTôÝÕ. GqYôß.
GlT¥. GkR A[®p. GkR LôXj§p ùNnYôo
GuTûR ϱdL úYiÓm,
CkR JlTkRm ùR°Yô] ùUô¯«p CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm HtLdá¥V ùUô¯«p CÚdL
32
úYiÓm, Ø¥kR A[®tÏ NhPm NôokR
YôojûRLû[ R®odLXôm,
JlTkRj§u CÚ RWl©]Úm JlTkRj§u
JqùYôÚ Rô°Ûm ûLùVÝj§P úYiÓm,
YZdL±Oo AYÚûPV Lh£dLôW¬u
ûLùVÝjûR CߧlTdLj§p
AjRôh£ ùNnV úYiÓm, CÚ RWl©]Úm
ûLùVôlTm ChPÜPu Uj§VvRo
JlTkRj§p ûLùVÝj§hÓ JqùYôÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm JÚ SLûX A°dL úYiÓm,
Uj§VvRjûR Ø¥Ü ùNnRp
Uj§VvR Øû\ CÚ RWl©]¬u ØVt£«u
®û[YôRXôp Uj§VvRo ARu Ø¥Ü
ºWôL CÚlTRtÏ ØVt£ ùNnV úYiÓm,
CÚ RWl©]Úm GkR ùYôÚ Ø¥®tÏm
YW®pûX Gu\ôp Uj§VvRo
AÕYûW«Ûm SPkÕs[ Øuú]t\j§tÏ
AYoLû[ Yôrj§ G§oLôXj§p Ø¥Ü
HtTPXôm Gu\ Sm©dûLûV ùR¬®dL
úYiÓm, úRôp®VûPkR Uj§VvRm Guß
GÕÜm ¡ûPVôÕ,
CÚ RWl©]Úm HúRàm JÚ Ø¥®tÏ
YkRôp Uj§VvRo AYoLû[ YôrjR
úYiÓm, Ø¥Ü JlTkRj§u úR§«p
Uj§VvRØm Ø¥YûPÙm,
Uô§¬ E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\ Uj§VvR
®§Ls. 2003
Uj§VvR Øû\Lû[l ùTôßjÕ JÚ
ØÝûUVô] NhPm Ck§Vô®p CpûX
Gu\ôÛm EfN¿§Uu\m Aû]jÕ EVo
¿§Uu\eLÞm NhP BûQVj§]ôp
YûWVlThP Uô§¬ E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\
Uj§VvR ®§Ls. 2003 I
úYßTôÓLÞPú]ô CpXôUúXô
TVuTÓjRXôm Guß T¬kÕûW ùNnÕs[Õ,
(Salem Bar Association V. Union of India, AIR 2005
SC 3353).
CkR ®§Ls Uj§VvRûW ¨VªdÏm Øû\.
Uj§VvR¬u RϧLs Utßm Uj§VvRm
ùNnV úYi¥V SûPØû\ Tt± áß¡\Õ,
®§ 12 Uj§VvRo Ck§V Nôh£Vf NhPm
1872 Utßm E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\
NhPj§tÏ CQeL úYiPôm
Gußm ¨VôVm Utßm ¿§ NôokR
ùLôsûLLÞdÏ CQe¡ CÚRWl©]¬u
E¬ûULs Utßm LPûULû[ U]§p
ùLôiÓ Y¦L TVuTôÓLs Utßm
NiûP«u RuûUûV A±kÕ ùNVpTP
úYiÓm Guß áß¡\Õ,
®§ 16 Uj§VvRj§p Uj§VvR¬u TeÏ
Tt± ®[dÏ¡\Õ, Uj§VvRo CÚ
RWl©]Úm RôUôLúY RLWôßdÏ Ø¥Ü
LôQf ùNnV Y¯ ùNnRp úYiÓm, úUÛm.
JÚ RWl©]¬u LiúQôhPjûRl Tt±
Cuù]ôÚ RWl©]ÚdÏ á±. Ød¡VUô]
©WfNû]Lû[ AûPVô[m LiÓ. RY\ôL
׬kÕdùLôsÞRûX R®ojÕ. CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm GÕ Ød¡Vm GuTûR
33
LiP±kÕ TpúYß ®ReL°p ¾oÜ LôQ
Y¯Lû[ BWônkÕ Ø¥ùYÓdÏm ùTôßl×
CÚRWl©]ûWÙm NôokRÕ GuTûR GÓjÕ
EQojR úYiÓm, Uj§VvRo
GkRùYôÚ ¨TkRû]ûVÙm LhPôVlTÓj§
HtLf ùNnVdáPôÕ,
®§ 17 CÚ RWl©]o UhÓúU AYoLÞûPV
Ø¥ÜdÏ ùTôßl× Gußm Uj§VvRo
GkR®RUô] Ø¥ûYÙm LhPôVlTÓjR
Ø¥VôÕ Gußm áß¡\Õ, úUÛm.
Uj§VvRm Ø¥Ü JlTkR§p ¨û\YûPÙm
Guß GkR EjRWYôRØm Uj§VvRo
ùLôÓdL CVXôÕ,
CkR ®§L°p Uj§VvR Øû\L°p
UkRQm LôjRûXl Tt± LÓm
LhÓlTôhÓûPV ©¬ÜLs YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
®§ 11 Uj§VvRo CÚRWl©]ûWÙm R²VôL
Nk§jÕ úTN Y¯ YÏd¡\Õ, ®§ 20 UkRQm
LôdL úYiÓm Gu\ ¨TkRû]ÙPu GkR
RWl©]Úm JÚ RLYûX Uj§VvRÚdÏ
A°jRôp AûR Utù\ôÚ RWl©]ÚdÏ
ùY°lTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ Guß RûP ®§d¡\Õ,
Uj§VvR Øû\l Tt±V Aû]jÕ
®`VeLû[Ùm UkRQm LôdL úYiÓm
Gußm. CkR Øû\«u êXm ùT\lTÓm
GkR RLYûXÙm Nôh£VôL úYß GkR
SPY¥dûL«Ûm ¸rLiPYtû\ ùTôßjÕ
A±ØLlTÓjRdáPôÕ Guß
á\lThÓs[Õ,
 Uj§VvR Øû\«u ùTôÝÕ
ùY°YÚm GkR®R Jl×Rp ApXÕ JÚ
RWl©]¬u LiúQôhPm
 UkRQUôL A°dLlTÓm
BYQeLs. YûWÜLs Utßm RLYpLs
 JÚ RWl©]o Ø¥ÜdLô]
Øû]ûY Jl×dùLôiPôWô CpûXVô
GuTûRl Tt±V RLYp
Uj§VvRo ¿§Uu\j§Pm JÚ RWl©]o
Uj§VvRj§tÏ YW®pûX Gußm CÚ
RWl©]¬u NmURjÕPu AYÚûPV
U§l©p AkR YZdÏ Uj§VvR êXm
Ø¥YûPVdá¥VÕ ApX Gußm CÚ
RWl©]Úm RLWôÚdÏ Ø¥Ü LiÓs[]o
GuTûR UhÓúU T¡WXôm Guß ®§ 21
áß¡\Õ,
®§ 24 CÚRWl©]¬ûPúV Yû]VlTÓm
JlTkRjûR GÝjÕ Y¥®p Uôt±
ûLùVôlTm CP úYiÓm Guß áß¡\Õ,
CkR JlTkRm úUp SPY¥dûLdLôL JÚ
L¥RjÕPu Uj§VvR¬]ôp ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
AàlTlTÓm, ¿§Uu\m ®§ 25T¥ CûR
EjRWYôL Uôt± BûQl ©\l©dÏm, CkR
JlTkRm êXm YZd¡u JÚ Tϧ
UhÓúU ¨û\YûPkRôÛm ¿§Uu\m AkRl
TϧûVl ùTôßjÕ EjRWÜ ©\l©dLXôm,
Ø¥YûPVôR ©\ TϧûV Tt± ¿§Uu\m
Ø¥Ü ùNnR ©\ÏRôu BûQ ©\l©dL
úYiÓm Gu\ AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ, CkR
34
CÚ TϧLÞm ©¬dLd á¥VÕ CpûX
Gu\ôp ¿§Uu\m ÁRØs[ TϧLÞm
Ø¥YûPYRtÏ LôdL úYiÓm,
®§ 27 Uj§VvR¬u Suù]± RWm ϱjÕ
áß¡\Õ
 ®§Lû[ ºWô] Øû\«p
LhÓlTôhÓPu LûPl©¥dL úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvR¬u ùTôßl©tÏ JqYôR
YûL«p SûPjûRûV úUtùLôs[d áPôÕ,
 Uj§VvR
Øû\«u ¨VôVjûRÙm
Li¦VjûRÙm ¨ûX¨ßjR úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvRj§p TeúLtÏm CÚ
RWl©]Úm A§p Es[ SûPØû\Lû[l
Tt± SuÏ A±kÕs[]o GuTûR
EߧlTÓjR úYiÓm,
 ùRô¯pçVô] YûL«p CkR
Uj§VvRjûR úUtùLôiÓ ¨û\Ü ùNnV
Rϧ Es[Õ GuTûR EߧlTÓj§d
ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvRj§u TôWThNªuûUûV
Tô§dÏm YûL«p GkRùYôÚ E\Ü ApXÕ
®ÚlTm CÚkRôÛm AûR ùY°lTÓjR
úYiÓm, ApXÕ AYo NôoTtß CÚlTôo
GuT§p NkúRLm GZdá¥V YûL«p
HúRàm CÚkRôÛm AûR ùY°lTÓjR
úYiÓm,
 CÚ RWl©]ÚPàm úTfÑ YôojûR
SPjÕm úTôÕ Nôo× RuûUûV
ùY°dLôhÓm YûL«p SPkÕ
ùLôs[dáPôÕ,
 RÏkR NhPlT¥ UhÓúU RLWôû\l
ùTôÚjR Aû]jÕ SPY¥dûLLÞm
úUtùLôs[úYiÓm,
 Uj§VvR Øû\ CÚ RWl©]¬u
ÑV ¨oQVj§u A¥lTûP«p SPd¡\Õ
GuTûRÙm CkR Øû\«p CÚ RWl©]Úm
RôUôLúY HúRàm JlTkRjûR HtTÓj§d
ùLôs[ úYiÓm GuTûR Ae¸L¬dL
úYiÓm,
 ÅQôL Ø¥ÜLs Tt± Ej§WYôRm
ùLôÓlTûR RÓjÕ UkRQm LôjRûXl
Tt±V ¨VôVUô] G§oTôolûT LôdL
úYiÓm,
NUWN Øû\
NUWN Øû\ GuTÕ Uj§VvR Øû\ûV
ϱlTRtÏm £X ùTôݧp TVuTÓjRlTÓm,
£X NhP ¨×QoLs CûR úYß ®RUô] JÚ
Uj§VvR Øû\ Gußm C§p NôoTt\ JÚ
êu\ôYÕ RWl©]o Uj§VvRûW ®P
Cuàm Øû]kÕ CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV
Es[ RLWô±tÏ ¾oÜ LôQ Y¯ YÏlTôo
Guß áßÙs[]o, (Salem Advocates Bar
Association V. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353).
35
NUWNjûR SPjÕm Øû\ ARtϬV
A¥lTûP ®§Ls Utßm Suù]± RWeLs
B¡VûY Uj§VvR Øû\ûVl
úTôu\úRVôÏm,
1996 NhPm NUWN Øû\ûVl ùTôßjR ØRp
ØÝûUVô] NhPUôÏm, CfNhPj§u Tϧ
3 £±V NkRolTeLÞdϬV Uôt\eLÞPu
I,Sô,®u NUNW Øû\ ®§Ls. 1980 I
LûPl©¥jÕs[Õ,
1996 NhPm NUWN SPY¥dûLLû[ HúRàm
JÚ RWl©]¬u AûZl©u úT¬p
ùRôPeÏRp Tt±Ùm (©¬Ü 62). NUWNm
ùNnTY¬Pm YôdÏêXeLû[ NUol©lTûRl
Tt±Ùm. RLWô±u RuûUûV ®[dÏRp
Tt±Ùm ¾odL úYi¥V ©WfNû]Ls
Tt±Ùm áß¡\Õ, (©¬Ü 65), NUWNm ùNnTYo
E¬ûU«Vp SûPØû\ NhPm Utßm
Ck§Vf Nôh£V NhPj§u LhÓdÏs
YWUôhPôo (©¬Ü 66),
NUNWm ùNnTY¬u CÚl× ¨ûX
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 66 NUWNm ùNnTY¬u
CÚl× ¨ûXûV ¸rLiPYôß ®[dÏ¡\Õ,
 NUWNm ùNnTYo RLWô±tÏ ÑêLUô]
¾oÜ LôÔm ùTôÚhÓ CÚ RWl©]ÚdÏm
ÑRk§WUô] TôWThNUt\ YûL«p ER®
ùNnV úYiÓm,
 NUNWm ùNnTYo ¨VôVm. ¿§ B¡V
ùLôsûLL°]ôp LhÓlThÓ CÚ RWl©]¬u
LPûULs Utßm E¬ûULû[ LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ ®VôTôW YZdLeLû[Ùm LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ RLWôû\ Tt±V ãr¨ûXûVÙm
Øu©- ÚkúR CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV
Es[ Y¦L TZLLYZdLeLû[Ùm LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ ùNVXôt\ úYiÓm,
 YZd¡u NkRolT ãr¨ûXLs. CÚ
RWl©]¬u ®ÚlTeLs HúRàm JÚ
RWl©]o NUWNm ùNnTYo RmúUôÓ R²VôL
úTN úYiÓm Guß LÚ§]ôp ARtÏ
CQeÏRp Utßm RLWôßdÏ ®ûWYôL ¾oÜ
LôQ úYiÓm B¡V Aû]jûRÙm
LÚj§p ùLôiÓ NUWN SPY¥dûLLû[ Rôu
Ht\Õ Guß LÚÕm Øû\«p SPjRXôm,
 NUWN SPY¥dûL«u GkR
LhPj§p úYiÓUô]ôÛm NUNWm ùNnTYo
¾oÜdLô] Y¯Lû[ Øu ûYdLXôm, CûY
GÝjÕ Y¥®p CúdLúYiÓùUußm
ARtϬV LôWQeLs ùTôßjR YôdÏêXm
AY£Vm CpûX Gußm á\lThÓs[Õ,
UkRQm LôjRp. NUWNm Øû\«p JÚ
Ød¡VUô] TeÏ Y¡d¡\Õ, 1996 NhPj§u
©¬Ü 69 NUWNm ùNnTYo JqùYôÚ
RWl©]ÚPàm R²VôL Nk§jÕ úTÑYRtÏ
Y¯ ùNn¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 70 UkRQm LôdL
úYiÓm Gu\ ¨TkRû]ÙPu JÚ RWl©]o
NUNWm ùNnTYÚdÏ ùLôÓdÏm GkRùYôÚ
RLYûXÙm ùY°lTÓjRdáPôÕ Guß
RûP ®§d¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 75 úYß GkR NhPj§p
GqYôß á\lTh¥ÚkRôÛm ARtÏ
36
CQeLôUp NUNW
SPY¥dûLLû[ ùTôßjÕ Aû]jÕ
®`VeLÞm UkRQm LôdLlTP úYiÓm
Guß A±ÜßjÕ¡\Õ, CjRûLV UkRQm
LôjRp Ø¥Ü JlTkRj§tÏm
AûR ¨û\úYt\ Utßm ùNVpTÓjR
úRûYlThPôXu± ùTôÚkÕm,
úYß YûL«p CÚ RWl©]¬ûPúV
Jl×dùLôs[lTh¥ÚkRôp Au± 1996
NhPj§u T¥ NUWNm ùNnTYo NUWNm ùNnR
YZdûLl ùTôßjR GkRùYôÚ ¿§Uu\
ApXÕ CûNÜ ¾ol× SPY¥dûL«Ûm
CûNÜ ¾olTô[WôLúYô JÚ RWl©]¬u
YZdL±OWôLúYô ApXÕ HúRàm JÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏ Nôh£VôLúYô CÚdLdáPôÕ
Guß áß¡\Õ, (©¬Ü 80)
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 81u T¥ ¸rLiPYtû\
CÚ RWl©]Úm Nôh£VUôL GkRùYôÚ
CûNÜ ¾ol× SPY¥dûL«Ûm ¿§Uu\m
A±ØLlTÓjRdáPôÕ,
 NUWN Øû\«u ùTôÝÕ
ùY°YÚm GkRùYôÚ LiúQôhPm ApXÕ
Ø¥Ül Tt±V £kRû]Ls
 NUWN Øû\«uúTôÕ ùY°YÚm
GkR®R Jl×Rp
 NUNW ùNnTY¬]ôp Øu
ûYdLlTÓm Øû]ÜLs
 JÚ RWl©]o Ø¥ÜdLô]
Øû]ûY Jl×dùLôiPôWô CpûXVô
GuTûRl Tt±V RLYp
1996 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 73 CÚ RWl©]Wôp
ûLùVôlTªPlTÓm Ø¥Ü JlTkRm
AYoLû[l ùTôßjRYûW«p CߧVô]Õ
Gußm ©ûQdLdá¥VÕ Gußm áß¡\Õ,
CkR JlTkRm NUWNm ùNnTY¬]ôp
AjRôh£ ùNnVlTPúYiÓm, ©¬Ü 74
CjRûLV Ø¥Ü JlTkRj§tÏ ©¬Ü 30u
¸r CûNÜ ¾ol©tÏ YZeLlTÓm
AúR ¨ûXûV YZeÏ¡\Õ. ARôYÕ
¿§Uu\ EjRWûY úTôuß,
CÚ RWl©]WôÛm ûLùVôlTm CPlTÓm
Ø¥Ü JlTkRm E«o ùTßmùTôÝÕRôu
ùYt±LWUô] NUWN SPY¥dûL
Ø¥YûPkRRôL LÚRlTÓm, CjRûLV
JlTkRm Rôu 1996 NhPm ©¬Ü 74u ¸r
CûNÜ ¾ol©tϬV AúR ¨ûXûV
ùTtßs[Õ, (Haresh Dayaram Thakur V. State of
Maharashtra, AIR 2000 SC 2281).
©\ NhPeL°u ¸r NUWN Øû\
TX NhPeLs RLWôßLû[ NUWN Øû\«p
¾ojÕd ùLôsYRtLô]
©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ, CûY
ùRô¯tNôûX RLWôßLs NhPm. 1947. CkÕ
§ÚUQf NhPm 1948. ÏÓmT ¿§Uu\f NhPm
1984. ¡WôU ¨VôVXôV NhPm 2008
úTôu\ûY, 1987 NhPj§u ©¬Ü 20. UdLs
¿§Uu\eL°]ôp YZdÏLs ×Xu
37
ùLôs[lTÓYÕ Tt± áß¡\Õ,
CRuT¥ ¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕ GkRùYôÚ
YZdÏm ¾oÜ LôiTRtLôL UdLs
¿§Uu\j§tÏ AàlTlThPôp
Ak¿§Uu\m GqY[Ü ®ûWYôL Ø¥ÙúUô
AqY[Ü ®ûWYôL A§u ÁÕ SPY¥dûL
GÓjÕ ¿§. ¨VôVm Utßm ©\ NhPd
ùLôsûLLû[ ©uTt± Ø¥Ü ùNnV
Øû]V úYiÓm Guß
A±ÜßjRlThÓs[Õ, 1987 NhPj§u ¸r
¿§Uu\j§tÏ ùNpYRtÏ Øu×
úUtùLôs[lTP úYi¥V NUWNm Utßm
¾oÜ Øû\Ls Tt±Ùm
á\lThÓs[Õ, ¨WkRW UdLs ¿§Uu\j§p
NUWN Øû\«p ¾oÜ LôQ YZdûL
Aàl×YRtÏ Øu× LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V
SûPØû\Lû[Ùm CÕ áß¡\Õ, ¨WkRW
UdLs ¿§Uu\m ÑRk§WUô]. TôWThN
Øû\«p NêLUô] ¾oÜ LôiTRtÏ CÚ
RWl©]ÚdÏm ERY úYiÓm Gußm
CfNhPm áß¡\Õ,




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQH Fohk; NjHT
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;

ghlk; 2: chpikapay; eilKiwr; rl;lk;> 1908>
kw;Wk; fhytuk;Gr; rl;lk; 1963

Kd;Diu
gue;j nghUspy; $w Ntz; Lkhdhy;> rl;lq;fs;
,uz;L tifg;gLk;: m) epiyKiwr;rl;lk; kw;Wk;
M) eilKiwr; rl;lk;. epiyKiwr;rl;lk; ,U
jug;Gfspd; chpikfs; kw;Wk; flikfisf;
$Wk;NghJ> eilKiwr; rl;lq;fNsh nray;fs;>
eilKiw> me;j chpikfs; flikfis
mKyhf;Fk; Jiwfs; gw;wpf; $Wfpd;;wd.
chpikapay; eilKiwr; rl;lk;> 1908 (“the
Code”) rptpy; eP jpkd;wq; fspy; vt;thW
eilKiwr; rl;lk; filgpbf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;
vd;gJ gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. me;jr; rl;lj;jpy; gy
jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl;Ls;sd. mtw;wpy;
Fwpg;gplj; jf;fitfshf jpUj;jq;fs; 1976> 1999>
kw;Wk; 2002 Mfpatw;iwf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.
,r;rl; lk; [k;K fh\;kPH> ehfyhe;J kw;Wk;
goq;FbapdH thOk; gFjpfs; jtpu kw;w vy;yh
,lq;fSf;Fk; nghJthdJ.

,e;jr; rl;lj;ij ,uz;L gFjpfshfg; gphpf;fyhk;:
m) 158 gphpTfis cs;slf;fpa rl;lj;jpd;
ikag; gFjp kw;Wk; M) 51 cj;juTfs;> kw;Wk;
tpjpfis cs;slf;fpa ml;ltizg; gFjp.
,e;jg; gphpTfs; rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;l gFjpfspd;
nghJ newpKiwfs; gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. me;j
ml;ltizg;gFjpNah me;j rl;lg; gFjpia
eilKiwg;gLj;Jk; topfs; gw;wp tpsf;Ffpd;wd.
,e;jg; gphpTfs; rl;lkd;wj;jhy; kl;LNk
jpUj;jg;gl KbAk;. Mdhy;> cj;juTfs; kw;Wk;
tpjpfis caHePjp kd;wq; fNs jpUj;j KbAk;.
,e;jg; gphpTfSk; tpjpfSk; ,izj;Nj thrpf;fg;
gLtNjhL ,izj;Nj fl;likf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;.
,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilNa Kuz; ghL Njhd;Wkhdhy;
rl;lg; gphpTfNs ntw;wpailAk;.

mjpfhu tuk;Gk; fhytiuaiur; rl;lKk;

ve;j xU jdpegUk; kw;w xUtNuhL chpik
rhHe;j jfuhW ,Uf;Fkhdhy; VjhtJ xU
rl;lj;jhy; ntspg;gilahfNth my;yJ kiwKf
khfNth jLf;fhjtiu> mjw;Nfw;w FbAhpik
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk; chpik
cs;sJ. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT 9). (fhz;: tq;fkhkpb
ntq;fl Rghuht; vjpH rj;ygs;sp rPj;jhuhkuj; dh
uq;fehafk;kh (1997) 5 SCC 460 jput;
fphPd;/gPy;L ypl;. vjpH `f;fk;rpq;> (2002) 6 SCC
416)

tof;fpidj; njhLf;Fk; xUtH my;yJ rl;l
eltbf;ifiaj; njhlq;Fk; xUtH ‘thjp’
vdTk; tof;ifr; re;jpg;gtH ‘gpujpthjp’ vdTk;
miof;fg;gLtH.

rl;l eltbf;ifiaj; njhlq;Ftjw;F
thjpaplk; Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhf
‘tof;F %yk; ’ ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. ,JNt
tof;fpd; mbg;gil ahFk;. nghJthf ,J xU
mbg;gil cz;ikfspd; njhFg;ghFk;. thjp
ntw;wp ngw Ntz;Lkhdhy; ,e;j cz;ikfis
mtH ep&gpf;f Ntz; Lk;. (fhz;: rjhde;jd;
gj;jpud; vjpH khjtH Rdpy; FkhH> (1998)> 6 10
SCC 514; uh[];jhd; caHePjp kd;w
tof;fwpQHfs; rq;fk; vjpH ,e;jpa muR> (2001)
2 SCC 294; etPd; re;jpuh k[pj;jpah vjpH
kfhuh\;bu muR> (2000) 7 SCC 640).

Fwpg;gpl;l jfuhWf;Fj; jf;fthW thjp
gpujpthjpf;nfjpuhf Fwpg;gpl;l fhy tuk;gpw;Fs;
tof;fpidj; njhLf;f Ntz; Lk;. ,JNt ‘fhy
tuk;G’ fhyk; vd miof;fg; gLfpwJ.
fhytuk;G rl;lk; 1963 (RWf;fkhf fhytuk;Gr;
rl;lk;) tof;Ff;fhd fhy tuk;gpidAk; kw;w
eilKiwfisAk; tiuaWg;gNjhL xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; epWtg;gLk; ntt;NtW
tifahd (tof;Ffs; kw;Wk; Nky; KiwaPLfs;
cl;gl) eilKiwfSf;fhd fhytuk;igAk;
tiuaWf;fpwJ. (fhytiuaiur; rl;lj;jpd;
,izg;Gg; gl;bay;) fzf;Ffs;> xg;ge;jq;fs;>
mirAk; nrhj;Jfs;> jPHkhd mwpf;iffs;>
jPHg;Gfs; kw;Wk; fUtpfs; rhHe;j tof;F
fSf;fhd fhy tiuaiw %d;W
Mz;LfshFk;. mirahr; nrhj;Jfs; rhHe;j
tof;FfSf;fhd fhy tuk;G 12 Mz;LfshFk;.
milkhdk; itf;Feuhy; njhLf;fg;gLk;
tof;Ff;fhd fhytuk;G m) milkhdk;
itf;fg;gl;l mirahr; nrhj;Jf;fis jpUk;gg;
ngWtjw;fhd fhytuk;G 30 Mz;LfshfTk;>
M) milkhdk; itf;FeuplkpUe;J milkhdk;
ngw;wtH mjpfkhf t#ypj;jij milkhdk;
Kbe;jgpd; jpUk;gg; ngWk; fhytuk;G %d;W
Mz;LfshFk;. milkhdk; ngw;wtH
milkhdj;ij milkhd fhy tuk;gpw;F
Kd;dNu Kbj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz; b tof;Fj;
njhLg;ghuhdhy;> mjw;fhd fhytuk;G 30



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
Mz;LfshFk;. ,og;gPL juj; jf;f Fw;wk; rhHe;j gztif rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;G: rl; lj;jpd;


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
tof;fw;fhd fhytuk;G nghJthf xU Mz;Nlh
%d;W Mz; LfNsh MFk;. fhytiuaiur; rl;lk;
1963-dhy; tiuaWf;fg; glhj ve;j xU
tof;fpidAk; njhlq;Ftjw;fhd fhytuk;Gk;
tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk; chpikngw;w ehspypUe;J
%d;W Mz; LfshFk;. (fhytiuaiu rl;lj;jpd;
,izg;Gg; gl;baypy; A113 kw;Wk; A137; gQ;rhg;
muR vjpH FUNjt; rpq;> (1991)> 4 SCC 1)

fhytiur; rl;lj;jhNyh my;yJ NtW ve;jr;
rl;lj;jhNyh tiuaWf;fg;gl;l fhy tuk;Gf;Fs;
rl;l eltbf;if njhlq;fg;glh tpl;lhy;
mt;tof;fpid ,e;j xU fhuzj; jpw;fhfNt
gpujpthjpahy; jdJ ghJfhg;Gf;fhf ,J
Rl;bf;fhl;lg;glh tpl;lhYk; js;Sgb nra;a
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F chpik cs;sJ. (S3 –
fhytiuaiur; rl;lk;> 1963)> tP.vk; ry;nfsfhH
md; gpu. vjpH kHkNfhth JiwKff; fofj;jpd;
nghWg;ghsHfs;> (2005) 4SCC 613). ,Ug;gpDk;
tof;Fj; njhlq;Ftjw;fhd fhy tuk;gpw;Fs;
tof;Fj; njhLf;fhjjw;fhd fhuzj;ij
ePjpkd;wk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; tpjj;jpy; tof;fhsp
fhuzq;fis mspj;jhy; me;j fhyjhkj;ij
kd;dpg;gjw;F ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mjpfhuk; cs;sJ.
(S 5, fhytiur; rl;lk;> 1963)> Ntjgha; vjpH
rhe;jhuhk; ghGuht; ghl;by; (2001) 9SCC 106). xU
xg;ge;jk; njhlHe;J kPwg;gLkhdhy; my;yJ
,og;gPL Nfhuj;jf;f Fw;wk; njhlHe;J ,iof;fg;
gLkhdhy; mj;jifa Fw;wk; ,iof;fg;gLk;
xt;nthU KiwAk; Gjpjhf ,e;jf; fhy tuk;G
njhlq;FfpwJ. (fhytiuaiur; rl;lk; 1963> S 22)

jfuhW fhuzkhf rl;l eltbf;if thjpahy;
njhlq;Fg; gLtjw;F Kd; me;j tof;fpid
tprhhpg;gjw;Fk; jPHg;gspf;fTk; chpa mjpfhu
tuk;Gs;s nghWj;jkhd ePjpkd;wk; vJ vd;gij
thjp jPHkhdpf;f Ntz; Lk;. (fhz:
mjpfhug; G+Htkhd nghWg;ghsH vjpH rr;rpe;jpuh
ehj; rhl;lH[p> AIR 1969 SC 823) gue;Jgl;l
nghUspy; $Wtjhdhy; mjpfhu tuk;G ,uz;L
tifg;gLk;:

 gug;ngy;iy rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;G: xt;nthU
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mjw;nfd gug;ngy;iy rhHe;j
mjpfhu tuk;G cs;sJ. mijj;jhz;b
mjdhy; jdJ mjpfhuj; ijr; nrYj;j
,ayhJ. xU khtl;l ePjpgjpapdhy; me;j
Fwpg;gpl;l khtl;lj;jpw;Fs; kl;LNk jdJ
mjpfhujk; nrYj;j KbAk;. mijj;jhz;br;
nrYj;j ,ayhJ.
ghHitapy; xU ePjpkd;wk; gzk; rhHe;j
jdJ mjpfhu vy;iyf;Fs; cs;s
tof;Ffis kl;LNk vLj;J tprhhpf;f
,aYk;. mjhtJ> gzk; rhHe;j mjpfhu
vy;iy vd;gJ tof;fpd; gz
kjpg;Gf;Nfw;wthW mij tprhhpf;Fk;
ePjpkd;wk; NtWgLfpwJ.

fPNo fhzg;gLk; mjpfhu tuk;G rhHe;j
tpjpfis kdjpy; ,Wj;j Ntz; Lk;.
 xU tof;F mjw;fhd kpff; Fiwthd
mjpfhu tuk;Gs;s ePjpkd;wj;jhy; tprhhpf;fg;
gl Ntz; Lk; vd rl;lj;jpd; S.15 $WfpwJ.
vdNt> thjp jdJ tof;fpd; kjpg;gpid
Kjypy; njhpe;Jnfhz;L mjw;Nfw;w gzk;
rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;Gs;s ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
tof;fpidg; gjpT nra;a Ntz; Lk;.
 mirahr; nrhj;J rhHe;jitgw;wpf; $Wk;
rl;lj;jpd; S.16 fPo;f;fhz;git rhHe;j
tof;Ffs; me;j mirahr; nrhj;J ve;j
ePjpkd;w gug; ngy;iy rhHe;j mjpfhu
tuk;Gf; Fs; cs;sNjh me;j ePjp
kd;wj;jhNyNa tprhhpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk; vdf;
$WfpwJ: m) mirhar; nrhj;J thlif
kw;Wk; yhgj;NjhNlh ,y;yhkNyh kPl;gJ> M)
mirahr; nrhj;Jg; ghfg;gphptpid> ,)
mirhar; nrhj;J rhHghd milkhd fhyk;
KbAKd; Kwpg;gJ> tpw;gJ> kPl;gJ Mfpad>
<) mirhar; nrhj;jpd;kPJ NtW ve;j xU
KiwaPLk;> c) mirahr; nrhj;Jf;fhd
Nrjhu ,og;gPL> C) mirAk; nrhj;J
gwpKjy; nra;ag;gl;lhy;. me;j gug;ngy;iy
rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;G cs;s ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
tprhhpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. rl; lj;jpd; S.16
caHePjp kd;wj;jpd; mry; FbAhpik rhHe;j
mjpfhu tuk;gpidr; nrYj;Jtjpy; caHePjp
kd;wj;jpw;Fg; nghUe;jhJ. mjhtJ> tof;F
Neubahf caHePjp kd;wj;jpw;F tUk;NghJ
,J nghUe;jhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; S.120)
 gug;ngy;iy rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;Gila
ntt;NtW ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fl;gl;l ve;j xU
mirahr; nrhj;J rhHe;j tof;fpidAk;
mNjNghd;w ve;j xU ePjpkd;wj;jpYk; rl;l
eltbf;ifiaj; njhlq;fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
S.17). rl;lj;jpd; S.17 caHePjp kd;wj;jpd;
mry; FbAhpik rhHe;j mjpfhu tuk;gpidr;
nrYj;Jtjpy; caHePjp kd;wj;jpw;Fg;
nghUe;jhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; S.120)
 xU egUf;F vjpuhfNth my;yJ mtuJ


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5
mirAk; nrhj;jpw;F vjpuhfNth Fw;wk;
,iof;fg;gl;lhy; mf;Fw;wk; vq;F ele;jNjh
me;j gug;ngy;iyia mjpfhu tuk;ghff;
nfhz;l ePjpkdwj;jpNyh my;yJ gpujpthjp
mspf;fpd;wdH. ,jpy; egH-1 kw;w ,Uthpd;
kPJk; tof;F %yk; eilngw;w
myfhghj;jpNyh my;yJ egH-2 thOk;
nfhy;fj;jhtpNyh my;yJ egH-3 thOk;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
ve;j ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gug;ngy;iy rhHe;j
mjpfhu tuk;Gf;Fs; tho;fpwhNuh my;yJ jq;fp
gzp GhpfpwhNuh> my;yJ njhopy; GhpfpwhNuh
me;j ePjp kd;wj;jpNyh ,og;gPl;Lf;fhd
tof;fpidj; njhLf;fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; S.19).
tpsf;fk; : nrd;idapy; thOk; egH-1
[gy;G+hpy; egH-2 I jhf;FfpwhH. egH-2
[gy;G+hpNyh my;yJ nrd;idapNyh egH-1 f;F
vjpuhf tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.

tpsf;fk;: rd;idapy; thOk; egH-1 [gy;G+hpy;
egH-2 Ig; gw;wp mtJ}whf vOJfpwhH. egH-2
[gy;G+hpNyh my;yJ nrd;idapNyh egH-1 f;F
vjpuhf tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.
 NkNy $wg;gl;lit jtpu gpw tof;Ffs;
fPo;f;fhZk; ve;j xU ePjpkd;wj;jpYk;
njhlq;fg; glyhk;: (m) tof;F %yk;
KOikahfNth gFjpahfNth njhlq;Fk;
,lk;. (M) gpujpthjp thOk; my;yJ
gzpGhpAk; my;yJ njhopy; GhpAk; ,lk;> (,)
xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l gpujpthjpfs; cs;sNghJ
ve;jxU gpujpthjp thOk; my;yJ gzpGhpAk;
my;yJ njhopy; GhpAk; ,lk; Mfpatw;wpy;
VjhtJ xd;wpy;. Mdhy;> mg;gb tof;Fj;
njhlq;Ftjw;F gpujpthjp vjpHg;Gj;
njhptpj;jpUe;jhy; eP jpkd;wj;jpd; ePjpkd;wj;jpd;
Kd; mDkjp ngwhky; tof;Fj; njhLf;f
,ayhJ. my;yJ mg;gFjpapy; thohj
gpujpthjp tof; F NtnwhU ,lj;jpy; elg;gij
rfpj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; S.20).

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 ngq;fSUtpy; thOk; xU
tpahghhp. egH-2 nrd;idapy; thOk; xU
tpahghhp. egH-2 ngq;fSUtpy; cs;s jdJ
KftH %yk; egH-1-lkpUe;J nghUl;fis
thq;fp mtw;iw egH-1-I fpof;F ,e;jpa
uapy; Nt fk;ngdpapy; NrHf;FkhW $WfpwhH.
,q;F egH-1 egH-2-d; kPJ mg;nghUs; kjpg;gpd;
kPjhd tof;fpid tof;fpd; %yk; eilngw;w
ngq;fSUtpNyh my;yJ egH-2 thOk;
nrd;idapNyh tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 lhH[pypq;fpy; tho;fpwhH. egH-2
nfhy;fj;jhtpYk; egH-3 Kk;igapYk;
tho;fpd;wdH. %tUk; myfhghj;jpy;
cs;sNghJ egH-2 kw;Wk; egH-3 ,UtUk;
,ize;J gzf; Nfl; Nghiyia egH-1-f;F
Kk;igapNyh tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;. Mdhy;>
me;j ,lj;jpy; thohj gpujpthjp vjpHj;jhy;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wp tof;Fj;
njhLf;f ,ayhJ. rl;lj;jpd; S.20 caHePjp
kd;wj;jpd; mry; FbAhpik rhHe;j mjpfhu
tuk;gpidr; nrYj;Jtjpy; caHePjp
kd;wj;jpw;Fg; nghUe;jhJ vd;gij kdjpy;
,Wj;j Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; S.120)
 nghJ tpjpahf> xg;GjNyh> chpikia
tpl;Lf;nfhLg;gNjh my;yJ rfpg;Ngh xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mjpfhu tuk;gpid mspf;f
,ayhJ. khwhf> tof;Fj; njhLf;f
chpikapy;iy. (g`;nua;d; ngl;Nuhypak;
fk;ngdp ypl;. vjpH gp.n[. ghg;G AIR 1966 SC
634). Mdhy;> ,J jug; gpdhpilNa eilngw;w
rl;lg;G+Hkhd xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lgb
eilngwyhk;. xU tof;F %yk; ntt;NtW
ePjpkd;w mjpfhu tuk;ngy;iyf;Fs;
eilngw;wpUe;jhy; xg;ge;jj;jpy; jug;gpdH
mtHfspilNa jfuhW cUthdhy; ve;j xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;fpidj; njhLf;fyhk;
vdj; njspthf> ntspg;gilahf ,e;jpa
xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; 1872> S.23 f;F vjpuhf
,y;yhj tifapy; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhy; me;j
tof;F xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpf;fg;gl;L
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l ePjpkd;wj;jpy; kl;LNk
tof;Fj; njhLf;f KbAk;. kw;w ve;j xU
ePjp kd;wj;jpYk; me;j tof;F %yk; NtW
ePjp kd;w mjpfhu tuk;Gf;Fs;
eilngw;wpUe;jhYk; me;j ePjp kd;wj;jpy;
tof;Fj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ. (fhz; : Md;ify;
,d;RNyrd;]; vjpH Njtp M\;NkhH ,e;jpah
ypl;. (1995) 4 SCC 153)

fPo;f;fhZk; re;jHg;gq;fspy; tof;Fj; njhLg;g
jpypUe;J rl;lk; thjpf;F tpyf;fspf;fpwJ

 Kd;nkhope;Js;s tof;F Vw;fdNt
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F te;J tof;Fj; njhLf;fj;
jil tpjpf;fg; gl;bUe;jhy; (rl;lj;jpd; S.11)
 tof;if tprhhpj;j ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu
tuk;ig Rl;lbf;fhl;b ePjpkd;w
jPHg;Gf;nfjpuhf Nky; KiwaPL nra;jpUe;jhy;
(rl;lj;jpd; S.21A)
 Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s tof;fpy; jP Hg;G
epiwNtw;Wjy;> ePf;Fjy; mjd;kPJ jpUg;jp




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




Nghd;wtw;wpy; Nfs;tp vOk;NghJ (rl;lj;jpd;
S.47(1); ckhrq;fH vjpH rHg[Pj;> (1996) 2 SCC
371);
ifJ nra;ag;gl;ljw;F ,og;gPL Nfhl;Nlh>
jPHg;Gf;F Ke;ija [g;jp nra;jjw;Nfh>
,ilf;fhyj; jil Nfl; Nlh kDr;
nra;ag;gl;bUe;J mjd;kPJ cj;juT gpwg;gpf;fg;
vLj;Jf; nfhs;SKd; me;j ,U jug; gpdhpilNa
cs;s ,e;jg; gpur;ridapd; tof;F %yk;
kw;nwhU nghUj;jkhd ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ,e;jj;
jug;gpdUf;fpilNa eilngWk; tof;fpd;
NeubahfNth gFjpahfNth tof;F %ykhf
,Uf;fpwjh vdf; ftdpf;f Ntz; Lk;. ,e;j
rl;lg; gFjpapd; Nehf;fk; ntt;NtW
ePjpkd;wq;fs; xNu tof;fid vLj;Jf;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
gl;bUe;jhy; ,og;gPL Nfl;L tof;Fj;njhLf;f
,ayhJ (rl;lj;jpd; S.95(2))
 rl;lj;jpd; S.144(1) d;gb xU kDr; nra;tjd;
%yk; ghpfhuNkh kw;w epthuzNkh ngw
KbAkhdhy; mtw;iwg; ngwj; jdpahf
NtnwhU tof;Fj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ
(rl;lj;jpd; S.144(2)
 tof;fpy; epthuzj;jpd; xU gFjpia
tof;fpypUe;J thjpahy; tpl;bUe;J mjw;fhf
xU gFjp epthuzk; eP jpkd;wj;jpd;
mDkjpapd;wp ngw;wpUe;jhuhdhy; epthuzj;jpd;
kw;nwhU gFjpiag; ngWtjw;fhf tof;Fj;
njhLf;f ,ayhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-9> tpjp
9)
 xU tof;F ntspg;gLj;Jk; cj;juitg;
gpd;gw;wtpy;iy vd;w fhuzj;jhy; js;Sgb
nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhy; thjp kPz;Lk; mNj tof;F
%yj;jpw;fhf tof;Fj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22> tpjp 9)
 thjp Ntz; Lnkd;Nw jdf;Fr; Nru Ntz; ba
chpikia tpl;Lf;nfhLj;jpUe;J mjw;fhf
kw;nwhU GJ tof;Fj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-23> tpjp-1(1))
 thjp jhdhf tof;fpd; xU gFjpapypUe;J
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mDkjpapd;wp xJq;fpf;
nfhs;thuhdhy; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-23> tpjp-
1(3))
 xU rkurj; jPHT rl;lg;G+HkhdJ ,y;iy vd
rkurj; jPHg;Gf;F vjpuhf KiwaPL nra;ag;
gl;bUe;jhy; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-23> tpjp-3-A)
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;G gw;wpa kWg;Gfs;
gpujpthjpahy; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; Kjy;
tprhuizapd;NghNj Kjy; re;jHg;gj;jpNyNa
vOg;gg;gl Ntz; Lk;. gpur;rid jPHf;fg;gl;lhy;
jPHTf;F Kd;dNuh jPHtpd; NghNjh vOg;gg;gl
Ntz; Lk; (rl;lj;jpd; S.21)
Res Sub Judice and Res Judicata
 xU FbAhpik rhHe;j tof;fpidj;
njhLf;FKd; xUtH Res Sub Judice
and Res Judicata Nfhl;ghLfis
kdjpy; ,Wj;j Ntz;Lk;. rl; lj;jpd; S.10 Res
Sub Judice gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ. ve;j xU
ePjpkd;wKk; xU tof;fpid tprhuidf;F
nfhs;sf; $lhJ vd;gNj (xUrpy Neuq;fspy;
xU tof;fpd; tof;F %yk; gy ePjpkd;wq; fspd;
mjpfhu tuk;Gf;Fs; tuyhk;)
rl;lj;jpd; S.11 res judicata Nfhl;ghL gw;wpf;
$WfpwJ. mjhtJ mjpfhu tuk;Gs;s xU
ePjpkd;wj;jhy; xU jfuhW tprhhpf;fg;gl;L
jPHg;gspf;fg; gl;lgpd; mNj jfuhW NtnwhU
tof;fpd; %yk; Gjpjhf tprhhpf;fg;glf; $lhJ.
(fhz;: kdeyk; kw;Wk; euk;gpaYf;fhd Njrpa
epWtdk; vjpH rp. guNk];tuh> (2005) 2 SCC
256). ,e;jf; nfhs;ifapd; Nehf;fk; eP jpj; jPHg;G
xU njhlHfijahf ,y;yhky; mjw;F xU
Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;gNjhL xUtH
xNu fhuzj;jpw;fhf ,UKiw Nehff; $lhJ
vd;gJkhFk;. (fhz;: ghtehuhadRthkpthp
Nfhtpy; vjpH ntq;fl ghtehuhadhrhHAY>
(1970) 1 SCC 673).

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajhf egH-2-d;
kPJ tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhH. me;j tof;F
js;Sgb nra;ag; gLfpwJ. egH-1 mNj
xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajhfTk; mjw;fhfj; jdf;F
ghpfhuk; Ntz; b xU GJ tof;fpid egH-2-f;F
vjpuhfj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ. Vnddpy; mNj
fhuzj;jpw;fhfj; njhLf;fg;gl;l tof;F
js;Sgb nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. res sub judice
Nfhl;ghl;bidg; gpd;gw;w fPo;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfs; NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;:

 mq;F ,U tof;Ffs; xd;W Kjypy;
njhlq;fg;gl;ljhfTk; ,uz; lhtJ mLj;Jj;
njhlq;fg;gl;ljhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 ,uz;lhtjhfj; njhlq;fg;gl;l tof;fpd;
ikag;nghUs; Kjy; tof;NfhL Neubahf
rhpahdjhfr; rhHe;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 ,U tof;FfspYNk thjp gpujpthjp ,U
jug;gpdUNk xNu egHfshfNth mtHfsJ
gpujpdpjpfshfNth ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 Kjypy; njhlq;fg;gl;l tof;F mNj ePjp
kd;wj;jpy; epYitapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghNj
mLj;j tof;Fk; mNj ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh
my;yJ ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ,e;jpa murhy;
Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l my;yJ njhlug;gLk; ve;j
10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10

xU ePjp kd;wj;jpNyh my;yJ cr;r ePjp
kd;wj;jpNyh jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;.
 Kjypy; njhlq;fg;gl;l tof;if tprhhpf;Fk;
ePjp kd;wj;jpw;fhd mjpfhu tuk;gpw;Fl;gl;l
tof;fhf mJ ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. NkYk;>
,U jug;gpdUNk ,U tof;fpYk; mNj ngahpy;
tof;fhl Ntz; Lk;.
Res Judicata Nfhl;ghl; ilf; filgpbf;f fPo;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfs; NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 ePjpj; jPHg;G Nkhrbahfg; ngw;wJ.
,e;jpahtpy; eilKiwapy; cs; s
rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhf chpik NfhUfpwJ.

tof;Ffs;:

tof;F vd; why; xU ePjp kd;wj;jpy; KiwaPL
nra;tjd; %yk; njhlq;fg;gLk; ve;j xU
chpikapay; rhHe;j eltbf;ifAk;; MFk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; S.26 kw;Wk; cj;juT-4 tpjp-1). xU



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
 ,uz;lhtJ tof;fpy; cs;s ika jfuhW
NeubahfTk; cWjpahfTk; Kjy; tof;fpd;
ikaj; jfuhiw xj;jjhf cz;ikahfNth
Mf;fg;G+HtkhfNth ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 Kjy; tof;fpd; thjp gpujpthjpfNs ,uz;lhk;
tof; fpd; thjp gpujpthjpfshfNth
mtHfSf;fbapy; cs;stHfshfNth ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;.
 ,U jUg;gpdUk; mNj ngahpNyNa Kjy;
tof;fpYk; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 Kjy; tof;if tprhhpj;J jPHg;gspj;j ePjp
kd;wk; ,uz;lhtJ tof;ifAk; my;yJ
gpd;dhy; mNj ika gpur;ridf;fhfj;
njhLf;f tpUf;Fk; tof;fpidAk; tprhhpf;Fk;
mjpfhu tuk;G ngw;wjhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
NkYk;>
 ,uz;lhtJ tof;fpy; NeubahfTk;
cWjpahfTk; cs;s ikag; gpur;ridia
mNj ePjpkd;wk; Kjy; tof;fpy; tprhhpj;J
jPHg;G toq;fpapUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
ntspehl;L ePjpj; jPHg;Gfs;
rl;lj;jpd; Ss 13, 14 Mfpad ntspehl;L ePjpj;
jPHg;Gfs; rhHghf mjhtJ xU ntspehl;L
ePjpkd;wj;jhy; tprhhpf;fg;gl;l xU jfuhWf;F
mspf;fg;gl;l jPHg;G rhHghd res judicata
Nfhl;ghl;ilf; $WfpwJ. ,t;thW> jdJ mjpfhu
tuk;Gf;Fl;gl;l tof;fpid tprhhpj;J toq;fg;gl;l
jPHg;Gid ,e;jpa ePjpkd;wj;jhy; nray; gLj;jg;
glyhk;. me;j ,U jug;gpdUf;FkpilNa xU thf
nrayhw;wyhk;. Mdhy;> fPo;f;fhz;git ,jw;F
rpy tpyf;FfshFk;:
 mjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd mjpfhu tuk;Gs;s
ePjpkd;wj;jhy; jPHg;G toq;fg;gltpy;iy.
 tof;fpd; jd;ikf;Nfw;wthW jPHg;G toq;fg;gl
tpy;iy
 tof;F tprhuidapy; ntspg;gilahfNt
gd;dhl;L rl;lq;fis rhpahfg; ghHf;fhkNyh
my;yJ me;j gpur;ridf;Fhpa ,e;jpar;
rl;lj;ij mq;fPfhpf;fhkNyh tprhhpf;fg;gl;lJ.
 ,aw;if ePjpf;F vjpuhd tpjj;jpy;
tprhhpf;fg;gl;L jPHg;G toq;fg; gl;lJ.
KiwaPL vd;gJ chpik NfhUk; xU thf; fpak;
my; yJ xU MtzkhFk; . ,ij rkHg;gpg;gjd; %yk;
tof;F Jtf;fg; gLfpwJ. xt;nthU KiwaPl;bYk;
m/gpltpl; %yk; cz;ikfs; ep&gpf; fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
,e;j m/gpltpl; vd;gJ ele;j cz;ikfis
jd;ikapy; vOj;J %yk; vOjg;gl;L mij xU
rhd;wspf;Fk; mjpfhhp Kd;dpiyapy; cWjpg;gLj;jp
,Uf; f Ntz;Lk; . ngha;ahd m/gpltpl; kPJ
cWjpnkhop mspg;gJ rl;lj;jpd; Kd;dpiyapy;
ngha;r;rhd;W jz;lidf;Fhpa Fw;wkhFk;. (S. 191
,e;jpaj; jz;lidr; rl;lk;> 1860). thjp
NeubahfNth my; yJ jdJ tf;fP y; %yNkh
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; NeH; epiyahfyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
9 tpjp-1) xU thjpahNyh> my; yJ mtuJ
mq;fP fhpf; fg;gl;l gpujpepjpahNyh> my; yJ NtW ve;j
xU gtH M/g; ml;lhHdp –apd; fP o; rhpahd
Kiwapy; rl;lg;g+Htkhf vOj;J %yk; mjpfhuk;
toq;fg;gl;l xUtuhNyh vOj;J %yk; ve;j xU
thJiuQUk; epakpf;fg; gl; bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mt;thwpy; yhky; xU thJiuQH jd; id me; j
thjpf;fhf thjhl ,ayhJ. ,j;jifa xt;nthU
epakdKk; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jhf;fy; nra;ag; gl
Ntz;Lk;.

rpy rpwg;G tof;Ffs;

 murhNyh my;yJ muRf;F vjpuhfNth
my;yJ muR mjpfhhpfSf;F vjpuhfNth
(mjpfhuk; rhHghd) njhLf;fg;gLk;
tof;Ffs;: murpd;kPNjh my;yJ ve;j xU
muR mjpfhhpapd; kPNjh (mjpfhuk; rhHghf)
xUtH tof;fpidj; njhLf;f Ntz; Lkhdhy;
mtUf;Nfh muRf;Nfh ,uz; L khjq;fSf;F
Kd;dNu tof;F %yk;> ngaH>
epfo;e;jtw;wpd; tpsf;fk;> thjpapd; ,Ug;gplk;
kw;Wk; thjp Nfl;Fk; ghpfhuk; Mfpatw;iwf;
Fwpg;gpl;L mwptpg;G mDg;gg; gl;bUf;f
Ntz; Lk; vd rl;lj;jpd; S. 80
Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. xU muR mjpfhhpapd;kPJ
mtuhy; njhpe;Nj ,iof;fg;gl;l xU
mjpfhur; nraYf;fhf tof;F njhlq;fg;
gLkhdhy;> me;j mjpfhhpia ifJ



15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10



nra;jyhfhJ my;yJ mtuJ nrhj;Jfs;
ePjpkd;w Mizapd;wp gwpKjy; nra;a
KbahJ. me;j mjpfhhp ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
NeHepiyahtjhy; mtuJ nghJr; Nritf;Fg;
gq;fkpy;yhky; mtuJ flikahw;W tjpypUe;J
xJq;f ,ayhJ vd ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy;
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; NeHepiyahtjpypUe;J mtUf;F
tpyf;fspf;fyhk;. vd rl; lj;jpd; gphpT-81
$WfpwJ. murpdhNyh my; yJ muRf;F vjpuhfNth
my; yJ muR mjpfhhpf;F vjpuhfNth tof;Fj;
njhlq;fg; gLkhdhy; (mjpfhuk; rhHghdJ )
filgpbf; f Ntz;ba eilKiwfis rl;lj;jpd;
Kjpuh tajpduhNyh mtHfSf;F vjpuhfNth
kw;Wk; kdepiy rhpapy;yhjtHfSf;F
vjpuhfNth njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;Ffs;: Kjpuh
taJilNahuhy; mjhtJ 18 taJ
tuhjtuhy; njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;F ePjp
kd;wj;jhy; mtiuAk; mtuJ nrhj;Jf;fis
Ak; ghJfhf;f epakpf;fg;gl;l mtuJ
ghJfhg;ghsuhNyh neUq;fpa ez;guhNyhjhd;
jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;. (nk[hhpl;b
rl;lk;> 1875 gphpT-3 d;gb xUtH 21
tajile;j gpd;dNu KjpH tajilfpwhH)
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-32 tpjp-1). ,e;j Kjpuh



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
cj;juT-27 tpsf;FfpwJ.
 mayhs; vjphpahy; njhLf; fg;gLk; tof;Ffs;:
,e;jpahtpd; kPJ NghH njhLf;Fk; xU ehl;by;
thOk; xUtH me;j ehl;by; kj;jpa murpdhy;
mjw;fhd mDkjpapd;wp njhopy; nra;J tUk; ve;j
xUtUk; ‘mayhs; vjphp’ vd miof;fg; gLfpwhH.
kj;jpa murpd; mDkjpNahL ,e;jpahtpy;
thOk; mayhs; vjphpfSk; mtHfSila
mayhs; ez;gHfSk; xU nghUj;jkhd
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ,e;jpa Fbkf;fisg; Nghd;Nw
tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> kj;jpa murpd;
mDkjpapd;wp ,e;jpahtpy; thOk; mayhs;
vjphpfs; mt;thW tof;Fj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ.
(rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-83)
 ntspehl;bdhy; njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;F: ,e;jpa
ePjp kd;wk; vjpYk; ntspehl;L muR tof;Fj;
njhLf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> me;j tof;fpd; Nehf;fk;
me;j murpd; Ml;rpahshpd; jdpeyd; rhHe;j
chpikia epiyehl;lNth my;yJ me;j muR
mjpfhhpapd; mtuJ mjpfhuk; rhHe;jjhfNth
,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-86).
 ntspehl;L Ml;rpahsHfs;> J}jHfs; kw;Wk;
J}Jg; gpujpepjpfs; kPjhd tof;ffs;: ve;j xU
ntspehl;bd;kPNjh Ml;rpahsHfspd;kPNjh>
J}jHfs;kPNjh> J}Jg; gpujpepjpfspd;kPNjh
kj;jpa murpd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wp tof;Fj;
njhLf;f ,ayhJ. mg;gb mDkjp toq;f
Ntz; Lkhdhy; mjw;fhd epge;jidfs;
epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghd;W kj;jpa
murpd; mDkjpapd;wp ntspehL> ntspehl;Lj;
J}jH> kw;Wk; ntspehl;Lj; J}Jg; gpujpepjpfs;
MfpNahhpd; nrhj;jpw;F vjpuhf ve;j xU
jPHg;gpidAk; nray;gLj;j ,ayhJ.
mNjNghd;W> ntspehl;L Ml;rpahsiuNah>
J}jHfisNah> J}Jg; gpujpepjpfisNah
fhkd;nty;j; ehLfspd; MizahsiuNah
my;yJ kj;jpa muR Fwpg;gpLk; mtuJ
gzpahsHfisNah ,r;rl;lj;jpd;fPo; ifJ
nra;a ,ayhJ.
tajpduhy; jdJ neUq;fpa ez;ghpd; %yk;
njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;fpw;F gpujpthjpahy;
nrytplg;gl;l njhiff;Nfh my;yJ
xUNtiy nrytplg;glf; $ba njhiff;Nfh
cj;juthjj; njhifia me;j ez;gNu
nrYj;j ePjpkd;wk; cj;jutplyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-32 tpjp-2m). xU Kjpuh tajpdhpd;
kPJ tof;Fj; njhlug; gl;bUe;jhy; me;j
tof;ifr; re;jpg;gjw;F me;j Kjpuh
tajpdUf;fhf xU fhg;ghsiu (ad litem)
ePjpkd;wNk epakpf;fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-32 tpjp-3). ahnuhUtH ey;y
kdeyj;NjhL cs;s KjpH tajile;j
ahnuhUtUk; mtuJ neUq;fpa ez;guhfNth
my;yJ mtuJ fhg;ghsuhfNth ,e;j
tof;fpw;fhfr; nray;glyhk;. Mdhy;> Kjpuh
tajpdhpd; tpUg;gj;jpw;F vjpuh tpUg;gk;
nfhz;ltuhf me;j egH ,Uf;fyhfhJ.
neUq;fpa ez;guhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy;
mtNu gpujpthjpahf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.
fhg;ghsuhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; thjpahf
,Uf;fyhfhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-32 tpjp-4).
Kjpuh taJ thjp KjpH tajile;jhy;
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-32 tpjp-15-y; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
ve;j tifahd eltbf;ifia Ak;
Nkw;nfhs;syhk;. rl; lj;jpd; cj;juT-32-y;
cs;s midj;J \uj;JfSk; (tpjp-2m
jtpu) kdeyk; ,y;yhjtUf; Fk; nghUe;Jk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-32 tpjp-1)
 ,d;lHgpsPlH tof;F: xNu fldpd;kPNjh>
njhifapd; kPNjh my; yJ NtW nrhj;jpd; kPNjh
mirAk; my;yJ mirahr; nrhj;jpd;kPNjh
,uz;L my; yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;ltHfs; xUtH
kw;wtUf;F vjpuhf %d;whk; eghplkpUe;J ngw
chpik Nfhhpdhy; > mNj Neuk; me;j %d;whk;
egH mjw;fhd nryTj; njhif kw;Wk; fl;lzk;
jtpu NtW vijAk; chpikNfhuhjtuhf
mf;Fwpg;gpl;l flidNah> njhifiaNah
nrhj;ijNah chpik NfhUk; rhpahd egUf;F

15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15


chpikAk; Nfhutpy;iy> (M) gpujpthjpfs;
gytifapy; chpik NfhUfpd;wdH> kw;Wk; (,)
thjpf;Fk; gpujpthjpfspy; ahnuhUtUf;Fk;
kiwKf cld;ghL VJk; ,y;iy –
Mfpatw;iwf; Fwpg;gpl;L KiwaPL nra;ag;gl
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-35> tpjp-1).
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-35 tpjp-5 ahdJ rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-35-id KftHfs; jq;fsJ
Kjyhspfspd;kPNjh my;yJ thlifjhuHfs;
chpikahsHfspd;kPNjh tof;Fj; njhLj;J
cz;ikahd chpikNfhUNthud;wp
kw;wtHfisAk; ,izj;J Kjyhspfs;
my;yJ chpikahsHfs; topahf ,z;lHgpsPL
nra;a neUf;Fjy; Vw;gLj;jf;$lhJ vd;fpwJ.

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-34 tpsf;FfpwJ.
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-34 tpjp-1 milkhdk;
itf;fg;gl;l nghUspd;kPJ chpikNfhUk;
midUk; my;yJ mij kP l;gjw;fhd
chpikNfhUk; midtUk; milkhd tof; fpd;
xU jug;ghf ,izf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ.
tpiuT tof;Ffs;: xU tof;fpd; thjp xU
gpujpthjpia jhd; njhLj;j tof;fpd;
cz;ikahd gpujpthjp ,y;iy vdf; fUjpdhy;
mtH rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-37-d; fPo; xU tof;Fj;
njhlHe;J me;j tof;fpidj; tpiue;J js;Sgb
nra;AkhW Nfhuyhk;. ‘tpiuT’ vd;w thHj;ij
FWfpa fhy tof;iff; Fwpf;fpwJ. mjhtJ>
tof;fkhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; tphpthd tof;F
tprhridf;Fg; gjpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; FWfpa
fhy tprhuidahFk;. tof;fkhf



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
tpsf;fk;: egH-1 egH-2-lk; xU eifg;ngl;bia
xU Kftuhff; fUjp nlg;ghrpl; nra;fpwhH.
egH-3 jd;dplkpUe;J egH-1 jtwhf vLj;J
tpl;ljhfTk; vdNt egH-2 mijj; jd;dplk;
juNtz;Lk; vd;Wk; NfhUfpwhH. ,jpy; egH-2
xU ,z;lHgpsPlH tof;fpid egH-1f;Fk; egH-3-
f;Fk; vjpuhfj; njhLf;f ,ayhJ.

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 egH-2-lk; xU eifg;ngl;bia
xU Kftuhff; fUjp nlg;ghrpl; nra;fpwhH.
gpd; egH-1 egH-3-f;F vOj;J %yk; mthplk;
thq;fpa flDf;F <lhf me;j eifg;ngl;bia
itj;Jf; nfhs;SkhW $WfpwhH. gpd; egH-1
egH-3d; flid milj;J tpl;ljhf $WfpwhH.
Mdhy; egH-3 mt;thW milf;fg;gl tpy;iy
vdf; $WfpwhH. ,UtUNk (egH-1 kw;Wk; egH-
3) egH-2 –lkpUe;J me;j eifg;ngl;bf;F
chpik NfhUfpd;wdH. ,e;jr; #oypy; egH-2
me;j ,UtUf;Fk; (egH-1 kw;Wk; egH-3)
vjpuhf ,z;lHgpsPlH tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.
 tWikapy; cs;Nshuhy; njhLf;fg;gLk;
tof;F: fPo;f;fhz;git cWjpahdhy; xUtiu
tWikapy; cs;stuhff; fUjyhk;: (m) xU
tof;Fj; njhLg;gjw;Ff; Fwpf;fg;gl;l fl;lzk;
nrYj;jj; Njitahd gz trjp ,y;yhj
epiyapy; ,Ug;gtH (M) tof;Fj; njhLf;f
fl; lzk; Fwpf;fg;glhj epiyapy; mthplk; xU
Mapuk; &gha; kjpg;Gs;s nrhj;J$l ,y;yhj
tuhf ,Uf;fpwhH. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-32 tpjp-
1). rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-33 tWikapy;
cs;NshH ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mDkjpngw;W ePjp
kd;wj;jhy; Fwpf;fg;gl;l fl;lzk; nrYj;jhky;
tof;Fj; njhLf;f mDkjpf;fpwJ.
 milkhd tof;Ffs;: mirahr; nrhj;J
milkhdk; rhHghd tof;F eilKiwfis
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; tphpthd tprhuid
Nkw;nfhs;sj; Njitapy;yhj NghJ tof;F
tprhuidia tpiue;J Kbf;fj; Njitahd
mDkjp ngw;wpUf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh> jPHg;ghaj;jpd; Kd;Ngh> my;yJ
mjpfhu mikg;gpd; Kd;Ngh Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
FWfpa fhy tof;F tprhuidNa tpiuT
tof;F vd miof;fg; gLfpwJ. rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-37 fPo;f;fhZk; tifahd
tof;FfSf;Fg; nghUe;Jk;: (m) gzg;ghpkhw;w
urPJ> fld; cWjpg; gj;jpuk; > `d;bfs;
Nghd;wit rhHe;j tof;Ffs; (M) thjpahy;
fld; kl;LNk jpUg;gp ngWtjw;fhf my;yJ
gpujpthjp nrYj;j Ntz;ba mWjp nra;j
,og;gPl;Lj; njhif mjw;fhd tl;bAlNdh
my;yJ tl;bapy;yhkNyh kPl; f njhLf;fg;gLk;
tof;Ffs; - mit: (1) vOjg;gl;l xg;ge;je;jpy;
Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhy; my;yJ (2) nra;rl;lj;jpy;
kPl;fg;gl Ntz; baJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifahf
,Ue;jhNyh my;yJ fld; vdpy; mJ xU
mguhjj; njhifahf ,y;yhkNyh ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk; my;yJ (3) nghWg;GWjp
cj;juthjhj;jpd; kPJ ________(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
37 tpjp-1). rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-37 tof;fpd;
jd; ikiaNah ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu
tuk;igNah khw;Wtjpy;iy. tpiuT tof;fpy;
gpujpthjp jdJ jug;G thjj;ij vLj;Jiuf;f
chpik mbg;gilapy; mDkjpf;fg; gLtjpy;iy.
gpujpthjp jdJ jug;G thjj;ij vLj;Jf;$w
tpUk;gpdhy; me;j ePjpkd;wj;jpy; gj;J
ehl;fSf;Fs; kDr;nra;J Kd; mDkjp ngw
Ntz; Lk;. mg;gb mDkjp ngw me;j
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; NghJkhd Mjhuj;ij ntspapl
Ntz; Lk;. ,jd;%yk; thjpapd; tof;fpid jPu


20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20
tprhhpf;f Ntz; ba Njit cs;sJ vdTk;
gpujpthjpapd; thjk; mlhtbj;jdkhdNjh
tpisahl;Lj; jdkhdNjh ,y;iy vd;gijAk;
ep&gpf;f Ntz; Lk;. (fhytuk;Gr; rl;lk;> 1963
A.118 kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-37 tpjp-3>
nkf;fhyf; ,d;rpdpahpq; md; jahhpg;ghsHfs;
vjpH Ngrpf; vfpA+g;nkd;l; fhHg;gNu\d;> (1976)
4 SCC 687)
 nghJ mwf;fl;lisfs;: rl; lj;jpd; gphpT-92>
kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;> mwepiyak; my;yJ
kjk; rhHe;j nghJ mwf;fl;lisfSf;F
vjpuhf tof;Fj; njhlq;FtJ gw;wp
tpsf;FfpwJ. me;j tof;F jiyik
tof;FiwQuhNyh my;yJ me;j mwf;
fl; lisapd; kPJ MHtKila ,uz;L my;yJ
%d;W egHfshNyh ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd;
mDkjp ngw;W tof;Fj; njhluyhk;.
,g;gbg;gl;l tof;fpypUe;J ngUk; mjw;fhd
epthuzKk; Fwpg;gplg; gl;Ls;sd. (fhz;: Rf;uh
Ntz; ba nghUj;jkhd eP jpkd; wj;jpy; jhf; fy;
nra;AkhW jpUg;gp mspf;fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-7 tpjp-10)

thjp xU tof;Fj; njhlUk;NghJ mJgw;wp
gpujpthjpf;Fj; njhpag; gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
mt;thW njhpag; gLj;Jtjw;Fg; ngaH
miog;ghiz MFk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-5
tpjp-1). ,J ePjpkd;w mYtyfj;jpypUe;J
mDg;gg;gLk; xU MtzkhFk;. ,jd;%yk;
me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l egH xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhuzj;jpw;fhf ePjpkd;w eP jpgjpiaNah my;yJ
xU mYtyiuNah Neubahfr; re;jpf;FkhW
Nfhug;gLfpwJ. ‘Nftpaj; ’ my;yJ vr;rhpf;if
mwptpg;G kD mij mDg;GtH $Wtij
Nfl; f tha;g;gspf;fhkNyh my;yJ mj;jug; Gf;F
mwptpg;G mspf;fhky; mtUf;F vjpuhf ve;j
xU eltbf;ifAk; Nkw;nfhs;sf; $lhJ vd
me;j ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Ff; $Wk; xU mjpfhug;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
gPgp vjpH `h[p Fk;K> AIR 1969> SC 884;
tpj;Nahjah mwf;fl;lis vjpH Nkhfd;
gpurhj; MH> (2008) 4 SCC 115)
 rpwg;G tof;Ffs;: xU cz; ikapd; kPjhd
my;yJ rl;lj;jpd; kPjhd Nfs;tpf;fhd jPHtpd;
kPJ MHtKs;sjhfr; nrhy;Yk; ntt;NtW
jug;Gfs; xd;whf vOj;J %ykhd
xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; ,ize;J ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F
vOj;J %ykhf ePjpkd;wj;jpd; fUj;ijf;
Nfl; gjw;fhf xU tof;F Nghd;Nw kDj;
juyhk;. Mdhy;> ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
mf;Nfs;tpf;fhd jPHT mspf;Fk;NghJ (m)
me;j ,U jug;gpduhYk; Vw;fdNt KbT
nra;ag;gl;l njhifiaNah my;yJ ePjp
kd;wj;jhy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; njhifiaNah xU
jug;G kW jug; gpw;F mspf;f Ntz; Lk;. (M)
nrhj;jpd; xU gFjp – mirAk; nrhj;Njh
mirahr; nrhj;Njh xU jug;G kW jug; Gf;F
mspf;f Ntz; Lk;. my;yJ (,) xd;Nwh
my;yJ xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l jug;Ngh
xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpf;fg;gl;l NtnwhU nraiyr;
nra;thHfs; my;yJ nra;ahky;
xJq;FthHfs;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-90 kw;Wk;
cj;juT-36).
KiwaPl;il jpUg;gp mDg;Gjy;:
tof;fpd; ve;jf; fl;lj;jpyhtJ mij tprhhpf;Fk;
ePjp kd;wk; jdf;F tprhuidapy; cs;s tof;fpd;
ikag; nghUs;gw;wp tprhhpf;f jdf;F
gug;gstpyhd mjpfhu tuk;Ngh my;yJ njhif
mstpyhd mjpfhu tuk;Ngh ,y;iy vdf;
fUJkhdhy;> me;j KiwaP L jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl
G+Htkhd tpz;zg;gkhFk;. Nftpaj; vd;gJ
nghJthf xUtH jdf;F vjpuhf kw;nwhU
jug;G ePjpkd;wj;jpy; rl;l eltbf;if
Nkw;nfhs;syhk; vd vjpHghHf;Fk; NghJjhd;
Nftpaj; kD mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU Nftpaj;
mwptpg;ghdJ Nftpaj; kD mspg;gtuhy;
jdf;F vjpuhf ahuhy; rl;l eltbf;if
vLf;fg; gLk; vd fUJfpwhNuh mtUf;Nf
toq;fg;gLk;. Mdhy;> Vw;fdNt rl; l
eltbf;if njhlq;fg; gl;bUe;jhy; mJgw;wp
me;j ePjpkd;wk; Nftpaj; kDr; nra; jtUf;Fj;
njhptpf;f Ntz; Lk;. xU Nftpaj; 90
ehl;fSf;F nry;yj;jf;fjhFk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-5 tpjp-1 kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-8
tpjp-1)

thjpfs; kw;Wk; gpujpthjpfNshL ,izNthH

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 xU tof;fpd; ntt;NtW
jug;Gfs; gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. epthuzj;jpw;fhd
chpik NfhUk; vy;NyhuJ tof;F %yKk;
xNu nrayhfNth my;yJ ghpkhw;wkhfNth
,Ue;jhy; NkYk; mit midj;ijAk;
jdpj;jdpahf tprhhpg;gjhy; ele;j cz;ik
rhHe;j my;yJ rl;lk; gw;wpa nghJthd
Nfs;tp vOk; vdf; fUJk;Nghj me;j thjpfs;
midtiuAk; xNu tof;fpy; ,izf;fyhk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-1)

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 Fwpg;gpl;l ehl; fSf;Fs; ghy;
Nghpq; rg;is nra;tjw;F egH-2 kw;Wk; egH-3-




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




ld; xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhH. Mdhy;>
me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l ehl; fSf;Fs; egH-1 mDg;gj;
jtwp tpLfpwhH. ,jdhy;> egH-2 kw;Wk; egH-3
jdJ njhopypy; ngUj;j el; lkilfpd;wdH.
,jdhy;> egH-2 kw;Wk; egH-3 MfpNahH egH-1 –
lkpUe;J ,og;gPL ngw chpik cs;sJ. ,e;j
chpik xNu xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J cUthfpwJ.
,jdhy;> ele;j cz;ik kw;Wk; rl;lk; rhHe;j
nghJthd Nfs;tpfs; vo tha;g;Gs;sJ. vdNt>
egH-2 kw;Wk; egH-3 nfhLj;Js;s egH-1-f;F
vjpuhd ,og;gPl;Lf;fhd tof;if xNu tof;fhf
vLj;J tprhhpf;fyhk;. ,NjNghy;> gpujpthjpfs;
midtUk; xd;whf ,ize;J xNu tof;fpd;
gpujpthjpfshf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jw;F vy;yh
tof;Ffspy; %yKk; xNukhjphpahd
nrayhfNth my;yJ ghpkhw;wkhfNth ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk; NkYk; mit midj;ijAk;
jdpj;jdpahf tprhhpg;gjhy; ele;j cz;ik
rhHe;j my;yJ rl;lk; gw;wpa nghJthd Nfs;tp
vOk; vdf; fUJk;Nghj me;j gpujpthjpfs;
midtiuAk; xNu tof;fpy; ,izf;fyhk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-3)
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-3)
uNk\; `puhr;re;j; Fz;ld;khy; vjpH
gue;Jtphpe;j Kk;igf;fhd Kdprpgy;
fhHg;gNu\d;> (1992) 2 SCC 524). fl;lhakhd
jug;igr; rhHe;j xUtNuh my;yJ Kiwahd
jug;igr; rhHe;j xUtNuh tof;fpy; ,izf;fg;
gltpy;iy vd;why; ,e;j tof;F ‘ehd; -[ha;d;lH’
tof;F MFk;. ,jw;F khwhf> tof;fpy;
,izf;fg;gl;Ls;s xUtH fl;lhaj; jug;igNah
my;yJ Kiwahd jug;igNah rhuhjtuhf
,Ue;jhy; ,e;j tof;F ‘kp];[ha;d;lH’ tof;F
vdg;gLk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-9). xU
tof;fpid ‘ehd; -[ha;d;lH’ my;yJ ‘kp];
[ha;d;lH’ vd;w xNu fhuzj;jpw;fhfj; js;Sgb
nra;a KbahJ. Mdhy; fl;lhaj; jug;gpdH
,izf;fg;glhj tof;fhf ,Ug;gpd; ,J
nghUe;jhJ. ve;j xU ‘ehd; -[ha;d;lH kw;Wk;
kp]; [ha;d;lH’ rhHghd kWg;gpidAk; tof;fpd;
njhlf;ff; fl;lj;jpNyNa vOg;gg; gl Ntz; Lk;.
,y;yhtpby; me;j kWg;G iftplg;gl;ljhff;
fUjg;gLk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-13).
Mdhy;> ,J rhHghd kWg;gpid gpujpthjp
tof;fpd; njhlf;fj;jpNyNa vOg;Gthuhdhy;>



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 xU uapy; gazpahthH.
gazj;jd;NghJ me;j uapypd; kPJ Mspy;yh
nyty; fpuhrpq;fpy; Ntfkhf Nkhjpa yhhpapdhy;
egH-1 kpf Nkhrkhff; fhak; mile;Js;shH.
mtH kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy; me;j uapy; Xl;LdH
kw;Wk; yhhp Xl;Ldiu ,izj;J gpujpthjpahf
Mf;fp mtHfspd; ftdf; Fiwtpdhy;jhd;
jdf;F tpgj;J Nehpl; ljhf egH-1 tof;Fj;
njhluyhk;. Vnddpy; cz; ik kw;Wk; rl;lk;
rhHe;j nghJf; Nfs;tpfs; ntt;NtW tof;Ffs;
njhlHe;jhy; voyhk;.

fl; lhakhd kw;Wk; Kiwahd jug;Gfs;:

xU tof;fhdJ fl;lhakhd jug; Gfspd;kPJ
njhlug; gl Ntz; Lk;. mjhtJ> mtHfspd;
,Ug;G me;j tof;fpw;F jtpHf;f ,ayhjJ
kw;Wk; mtHfsplk; ,Ue;Nj ghpfhuk;
Nfhug;gLtjhYk; mtHfs; ,y;yhky; jpwk;gl;l
jPHT fpilf;fhJ vd;gjhYk; mtHfs; tof;fpw;F
fl; lhakhd jug;ghFk;. ,J rhHghf mbf;fb
gad;gLj;jg;gLk; kwnwhU nrhy; ‘Kiwahd
jug;G’ vd;gjhFk;. mjhtJ> ,j;jug;gpdH
,y;yhkNyNa jpwk;gl;l jPHTf;F top ,Uf;Fk;.
Mdhy;> ,Wjp kw;Wk; KOikahd tof;fpy;
vOg;gg;gl;Ls;s Nfs;tpfSf;Fr; rhpahd jPHT
fpilf;f ,tHfspd; ,Ug;G mtrpakhdJ. (fhz;:
mNj Neuk; thjp me;j fl;lhaj; jug;gpdiu
,izf;f tpUk;ghtpby; me;j thjp jdJ Nky;
KiwaPl;bd;NghJ me;j fl; lhaj; jug;gpdiu
,izg;gjw;F mDkjpf;fg;gl khl;lhH.

gpujpepjp tof; F

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-1 tpjp-8 xU tof;fpd;kPJ
gyH MHtk; fhl;bdhy; eP jpkd;wj;jpd;
mDkjpNahNlh cj;jutpd; NghpNyh xUtNuh
my;yJ gyNuh mtHfspd; kPNj mtHfspy;
rpyNu mtHfspd; rhHghfNth gpwhpd;
rhHghfNth tof;Fj; njhluyhk;. thjp jhd;
ahUila gpujpepjpahf tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhNuh
mthplk; Kd; mDkjp ngw Ntz;bajpy;iy.

tof;ifj; jahhpj;jy;

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-2 tpjp-2 ve;j xU tof;F
jahhpf;Fk; NghJk; thjp mt;tof;fpd; tof;F
%yk; fhuzkhf jdf;F ,og;gPlhf ve;j msT
Nfhu KbANkh me;j msT KOtijAk;
mt;tof;fpy; Nfhu Ntz;Lk;. thjp mt;thW
nra;ahJ jdf;Fr; Nru Ntz; ba ,og;gPl;il
KOtJk; Nfhuhky; Ntz; Lnkd;Nw tpl;L
tpl;lhNyh my;yJ chpikia tpl;L tpl;lhNyh
mtH kw;nwhU Neuk; me;jf; Nfhhpf;ifapd;
tpl;Ltplg;gl;l gFjpiaf; Nfhu mDkjp
25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




25


,y;iy. Mdhy;> Kjy; tof;Fj; njhlUk; NghNj
mt;thW tpl;Ltpl ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; mDkjp
ngw;wpUe;jhy; kw;nwhU tof;fpd;NghJ me;jg;
gFjpia thjp Nfhuyhk;.
tof;F %yq;fis ,izg;gJ

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-2 tpjp-3 kw;Wk; tpjp-6 thjp
gpujpthjpf;F my;yJ xNu gpujpthjpfSf;F
vjpuhd midj;J tof;F %yq;fisAk; xd;whf
,izj;J tof;Fj; njhluyhk; vd;fpwJ. NkYk;
xNu tifahd tof;F %yk; cs;s thjpfs;
gyH ,ize;J gpujpthjpf;F vjpuhf tof;Fj;
njhluyhk;. mNjNghd;W gpujpthjpfs; xNu
tifahd tof;F %yk; ,Ue;jhy; xNu tof;fpy;
,izayhk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ePjp kd;wj;jpw;F
mt;thW tof;F %yj;ijf; nfhz;L gy
tof;Ffis ,izg;gjhy; rq;flj;ijNah
my;yJ tof;fpidj; jhkjg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ
trjpaw;wjhf ,Uf;Fk; vdf; fUjpdhNyh
ePjpkd;wk; tof;Ffisg; gphpf;f cj;jutplyhk;.

thJiu:

thJiu vd;gJ Nfhhpf;if my;yJ vOjg;gl;l
thf;fpakhFk;. xt;nthU thJiuapYk; ve;j
cz;ikfspd; kPJ thjpapd; thJiu
tof;F %yq;fis ,izg;gJ

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-2 tpjp-3 kw;Wk; tpjp-6 thjp
gpujpthjpf;F my;yJ xNu gpujpthjpfSf;F
vjpuhd midj;J tof;F %yq;fisAk;
xd;whf ,izj;J tof;Fj; njhluyhk;
vd;fpwJ. NkYk; xNu tifahd tof;F %yk;
cs;s thjpfs; gyH ,ize;J gpujpthjpf;F
vjpuhf tof;Fj; njhluyhk;. mNjNghd;W
gpujpthjpfs; xNu tifahd tof;F %yk;
,Ue;jhy; xNu tof;fpy; ,izayhk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> ePjp kd;wj;jpw;F mt;thW tof;F
%yj;ijf; nfhz;L gy tof;Ffis
,izg;gjhy; rq;flj;ijNah my;yJ
tof;fpidj; jhkjg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ
trjpaw;wjhf ,Uf;Fk; vdf; fUjpdhNyh
ePjpkd;wk; tof;Ffisg; gphpf;f cj;jutplyhk;.

thJiu:

thJiu vd;gJ Nfhhpf;if my;yJ vOjg;gl;l
thf;fpakhFk;. xt;nthU thJiuapYk; ve;j
cz;ikfspd; kPJ thjpapd; thJiu
fl; likf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjh me;j cz;ikfis
FWf;fp vOjg;gl;l thf;F%yk; me;j
thf; fpaj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. khwhf>



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
fl; likf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjh me;j cz;ikfis
FWf;fp vOjg;gl;l thf;F%yk; me;j
thf;fpaj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. khwhf>
rhl;rpfspd; kPJ fl;lg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-2). gy;NtW tifahd
thJiufs; rl;lj;jpw;Fs; cs;s ,izg;G 1-y;
mlq;fpAs;s VjhtJ xU thJiu tifia
thjp gad;gLj;j Ntz; Lk;. tof;fpd; thJiufs;
VjhtnjhU jphpj;Jf; $wg;gl;l> Nkhrbahd>
ek;gpf;ifj; JNuhfk; nra;j> Ntz; Lnkd;Nw
nra;aNtz; baij nra;ahky; tpl;l my;yJ
Njitaw;w jiyaPL Nghd;wtw;wpid ek;gpAs;s
vy;yh tof;FfspYk;> NkYk; tptuq;fs;
fl; lhakhfj; Njitg;gLk; (ehs; kw;Wk; gpw
Njitg;gl;l juTfs;) kw;w tof;Ffs;
midj;jpYk; cs;s thJiufspy; mit
Fwpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-
4). ve;j xU KiwaPLk; rl;lj; jpUj;jk;
%ykpd;wp xU Nfhhpf;iff;fhd Gjpa
mbg;gilia cUthf;fNth my;yJ Ke;ija
thJiuf;F khwhd Fw;wr;rhl;bidf;
nfhz;bUf;fNth $lhJ. xt;nthU thJiuAk;
mj;jug; gpdhy; vOjg;gl;L ifnahg;gkplg;
gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. NkYk; thJiuQH ,Ue;jhy;
mtuhYk; mJ ifnahg;gkplg; gl;bUf;f
rhl;rpfspd; kPJ fl;lg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-2). gy;NtW
tifahd thJiufs; rl;lj;jpw;Fs; cs;s
,izg;G 1-y; mlq;fpAs;s VjhtJ xU
thJiu tifia thjp gad; gLj;j Ntz; Lk;.
tof;fpd; thJiufs; VjhtnjhU jphpj;Jf;
$wg;gl;l> Nkhrbahd> ek;gpf;ifj; JNuhfk;
nra;j> Ntz;Lnkd;Nw nra;aNtz; baij
nra;ahky; tpl;l my;yJ Njitaw;w jiyaPL
Nghd;wtw;wpid ek;gpAs;s vy;yh
tof;FfspYk;> NkYk; tptuq;fs; fl;lhakhfj;
Njitg;gLk; (ehs; kw;Wk; gpw Njitg;gl;l
juTfs;) kw;w tof;Ffs; midj;jpYk; cs;s
thJiufspy; mit Fwpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-4). ve;j xU
KiwaPLk; rl;lj; jpUj;jk; %ykpd;wp xU
Nfhhpf;iff;fhd Gjpa mbg;gilia
cUthf;fNth my;yJ Ke;ija thJiuf;F
khwhd Fw;wr;rhl;bidf; nfhz;bUf;fNth
$lhJ. xt;nthU thJiuAk; mj;jug; gpdhy;
vOjg;gl;L ifnahg;gkplg; gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
NkYk; thJiuQH ,Ue;jhy; mtuhYk; mJ
ifnahg;gkplg; gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-6 tpjp-14)



30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




25




30

rhpghHj;jy;: (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-15)
xt;nthU thJiuAk; mjw;fhd jug;gpduhNyh
mj;jug; igr; rhHe;j VjhtJ xUtuhNyh my;yJ
ePjp kd;wjj;jhy; mq;fP fhpf;fg;gl;l me;j tof;F
rhHe;j epfo;Tfs; #oy;fs; Fwpj;J ed;F
mwpe;jtH vdf; fUJk; NtW xUtuhNyh
rhpghHj;J mjd; mbapy; mjw;fhd ifnahg;gk;
,l;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. rhpghHf;Fk; egH me;j
thJiuapy; gj;jpnad;id Fwpg;gpl;L mjpy; vd;d
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sjhf mtH mwpTf;Fg; Gyg;gl;lJ
vd;gijf; Fwpg;gpl;L jdf;Fj; njhpe;j juTfs;
mtw;wpy; cz;ikahdJ vJ vd;gijr; rhpahff;
Fwpg;gpl;L vOj Ntz; Lk;. mg;gb rhpghHj;jijf;
Fwpg;gpl;l gpd; mjd; mbapy; rhpghHj;jtH me;j
ehs; kw;Wk; ,lj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; ifnahg;gkpl
Ntz; Lk;. me;j thJiuiar; rhpghHg;gtH mJ
rhHghf xU cWjpnkhopg; gj;jpuj;ijAk; jhf;fy;
nra;a Ntz; Lk;.
thJiuapy; jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;:
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-17) tof;F
tprhuizapd; ve;jf; fl;lj;jpYk; thjp jug;gpNyh
my;yJ gpujpthjpapd; jug;gpNyh vOg;gg;gl;l
thJiuapidj; jpUj;jNth khw;wp mikf;fNth
(ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fr; rhpahfj; Njhd;Wk;
topKiwapYk; tifapYk;) ePjpkd;wk;
tha;g;gspf;fyhk;. thJiuapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
mj;jifa jpUj;jk; me;j ,U
jug;gpdUf;FkpilNa cs;s cz;ikahd jfuhW
rhHe;j Nfs;tpfis cWjpg;gLj;jf; fl;lhakhfj;
jPHkhdpf;fg; gl Ntz; Lk; vd rl;lk; jPHthff;
$WfpwJ: (1) jpUj;jk; mDkjpf;fg;gLtjhy;
me;j thJiuapd; jd;ik khw;wkilAk;NghJ
(2) jpUj;jj;jpdhy; mt;tof;fpy; gjpanjhU
tof;F %yk; tUk; gl;rj;jpy; mJ vjpH
jug;gpd; eyidg; ghjpf;Fk; vdf; fUJk;NghJ
kw;Wk; (3) me;j thJiuj; jpUj;j kDit
Nkw;nfhs;tjhy; fhytiuaiur; rl;lj;ij
Kwpabf;Fk;NghJ. (fhz; : uh[;FkhH Futuh
vjpH v];.Nf. rHtfp md; Nfh gp. ypl;> (2008)
14 SCC 364)

KiwaPL:
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-1 fPo;f;fhz;git
KiwaPl;by; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ.
 me;j tof;F njhLf;fg;gLk; eP jpkd;wk;.
 thjpapd; ngaH> tphpthf;fk;> ,Ug;gpl
Kfthp
 gpujpthjpapd; ngaH> tphpthf;fk;> ,Ug;gpl
Kfthp Mfpad ve;j msT mWjpapl;Lf;
$w KbANk me;j msT
 thjpNah gpujpthjpNah Kjpuh
tajpduhfNth my;yJ kdeyk;
,y;yhjtuhfNth ,Ue;jhy; mJgw;wpa
thf;F%yk;.
 tof;F %yj;ij cs;slf;fpa ele;j
rk;gtq;fspd; tpsf;fk; kw;Wk; mJ
Njhd;wpa fhyk;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
Njitg;gLkhdhy; Nkw;nfhs;syhk;. Mdhy;>
mt;tof;F tprhuid njhlq;fpa gpd;dH
mj;jifa thJiuj; jpUj;jq;fSf;fhd kDf;fs;
mDkjpf;fg; glkhl;lhJ. Mdhy;> vt;tsT
[hf;fpuijahfr; nray;gl;lhYk; tprhuidf;F
Kd; mj;jifa jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl
Kbe;jpUf;fhJ vd ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy;
,j;jifa jpUj;jq;fis mDkjpf;fyhk;. (fhz;:
fNz\; bNubq; fk;ngdp vjpH Nkh[p uhk; (1978)
2 SCC 91). jpUj;jk; Nkw;nfhs;s xU jug;gpdH
mDkjpngw;W Mdhy; me;j mDkjp cj;jutpy;
mjw;fhff; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; jpUj;jk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;glh tpl;lhy;> my;yJ mjpy; fhyk;
epHzapf;fg;gl tpy;iy vd;why; me;j cj;juT
ngw;W 14 ehl;fSf;Fs; jpUj;jk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;glh tpl;lhy; me;jf; fhyk;
Kbtile;jgpd; my; yJ 14 ehl;fSf;Fg;gpd; -
ePjpkd;wk; me;j fhyf;fl;lj;ij ePl;bf;fhjNghJ
- jpUj;jk; Nkw;nfhs;s mtUf;F mDkjp
,y;iy. thJiuf;fhd kDit Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ
fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s epge;jidfs;fshy;
 me;j ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;gpw;F
cl;gl;lJ vd;gij tpsf;Fk; cz; ikfs;
 tof;fpd; tof;Fg;nghUspd;kPJ
gpujpthjpapd; eyk; kw;Wk; flik
 thjpahy; Nfhug;gLk; ghpfhuk;
 thjp NfhUtJ gzk; kPl;G vdpy;
njhifiar; rhpahff; Fwpg;gpl Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-2)
 thjp ,ilf;fhy epthuzj;jpw;fhf
tof;Fj; njhlHe;jpUe;jhNyh my;yJ
gpujpthjpf;Fk; thjpf;Fk; ,ilNa
jPHf;fg;glhj fzf;F tof;Ffisr;
rhpghHj;j gpd;dNu Fwpg;gpl KbAk;
vd;whNyh my;yJ gpujpthjpaplk; cs;s
mirAk; nrhj;Jf;fs; rhHe;jjhfNth
my;yJ fld; njhifahf ,Ug;gpd;
mtuJ mwpTf;nfl;batiu fzf;fpl
KbahjpUf;Fkhdhy; thjp Njhuhakhd
njhifiaf; Fwpg;gpl;L my;yJ tof;fpd;
njhifahff; Fwpg;gpl Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-2)



35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




25




30




tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs; mirahr; nrhj;jhf
,Ue;jhy; KiwaPL mr;nrhj;J gw;wpa
njspthd tpsf;fj;ij - mjd;%yk;
mr;nrhj;jpidf; fz;lwpAk; tpjj;jpy; -
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. mr;nrhj;jpd;
vy;iyfisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAkhdhy; my;yJ
gzf;nfhLg;gdT Mtz my;yJ rHNt
vz;fisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAkhdhy; me;j
vy;iyfisNah my;yJ vz;fisNah
Fwpg;gpl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7
tpjp-3)
 thjp xU gpujpepjp vDk; Kiwapy;
tof;Fj; njhlHe;jpUe;jhy; me;j tof;fpd;
chpg;nghUs; kPJ thjpf;F cz;ikahd
MHtk; cs;sJ vd;gijAk; mjd;
fhuzkhf tof;Fj; njhLf;fj; Njitahd
midj;J Kaw;rpfisAk; vLj;Js;sij
tpthpj;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-7 tpjp-4)
 thjp jdJ tof;fpd; %yk; mjpfgl;rkhff;
Nfhuj;jf;f ghpfhuj; jpd; xU gFjpiaf;
Nfhuhky; tpl;LtplNth chpikiaf;
iftplNth tpUk;gpdhy; mg;gb tplg;gLk;
njhif.
 njhif mstpyhd mjpfhu tuk;gpidj;
jPHkhdpf;fTk; tof;F mDkjpf;Fk;
ePjpkd;wf; fl;lzj;njhifiaj;
jPHkhdpf;fTk; tof;fpd; chpg;nghUSf;fhd
njhiff;fhd thf;F%yk;.
 me;j tof;F fhyk; fle;jjhf ,Ug;gpd;
fhytuk;Gr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fspf;fj;
Njitahd fhuzq;fs; (rl;lj;jpd;
 Rl;bf;fhl;b Fwpg;gpl;l fhy tiuaiuf;Fs;
rkHg;gpf;FkhW mwpTWj;jpAk; thjp mijr;
nra;aj; jtWfpwhH.
 KiwaPl;bd; thf;fpaq;fs; rl;lj;jhy;
jilnra;ag;gl;l tpjj;jpy;
mike;jpUg;gjhfj; Njhd;WfpwJ
 KiwaPL efy;fNshL rkHg;gpf;fg;gltpy;iy.
 thjpf;F ePjpkd;wk; KiwaPl;bd; efy;fisf;
nfhLf;Fk;gb cj;jutpl;Lk; KiwaPl;L
efy;fisAk; gpujpthjpfSf;F miog;ghid
mDg;Gtjw;fhd njhifiaAk; me;j
cj;juT ngw;W VO ehl; fSf;Fs;
gpujpthjpfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fj; jtWfpwhH.
vjpH tof;Fiu:

gpujpthjp jdJ Kiwapl;bd; %yk; me;j
tof;F Ngzg;gl Ntz;bajy;y vd;gjw;fhd
midj;J tplaq;fisAk; Fwpg;gplyhk; my;yJ
tof;fpd; Nfs;tpapYs;s ghpkhw;wk; xd;W
rl;lj;jpd; Kd;dpiyapy; nry;yhjJ my;yJ
jtpHf;ff;$baJ kw;Wk; mJNghd;w midj;J
jw;fhg;Gf; fhuzq;fisAk; Fwpg;gpLtNjhL
,e;jg; gpur;ridia Kd;ndLf;fhtpby;
vjpHjug;Gf;F Mr;rhpak; mspf;ff; $Lk; vdTk;>
KiwaPl;by; Fwpg;gplhj gpw cz;ikr;
rk;gtq;fis cjhuzkhf Nkhrb> fhytuk;G>
ntspaPL> fl;lzk;> nrayhf;fk;> my;yJ
rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd cz; ikfisf;
Fwpg;gpl;Lk; KiwaPL nra;a Ntz; Lk;. NkYk;
gpujpthjp jdJ KiwaP l;by; cz;ik
epfo;Tfs; vt;thW jpupj;Jf; $wg;gl;Ls;sd
vdTk; jhd; vtw;iw cz;ikay;y khwhf



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
cj;juT-7 tpjp-6)

KiwaPl;ilj; js;Sgb nra;jy; (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-7 tpjp-11): xU KiwaPl;bid
fPo;f;fhZk; fhuzq;fSf;fhfj; js;Sgb
nra;ayhk;:

 KiwaPl;by; me;j tof;fpd; tof;F %yk;
ntspaplg;gltpy;iy
 KiwaPl;by; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s ghpfhuj; njhif
kpff; Fiwthff; Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUe;J
mij thjpf;F ePjpkd;wk; Rl;bf;fhl;b
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; jpUj;Jk;gb Nfhhpa
gpd;dUk; me;jf; fhyj;jpw;Fs;
jpUj;jtpy;iy.
 KiwaPl;by; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s njhif rhpahf
,Ue;Jk;> rhpahd Kiwapy; Kj;jpiuaplg;
glhjpUe;J mij ePjpkd;wk; thjpf;Fr;
,og;GfNs vd;gijr; Rl;b vOj Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-8 tpjp-2)

nrl; -M/g;

gzj;ij kPl;gJ rhHe;j tof;fpy; - thjpf;Fk;
gpujpthjpf;Fk; ,ilapy; cWjpg;gLj;jf;$ba
gu];gu fld; ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; xU fldhy;
kw;nwhU flid milf;f KbAk;. vOjg;gl;l
thf;F%yj;jpy; ,e;j nrl; -M/g; Fwpj;j
juTfisAk; Fwpg;gpl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-8> tpjp-6) tpsf;fk;: egH-1 jdf;F
khw;wj;jf;f urPJ %yk; &.500/- juNtz;Lnkd
egH-2 –d;kPJ tof;Fj; njhlHfpwhH. egH-2f;F
egH-1 xU jPHg;gpd; %yk; &.1000/- juNtz; Lk;
vd;fpwhH. ,e;j ,uz;L Nfhhpf;iffSk;>
njhif cWjpahd gzk;rhHe;jjhf cs;sjhy;
35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




25




30




35


mij nrl; -M/g; nra;ayhk;. tpsf;fk;: egH-1
egH-2-d; kPJ khw;wj;jf;f urPJ rhHghf tof;Fj;
njhlHfpwhH. egH-2 jdJ cilikfis egH-1
fhg;gPL nra;ahky; tpl;Ltpl;lhH vd egH-1-d;kPJ
Fw;wk; Rkj;JfpwhH. NkYk;> mjdhy; egH-2f;F
Vw;gl;l ,og;gPl;il egH-1 <Lfl;l nrl; -M/g;
nra;ayhk; vdf; NfhUfpwhH. ,q;F njhif
cWjpahf ,y;yjjhy; nrl; -M/g; nra;a
,ayhJ.
tpsf;fk;: egH-1 kw;Wk; egH-2 Mapuk; &gha;f;fhf
egH-3-d;kPJ tof;Fj; njhlHfpd;wdH. egH-3
jdf;F egH-1 ju Ntz;ba flDf;fhf mtiu
kl;Lk; nrl; -M/g; nra;a ,ayhJ.

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 Mapuk; &gha;f;fhf egH-2 kw;Wk;
egH-3-d;kPJ tof;Fj; njhlHfpwhH. jdf;F egH-1
ju Ntz;ba flDf;fhf mtiu kl;Lk; egH-2
nrl; -M/g; nra;a ,ayhJ.

vjpH Nfhhpf;if (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-8 tpjp-6m):
,J gpujpthjpahy; thjpf;F vjpuhfj;
njhLf;fg;gLk; vjpH Nfhhpf;if tof;fhFk;.
thjpapd; Nfhhpf;ifad;wp ,J xU jdpahdJk;
thjpapd; Nfhhpf;ifapypUe;J gphpf;fj; jf;fJkhd
Nfhhpf;ifahFk;. ,ij FWf;F nray;fs; %yk;
epiwNtw;wyhk;. ,J gpujpthjpapd; thjpf;F
vjpuhd tof;F %ykhFk;. ,e;j vjpH Nfhhpf;if
me;j ePjpkd;w njhifmstpyhd mjpfhu
tuk;gpw;F mjpfkhf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. ,ijNa
gpujpthjp vOjg;gl;l thf;F%yk; %ykhf
rkHg;gpf;fyhk;. ,e;j vjpH Nfhhpf;if xU
Nfhhpf;ifahff; fUjp kw;w Nfhhpf;iffspd;kPJ
vLf;fg;gLk; eltbf;if Nghd;Nw eltbf;if
Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk;. gpujpthjpapd; vjpH
Nfhhpf;iff;F vOj;J %ykhd kWg;G
mwpf;ifia ePjpkd;wk; nfhLj;Js;s fhyf;
,Ujug;gpdUk; Kd;dpiyahjy; (rllj;jpd;
cj;juT-9):

thjpahy; tof;F njhlug;gl;l gpd; mJ rhHghf
gpujpthjpfSf;F miog;ghiz tof;fg;gl;l
gpd; mLj;j rl;l eltbf;if ,U jug; gpdUk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Kd;dpiyahtjhFk;. fPo;f;fhZk;
topKiwfSf;fhd tpjpfis kdjpypUj;j
Ntz; Lk;:

 tof;fpd; ,U jug;gpdUk; NeubahfNth
my;yJ mtHfspd; thJiuQH %ykhfNth
miog;ghizapy; Fwpf;fg;gl;bUe;j Fwpj;j
ehspy; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Kd;dpiyahf
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-9 tpjp-1)
 thjpNah gpujpthjpNah miog;ghizapy;
Fwpf;fg;gl;l ehspy; ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
Kd;dpiyahfj; jtwpdhNyh my;yJ
Kd;dpiyahf Kbahj fhuzj;ijf;
$whtpl;lhy;> Kd;dpiyahfj; jtwpatH
thjpahf ,Ug;gpd; me;j tof;if js;Sgb
nra;ayhk; my;yJ Kd;dpiyahfj;
jtwpatH gpujpthjpahf ,Ug;gpd; xU
jug;ghf KbT nra;ayhk;.
 gpujpthjpf;F vjpuhf xU jug;ghf jPHT
KbT nra;jpUe;jhy;> gpujpthjp fPo;f;fhZk;
eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;syhk;: (m) xU
jug;G KbT nra;ag;gl;l ehspypUe;J 30
ehl;fSf;Fs; jhd; Kd;dpiyahtjw;Fj;
jtwpajw;fhd fhuzj;ijf; fhl;b mij
xJf;fp tpLkhW Nfhhp kDr; nra;ayhk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-9 tpjp-13) my;yJ (M)
mjw;F vjpuhf Nky; KiwaPL nra;ayhk;
(,) kW Ma;T nra;Ak;gb kDr;
nra;ayhk;. (<) Nkhrb ele;jjhf tof;Fj;
njhluyhk;.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
nfLTf;Fs; thjp ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jhf;fy;
nra;ayhk;.

thjpAk; gpujpthjpAk; rhHe;Js;s Mtzq;fs;
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-14 kw;Wk; cj;juT-8
tpjp-1m):
______________________________

 tof;fpd; Kjy; tprhuidapd;NghJ
ePjpkd;wk; me;j KiwaPl; by; cs;s
Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ljh
my;yJ kWf;fg;gl;ljh vd;gij
cWjpg;gLj;jp gjpT nra;a Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-10 tpjp-1).
 mjd;gpwF> ePjpkd;wk; rl;l mbg;gilapNyh
my;yJ rk;gt mbg;gilapNyh mt;tof;fpy;
ntspg;gLk; rl;lk; rhHe;j my;yJ rk;gtk;
rhHe;j xU jug;ghy; Fw; wk; Rkj;jg;gLk;
kw;Wk; vjpH jug;ghy; kWf;fg;gLk;
gpur;ridfis fl;likj;Jg; gjptpl
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-14 tpjp-1)


40




45




50




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40
 xNu tof;fpy; rl;lk; rhHe;j kw;Wk; rk;gtk;
rhHe;j gpur;rid ntspte;jhy; me;j tof;Nfh
my;yJ me;j tof;fpd; xU gFjpNah
rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; js;Sgb
nra;ag;glyhk; vdpy; me;jg; gpur;ridia
Kjypy; tprhhpj;J me;j ePjpkd; wj;jpd; mjpfhu
tuk;Gf;F cl;gl;lJjhdh my;yJ rl;lj;jhy;
cUthf;fg;gl;l NtW ‘ghH’-f;F chpajh vdj;
jPHkhdpf;f Ntz; Lk;.
Mtzq;fisf; fz;Lgpbj;jy;> Ma;jy;> kw;Wk;
jhf;fy; nra;jy; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-11 kw;Wk;
13):

tof;F rhHe;j thJiufis ,U jug;gpdUk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jhf;fy; nra;j gpd;dH> jdJ
thJiuapy; vjpH jug;G gw;wp jhd; vOjpa
juTfs; NghJkhdjhf ,y;iy vd czuyhk;.
tof;Fj; njhlq;Ftjw;F Kd;dNu tof;fpd;
midj;Jj; jug; gpdUk; jdJ vjpH jug;gpdhplk;
cs;s mtH jug;ig epahag;gLj;Jk; czuj;jf;f
cz;ikfisAk; mthplk; cs;s me;j
tof;Ff;F Mjhukhd Mtzq;fisAk; njhpe;J
nfhs;s chpik cs;sJ. ‘fz;Lgpbj;jy; ’ vd;gJ
vjpH jug;gplk; cs;s my;yJ fl; Lg;ghl; by;
cs;s cz;ikfisAk; Mtzq;fisAk;
Nfl; Lg; ngWtijf; Fwpf;fpwJ. ,J vjpH
jug;gpdhplk; tpdhj; njhLg;gjd; %yk; ngwyhk;.
xU jug;G me;j tpdh nghUj;jkhdjy;y vd;Nwh>
Njitaw;wJ vd;Nwh> mtkhdkhdJ vd;Nwh>
nfl;l Nehf;fpyhdJ vd;Nwh rpwg;GhpikAilaJ
vd;Nwh $wpg; gjpyspf;f kWf;fyhk;.
fz;Lgpbj;jy; vd;gJ Mtzq;fisf;
fz;Lgpbg;gjd; %yKk; elf;fyhk;. xU jug;G
jdf;F vjpHjug; gplk; cs;s Mtzq;fs;
Ntz; Lnkd;W kDr;nra;J vjpHjug; G gpukhdg;
gj;jpuk; jhf;fy; nra;af; Nfhhpdhy; mtH
mtw;iw vjpHjug; G ghHf;f ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
rkHg;gpf;f Ntz; Lk;. mg;gb xU jug;G
NghpNyh my;yJ jhdhfNt ,U jug; gpdhpilNa
cs;s kw;w Nfs;tpfSf;fhd gjpYf;fhff;
fhj;jpuhky; ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F vJ rhp vdj;
Njhd;WfpwNjh me;j cj;juitNah jPHg;igNah
me;j xg;Gjypd; Nghpy; eP jpkd;wj; jPHg;Gf;Nfw;w
jPHtpid Vw;gLj;jyhk; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-12
tpjp-6)
,ilf;fhy cj;juTfs;:

xU tof; F njhlug;gl;l gpd; me;j tof;F
Kw;wpYk; Kbahj epiyapy; ePjpkd;wk;
,ilf;fhy cj;jutpid ePjpkd;wk; rhpahdJ
vd epidf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; kw;wtw;Wf;F
,ilapy; tof;fpd; ,U jug;gpd; chpikia
epiyehl;Ltjw;fhf ntspaplyhk;. mJ ,Wjpj;
jPHg;Gtiu eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. xU
‘cj;juT’ vd;gJ ePjpkd;wj;jpd; rl;lj;jPHthFk;.
mJ xU Kbthd jPHty;y (gpd;dhy;
tpsf;fg;gLk;). xU tof;fpw;Nfh> kDtpw;Nfh
my;yJ tpz;zg;gj;jpw;Nfh cj;juT
gpug;gpf;fyhk;. vy;yh cj;juTfsNk Nky;
KiwaPL nra;aj; jf;fjy;y.

fPo;f;fhZk; KiwapNyh my;yJ #oypNyh
,ilf;fhy cj;juTfs; gpwg;gpf;fyhk;:

 nryTj;njhiff;F cj;juthjkhf
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-25): tof;fpd; ve;jf;
fl; lj;jpyhtJ gpujpthjp me;j
tof;fpw;fhfr; nrytpLk; njhiff;F
cj;juthjj; njhifapidr; nrYj;JkhW
thjpf;F cj;jutplyhk;. ,e;jpahtpy;
trpf;fhj thjpahf ,Ue;J mtUf;Fg;
NghJkhd mirahr; nrhj;J tof;fpy;
cs;sijj; jtpu ,e;jpahtpy; ,y;yhky;
,Uf;Fkhdhy; ,j;jifa cj;juT
fl; lhakhfg; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
tpdhtpw;Fg; gjpyspf;fNth Mtzq;fisj;
jhf;fy; nra;aNth jtwpdhy; mg;gbj; jtwpatH
thjp vdpy; tof;ifj; js;Sgb nra;ayhk;
my;yJ gpujpthjp vdpy; mtuJ jug;G tpthjk;
jLf;fg;gLk;.

xg;Gf;nfhz;ljd; Nghpy; jPHg;G

thJiuapNyh my;yJ NtW topapNyh>
tha;nkhopahfNth my;yJ vOj;Jg;
G+HtkhfNth ele;j rk;gtq;fis
xg;Gf;nfhz;lhy; eP jpkd;wk; ve;j xU
fl; lj;jpYk; xU jug; G Nfl; Lf; nfhz;ljd;
 Mizfs; (rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; 75-78 kw;Wk;
cj;juT-26): fPo;f;fhzk; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf
xU jug;gpd; tpz;zg;gj;ij Vw;Nwh my;yJ
jhdhfNth ePjpkd;wk; Mizfisg;
gpwg;gpf;f chpik cs;sJ: (m) xUtiu
Ma;Tf;Fl;gLj;j (M) cs; tprhuid elj;j
(,) fzf;Ffis rhpghHf;f my;yJ
rhpnra;a (<) gphptpid nra;a (c)
mwptpay; G+Htkhd> njhopy; El;g> Nkk;gl;l
tprhuid elj;j (C) tpiuthfTk;
,aw;ifahfTk; mope;J Nghff;$ba
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; fhg;gpy; cs;s jPHg;gpd;




45




50



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40



KbTf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;Fk; xU nrhj;ij
tpiuthf tpw;f my;yJ (v) mikr;Rg;
gzpia epiwNtw;w. xU egiu Gyd;
tprhuid nra;a tof;F tprhuid
Nkw;nfhs;Sk; eP jpkd;wk; cs;s khepyj;jpw;F
ntspapy; cs;s ve;j xU ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fk; –
tprhhpf;fg;gl Ntz; ba egH ve;j ePjp
kd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;gpw;Fs; tho;fpwhNuh
me;j ePjp kd;wj;jpw;F (caH ePjp kd;wk;
jtpu) Miz mDg;gyhk;. me;j MizahsH
(m) tof;fpd; jug;gpdiu mioj;J mtHfs;
tUifg; gjpitg; ghHitapl;L tprhhpf;fyhk;
(M) Mtzq;fisf; Nfhhpg; ngw;W Ma;T
nra;ayhk; (,) ePjpkd;w Mizapy; Fwpg;gpl;l
,lj;jpw;Fs;Nsh my;yJ fl;llj;jpw;Fs;Nsh
Eioayhk; (<) ePjpkd;w Mizapy;
Fwpg;gpl;lthW ve;j xU jug;ghtJ
Kd;dpiyahfhky; ,Ue;jhy; xUgf;f rhHghf
KbT nra;ayhk;.
 jPHg;Gf;F Kd;dNu ifJ nra;tJ (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-38): rl;lj;jpd; gphpT 16-y;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s tof;Ffs; (epyk; my;yJ
mirahr; nrhj;J tof;Ffs;) jtpu gpw
tof;Ffspd; ve;j epiyapYk; eP jp kd;wk;
gpukhdg; gj;juj;jpd; %yNkh my;yJ
NtWtpjj;jpNyh cz;iknad czHe;jhy;
(m) gpujpthjp tof;fpd; thjpiaNah my;yJ
ePjpkd;w eltbf;iffisj; jtpHf;fNth
jhkjg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;NfhNlh my;yJ
jPHtpidj; jLf;fNth my;yJ me;j jPHT
mtUf;Fg; ghjfkhf ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
xspe;Jtpl;lhNyh my;yJ me;j ePjpkd;w
mjpfhu tuk;G vy;iyf;F ntspNa nrd;W
tpl;bUe;jhNyh my;yJ xspe;J nfhs;sNth
ntspNaw vz;zpNah> my;yJ ehl;iltpl;Nl
ntspNaw vz;zp ,Ue;jhNyh ,jd;%yk;
thjp ghpfhuk; ngWtijj; jLf;fNth
jhkjg;gLj;jNth vz;zpapUg;gjhf ePjp kd;wk;
fUjpdhy; eP jpkd;wk; me;jg; gpujpthjpiaf;
ifJ nra;aTk; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; NeHepWj;jTk;
cj;jutplyhk;. ,jd;%yk; mtH Vd;
Kd;dpiyahtjw;F gpizaj;njhif
ePjpkd;wk; jhdhfNt gpujpthjp jdf;F
vjpuhf jPHg;G tuyhk; vdf; fUjp tof;fpd;
jPHg;ig jLf;fNth my;yJ js;spg;NghLk;
Nehf;fpNyh (m) mtuJ nrhj;J
KotijANkh my;yJ xU gFjpiaNah
tpw;Wtpl Kaw;rpj;jhy; (M) me;j ePjpkd;w
MSiff;Fs; cs;s nrhj;J KotijANkh
my;yJ xU gFjpiaNah me;j ePjpkd;w
MSiff;F ntspNa efHj;j Kaw;rpg;gjhf
cWjpahff; fUjpdhy;> gpujpthjpia
Fwpg;gpl;l ehl;fSf;Fs; eP jpkd;wj;jhy;
Fwpg;gplg;gLk; gpizaj; njhifia
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; fl;b mjd; nghUg;gpy; tpl
cj;jutplyhk;. my;yJ ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
Njitg;gLk;NghJ ePjpkd;wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;
$ba me;j nrhj;ijNah my;yJ nrhj;jpd;
kjpg;igNah my;yJ mjd; xU
gFjpiaNah my;yJ NeHepiyahfp
mtUf;F mtH Vd; gpizaj; njhif
nrYj;jf;$lhJ vd fhuzk; Nfl; L
mwptpg;Gf; nfhLf;fyhk;. ePjpkd;wk;
NtWtifapy; cj;jutpl;lhyd;wp thjp
gwpKjy; Ntz; ba nrhj;ijNah my;yJ
mjw;F ,izahd njhifiaNah Fwpg;gpl
Ntz; Lk;. gpujpthjp Vd; gpizak;
nrYj;jf;$lhJ vd fhuzk; Nfl; L
nfhLf;fg;gl;l mwptpg;Gf;F ePjpkd;wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba gjpyspf;fj; jtwpdhy;
me;j nrhj;J gwpKjy; nra;ag;glyhk;.
Mdhy;> xU tptrhapapd; tpisr;riy
gwpKjy; nra;a cj;jutpl KbahJ.
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-38 tpjp-5-d; Nehf;fk;
ve;j xU gpujpthjpAk; thjpf;F rhHghf
tuf;$ba jPHg;ig me;j nrhj;ij tpw;W
tpLtjhNyh my;yJ ePjpkd;w MSiff;F
ntspNa efUk; nrhj;ij efHj;JtjhNyh
Kwpabj;Jtplf; $lhJ vd;gNjahFk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l tpjpapd;
mjpfhuj; ijg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F Kd; ePjp
kd;wk; me;jg; gpujpthjp mt;thW nray;gl
mjpf tha;g;Gs;sjhy; xU jPHit ePjpkd;wk;
mspf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;gij Kw;wpYk;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
nrYj;jf; $lhJ vd fhuzk; Nfl; fyhk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> ifJ cj;jutpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
ve;j xU njhifiaAk; ifJ nra;a te;j
mjpfhhpaplk; gpujpthjp fl;Ltjd; %yk;
thjpapd; Nfhhpf;ifia eptHj;jp nra;jhy;
mtH ifJ nra;ag;gl khl; lhH.
 jPHg;Gf;F Kd;dNu gwpKjy; nra;jy;
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-38): tof;fpd; ve;jf;
fl; lj;jpyhtJ> gpukhdg; gj;jpuk; my;yJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> me;jg;
gpujpthjp jdf;F vjpuhf tuf; $ba
jPHtpid Kwpabf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; nrhj;ij
KOtijANkh my;yJ mjd; gFjpiaNah
tpw;fNth my;yJ mij ePjpkd;w
MSiff;F ntspNa efHj;jNth
Kaw;rpg;gij ePjpkd;wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;
tifapy; ep&gpf;f Ntz; Lk;. rl; lj;jpd;

45




50



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45


cj;juT-38 tpjp-5 –iar; nray;gLj;Jtjpy;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuk; jPtpukhdjhfTk;
mrhjhudkhdjhfTk; cs;sJ. mg;gbg;gl;l
mjpfhuk; ,ae;jpuj;jdkhfNth Nfl; fg;gl;lJ
vd;gjw;fhfNth gad;gLj;jyhfhJ. kpf
mhpjhfTk; tpjpapd;gb ftdkhfTk;
gad;gLj;jg; gl Ntz; Lk;. rl; lj;jpd;
cj;juT-38 tpjp-5 –d; Nehf;fk;
cj;juthjkw;w flid cj;juthjf;
fldhf;Ftjy;y. (fhz; : uhkd; nlf; md;
gpuhr]; vd;[pdpahpq; fk;ngdp vjpH Nrhyq;fp
bNulH];> (2008) 2 SCC 302).
 jw;fhypfj; jilfs; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-39):
jil cj;juT vd;gJ xU ePjpkd;wj;jpd;
cj;juthFk;. ,q;F VjhtJ xU jug;G
(thjp my;yJ gpujpthjp) xU nraiyr;
nra;aNth (tw;GWj;Jf; fl;lis)my;yJ
nra;af; $lhJ vdNth (jil Miz)
ePjpkd;wk; cj;jutplyhk;. ,e;j ,ilf;fhyj;
jilfs; jw;fhypfkhdjhfNth my;yJ
epue;jukhdjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. jw;fhypfj;
jilapid xU ePjpkd;wk; fP o;f;fhZk;
re;jHg;gq;fspy; cj;jutplyhk; : (m) tof;fpy;
cs;s gpur;ridf;fhpa nrhj;J gad;glhky;
Ngha;tpLk; Mgj;jpNyh> VjhtJ xU jug;ghy;
Nrjg;gLj;jNth> ifkhw;wg;glNth my;yJ
jtWjyhf xU jPHit epiwNtw;Wk;
tpjj;jpy; tpw;fg;glNth $Lkhdhy;. (M)
gpujpthjp jdf;F fld; toq;fpatHfis
Vkhw;Wk; Nehf;fpy; jdJ nrhj;jpid
tpw;fNth ifkhw;wNth mr;RWj;jpdhNyh
my;yJ epidj;jhNyh> (,) tof;fpy; cs;s
VjhtJ xU nrhj;Jj; jfuhW fhuzkhf
thjpiaj; jhf;fp fhaNkw;gLj;jNth my;yJ
mtuJ clikiag; gwpf;fg; NghtjhfNth
mr;RWj;jpdhy;> (<) xg;ge;jj;ij gpujpthjp
kPwg;NghtjhfNth my;yJ
VjhtnjhUtifapy; fhag;gLj;jNth
,Ue;jhy; (c) ePjpapd; eyDf;fhf mt;thW
jil cj;juT gpwg;gpg;gJ ey;yJ vd
ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-39
tpjp-1 kw;Wk; 2) xU jug;Gf;F vjpuhf jil
cj;juT gpwg;gpg;gjw;F Kd;dhy; eP jpkd;wk;
fPo;f;fhz;git Fwpj;J jpUg;jpaila
Ntz; Lk;: (m) me;jj; jil cj;juitf;
jPHkhzpf;fg; gl Ntz; Lk; vdTk; NkYk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s
cz;ikfs; mijj; jhf;fy; nra;j jug;G
Nfl; Fk; ghpfhuj; jpw;F chpatH vdf;
fUjpdhy; (,) me;j cj;juitf; NfhUk;
jug;gpw;F me;j cj;juitg; gpwg;gpf;fh
tpl;lhy; kpfg;nghpa ,og;igr; re;jpf;f
NehpLk; vdf; fUjpdhy;> NkYk; (<)
,Wjpahf> ,U jug;gpYk; ngWk; tha;g;G
trjpfis xg;gpLk;NghJ jil cj;juT
NfhUgtUf;F Vw;gLk; tha;g;G trjpfs;
jil cj;juT nfhLf;fg;glhky; ,Ue;jhy;
vjpH jug;igtpl kpf mjpfkhff;
FiwAkhdhy; jil cj;juT nfhLf;fyhk;.
,ilf;fhyj; jil cj;juT nfhLf;fyhkh
nfhLf;ff; $lhjh vd;gij me;jr; #oypy;
mtuplk; ,Ue;j rl;l chpikfs; thjpahy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;ljhff; $Wk; Neuj;jpy; mjd;
chpik kPwyhy; cs;s ghjpg;G ,tw;iwr;
rPHJ}f;fp mit NkYk; jPtpu
tprhuidf;Fl;gLj;jpl Ntz; Lk;.
,ilf;fhyj; jil cj;jutpdhy;
mspf;fg;gLk; epthuzk; thjpf;F Vw;gLk;
meP jpapd; Mgj;ijf; Fiwf;Fk; Nehf;fpy;
me;j tof;fpd; cWjpapd;ik jPHf;fg;gLk;
Kd; ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
gpujpthjpapd; ghJfhg;Gf;fhf ePjp kd;wk;
thjpaplk; VjhtnjhU cilikiaNah
gzj;ijNah ePjpkd;wj;jpy; rkHg;gpf;FkhW
Nfl; fyhk;. ,jdhy;> ,Wjpj; jPHg;G
gpujpthjpf;F rhHghf ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
NghJkhd msT mtH el;l <L ngw
KbAk;. (fhz;: F[uhj; ghl;ypq; fk; ypl;
vjpH nfhf;Nfh Nfhyh fk;ngdp (1995) 5
SCC 545> fhrp kl rk];jhdk; vjpH =kj;
Rj;jPe;jpu jPHj;j Rthkp (2010) 1 SCC 689.;
vjpH jug;Gf;F tha;g;gspg;gjhy; fhy
jhkjkhfp mjd; Nehf;fk; Kwpabf;fg;gLk;
vd;W ePjpkd;wk; jpUg;jpahf czuhjNghJ
,ilf;fhy jil cj;juT mspf;FKd; eP jp
kd;wk; mJgw;wp vjpH jug;Gf;F
mwptpg;gspf;f Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-39 tpjp-3). ePjpkd;wj;jhy; rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-39 tpjp-1> 2 d;gb ,lg;gl;l jil
cj;juTf;F fPo;g;gbah tof;Ffspy;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
NfhUk; jug; gpd; Kjy; Nehf;fpNyNa mtuJ
rhHghf Mjhuk; ,Uf;fpwJ mjhtJ> mJ
ey;nyz;z jfuhW MFk;. (M)
tprhuizf;F Vw;w tof;fhfTk; mJ NkYk;
Gyd; tprhuidf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;Wk; jFjpapd; mbg;gilapy;
mjw;Ff; fl;Lg;glhjthpd; nrhj;jpidg;
gwpKjy; nra;Ak;gb cj;jutplyhk;. NkYk;
mtiu %d;W khj fhyj;jpw;F kpfhky;
rpiwaplTk; cj;jutplyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-39 tpjp-2m)


50



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
 ,ilf;fhy cj;juTfs; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
39): ,ilf;fhy cj;juTk; xU jw;fhypfkhd
cj;juNtahFk;. tof;fpd; chpg;nghUshf
cs;s my;yJ gwpKjy; nra;ag;gl;l
mirAk; nrhj;J nfl;Lg;Ngha;tplf;
$bajhf ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ VjhtJ
NeHikahd NghJkhd fhuzj;jpw;fhf
cldbahf tpw;WtpLtJ ey;yJ vdf;
fUjpdhy; mij tpw;Wtpl cj;jutpl
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F chpik cs;sJ. ePjpkd;wk;
NkYk; tof;fpd; chpg;nghUshf cs;s xU
cilikia fhtypy; itf;fNth>
ghJfhf;fNth> my;yJ Ma;T nra;aNth
mJ rhHghd Nfs;tp vOk;NghJ
cj;jutplyhk;.
 nrhj;jhl;rpaH (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-40):
nrhj;jhl;rpaH vd;gtH tof;fpd;
chpg;nghUshf cs;s nrhj;ijNah
gzj;ijNah tof;fpd; ,U jug; ghhplKk;
mr;nrhj;J ,Ug;gJ ey;yjy;y vd
ePjpkd;wk; fUJk;NghJ tof;F
KbTwhjNghJ jdJ ghJfhg;gpy; itj;Jg;
ghJfhj;J ePjpahd KiwapYk; tha;g;G
trjpf;F Vw;gTk; gad;gLj;j ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
epakpf;fg;gl;l xU jdp eguhthH. me;j
nrhj;jhl;rpaUf;F fPo;f;fhZk;
mjpfhuq;fis ePjpkd;wk; toq;fyhk;: (m)
tof;fpidj; njhlq;fTk; ghJfhf;fTk;> (M)
tof;fpd;fPOs;s nrhj;jpid ngwTk;>
epHtfpf;f> ghJfhf;f> gj;jpug;gLj;j> NkYk;
tpUj;jpahf;f (,) thlif t#ypf;f>
thlifiaj; jPHkhdpf;f> mjd;
tUthiaAk; thlifiaAk; nfhLf;f (<)
Mtzq;fis nrayhf;f (c) gpw ePjpkd;wk;
rhpahdJ vd czUk; ve;j xU
chpikiaAk; toq;f.

tprhuid:

tof;fpd; ,U jug;gpdUk; jq;fs; KiwaPLfisj;
jhf;fy; nra;jgpd;dH kw;Wk; gpur;ridfisf;
fz;lwpe;J fl; likj;J mit gjptplg;gl;lJk;
xU tof;fpd; ,U jug;ghUk; jq;fspd; jug;G
thjq;fisAk; vLj;Jiuf;fj; Njitahd
Mjhuq;fisAk; Mtzq;fisAk; Nfhhpg;
ngWtH. ,e;jf; fhuzj;jpw;fhf> ve;j xU
jug;ghUk; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; jdf;Fj; Njitahd
rhl;rpfSf;F miog;ghiz mspj;J
miog;ghiz> tUifg; gjpTfs; kw;Wk; rhl; rp
tprhuidfs; Nghd;witgw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.
rhl;rpfSf;F miog;ghiz tpLg; gJ gw;wp
tpsf;Fk; mNj rl; l \uj;Jfs; tof;Ff;Fj;
Njitahd Mtzq;fisNah my;yJ gpw
nghUl;fisNah rkHg;gpf;f tpLf;Fk;
miog;ghizf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.

nghJthf jug;gpd; rhl;rpfshy; tha;nkhopahf
toq;fg;gLk; jlaq;fs; eP jpgjpapd;
Kd;dpiyapy; mtuJ cj;jutpd; Nghpy; mtuJ
Neub Nkw;ghh; itapy; gjpT nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.
rhl;rp tprhuidapd;NghJ rhl;rpfspd;
tof;Ff;Fj; Njitahd fUj;Jf;fs; me;j
kdepiyNahL gjpT nra;ag;gLfpwJ. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-18 tpjp-12). ,Ug;gpDk; ePjpkd;wk; jdJ
cj;jutpd; Nghpy; cs;s tprhuidf;FOtpd;
Kd;dpiyapy; rhl;rpfspd; jlaq;fis
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-26 tpjp-4m –apd;gb gjpT
nra;Ak;gb $wyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-28
tpjp-19).

jlaq;fspd; tpjpfspypUe;Nj njhlq;Ftjw;fhd
chpik fpilf;fpwJ. vdNt> thjp rhl;bAs;s
Fw;wr;rhl;Lfis gpujpthjp Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhYk;
kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpd; gf;fj;jy; (cjhuzkhf
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;G> fhytiuaiu>
my;yJ nu]; [_bfhj;jh) my;yJ NkYk; rpy
$Ljy; cz;ikfisf; fhl; b Fw;wk;
rhl;LtjhYk; thjp ve;jtpj ghpfhuKk; ngwj;
jFjpaw;wtH vd thjpl;lhyd;wp thjpf;Nf
njhlq;Ftjw;F chpik cs;sJ. ,e;jr;
#oypy; gpujpthjpf;Nf njhlq;Ftjw;fhd
chpik cs;sJ. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-18 tpjp-1).
vdNt tof;F tprhuidf;Ff; Fwpf;fg;gl;l
ehspy; njhlq;Fk; chpik cs;s jug;G jdJ
jug;G thjq;fisAk; jlaq; fisAk; jhd; ve;j
KiwaPl;il ep&gpf;f Ntz; LNkh mjw;F Vw;g
Kd; itf;f Ntz; Lk;. mjd;gpwF vjpHjug;G
jdJ jug; G thjq;fisAk; jlaq; fisAk;
(VjhtJ ,Ue;jhy;) Kd; itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mjd;gpd;dH me;j KO tof;Fgw;wpa
nghJthd tplaq;fis ePjpkd;wj;jpy; njhptpf;f
Ntz; Lk;. njhlq;fpa jug;G gpd;dH me;j KO
tof;Fgw;wpa jdJ thjq;fis
vLj;Jiuf;fyhk;. ,U jug;ghUNk jdJ jug;G
thjq;fis vOj;Jg; G+HtkhfTk; eP jpkd;wj;jpy;
rkHg;gpf;fyhk;. mg;gbg;gl;l vOj;Jg;G+Htkhd
thjq;fisg; vjpH jug;Gf;Fk; toq;f Ntz; Lk;.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F tuitf;f ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
tpz;zg;gk; nra;ayhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; 30 –
32 kw;Wk; cj;juTfs; -16> 18 Mfpait
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-18 tpjp-2).



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
xU jlaj;ij ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fr; rkHg;gpf;f
VjhtJ xU jug; gpw;F fhy mtfhrk; toq;fpAk;
me;j Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; mt;thW toq;fj;
jtwpdhNyh my;yJ rl;l eltbf;iffs;
njhlHe;J eilngw mtrpakhd VjhtnjhU
nraiyr; nra;aj; jtwpdhy;> mt;thW
jtwpioj;jpUe;jhYk; (m) ,Ujug;ghUk;
NeHepiyahfp ,Ue;jhy; me;j tof;if
cldbahf KbTf;Ff; nfhz;Ltuyhk;. my;yJ
(M) ,U jug; ghUk; NeHepiyahfp ,Ue;jhNyh
my;yJ xU jug;G NeHepiyahfky; ,Ue;jhNyh
mLj;j tprhuidf;fhd ehisf; Fwpf;fyhk;.
NkYk;> mt;thW jtwpa jug;G mjw;fhd
ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpLk; nryTj; njhifia
fl; Lk;gb cj;jutplyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-17
tpjp-3)

js;Sgb nra;jy;

 xU jug;igr; rhHe;jthpd; ,wg;G: thjpNah
my;yJ gpujpthjpNah ,we;J tpl;lhnud;whYk;
tof;Fj; njhlUk; chpik ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
me;j tof;F js;Sgb nra;ag;gl khl;lhJ
mjhtJ> KbTf;F tuhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
22 tpjp-1). rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22 –y; tof;fpd;
VjhtJ xU jug; G ,we;J tpl;lhy; ve;j
topKiwfisg; gpd;gw;w Ntz; Lk; vd
tpsf;FfpwJ. rl;lj;jpdhy; Fwpg;gpl;l
ehl;fSf;Fs; me;j ,we;j thjp my;yJ
gpujpthjpapd; gpujpepjpiaj; jPHkhzpf;f
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F tpz;zg;gk; %yk;
njhpag;gLj;jhtpby; me;j tof;F me;j ,we;j
thjpiag; nghUj;jtiu js;SgbahFk;
my;yJ ,we;j gpujpthjpf;F vjpuhf
KbthFk;. rl; lj;jpd; cj;juT-22-d;gb
js;Sgbahdhy; mNj tof;F
%yj;ijf;nfhz;L Gjpjhf tof;Fj; njhlu
KbahJ. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22 tpjp-9). jdJ
jug;Gf;fhf thjhLk; thJiuQH me;jj;
jug;gpdH ,we;J tpl;lhH vd;gij mwpe;jhy;
mJgw;wp ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fj; njhptpf;f Ntz; Lk;.
gpd; eP jpkd;wk; mJgw;wp gpujpthjpapd;
jug;Gf;Fj; njhptpf;Fk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22
tpjp-10m).
 xU jug;igr; rhHe;jthpd; jpUkzk;: ngz;
thjpapd; jpUkzNkh my;yJ gpujpthjpapd;
jpUkzNkh tof;ifj; js;Sgb nra;Ak;
fhuzq;fsy;y. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22 tpjp-7)
 xU jug;G nehbj;Jg; Nghjy;: thjp nehbj;Jg;
Nghtjhy; me;j tof;F js;SgbahfhJ.
 mtuJ xJf;fPL ngw;wtNuh>
nrhj;jhl;rpaNuh me;j tof;if mtUf;Ff;
fldspj;jtHfSf;fhf njhlHe;J elj;jyhk;.
Mdhy;> me;j xJf;fPL ngw;wtNuh my;yJ
nrhj;jhl;rpaNuh me;j tof;ifj; njhlHe;J
elj;j tpUk;ghtpby; my;yJ ePjpkd;wk;
tpjpj;j nryTj; njhiff;fhd gpiziar;
nrYj;jhtpby; me;j tof;fpid thjpapd;
nehbj;j jd;ikiaf; fhuzk; fhl;b
js;Sgb nra;ayhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-22
tpjp-8). gpujpthjpapd; nehbj;j jd;ik me;j
tof;fpy; mtUf;F vjpuhd eltbf;iffis
ePjpkd;wk; epWj;jp itf;fr; nra;Ak;.

tof;fpd; KbT

toikahf xU tof;F fPof;fhZk; VjhtJ
xU Kiwapy; KbtilAk;:
 tof;ifj; jpUk;gg; ngWjy; (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-23 tpjp-1): tof;F njhlq;fpa
gpd;dH ve;j xU fl; lj;jpYk; jdJ
tof;iff; iftplyhk; my;yJ mtuJ
gpujpthjpfspy; xUtUf;Nfh my;yJ
vy;yhUf;Fk; vjpuhd Nfhhpf;ifapd; xU
gFjpia ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mDkjpNahNlh
mDkjpapd;wpNah iftplyhk;. mt;thW
iftpl;lhy; mij me;j thjp kPz;Lk; xU
Gjpa tof;fpy; mNj chpg;nghUisf; fhl;b
tof;Fj; njhlu KbahJ. VjhtnjhU
Kiwg;gbahd fhuzj;jpw;fhf (cjhuzkhf
jug;Gfspd; kp]; -[ha;d;lH> eP jpkd;wj;jpw;Fr;
nrYj;jNtz; ba fl; lzj;ijf; fl;lj;
jtWjy;> tof;F%yj;ij ntspg;gLj;j
kWj;jy;> ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gug; gsT rhHe;j
mjpfhu tuk;gpd; ik) me;j tof;F
Njhy;tpailAk; vd ePjpkd;wk; cWjpahff;
fUjpdhy; my;yJ thjp NtnwhU Gjpa
tof;Fj; njhlq;Ftjw;Fk; me;j tof;fpd;
chpg;nghUs; rhHe;j NghJkhd fhuzq;fs;
,Ue;jhy; eP jpkd;wk; thjp me;j tof;ifj;
jpUk;gg; ngwNth my;yJ mtuJ
Nfhhpf;ifapd; xU gFjpiaj; jpUk;gg;
ngwNth tha;g;gspj;J Gjpa tof;fpidj;
jhf;fy; nra;a tha;g;gspf;fyhk;.
 tof;fpd; rkurj; jPHT (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
23 tpjp-3): tof;fpd; ,Ujug; gpdUk;
rkurkhf tof;fpd; KOtjpYNkh my;yJ
gFjpapNyh xj;Jg;Ngha; rl;lj;jhy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba vOj;Jg;G+Htkhd
xg;ge;jk; my;yJ rkurk; Nghd;wit



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50

 ,Ue;jhy; mij ePjpkd;wk; NghJkhdJ vd
,d;Dk; tof;fpy; gzpfs; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy; my;yJ gpujpthjp thjpia
tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs; rhHe;j Nfhhpf;if
KOtJkhfNth my;yJ gFjpg; ghpfhuk;
%yNkh kdepiwtilar; nra;jhy; eP jpkd;wk;
me;j xg;ge;jj;ijNah> rkurj;ijNah
my;yJ kdjpUg;jpiaNah gjpT nra;J
mjd;gb jPHtpid mwptpf;fyhk;. (gpd;dH
tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ)
 jPHg;G: jPHg;G vd;gJ ePjpgjp jPHtpd;
mbg;gilapNyh my;yJ cj;jutpd;
mbg;gilapNyh toq;Fk; xU thf;fpakhFk;.
tprhuid KOikahf Kbe;jgpd; eP jpkd;wk;
jpwe;j ePjpkd;wj;jpy; xNu Neuj;jpNyh my;yJ
vjpHfhyj;jpy; NtW xU ehspNyh tof;fpd;
,U jug;Gf;Fk; kw;Wk; mtHfspd;
thJiuQHfSf;Fk; chpa mwptpg;G
mspj;jgpd; jPHg;gpid toq;f Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-33 kw;Wk; cj;juT-20 tpjp-1).
toikahf> xU jPHg;G me;j tof;fpd;
FWfpa thf;fpaj;ijAk;>
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fj; Njitahd
fUj;Jf;fs;> mjdhy; vLf;fg;gl;l KbTfs;>
kw;Wk; me;j KbTfs; vLj;jjw;fhd
fhuzq;fs; Mfpatw;iw cs;slf;fpajhf
,Uf;Fk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-20 tpjp-4).
ePjpkd;wk; me;j tof;F rhHe;j
fl; likf;fg;gl;bUe;j gpur;ridfs;
midj;jpw;Fk; jPHg;G toq;f Ntz; Lk;.
 jPHg;ghiz: xU Kiwg;gbahd ePjpkd;wj;
jPHg;G mt;tof;fpd; jug;gpdUf;fhd me;j
tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs; gpur;ridfs;
vy;yhtw;iwAk; my;yJ xUgFjp rhHe;j
chpikfis Kbthf cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ.
tof;F tprhuid Kbe;jJk; tof;fpd;NghNj
,e;jj; jPHg;ghiz toq;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;.
xt;nthU jPHg;ghizANk Nky;KiwaPL
nra;af; $baNj (mjw;F khwhf
ntspg;gilahff; Fwpg;gplhjtiu). jPHg;G
Kbe;J 15 ehl; fSf;Fs; jPHg;ghiz
vOjg;gl Ntz; Lk;. NkYk; mJ jPHg;NghL
xj;Jg; Nghf Ntz;Lk;. jPH;g;ghiz
jug;gltpy;iy vdpy; jPHg;ghizapd; efypd;wp
Nky;KiwaPL nra;ayhk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-20 tpjp-6m)
 jPHg;ghiz tiffs;: jPHg;ghiz
Kd;Ndhl; lkhdjhfNth my;yJ
,WjpahdjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.
Kd;Ndhl; lkhd jPHg;ghiz vd;gJ xU
tof;F Kw;wpYk; Kbe;J tplhky;
ntspaplg; gLtjhFk;. me;j tof;F
Kw;wpYk; KbAk;NghJ ntspaplg;gLk;
jPHg;ghiz ,Wjpahd jPHg;ghizahFk;. xU
jPHg;ghizapd; xU gFjp
Kd;Ndhl; lkhdjhfTk; kw;wgFjp
,WjpahdjhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. cjhuzkhf>
xU ,ilf;fhy tUkhdk; jUk; mirahr;
nrhj;J rhHe;j tof;ffhf ,Ue;jhy;
mjhtJ xU nrhj;ij xUthplkpUe;J
mgfhpj;j nrhj;jpypUe;J rhpahfg;
gad;gLj;jpapUe;jhy; tUk; tUkhdj;ij
mtH ngw;wpUe;jhYk; ngwhtpl;lhYk;
ePjpkd;wk; me;j nrhj;ij jpUg;gp
mspf;Fk;gb jPH;g;ghizaplyhk; NkYk;
,ilf;fhy tUkhdk;gw;wp tprhhpf;Fk;gb
cj;jutplyhk;. ,e;jj; jPHg;ghizapy; Kjy;
gFjp ,Wjpahd jPHg;ghizahFk;. Mdhy;>
,uz;lhtJ gFjp Kd;Ndhl; lkhdjhFk;.
Vnddpy; ,ilf;fhy tUkhdk; ,d;Dk;
tprhuidapy; cs;sJ. mJ rhHe;j ,Wjpj;
jPHg;ghiz me;j ,ilf;fhy tUkhdk;
rhHe;j tprhuiz Kbe;J mj;njhif
cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l gpd;dNu mspf;f KbAk;.

jPHg;ghizapd; cs;slf;fq;fs;: xU
jPHg;ghizahdJ> kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;>
tof;fpd; vz;> thjp gpujpthjpfspd;
ngaHfs; kw;Wk; tphpthf;fq;fs;> mtHfspd;
,Ug;gpl Kfthpfs;> tof;fpd;
Nfhhpf;iffspd; tptuq;fs;> toq;fg;gl;l
epthuzk; my;yJ tof;fpd; NtW
jPHkhdq;fs; kw;Wk; me;j tof;fpw;fhd
nryTj; njhif> me;jj; njhifia
ve;jj;jug; G ve;jr; nrhj;jpypUe;J ve;j
msT nrYj;jg;gl Ntz; Lk; vd;gtw;iw
cs;slf;fpajhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-20 tpjp-6). tof; fpd;
chpg;nghUs; mirahr; nrhj;jhf ,Ue;jhy;
me;jr; nrhj;ij ,dk; fz;lwpAk; tpjj;jpy;
tpsf;fkhf tpthpj;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. me;jr;
nrhj;jpid mjd; vy;iyfs; kw;Wk;
mWjpnra;ag;gl;l gjpNtl;L vz; my;yJ
rHNt vz; nfhz;L milahsk;
fhzKbAkhdhy; mjd; vy;iyfs;>
vz;fisf; Fwpg; gpl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-20 tpjp-9). tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs;
mirAk; nrhj;jhf ,Ue;jhy; kw;Wk;
jPHg;ghiz me;j mirahr; nrhj;ij
xg;gilg;gjhf ,Ue;jhy;> me;j mirAk;
nrhj;jpid jpUg;gp mspf;f Kbahj


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5

gl;rj;jpy; mjw;F <lhd njhifiaAk;
Fwpg;gpl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-20 tpjp-
10).
 jPHg;gpidNah> jPHg;ghiziaNah
cj;juitNah jpUj;Jjy;: rl; lj;jpd; gphpT-152
iyl; tl;b)
 kw;Wk; (,) jPHg;ghiz ntspahd
ehspypUe;J cz;ikapy; nrYj;jg;gLk;
ehs;tiu cs;s tl;b.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
jPHg;gpNyh> jPHg;ghizapNyh my;yJ
cj;jutpNyh Vw;gl;l vOj;jH tifahd
my;yJ vz;tifapyhd jtWfs; my;yJ
jtWjyhf vw;gl;l jtWfNsh
tplg;gl;litfisNah ve;j xU fl;lj;jpYk;
ePjpkd;wk; jhdhfNth my;yJ vjhtJ xU
jug;gpd; tpz;zg;gj;jpd; NghpNyh
rhpnra;ayhk;.
 ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspNa jPHT fhZjy;:
rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-89-d;gb me;j tof;fpd;
,Ujug; ghuhYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba
jPHTf;fhd tha;g;G ,Ug;gjhf
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fj; njhpe;jhy; mj;jifa
jPHTf;fhd nrhw;nwhlHfis tbtikj;J
,Ujug; ghhplKk; nfhLj;J mtHfspd;
fUj;Jf;fisf; Nfl; fyhk; vd;fpwJ. mt;thW
Nfl; lwpe;j fUj;Jf;fspd; mbg;gilapy; me;j
jPHTf;fhd nrhw;nwhlHfis khw;wp mikj;J
mij nghJtH jPHg;Gf;Nfh>
,izf;fg;gLtjw;Nfh> ,Ujug; gpd;
xj;jpirTf;Nfh> Nyhf; mjyj; cl;gl;l
ePjpKiwj; jPHTf;Nfh mDg;gyhk;.
 ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F cs;s ,aw;ifahd
mjpfhuq;fs;: rl; lj;jpd; gphpT-151 ePjpia
epiyehl;lNth my;yJ ePjpkd;w Kiwfisj;
jtwhfg; gad;gLj;Jtijj; jLf;fNth
Njitahd cj;juTfisg; gpwg;gpf;f
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mjpfhuk; toq;FfpwJ. rl;lk;
me;j mjpfhuj; jpw;F ve;j tifapYk; tuk;G
itf;fhJ.
 jPHg;G kw;Wk; jPHg;ghizfspd;
cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l efy;fs;: thjp kw;Wk;
gpujpthjp ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tpz;zg;gk; nra;J
jq;fs; nrhe;j nrytpy; ,tw;iwg; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;syhk; (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-20 tpjp-20).
 tl;b: jPHg;ghiz gzk; nrYj;Jjy;
rhHe;jjhf ,Ue;jhy; me;j %yjdj;
njhifapd; kPjhd ePjpkd;wk; epHdapf;Fk;
tpOf;fhl;L tl;biar; nrYj;JkhWk;
Mizaplyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-34). me;j
tl;b fPo;f;fhZk; vjhtnjhU my;yJ %d;W
tifapYNk tuyhk;: (m) tof;Fj; njhlUk;
Kd;Ng nrYj;j Ntz;ba tl;b> (M)
tof;Fj; njhlHe;jjpypUe;J jPHg;ghiz
mspj;j ehs; tiu cs;s tl;b (ngd;ld;l;
 nrYTj; njhiffs;: rl; l eltbf;iff;fhd
nrYTj;njhifiaj; jPHkhdpf;f
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F tpUg;Gilmjpfhuk; cs;sJ.
NkYk;> me;jj; njhif ahuhy; vt;thW
ve;jr; nrhj;jpypUe;J ve;j msT nfhLf;f
Ntz; Lk; vd;gijj; jPHkhdpf;fTk; mjw;fhd
topfhl; Ljy;fis mspf;fTk; KO
mjpfhuk; eP jpkd;wj;jpw;F cs;sJ.
rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-35 nghJr; nrytpdk;
gw;wpAk; gphpT-35m jtwhd tof;F my;yJ
mlhtb tof;Ff;fhd <l;Lj; njhif
gw;wpAk; gphpT-35M jhkjg;gLj;JjYf;fhd
fl; ldj;ijAk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. NkYk;>
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-20m gpw ,jur;
nryTfs; - jug;Gfs; gpw jug;Gf;F
mspf;Fk; mwptpg;G mDg;g> miog;ghid
mDg;g> jl;lr;R nra;a> tof;fpd;
Njitf;fhf ePjpkd;w Mtzq;fis Ma;T
nra;a> kw;Wk; jPHg;G kw;Wk;
jPHg;ghizfspd; efy;fisg; ngnw MFk;
nryTfs; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

epiwNtw;Wjy;:

epiwNtw;Wjy; vd;gJ ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
mspf;fg;gl;l jPHg;ghizia eilKiwg;
gLj;JtjhFk;. jPHg;G ahUf;Fr; rhHghf
cs;sNjh mtH ‘jPHg;ghiz cs;stH’ my;yJ
‘jPHg;G-fld; nfhLj;jtH’ vdTk; ahUf;F
vjpuhfj; jPHg;G cs;sNjh mtH ‘jPHg;G-
fld; ngw;wtH’ vdTk; miof;fg; gLfpwhH.
rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -36-74 kw;Wk; cj;juT-21
jPHg;ig epiwNtw;Wjy; rhHghd tptuq;fisf;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. me;jj; jPHg;gpid ntspapl;l
ePjpkd;wj;jhNyh my;yJ ve;j ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fr;
nray;gLj;j cj;jutplg; gl;Ls;sNjh me;j
ePjpkd;wj;jhNyh nray;gLj;jg;gl Ntz; Lk;
vd;fpwJ rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-38. epiwNtw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wk; jPHg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dhy; nry;yyhfhJ
mjhtJ> jPHg;ghizapd; nrhw;nwhlHfis
khw;wp mikf;f mjpfhuk; ,y;iy khwhf
jPHg;ghizapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;lthNw epiwNtw;w
Ntz; Lk;. mt;tof;fpd; ,U jug; ghUf;FNkh
my;yJ mtHfspd; gpujpepjpfSf;Nfh ,ilNa
jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;Wk;NghNjh> tpLjiy
nra;Ak;NghNjh Vw;gLk; Nfs;tpfSf;Fk;



10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




mJgw;wpa jpUg;jp Nghd;wtw; iw me;j
jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;Wk; eP jpkd;wNk KbT
nra;Ak;. ,jw;fhf jdpnahU tof;Fj; njhlu
KbahJ. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-47).

xU jPH;ghizapidr; nray;gLj;j (fl;lhaj;
jil toq;Fk; jPHg;ghiz jtpu) fhytuk;G
jPHg;ghiz ntspahd ehspypUe;J 12
cj;juT-21 tpjp-15)
 jPHg;G-fldhsp ,we;J tpl;bUe;jhy; mtuJ
rl;lg;G+Htkhd gpujpepjp - ,tH jPHg;G-
fldhspapd; nrhj;J rhHghf kl;LNk
ghj;jpag;gLthH jdpg;gl;l tpjj;jpy; my;y
(rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-50> 52> 53)
 jd;idNa jPHg;G-fldhspapd; gpujpepjp vd;W
$wpf;nfhs;gtH (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-146) NkYk;>



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
Mz;LfshFk;. (fhytiuaiur; rl;lk; A.136)

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-11-y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
epge;jidfspd;gb epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd
tpz;zg;gk; tha;nkhopahfNth my;yJ
vOj;JtopahfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.

fPo;f;fhZk; egHfs; epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd
tpz;zg;gj;ij toq;fyhk;:
 jPHg;ghid itj;jpUg;gtH (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-
21 tpjp-10)
 jPHg;ghid itj;jpUg;gtH ,we;Jtpl;lhy;
mtuJ rl;lg;G+Htkhd gpujpepjp (rl;lj;jpd;
gphpT-146)
 jPHg;ghid itj;jpUg;gthpd; gpujpepjp
(rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-146)
 jPHg;ghid itj;jpUg;gtUf;F mbapy; cs;s
ahuhtJ xUtH (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-146)
 jPHg;ghid itj;jpUg;gthpd; khw;whs; - (m)
jPHg;ghiz vOj;Jg;G+HtkhfNth my;yJ
rl;lg;gbNah khw;wg;gl;bUe;jhy; my;yJ (M)
me;j jPHg;ghizia ntspapl;l ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
mij epiwNtw;w tpz;zg;gpj;jpUe;jhy;> (,)
jPHg;G-fldhspf;Fk; khw;whSf;Fk; ,ilNa
mJgw;wpj; njhptpf;f mwptpg;Gk; tha;g;Gk;
toq;fg;gLtjw;fhf tpz;zg;gk; mspj;jpUf;f
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-49 kw;Wk; cj;juT-
21 tpjp-16)
 xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l jPHg;ghid
itj;jpUg;NghH. Mdhy; (m) mjw;F khwhf
jPHg;ghizapy; vJTk; Fwpg;gpl;bUf;ff; $lhJ>
(M) jPHg;ghiz KOtijAk; epiwNtw;w
tpz;zg;gpj;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. kw;Wk; (,) vy;yh
jPH;g;ghiz itj;jpUg;NghUf;Fk; eyk;
jUtjw;fhf tpz;zg;gpj;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-10) NkYk;
 rpwg;ghd tpUg;gk; cs;s ahnuhUtUk;

fPo;f;fhz;gtHfSf;F vjpuhf epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd
tpz;zg;gk; toq;fg; glyhk;:

 jPHg;G-fldhsp (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-50 kw;Wk;
 jPHg;G-fldhspapd; gpizak; (rl;lj;jpd;
gphpT-150)

jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;w mspf;fg;gLk;
xt;nthU vOj;Jg; G+Htkhd tpz;zg;gKk;
ifnahg;gkplg;gl;L tpz;zg;gjhuuhNyh my;yJ
me;j tof;fpy; cs;sit gw;wp ed;F
mwpe;jtnud ePjpkd;wk; fUJk; NtnwhUtuhNyh
rhpghHf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. NkYk;> mjpy;
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-11-y;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sthW xU fl;lj;jpy; fP o;f;fhZk;
tptuq;fs; Fwpf;fg; gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 tof;fpd; vz;
 tof;fpd; jug;gpdH
 jPHg;ghiz ehs;
 VjhtJ Nky;KiwaPl; bid NjHT
nra;Js;shuh
 VjhtJ (VjhtJ ,Ue;jhy;) jPHg;ghizf;Fg;
gpd;dH ,U jug;gpdUf;Fk; ,ilNa vd;d
nrYj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ my;yJ mtHfSf;Fs;
vd;d rkurk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.
 VjhtJ (VjhtJ ,Ue;jhy;) vd;d
epiwNtw;WjYf;fhd tpz; zg;gk; vg;NghJ
mspf;fg;gl;lJ mjw;fhd tpisT
 jPHg;ghizapy; cs;sthW VjhtJ gzk;
nryj;j Ntz;bapUe;jhy; %yjdj;njhif
kw;Wk; mjw;fhd tl;b (VjhtJ ,Ue;jhy;)
my;yJ NtW VjhtJ epthuzk;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jhy; kw;Wk; mjNdhL
mjw;F Kd;dNuh my;yJ mjw;Fg;
gpd;dNuh ntspahd FWf;Fj; jPHg;ghizfs;
gw;wpa tptuq;fs;
 nryTj; njhif VjhtJ
Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jhy;
 ahUf;F vjpuhf jPHg;ghiz epiwNtw;wg;gl
Ntz; LNkh mtuJ ngaH
 ve;jtifapy; eP jpkd;wj;jpd; cjtp Njit
(m) jPHg;ghizapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l
nrhj;jpidj; jUtjw;fh (M) VjhtJ
nrhj;jpidg; gwpKjy; nra;tjw;fh my;yJ
gwpKjy; nra;J tpw;fth my;yJ gwpKjy;
10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10


nra;ahky; tpw;gjw;fh (,) ahuhtJ xUtiuf;
ifJ nra;J rpiwapyilf;fth (<)
nrhj;jhl;rpaiu epakpf;fth (c) epthuzj;jpd;
jd;ikf; Nfw;w cjtpNfl;lh (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-21).
FWf;F jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;Wjy;:

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-18 kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;
,U ntt;NtW tof;Ffspd; FWf;Fj;
jPHg;ghizapy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s ,U
njhiffisAk; mNj ,U jug; gpdUk; xUtH
MfpNahNuhL $l;lhf itj;Js;s
jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;w tpz;zg;gpf;fpwhH.
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-18d;gb egH-6 me;j
jPHg;ghizia xU FWf;Fj; jPHg;ghizahff;
fUjyhk;.

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp 26
kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;> me;j jPHg;ghizia
epiwNtw;Wk; eP jpkd;wk; NghJkhd fhuzq;fs;
,Ue;jhy; jPHg;G-fldhsp gpiz nrYj;Jk;
gl;rj;jpy; my;yJ tpjpf;fg;gl;l epge;jidfis



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
kw;wtUf;Fr; nrYj;j Ntz; bapUe;jhy; mJTk;
xNu Neuj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz; bapUe;jhy;
mjw;fhd tpz;zg;gq;fs; te;jpUe;jhy; (m) me;j
,U njhiffSk; rkkhf ,Ue;jhy; ,U
jPHg;ghizfspd; jpUg;jpia milayhk;. (M)
,U njhiffSk; rkkw;wjhf ,Ue;jhy; me;j
,U njhiffspy; Fiwthd njhifia fopj;J
tpl;L mjpfkhd njhifAila jPHg;G-
itj;jpUg;gtuhNyNa epiwNtw;wg;gLk;. xd;Wf;F
Nkw;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhf NrHj;Jk; gytifapYk;
jPHg;G-itj;jpUg;gtH mtUf;F vjpuhff;
nfhLf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; jPHg;ghizfis jdpahf
xUtUf;F rhHghfNth my;yJ gyUf;F
rhHghfNth nfhLf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;
jPHg;ghizfisAk; xU FWf;Fj;
jPHg;ghizahff; fUjp epiwNtw;w Ntz; Lk;.

tpsf;fk;: egH-1 egH-2f;F vjpuhf &.1000/- f;fhd
jPHg;ghizia itj;jpUf;fpwhH. egH-2 egH-1-f;F
vjpuhf &. 1000/- f;fhd jPHg;ghizia
itj;jpUf;fpwhH. xUNtis egH-1 vjpH fhyj;jpy;
egH-2-f;F xUrpy nghUl;fis toq;ftpy;iy.
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-18-d;gb egH-2 mtH
itj;Js;s jPHg;ghizia FWf;Fj;
jPHg;ghizahff; fUj KbahJ.

tpsf;fk;: egH-1k; egH-2k; $l;L thjpfshtH.
mtHfs; egH-3f;F vjpuhf &.1000-f;fhd
jPHg;ghiziag; ngw;Ws;sdH. egH-3 egH-2f;F
vjpuhf &.1000/- f;fhd jPHg;ghizia
itj;jpUf;fpwhH. egH-3 me;j jPHg;ghizia xU
FWf;Fj; jPHg;ghizahf rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21
tpjp-18d;gb fUj KbahJ.

tpsf;fk;: egH-1>2>3>4>5 MfpNahH $l;lhfTk;
gyuhfTk; egH-6 itj;Js;s jPHg;ghizapd;
%yk; &.1000/- flikg;gl;Ls;sdH. egH-1 egH-
6f;F vjpuhf jdpahf &.1000/- f;fhd
jPHg;ghizia itj;jpUf;fpwhH. mtH egH-2>3>4>5
Vw;Wr; nray;gLj;jpdhy; me;jj; jPHg;ghizia
epiwNtw;Wtij Vw; Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba
fhyj;jpw;F jilnra;J itf;fyhk;. ,J jPHg;G-
fldhsp jPHg;gizia ntspapl;l
ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh my;yJ Nky; eP jp kd;wj;jpNyh
KiwaPL nra;J epiwNtw;Wtjw;Fj;
jilahiz ngw tha;g;gspf;Fk;.

fhHdp\P eltbf;iffs;:

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-21 tpjp-46A - 46I cs;s
\uj; Jfs; fhHdp\P eltbf;if vLf;Fk;
tpjk;gw;wp tpsf;Ffpd;wd. mjhtJ> jPHg;ghiz
itj;jpUg;gtH jPHg;G-fldhspaplkpUe;J ngw
Ntz; ba njhifiaNah nrhj;ijNah jPHg;G-
fldhspapd; fldhspaplkpUe;J (fhHdp\P)
Neubahfg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Stjw;fhd
eltbf;ifahFk;. jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wk; jPHg;Gf; fldhspapd; fldhspahd
%d;whtJ egiu jPHg;G-itj; jpUg;gtUf;Fr;
nrYj;JkhW cj;jutplyhk;.

ntspehl;Lj; jPHg;Gfs;:

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-13-toq;fpAs;s tpjptpyf;Ffspy;
tuhj ve;j xU ntspehl;Lj; jPHg;Gk;
,e;jpahtpy; fPo;f;fhZk; tpjq;fspy;
epiwNtw;wyhk;: (m) me;j ntspehl;Lj;
jPHg;gpd;kPJ xU tof;Fj; njhLg;gjd; %yk;
my;yJ (M) xUrpy Fwpg;gpl;l tof;Ffspy; -
mjhtJ rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-44m tpy;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s tof;Ffspy; Neubahf
epiwNtw;Wk; eltbf;iffis vLg;gjd; %yk;
epiwNtw;wyhk;. ntspehl; L nghJtuhy;
toq;fg;gl;l jPHg;G mij cUthf;fpa ehl;by;
epiwNtw;wf; $Lkhdhy; mij ,e;jpahtpYk;
epiwNtw;wyhk;.

Nky;KiwaPLfs;> ghpe;Jiuj;jy; kW Ma;T
nra;jy; kw;Wk; Nkyha;T nra;jy;


15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15

ePjpkd;wj;jhy; toq;fg;gl;l cj;jutpdhNyh
my;yJ jPHg;ghizapdhNyh xUtH
ghjpf;fg;gl;lhy; mtH mjw;F Nkw;gl;l
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Nky; KiwaP L nra;a ,lkspj;jhy;
me;j cj;juTf;Nfh> jPHg;ghizf;Nfh vjpuhf
Nky; KiwaPL nra;ayhk;. my;yJ kW Ma;T
nra;aNth kW tprhuid nra;aNth Nfhhp
tpz;zg;gpf;fyhk;. xUrpy Neuq; fspy; fP o;
ePjpkd;wk; caH ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F me;j tof;if
ghpe;Jiuf;fyhk;.

mry; jPH;g;ghizapypUe;J Nky; KiwaPL
nra;jy;:

Nky; KiwaPL vd;gJ mbg;gilapy; fP o;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gij xt;nthd;whf
vz;fspl;L tpthjkpd;wpAk; tpthpj;Jk; vOjhky;
ntt;NtW jiyg;Gf;fbapy; kpfr; RWf;fkhf
vOjg;gl Ntz; Lk;. gzk; fl;Lk;gb NfhUk;
jPHg;ghizia vjpHj;J Nky; KiwaPL
nra;ag;gLfpwJ vdpy; mjpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
njhifia me;j Nky; eP jpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpLk;
ehl;fSf;Fs; itg;Gj; njhifahfr; nrYj;j
Ntz; Lk; my;yJ ePjpkd;wk; NfhUk;
gpizaj;njhifiaf; fl;l Ntz; Lk;.

fhytiuaiu:

xU jPHg;ghizapid vjpHj;J caHePjp
kd;wj;jpy; jPHg;ghiz ehspypUe;J njhd;D}W



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kbit mjw;F Nky; cs;s
ePjpkd;wk; rl;lg;G+Htkhf Ma;T nra;tjhFk;.
mJ tof;fpd; xU njhlHr;rpNa. Kjy; Nky;
KiwaPL vd;gJ xU ePjpkd;wj;jhy; mjd; mry;
mjpfhu tuk;Gf;F cl;gl;L; toq;fg;gl;l
jPHg;ghizia vjpHj;J KiwapLtjhFk;. Mdhy;>
,uz;lhtJ Nky; KiwaPNlh Nky; KiwaPl;L
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPHg;ghizia vjpHj;J
njhLf;fg;gLfpwJ. Kjy; Nky; KiwaPL xU
Nky; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; njhLf;fg;gLk;. mJ
caHePjpkd;wkhf ,Uf;f Ntz; bajpy;iy.
Mdhy;> ,uz;lhtJ Nky; KiwaPNlh caHePjp
kd;wj;jpy; kl;LNk njhLf;f KbAk;. Kjy; Nky;
KiwaPL rl;lk; rhHe;j Nfs;tpiaNah my;yJ
ele;j cz; ik rhHe;j Nfs;tpiaNah my;yJ
,uz;ilAk; fye;Njh Kd;itj;J njhLf;fg;
gLfpwJ. fPo; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; ,Ujug;ghuhYk;
Vw;Wf;nfhz;l jPHg;ig vjpHj;J tof;Fj; njhLf;f
,ayhJ. (rl;lj;jpd; gpupT-96). ,uz;lhtJ Nky;
KiwaPNlh rl;lk; rhHe;j nghpa mstpyhd
Nfs;tp vOk;NghNjh my;yJ mry; tof;fpd;
chpg;nghUs; gzk; kPl;gJ rhHe;jjhfTk;
mj;njhif &.25>000/-f;F mjpfkhf ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-102).

Nky; KiwaPl;Lg; gbtk;:

xt;nthU Nky; KiwaPLk; Nky; KiwaPL
nra;gtuhNyh my;yJ mtuJ thJiuQuhNyh
Nky; KiwaPl;L kD vOjg;gl;L
ifnahg;gkplg;gl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh my;yJ
mjdhy; ,jw;fhf epakpf;fg;gl;l mjpfhhpaplNkh
rkHg;gpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. me;jf; Nky; KiwaPl;L
kDNthL Ke;ija jPHg;gpd; efiyAk; ,izf;f
Ntz; Lk;. me;j Nky; KiwaPl;L kDtpy; me;j
jPHg;ghizia vij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L
(90) ehl;fSf;Fs; Nky; KiwaPL nra;a
Ntz; Lk;. kw;w ePjp kd;wq; fspy; jPH;g;ghiz
ehspypUe;J Kg;gJ (30)Nky; KiwaPL nra;a
Ntz; Lk;. (fhytiuaiur;rl;lk;> gphpT-116).

jhkjj;ij kd;dpf;ff; NfhUk; tpz;zg;gk;:

fhytiuaiur; rl;lk; epHzapj;j fhyf;
nfLTf;Fs; Nky; KiwaPL nra;ahky;
mjd;gpwF Nky;KiwaPl;L kDit mspj;jhy;>
me;j kDNthL xU gpukhzg; gj;jpuj;jpy;
jhkjj;jpw;Ff; fhuzkhd cz;ikfisj;
njspthf vOjp me;j cz; ikfisr;
rkHg;gpg;jw;fhfNt jhkjkhdJ vd;gij
ePjpkd;wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;SkhW rkHg;gpf;f
Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-41 tpjp-3m)

eltbf;iffSf;Fj; jil:

Nky; eP jpkd;wk; cj;jutplhjtiu Nky;
KiwaPL nra;Js;sjhy; jPHg;ghiz my;yJ
cj;jutpdhy; vLf;fg;gLk; rl;l
eltbf;iffSf;Fj; jil ,y;iy.
Nky;KiwaPL nra;ag; gl;Ls;sJ vd;w xNu
fhuzj;jpw;fhf jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;wj;
jil ,y;iy. ,Ug;gpDk;> me;j Nky;
ePjpkd;wk; NghJkhd fhuzj;ij me;j Nky;
KiwaPL nra;jtH rkHg;gpj;jhy; me;jj;
jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;wj; jiltpjpj;J
cj;jutplyhk;. fPo;f;fhZk; fhuzq;fs;
NghJkhdjhf ,Ue;jhy; (m) mg;gb xU jil
Miz gpwg;gpf;fhtpl;lhy; Nky; KiwaPL
nra;Ak; jug;Gf;F ngUj;j el;lk; Vw;gLk; (M)
Njitaw;w fhy tpiuakpd; wp me;j jilf;fhd
tpz;zg;gk; jug;gl;Ls;sJ. (,) Nky; KiwaPL
nra;jtuhy; me;j jPHg;ghizapNyh



20




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20
cj;jutpNyh Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s chpa gpizak;
nrYj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;njhifNa ,Wjpahf
mthplkpUe;J NfhUk; njhifahFk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-41 tpjp-5)
Nky; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; $Ljy; jlaq;fisr;
rkHg;gpj;jy;

toikahf> Nky; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; Nky; KiwaPl;L
tprhuidapd;NghJ $Ljy; jlaq;fis -
tha;nkhopj; jlaNkh vOj;Jg; G+Htkhd jlaNkh
- rkHg;gpf;f mDkjp ,y;iy. ,Ug;gpDk;> (m)
ve;j ePjpkd;wj;jpypUe;J me;j jPHg;ghiz
ntspahdNjh me;j ePjp kd;wk; me;jr;
rhl;rpfis Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. Mdhy;>
mtw;iw Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUe;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;
vd;why; (M) $Ljy; jlaj;ijj; ju tpUk;Gk;
jug;G jd;dhy; Kbe;jtiu chpa Kaw;rp
vLj;Jk; jdJ mwpTf;F me;jj; jlaj;ijg; gw;wp
jPHg;ghiz ntspahFk; Kd; njhpatpy;iy vd
my;yJ xU jug;Gf; F rhHghfNth ,Ue;jhYk;
me;j jug;G Nky; KiwaPl;L kD
mspf;ftpy;iy vd;whYk; ,j;jifa mjpfhuk;
me;j ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F cs;sJ. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-61 tpjp-33).

cj;juTfspypUe;J Nky; KiwaPL:

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-104 kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;>
fPo;f;fhZk; cj;juTfSf;F vjpuhf
Nky; KiwaPL nra;ayhk; vd;fpwJ:
 rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-35m –d;gb ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs; (ngha;ahd> fLg;gbf;Fk;
Nfhhpf;iffs; my;yJ kWg;Gf;fhd
,og;gPl;L nryTj;njhif rhHe;j
cj;juTfs;)
 rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-91 –d;gb ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs; (nghJ mikjpf;F gq;fk;



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
ep&gpj;jhy; (,) Nky; eP jpkd;wk; rhpahd
KbntLf;fj; $Ljy; jlaq; fisj; jUk;gb –
MtzNkh my;yJ rhl;rpfisf;
Nfl; Lf;nfhz;lhy; my;yJ NtW VjhtJ ngUj;j
fhuzj;jpw;fhf me;j Nky; ePjpkd;wk; mj;jifa
$Ljy; jlaq;fis – MtzNkh rhl;rpfNsh –
Nfl; fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-41 tpjp-27)

FWf;F kWg;Giufisg; gjpT nra;jy;:

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-60 tpjp-22>
kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy; xU jPHg;ghizf;F vjpuhf
xUtH mjw;F vjpuhf vjpH jug;G Nky; KiwaPL
nra;jpUg;gjhy; mjw;F vjpuhf FWf;F
kWg;Giufisj; jhf;fy; nra;ayhk;. ,ejf;
FWf;F kWg;Giufis xU Nky; KiwaPl;L
kDthf vjpHjug; G kD nra;J ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
M[uhFk;gb Nfl; Lf;nfhz; Ls;s miog;ghid
ngw;w ehspypUe;J 30 ehl;fSf;Fs; jhf;fy;
nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-61 tpjp-
22).

Nky;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuk;:

Nky; KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wk; nra;jpUf;f Ntz; ba
ve;j xU jPHg;ghiziaNah my;yJ
cj;juitNah gpwg;gpf;fyhk; my;yJ me;j
tof;fpw;F Vw;w mJNghd;w my;yJ gpw
jPHg;ghizfisNah cj;juTfisNah
gpwg;gpf;fyhk;. me;j Nky; KiwaPL
jPHg;ghizapd; xU gFjp rhHe;jjhfNt
,Ue;jhYk; kw;Wk; tof;fpd; vy;yhj; jug;Gf;FNk
tpistpj;jy; kw;Wk; gpw nghJkf;fisg;
ghjpg;gitfSf;F vjpuhd cj;juTfs;)
my;yJ rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-92 –d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs; (nghJ
mwf;fl;lisfSf;F vjpuhd tof;Ffs;
rhHe;j cj;juTfs;) rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-91>92 –
d;gb tof;Fj; njhlu Kd; mDkjp
kWj;jy;
 rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-95m –d;gb ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs; (NghJkhd fhuzq;fspd;wp
ifJ nra;ag;gl;ljw;Fk;> gwpKjy;
nra;jjw;Fk;> jil cj;juTfs;
gpwg;gpj;jjw;fhfTk; Vw;gl;l ,og;gPL rhHe;j
cj;juTfs;)
 xU jPHg;ghizia epiwNtw;Wk; tpjkhf
ahuhtJ xUtiu jz;lidj; njhif
fl; lNth> ifJ nra;AkhNwh> Fbik
rpiwapy; gpizapy; itf;fNth rl;lj;jpd;
VjhtnjhU toptifia mbg;gilahf
itj;Jg; gpwg;gpj;j cj;juTfs;.
 rl;ltpjpfspd; gb gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l cj;jutpy;
me;j tpjpNa ntspg;gilahf
Nky;KiwaPl;il mDkjpj;jhy;

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -63 tpjp-1-d;gb
Nky;KiwaPL fPo;f;fhZk; cj;juTfspypUe;J
tUfpwJ vd;fpwJ:
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -7 tpjp-10–d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs; mjhtJ
jd;dplk; rkHg;gpf;fg; gl;l KiwaPl;bid
NtW xU rhpahd ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jhf;fy;
nra;AkhW jpUg;gp mDg;Gk; cj;juT




25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20



(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -7 tpjp-10m –d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs; jtpu)
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -9 tpjp-9 –d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs; - xU tof;ifj;
js;Sgb nra;Ak; cj;juit xJf;FkhW
NfhUk; kDit epuhfhpj;jy; (Nky;
KiwaPl;Lf;F tha;g;Gs;s tof;fpy;)
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -9 tpjp-21–d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;.
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -21 tpjp-34-d;gb xU
MtzNkh my;yJ Mizapd; tiuit
kWj;J ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;.
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -21 tpjp-72 my;yJ 92 –
d;gb xU tpw;gidiaj; xJf;fp itj;Njh
my;yJ xJf;fptpl kWj;Njh ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs;.
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -21 tpjp-106m –d;gb xU
kDit Vw;f kWj;J ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs;. Mdhy;> rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -21
tpjp-105(1)-d;gb Vw;fj;jf;fjhf ,Ue;jhy;
KiwaPL nra;a chpik ,Ue;jhy; tof;if
epWj;jp itf;fg;gl ntspaplg;gll
cj;juTfs;
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -47 tpjp-4–d;gb
kWghprPyid nra;af;Nfhhpa kDit Vw;W
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;

rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-41y; cs;s tpjpfs;
cj;juTfspypUe;J Nky; KiwaPL nra;Ak;
topKiwfSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. (rl;lj;jpd;
cj;juT-43 tpjp-2).

Kj;jpiug; gj;jpuk; Nky; KiwaPLfs;:

caHePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fs;NsNa Nky; KiwaPL
nra;a rl;lk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy. caHePjp
kd;wj;jpd; xU ePjpgjp mkHT ntspapl;l
cj;juit vjpHj;J me;j gl;la caHePjp kd;w
Kj;jpiug; gj;jpuj;jpd; toptifiag; nghUj;Nj
Nky;KiwaPl;bid ,UePjpgjp mkHTf;F mDg;g
KbAk;. mg;gbg;gl;l Nky; KiwaP L ve;j
cj;juTf;F vjpuhf nra;ag;gLfpwNjh me;j



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -22 tpjp-9–d;gb xU
tof;ifj; js;Sgb nra;a kWj;J
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT tpjp-10–d;gb Kd; mDkjp
toq;fpNah my;yJ mDkjp toq;f kWj;Njh
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -25 tpjp-2–d;gb xU
tof;ifj; js;Sgb nra;jij xJf;fp
itf;FkhW Nfhhpa kDit js;Sgb nra;j
cj;juTfs; (Nky; KiwaP l;Lf;F tha;g;gspf;fg;
gl;bUe;jhy;)
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -33 tpjp-5> 7–d;gb
tWikapy; ,Ug;gtH tof;Fj;njhlu mDjp
Nfl; Fk; kDit kWj;J ntspaplg;gl;l
cj;juTfs;
 ,d;lHgpsPlH tof;Ffspy; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-35
tpjp-3>4>6–d;gb ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -48 tpjp-2>3>6–d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -39 tpjp-1> 2> 2m> 4> 10–
d;gb ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -40 tpjp-1> 4–d;gb
ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
 rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -41 tpjp-19–d;gb kPz;Lk;
tprhuizf;F vLj;Jf;nfhs;s my;yJ
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-41 tpjp-21-d;gb kW
tprhuizf;fhf ntspaplg;gl;l cj;juTfs;
rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT -41 tpjp-23> 23m–d;gb
Nky; eP jpkd;wj; jPHg;ghizapypUe;J Nky;;
cj;juT ntspahd ehspypUe;J 30
ehl;fSf;Fs; nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;.
(fhytiuaiur; rl;lk; gphpT-117)

rl;lj;jpd; gb cr;rePjp kd;wj;jpy; Nky; KiwaPL
nra;jy;

caHePjp kd;wk; toq;fpa jPhg;igNah>
jPHg;ghiziaNah my;yJ ,Wjp
cj;juitNah vjpHj;J cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
jhf;fy; nra;ayhk;. Mdhy; mjw;F caHePjp
kd;wk; (m) me;j tof;F xU rl;lk; rhHe;j
ngUj;j Nfs;tpia vOg;gpAs;sJ my;yJ
nghJthd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; cs;sJ vd
cWjpg;gLj;jpdhy; my;yJ (M) caHePjp
kd;wj;ijg; nghUj;jtiu mj;jifa Nfs;tp
cr;rePjpkd;wj;jhy; KbT nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;
vd cWjpg;gLj;jpdhy; cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
Nky; KiwaPL nra;ag;glyhk;.

caH ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fg; ghpe;Jiuj;jy;

ve;j xU ePjpkd;wKk; xU tof;if tpsf;fpf;
$wp mJ rl;lk; rhHe;j Nfs;tp vOk;NghJ
caHePjpkd;wj;jpd; fUj;Jf;Fg; ghpe;jiuf;fyhk;.
caHePjpkd;wKk; mjw;Fr; rhpnadr; Njhd;Wk;
fUj;ij mspf;fyhk;. (rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-113).
ePjpkd;wk; jhdhfNt Kd;te;Njh my;yJ xU
jug;gpd; kDtpd;NghpNyh ghpe;Jiuf;fyhk;.

25




30




35




40




45




50



5




10




15




20




25
Mdhy; caH ePjpkd;wjj;jpw;Fg; ghpe;Jiuf;F
Kd; rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-46 tpjp-1y; cs;s
epge;jidfs; filgpbf;fg; gl;Ls;sjh vd;gij
cWjpg; gLj;jpf nfhs;s Ntz; Lk;.

kW Ma;T

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-114 kWMa;T nra;af; NfhUk;
NghJkhd chpikia tof;fhLgtUf;F
mspf;fpwJ. NkYk; cj;juT-47 mjw;fhd
topKiwfis mspf;fpwJ. kW Ma;T vd;gJ
mNj ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mNj ePjpgjpahy; me;j
tof;if kWgbAk; jpUg;gpg; ghHg;gjhFk;. xU
jPHg;ghizahNyh my;yJ cj;juthNyh
Ntjidaile;j xUtH mij kW Ma;T nra;a
kDr; nra;ayhk;. mj;jifa kW Ma;T
kDtpid fPo;f;fhZk; re;jHg;gq;fspy;
rkHg;gpf;fyhk;: (1) Nky; KiwaPL nra;a
,ayhj tof;Ffs; (2) Nky; KiwaPL nra;a
tha;g;gpUe;Jk; Nky; KiwaPL nra;ahtpby;. rpW
tof;Ffis tprhhpf;Fk; eP jpkd;wk; ghpe;Jiuj;jhy;
nfhLf;fg;gl;l jPHg;Gfis kW Ma;T nra;a
rl;lk; mDkjpf;fpwJ. fPo;f;fhZk; vjhtnjhU
fhuj;jpw;fhf jPHg;Gf;F vjpuhf kWMa;T kD
mij Nkyha;T nra;AkhW kDr; nra;ayhk;.
my;yJ caH ePjpkd;wk; jhdhfNt Kd;te;J
jdf;Ff; fP Os;s ePjpkd;wj;jpd;
jPhg;ghiziaNah cj;juitNa Nkyha;Tf;F
vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-115-d;gb Nkyha;Tf;fhd
kDtpid 90 ehl;fSf;Fs; caHePjpkd; wj;jpy;
jhf;fy; nra;a Ntz; Lk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-115d;gb caHePjp kd;wj;jpw;F
cs;s Nkyha;T mjpfhu tuk;G kw;Wk; ,e;jpa
murpayikg;Gr; rl;lk; gphpT-227 caH
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; caHtpid ,U ntt;NtW
Kw;wpYk; khWgl;l topKiwfspy;
rpe;jpf;fpd;wd. ,e;j ,U mjpfhuq;fSf;fpilNa
cs;s NtWghL vd;dntdpy;> rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-
115d;gb mjd;fPOs;s epge;jidfs; NghJkhd
mstpy; ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk caHePjpkd;wk;
Nkyha;T mjpfhu tuk;igr; nrYj;j KbAk;.
Mdhy;> murpayikg;Gr; rl;lk; gphpT-227-d;gb
mg;gbg;gl;l ve;j xU epge;jidfSk;
,y;yhkNyNa caHePjp kd;wk; jdJ caHthd
mjpfhuj; ijr; nrYj;jyhk;.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
rkHg;gpf;fyhk;: (m) xU Gjpa kw;Wk; Kf;fpakhd
jlak; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lhy; (M) Mtzq;fis
NkNyhl;lkhfg; ghHf;Fk;NghNj jtW njhpe;jhy;
(,) NtW VjhtJ NghJkhd fhuzj;jpw;fhf. xU
ePjpkd;wk; toq;fpa jPHg;gpid (cr;r ePjpkd;wk;
jtpu) kW Ma;T nra;af;NfhUk; kD me;j
jPH;ghiz my;yJ cj;juT ntspahd
ehspypUe;J 30 ehl; fSf;Fs; rkHg;gpf;fg;gl
Ntz; Lk;. (fhytiuaiur; rl;lk; gphpT-124)

Nkyha;T:

xU caHePjpkd;wk; jdf;Ff; fP o; cs;s
ePjpkd;wk; tprhhpj;J jPHg;G toq;fg;gl;l (Nky;
KiwaPl;Lf;F tha;g;gpy;yhj) tof;fpd;
Mtzq;fis jd;dplk; rkHg;gpf;FkhW Nfhuyhk;
vd;fpwJ rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-115. Mdhy;> me;j fPo;
ePjpkd;wk; jdf;F me;j tof;if tprhhpf;fr;
rl;lj;jhy; toq;fg;gl;l mjpfhu tuk;G
,y;yhkNyNa tprhhpj;J Kbj; js;sJ my;yJ
mjpfhu tuk;igr; nray;gLj;jhky; tpl;Ls;sJ
my;yJ rhpahd Kiwapy; me;j tprhuid
eilngwtpy;iy vd;why; kl;LNk ,t;thW
Nfhuyhk;. ,jw;Fg; ngaH caH ePjpkd;wj;jpd;
Nkyha;T mjpfhu tuk;G vdg;gLfpwJ. fPo;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPHg;ghiz Vw; Wf;nfhs;s
Kbahjjhf czUk; xUtH caHePjp kd;wj;jpy;




30




35




40




45




50

1
Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦

¬ßÝøµ:

Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦ \õuÚzvß
¬ßÝÚõ¯õÚx AuøÚ
ÁiÁø©zuÁºPÎß ^¶¯
C»m]¯[PøͲ® öPõÒøP
PøͲ® AÁØøÓ AøhÁuØPõÚ
Âv¬øÓPøͲ®
EÒÍhUQ¯uõS®. J¸ }v©ßÓ®
AzuøP¯ ¬ßÝøµø¯ uÚUS
÷uøÁ¨£k® GuõQÝ® J¸
\©¯zvÀ ö©õÈ ©õØÓ® ö\´¯¨£k®
÷£õx GÊ® \¢÷uPzvøÚ wºzxU
öPõÒÍ £¯ß £kzx®. Cx J¸
ö©õÈ°À JßÖUS ÷©Ø£mh
Aºzu[PÒ EÒÍ÷£õx C® ¬øÓ
øP¯õͨ£kQßÓx. A®ö©õÈ°À
÷ÁöÓõ¸ öuÎÁõÚ, £» ö£õ¸Ò
öPõkUP Ti¯uÀ»õu J¸ P¸zx
C¸US©õ°ß AU P¸zøu öPõÒÍ
÷Ásk÷©¯ßÔ ¬ßÝøµø¯ £¯ß
£kzv J¸ \mhª¯ØÓ÷Áõ AÀ»x
AuøÚ J¸ uSv¯õUP÷Áõ ¬i¯õx.
¬ßÝøµ°À Á¼²Özu¨£mkÒÍ
öPõÒøPPÒ Aµ]¯À \õ\Úzvß J¸
Ai¨£øh Áiø©¨÷£¯ßÔ v¸zu
¤÷µõøn¯õP £¯ß£kzv
Aµ]¯»ø©¨¤ß AvPõµ[PøÍ
ukUP C¯»õx. ( ÷P\ÁõÚ¢u £õµv
Vs. ÷PµÍ ©õ|»®. ( A.I.R 1973 SC
1461).

Euõµn®:
©ua\õº¤ßø©ø¯ Ai¨£øh
öPõÒøP¯õP ¬ßÝøµ°À
öPõsi¸¨£øu Põq® ÷£õx
C¢v¯ Aµ\õ[PzvØS G¢u J¸
SÔ¨¤mh ©u¬® Qøh¯õx GßÖ®
©UPÒ \©E¶ø© ö£ØÓÁõPÒ GßÖ®
u[PÒ ©Ú EnºÄPÐUS HØ£ G¢u
J¸ ©uzøu²® u® ¸¨£® ÷£õ»,
öÁΨ£øh¯õP £µ¨£Ä® ¤ß
£ØÓÄ® E¶ø© ö£ØÓÁºPÒ GßÖ®
P¸u¨£kQßÓx. ( S.R. ö£õ®ø©
Vs. ³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ (A.I.R
1994 SC 1918 ).

£õP® I :- ( J¸[Qøn¢u ©ØÖ®
AuøÚ \õº¢u GÀø»PÒ )
C¢v¯ Aµ]¯À \õ\ÚzvÀ
C¢v¯õ J¸ J¸[Qøn¢u
©õ|»[PÎß ÷\ºUøP Gߣøu
P¸zvÀ öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk® Auß
Azv¯õÁ]¯ Ai¨£øh C¯À£õÚx
{® Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦ J¸ªzu
2
P¸zxPЮ £õv J¸ªzu
P¸zxPЮ EÒÍhUQ¯x BS® (
÷©õmhõº Ási ÷£õUSÁµzx (
µõáìuõß ) ¼ªömh ( A.I.R 1962
SC 1406).
{õhõЩßÓzvØS J¸
¦v¯ ©õ|»zøu ÷uõØÖÂUP÷Áõ
AÀ»x (A-2) ©õØÓ÷Áõ AvPõµ®
EÒÍx. CuØS AuÝøh¯
P¸zøu÷¯õ \®©uzøu÷¯õ ÷Põµ
÷Ási¯ AÁ]¯® CÀø». ÷©¾®
Auß £µ¨£ÍÄ ©ØÖ® GÀø»U
÷Põmøh ©õØÓ÷Áõ AÀ»x HØPÚ÷Á
C¸US® ©õ|»zvß ö£¯øµ ©õØÓ÷Áõ
¬Ê AvPõµ® EÒÍx. CuØP
{õhõЩßÓ® uÛ¨ö£¸®£õßø©
- »® J¸ \mh® C¯ØÔÚõÀ Ax÷Á
÷£õx©õÚuõS®.
£õP® II: Si²¶ø©
Aµ]¯À \õ\Úzvß £õP®
Si²¶ø© £ØÔ¯uõS®. CvÀ
Si²¶ø© ö£Ö® ÁȬøÓPøͨ £ØÔ
Ca\õ\Ú® öuõh[P¨£mh Põ»zvÀ
Áøµ¯ÖzxÒÍx.
A-11 Cuß - »® {õhõЩßÓzvØS
Si²¶ø© AÎUS® |ø»¯õÚ
AvPõµ® AÎUP¨£mkÒÍx.
Si²¶ø© AÎUS® ÁȬøÓPøÍ
^º£kzxÁx® \mh©õQßÓx. CuøÚ
{øh¬øÓ¨£kzu {õhõЩßÓ®
C¯ØÔ Âv÷¯ ¤µáõ E¶ø© \mh®
1955.
C¢v¯ Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú® J¸
uÛ¨£mh {£º GߣuØS® J¸ {õmiß
Si²¶ø© AÀ»x ¤µáõ E¶ø©
ö£ØÓÁº GߣuØS® EÒÍ
÷ÁÖ£õmiøÚ ªPz öuÎÁõP
ÂÍUSQßÓx. ]» Ai¨£øh
E¶ø©PÒ C¢{õmiß Si²¶ø©
ö£ØÓÁºUS ©mk÷©
ÁÇ[P¨£kQßÓÚ.
(öá´¨§º Ez÷¯õU Vs ³Û¯ß
B¨ C¢v¯õ AIR 1969 Raj 281) 1995À
©ÖÂ\õµøn°À Ea\}v©ßÓ®
A19(1)(a) RÌ Kº uÛ¯õº ìuõ£Ú®
uÚx Á¶ø\¨£kzu¨£mh
ÂÍ®£µ[PøÍ ""¯õ£õµ
ö\õØö£õÈÄ'' GßÖ ¤µ_¶UPU Thõx
GßÖ ³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ ukUP
¬i¯õx GßÖ wº¨£ÎzxÒÍx.
3
£õP® III. Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PÒ
A12 "©õ|»®' Gߣøu¨ £ØÔ
£õP® IIIÀ C¢v¯ Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦
ÂÍUP©ÎUQßÓx. Aµ\õ[P® ©ØÖ®
{õhõЩßÓ®, ÷©¾® JÆöÁõ¸
©õ|»[PÎß Aµ\õ[P¬®
\mh©ßÓ[PÒ £ØÔ²® CøÁ
©mk©À»õx GÀ»õ EÒѺ AÀ»x
©ØÓ E¶ø©PÒ BQ¯ÁØøÓ
EÒÍhUQ¯ ¤µ÷u\® AÀ»x C¢v¯
Aµ\õ[Pzvß AvPõµ GÀø»US
Em£mhøÁ BQ¯ÁØøÓ £ØÔ
ÂÁ¶¨£x BS®.
J¸ "©õ|»®' Gx Gߣøu
|ºn°UP ]» Âv¬øÓPÒ EÒÍÚ.
©õ|»® Gߣx J¸ Aø©¨¦ ÷£õßÓx.
Cx QøhUP¨ ö£ØÓ ]» Ai¨£øh
P¸zxPÒ - »¬® ÷©¾® A¢u
Aø©¨¦ ö£õ¸Íõuõµ ·v¯õP÷Áõ,
ö\¯À£õkPÎß £i÷¯õ ©ØÖ® |ºÁõP
\®©¢u©õP÷Áõ J¸ Aµ\õ[Pzvß
£i÷¯õ AÀ»x AÆÁµ\õ[Pzvß
AvPõµzvØSm£m÷hõ EÒÍuõ
GߣuøÚ ö£õ¸zuuõS®.
\mhzvß £i÷¯õ AÀ»x
AÆÁõÖ CÀ»õø©÷¯õ öÁÖ® \mh®
JÊ[S ¬øÓø©°ß RÌ EÒÍ J¸
Aø©¨¦ "©õ|»®' BPõx (ã öh¼
¤¼®ì ¼ªöhm Vs. ³Û¯ß B¨
C¢v¯õ A.I.R. 2005 SC 2677).
Euõµn®: C¢v¯ Q¶UöPm
Pmk¨£õmk Áõ¶¯® GßÓ Aø©¨¦
©õ|»® GßÓ AºzuzvÀ A12 RÌ
Ah[S® GßÖ J¸ ¶m ©Ý JßÖ
uõUPÀ ö\´¯¨£mhx. Áõ¶¯®
\õ\ÚzvÚõÀ EshõUP¨£kÁx AÀ»
©ØÖ® Aµ\õ[P® Auß £[S
¬u½miÀ G¢u £Svø¯²®
øÁzv¸UPÂÀø». ÷©¾®
{øh¬øÓ°À Aµ\õ[P® G¢u J¸
|v²uÂø¯²® ¬Êø©¯õP÷Áõ
AÀ»x GÀ»õ ö\»ÃÚ[PøͲ®
HØÖU öPõÒÍ÷Áõ CÀø» GßÖ®
AÔ¯¨£mkÒÍx. Aµ\õ[Pzvß
Pmk¨£õk öÁÖ® ^µø©¨¦
£kzxÁ÷u¯ßÔ |ºÁõP
\®©¢u¨£mhx AÀ». BP÷Á A12 RÌ
"Áõ¶¯®' J¸ ©õ|»® AÀ».
(ã öh¼ ¤¼®ì ¼ªöhm Vs.
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ A.I.R. 2005 SC
2677).
Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú® Aø©¨£uØS
¬ß¦ C¢v¯õÂÀ C¸¢x Á¢u \mh
vmh[PÎÀ £õP® II
SÔ¨¤h¨£mkÒÍ ÁȬøÓPÐUS
A¨£õØ£mh ÂvPøÍ ö\À»zuPõu
4
Âv¬øÓPÍõP÷Áõ GkzxU
öPõÒͨ£mkÒÍÚ. ÷©¾® Aµ\õ[P®
AzuøP¯ \mh[PøÍ C¯ØÖÁuØS
uøh ÂvUP¨£mkÒÍx. Cuß - »®
£õP® IIIÀ öPõkUP¨£mkÒÍ
E¶ø©PøÍ £ÔUP÷Áõ AÀ»x «Ó÷Áõ
¬i¯õx. Cuߣi G¢u \mh©õQÝ®
CÆĶø©PøÍ «ÖÁx ÷£õßÖ
C¯ØÓ¨£k©õ°ß AøÁ A¢u
AÍÂØS £¯ÚØÓuõS®. CøÁ C¢v¯
GÀø»USÒ Ah[S® AÁ\µ \mh®,
JÊ[S¬øÓ, \mh®, E£Âv,
¬øÓ¨£kzxuÀ, AÔÂzuÀ,
ÁÇUP©õP øP¯õЮ ¬øÓ ÷£õßÓ
¯õÁØÔØS® ö£õ¸¢x®. A13À RÌ
EÒÍ C¢u Âv¯õÚx G¢u J¸
v¸zuzvß - »©õPÄ® \õ\Úzvß 368
¤µ÷¯õQUP ¬i¯õx.
\© E¶ø©: A14À£i C®©õ|»zvß
GÀø»USÒ J¸ uÛ ©ÛuÛß
£õxPõ¨¦ ©ØÖ® E¶ø©ø¯ \mhzvß
¬ß |µõP¶UP ¬i¯õx. \© E¶ø©
Gߣx \mhzvß ¬ß J¸ÁºUS EÒÍ
E¶ø©÷¯ AßÔ C¯À£õÚ E¶ø©ø¯
£ØÔ¯x AßÖ. \mhzvß ¬ß
J¸ÁºUS EÒÍ \©E¶ø©¯õÚx \¶|Pº
\©©õÚÁºUS ©mk÷©
ö£õ¸¢uUTi¯x BS®. \© A¢uìx
EÒÍÁºPÒ \©©õP |ºÁõQUP¨£h
÷Ásk®. }v©ßÓ® ÁÇUSPÎÀ EÒÍ
Esø© |ø»¯Ô¢x AÁØÔß \õuP
£õuP[PøÍ ^ºyUQ Pozu ¤ßÚº
Auß |¯õ¯zvß Ai¨£øh°À
ÁÇUSPøÍ ¬izx EÒÍx. ]»
÷uøÁ¯õÚ Âzv¯õ\[PøÍ öPõsk
©UPøÍ uµ® ¤¶¨£uß - »®
AzuøP¯øÁ G¢u ÁøP°¾®
\mhzvØS EuÄ©õ GßÖ }vzxøÓ
J¸ £¶÷\õuøÚ¯õP
£¯ß£kzv²ÒÍx. (C¢v¯õ \íõÛ
Vs. ³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ A.I.R. 1993
SC 477).
Euõµn®: ©Pκ PÀ¿¶°À
ö£sPøÍ÷¯ ¬uÀÁµõP |¯ª¨£x
Aµ\õ[Pzvß öPõÒøP AÀ»x
ö\¯Àvmh® BS®. PÀ¿¶°À ÷Áø»
ö\´²® B]¶¯º J¸Áº CuøÚ Gvºzx
CzuøP¯ öPõÒøP Bs ö£s
£õS£õmøh öPõshx GßÖ
}v©ßÓzvÀ Áõu® ¦¶¢uõº. BÚõÀ
}v©ßÓ® ©Pκ PÀ¿¶°À
ö£sPøÍ B]¶¯µõP÷Áõ AÀ»x
¬uÀÁµõP÷Áõ |¯ª¨£x Art.14 or
Art.16 «Ô¯x AÀ» GßÖ® Art.16À £i
|¯õ¯©õÚ £õS£õmiøÚ öPõshx
GßÖ® AuØS¶¯ öPõÒøPø¯
AøhÁx \¶¯õÚx GßÖ® wº¨¦
ÁÇ[QØÖ.
5
(Â᯻m_ª Vs. £g\õ¨
£ÀPø»UPÇP® (2003) SCC 440)
Ai¨£øh¯õPU öPõshx.
Aµ\õ[P® G¢u J¸ Si©PøÚ²®
\õv, ©u, ©Ú®, £õÀ, ¤Ó¢u Ch®
÷£õßÓÁØøÓU öPõsk ¤¶ÂøÚ
ö\´¯ C¯»õx. B°Ý® Aµ\õ[P®
AuØöPÚ Â÷\å©õÚ ÂvPøÍ
HØ£kzu»õ®.
 ö£sPÒ ©ØÖ® SÇ¢øuPÒ
A(15(3))
 \- P ·v¯õPÄ® PÀ¯ÔÄ
- »©õPÄ® ¤Ø£kzu¨£mh
©ØÖ® uõÌzu¨£m÷hõº ÷©¾®
£Ç[Si°Úº CÁºPÎß
¬ß÷ÚØÓzvØPõPÄ® A(15)(4)
AÀ»x
 \- P ·v¯õPÄ® PÀ¯ÔÄ
- »©õPÄ® ¤Ø£kzu¨£mh
©ØÖ® uõÌzu¨£m÷hõº ÷©¾®
£Ç[Si°Úº CÁºPÎß
¬ß÷ÚØÓzvØPõPÄ® CxÁøµ
AzuøP¯ ÂvPÒ PÀÂ
|ÖÁÚ[PÎß AÁºPÎß
÷\ºUøP \®©¢u©õPÄ® uÛ¯õº
PÀÂ |ÖÁÚ[PÐUS® Cx
ö£õ¸¢x®. CøÁ _¯EuÂ
ö£ØÓøÁ¯õP÷Áõ AÀ»x
Aµ\õ[Pzvß EuÂ
ö£ØÓøÁ¯õP÷Áõ C¸UP»õ®
A(15(5)). Cx ]Ö£õßø© PÀÂ
|ÖÁÚ[PøÍ Pmk¨£kzuõx.
Euõµn®: J¸ ©¸zxÁ PÀ¿¶°ß
Âv¨£i A[S Á]US® ©õn¯º
}[P»õP ©ØÓAøÚÁ¸® J¸
SÔ¨¤mh öuõøPø¯ PÀ¿¶°ß
÷\ºUøP°ß ö£õÊx ÷\ºUP ÷Ásk®.
BÚõÀ A[÷P÷¯ Á]US®
©õnÁºPÐUS AzuøP¯ Âv
Qøh¯õx. }v©ßÓzvÀ CÆÁÇUS
öuõhµ¨£mh ÷£õx Cx J¸Áº ¤Ó¢u
Chzøu øÁzx AÁøµ
÷ÁÖ£kzxuÀ ÷£õßÖ AÀ»öÁßÖ®
AÁº Á]US® Chzøu ö£õ¸z÷u
GßÖ® BP÷Á Cx A15(1) Âv «ÓÀ
AÀ» GßÖ® }v©ßÓzvÀ wº¨£õÚx
(D.P. ÷áõæ Vs. ©zv¯ £õµz) (A.I.R.
1960 SC 1208).
A16À G¢u J¸ ÷Áø»°À
÷\º¨£uØS® G¢u J¸ Si©UPÐUS®
\©E¶ø© Esk. B°Ý® E£ Âv
(4)£i Aµ\õÀ JxUP¨£mkÒÍ
Ch[PÎÀ Âv¨¦ AuØS¶¯Áøµ
A©ºzxÁøu ukUP ¬i¯õx. ÷©¾®
AzuøP¯ £uÂPÎÀ CxPõ»® Áøµ
J¸ ¤Ø£kzu¨£mh J¸ Si©PøÚ
6
A©ºzuÂÀø» GßÖ Aµ_ |øÚUS®
£m\zvÀ AzuøP¯ £o |¯©Úzøu
ö\´¯ ¬i²®. \mhzvß
©ÖÂ\õµøn°ß ÷£õx |¹¤UP uS¢u
]» ÁÇUSPÎÀ AzuøP¯ ]» £o
|¯©Ú[PøÍ Põn ¬i²®.
EÖ¨¦ 16 ©õ|» A¾Á»PzvÀ
÷Áø»Áõ´¨¤À ©ØÖ® |¯ªUP¼À
GÀ»õ ©UPÐUS® \©Áõ´¨¦
AΨ£øuU TÖQÓx. Em¤¶Ä 4
©õ|» Aµ_ ]» ¤ßu[Q¯ Si©UPÎß
¤µv|vzxÁ® SøÓÁõP C¸¨£uõP
P¸vÚõÀ \mh® C¯ßÖÁøu Cx
ukUPõx. C¢u JxURk
¤Ø£kzu¨£mh ÁS¨¤øÚ Aøh¯õÍ
PõqÁvÀ öÁΨ£øh¯õÚ
¬µs£õk C¸¢uõ¾® ©ØÖ®
¬øÓ°À»õu \uÃu® JxURk
ö\´v¸¢uõ¾® }v B´ÂØS
Em£mhx. (C¢vµõáõ÷Ú GvÀ C¢v¯
Aµ_ AIR 1993 SC 477).
Euõµn®
J¸ ©õ|» Aµ_ £À÷ÁÖ \mhU
PÀ»¶°¾ÒÍ GÊzuº £uÂUPõÚ
Põ¼°h[PøÍ £ØÔ AÔ¨¦a
ö\´ux. 70% ©v¨ö£s GߣÁº A¢u
Âsn¨£uõµºPÎÀ J¸Áº ¬iÄ
£mi¯À AÔÂzu¼ß÷£õx "A'
GߣÁº ÷uº¢öukUP¨£hÂÀø».
BÚõÀ 50% ©v¨ö£s ö£ØÔ B
÷uºÄ ö£ØÖÒÍõº. Aµ_ "B' GߣÁº
÷uº¢öukUP¨£hÂÀø». BÚõÀ 50%
©v¨ö£s ö£ØÔ B ÷uºÄ
ö£ØÖÒÍõº. Aµ_ B GߣÁº OBC
ÁøPø¯a \õº¢uÁº. ©ØÖ® A¢u £uÂ
OBC ÁøPUS JxUP¨£mkÒÍx GßÖ
Áõuõi¯x. }v©ßÓ® C¢u ¬iøÁ
EÖv ö\´x JxURk
AÝ©vUPzuUPx GßÖ ¬iÄ ö\´ux.
_u¢vµ E¶ø©
EÖ¨¦ 19(1) GÀ»õ
Si©UPÐUS® ¤ßÁ¸® E¶ø©PøÍ
ÁÇ[SQÓx.
 ÷£a_ ©ØÖ® P¸zøu
öÁΰk® _u¢vµ®.
 AئuªßÔ TkÁuØS (EÖ¨¦
19 (1) (b).
 Aø©¨¦ ©ØÖ® \[P® Aø©UP
(EÖ¨¦ 19 (1) (c ).
 C¢v¯ |»¨£µ¨¤À ¬ÊÁx®
_u¢vµ©õP ö\À¾® _u¢vµ®
(19 (1) (d ).
7
 C¢v¯ |»¨£µ¨¤À G¢u
Chzv¾® Á]US® _u¢vµ®
(19(l)( e) ©ØÖ®
 G¢u öuõÈø» ÷©ØöPõÒÍÄ®,
G¢u ¯õ£õµ® ö\´x öPõÒÍÄ®
(EÖ¨¦ 19 (1) (g).
C¢u E¶ø©PÒ Si©UPÐUS
©mk÷©. ÷©¾® CøÁ ¬Êø©¯õÚ
E¶ø©PÒ AÀ». CøÓ¯õsø©ø¯
£õxPõUP J¸ ©õmøh £õxPõUP
Asøh {õkhß {m£ÍøÁ
÷©®£kzu ö£õx JÊ[S }v©ßÓ
AÁ©v¨¦, AÁyÖ ÷£õßÓ
ö\¯ÀPøÍ Pmk¨£kzu ÷uøÁ¯õÚ
|¯õ¯©õÚ Pmk¨£õkPøÍ
Á]UP»õ®. EÖ¨¦ 19(2) & 19 (6).
|¯õ¯©õÚx GߣuØS
AÍÄ÷PõÀ Gߣx wºUP¨£k®.
|¯õ¯©õÚx GߣuØPõÚ AÍÄ
£õvUP¨£mhÁ¶ß E¶ø©. Pmk¨£õk
÷{õUP® £õvUP¨£mh E¶ø©ø¯
«möhkzuÀ ©ØÖ® A¨÷£õxÒÍ
`Ì|ø»ø¯¨ ö£õÖzx
HØÖUöPõÒͨ£k® ÷£õßÓøÁ
CuøÚ wº©õÛUS® £SvPÍõUS®.
£UP® 45&(2)
Pmk£õiß |¯õ¯zußø©
uÛ¨£mh P¸zvøÚ AÀ»õ©À
ö£õxÁõÚ P¸zvøÚ öPõsk
wº©õÛUP¨£h ÷Ásk®. (ö©mµõì
©õ|»® G⺠¤.â.µõÆ 1952 SC 196)
A¢u Pmk£õk |¯õ¯©õÚuõP
C¸¢uõÀ Ax A¢u \mhzvß
÷{õUPzvØS öuõhº¦øh¯uõP C¸UP
÷Ásk®. ÷{õUPzvØS AvP©õÚuõP
C¸UP ÷Ásk® (A¸nõa\» {õhõº
Gvº ö©mµõì ©õ|»® 1959 SC 300).
Euõµn®
i) ÷u]¯ öPõiø¯ _u¢vµ©õP
£ÓUP¨£hÂÀø» GßÖ
AuÚõÀ ußÝøh¯ E¶ø©
EÖ¨¦ 19(1) A - °ß RÌ
£õvUP¨£mhx GßÖ ©ÝuõUPÀ
ö\´uõº.
ii) }v©ßÓ® ÷u]¯ öPõiø¯
£ÓUPÂkÁx 19(c)A&°ß RÌ
£õvUP¨£mhx GßÖ ©ÝuõUPÀ
ö\´uõº
iii) A GߣÁº J¸
ö£õxUTmhzvÀ Akzu ©õu
{®¤UøPø¯ ¦s£kzx®
Gsnzxhß ÷£]Úõº. CuøÚ
usiUS® \mh® ö\À»zuUPx.
HöÚßÓõÀ ö£õx JÊ[øP
8
^ºSø»US® ö\¯¾US GvµõÚU
Pmk¨£õk. Esø©°÷»÷¯
¤µa\øÚø¯
HØ£kzuÂmhõ¾® Pmk£õk
ö£õ¸¢x®. (µõ®â»õÀ÷©õi
Gvº Ezvµ¤µPõè ©õ|»® AIR
1957 SC 620.
iv) J¸ ©õ|» Aµ_ C¸ \UPµ
ÁõPÚ® £¯ß£kzx®
GÀ÷»õ¸® uø»UPÁ\® Ao¯
÷Ásk® GßÖ \mh®
C¯ØÔ¯x. K¶hzv¼¸¢x
©ØöÓõ¸ ChzvØS ö\À¾®
E¶ø©ø¯ Pmøh¨£kzx®
|¯õ¯©õÚU Pmk¨£õk BS®.
(Aá´PõÝ Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
(1988)4 SCC 156).
v) J¸ SÔ¨¤mh £Sv°À
ÂÁ\õ¯® ö\´²® {£º ¥i
öuõȼÀ Dk£hUThõx
GßÖ ©õ|» Aµ_ uøhö\´u
\mh® C¯ØÔ¯x. C¢u
\mhzvß ÷{õUP®
÷ÁÍõsø© öuõȾUP
÷£õu©õÚ ÷Áø»¯õmPøÍ
øÁzv¸¨£÷u BS®.
ÂÁ\õ¯® {hUS®÷£õx
¥iöuõÈø» uøhö\´Ávß
- »® C¢÷{õUP®
öÁØÔö£Ö® GßÖ
}v©ßÓ® wº¨£Îzux.
C¢ua\mh® ¬Êø©¯õÚ,
|¯õ¯©ØÓ Pmk¨£õhõP
C¸¢x öuõÈÀ ö\´²®
_u¢vµzøu¨ £õv¨£uõÀ
}UP¨£kQÓx.
(]sh©ßµõÆ Gvº
©zv¯¤µ÷uè ©õ|»® 1951
118 )
\mh® 20&ß RÌ SØÓ® {hUøP°ß
÷©À AÎUP¨£k® öá°À
ushøÚPμ¸¢x £õxPõzxU
öPõÒÍ Áøµ¯øÓPÒ Esk. \mh®
20(1) GUì ÷£õìm ÷£U÷hõ
\mh[PÎߣi AÎUP¨£k® öá°À
ushøÚPμ¸¢x £õxPõzxU
öPõÒÍ Áøµ¯ÖUP¨£mkÒÍx.
÷©¾® \mh Âv 20 (2)&ß RÌ J÷µ
÷{µzvÀ C¸ÁøP¯õÚ ÁÈPμ¸¢x
u¨¤¨£uØS GvµõP £õxPõ¨¦U
öPõkUP¨£k®. ÷©¾® \mh Âv 20
(3)&ß RÌ ußÛaø\¯õP ö\´u
SØÓ[PÐUS GvµõP £õxPõ¨¦
öPõkUP¨£mkÒÍx.
ÂÍUP® 1957&® Á¸hzvÀ
¤Ó¨¤UP¨£mh \mh©õÚx JÆöÁõ¸
öuõÈÀ |ºÁõP® {hzx®
E¶ø©¯õͺPÒ ußÝøh¯
9
|ÖÁÚzøu - k®÷£õx
öuõÈ»õÎPÐUS¶¯ {èh DkPøÍ
öPõkz÷u BP ÷Ásk®. C¢u
\mh©õÚx {Á®£º 1956® Á¸h®
¬uÀ {øh¬øÓUS
ö\¯À£kzu¨£mh \mh©õS®. C¢u
\mhzvß RÌ J¸Áøµ öá°À
ushøÚUS EÒÍõUP¨£h»õ®.
AxÄ® AÁº E¶¯ {èh Dmkz
öuõøP°øÚ öPõkUP uÁÖ® ÷£õx
AÆÁõÖ usiUP¨£h»õ®. BÚõÀ
}v©ßÓ¬® ußÝøh¯ ¬iÂÀ
TÔ°¸¨£u GßÚöÁßÓõÀ ÷©Ø£i
\mhzvß RÌ ÂvUP¨£k®
ushøÚ¯õÚx J¸ ]ÂÀ ÁøP
ö£õÖ¨¦ BS®. BP÷Á C¢u
ö£õÖ¨¦øh¯ ö\¯ø» ¬øÓ¯õP
{hzv öPõÒÍ uÁÖ® £m\zvÀ Cx
J¸ SØÓ°À ö\¯À£õk BPõx.
BP÷Á \mh Âv 20 (1)ß RÌ
öPõkUP¨£mkÒÍ Áøµ¯øÓPÒ
÷©Ø£i SØÓa ö\¯»US ö£õ¸¢uõx.
÷©¾® AQ» C¢v¯ AÔUøP 1960&®
Bsk _¨·® ÷Põºm wº¨¦ 923&ß RÌ
(Ev][ EØ£zv P®ö£Û Gvº
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ GßÓ ÁÇUQÀ
E¶¯ wº¨¦ ÁÇ[P¨£kQÓx. ÂÍUP®
H GßÓ ©Ûuº \mh¨¤¶Ä 107 (8)&ß
RÌ PhÀ \õº _[P \mh® 1978&®
Bsk Á¸hzv¯ \mhÂv°ß RÌ
SØÓÁõÎ GÚ Psk¤iUP¨£mhõÀ
÷©Ø£I \mh ÂvPÎߣi AÁº
usiUP£kÁõº. ÷©Ø£i {£º H
GߣÁøµ ¤¶Ä 120 (¤) C¢v¯
SØÓ¯À \mh¨£i
usiUS®£i¯õPÄ®, AvPõ¶PÒ
÷Põ¸QßÓÚº. C¢u ÷{µzvÀ 2Áx
¬øÓ SØÓ°À {hÁiUøP²®
÷©ØPsh {£¶ß «x
{øh¬øÓ¨£kzxÁx Gߣx
uÒÎÂh¨£hÂÀø». A÷u ÷{µzvÀ
÷©Ø£i 2Áx ©øÓ SØÓ°À
{hÁiUøP²® ÷©Øö\õßÚ J÷µ
SØÓzvØPõP AÀ». (¼÷¯õ µõ´ ¤÷µ
Gvº PsPõo¨£õͺ ©õÁmh
]øÓ\õø» G I Aº 1958 _¨·® ÷Põºm
£UP® 119).
ÂÍUP® ÷©Øö\õßÚ G GßÓ {£º
J¸ SØÓÁõÎ GßÓ ¬øÓ°À
AÁ¸øh¯ øP÷µøPPøÍ ©ØÖ®
AÁ¸øh¯ øPö¯Êzx
Aøh¯õ[PøͲ® ÷£õ½\õº u[PÍx
¦»Úõ´Ä ö\´²® ÷{µzvÀ J¸ SØÓ®
\®£¢u©õ´ ÷©Ø£i Buõµ[PøÍ
÷\P¶UQßÓÚº. ÷©¾® }v©ßÓ® uÚx
¬iÂÀ TÔ°¸¨£x GßÚöÁßÓõÀ
J¸ {£øµ £ØÔ¯ ¬Ê ÂÁµ®
AÁ¸øh¯ ußÛaø\ SØÓ¯À
{hÁiUøP°ß ÷©À QøhUS®
10
ÂÁµ[PøÍ øÁzx öPõkUP¨£k®
ÂÁµ[PÒ ÷©÷»õmh©õP u¯õº ö\´x
}v©ßÓzvß ¬ß \©º¨¤zx®
BÁn[P÷Íõk ÷\ºUP C¯»õx.
BP÷Á HuõÁx µÁ[Pøͨ £ØÔ
\ºaø\ GÊ©õÚõÀ ÷©Ø£i ÂÁµ®
GÆÁõÖ ö£õ¸¢x® Gߣu
uoUP¨£k®. ÷©¾® }v©ßÓ® uÚx
¬iÂÀ TÔ²ÒÍx GßÚöÁßÓõÀ
\mh¨¤¶Ä 20 (3)ß RÌ TÓ¨£k®
\õm] GßÓ {£º uÚx
øP÷µøPPøͲ® PõÀµÀ £v¨¦
÷µøPPøͲ® ©ØÖ® µÀPÒ
Áõ°»õP öPõkUS® Aøh¯õÍ[PЮ
÷©¾® øP¨£h GÊv u¸® GÊzx
¹£[PЮ AÀ»u Eh¼ß G¢u
£õPzvÀ TÖPÍõÀ öPõkUS®
Aøh¯õÍ[PЮ ÷©Ø£i \õm]
GߣÁ¶ß RÌ öPõkUP C¯»õx.
£®£õ´ ©õ|»® Gvº PzvPõ¾ JPm G
I Bº 1961 _¨·® ÷Põºm £UP® 1808.
÷©¾® Psi¨£õÚ {õº÷Põ
AoÀ I]]ì ©ØÖ® £õ¼Qµõ¨
÷\õuøÚ ~qUP ÂÁµ[PÒ GÀ»õ®
J¸ Q¶ªÚÀ ÁÇUQß÷£õx ¦»Úõ´Ä
ö\´¯¨£k® ÷{µzvÀ
GkUP¨£k÷©¯õÚõÀ Ax ußÛaø\
SØÓ[PÒ E¶ø©PÐUS
Gv÷µ¯õÚøÁ¯õS®. GÛÝ®
©õs¦ªS. Ea\ }v©ßÓ©® _¯|v
©ØÖ® ußÛaø\ ö\¯À£õPÎß - »®
÷©Ø£i ~qUP[PøÍ AÝ©vzx
AxÄ® ]» £õxPõ¨£õÚ
Áøµ¯øÓPÐUS£mk ö\¯À£h ¬iÄ
ö\´uÒÍõº. (ö\À ©ØÖ® ¤Ó {£ºPÒ
Gvº Pº{õhP ©õ|»®, Aµ_ H I Bº
2010 _¨·® ÷Põºm 1974).
\mh¨¤¶Ä 21&ß RÌ
öPõkUP¨£mi¸US® Áøµ¯øÓ
GßÚöÁßÓõÀ G¢u J¸ ©ÛuÝUS®
AÁ¸øh¯ ÁõÌøÁ SøÓUP÷Áõ
AÀ»x AÁ¸øh¯ _u¢vµzøu £ÔUP
C¯»õx. BÚõ¾® ]»
\mhzvmh[PÐUS£mk ÷©Ø£i
£õv¨¦PÒ öPõkUP¨£h»õ®. ©Ûuß
E°¸hß ÁõÌÁx ©ØÓ® E¶ø©¯õPõx
A÷u ÷{µzvÀ J¸ ©Ûuß
©ÛuöP͵Ázxhß ÁõÇ ÷Ásk®
Gߣx uõß ÷©Ø£i E¶ø©°ß RÌ
öPõkUP¨£mh \mh ÷{v¯õS®.
(¤µõg]ì ÷Põµ¼ ¬À¼ß Gvº
|ºÁõPìuº öhÀ¼ ³Û¯ß |ºÁõP®
G.I.Bº 1981 _¨·® ÷Põºm 746). ÷©¾®
©õs¦ªS Ea\ }v©ßÓ¬®
ußÝøh¯ wº¨¤À PÀÂ
ö£ÖÁuØS® J¸ Ai¨£øh E¶ø©ø¯
ÁÇ[Q ÁõÌÂÀ A¢u {»¬®
ö£ÖÁuØS HxÁõ´ \mh \õuÚ® 21ß
11
RÌ wº¨¤øÍzxÒÍx. (EßÛ
Q¸ènß Gvº B¢vµ ¤µ÷uè
©Põn® 1993 1 _¨·® ÷Põºm £UP®
645. ÷©Ø£i \mh \õ\Ú® 21&ø¯ £ØÔ
©õs¦ªS. Ea\}v©ßÓ¬® uÚx
wº¨¤À ªPÄ® ¶ÁõP uÚx
wº¨¤øÚ ÂÁ¶zx TÔ²® AvÀ
öu¶²® £i¯õP GßÓ J¸ SÔ¨¤øÚ
A[RP¶zx A¢u E¶ø© ÂÁµ¬®
\mh \õÚ® 21&ß RÌ Aøh¢xU
öPõÒÍ»õ® GßÖ SÔ¨¦ ö\´x®
AuøÚ J¸ Si¯µ_ Bm]°ß RÌ
QøhUS® £»ÚõS® GßÖ®
TÔ²ÒÍõº. (¶ø»¯ßì ö£m÷hõ
öíªUPÀì ¼ªöhm Gvº
E¶ø©¯õͺPÒ C¢v¯ß GU줵ì
|³ì ÷£¨£º £õ®÷£¤øµ÷Ám
¼ªöhm 1988) £UP® 4 _¨·® ÷Põºm
592.
ÂÍUP®: CxÁøµ {h¢uÒÍ £» B]¯õ
Âøͯõmk vmh[PÎÀ
÷Áø»¯õmPÍõP £o¯õØÔ Á¢u £»
öuõÈ»õͺPÐUS ªÛ©® \®£Í®
Th öPõkUP¨£hÂÀø» C¢u ©Ö¨¦
J¸ ©Ûuß uÚx _¯ E¶ø©²hß J¸
©Ûuß GßÓ öP͵Ázxhß
ÁõÌÁuØS ©ÖUP¨£mh öuõøP¯õS®.
BP÷Á Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú® 21&ß RÌ
÷©Ø£i ö\¯À£õk J¸ «ÖuÀ
ö\¯À£õhõS®. (©UPÒ Si¯µ_
E¶ø©PøÍ ö£Ö® Aø©¨¦ Gvº
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ H I Bº 1982
Gì ] 1473).
\mh® 22ß RÌ öPõkUP¨£k®
Áøµ¯øµ¯õÚx J¸ ©ÛuøÚ øPu
ö\´¯Áv¼¸¢x AÁ¸US
öPõkUP¨£k® £õxPõ¨£õS®. ÷©¾®
AÁøµ ]øÓ øÁzuõ¾® AÁøµ
£õxPõ¨£uØS E¶¯ ÁÈ ÁøPPøÍ
ÁÇ[S® \mh ¤¶ÁõS®. J¸ ©Ûuß
øPx ö\´¯¨£k®ö£õÊx AÁ¸US
AÎUP¨£h ÷Ási¯ E¶ø©PøÍ
Fv Gx GßÖ® AÁº öá°¼À
Aøh¨£mhõ¾® Th AÁøµ GÆÁõÖ
£õxPõUP ÷Áskö©ßÖ C¢u \mh
Áøµ¯øÓ°À RÌ öPõkUP¨£k®
Euõµn©õP J¸ ©Ûuß øPx
ö\´¯¨£mhõÀ AÁß 24
©o÷{µzvØSÒ J¸ SØÓ¯À }v£v
¬ß¦ |Özu¨£h÷Ásk® A¢u
÷{µzvÀ AÁÒ GßÚ Põµn[PÐUPõP
øPx ö\´¯¨£mhõº Gߣøu öu¶ÂUP
÷Ásk®. G¢u J¸ ©ÛuøÚ²® 24
©o ÷{µzvØS ÷©»õP PõÁÀxøÓ
Aøh¨¤÷»õ, AÀ»x AÁºPÐøh¯
£õxPõ¨¤÷»õ øÁzv¸UPUThõx .
A¨£i øÁUP ÷Ásk©õÚõÀ
}v©ßÓzvß AÝ©vø¯ ö£Ó
12
÷Ásk®. ÷©Ø£i ©ÛuÝ®
uÚUS¶¯ ÁÇUPÔbøµ {õi E¶¯
ÂuzvÀ B÷»õ\øÚ ÷©ØöPõsk
AÁ¶ß ÁÇUS ÂÁµ[PøÍ ÁÇUPõh
AÝ©vUP ÷Ásk®. ÷©¾® ÷©Ø£i
\mhÂv CßÝ® ]» E¶ø©PøÍ
öá°¼À AøhUP¨£mh {£ºPÐUS
öPõkzxÒÍx. ©õs¦ªS
Ea\}v©ßÓ¬® uÚx wº¨¦øµ°À ªP
öuÎÁõÚ ÁÈPõmk ÂÁµ[PøÍ
AÈzx A¢u ÁÈPõmkuÀ ¬øÓPøÍ
AvPõ¶PÒ ¤ß£ØÓ ÷Ásk® AxÄ®
J¸ ©Ûuß øPx ö\´¯¨£k®÷£õx
©ØÖ® AÁº ÷£õ½ì £õxPõ¨¤À
øÁzv¸UP ÷Ásk® GßÓ
¤ß£ØÖuÀ ÂvPøͲ®
µÁ[PøͲ® AÎzuÒÍx (i.÷P
Áõ_ Gvº ì÷hm B¨ öÁìm £[PõÀ
1997 1 _¨·® ÷Põºm £UP® 416). G
GßÓ ©Ûuß J¸ ¦Põ¶ß
Ai¨£øh°À Q¶ªÚÀ Azx«Ô
¤µ÷Á\® ö\´uuõP øPx
ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº. C¢u øPx
{hÁiUøP²® C¢v¯ SØÓ¯À
\mhzvß RÌ Põn¨£k®
ÂÁµ[PÎߣi øPx
ö\´¯¨£mi¸UQÓõº. BÚõÀ
AÁ¸øh¯ ÁÇUøP ÁÇUPõk®÷£õx
(ø{´ø¯¯õ £g\õ¯zx GßÓ
£g\õ¯zu \mhzvßRÌ ÁÇUøP
Â\õ¶UP C¯»õu. C¢u ø{´ø¯´¯õ
£g\õ¯zx Pªmi°ß ¬ß ÁÇUPõh
C¯»õx. BP÷Á Ea\}v©ßÓ¬®
÷©Ø£i ¬øÓ¯ØÓ ÁÇUPõk®
Áøµ¬øÓø¯ J¸ \mh ÂvPÐUS
¬µnõÚx GßÖ Aµ]¯À \mh\õuÚ
Âv 22 (1)&ß RÌ \mhzvØS
¦Ó®£õÚx GßÖ Ea\ }v©ßÓ®
wº¨£ÎzxÒÍx (©zv¯ ¤µ÷u\
©õPõn® Gvº ÷\õ£õµõ® H I Bº 1966
_¨·® ÷Põºm 1910).
E¶ø© _µsh¾US GvµõÚ
\mhÁøµ¬øÓPÒ
Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú® 23 Gߣx
¬øÓ¯ØÓ ©Ûu£¶©õØÓ[PÐUS
GvµõÚx® ©ØÓ ¤aø\ GkUS®
öuõȼ¼¸¢x £õxPõ¨¦ AÎUPÄ®
©ØÖ® GÆÂuzv¾® Á¾UPmhõ¯©õP
J¸zuøµ Aøhzx øÁzx ÷Áø»
Áõ[SÁu® ©ØÖ® SÇ¢øu
öuõÈ»õͺPÒ ¬øÓ \mh Âv 24&ß
RÌ ukUP¨£mhøÁPÒ BS®.
ÂÍUP® ¯õ£õµ \®£¢u¨£mh
ö\¯À£õkPÎÀ G¢uÂu J¸
©ÛuÝ® J¸ ©Ûuº uõÌzu¨£mh
\¬uõ¯zøu \õº¢uÁº GߣuØPõP
÷Áø» Áõ´¨¦ ©ÖUP C¯»õx. ÷©¾®
A¢u ©Ûuº ¤Ó C¢xUPÒ
13
©ÛuºPÐUS u[PÐøh¯ \õuõµn
ÁõÌ{õÎÀ \ºÃì ö\´v¸US®÷£õx
÷©Ø£i ÷Áø» Áõ´¨¦ ©Ö¨¦ TÖ
C¯»õx. BP÷Á ÷©Ø£i \mh ¤¶Âß
RÌ EÒÍ ÂÁµ® Aµ]¯À \mh \õ\Ú®
23&ØS ¬µnõÚøÁ AÀ» GßÖ
¬iÄ ö\´xÒÍx. HöÚÛÀ ÷©Ø£i
©Ûuº AÁº J¸ uõÌzu¨£mh
\¬uõ¯zøu \õº¢uÁº GߣuØPõP
AÁ¸US £o ©ÖUP¨£k®ö£õÊx
AÁøu Á¾Pmhõ¯©õP ÷Áø» ö\´¯
Em£kzu¨£mhõÀ GßÖ TÓ C¯»õx.
(Aµ_ Gvº £ß©õ¶ G I Bº 1951À
Cßi¯õ 615).
©uzøu uÊÄÁuØPõÚ E¶ø©
C¢v¯ Aµ]¯À \õ\ÚzvÀ
öPõkUP¨£mhÒÍ EÖvö©õÈ
GßÚöÁßÓõÀ JÆöÁõ¸
©ÛuÝUS® vÚ E¶ø©²®
ÁÇ[P¨£mk AÁµÁº uÚx
©Ú\õm]°ß £i uÚu ¬Ê uõµõÍ
E¶ø©²® G¢u ©uzøu
÷Ásk©õÚõ¾® ¤ß£ØÓ»õ®
AÁØÔÀ ÷\º¢xU öPõÒÍ»õ® A¢u
©uzøu \õº¢u ö\¯À£õkPøÍ
øP¯õÍ»õ® Ah¢u ©uzøu¨ £ØÔ
£µ¨£»õ® A÷u ÷{µzvÀ \mh
JÊ[QØS Pmk¨£mk® \¬uõ¯
÷{õUSPøÍ AÝ\¶zx® ©ØÖ® {À»
_Põuõµzøu ÷£o²® ©u
÷Põm£õmøh ÷©ØöPõÒÍ»õ®. C¢u
E¶ø©PÒ \mh \õ\Ú® 25&ß RÌ
öPõkUP¨£mk AuÛß Aºzu® ¤Ó
{£øµ Á¾Pmh¯©õP ¤Ó ©uzv¼¸¢x
uß ©uzvÀ ÷\ºzxU öPõÒЮ£i¯õP
|º£¢u® ö\´¯ C¯»õx. A÷u ÷{µzvÀ
G¢uÂu ©ÛuøÚ²® J¸
©uzv¼¸¢x ©ØöÓõ¸ ©uzvØS
©õØÖÁuØPõP GÆÂu |º£¢uzøu²®
©ØöÓõ¸ ©uzvØS ©õØÖÁuØPõP
GÆÂu |º£¢uzøu²® ©ØÓ SÖUS
ÁÈPøͲ® ©ØÖ® ªPÄ®
Á¾UPmhõ¯¨£kzv J¸ SÔ¨¤mh
©uzvÀ ÷\º¢xU öPõÒÍ÷Ásk®
GßÓ ÁئÖzu C¯»õx. CuØPõÚ
wº¨¦® (öµÁß. ì÷hÛì»õÀ Gvº
©zv¯ ¤µ÷u\ ©õ|»® 1971) 1 _¨·®
÷Põºm 677.
Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú® 26ß RÌ J¸
©uzvß ÷Põm£õkPøÍ |ºÁQzx
{hzu ]» E¶ø©PÒ
öPõkUP¨£mkÒÍÚ. ÷©¾® Aµ]¯À
\õ\Ú® 28&ß RÌ uøh
ö\´¯¨£mkÒÍ ÂÁµ®
GßÚöÁßÓõÀ G¢uÂu PÀÂU
Th[PÎÀ ©õ|» Aµ]ß |v²uÂ
ö£Óõ©À AÆÁõÓõÚ ÷Põm£õk
ÂÁµ[PøÍ ö\¯À£kzu C¯»õx.
14
÷©¾® ÷©Ø£i \mh Âv öu¶Â¨£x
GßÚöÁßÓõÀ ©õ|» Aµ_ A[RP¶zu
PÀÂUTh[PÎÀ ÷©Ø£i ©õu
÷Põm£õkPøÍ AÔ²® ö£õ¸mk
ußøÚ ÷\ºzxU öPõÒЮ£m\zvÀ
÷©Ø£i PÀÂUTh¬® Aµ]ß
|v²u ö£Óõ©À öÁÎ E»P
¬iÄPøÍ £¯ß£kzv {øhö£Ö®
©u ÷Põm£õkPÎÀ Ch®
ö£ÖÁõµõÚõÀ AuØS¶¯
£õxPõÁ»¶ß J¨¦uø» ö£ØÓ ¤ß¦
AÆÁõÓõÚ öÁβ»P |v EuÂ
ö£ØÖ {hzu¨£k® ©u ÷Põm£õkPÎÀ
P»¢xU öPõÒÍ C¯»õx.
ÂÍUP® ÷©¾® \mhÂv 4&ß RÌ
S¸{õÚU £ÀPø»PõP \mhzvߣi
S¸{õÚU AÁºPøͨ £ØÔ {ßS
AԯĮ £iUPÄ® AÁ¸øh¯
ÁõÌ{õÒ ÷Põm£õkPøÍ £µ¨£Ä®
©õ|» Aµ_hß ÷\º¢x ö\¯À£h»õ®
GßÖ Põn¨£kQÓx. ÷©Ø£i \mh
Âvø¯ Gvºzx ÁÇUPõk®÷£õx
÷©Ø£i £ÀPø»UPÇP¬® ©õ|»
Aµ]ß |v EuÂUS A¨£õØ£mh
Âv°ß RÌ £µõ©¶UP¨£mk
Á¸ÁuõPÄ® C¢u £µõ©¶¨¦ \mh
\õ\Ú® 28ØS GvµõÚøÁ GßÓ
TÓ¨£mhx. BÚõ¾® C¢u
ÁõuzvøÚ }v©ßÓ® |µõP¶zx
ÂmkuÚx ¬iÂÀ ¤¶Ä 4,
GߣÁØÔß RÌ J¸ SÔ¨¤mh
£i¨¤øÚ FUP¨£kzv²® A¢u
£i¨¦ S¸{õÚU GߣÁ¶ß ÁõÌUøP
©ØÖ® AÁ¸øh¯ öPõÒøPPøÍ
£i¨£uõP C¸¢uõÀ A¢u £i¨¦ J¸
©õu ÷Põm£õmiß RÌ AÀ»x J¸
SÔ¨¤mh ©uzøu
÷©®£kzxÁuõPÄ® CÀø» GßÖ
wº¨£ÎzxÒÍu G  Põ÷»ä Gvº
£g\õ¨ ©õ|»® 1971 2 269.
P»õa\õµ® ©ØÖ® PÀ°À E¶ø©PÒ
\mh \õ\Ú® 29&ß RÌ
öPõkUP¨£mkÒÍ Áøµ¯øÓPÒ
GßÚöÁÛÀ G¢uÂu Si©PЮ
C¢v¯ GÀø»USÒ÷Íõ AÀ»x
AuÛß £Sv°À HuõÁx J¸
ChzvÀ Á]zuõ¾® AÁº öÁÆ÷ÁÖ
ö©õÈPÎÀ GÊzxUPøÍ
P»õa\õµzvøÚ uÊ°¸¢uõ¾®
AÁØøÓ ÷£o Põ¨£uØS AÁ¸US
E¶ø© Esk. BP÷Á G¢u Si©PЮ
÷©Ø£i PÀ°À |ÖÁÚ[PÎÀ
÷\º¢xU öPõÒÍÄ® ©ØÖ® ©õ|»
Aµ\õÀ £µõ©¶zx Áµ¨£k®. ÷©Ø£i
PÀ |ÖÁÚ[PÎÀ £i¨£uØS®
©ØÖ® ©õ|» Aµ]ØS öÁΰÀ
C¸¢x QøhUS® |v EuÂPÎß
÷£¶À G¢u Âv PÀ°À
15
|ÖÁÚ©õÚx {øhö£Ö©õÚõÀ ©u®,
|Ó®, ©ØÖ® \¬uõ¯® ©ØÖ®
ö©õÈPÎÚõÀ ÷ÁÖ£mh
PõµnzvØPõP ÷©Ø£i P»õa\õµ ©ØÖ®
PÀ°À E¶ø© ©ÖUP C¯»õx.
C[Q¼ì «i¯® ©õnÁºPÒ
©ØÖ® uõ´ u¢øu¯ºPÒ \[P®
Gvº Pº{õhP Aµ_ ©ØÖ® ¤Ó
{£ºPÒ BÀ C¢v¯õ ¶¨÷£õºm 1994 2
Gì ] _¨·® ÷Põºm 1702 GßÓ wº¨¤À
©õs¦ªS. Ea\ }v©ßÓ¬® uÚx
wº¨¦øµ°À GkzxÒÍ ¬iÂÀ
¯õöuõ¸ uõ´ö©õÈ°¾® 6Áx Áøµ
uõ´ö©õÈø¯ uõß ¤ß£ØÔ PÀÂ
Áµ¨¦ ö\´¯ ÷Ásk® GßÓ Pº{õhP
©õ|» Aµ]ß EzuµÁõÚx Aµ]¯À
\õ\Ú® 29 AÀ»x Aµ]¯À \õ\Ú© 30
GߣÁØøÓ «ÖÁuõP
öuߣhÂÀø». C¢u ¬iÄ® ö\°ß
ìj£ß Põ÷Áä Gvº öhÀ¼ £ÀPø»
PÇP® 1992 1. Gì ] ] £UP® 558
©õs¦ªS Ea\}v©ßÓ¬® uÚx
wº¨¤À TÔ²ÒÍ ¬iÁõÚx
GßÚöÁÛÀ ø©Úõ¶mi \¬uõ¯
©UPÒ 50% ^mkPøÍ JxURk ö£ØÖ
Auß ÁȯõP ußÝøh¯ \¬uõ¯
©UPÐUS JuURk JÆöÁõ¸
£ÒÎUThzv¾® ö£Ó»õ® GßÖ®
A¢u £ÒÎ |ºÁõP® ©õ|» Aµ]ß |v
ö£¸® |ºÁõP©õP C¸UP»õ®. BÚõÀ
C¢u wº¨¦US ¤ß¦ AÎUP¨£mh
©ØöÓõ¸ wº¨¤À (i G® G Áõ´
£Äs÷håß Gvº Pº{õhP Aµ_ 2002
8 Gì.].] 481 GßÓ wº¨¤À ©õs¦ªS
Ea\}v©ßÓ¬® uÚx wº¨¦øµ°À
50% ^m JxURk J¨¦u¾US Hئ
ö\´x® AuØ÷PØÓõØ÷£õÀ J¸
SÔ¨¤mh \uÂQuzøu ©õ|» Aµ_
SÔ±k ö\´x® £ÒÎU PÀ°ß
Aø©¨¤Ø÷PØÓõØ÷£õÀ ø©Úõ¶mi
P®¬Ûmi°ß PÀ uSvUS
HØÓõØ÷£õÀ JxURk ö\´¯»õ®.
A30 AøÚzx ©u® ©ØÖ®
ö©õÈÁõ¶¯õÚ ]Ö£õßø©°Ú¸US®
AÁµÁº ¸¨£zvØ÷PØ£ PÀÂ
|ÓÁÚ[PøÍ |ÖÁÄ®, £µõ©¶UPÄ®
GÀ»õ E¶ø©PøÍ AÎUPÁÀ»x.
÷©¾® Aµ\õ[P® ©u® ©ØÖ®
ö©õÈÁõ¶¯õÚ ]Ö£õßø©°Úº GßÓ
PõµnzvØPõP ©mk® |v²uÂ
AÎUPõ©À AÁºPÐUS ©ØÓÁºPÒ
÷£õ»÷Á £õS£õißÔ |v²u ö\´¯
ÁÀ»x. AÆÁõ÷Ó C¸¢u ÷£õv¾®
C¢u Âv°ß ÷©À EÒÍ AvPõµ[PÒ
¬Êø©¯õÚu AÀ». (£õºUP : ]zuµõ4
£õ´ \ø£ Vs Sáµõz ©õ|»® ( A.I.R.
16
1963 SC 540. T.M.A. £õ´£Äs÷hß
Vs Pº{õhP ©õ|»® (2002) 8scc 481).
Euõµn®: Q¸ìxÁ ©õnÁºPÐUS
E¯ºPÀ AΨ£øu ÷{õUP©õP
öPõsh A»Põ£õz ã\ì SÊ©®
{hzv¯ ¦Ûu ÷\¯º PÀ¿¶°À
\P» uµ¨¦ ©õnÁºPЮ ÷\ºzxU
öPõÒͨ£mhÚº. ©õ|» Aµ_ C¯ØÔ¯
J¸ \mhzvÀ ]» ÁȬøÓPÒ
øP¯õͨ£h ÷Ásk® GßÖ
EzuµÂmhx. AvÀ GÀ»õ
PÀ¿¶Pξ® £ÀPø»PÇPzvÚõÀ
|¯ªUP¨£mhÁºP÷Í ÷©Ø£õºøÁ SÊ
©ØÖ® ÷uºÄ SÊ©[PÎÀ C¸zuÀ
÷Ásk®. \õº¦ PÀ¿¶PøÍ ÷uºÄ
ö\´¯¨£mh PÀ¿¶PÍõP ©õØÖuÀ
÷©¾® xøn ÷Á¢u¶ß AÝ©v
ö£ØÓ ¤ßÚ÷µ B]¶¯ºPÒ «x JÊ[S
{hÁiUøP GkUP ¬i²®.
xøn÷Á¢uuõÀ |¯ªUP¨£mhÁ¶ß
¬ßÚº ©mk÷© B]¶¯ºPÒ ©ØÖ®
|ºÁõPzvØS Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ
¤µa\øÚPÐUS \©µ\® ö\´¯ ¬i²®.
Cx÷£õßÓ EzuµÄPÒ
]Ö£õßø©°Ú¶ß PÀ¿¶PÐUS
ö£õ¸¢uõx GßÖ® ÷©¾® AøÁ A31
RÌ Cx J¸ E¶ø© «ÓÀ GßÖ
wº¨£ÎzxÒÍx (AP©uõ£õz
ö\°sm ÷\¯º Põ÷»ä ö\õø\mi
Vs Sáµõz ©õ|»® (1974) ISCC
717).
Euõµn® : ©õ|» Aµ_ J¸ \mhzvß
- »® ]» |¯vPøÍ C¯ØÔ¯u. AvÀ
£ÒÎPÎÀ ÷Áø»US
A©ºzu¨£mhÁºPÐUöPßÖ ]»
JÊ[S ¬øÓPøͲ® , \®£Í
|ºn¯® ©mk® HøÚ¯ £iPÒ
÷£õßÓøÁ AuØSÒ Ah[S®. C¢u
\mh® ©ØÓ Eu ö£Óõu ]Ö£õßø©
|ÖÁÚ[PÐUS ö£õ¸¢uõx. ÁõvPÒ
Aµ_ EuÂö£Óõu PÀÂ
|ÖÁÚ[PÎÀ öuõÈ»õͺPÒ CÁºPÒ
\®£Í |ºn¯® ©ØÖ® HøÚ¯
£iPξ® \©E¶ø© ÷Põ¶Úõº.
}v©ßÓ® AzuøP¯ EhߣiUøPPÒ
A14 RÌ \©EE¶ø© «ÓÀ GßÖ EÖv
TÔ²ÒÍx. C¢u ÁÇUS ÷©¾® A30
RÌ ]Ö£õßø©°Ú¶ß E¶ø©PÒ
Áµ®ö£ØÓx AÀ» Gߣøu
ÂÍUSQßÓx. (¤µõ[ BshÛ
£¨ÎU ìTÀ G®£õÍõ±ì
A÷\õ]÷¯åß Vs ³Û¯ß B¨
C¢v¯õ (1986) 4 SCC 707.
]» \mh[PøͲ® ÂvPøͲ®
EÖv£kzxuÀ
Aµ]¯À \õ\Úzvß 9Áu
AmhÁøn°À ]» \mh[PøͲ®
17
ÂvPøͲ® EÖv£kzxuÀ £ØÔ
SÔ¨¤mk Põmh¨£mkÒÍx. A31BÀ
CøÁ AøÚzx® ö\À»uPõuuõP
P¸u¨£h ¬i¯õx AÀ»x GßÖ®
A¨£i ö\À»zuPõuuõP ¬i²©õÚõÀ,
AzuøP¯ Âv AÀ»x \mhzøu Gvº
öPõÒÍ ¬i¯õ©À ÷£õS® A¢u
AÍÄUS ©mk÷©õ AÀ»x
_¸UP¨£m÷hõ £Sv III RÌ G¢u J¸
¬iøÁ²® GvºöPõÒÍ ¬i¯õ©À G¢u
J¸ wº¨¦U÷Põ, BønU÷Põ,
EzuµÄU÷Põ ©õÓõP JÆöÁõ¸
\mh[PЮ, |£¢uøÚPЮ
öuõhº¢x {øh¬øÓ°À C¸US®.
H÷uÝ® uSv²øh¯ \mh\ø£°ß
AvPõµzvÚõÀ ©mk÷© AøÁPøÍ
÷\ºUP÷Áõ, »UP÷Áõ ¬i²®.
J¸ \mh©õÚx 9Áx
AmhÁøn°À EÒÍ G¢u J¸
\mhzv÷»õ AÀ»x Âv°÷»õ ¦v¯
\mhzv¸zuzøu öPõsk Á¸©õ°ß
£õxPõ¨¦® QøhUPõx. ÷©»® uSv
Ai¨£øh°À ö\À»zuUPuõ GßÖ
Bµõ¯¨£k®. AzuøP¯ v¸zu®
£õxPõUP¨£h ÷Ásk©õ°ß
Auß- » \mh©õÚx 9Áx
AmhÁøn°À ÷\ºUP¨£mk
HØPÚ÷Á \mhzv¸zu®
ö\´¯¨£mhuõP C¸UP÷Ásk®.
öÁ[PhµõÆ Vs £õ®÷£ ©õ|»®
(1969) 2 SCC 81).
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ 9 }v£vPÒ
öPõsh ö£ga CuøÚ
öuÎÄ£kzv²ÒÍx H¨µÀ 2, 1973
÷P\ÁõÚ¢u £õµv ÁÇUSUS (1973)
4SCC 255 ¬ß 9Áx AmhÁøn°À
÷\ºUP¨£mh \mh[PÒ Ai¨£øh
Aµ]¯À \õ\ÚzvØS GvµõÚx ©ØÖ®
AuøÚ AÈUPÁÀ»x GßÖ
AÖv°mk TÓ¬i²®. (I.R.
÷PõÀ÷íõ Vs uªÌ{õk (1999) 7SCC
(580).
ö£õx|¯©¨£i²ÒÍ EzuµÄPÒ
Aµ\õ[Pzvß
ö\¯Øvmh[PÐUS ÂøÍÄPøÍ
HØ£kzx® G¢u J¸ \mh¬®
ö\À»zuPõxu BS®. A14 AÀ»x
A19 I Põµn©õP öPõsk
E¶ø©PøÍ _¸UP÷Áõ, ¦Ó¢uÒÍ÷Áõ
¬i¯õx. ÷©¾® AzuøP¯ J¸ \mh®
ö\¯ÀvmhzvØS G¢u J¸
ÂøÍøÁ²® HØ£kzuõx GßÖ
Põµn® Põmh¬i¯õx. J¸ ©õ|» Aµ_
AzuøP¯ \mhª¯ØÔÚõÀ AuØS
31C RÌ G¢u J¸ £õxPõ¨¦®
QøhUPõx. AuØS áÚõv£v°ß
\®©u® ÷uøÁ¯õÚx BS®. A¨£i
18
AÝT»® C¸US©õ°ß
}v©ßÓzvØS A 39(b) or (c)£i G¢u
Põµn¬® CÀø» GßÖ A31C-À RÌ
£õxPõUP¨£h©õmhõx. (÷P\ÁõÚ¢u
£õµv Vs ÷PµÍ ©õ|»® 1973 4 SCC
225.
A32& ö£õ¸zu©õÚ
{hÁiUøPPÒ - »® Ai¨£øh
E¶ø©PÒ (£õP® III) |øÓ÷ÁØÔU
öPõÒÍ EzvµÁõu® AÎUQßÓx.
Ea]}v©ßÓzvØS ÁÈPõmhÄ®,
Bøn ¤Ó¨¤UPÄ® E¶ø© EÒÍx.
CvÀ BmöPõnºÄ }v ÷£µõøn,
ö\¯À EÖzx® }v ÷£µõøn,
uøh²Özx® }v ÷£µõøn,
uSv|ø» EÖzx® }v ÷£µõøn
÷£õßÓøÁ²® Ah[S®. AuØS¶¯
uS¢u {hÁiUøPPÒ - »® CøÁ
AøÚzøu²® ö\¯»õUP ¬i²®.
Aµ]¯À \õ\ÚzvÀ ÁȬøÓPÒ
C¸¢uõ»ßÔ A 32 RÌ EÒÍ
E¶ø©PøÍ |Özv øÁUP ¬i¯õx.
µzu ö\´¯Ä® ¬i¯õx.
A32&À uSv¯õÚ AÀ»x
ö£õ¸zu©õÚ ÁȬøÓPÒ GߣuØS
G¢u J¸ ÁiÁ¬® CÀø». BÚõÀ
ö£õ¸zu©õÚ ÁȬøÓPÒ Gߣx J¸
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©
|ø»{õmh¨£h÷Ásk® GßÓ J¸
EÒ÷{õUP® ©mk÷© öPõshuõP
C¸zuÀ ÷£õx©õÚx. ÷©¾® Ax
ÁÔ¯ºÁPÒ, GίÁºPÒ, AÀ»x
FÚ¬Ø÷Óõº ÷£õßÓÁºPÐUS
CøÇUP¨£k® A}vUPõP
ö£õx{»ÛÀ AUPøÓ EÒÍ J¸Áº
- »® }v©ßÓzvØS öuõhº¦ öPõsk
öu¶ÂzuõÀ Ax÷Á Th ö£õ¸zu©õÚ
{hÁiUøP¯õP HØÖUöPõÒͨ£k®.
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ö£õx{»
ÁÇUSPÐUPõP J¸ uÛ ©ßÓ®
Aø©UP¨£mkÒÍx. Cuß- »®
CzuøP¯ ÁÇUSPøÍ Bµõ´¢x
{hÁiUøP GkUP¬i²®.
}v©ßÓzvØS® uÛ¨£mh ¬øÓ°À
}v£vPÐUS Aݨ£¨£k®
Piu[PЮ C¢u ©ßÓzvØS v¸¨¤
Aݨ£¨£k®. CUPiu[PÒ A[S
£¶^¼UP¨£mk ¤ß¦ uø»ø©
}v£vUS Aݨ£¨£kQßÓÚ.
ö£õ¸zu©õÚ {hÁiUøP GßÖ
Â÷µõu©õP ©mk©À» AøÁ ]»
\©¯[PÎÀ AvP ¤µ\[QuÚ©õPÄ®
C¸UPUTk® (£¢x ¬Uv ÷©õºa\õ Vs
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ (1984) 3SCC
161). A32À EÒÍ ÁȬøÓPÎÀ
Ea\}v©ßÓ® \õuõµn©õP ÁÇUQÀ
EÒÍ ¬UQ¯ ÷PÒÂUSÒ
÷uøÁ°À»õ©À ö\À»õx. BÚõÀ
AuØS AÁ]¯® HØ£mhõÀ ÁÇUøP
19
Bµõ´¢u ö\¯À£k®. (»m_ª \[Pº
£õs÷h Vs ³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ
(1991) 2SCC 488) Ea\}v
©ßÓzvØS ©ÝÂß «uõÚ
ö\¯À£õkPÎÀ £µ¢u AvPõµ[PÒ
EÒÍÚ. ©Ýuõµº \¶¯õÚ ¬øÓ°À
©ÝøÁ uõUPÀ ö\´¯ÂÀø»
GßÓõ÷»õ ÷Ásk÷PõøÍ \¶Áµ
÷PmPÂÀø» GßÓõ÷»õ }v©ßÓ®
AzuøP¯ ©ÝøÁ öÁÖ©÷Ú yUQ
GÔ¢x Âh¬i¯õx. (\µsâz»õÀ
\Äzv¶ Vs ³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ AIR
1951 SC 41).
A32À ©ÝøÁ Â\õ¶¨£x
©mk® }v©ßÓzvß AvPõµzvØS
GÀø»USm£mhx. AßÖ }v©ßÓ®
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PøÍ PõUP G¢u J¸
uS¢u Bøn²® ÁȬøÓø¯²®
EzuµÂhÄ® ÷©¾® AuÚø
ö\¯À£kzuÄ® ¬i²®.
}v©ßÓzvØS uøh²zuµÄ ÁÇ[PÄ®
AvPõµ® Esk. AuõÁx G[S
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PÒ
£ÔUP¨£mhõ¾® AuøÚ uk¨£x
©mk©À» G[PõÁx Ai¨£øh
E¶ø© «ÓÀ HØPÚ÷Á {h¢v¸¢uõ¾®
A[S J¸ |Áõµn® AÎUP AuØS
¬Ê AvPõµ® EÒÍx. (MC. ÷©zuõ Vs
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ (1987 ) 1SCC
395) .
J¸ uÛ©ÛuÛß Ai¨£øh
E¶ø© G[PõÁx £ÔUP¨£mhõÀ A17,
23 ©ØÖ® 24 RÌ Ea\}v ©ßÓzøu
AqQ uSv¯õÚ |Áõµn® QøhUP
ÁÈÁøP ö\´¯¨£k®. (¥¨¤Òì
³Û¯ß £õº öh÷©õQµõiU øµmì Vs
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ (1982) 3 SCC
223. AzuøP¯ AvPõµ Áµ®¦ (A 32)
RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓzvØS® (A 226 RÌ)
E¯º}v ©ßÓzvØS®
AÎUP¨£mkÒÍx. BÚõÀ ©Ýuõµº
Ea\}v©ßÓzøu (A32) RÌ
AqSÁuØS ¬ß E¯º}v©ßÓzvÀ
ÁÇUS öuõhº¢v¸UP ÷Ási¯
AÁ]¯ªÀø».
Euõµn® : A Ai¨£øh E¶ø©ø¯
ö\¯À£kzu ÷Põ¶ Ea\}v©ßÓzøu
AqQÚõº. ÁÇUPÔbº AuøÚ
HØPõ©À AÁº ¬øÓ¨£i ¬u¼À A
226À E¯º }v©ßÓzvØS
AvPõµ[PÒ ÁÇ[Q¯x ÷£õÀ
AÀ»õ©À A32À Ai¨£øh
E¶ø©PøÍ ö£Ó J¸ uÛ©ÛuÝUS
AvPõµ® AÎzxÒÍx. ÷©¾®
uÛ©Ûuß Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PÒ
£ÔUP¨£k® ÷£õx® Ea\}v©ßÓzvß
20
¬ß øÁUP¨£k® ÷Põ¶UøPø¯
}v©ßÓ® EhÚi¯õP £¶^¼UP
ÁÈÁøP ö\´QßÓx. (µ÷©è uõ¨£º
Vs ö©mµõì ©õ|»® (A.IR. 1950 SC
124) Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ
HØÖUöPõÒͨ£k® ©ÝUPÒ
¬ßwº¨¦ uøhø¯ ö£õ¸¢÷u
Aø©²®.
Euõµn® : ¤µvÁõvPÒ 6 ¶m
©ÝUPÎß ¬iÂøÚ Gvºzx
ÁõvmhÚº. A 32 RÌ A¢u JÆöÁõ¸
©ÝÄ® E¯º}v ©ßÓzvÀ C÷u
÷Põ¶UøPPÐhÝ® J÷µ ÁøP¯õÚ
Põµn[PÐUPõPÄ® \©º¨¤UP¨£mk
E¯º}v ©ßÓzuõÀ uÒУi
ö\´¯¨£mhøÁ. Ea\}v©ßÓ® A¢u
}v÷£µõønPÒ ¬ßwº¨¦ uøh¯õÀ
Põ»õÁv¯õÚøÁ GßÖ® AøÁ
«sk® HØÖUöPõÒÍU Ti¯øÁ
AÀ» GßÖ® wº¨£Îzux. (÷h¶÷¯õ
Vs Ezvµ ¤µ÷u\ ©õ|»® A.L.R 1961
SC 1457). ¬ßwº¨¦ uõøh°ß
öPõÒøP A 136À ¬iÁõS®
ÁÇUSPÐUS® ö£õ¸¢x® (P.S.R
\uõÚ¢uß Vs A¸nõ\»® (1980) 3
Scc (141).
BmöPõnºÄ }v÷£µõøn
CuØS ¬ßwº¨¦ uøh öPõÒøP°À
C¸¢x »US AÎUP¨£mkÒÍx.
BøP¯õÀ E¯º}v©ßÓzuõÀ
©ÖUP¨£mh BmöPõnºÄ
}v÷£µõøn ©ÝuõµõP ©Ö£i²®
uÛ¨£mh ©ÝÁõP A32 RÌ
öPõnµ¬i²® . (S»õ® \ºÁõº Vs
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ ALR 1967 SC
1355). Cuß - »® A 32 RÌ £»¬øÓ
©ÝuõUPÀ ö\´¯¬i²®. ¬ßwº¨¦
uøh Gߣx A 32 US »US
AÎUP¨£mhøu÷¯ Cx
Enº¢xQßÓx. (_ÛÀuz Vs
³Û¯ß B¨ C¢v¯õ (1982) 3 SCC
405) BÚõÀ A 226À ©ÖUP¨£mh
BmöPõnºÄ }v ÷£µõønø¯ A136
RÌ ÷©À ¬øÓ±k ö\´¯ ¦v¯ ©ÝøÁ
A 32 - »® uõUPÀ ö\´¯¬i²®.
CuØS (1) AzuøP¯ `Ì|ø»
©õÔ°¸UP ÷Ásk® AÀ»x (2)
¬ß¦ uõUPÀ ö\´u÷£õx Qøhzvhõu
uPÁÀPÒ uØ÷£õu Qøhzv¸UP
÷Ásk®. CzuøP¯ Põµn[PÒ
C¸¢uõÀ ©mk÷© ¦v¯ ©ÝøÁ
uõUPÀ ö\´¯ ¬i²®. (TP ö©õ´wß
÷P¯õ Vs ÷PµÍ ©õ|»® (2004) 8SCC
106).
¬ØPõ»zvÀ A 32 RÌ
£õvUP¨£mhÁº ©mk÷© ©Ý
ö\´¯¬i²®.
21
£õµ®£¶¯ |ø»°ß£i EÖ¨¦ 32ß RÌ
E¶ø© £õvUP¨£mh ©ØÖ®
£õvUP¨£mh {£÷µ }v¨÷£µõøn ©Ý
uõUPÀ ö\´¯ ¬i²®. C¢u ÂQu®
¶ÁõUP¨£mk ö£õx {» ÁÇUøP²®
uõUPÀ ö\´¯»õ® GßÖ TÖQÓx.
C¨÷£õx ö£õx©UPÎÀ GÁ÷µÝ®
J¸Áº J¸ ö£õx wºÄ AÀ»x Aµ]¯À
Aø©¨¦ \mhzvÀ TÓ¨£mh
ö£õxUPhø© «ÓÀ BQ¯ÁØÔØS
GvµõP ö£õx{» ÁÇUS uõUPÀ
ö\´¯»õ®. (Gì.¤. S¨uõ Gvº C¢v¯
Aµ_ 1981 87). BÚõÀ J¸ {£¶ß
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PÒ £õvUP¨£mhõÀ
©mk÷© }v©ßÓzøu ö\¯À£kzu
AÝ©vUP¨£h ÷Ásk®. (£¢xÁõ
¬UQ ÷©õºåõ Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1984)
3 SCC 161).
Euõµn®
A GߣÁº EÖ¨¦ 32ß RÌ B
GߣÁ¸US GvµõP SØÓ ÁÇUQÀ
E¯º}v©ßÓ® ÁÇ[P¨£mh
ushøÚUS GvµõP Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ
©Ý ö\´QÓõº. B ushøÚUS GvµõP
÷©À¬øÓ±÷hõ AÀ»x EÖ¨¦ 32ß
RÌ ©Ý÷Áõ uõUPÀ ö\´¯ÂÀø».
Ea\}v©ßÓ® C¢u }v ÷£µõønø¯
uõUPÀ ö\´¯ ÁÇUQk® E¶ø©
CÀø» GßÖ uÒУi ö\´ux.
AÁ¸øh¯ Ea\}v©ßÓzøu AqP
÷Ásk® GßÓ uÛ¨£mh P¸zx
JzxU öPõÒͨ£mhx (Pµ®ãz][ Gvº
C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1992) 4 SCC 666.
BmöPõnºÄ }v¨ ÷£µõøn
BmöPõsº }v¨÷£µõøn
Gߣx J¸ {£µõÀ Aøhzx
øÁUP¨£mh {£øµ }v©ßÓzvß ¬ß
BảkzxÁuõS®. HöÚßÓõÀ
A¨÷£õxuõß AÁº }v¨£i
AøhUP¨£mkÒÍõµõ CÀø»¯õ GßÖ
AÔ¢x öPõÒÍ ¬i²®. Aøhzx
øÁUP¨£mhÁº SØÓ¯À {kÁ¶ß
¬ß Bảkzu¨£mhõÀ BmöPõnº
}v¨÷£µõøn uõUPÀ ö\´¯ ¬i¯õx.
Euõµn®
A GߣÁº ÷£õ½\õµõÀ øPx
ö\´¯¨£mhõº. AÁ¸øh¯ |ø»
SÔzx G¢u uPÁ¾®
AÎUP¨£hÂÀø». A Äøh¯ \÷Põuµº
B EÖ¨¦ 32&ß RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ
©ÝuõUPÀ ö\´uõº. Ea\}v©ßÓ®
A¢u {£øµ BẠö\´ÁuØS
÷£õ½\õ¸US BmöPõnºÄ
}v¨÷£µõøn EzuµÄ ÁÇ[P»õ®.
ö\¯¾Özx® }v¨÷£µõøn
22
ö\¯¾Özx® }v¨÷£µõøn
Gߣx EzvµÄPÒ BS®. \mh®,
C¯ØÓ¨£mh \mhzvߣi
ÁÇ[P¨£mh EzuµÄ AÀ»x
C¯ØÓ¨£mh \mh¨£i AÀ»õ©À
ÁÇ[P¨£mh |ºÁõP EzuµÄ BQ¯øÁ
J¸ {£¶ß Ai¨£øh E¶ø©ø¯
£õvUS® ÷£õx ö\¯¾Özx®
}v¨÷£µõøn ÁÇ[P¨£kQÓx.
(¤µ÷£õz Gvº Ezvµ¤µ÷u\® AIR 1985
SC 167).

Euõµn®
J¸ ©õÁmh Bm]¯º ]øÓ
AvPõ¶PÐUS ]øÓ°À EÒÍÁºPøÍ
ÁõUPÎUP AÝ©vUPU Thõx GßÖ
EzvµÂkQÓõº. B GÝ® øPv EÖ¨¦
32ß RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ©Ý
ö\´QÓõº. Ea\}v©ßÓ® ©õÁmh
Bm]¯¶ß EzuµøÁ µzx ö\´x
øPvPÒ ÁõUPÎUP HØ£õk ö\´¯
÷Áskö©ßÖ TÔ ö\¯¾Özx® }v¨
÷£µõøn ÁÇ[SQÓx.
uøh ö\´²® }v¨÷£µõøn
Cx Ea\}v©ßÓ® AÀ»x
E¯º}v©ßÓ® RÌ EÒÍ
}v©ßÓ[PÐUS öPõkUS® ÷£µõøn
BS®. RÌ }v©ßÓ[PÒ u[PÍx
BÒÁøµ AvPõµzøu uõsk® ÷£õ÷uõ
AÀ»x BÒÁøµAvPõµ® CÀ»õu
Âå¯[PøÍ GkzxU öPõÒЮ
÷£õx® AuøÚ uøh ö\´QÓx. C¢u
÷£µõøn }v¬øÓ ©ØÖ® ÷£õ»ø©
}v¬øÓ Aø©¨¦PÐUS ©mk÷©
ÁÇ[P¨£k®.
Euõµn®
A GߣÁº EÖ¨¦ 32ß RÌ
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ J¸ }v©ßÓ Aø©¨¦
wº¨¦ ÁÇ[S® ÷£õx uÁÓõÚ \mh
¤¶øÁ _miUPõmi²ÒÍx GߣuõÀ
AuøÚ uÒУi ö\´¯ ÷ÁsiÚõº.
A¢u ©Ý uÒУi ö\´¯¨£mhx.
\õuõµn©õÚ uÁÓõÚ \mh ¤¶øÁ
_miUPõmi¯uØPõP uøh ö\´²®
}v¨÷£µõøn ÁÇ[P C¯»õx. ©Ýuõµº
BÒÁøµ AvPõµ «Óø»÷¯õ AÀ»x
BÒÁøµ AvPõµ® CÀ»õ©À
C¸¨£øu÷¯õ ö©´¨¤UP ÷Ásk®.
(Cåõ¥Â Gvº Á¶Á`À A¾Á»º,
(1976) 1 SCC 70).
uSvPøÍ ÂÚÄ® }v¨÷£µõøn
J¸ {£º ö£õx A¾Á»PzvÀ
EÒÍ £uÂø¯ ÷Ásk® ö£õÊx AÁº
÷Ásku¼À EÒÍ \mh ußø©ø¯
ÂÚÄ® }v¨÷£µõøn BS®. ÷©¾®
23
A¢u ÷ÁskuÀ \¶°À»õu ÷£õx
AÁøµ A¢u £u°À C¸¢x
}USu¾® BS®.
Euõµn®
J¸ ©õ|» BÐ{º ©õ|»
\mh\ø£US EÖ¨¤ÚµõP uSv°À»õu
J¸ {£øµ ¬uÀ Aø©a\µõP
A©ºzvÚõº. A GÝ® J¸ EÖ¨¤Úº
EÖ¨¦ 52ß RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓzøu
AqQÚõº. Ea\}v©ßÓ® AuøÚ
Â\õ¶zx A¢u {£¶ß ¬uÀ Aø©a\º
A©ºzxuÀ \mh¨£i¯õP
CÀø»ö¯ßÖ P¸vÚõÀ C¢u
}v¨÷£µõøn - »® AÁøµ £uÂ
}UP® ö\´¯»õ®. (B.R. P§º Gvº
uªÌ{õk Aµ_ (2001) 7 SCC 231).
ö{Ô¬øÓ EÖzx }v¨÷£µõøn
C¢u }v¨÷£µõøn uøh
ö\´²® }v¨÷£µõøn ÷£õßÓx. uøh
ö\´²® }v¨ ÷£µõøn°À RÌ
Aø©¨¦PÒ BÒÁøµ AvPõµ®
CÀ»õ©÷»õ AÀ»x AuøÚ «Ö®
÷£õ÷uõ ÁÇ[P¨£k®. AuõÁx EzuµÄ
ÁÇ[SÁuØS ¬ß¦ ÁÇ[P¨£k®.
BÚõÀ ö{Ô¬øÓ EÖzx® }v¨
÷£µõøn EzuµÄ ÁÇ[P¨£mh ¤ß¦
ÁÇ[P¨£kÁuõS®. BÚõÀ C¢u
}v¨÷£µõøn Ea\}v©ßÓ® AÀ»x
E¯º}v©ßÓ B¯® ÁÇ[Q¯ EzuµÄUS
GvµõP AÎUP¨£h ©õmhõx.
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©°ß ©õØÓ®
\mhª¯ØÖ® Aø©¨¦
£õµõЩßÓ® EÖ¨¦ 33ß RÌ
Ai¨£øh E¶ø© ö\¯À£k® AÍøÁ
£õxPõ¨¦ £øh EÖ¨¤ÚºPÐUS
GvµõP÷Áõ AÀ»x ö£õx öPõÒøP
|ø»{õmh {hÁiUøP GkUP¨£mh
J¸Á¶ß «÷uõ SøÓUP»õ® AÀ»x
}UP»õ®. Cx AÁºPÐUQøh÷¯ EÒÍ
Phø©PøÍ |ø»{õmh
ö\¯À£kzxÁuõS®. £õµõЩßÓ®
EÖ¨¦ 34ß RÌ CµõqÁa \mh®
A©¼À C¸US® ÷£õx £o°À C¸¢u
{£º AÀ»x ©zv¯ AÀ»x ©õ|»
£o°À C¸¢u {£¸US DmkÖv
ö\´¯»õ®.
÷©¾® ÁÇ[P¨£mh ushøÚ
£Ô¬uÀ ö\´²® EzuµÄ AÀ»x
CµõqÁ \mhzvÀ RÌ GkUP¨£mh
{hÁiUøP BQ¯ÁØøÓ \¶ö¯ßÖ
TÓ»õ®.
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©ø¯
|ø»{õmkÁuØS AÀ»x Ai¨£øh
E¶ø©ø¯ £õvUS® ö\¯ø»
ushøÚUSÒÍõUSÁuØS ÷uøÁ
\mh® C¯ØÓ Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh®
24
£õµõЩßÓzvØS EÖ¨¦ 35ß RÌ
AvPõµ® ÁÇ[SQÓx. C¢u \mh®
C¯ØÖ® AvPõµ®, AmhÁøn VIIIÀ
EÒÍ ©õ|» \mhª¯ØÖ® AvPõµzvÀ
C¸¢uõ¾® £õµõЩßÓ® \mh®
C¯ØÓ»õ®.
£Sv IV ö{Ô²Özx® ÷Põm£õkPÒ
ö{Ô²Özx® ÷Põm£õkPÒ
}v©ßÓzvÀ ö\¯À£kzuzuUPx
AÀ»õ©À C¸¢uõ¾® Cx {õmiß
Aµ_US Ai¨£øh¯õÚuõS® ©ØÖ®
Cøu ö\¯À£kzxÁx Aµ]ß Phø©
BS® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 37 TÖQÓx.
\¬uõ¯zvß \- P, ö£õ¸Íõuõµ
Aµ]¯À }vø¯ |ø»{õmkÁuß - »®
ö£õx {»øÚ ÷©®£kzxÁuØS C¢u
ö{Ô²Özx® ÷Põm£õkPÒ ÁÈÁøP
ö\´QÓx. ÷£õx©õÚ ÁõÊ® |ø»ø¯
AÎzuÀ, ö£õx {ßø©PÐUPõP
¬UQ¯ - »[PøÍ £Qº¢uÎzuÀ
©ØÖ® {»ß J÷µ ChzvÀ SÂÁøu
ukzuÀ BQ¯øÁ Cuß ¬UQ¯
A®\©õS®.
Ai¨£øh E¶ø©PÒ ©ØÖ®
ö{Ô²Özx® ÷Põm£õkPÐUS
Cøh÷¯ EÒÍ CnUP® Aµ]¯À
Aø©¨¦a \mhzvß Ai¨£øhU
TÖPÎÀ JßÓõS® (ªÚºÁõ ªÀì
¼ªöhm Gvº C,¢v¯ Aµ_ (1980) 3
SCC 625) ÷©¾® Ai¨£øh E¶ø©°ß
÷©À ö\´¯¨£mh Pmk¨£õk
¬øÓ¯õÚxuõÚõ Gߣøu
wº©õÛUPÄ® C¢v¯ ö{Ô²Özx®
÷Põm£õkPÒ £¯ß£kQÓx.
Euõµn®
J¸ ©Ýuõµº ©õ|» Aµ]ß
EzuµøÁ Gvºzx ÁÇUQkQÓõº. A¢u
EzuµÄ A¢u ©õ|»zvÀ ©x£õÚ®
ÂØ£øu²®, øÁzv¸¨£øu²® uøh
ö\´QÓx. C¢u uøh \¶¯õÚxuõÚõ
Gߣøu wº©õÛUP }v©ßÓ® 47
£¯ß£kzu»õ®. (£õ®÷£ Aµ_ Gvº
G¨.Gß. £À\õµõ AIR 195 SCC 318).
£Sv IV-A Ai¨£øh Phø©PÒ
Ai¨£øh Phø©PÒ
ö\¯À£kzu \mh® C¯ØÓõÂmhõÀ
AuøÚ }v©ßÓzvÀ ö\¯À£kzu
¬i¯õx. Ai¨£øh E¶ø©US®,
Phø©US® Cøh÷¯ ¬µs£õk
HØ£mhõÀ }v©ßÓ® AuøÚ
CnUP©õP wºÄ Põq®. ö£sPÎß
©õsø£ £õvUPUTi¯ ö\¯ÀPøÍ
ö\´¯UThõx Gߣx Ai¨£øh
Phø©¯õS®. Cx ö£sPÒ C¢u ©õv¶
ö\¯ÀPÎÀ £õvUPUP¨£hUThõx
GßÓ E¶ø©²® ÁÇ[SQÓx. C¢v¯
25
Aµ_ Gvº {Ãß ]¢uõÀ (2004) 2 SCC
510.
Ai¨£øh Phø©ø¯
ö\¯À£kzu \mh® CÀ»õu ÷£õx,
CuøÚ ö\¯À£kzxÁuØS J¸
{£¸US GvµõP ö\¯¾Özx®
}v¨÷£µõøn ÁÇ[P¨£h ©õmhõx
(`¶¯ {õµõ¯nÚß Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
AIR 1982 Raj 1).
|ºÁõPzxøÓ
1. ©zv¯ Aµ_ £Sv V Azv¯õ¯® I
EÖ¨¦ 52 C¢v¯õÂØS J¸
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº C¸UP ÷Ásk® GßÖ
ö\õÀQÓx.
EÖ¨¦ 53 Si¯µ_z uø»Á¶ß
|ºÁõP AvPõµzøu ö\õÀQÓx. ©zv¯
Aµ]ß |ºÁõP AvPõµ® Si¯µ_
uø»Áº ÷©À EÒÍx. CÁ÷µ GÀ»õ¨
£õxPõ¨¦ £øh°ß uø»Áº BÁõº.
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mhzvØS |ºÁõP AvPõµzøu
ö\¯À£kzxÁõº.
Si¯µ_z uø»Áº ÁõUPõͺ
SÇõ® GßÓ Aø©¨¤ß - »®
÷uº¢öukUP¨£kQÓõº. A¢u SÇõªß
Aø©¨¦ Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦a \mhzvÀ
ö\õÀ»¨£mkÒÍx. EÖ¨¦ 55 Si¯µ_
uø»Áº ÷uº¢öukzuÀ ¬øÓ²®.
EÖ¨¦ 56 £u Põ»zøu²®, EÖ¨¦ 59
£u Põ»zvß |£¢uøÚPøͲ®
EÖ¨¦ 61 Si¯µ_ uø»Á¸US GvµõP
GkUP¨£k® SØÓa\õmk
{hÁiUøPPøͲ® TÖQÓx. EÖ¨¦
63 xøn Si¯µ_ uø»Áøµ²®,
EÖ¨¦ 64 AÁº Cµõä¯ \ø£°ß £uÂ
ÁÈ uø»Áº Gߣøu²® Si¯µ_
uø»Áº £u°À BÒ CÀ»õu ÷£õx
AÁ¸øh¯ ö\¯ÀPøÍ ö\´¯
÷Ásk® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 65
SÔ¨¤kQÓõº.
Ea\}v©ßÓ® ©mk÷© Si¯µ_
uø»Áº (A) xøn Si¯µ_z uø»Áº
÷uº¢öukzu¼À EÒÍ ¤µa\øÚø¯
wºUP uÛ¯õÚ ©ØÖ® ¬iÁõÚ
BÒÁøµ AvPõµ® ö£ØÖÒÍx (EÖ¨¦
71).
©zv¯ Aµ]ß |ºÁõP AvPõµ®
AmhÁøn VIII EÒÍ ¬uÀ £mi¯À
©ØÖ® C¢v¯ Aµ\õÀ
HØ£kzu¨£mkÒÍ J¨£¢uzvß
AvPõµzøu ö\¯À£kzxÁøu²®
EÒÍhUSÁuõS® (EÖ¨¦ 73).
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh®
¤µu©¶ß uø»ø©°À J¸ ©¢v¶
Sk®£® C¸UP ÷Ásk® GßÖ®,
26
Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß ö\¯À£õkPÐUS
C¢u ©¢v¶ Sk®£® B÷»õ\øÚ
ÁÇ[P ÷Ásk® GßÖ TÖQÓx.
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº C¢u ©¢v¶,
Sk®£zvøÚ ©Ö£¶^»øÚ ö\´¯
÷Põµ»õ®. BÚõÀ ©¢v¶ Sk®£®
©Ö£¶^»øÚ ö\´x Aݨ¤¯øu
ö\¯À£kzu Phø©¨£mhÁº BÁõº
EÖ¨¦ 74.
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº ¤µu©¶ß£i²®,
¤µu©øµ²® ¤µu©¶ß B÷»õ\øÚ
÷£¶À ©ØÓ Aø©a\ºPøÍ |¯©Ú®
ö\´¯ AvPõµ® £øhzuÁº. ©¢v¶
Sk®£® RÌ\ø£US
ö£õÖ¨¦øh¯uõS® (EÖ¨¦ 75).
©zv¯ Aµ]ß uø»ø© ÁÇUPÔbº
£u EÖ¨¦ 76ß RÌ
E¸ÁõUP¨£kQÓx. Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
Aݨ¤¯ \mh® \õº¢u £oPøͲ®,
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦a \mh® TÔ¯
£oPøͲ® ©ØÖ® C¢v¯ Aµ_US
\mh® \õº¢u B÷»õ\øÚ ÁÇ[PÄ®
©zv¯ Aµ]ß uø»ø© ÁÇUPÔbº
EÒÍõº.
©õ|»® Aµ_ £Sv VI Az¯õ¯® II
JÆöÁõ¸ J¸ ©õ|»¬® J¸ PÁºÚøµ
öPõskÒÍx (EÖ¨¦ 153)
CÁº Si¯µ_ uø»ÁµõÀ
|¯ªUP¨£kQÓõº (EÖ¨¦ 155). ©õ|»
Aµ]ß |ºÁõP AvPõµ® CÁ¶ß ÷©À
EÒÍx (EÖ¨¦ 154). PÁºÚ¶ß
AvPõµ® ©ØÖ® ö\¯À£õkPÒ Si¯µ_
uø»Á¶ß AvPõµzvØS ©õ|»zvØS
Cøn¯õS®. Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
AÁ¸øh¯ ö\õ¢u ¬iÂÀ
ö\¯À£h»õ® GßÖ ö\õÀ»¨£mh
Ch[PøÍz uµ ©ØÓ AøÚzx
ö\¯À£õkPÎÀ ©õ|»
Aø©a\µøÁ°ß B÷»õ\øÚ¨
ö£¯¶À ö\¯À£h ÷Ásk®. (\®^º][
Gvº £g\õ¨ Aµ_ (1974) 2 SCC 871).
Cx EÖ¨¦ 163ß RÌ
ö\õÀ»¨£mkÒÍx. BÐ{º AÁº uÛ
AvPõµzvß ÷©À ö\¯À£h»õ©õ
AÀ»x ©¢v¶ \ø£°ß
B÷»õ\øÚ°ß ÷©À ö\¯À£h
÷Ásk©õ Gߣøu ¬iÄ ö\´²®
AvPõµ® BÐ{¸U÷Põ CÖv¯õÚx
(EÖ¨¦ 164(2)).
©õ|» Aµ]ß |ºÁõP AvPõµ®
\mhª¯ØÖ® Aø©¨¤ß AvPõµ®
EÒÍ Âå¯[PÒ Áøµ ö\¯À£k®.
ö£õx¨£mi¯¼À EÒÍ Âå¯[PÒ
|ºÁõP AvPõµzvÀ Ah[S® GßÖ
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh÷©õ,
27
£õµõЩßÓ® C¯ØÔ¯ \mh÷©õ TÓ
÷Ásk® (EÖ¨¦ 162).
©õ|» ¬uÀÁº BÐ{µõÀ
|¯ªUP¨£kQÓõº. ©ØÓ Aø©a\ºPÒ
¬uÀÁ¶ß B÷»õ\øÚ°ß ÷£¶À
BÐ{µõÀ |¯ªUP¨£kQÓx. ¬uÀ
Aø©a\ºPЮ ©ØÓ Aø©a\ºPЮ
BÐ{¶ß {®¤UøP EÒÍÁøµ
©mk÷© £u°À C¸¨£õºPÒ. ©¢v¶
SÊ ©õ|» \mh\ø£US
ö£õÖ¨¦øh¯uõS® (EÖ¨¦ 164)
©õ|» uø»ø© ÁÇUPÔbº
C¸UP ÷Ásk® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 165
TÖQÓx. BÐ{º ©ØÖ® ©õ|» Aµ_US
ö\´¯ ÷Ási¯ Phø©PÒ ©zv¯
uø»ø© ÁÇUPÔbº Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
©ØÖ® ©õ|» Aµ_US ö\´¯ ÷Ási¯
Phø©US Cøn¯õÚuõS®.
\mhª¯ØÖ® Aø©¨¦
£õµõЩßÓ® £Sv VAzv¯õ¯® II
£õµõЩßÓ® Si¯µ_
uø»ÁºPøͲ®, ÷©À\ø£ RÌ\ø£
GßÓ Cµsk \ø£PøͲ®
EÒÍhUQ¯uõS® (EÖ¨¦ 79).
©õ|»[PÍøÁ 250
EÖ¨¤ÚºPøÍU öPõshx. Ax 12
÷£º Si¯µ_ uø»ÁµõÀ |¯ªUQÓõº.
238 ÷£º ©õ|»[PÒ ©ØÖ® ³Û¯ß
¤µ÷u\[PÎß ¤µv|vPÍõP
÷uº¢öukUP¨£kQÓõº. ©õ|»[PÎß
¤µv|vPÒ ©õ|» \mh\ø£
EÖ¨¤ÚºPÍõÀ JßøÓ ©õØÖ¬øÓ
ÁõUQß - »® ÂQuõa\õµ ¤µv|vzxÁ
¬øÓ¨£i ÷uº¢öukUP¨£kQÓõº
(EÖ¨¦ 80). ©UPøÍøÁ 530
EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ öPõshx. AvÀ 20 ÷£º
³Û¯ß ¤µ÷u\[PÎß ¤µv|v 2 ÷£º
B[Q÷»õ C¢v¯ß \¬uõ¯zv¼¸¢x
Si¯µ_z uø»ÁµõÀ
÷uº¢öukUP¨£kQÓõº (EÖ¨¦ 81).
C¢u ©UPÍøÁ°ß C¸UøP £QºÄ
JÆöÁõ¸ ©UPÒ öuõøP
PnUöPk¨¤ØS ¤ÓS ©õØÔ¯ø©
Aø©UP¨£k®.
©õ|»[PÍøÁ |µ¢uµ©õÚ
Aø©¨£õS®. CvÀ 3&À 1 £[S
EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ 2 BskPÐUS
J¸¬øÓ £u - ¨¦ ö£ÖÁº. A÷u
÷{µzvÀ ©UPÍøÁ°ß EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ
|¯ªUP ÷uv°¼¸¢x, I¢uõskPÒ
£u°À C¸¨£õº. Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
£õµõЩßÓzvÀ JÆöÁõ¸
AøÁø¯²® AøÇzx Tmhzøu
öuõh[P»õ®. AÀ»x ¬izx
øÁUP»õ®. ÷©¾® ©UPÍøÁø¯
Pø»UPÄ® ö\´¯»õ®. £õµõЩßÓ
28
AøÁPÎß Tmh[PÐUS
Cøh÷¯¯õÚ CøhöÁÎ, 6
©õu[PøÍz uõshU Thõx (EÖ¨¦
85). Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦a \mh®
©õ|»[PÒ AøÁ°ß xøn uø»Áº,
©UPÒ AøÁ°ß \£õ{õ¯Pº ©ØÖ®
xøn \£õ{õ¯Pº |¯ª¨£x £ØÔ²®
TÖQÓx (EÖ¨¦ 89, 93).
©zv¯ Aµ]ß (A) H÷uÝ®
©õ|» Aµ]ß RÌ Á¸©õÚ® u¸®
£u°À EÒÍÁº, ©UPÍøÁ°ß
EÖ¨¤ÚµõP ÷uº¢x GkUP¨£h
¬i¯õx (EÖ¨¦ 102).
Euõµn®
A GÝ® ©õ|»[PÍøÁ°ß
EÖ¨¤Úº Ezuµ¨¤µ÷u\ ©õ|»
vøµ¨£h Áͺa]U SÊÂÀ uø»ÁµõP
C¸¢uõº. A¢u uø»Áº £uÂ,
SÔ¨¤mh \®£¢uzøu²® AuøÚa
\õº¢u Á\vPøͲ® öPõshx. A
GߣÁº AuuøÚ ö£ÓõÂmhõ¾®
AÁº £õµõЩßÓ EÖ¨¤ÚµõP BP
¬i¯õx (öᯣm\ß Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
(2006 SCC 266).
Euõµn®
A GÝ® {£º ©õ|» Aµ]ß J¸
£u°À EÒÍÁº A¢u £u°ߣi
AÁº A¢u £o°À C¸US® ÷£õx,
øP°¼¸¢x A¢u £oUPõP ö\»Ä
ö\´u £nzøu v¸®£ ö£ØÖU
öPõÒÍ»õ®. CvÀ \®£Í® ö£Ö®
A¾Á»P® CÀø»ö¯ß£uõÀ AÁº
uSv¯ØÓÁº GßÖ TÓ ¬i¯õx
(]Á- ºzv _Áõª CÚõ®uõº Gvº APv,
\[PnA¢un¨£õ (1971 3 SCC 870).
£õµõЩßÓzvÀ ÷£a_ _u¢vµ®
EÒÍx. Cx Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦a \mh®
©ØÖ® £õµõЩßÓ {hÁiUøP
JÊ[S£kzx® Âv ©ØÖ® |ø»
Bøn BQ¯ÁØÔØS
Pmk¨£mhuõS®.
£õµõЩßÓzvÀ ÷£]¯uØPõP
AÀ»x ÁõUPÎzuØPõP÷Áõ G¢u
{£øµ²® ÁÇUQh ¬i¯õx. £õµõЩßÓ
AvPõ¶PÍõÀ öÁΰh¨£mh,
AÔUøP, {hÁiUøP BQ¯ÁØÔØS
G¢uöÁõ¸ EÖ¨¤Ú¸® ö£õÖ¨£õP
©õmhõº (EÖ¨¦ 105).
Euõµn®
A GÝ® £õµõЩßÓ EÖ¨¤Úº
J¸ ö£õx Âå¯zvØS ÷£]ÚõÀ Ax
AÁyÓõP P¸u¨£h»õ®. BÚõÀ AÁº
ÁÇUQh ¬i¯õx. A÷u ÷{µzvÀ A
GߣÁº uõ÷Ú AuøÚ öÁΰmhõÀ
AÁøµ ÁÇUQh»õ® (áwè \¢vµ÷Põè
29
Gvº í¶íµß ¬Pºâ AIR 1956
(433).
£n® \®£¢u¨£mh ©÷\õuõ uµ ©ØÓ
©÷\õuõUPÒ Cµsk \ø£°¾®, uõUPÀ
ö\´¯»õ®. Cµsk AøÁPЮ
|øÓ÷ÁØÔ¯ ¤Ó÷P ©÷\õuõ
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhuõP P¸u¨£k®
(EÖ¨¦ 107). Si¯µ_ uø»Áº Cµsk
\ø£Pξ® ÷\º¢u A©ºÄUS ¤ßÁ¸®
`Ì|ø»PÎÀ AøÇUP»õ®.
 {k \ø£°À |øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mh
©÷\õuõ ©ØÓ \ø£°À |µõP¶US®
÷£õx.
 Cµsk \ø£PЮ ©÷\õuõÂß
v¸zuzøu HØÖU öPõÒÍõu
÷£õx AÀ»x J¸ \ø£
©÷\õuõøÁ |øÓ÷ÁØÔ Akzu
\ø£US Aݨ¤¯ ¤ÓS 6 ©õu
Põ»©õP Akzu \ø£ A¢u
©÷\õuõøÁ |øÓ÷ÁØÓõ©À
C¸¢uõÀ (EÖ¨¦ 108) £n®
\®£¢u¨£mh ©÷\õuõ
©UPÍøÁ°À ©mk÷© uõUPÀ
ö\´¯¨£h ÷Ásk®. Ax
©õ|»[PÒ AøÁUS
£¶¢xøµUPõP Aݨ£¨£k®.
A¢u £¶¢xøµPøÍ ©UPÍøÁ
HØÖU öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk® GßÓ
Pmhõ¯® CÀø» . AÆÁõÖ A¢u
£¶¢xøµPøÍ HØÖU
öPõÒÍõÂmhõÀ ©UPÍøÁ°À
Aݨ£¨£mh ¬uÀ A\À
©÷\õuõ÷Á |øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhuõP
P¸u¨£k® (EÖ¨¦ 109).
Cµsk \ø£PЮ
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mh ¤ÓS Si¯µ_z
uø»Á¸US J¨¦u¾US
Aݨ£»õ®. Si¯µ_z uø»Áº
£¶¢xøµø¯ ö\õÀ¼ ©÷\õuõøÁ
v¸¨¤ Aݨ£»õ®. BÚõÀ
Cµsk \ø£PЮ ©÷\õuõøÁ
HØÖU öPõÒÍõ©À, CµshõÁx
¬øÓ¯õP A÷u ©÷\õuõøÁ
Si¯µ_ uø»Á¸US
J¨¦u¾UPõP Aݨ¤ÚõÀ
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº J¨¦uÀ AÎUP
Phø©¨£mhÁº (EÖ¨¦ 113).
EÖ¨¦ 112 ¬uÀ EÖ¨¦ 116
Áøµ £õµõЩßÓ ö£õx |vø¯
£¯ß£kzxÁx öuõhº£õÚ
{øh¬øÓPøÍ TÖQÓx. EÖ¨¦ 117
|v ©÷\õuõøÁ {øh¬øÓPøÍ
TÖQÓx.
Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß \mhª¯ØÖ©
AvPõµ®
30
Cµsk £õµõЩßÓ AøÁPЮ
AøÁ°À CÀ»õu ö£õÊx Si¯µ_
uø»Áº uUPx GßÖ P¸vÚõÀ
£õµõЩßÓ® C¯ØÖ® ÷£õßÖ AÁ\µ
\mh® C¯ØÓ»õ®. C¢u AÁ\µa \mh®
Cµsk £õµõЩßÓ[PÎÀ
¬ßÛø»¨£kzu¨£h ÷Ásk®. Ax
£õµõЩßÓ Bµ®¤zu ÷uv°¼¸¢x 6
Áõµ[PÐUS ö\¯¼À C¸US®.
Cµsk AøÁPЮ A¢u 6 Áõµ
Põ»zvØSÒ AÁ\µ \mhzøu uÒУi
ö\´¯»õ®. Si¯µ_ uø»Áº GßÓ
÷{õUQ¾® A¢u AÁ\µa \mhzøu
v¸®£¨ ö£Ó»õ®. AÁ\µ \mh®
C¯ØÖ® AvPõµ® £õµõЩßÓ®
\mhª¯ØÖ® ÷£õx EÒÍ **
öPõshx. Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß AÁ\µa
\mh® ©¢v¶\ø£°ß B÷»õ\øÚ°ß
÷£¶÷»÷¯ ¤µPhÚ¨£kzxQÓx.
GÚ÷Á Cx Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß ö£¯¶À
C¸¢uõ¾® ©¢v¶\ø£°ß ö\¯÷»
BS® (Bº.]. T¨£º Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
1970 1 SCC 564).
©õ|» \mh\ø£ £Sv VI Azv¯õ¯® III
JÆöÁõ¸ ©õ|»¬® BÐ{º,
©õ|» RÌ AøÁPøÍ öPõshx. ]»
©õ|»[PÒ ©õ|» ÷©»øÁU öPõshx
(EÖ¨¦ 168). RÌ AøÁ EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ
÷{µi¯õPz ÷uº¢öukUP¨£kQÓõºPÒ.
÷©ÀAøÁ EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ ©øÓ¬Pz
÷uºuÀ ©ØÖ® BÐ{µõÀ
|¯ªUP¨£kQÓõºPÒ (EÖ¨¦ 171).
©õ|» \mh\ø£ Ax öuõh[Q¯
{õμ¸¢x I¢uõsk Põ»zvØS
öuõh¸®. BÐ{º Cµsk
AøÁPøͲ® AøÇUP»õ®. Cµsk
Tmhz öuõhºPÐUS Cøh÷¯¯õÚ
CøhöÁÎ 6 ©õu[PÐUS ªPõ©À
C¸UP ÷Ásk®. BÐ{º Tmhz
öuõhøµ ¬iÄUS öPõsk Á¸Á÷uõ,
Pø»UP÷Áõ AvPõµ® £øhzuÁº.
EÖ¨¦ 178 ¬uÀ 186 Áøµ
©õ|» \mh\ø£, \£õ{õ¯Pº, xøn
\£õ{õ¯Pº ©ØÖ® ÷©»øÁ, uø»Áº,
xønz uø»Áº BQ¯ÁºPøÍ
|¯ªzuÀ, £u Põ»®, £oPøÍ £ØÔ
TÖQÓx.
EÖ¨¦ 191 J¸ {£º \mh\ø£
EÖ¨¤Ú¸UPõÚ
÷uº¢öukUP¨£hõø©US
uSv°ßø©¨ £ØÔ TÖQÓx.
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh®
\mhzuõÀ C¯ØÓ¨£mh {øh¬øÓ
\®£¢u¨£mh ÂvPÒ |ø» BønPÒ
BQ¯øÁ Em£mk \mh\ø£°À ÷£a_
_u¢vµ® EÒÍx. G¢uöÁõ¸ \mh\ø£
EÖ¨¤Ú¸®, \mh\ø£°À
31
÷£]¯uØPõP ÁÇUQh ¬i¯õx. AÁº
÷£]¯øu \mh\ø£ AvPõµ[PÒ
AÔUøP - »©õP÷Áõ H÷uÝ®
¬øÓ°¾® öÁΰmhõ¾® AÁº «x
ÁÇUQh ¬i¯õx (EÖ¨¦ 194).
£n \®£¢u¨£mh ©÷\õuõÁõP
uµ ©ØÓ ©÷\õuõUPÒ \ø£°¾®
uõUPÀ ö\´¯¨£h»õ®. Cµsk
\ø£°¾® |øÓ÷ÁØÔ¯ ¤Ó÷P ©÷\õu
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhuõPU TÖ®. EÖ¨¦
197 £n \®£¢u¨£mh ©÷\õuõ ©ØÓ
©÷\õuõUPÒ |øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhõÀ Ax
÷©À\ø£US Aݨ£¨£k®. ÷©À\ø£
©÷\õuõ \®£¢u¨£mh £¶¢xøµPøÍa
ö\´¯»õ®.
£n \®£¢u¨£mh ©÷\õuõ C¸
AøÁ \mh©ßÓ ¬øÓ°À
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£k® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 398
TÖQÓx.
©õ|» \mh\ø£ ©÷\õuõøÁ
|øÓ÷ÁØÔ¯ ¤ÓS BÐ{¶ß
J¨¦u¾UPõP Aݨ¦® BÐ{º J¨¦uÀ
AÎUP÷Áõ AÀ»x AÎUPõ©À
C¸UP÷Áõ AÀ»x Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
P¸zxU÷Põ Aݨ£»õ®.
£n \®£¢u¨£hõu ©÷\õuõøÁ
AÁ¸øh¯ B÷»õ\øÚ²hß v¸¨¤
Aݨ£¨£h ÷Ásk®. \mh\ø£
B÷»õ\øÚPøÍ HØÖU öPõÒÍõ©À
©÷\õuõøÁ CµshõÁx ¬øÓ¯õP
BÐ{¸US Aݨ¤ÚõÀ BÐ{º
J¨¦uÀ AÎUP ÷Ásk®. BÐ{º A¢u
©÷\õuõ E¯º}v©ßÓzvß AvPõµzøu
SøÓ¨£uß - »® Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mhzvÀ TÔ¯ |ø»°øÚ
Cøn¨£uõP P¸vÚõÀ Si¯µ_
uø»Á¶ß J¨¦u¾UPõP Aݨ£
÷Ásk® (EÖ¨¦ 200).
£n® \®£¢u¨£hõu ©÷\õuõ
Si¯µ_ uø»Á¸US J¨¦u¾UPõP
Aݨ£¨£mhõÀ Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
AuøÚ J¨¦uÀ AÎUP÷Áõ AÀ»x
AuøÚ ©Ö£¶^»øÚ ö\´x v¸®£
Aݨ£»õ®. \mh\ø£ AuøÚ 6 Áõµ
Põ»zvØSÒ ©Ö£¶^»øÚ ö\´¯
÷Ásk®. Auß ¤ÓS A¢u ©÷\õuõøÁ
v¸zu[PÐh÷Úõ AÀ»x CÀ»õ©÷»õ
©Ö£i²® Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß
J¨¦u¾US Aݨ£»õ®.
EÖ¨¦PÒ 202 ¬uÀ 212 Áøµ
\mh\ø£ ¤ß£ØÓ ÷Ási¯
{øh¬øÓ¨ £ØÔ TÖQßÓx.
BÐ{¶ß \mhª¯ØÖ® AvPõµ®
\mh\ø£ A©ºÂÀ CÀ»õu ÷£õx
{hÁiUøP GkUP¨£h ÷Ásk®.
BÐ{º P¸vÚõÀ BÐ{º
32
AÁ\µPmhzvøÚ A¢u `Ì|ø»US
HØ£ ¤µPhÚ¨£kzu¨£h»õ®. ]»
÷{µ[PÎÀ ¤µPhÚ¨£kzxÁuØS
¬ß¦ BÐ{º Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß
J¨¦uø»¨ ö£Ó ÷Ásk®. BÐ{µõÀ
¤µPhÚ¨£kzu¨£h AÁ\µa \mh®
\mh\ø£°ß ¬ß¦ AÎUP¨£h
÷Ásk®. Ax 6 Áõµ Põ»zvØS ¤ÓS
ö\À»õ |ø»¯õS®. A¢u 6 Áõµ
Põ»zvØS ¬ß÷£ \mh©ßÓ® AuøÚ
ö\À»uuõUQ Âk®.
BÐ{º AÁ\µ \mhzøu
¤µPhÚ¨£kzx® AvPõµ®
\mhª¯ØÖ® AvPõµzvØS ©õØÖ
BPõx. AÁ\µa \mh® A¶uõÚ
`Ì|ø»PÎøh÷¯ ¤µPÚ¨£kzu¨£h
÷Ásk®. AÁº \mh® \mh\ø£°ÚõÀ
\mh©õP ©õØÓ¨£h ¬i¯õx. AÁ\µa
\mhzvß öuõhº|ø» ö£õx {»zvØS
÷uøÁ¯õÚ JßÓõS®. (i.]. ÁõzÁõ
Gvº ¥Põº ©õ|»® 1987 1 SCC 378).
}vzxøÓ
©zv¯ }vzxøÓ £Sv VAzv¯õ¯® IV
J¸ uø»ø© }v£v ©ØÖ®
£õµõЩßÓ® SÔ¨¤mh
GsoUøP²øh¯ }v£vPøÍU
öPõsh Ea\}v©ßÓ® C¸UP
÷Ásk® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 124 TÖQÓx.
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ GÀ»õ }v£vPЮ
Si¯µ_ uø»ÁµõÀ
|¯ªUP¨£kQÓõºPÒ. Ea\}v©ßÓ
}v£vPÒ 65 Á¯x Áøµ £uÂ
ÁQ¨£õºPÒ. AÁºPÒ £uÂø¯
CµõâÚõ©õ ö\´¯»õ®. Ea\}v©ßÓ
}v£vPÒ Si¯µ_z uø»ÁµõÀ ©mk÷©
JÆöÁõ¸ \ø£°ß AÖv¨
ö£¸®£õßø©°ÚõÀ SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mk, - ßÔÀ 2 £[S
ö£¸®£õßø©°ÚµõÀ wº©õÚ®
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhõÀ ©mk÷©
|¹¤UP¨£mh uÁÓõÚ {hÁiUøPUPõ
}UP® ö\´¯¨£h»õ®.
Ea\}v©ßÓ }v£vPÒ u[PÒ
£uÂø¯ µõâÚõ©õ ö\´¯»õ®. Ax
uµ |¹¤UP¨£mh {ßÚhzøu
÷PkUPõP £õµõЩßÓzvÀ
AÖvö£¸®£õßø© - »® SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mk - ßÔÀ C¸£[S
ö£¸®£õßø© - »® }UP® ö\´²®
wº©õÚ® |øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£mhõÀ Si¯µ_
uø»Áº Ea^|v©ßÓ }v£vø¯
£u°¼¸¢x }UP® ö\´¯»õ®.
Ea\}v©ßÓ© J¸ ©v¨¦Özx
}v©ßÓ® BS®. (EÖ¨¦ 129) Cuß
ö\¯ÀPÒ ©ØÖ® }v \õº¢u
{hÁiUøPPÒ £vÄ ö\´¯¨£mk
}shPõ»©õP £¯ß£kzu¨£kQÓx.
33
Ea\}v©ßÓ® }v©ßÓ AÁyÖ
ö\´£ÁºPøÍ usiUS® AvPõµ®
Eøh¯x. (AìÂÛ S©õº ÷Põè Gvº
Aµ¤¢u ÷£õì, AIR 1953 8C 75).
}v©ßÓ AÁyÖUPõP usiUS®
AvPõµ® Ea\}v©ßÓ AÁ©v¨¦UPõP
©mkªßÓ AuØS RÌ EÒÍ G¢u
}v©ßÓ® AÀ»x wº¨£õ¯zvß
AÁ©v¨¦UPõPÄ® usiUP»õ®.
(öhÀ¼ }v ÷\øÁ \[P® Gvº Sáµõz
Aµ_, (1991) SCC 406)).
Ea\}v©ßÓ® J¸ ÁÇUSøµbøµ
}v©ßÓ AÁ©v¨¦UPõP usiUP»õ®.
BÚõÀ AÁ¸øh¯ ÁURÀ öuõÈÀ
{hzx® E¶©zøu uøhö\´¯÷Áõ,
µzx ö\´¯÷Áõ, ¬i¯õx.
(Ea\}v©ßÓ ÁÇUSøµbº \[P® Gvº
C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1998) 4SCC (409)).
GÛÝ®V Bº.÷P.BÚ¢z Gvº
£vÁõͺ, öhÀ¼
E¯º}v©ßÓ[PÐUS Auß ¬ß
ÁÇUSøµbº öuõÈÀ ö\´Áøu
uøhPõ»® ¬ÊÁx® u¸US®
AvPõµ® EÒÍx GßÖ Ea\}v©ßÓ®
TÔ¯x.
Euõµn®: A GÝ® £zv¶øP
GÊzuõͺ ußÝø¯ AÔUøP°À
Ea\}v©ßÓ® ÷uøÁ°À»õu J¸
Âå¯zvÀ |ø»{õmhzuUPuÀ»õ J¸
©ÝÄUPõP AÔ¨¦ Aݨ¤ EÒÍx
GßÖ TÔÚõº. C¢u }v©ßÓ AÔ¨¦
©º\Úzøu |ÖzxÁuØPõPÄ®
Psxøh¨£õP EÒÍuõPÄ® TÔÚõº.
Ea\}v©ßÓ® CuøÚ }v©ßÓ
AÁ©v¨¦ GßÖ TÔ¯x. (A¸¢uvµõ´
ÁÇUS (2002) 3SCC 343).
Ea\}v©ßÓ BÒÁøµ AvPõµ®
Ea\}v©ßÓ®,
 C¢v¯ Aµ_ ©ØÖ® JßÖ
AÀ»x AuØP ÷©Ø£mh ©õ|»
Aµ_,
 C¢v¯ Aµ_ AuÝ®
JßÖAÀ»x £» ©õ|»[PÒ.
J¸ uµ¨¤ÚµõPÄ® JÚÖ AÀ»x
£» ©õ|»[PÒ
Gvºuµ¨¤ÚµõPÄ®,
 Cµsk AÀ»x AuØÖ
÷©Ø£mh ©õ|»[PÒ.
BQ¯ ÷©ØPsh
uµ¨¤ÚºPÐUQøh÷¯ HØ£k®
¤µa\øÚPÎß ÷©À uÛzußø©
Áõ´¢u ©ØÖ® ¬uÀ|ø» BÒÁøµ
AvPõµ® öPõshx.
H÷uÝ® \mhE¶ø©
C¸¨£øu÷¯õ AÀ»x }mi¨£øu÷¯õ
34
¤µa\øÚPξ® AvPõµ® öPõshx.
EÖ¨¦ 131À EÒÍ ©õ|»® Gߣx
©õ|» Aµø\²® EÒÍhUS® GßÖ
Ea\}v©ßÓ® TÔ²ÒÍx. (µõáìuõß
Aµ_ Gvº C¢v Aµ_ (1977) 3CC 592).
Euõµn®: ¥Põº Aµ_US®
|ÖÁÚa\mhzvÀ £vÄ ö\´¯¨£mh
î¢xìuõß |ÖÁÚzxUS® Cøh÷¯
J¸ ¤µa\øÚ GÊ¢ux. C¢u ÁÇUS
Ea\}v©ßÓ ¬uÀ|ø» BÒÁøµ
{ÀÁµõx. HöÚÛÀ î¢xìuõß
|ÖÁÚ® EÖ¨¦ 131ß RÌ J¸ ©õ|»
Aµ_ BPõx GßÖ Ea\}v©ßÓ®
TÔ¯x. (¥Põº Aµ_ Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
(1970) 1SCC 67).
Euõµn®:
©õ|»[PPÐUQøh÷¯¯õÚ }º
wº¨£õ¯zvß ¬ß Cµsk ©õ|»[PÒ
uµ¨¤ÚºPÍõP EÒÍÚº. AvÀ J¸
©õ|»® wº¨£õ¯zvß ¬iøÁ
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ ©ÖUQÓx. ©ØöÓõ¸
©õ|»® EÖ¨¦ 131ß RÌ
Ea\}v©ßÓzøu AqQ¯x. C¢u
ÁÇUS |ø»UPzuUPx GßÖ
}v©ßÓ® TÔ¯x. (Pº{õhP ©õ|»®
Gvº B¢vµ ©õ|»®, (2000) 9SCC
572).
\õuõµn©õP ¤µa\øÚ°ß «x
¬Êwº¨¦UPõPÄ® ö\¯À£kzxzuUP
wº¨£õønUPõPÄ® ÁÇUQh¨£k®.
GÛÝ®, EÖ¨¦ 131ß RÌ
£õvUP¨£mh J¸ uµ¨¤Úº AøÚzx
ÂÁµ[PøͲ® öPõsh ©ÝøÁ
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ uõUPÀ ö\´x ¤Ó
¤µa\øÚÁõvPÐUS GvµõPÄ®
E¶ø©ø¯ |ø»{õmh ÷Põµ»õ®.
AÆÁõÖ ö\´¯¨£mhõÀ EÖ¨¦ 131ß
RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓ £o ¬iÁøh¢x
Âk®. (¥Põº Aµ_ Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
(1970) 1SCC 67).
E¯º}v©ßÓ® EÖ¨¦ 134ß RÌ
C¢u ÁÇUQÀ Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦
\mhzvøÚ ö£õ¸Ò ÂÍUP® Põq®
ÁøP°À J¸ ¬UQ¯ ÂÚõ EÒÍx
GßÖ \õßÓ ÁÇ[QÚõÀ, Ax
E¶ø©°¯À SØÓ¯À AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ
G¢u {hÁiUøP¯õÚõ¾®, A¢u
E¯º}v©ßÓzvß wº¨¦øµ,
wº¨£õøn AÀ»x CÖv EzuµÄUS
GvµõP Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯»õ®. C¢u \õßÖ
ÁÇ[P¨£mhõÀ ÁÇUQß H÷uÝ® J¸
uµ¨¤Úº A¢u ÂÚõ uÁÓõP ¬iÄ
ö\´¯¨£mkÒÍuõP TÔ
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷©À ¬øÓ±k
ö\´¯»õ®. (EÖ¨¦ 132).
35
- »©õÚ \mh¤µa\øÚ Gߣx
Auß«x ©õÖ¨£mh P¸zxUPÒ
EÒÍuõS®. A¢u £S°ß «x
Ea\}v©ßÓ® CÖv¯õPÄ®
öuÎÁõPÄ® AvPõµ® EÒÍuõPÄ®
¬iÄ ö\´x ÂmhõÀ Ax - »©õÚ
\mh¨¤µa\øÚ BPõx.
Euõµn©õP, uµ¨¤ÚºPÒ EÖ¨¦
14ß ö£õ¸Ò ÂÍUPzvøÚ
HØÖUöPõÒQßÓÚº. BÚõÀ Ax
ö\¯À£k® ö£õ¸sø©°À
÷ÁÖ£kQßÓÚº. C¢u |ø»°À
- »©õÚ \mh¨¤µa\øÚ EÖ¨¦
131ߣi C¸¨£uõP TÓ ¬i¯õx.
(ᮬPõ諺 ©õ|À Gvº uUPõº
P[Põ][ AIR 1960 SC (356).
E¯º}v©ßÓ® EÖ¨¦ 134A- ß
RÌ Ai°À PshÁõÖ \õßÖ
ÁÇ[QÚõÀ A¢u E¯º}v©ßÓ
wº¨¦øµ, wº¨£õøn AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ
{hÁiUøPPÐUS GvµõP E¶ø©°¯À
ÁÇUSPÎÀ Ea\}v©ßÓzvØS ÷©À
¬øÓ±k ö\´¯»õ®.
 ö£õx ¬UQ¯zxÁ® Áõ´¢u
- »©õÚ \mh¨¤µa\øÚ
EÒÍx; ©ØÖ®,
 E¯º}v©ßÓzvߣi, C¢u
¤µa\øÚ Ea\}v©ßÓzuõÀ
wºUP¨£h ÷Ásk®.
EÖ¨¦ 132À GßÓ
TÓ¨£mi¸¢uõ¾®, C¢u EÖ¨¤ß RÌ
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷©À¬øÓ±k
ö\´¯Ä® uµ¨¤Úº, CvÀ Aµ]¯À
Aø©¨¦ \mhzvøÚ ö£õ¸Ò ÂÍUP®
Põq® - »©õÚ \mh¨¤µa\øÚ
EÒÍuõPÄ® Ax wºUP¨£h ÷Ásk®
GßÖ® ÷Põµ»õ®. C¢u EÖ¨¤ßRÌ
÷©À¬øÓ±k E¯º}v©ßÓ wº¨¦øµ,
wº¨£õøn AÀ»x {hÁiUøPUS
GvµõP ö\´¯¬i¯õx. (E. 133).
EÖ¨¦ 133ß RÌ TÓ¨£mh
E¯º}v©ßÓ wº¨¦øµ, wº¨£õøn
AÀ»x {hÁiUøP Gߣx
¤µa\øÚ²øh¯ uµ¨¤ÚºPÎß
E¶ø© ©ØÖ® ö£õÖ¨¦PøÍ TÖ®
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯zuUP
E¯º}v©ßÓ Bøn BS®. J¸
Bøn E¶ø©°¯À ÁÇUQÀ
uµ¨¤ÚºPÎß E¶ø©PøÍ
wº©õÛUS® CÖv Bøn BS®.
Euõµn®: A GߣÁº
wº¨£õ¯zvß EzuµøÁ uÒУi
ö\´²©õÖ E¯º}v©ßÓzvØS
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´QÓõº.
36
E¯º}v©ßÓ® E¶ø©°¯À
{øh¬øÓa\mh® ¤¶Ä 151ßRÌ
AuøÚ ¦v¯ ÁÇUPõP GkUQÓx. A
GߣÁº CuøÚ EÖ¨¦ 133ß RÌ
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯
ÂøÇQÓõº. AuÚõÀ EÖ¨¦ 134A
ߣi E¯º}v©ßÓ \õßÖ ÷Põ¸QÓõº.
E¯º}v©ßÓ® ÁÇUøP ¤¶Ä 151
E¶ø©°¯À {øh¬øÓ \mh¨£i
¦vuõP GkUP |øÚ¨£x CÖv
Bøn AÀ». GÚ÷Á EÖ¨¦ 133ß
RÌ Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷©À¬øÓ±k
ö\´¯ ÷Ásk® GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 134A&ß
RÌ \õßÖ ö£Ó ¬i¯õx GßÖ
Ea\}v©ßÓ® TÔ¯x. (÷áuõÚ¢u
©PßPÒ Gvº Eavµ ¤µ÷u\ ©õ|»®,
AIR 1961 SC 794).
SØÓ¯À {hÁiUøP°À
E¯º}v©ßÓ wº¨¦øµ, CÖv Bøn
AÀ»x ushønUS GvµõP
Ea\}v©ßÓvÀ ÷©À ¬øÓ ö\´¯
E¯º}v©ßÓ® RÌUPshÁØÔÀ
JßøÓ ö\´v¸UP ÷Ásk®.
 E¯º}v©ßÓ® ÷©À¬øÓ±miÀ
wº¨ø£ ©õØÔ²® ©ØÖ®
SØÓg\õmh¨£mhÁ¸US ©µn
ushøÚ²® öPõkzv¸UP
÷Ásk®; AÀ»x
 E¯º}v©ßÓ® H÷uÝ® RÌ
}v©ßÓzvÀ EÒÍ ÁÇUøP
ö£ØÖ Auß«x
SØÓg\õmh¨£mhÁ¸US ©µn
ushøÚ AÎzv¸UP
÷Ásk®; A À»x
 C¢u ÁÇUS Ea\}v©ßÓzvß
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯zuUPx
GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 134&Aß RÌ\õßÖ
ÁÇ[Q²® Ax EÖ¨¦ 145(1)ß
RÌ EÒÍ ÁøP¯[PÒ£i²®
©ØÖ® EÖ¨¦ 134ß RÌ
E¯º}v©ßÓ® HØ£kzx®
Pmk¨£õkPÎß RÌ C¸UP
÷Ásk® (2.134) .
Euõn® : A GߣÁº ¤¶Ä 302
C¢v¯ ushøÚ \mh¨£i
SØÓg\õmh¨£mk
Âõ\µøn}v©ßÓzuõÀ ¤¶Ä 304ß
RÌ usiUP¨£kQÓõº. E¯º}v©ßÓ®
A¢u wº¨ø£ ©õØÔ ¤¶Ä 302ߣi RÌ
©µn ushøÚ AÎzux. EÖ¨¦
134À EÒÍ Âkuø» ¬Êø©¯õÚ
Âkuø» GßÓ ©õ|» Aµ]ß Áõuzøu
|µõP¶zux, SØÓg\õmh¨£mhÁº
EÖ¨¦ 134(1 (a) RÌ \õßÖ
ö£ÓzuUPÁº GßÖ Ea\}v©ßÓ®
wº¨£Îzux. (uõµõ\¢u uõ¬_uõº Gvº
37
©Põµõèiµ ©õ|»®, AIR 1962 A, SC
130).
E¯º}v©ßÓ®,
Auß Gsnzv÷»õ AÀ»x
£õvUP¨£mh {£µõÀ AÀ»x
AÁ¸UPõP
E¸ÁõUP¨£mh Áõ´ö©õÈ
Âsn¨£zvß ÷£¶÷»õ,
\õßÖ ÁÇ[P»õ®.

C¢u \õßÖ wº¨¦, wº¨£õøn,
÷ÁÖ {hÁiUøP AÀ»x ushøÚ
ÁÇ[P¨£mh Ehß ÁÇ[P¨£k®. (E.
134&A).
£Sv V À GßÚ
TÓ¨£mi¸¢uõ¾®, Ea\}v©ßÓ®
H÷uÝ® }v©ßÓ® AÀ»x
wº¨£õ¯zuõÀ ÁÇ[P¨£mh wº¨¦øµ,
wº¨£õøn, ÷ÁÖ {hÁiUøP AÀ»x
ushønUS GvµõP
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯
]Ó¨¦ AÝ©v ÁÇ[P»õ®. C¢u ]Ó¨¦
AÝ©v ÁÇ[S® ußÛaø\ AvPõµ®
µõqÁ \mhzuõÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh
}v©ßÓ® AÀ»x wº¨£õ¯zvß wº¨¦
AÀ»x ushønUS GvµõP
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯ ]Ó¨¦ AÝ©v
ÁÇ[SÁuØS ö£õ¸¢uõx. (E. 136).
Euõµn® : J¸ \©µ\
A¾Á»¶ß BønUS GvµõP J¸
uµ¨¤Úº EÖ¨¦ 136ß RÌ ]Ó¨¦
AÝ©v ÷Põ¶Úõº. \©µ\ AvPõ¶
EÖ¨¦ 136ß RÌ TÓ¨£mh wº¨£¯©õP
P¸u¨£h©õmhõº GßÖ TÔ A¢u
AÝ©vø¯ ©Özux. \©µ\ AvPõ¶
ö£õxÂÀ A©µ ÷uøÁ°Àø».
\õuõµn }v©ßÓ {hÁiUøP
AÁ¸US CÀø». ÷©¾® AÁº
\õm]PÎß Á¸øPø¯ Pmhõ¯¨£kzu
¬i¯õx. GÚ÷Á CÆÁõÖ TÓ¨£mhx.
(áìÁ¢z _Pº ªÀì Gvº »m_ª \¢z,
AIR 1963 SC 677).
EÖ¨¦ 136 Ea\}v©ßÓzvØS
J¸ ö£¶¯ ußÛaø\ AvPõµzøu
ÁÇ[SQÓx. Cxµ¨¤Ú¸US J¸
÷©À¬øÓ±k E¶ø©ø¯ ÁÇ[Põx.
Cx J¸ £µ¢u AvPõµ® BÚõ¾®
wº©õÛUP¨£mh ÁÇUSPøÍ
£õºUS®÷£õx }v{hÁiUøP GvµõÚ
©ØÖ® C¯ØøP }vUS GvµõÚ ]»
Âv»UPõÚ ÁÇUSPÎÀ ©mk÷©
Ea\}v©ßÓ® ]Ó¨¦ AÝ©v
ÁÇ[Q²ÒÍx. ({õº£z][ Gvº öá´§º
Áͺa] AvPõ¶ (2002) 4 SCC (666).
Ea\}v©ßÓ® EÖ¨¦ 136ßRÌ
EÒÍ ußÛaø\ AvPõµzøu
uõÚõP÷Á ö\¯À£kzu C¯¾®.
38
(£»õßS©õº Gvº í¶¯õÚõ ©õ|»®
(2003) 11 SCC (241).
Euõµn®: J¸ SØÓ¯À
ÁÇUQÀ EÖ¨¦ 136ßRÌ
÷©À¬øÓ±k ö\´¯ ]Ó¨¦ AÝ©v
ÁÇ[P¨£mhx.
SØÓg\õmh¨£mhÁºPÎÀ A GÝ®
{£º ÷©À ¬øÓ±k ö\´¯ÂÀø».
Ea\}v©ßÓ ÷©À¬øÓ±miÀ ©ØÓ
GÀ»õ SØÓg\õmh£mhÁ¸®
Âkuø» ö\´¯¨£mhÚº.
Ea\}v©ßÓ® A GߣÁº
÷©À¬øÓ±mhõ͵õP
CÀø»ö¯ÛÝ® uÚx AvPõµzuõÀ
AÁøµ²® Âkuø» ö\´ux.
(S¸\µs S©õº Gvº µõáìuõß Aµ_
(2003) 2 SCC698).
Cµsk }v©ßÓ[PÒ
ö£õ¸sø© \õº¢u¼ÚõÂøÚ
wº©õÛzu ¤ÓS Ea\}v©ßÓ®
ö£õ¸søø ÂÚõÂøÚ Â\õµøn
ö\´¯õx. Cµsk}v©ßÓ[PÎß
J¸ªzu wº¨¦ ¬ÊÁx® uÁÓõP
C¸¢uõÀ ©mk® AuøÚ \¶ö\´¯
Ea\}v©ßÓ® ö£õ¸sø© ÂÚõøÁ
Â\õ¶US®. (µS{õz ã. £ß÷íÀ Gvº
\õPß»õÀ _¢uºâ Aß÷Põ, (1999)
8SCC 1).
\õuõµn©õP, Ea\}v©ßÓ®
E¯º}v©ßÓzvß CøhEzuµÂÀ
÷©À¬øÓ±miÀ uø»±k ö\´¯õx.
Cx ]» ÁÇUSPÎÀ,
ö\´¯¨£mi¸UQÓx.
{õkPÐUQøh÷¯¯õÚ
ÁoPzvß ¬UQ¯©õÚ öPõÒøPø¯
¤ß£ØÓõ©À ÁÇ[Q¯ Â\õµøn
}v©ßÓ Bønø¯ Ea\}v©ßÓ®
\¶¯À» GßÖ TÔ¯x. (uõµõ§º
Aß÷Põ Gvº Â.K.iµõUhº HØÖ©v,
(1969) 1SCC (233).
{øh¬øÓ°À \mh® AÀ»x
EÖ¨¦ /¦¶ß RÌ EÒÍ ÂvPÐUS
Em£mk Ea\}v©ßÓ® AuÝøh¯
wº¨¦øµø¯ ©ÖB´Ä ö\´¯»õ® (E.
137). EÖ¨¦ 145ßRÌ EÒÍ ÂvPÒ,
C¢u ©ÖB´Ä PmhøÍ 47 Âv 1
E¶ø©°¯À {øh¬øÓ \mhzvÀ
TÓ¨£mh PõµnzvØPõP
ö\´¯¨£h»õ® GßÖ TÖQßÓÚ.
GÚ÷Á ©ÖB´Ä RÌUPsh
Põµn[PÎß Ai¨£øh°À
{øhö£Ö®.
 ¦v¯ ¬UQ¯©õÚ Â寮
AÀ»x \õm]¯zvøÚ
PshÔ²®÷£õx,
39
 ÷©Ø£õºøÁ°÷»÷¯ uÁÓõP
öu¶²®÷£u; AÀ»x
÷ÁÖ H÷uÝ® uS¢u
Põµnzvß÷£õx, \¶ö\´²®÷£õx ©Ý
\®£¢u©õÚ wºÁÈPÒ EÖ¨¦, 137À
TÓ¨£mkÒÍ AvPõµ[PÎÀ EÒÍx.
Euõµn®: ÷uºuÀ Bøn¯®
ªßÚq G¢vµ[PøÍ \mh\ø£
÷uºu¼À ÁõUS£vÄ ö\´¯¨
£¯ß£kzu»õ® GßÖ TÔ¯x. Cx,
©UPÒ ¤µv|vzxÁ \mh®, 1951 TÓ®
øP¯õÀ ÁõUPΨ£x ©mk÷© C¸UP
÷Ásk® GßÓ ÂvUS GvµõP
C¸¢ux. ªßÚq C¯¢vµ[PøÍ
£¯ß£kzv¯x ÷uºuø» £õvUS®
GßÖ® ÷uõÀ²ØÓ ÷Ám£õͺ
CuÚi¨£øh°À CuøÚ Gvºzx
ÁÇUS uõUPÀ ö\´¯»õ® GßÖ®
}v©ßÓ® TÔ¯x. EÖ¨¦ 324À
TÓ¨£mh ÷©Ø£õºøÁ, EzuµÄ
÷£õßÓøÁ \mhzvØS xøn÷¯
BS® GßÖ® \mhzvØS £v»õP
£¯ß£kzu ¬i¯õu GßÖ® }v©ßÓ®
TÔ¯x. GÚ÷Á, CøÁ
£õµõЩßÓzuõÀ AÀ»x
\mh©ßÓzuõÀ C¯ØÓ¨£mh
\mhzvØS GvµõP C¸UP ¬i¯õx.
(H.]. ÷áõì Gvº ]ÁߤÒøÍ,
(1984) 2SCC 656).
JÆöÁõ¸ |»Áõ¶¯õÚ
öuõSvUS®, £õµõЩßÓ AÀ»x
\mh©ßÓ ÷uºu¾US J¸ ö£õx
ÁõUPõͺ £mi¯À C¸UP ÷Ásk®
GßÖ EÖ¨¦ 325 TÖQÓx. CvÀ
G¢u£õS£õk® C¸UPUThõx. ©u®,
CÚ®, \õv, £õ¼Ú® AÀ»x H÷uÝ®
JßÔß Ai¨£øh°À ]Ó¨¦
ÁõUPÍõº £mi¯¾®
AÝ©vUP¨£mhx.
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh¨£i÷¯õ,
AÀ»x Si°¸UPõuÁº, ©v°ßø©,
SØÓ®, »g\® ÷£õßÓÁØÔÀ
Dk£mhÁº GßÓ uSv°ßø©ø¯
öPõshÁøµ uµ 18 Á¯x |µ®¤¯
C¢v¯õÂß JÆöÁõ¸ Si©PÝ®
£õµõЩßÓ ©UPÍø» ©ØÖ® ©õ|»
\mh\ø£ ÷uºu¼À J¸ ÁõUPÍõµõP
ÁõUPÎUS® E¶ø© Eøh¯Áº
(EÖ¨¦ 326). C¢u EÖ¨¦ Á¯x
Á¢÷uõº ÁõUS¶ø©ø¯
öÁΨ£øh¯õP A[RP¶UQÓx.
£Sv XVI, ]» ÁS¨¦PÒ \®£¢u¨£mh
]Ó¨¦ ÁøP¯[PÒ.
EÖ¨¦ 330, £õµõЩßÓ
©UPÍøÁ°À £mi¯¼h¨£mh
\õv°Úº ©ØÖ® £mi¯¼h¨£mh
£Ç[Si°Ú¶ß JxURk £ØÔ
40
TÖQÓx. ©õ|» \mh\ø£Pξ®
Cx÷£õ JxURk EÒÍx. (E. 332).
÷©¾® B[Q÷»õ C¢v¯
¤µv|vzxÁzvØPõÚ JxURk®
EÒÍx. (E. 331). Cx ©õ|»
\mh\ø£°¾® EÒÍx. (E.333).
C¢u JxURmk ÁøP¯[PÒ
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦, \mh®,
{øh¬øÓUS »¢uvÀ C¸¢x 60
BskPÒ Áøµ C¸US® GßÖ
uØ÷£õøu¯ Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh®
TÖQÓx. (E. 334).
÷©¾® £mi¯À \õv°Úº ©ØÖ®
£mi¯À £Ç[Si°Úº \®£¢u¨£mh
JxURkPÒ ©zv¯ ©ØÖ® ©õ|»
£o|¯©Ú® ©ØÖ® £o|ø»
BQ¯ÁØÔß |ºÁõPzuvØS® EÒÍx.
(E. 335). uSv ©v¨ö£søn
uͺzuÄ®, ©v¨¤ku¼ß AÍøÁU
SøÓ¨£x®, ©ØÖ® £u E¯ºÄ
÷£õßÓÁØÔ¾® Cx÷£õÀ EÒÍx.
(EÖ¨¦ 335, Áµ®¦ Áøµ).
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº H÷uÝ®
³Û¯ß ¤µ÷u\zvØ÷Põ AÀ»x
©õ|»zvØ÷Põ Auß BöÍõ¸Áhß
P»¢x B÷»õ]zu ¤ÓS A¢u
©õ|»zvØSshõÚ £mi¯¼À
÷\ºUP¨£h ÷Ási¯ \õv, CÚ®,
AÀ»x £Ç[Si°Úº £ØÔ TÖÁõº.
(E. 341). ÷©¾® £Ç[Si AÀ»x
£Ç[Si \¬uõ¯® AÀ»x AuߣSv
AuÝÒ EÒÍ SÊ ÷£õßÓÁØøÓ
£mi¯À £Ç[Si¯õP A[RP¶UP A¢u
©õ|»® AÀ»x ³Û´Ú ¤µ÷u\zøu
ö£õÖzx Aµ]°À Aø©¨¦ \mhzvß
RÌ Si¯µ_zuø»Áº TÖÁõº. (E.
342).
Euõµn®: A ÂÝøh¯
uP¨£Úõº B¢vµ ©õ|» £mi¯À
£Ç[Siø¯ ÷\º¢uÁº. A¢u {»£õmiß
- »® ©zv¯ £oø¯ ö£ØÓõº. ¤ßÚº
©íõµõèiµõÂØS Si ö£¯º¢uõº. A
©íõµõèmµõÂÀ 10 BskPÒ £izx
Áͺ¢uõº. ©íõµõèmµõ ©õ|»
©¸zxÁ PÀ¿¶°À £mi¯À £Ç[Si
GßÓ Ai¨£øh°À Âsn¨£®
ö\´uõº. A GߣÁº ©íõµõèmµõ
©õ|» £mi¯À £Ç[Si¯õP
P¸u¨£h©õmhõº. HöÚÛÀ B¢vµ,
©õ|» £mi¯À £Ç[Si¯õP
P¸u¨£k£Áº ©íõµõèmµõÂÀ
£mi¯À £Ç[Si AÀ» GßÖ
}v©ßÓ® TÔ¯x. £mi¯À £Ç[Si
Gߣx A¢u¢u ©õ|»® AÀ»x
³Û¯ß ¤µ÷u\zøu ö£õÖzux.
GÚ÷Á J¸ ©õ|»® AÀ»x ³Û¯ß
¤µ÷u\zvÀ £mi¯À £Ç[Si¯õP
41
C¸¨£Áº ©ØöÓõ¸ ©õ|»zvÀ A÷u
|ø»ø¯ öPõsk ö\À» ¬i¯õx.
(÷©¶ \¢vµõ Gvº jß ÷\z ã. Gì.
©¸zxÁ PÀ¿¶ (1990) 3SCC 130);
SC, ST \õv \õßÔuÌ ö£Ö®
{hÁiUøPUS Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1994
5SCC 244).
£Sv XVII & A¾Á»P ö©õÈ
÷uÁ{õP¶ î¢v C¢v¯ A¾ÁÀ
ö©õȯõS® (EÖ¨¦ & 343). ©õ|»
\mh©ßÓ[PÒ \mhzvß - »®
H÷uÝ® JßÖ AÀ»x AuØS
÷©Ø£mh ö©õÈPøÍ ©õ|»
ö©õȯõP÷Áõ AÀ»x î¢vø¯
A¾ÁÀ ö©õȯõP÷Áõ £¯ß£kzu»õ®
(EÖ¨¦ & 345).
¤ßÁ¸® |ø»PÎÀ B[Q»®
£¯ß£kzu¨£h ÷Ásk® GßÖ
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦a \mh® ö\õÀQÓx.
 GÀ»õ Ea\}v©ßÓ
{hÁiUøPPÒ ©ØÖ®
E¯º}v©ßÓ {hÁiUøPPÒ,
 ©÷\õuõÂß AÝ©vUP¨£mh
£Sv AÀ»x Auß v¸zuzvß
AÔ¬P¨£kzu¨£mh £Sv.
 £õµõЩßÓ® AÀ»x
\mh©ßÓ® C¯ØÔ¯ GÀ»õ
\mh[PЮ ©ØÖ® Si¯µ_
uø»Áº AÀ»x BÐ{º C¯ØÔ¯
GÀ»õ AÁ\µ \mh[PЮ, ©ØÖ®
 H÷uÝ® ©zv¯, ©õ|» \mhzvß
RÌ C¯ØÓ¨£mh EzuµÄ,
ÂvPÒ, {øh¬øÓPÒ AÀ»x
xøn ÂvPÒ.
EÖ¨¦ 348(2)ߣi ©õ|»
BÐ{º Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß J¨¦uø»
ö£ØÖ î¢v AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ H÷uÝ®
ö©õÈø¯ A¾ÁÀ ö©õȯõPÄ®,
Ea\}v©ßÓ ¬ußø© ChzvÀ ÁÇUS
ö©õȯõPÄ® £¯ß£kzu AÝ©v
AÎUP»õ®. BÚõÀ Cx E¯º}v©ßÓ
wº¨¦, EzuµÄ, wº¨£õønUS
ö£õ¸¢uõx.
Euõµn®: A GÝ® ÷í¤¯ì Põº£ì
©ÝÂÀ EÒÍ Cøh{£º î¢v°À
Áõu® ö\´÷Áß GßÖ TÔÚõº.
Ea\}v©ßÓ® 1) B[Q»zvÀ Áõuõh
÷Ásk®, 2) ÁÇUPÔbº øÁzx
Áõuõh ÷Ásk®; AÀ»x 3)
B[Q»zvÀ GÊzx Áõu® uµ÷Ásk®
GßÖ TÔ¯x. A GߣÁº GuøÚ²®
HØÖU öPõÒÍÂÀø».
42
(©x ¼©÷¯ Gvº ÷Áu - ºzz (1970) 3
SCC 738).
£Sv XVIII & AÁ\µ \mh ¤¶ÄPÒ
C¢v¯õÂß AÀ»x C¢v¯õÂß
J¸ £Sv°ß £õxPõ¨¦US S¢uP®
Á¸QÓx GßÖ Si¯µ_z uø»Áº
P¸vÚõÀ, Si¯µ_ uø»Áº ÂÍ®¦øP
AÔUøP - »® ö£õx AÔUøP Âh»õ®
(EÖ¨¦ 352(1)). C¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¦
©ØöÓõ¸ ö£õx AÔ¨¤ÚõÀ ö\À»õ
|ø» BUP¨£h»õ®. (EÖ¨¦ 352(2)).
C¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¦, Aø©a\µøÁ
GÊzx - »©õP Si¯µ_ uø»Á¸US
¬iøÁ öu¶Âzu ¤ßÚ÷µ
öÁΰh¨£h ¬i²®. (EÖ¨¦
353(3)). C¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¦ Cµsk
£õµõЩßÓ AøÁPξ® uõUPÀ
ö\´¯¨£h ÷Ásk®. C¢u AÔ¨¦
¬ØÖ¨ ö£ÓõÂmhõÀ. AuøÚ Bu¶zx
¬iÄ GkUP¨£mh {õÎÀ C¸¢x
BÖ©õu Põ»® Áøµ A©¼À C¸US®
(E. 352(5)). C¢u AÁ\µ Põ» ö£õx
AÔ¨¤øÚ Bu¶zx ¬iÄ GkUS®
÷£õx 2/3 ö£¸®£õßø© C¸UP
÷Ásk® (EÖ¨¦ 353(6)).
C¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¤øÚ
J¨¦uÀ AÎUPõ©À ÂmhõÀ Si¯µ_
uø»Áº AuøÚ v¸®£ ö£Ó ÷Ásk®
(EÖ¨¦ 352 (7)).
|v|ø» AÁ\µ Põ» \mh®
SÔzu EÖ¨¦ 360À TÓ¨£mkÒÍx.
J¸ ö£õx AÔ¨¦ A©¼À
C¸US® ÷£õx RÌUPshøÁ
ö£õ¸¢x®.
 ©zv¯ Aµ]ß AvPõµ® ©õ|»
|ºÁõP® GÆÁõÖ ö\¯À£h
÷Ásk® GߣøuU SÔzx
TÖÁx Áøµ ö\¯À£k®.
 HÇõÁx AmhÁøn°ß£i
©zv¯ Aµ_ £mi¯¼À CÀ»õu
ÂÁPõµzvØS® ©zv¯ Aµ_
A¾Á»ºPÐUS AvPõµ®
AÎUPÄ®, Phø©PøÍ
ö\õÀ»Ä® £õµõЩßÓ® \mh®
C¯ØÓ»õ®.
Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß ©Úv¸¨v
Gߣx }v©ßÓ B´ÂØS
A¨£õØ£mhx AÀ». öPmh
Gsnzv÷»õ AÀ»x ¬ØÔ¾®
ö£õ¸¢uõu AvP¨£i¯õÚ
PõµnzvÚõÀ AÁ\µ \mh®
C¯ØÓ¨£mhx GßÖ P¸vÚõÀ
}v©ßÓ B´ÂØS Em£kzu»õ®.
Auß ¬Põ¢vµ® ¬ØÔ¾® ¬µnõÚuõP
43
C¸¢uõ¾® B´ÂØS Em£kzu»õ®
(ªÚºÁõ ªÀì Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1980)
3SCC 625).
C¢v¯ AÀ»x H÷uÝ® J¸
SÔ¨¤mh £SvUS £õv¨¦ Á¸® GßÖ
P¸v öÁΰh¨£mh ö£õx AÔ¨¦
A©¼À C¸US® ÷£õx £Sv IIIÀ EÒÍ
EÖ¨¦ 19À TÓ¨£mh ©õ|» Aµ]ß
«uõÚ EÒÍ Pmk¨£õk C¸UPõx.
©õ|» Aµ_ G¢uÂu Âv AÀ»x |ºÁõP
{hÁiUøP²® GkUP»õ®. BÚõÀ
AøÁ £Sv IIIß {ßø©UPõP ©mk÷©
C¸UP ÷Ásk®. CÆÁõÖ
C¯ØÓ¨£mh Âv°ÚõÀ ö\´¯¨£mh
AÀ»x ö\´¯õ©À Âh¨£mh
ö\´øP°øÚ uµ ©ØÓ AøÚzx®
A¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¦ ¬iÄUS
Á¢uÄhß A¢u ö\´øP²® ¬iÄUS
Á¢x Âk® (EÖ¨¦ 358).
C¢u EzuµÄ A©¼À C¸US® ÷£õx
©õ|» Aµ_ £Sv IIIß - »®
ukUP¨£mh G¢u Âå¯zøu¨
ö£õÖzx® \mh® C¯ØÓ»õ®. A¢u
\mhzvß AÀ»x Âv°ß
Ai¨£øh°À ö\´¯¨£mh AÀ»x
ö\´¯õ©À Âh¨£mh ö\´øP°øÚ
uµ ©ØÓ {hÁiUøPPÒ AÁ\µ |ø»
¬iÄUS Á¢uÄhß ¬ØÖ¨ ö£ØÖ
Âk® (EÖ¨¦ 359 (1- &A)).
AÁ\µ |ø» A©¼À C¸US®
÷£õx C¯ØÓ¨£mh ¬µnõÚ \mh®
ö\À¾£i¯õPzuUPuÀ». Auß
ö\À»õußø© A¢u Põ»zvØS ©mk®
|Özv øÁUP¨£k®. (©uß ÷©õPß
£uU Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1978) 25SCC
381).
H.i.G®. á£À§º Gvº æÆPõ¢z
_U»õ (1976) 25SCC 521, GßÓ
ÁÇUQÀ Ea\}v©ßÓ }v£v
íßìµõä Psnõ GߣÁº uÚx
©õÖ£mh wº¨¦øµ¯õÀ ÷í¤¯ì GßÖ
TÔÚõº. Cx {õmiß £õxPõ¨¦UPõP
ö\´¯¨£h»õ®. 44Áx v¸zu® CuøÚ
ö\À»õux BUQ¯x.
EÖ¨¦ 20 ©ØÖ® 21ß
ö\¯À£kzx® ußø© G¢u
`Ì|ø»¯õ¾® uÒУi ö\´¯¨£hõx.
÷©¾® EÖ¨¦ 21 |ºÁõP {hÁiUøP
©mk©À»õ©À \mhª¯ØÖ® xøÓ
{hÁiUøPPøͲ® Pmk¨£kzx®.
(÷©ÚPõ Põ¢v Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1978)
1 248).
BÐ{¶ß AÔUøP°ß - »÷©õ
AÀ»x ¤ÓÁøP°÷»õ, J¸ ©õ|»zvß
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh¨£i Bm]
ö\´¯ ¬i¯õx GßÖ Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
44
v¸¨v Aøh¢uõÀ, RÌUPõq® ö£õx
AÔ¨¤øÚ öÁΰh»õ®.
 ©õ|»zvß \mh©ßÓzøu uµ
©ØÓ AøÚzx AvPõµ[PøͲ®
©ØÖ® BÐ{º ö\¯À£kzx®
AvPõµ[PøͲ® uÚuõUQU
öPõÒÍ»õ®.
 ©õ|» \mh©ßÓ AvPõµ®
£õµõЩßÓzvÚõÀ
ö\¯À£kzu¨£k® GßÖ
TÓ»õ®.
 ©õ|» AvPõµ® AÀ»x
Aø©¨¤ß «x EÒÍ
AvPõµzøu, ö£õx AÔ¨¦US
ö\¯À öPõkUS® GsnzvÀ
|Özv øÁ¨£õºPÒ.
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº E¯º}v©ßÓ
AvPõµzøu G¢u ÁøP°¾® øP°À
GkUP ¬i¯õx. Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mh¨£i E¯º}v©ßÓ® ö\´²® G¢u
ö\¯ø»²® |Özv øÁUP ¬i¯õx.
(E.356(1)).
C¢u ö£õx AÔ¨¦ Cµsk
£õµõЩßÓ AøÁPξ® J¨¦uÀ ö£Ó
÷Ásk®. (E. 356(3)). C¢u AÔ¨¦
6 ©õu Põ»zvØS öuõh¸®. BÚõÀ Cx
3 BskPøÍ Ph¢x öuõhµõx (E.
356(4) ©ØÖ® (5)).
EÖ¨¦ 356(1)ß RÌ ö\´¯¨£mh
ö£õx AÔ¨¤ÚõÀ ©õ|»
\mh©ßÓzvß AøÚzx ö\¯ÀPЮ
£õµõЩßÓzvØS AÎUP¨£k® ÷£õx
£õµõЩßÓ® RÌUPsh ö\¯ÀPøÍ
ö\´¯»õ®.
 Si¯µ_ uø»Á¸US ©õ|»
\mh©ßÓ AvPõµzøu
ÁÇ[PÄ®, Si¯µ_ uø»Áº
AuøÚ AÁ¸US RÌ EÒÍ
AvPõ¶PÐUS ÁÇ[PÄ®
AÝ©v AÎUQÓx.
 Si¯µ_ uø»Áº AÀ»x AÁº
SÔ¨¤k® AvPõ¶PÐUS
AvPõµzøu AÎUPÄ® AÀ»x
Phø©PøÍ HØ£kzuÄ® A¢u
Phø©PøÍ ö\´²®
AvPõµzøu²® ÁÇ[SQÓx.
 £õµõЩßÓ ©UPÍøÁ A©¼À
CÀ»õu ÷£õx ö\»ÂøÚ
öuõS¨¦ |v¯zv¼¸¢x
GkUPÄ® AvPõµ® AÎUQÓx.
C¢u ö\»Ä £õµõЩßÓzuõÀ
AÎUP¨£h ÷Ási¯ ö\»Ä
BS® (EÖ¨¦ 357).
45
£õµõЩßÓ®, Si¯µ_z uø»Áº
AÀ»x AvPõµ® AÎUP¨£mh
AvPõ¶PÒ C¯ØÔ¯ ©õ|» Aµ_ ö\´¯
÷Ási¯ ö\¯ÀPøÍ ö£õÖzx
C¯ØÔ¯ \mh® ö£õx AÔ¨¤ß
÷£õx {øh¬øÓ°À C¸US®. A¢u
C¯ØÓ¨£mh \mh® AÀ»x Âv
©ØöÓõ¸ uSv¯õÚ \mh® Á¸® Áøµ
ö\¯¼À C¸US®. AxÁøµ
©õØÓ¨£hõ©À AÀ»x v¸zu¨£hõ©À
C¸US® ö£õÊx ö\¯¼À C¸US®
(E.357(2)).
EÖ¨¦ 356ß RÌ EÒÍ Si¯µ_
uø»Áº AvPõµ® }v©ßÓ B´ÂØS
Em£mhuõS®. Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß
v¸¨v AÁøµ ö£õÖzux GßÓõ¾®
Ax ö£õxÂvUS ö£õ¸¢xÁuõP
C¸UP ÷Ásk®. Cx öPmh
GsnzvÀ ö\´¯¨£mhõÀ AuøÚ
ö\À»õ |ø»¯õUP»õ®. Si¯µ_
uø»Áº AÁµx ö\¯¾US uS¢u
Põµn© AÎUP ÷Ásk®. Põµnzvß
\¶¯õÚ ußø©ø¯ Bµõ¯
}v©ßÓzvØS AvPõµ®
CÀ»õÂmhõ¾®, Auß öuõhº¦
ußø©ø¯ Bµõ¯ AvPõµ® EÒÍx.
}v©ßÓ® Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß ö\¯ø»
¬µnõÚx GßÖ P¸vÚõÀ AuøÚ
uÒУi ö\´x Âmk ©õ|» Aµ]øÚ
v¸®£ ö£Ó ö\´¯»õ®. Ax
Pø»UP¨£mhõ¾® AÀ»x
}UP¨£mhõ¾® v¸®£ ö\¯À
AÎUP¨£h»õ®. (Gì.Bº. ö£õ®ø©
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1994) 3SCC 1).
Euõµn®
i\®£º 15, 1992ß Si¯µ_
uø»Á¶ß ö£õx AÔ¨¦ ©zv¯
Aµ]øÚ }UQ Auß \mh©ßÓzvøÚ
Pø»zux. B´Âß ÷£õx BÐ{¶ß
Cµsk Piu[PøÍ ö£õÖzx Si¯µ_
uø»Áº ¬iÄ Gkzux öu¶¯ Á¢ux.
Ax £õ£º ©`v Ci¨¦ (i\®£º 6,
1992)US ¤ÓS HØ£mh P»Áµ® ©ØÖ®
w øÁ¨¦ £ØÔ SÔ¨¤mhx. C¢u
ÁÇUQÀ ©õ|» Aµ]ß EÒÍõm]
¤µa\øÚUS Cx ÷£õx©õÚ Põµn®
CÀø»ö¯ßÖ® AuÚõÀ ©zv¯
¤µ÷u\ Aµø\ v¸®£¨ ö£ÓÄ®
E¯º}v©ßÓ® Bøn°mhx. ÷©¾®
CuøÚ øÁzx Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mh¨£i ©õ|» Aµ_ ö\¯À£h
C¯»õ©À EÒÍx GßÖ TÓ ¬i¯õx
GßÖ wº¨¦ AÎzux. (_¢uº»õÀ £zÁõ
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_, 1993 Jab LJ 387
(F13)).
£Sv XIX £» ÁøPPÒ
46
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº AÀ»x BÐ{º
AÁºPÎß AvPõµ® ©ØÖ® Auß
ö\´øPø¯¨ £ØÔ £vÀ AÎUP
Phø©¨£mhÁº. ÷©¾® Auß
Ai¨£øh°À ö\´u ö\¯¾US® £vÀ
AÎUP Phø©¨£mhÁº. BÚõÀ Cx
EÖ¨¦ 61ß RÌ Si¯µ_ uø»Áøµ
SØÓ® \õmkÁøu £õvUPõx. Cx
C¢v¯ Aµ_ AÀ»x ©õ|» Aµ]ß
ö\¯¾US GvµõP }v©ßÓzøu
AqSÁøu ukUPõx (2, 361(1)).
Si¯µ_ uø»Áº AÀ»x BÐ{¸US
GvµõP AÁµx £u Põ»zvÀ
G¢uöÁõ¸ SØÓ ÁÇUS® öuõhµ
¬i¯õx (E. 361(3). E¶ø©°¯À
ÁÇUS AÁºPÎß uÛ¨£mh
ö£õÖ¨¦øhø©UPõP öuõhµ¨£h»õ®.
BÚõÀ, ö£¯º, ÁÇUS - »® ©ØÓ
AøÚzx® SÔ¨¤mh Cµsk ©õu Põ»
AÔ¨¦ AÎUP¨£h ÷Ásk®. (E.
361(4)).
EÖ¨¦ 361-A £õµõЩßÓ ©ØÖ®
©õ|» \mh©ßÓ {hÁiUøPPøÍ
öÁΰkÁøu £õxPõUQÓx. EÖ¨¦PÒ
361B, 365 ]» ¤ÓÁøP ö\¯ÀPøÍ
TÖQÓx. EÖ¨¦ 366 ]»
Áøµ¯øÓPøÍ TÖQÓx. EÖ¨¦ 367
ö£õx ÁøP°À Põº \mh®, 1897,
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mhzøu ö£õ¸Ò
ÂÍUP® ö\´²® ÷£õx £¯ß£kzu»õ®
GßÖ TÖQÓx.
£Sv XX Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh
v¸zu®
EÖ¨¦ 368(1)ߣi
£õµõЩßÓ® Auß Aµ]¯À
AvPõµzvß - »® Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mhzvøÚ ÷\ºzuÀ, ©õØÖuÀ AÀ»x
}USuÀ - »® v¸zu»õ®. C¢ u
v¸zu® AuøÚ AÔ¬P¨£kzx®
©÷\õuõøÁ H÷uÝ® J¸ AøÁ°À
uõUPÀ ö\´Áuß - »÷© ö\´¯ ¬i²®.
CuøÚ AÖv ö£¸®£õßø©°ß£i
AÔ¬P¨£kzu ÷Ásk®. CuøÚ
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ - ßÔÀ Cµsk £[S
ö£¸®£õßø© ö£Ó ÷Ásk®. Auß
¤ÓS Ax Si¯µ_ uø»Á¶ß
J¨¦u¾US Aݨ£¨£mk AÁµx
AÝ©vUS ¤ÓS v¸zu©õP Aø©zxU
öPõÒͨ£k® (E. 368(2)).
EÖ¨¦ 368(2)À EÒÍ
Pmk¨£õkPøÍ v¸zu ÷©¾®
AøÚzx ©õ|» Aµ_Pξ® AÖv
ö£¸®£õßø© ©õ|» Aµ_PÒ J¨¦uÀ
AÎzuõÀ ©mk÷© A¢u ©÷\õuõ
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ¨£k®. Cx Si¯µ_
uø»Á¶ß J¨¦u¾US ¬ß÷£
{øhö£Ó ÷Ásk®. EÖ¨¦ 13À EÒÍ
47
G¢u ö£õ¸Ð® EÖ¨¦ 368ß RÌ
HØ£kzx® v¸zuzvØS ö£õ¸¢uõx
(E. 368(3)). EÖ¨¦ 368ß Em¤¶Ä (4)
©ØÖ® (5) Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mhzvØS ¬µnõÚx GßÖ ªÚºÁõ
ªÀì ¼m Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1980)
3SCC 625) ÁÇUQÀ wº¨¦
AÎUP¨£mhx.
Euõµn®: AmhÁøn 10 £zv 7
}v©ßÓzvØS AøÁ EÖ¨¤Úº
uSv°ßø©ø¯ £ØÔ Â\õ¶UP
AvPõµ® CÀø» GßÖ BÒ£Áøµ
AvPõµzvØS uøh Âvzux. Cx
E¯º}v©ßÓ® ©ØÖ®
Ea\}v©ßÓzvß v¸zx®
AvPõµzvøÚ ¬øÓ¯õÚ \mhªßÔ
}UQ¯uõÀ Cx Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦
\mhzvØS ¬µnõÚx GßÖ TÔ¯x.
(Q÷»íõhõ ÷íõ÷»õPß Gvº \õa]¾,
1992 Supp(2) SCC 651).
÷PµÁõÚ¢uõ £õµv Gvº ÷PµÍ
Aµ_ (1973) 4 SCC 225, GßÓ ÁÇUQÀ,
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh® v¸zu® ©ØÖ®
÷PµÍõ |» ^ºv¸zua \mh®, 1963ß
1969® Á¸hzv¯ v¸zu[PøÍ Gvºzx
}v ÷£µõøn uõUPÀ ö\´¯¨£mhx.
£õµõЩßÓzvß AvPõµ® ©UPÎß
AvPõµzøu Gk¨£uõP÷Áõ AuøÚ
}USÁuõP÷Áõ AÀ»x ¬UQ¯
ußø©PøÍ ©ØÖ® Ai¨£øh
ußø©PøÍ }USÁuõP C¸¢uõÀ Ax
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mhzvØS
¬µnõÚx GßÖ Áõvh¨£mhx.
ö©õzu® 13 }v£vPÒ öPõsh B¯®
CuøÚ wº©õÛzux. AvÀ Gs£x
}v£vPÒ £õµõЩßÓzvØS Aµ]¯À
Aø©¨¦ \mhzvß Ai¨£øh
A®\[PøÍ v¸zx® AvPõµ® CÀø»
GßÖ TÔÚõºPÒ.
÷P\ÁõÚ¢u £õµv ÁÇUQÀ uõß
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mhzvß Ai¨£øh
A®\zvøÚ ©õØÓ ¬i¯õx GßÖ®
£õµõЩßÓ \mhv¸zu® AvPõµ®
CuøÚ «Óõx GßÖ® TÓ¨£mhx.
÷©¾® Cx RÌUPshÁØøÓ²® v¸zu
¬i¯õx GßÖ TÔ¯x.
 }v©ßÓ B´Ä (GÀ. \¢vµS©õº
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1997) 3SCC
261.
 ©UPÍõm] (Q÷íõhõ
÷íõ÷»õPß Gvº \¾a], 1992
Supp(2) SCC 651).
 Á¯x Á¢÷uõº ÁõUS¶ø©
Ai¨£øh°À _u¢vµ©õÚ
©ØÖ® \¶¯õÚ ÷uºuÀ ©ØÖ® £»
Pm] Bm]¬øÓ (¥¨¦Ò's
48
³Û¯ß L£õº ]ÂÀ ¼£ºiì
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1987) 1 SCC
124).
 \mhzvß Bm] (Gì.¤. \®£z
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1987) 1 SCC
399).
 Ai¨£øh E¶ø© ©ØÖ®
ÁÈPõmk® öPõÒøPPÐUS
Cøh÷¯¯õÚ \©õuõÚ
{hÁiUøP (ªÚºÁõ ªÀì ¼m
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1980) 3 SCC
625).
 }vzxøÓ _u¢vµ® (ªÚºÁõ
ªÀì ¼m Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_
(1980) 2 591, S©õº £z©õ ¤µ\õz
Gvº C¢v¯ Aµ_ (1992) 2 SCC
428) ©ØÖ®
 \©zxÁ® (C¢vµõ åõ÷Ú´ Gvº
C¢v¯ Aµ_, (2000) 1 SCC 168).
Ai¨£øh A®\ ÷Põm£õmiøÚ
ö£õ¸Ò ÂÍUP® öPõÒЮ ÷£õx Auß
ö\¯À£k® AÍÂøÚ P¸zvÀ GkzxU
öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk® GßÖ }v©ßÓ®
TÔ¯x. ÷©¾® Cx SÔ¨¤mh
EÖ¨¤ß v¸zuzvØS ©mk® GßÖ
ö\õÀ» ¬i¯õx. Cx ©UPÍõm],
£õxPõ¨¦, \©zxÁ®, Si¯µ_
÷£õßÓÁØøÓ £õvUS®
GÀ»õÁØÖUS® ö£õ¸¢x® ({õPµõä
Gvº ©zv¯ Aµ_ (2006) 8 SCC 212).
J¸ SÔ¨¤mh v¸zu® Aµ]¯À
Aø©¨¦ \mh Ai¨£øh A®\zvøÚ
£õvUQÓuõ CÀø»¯õ GßÖ £õºUP
A¢u E¶ø©°ß \õµzußø©ø¯ Bµõ¯
÷Ásk® AßÔ Auß ÂøÍøÁ
Bµõ¯ ÷Ási¯vÀø». (I.Bº.
÷PõGÀ÷»õ Gvº uªÌ{õk Aµ_ (2007)
2 SCC 1).
£Sv XXI. uØPõ¼P ©õ|øh Põ»
©ØÖ® ]Ó¨¦ ÁøP¯[PÒ
EÖ¨¦PÒ 369&392 BQ¯øÁ
¤ßÁ¸® uØPõ¼P ©õ|øh Põ» ©ØÖ®
]Ó¨¦ ÁøP¯ÀPÒ £ØÔ TÖQÓx.
 Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh®
{øh¬øÓUS Á¢u 5 Áµh®
Áøµ ©õ|» £mi¯¼À EÒÍ
Âå¯[PÒ ö£õx £mi¯¼À
EÒÍøÁ ÷£õ» P¸u¨£k®.
 £» ©õ|»[PøÍ ö£õÖzu ]Ó¨¦
ÁøP¯[PÒ (EÖ¨¦PÒ
371&371&I).
49
£Sv XX11 . SÖQ¯ uø»¨¦. Bµ®£®,
A[RP¶UP¨£mh î¢v £Sv ©ØÖ®
}USuÀ
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh® C¯ØÔ¯
Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦ \mh® GßÖ
AøÇUP¨£k® (E. 393). C¢v¯ _u¢vµ
\mh®, 1947 ©ØÖ® C¢v¯ Aµ_ \mh®
1935 ©ØÖ® Auß v¸zu® ÷\ºzuÀ
BQ¯øÁ, ¤¶Â² PÄß]À AȨ¦
\mhzøu, 1949 uµ AøÚzx®
}UP¨£kQßÓÚ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;

ghlk; 4: Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzk;> rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs;
kw;Wk; khw;wj;jF Kiwahtzq;fs; cs;slf;fpa
xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;

,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> 1872 (‘xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; ’)
vd;gJ xU kpf tphpthd rl;lkhFk;. rl;lj;jpd;
xg;ge;jq;fs; rhu; ghd xUrpy gFjpfis
tiuaWg;gNjhL mtw;wpy; Njitahd
khw;wq; fisr; nra;tNj ,jd; Nehf;fkhFk;.
(KfTiu)

xU Fwpg;gpl;l gpur;ridiag; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLk;NghJ
xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; kpf tphpthdjhf cs;sJ. mt;thW
,y;yhjNghJ> ,e;jpar; rl;lj;jpy; NtW ahUk;
mjpfhuj; jpy; ,y;yhjNghJ ePjpkd;wq; fs;
Mq;fpNya eP jpkd;wq; fSf;Fg; ghpe;Jiuf;fyhk;.
(gfthd;jh]; Nfhtu; j;jd;jh]; nfbah vjpu;
fpu; jhhpyhy; gu;N\hj;jk;jh]; md; Nfh.> (1966) 1
SCR 656)

xg; ge;jk; - tiuaiw (S.2(h)):

‘rl;lj;jhy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;glf;$ba cld;ghL
xg;ge;jkhFk; ’

,e;j tiuaiw kiwKfkhf vy;yh
cld;ghLfSNk xg;ge;jq;fs; ,y;iy vd;fpwJ. xU
cld;ghL xg;ge;jkhf khWtjw;F xU rpy
epge;jidfSf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl Ntz; Lk;. ,jd;%yk;>
rl;lj;jhy; eilKiwg;gLj;j KbtNjhL xU
xg;ge;jkhfTk; khWk;. xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-10 y;
,Jgw;wp tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ
 jug;gpdhpd; Rje;jpukhd rk;kjk;
 xg;ge;jj;jpd; jug;gpdhpd; jFjp
 rl;lg;G+u; tkhd ghprPyid
 rl;lg;G+u; tkhd Nehf;fk; kw;Wk;
 rl;lj;jhy; ntspg;gilahf nry;yhJ vd
mwptpf;fhjpUj;jy;

xg;ge;jk; ,Ugf;f xg;ge;jkhfNth xUgf;f
xg;ge;jkhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. ,Ugf;f xg;ge;jj;jpy;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s ,U jug;ghUNk
xUtUf;nfhUtu; cWjpnkhopfs; mspf;fpd;wdu; .
xt;nthUtUk; kw;wthpd; ghpe;Jiufis Vw;W
cWjpnkhop mspf;fpd;wdu; . xUgf;f xg;ge;jj;jpy;
xUtu; kw;w xUtUf;F mthpd; nghWikkpf;f
nraYf;Fg; gpujpgydhf cWjpnkhopfis
mspf;fpwhu; .
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ njhiye;JNghd
ifNgrpia ahuhtJ fz;Lgpbj;Jf; nfhLj;jhy;
mtUf;Fr; rd;khdkhf &.1000. nfhLg;gjhf
thf;fspf;fpwhu; . egu; -2 mijf; fz;Lgpbj;J egu; -
1-lk; nfhLf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 &.1000-id egu; -2f;F
nfhLf;ff; flikg; gl;Ls;shu; . ,J xU xUgf;f
xg;ge;jkhFk;. egu; -1 jdJ ifNgrpiaf;
fz;Lgpbj;Jf; nfhLf;Fk; eguJ nghWikf;Fr;
rd;khdkhf gzkspf;f cWjpaspf;fpwhu; .

rl;lf; flikfis cUthf;Ftjd; Nehf;fk;

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpy; ntspg;gilahff; Fwpg;gplg;
glhtpl;lhYk;> xU cld;ghl;bd; ,U
jug;GfSf;Fk; mij xU xg;ge;jkhf;f
rl;lg;G+u; tkhd flikfis me;j cld;ghl;by;
itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;
vd;gij ePjpkd;wq;fs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wd:

‘xg;ge;jq;fshf (ekJ rl;l thu; j;ijfspd;
mu; j;jj;jpd;gb) khwhj cld;ghLfs; ,U
jug;GfspilNa cs;sd.” (ghy;/Nghu; vjpu;
ghy;/Nghu; > (1919) 2.K.B. 271.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: jdJ ,ay;ghd
ciuahlypd;NghJ egu; -1 jdJ kfis jdJ
rk;kjj;NjhL ahuhtJ jpUkzk;
nra;Jnfhz; lhy; 100 lhyu; fs; mspg;gjhff;
$Wfpwhu; . egu; -2 egh-1-d; kfis mtuJ
rk;kjj;NjhL jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; .
mjw;fhf egu; -1 $wpagb jdf;F 100
lhyu; fisj; jUkhW NfhUfpwhu; . ePjpkd;wk; egh-
1-d; nghJthd thu; j;ijfs; mtiuf;
fl; Lg;gLj;jhJ vd;Wk; Vnddpy; egu; -1-lk;
mtuJ thu; j;ijfSf;Fr; rl;lg;gbahd
flikiaj; ju vz;zk; ,y;iy. (tPf;]; vjpu;
ilghy;L> (1605) NOY-11)

xg;ge;j cUthf;fk;: toq;FjYk; Vw;gJk;

,U jug;gpdu; jq;fSf;fpilNa xU mwpf;ifia
mDg;gp Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd; %yk; xU
cld;ghl;Lf;F tuyhk;. me;j mwpf;ifia ehk;
‘toq;Fjy; ’ vdf; $wyhk;. mJ Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lNghJ mJ xU cWjpnkhopahf
khWfpwJ. me;j ‘toq;Fjiy’ Vw;Wf;nfhz; L
xg;Gjy; toq;Fk;NghJ ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; ’ MfpwJ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
xU ‘toq;Fjiy’ xU miog;G ‘Nghd;W fUj
tpLf;Fk; ’ miog;gpypUe;J NtWgLj;jpg; ghu; f;f
Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU filapy; nghUs;fs; mtw;wpd;
tpiyfNshL fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. ,J
xUtifahd ‘Nghd;W fUj tpLf;Fk; ’ miog;ghFk;.
,J xU toq;Fjy; my;y. mij
Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjhy; xU xg;ge;jkhf khWk; tha;g;G
,jpy; ,y;iy. (/ghu; k]pA+bfy; fk;ngdp M/g;
gphpl;ld; vjpu; G+l;]; Nf\; nfkp];l;]; (rjh;d;) ypl;.>
(1962) 2Q.B.795)

XU Vyj;jpy; xt;nthU Vyk; Nfl; lYk; xU
‘toq;fy;’ MFk;. mJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;
my;yJ tplg;glyhk;. vdNt xU Vyk; vd;gJ xU
‘Nghd;W fUj tpLf;Fk; ’ miog;ghFk;.

xU ‘toq;fy;’ xU jdp egUf;Nfh (rpwg;G toq;fy;)
my;yJ nghJthfNth ahnuhUtUf;FNkh (nghJ
toq;fy;) toq;fg;glyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU epWtdk; jdJ Gifg;ge;Jfis
xU ehSf;F %d;WKiw ,uz;L thuq;fSf;Fg;
gad;gLj;jpa gpd; ahuhtJ xUtUf;F
‘,d;/g;Sad; ]h’ ,Ue;jhy; mtUf;F 100 lhyu;
nfhLg;gjhf tpsk;guk; mspj;jpUe;jJ. me;j
epWtdk; jdJ Neu; ikiaf; fhl;l xU tq;fpapy;
itg;Gj; njhifahf me;jj; njhifiar; nrYj;jp
,Ue;jJ. xU ngz; me;j tpsk;guj;ij ek;gp me;j
Fwpg;gpl;l kUe;ij Fwpg;gpl;l ehl; fSf;Fg;
gad;gLj;jpdhu; . Mdhy;> ‘,d;/g;Sad;]h’ mtiuj;
jhf;fNt me;j epWtdj;jpd; kPJ me;jj;
njhifia mspf;FkhW tof;Fj; njhLj;jhu; . me;j
epWtdk; me;jj; njhifia mtUf;F mspf;FkhW
gzpf;fg;gl;lJ. Vnddpy;> ,q;F me;j epWtdj;jplk;
me;j toq;fiy xU rl;l hPjpahf fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
xg;ge;jkhf;Fk; vz;zk; ,Ue;jJ. mJ
vy;yhUf;FNk me;j tpsk;guj; jpd; %yk;
njhpag;gLj;jpaJ (nghJ toq;fy;) (fhu; ypy; vjpu;
fhu; ghypf; ];Nkhf; ghy; fk;ngdp> (1893) 1Q.B. 256)

xU toq;fy; (Vw;Gk; $l) jpl;lkhdjhfTk;
cWjpahdjhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. me;j
tof;fNyh Vw;Ngh me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; KbTf;F
Vw;w tifapy; njsptw;wjhf ,Ue;jhy; mJ
nry;yj; jf;fjhff; fUj KbahJ. xg;ge;jr;
rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-29 ,t;thW tpsf;FfpwJ:

‘cld;ghLfspd; mu; j;jk; cWjpaw;wjhf
,Uf;Fk;NghJ my;yJ cWjpahf;ff; $batifapy;
,y;yhjNghJ mit nry;yj;jf;fjy;y.’

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU epWtdj;jpd; epu; thf mjpfhhp
me;j epWtdj;jpd; xU gzpahsNuhL me;j
epWtdk; nfhLf;ff;$ba epiyapy; cs;sNghJ xU
Fwpg;gpl;l msT rk;gsk; mspg;gjhf xU
cld;ghL nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; . me;j cld;ghL
cWjpaw;wjhf ,Ue;jjhy; nry;yj;jf;fjy;y
vd KbTnra;ag;gl;lJ. (G\;gghyh Nu vjpu;
,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gPl;L epWtdk;> AIR 1978
Cal.221.

xU toq;fy; mJ nry;yj;jf;fjhf Mtjw;F
mLj;jtUf;F njhpag;gLj;jg; gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xUtUf;F me;j toq;fiyg; gw;wpNa
njhpatpy;iy vd;why; me;j toq;fiy mtuhy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;s tha;g;gpy;iy.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1k; egu; -2k; njhiyNgrp %yk;
egu; -1-d; nrhj;J tpw;gJgw;wp Nguk; NgRfpd;wdu; .
mJ rhu; e;J midj;J tplaq; fisg; gw;wpAk;
Ngrp Kbj;jgpd; egu; -1 ‘vdJ filrp tpiy
&.40 yl;rk;’ ,ij thq;fpf; nfhs;fpwP u; fsh?’
vd;fpwhu; . mNj Neuk; me;j njhiyNgrp
miog;G Jz;bg;gilfpwJ. mij egu; -2
Nfl; ftpy;iy vd;why; me;j toq;fy; nry;yhJ
Vnddpy; me;j toq;fy; gw;wp mLj;j jug;Gf;Fj;
njhpahJ.

xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyNkh topKiwNah
Fwpg;gplg;gl;L me;j toq;fy; ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk; kw;Wk; topKiwapy;
me;j cld;gbf;if Vw;gl;bUe;jhy; kl;LNk
nry;yj;jf;fJ. mg;gb xU fhyNkh>
topKiwNah Fwpg;gplg;glhjpUe;jhy; mij
Vw;gJ Vw;fj;jf;f topKiwapy; Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;Fs; ele;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2-d; fzpdpia
&.30>000-f;F thq;fpf; nfhs;tjhf ‘toq;fiy’
mDg;Gfpwhu; . mjw;F vOj;Jg; G+u; tkhf
gjpyDg;GkhW NfhUfpwhu; . egu; -2 njhiyNgrp
%yk; egu; -2-lk; me;j tpiyf;F tpw;fr;
rk;kjpf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 egu; -2f;F fl;Lg;gl;ltu;
my;y. Vnddpy; me;j Vw;G toq;fypy;
Fwpf;fg;gl topKiwapy; ,y;iy.

me;j toq;Fdu; ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l topKiw
kl;Lkpd;wp NtW topKiwfspYk; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;thuhdhy;> me;j topKiwf;F Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;Fs; vjpu; g;Gf; nfhLf;f tpy;iy vd;why;
me;j toq;Fdu; fl;Lg;gLfpwhu; .

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l tpsf;fj;jpy;
egu; -1 mNj njhiyNgrp ciuahlypd; NghJ
me;j fzpdpia thq;fr; rk;kjpg;gjhff;
$wpdhy; mjw;fhd gzj;ij clNd
nrYj;JtjhfTk; $wpdhy; egu; -1
fl; Lg;gl;ltuhfpwhu; . me;jg; Nguj; jpypUe;J
ntsptu KbahJ.

xUgf;f xg;ge;jj;jpy; me;j ‘toq;fy;’ xU
nraiyf; Nfl; fpwJ vdpy; me;j mLj;j jug; G
me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l nraiyr; nra;tjw;Ff; fl;Lg;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
gLfpwhu; . ,jpy;> me;j Vw;gtu; jdJ Vw;igj;
njhptpf;f Ntz; bajpy;iy.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ njhie;j nghUisf;
fz;Lgpbj;Jj; jUgtUf;F ghpR jUtjhff;
$Wfpwhu;. egu; -2 mijf; fz;L gpbj;Jf;
nfhLf;fpwhu; . egh-2 me;j toq;fiy Vw;Wf;
nfhs;tjhfj; njhptpf;f Ntz; bajpy;iy. me;j
njhiye;j nghUis jpUg;gpj; jUk; nraNy me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fg; NghJkhdJ.

toq;Fjy; kw;Wk; Vw;G mLj;j jug;Gf;F
NeubahfNth my;yJ Vw;gjw;F mjpfhuk;
cs;stUf;Nfh toq;Fduhy; njhpag;gLj;jg;
gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. %d;whk; egUf;Nfh njhpahj
xUtUf;Nfh mwptpg;gJ NghjhJ.

Neubahf cldbahfj; njhlu; Gnfhs;sh Clfq;fs;
cjhuzkhf mQ;ry;top my;yJ kpd;dQ;ry;
topahfj; njhpag; gLj;jpdhy; (m) jdJ
fl; Lg;ghl;bypUe;J me;j toq;fy; ntspNawpaJNk
me;j toq;fy; ,WjpahfpwJ. kw;Wk; (M) jdJ
fl; Lg;ghl;bypUe;J me;j Vw;G ntspNawpaJNk
me;j Vw;G ,WjpahfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2-lk; xU Fwp;g;gpl;l
njhiff;F rpy ,Uk;G fk;gpfis tpw;gjhf fbjk;
%yk; njhptpf;fpwhu; . Mdhy;> me;jf; fbjNkh
,uz;L ehl;fs; fopj;Nj egu; -2-lk; Nru; fpwJ. mij
Vw;gjhf egu; -2 md;Nw fbjk; %yk; njhptpf;fpwhu; .
Mdhy;> njhpahj fhuzj;jpdhy;> mf;fbjk; egu; -1-
lk; 15 ehl;fs; fopj;Nj Nrh;fpwJ. ,e;jf;
fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; ,Uk;Gf; fk;gpfspd; tpiy
caUfpwJ. egu; -1 Kjypy; Fwpg;gpl;l tpiyf;F
egu; -2-lk; tpw;f kWf;fpwhu; . mq;F xU fl; Lg;gLj;Jk;
xg;ge;jk; ,Ue;jjhfj; jP u; khzpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

xU toq;fy; vjpu; toq;fspd; %yk;
fhyhtjpahfpwJ. vjpu; toq;fs; xU GJ
toq;fyhfNt vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. mJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lhNy xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ epyj;ij 1000 lhyUf;F
tpw;fj; jahu; vd;fpwhu; . Mdhy;> egu; -2 950 lhyu;
ju rk;kjpf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 kWf;fpwhu; . egu; -2
cldbahf egu; -1 Fwpg;gpl;l 1000 lhyUf;Nf
thq;fpf;nfhs;sr; rk;kjpf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 ,g;NghJ
kWf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 jhd; toq;fpa Kjy;
toq;fSf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl khl;lhu; vd KbntLf;fg;
gLfpwJ. fhuzk;> mtuJ Kjy; toq;fy; egu; -2-d;
vjpu; toq;fypd; fhuzkhf Kjy; toq;fy;
fhyhtjpahfp tpl;lJ. (i`L vjpu; t;nuQ;r;> (1840)
3 Beav.334.

xU toq;fy; mijj; jpUk;gg; ngWtjhy;
fhyhtjpahfpwJ. toq;fiyj; jpUk;gg; ngWtJ
me;j toq;fiy Vw;gjw;F Kd; mjhtJ me;j
toq;fy; Kw;Wg;ngWKd; ve;j Neuj; jpYk;
elf;fyhk;. mNjNghy; xU Vw;ig mJ
Kw;Wg;ngWKd; mjhtJ toq;fdiur; nrd;W
NrUKd; ve;j Neuj;jpYk; jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;.

nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jj;jpw;fhd Njitfs; -
Rje;jpukhd rk;kjk;:

„,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;Nlhu; xNu
nghUspd;kPJ xNu vz;zj;jpy; xj;jpUf;Fk;NghJ
mtu; fs; rk;kjk; njhptpg;gjhff; nfhs;syhk; ‟
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-13)

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-13 ‘fd;nrd;r]; Mj;
,njk;’ vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il Kd; itf;fwJ.
mjhtJ> ,U jug;gpdUNk xUtu; kw;wtUila
mq;F nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s cj;juthjq;fis Vw;f
Ntz; Lk;. mq;F ,Uthpd; mwpTk; xd;W
glNtz; Lk;. mg;gb ,y;iy vdpy; cz; ikapy;
mtu; fspilNa xU cld;gbf;if vd;w xd;Nw
,y;iy. ‘fd;nrd;r]; Mj; ,njk; ’ ,y;iy vdpy;
me;j xg;ge;jk; vd;w xd;W njhlf;fj;jpNyNa
,y;yhjjhf;fptpLk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU jdf;Fj; njhpahj
nkhopapy; cs;s Mtzj;jpy; ifnahg;gk;
,Lfpwhu; . me;j Mtzj;jpy; cs;s midj;Jf;
fUj;Jf;fisAk; egu; -1-f;F xUtu; vLj;Jf;$wp
tpsf;fhjtiu me;j xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.
(rpkd;uhk; Nkhjpyhy; vjpu; jpthz;re;j;
Nfhtpe;j;uhk;> AIR 1932 Bom. 151)

xU cld;gbf;ifapd; ,U jug; gpdUNk me;j
cld;gbf;ifapd; ghprPyidapy; cs;s
nghUspy; njsptpd;wp ,Ue;jhy; mtu; fspilNa
mtu; fspd; mwpT ,izatpy;iy. vdNt> me;j
xg;ge;jNk ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.

,e;jpahtpy; rl;lk; rhu; e;j xU jtW xU
xg;ge;jj;ij ,y;yhjjhf;Ftjpy;iy vd;gijf;
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,Ug;gpDk;>
,e;jpahtpy; xU rl;lk; eilKiwapy; ,y;iy
vd;gij cz;ik vd Vw;W mg;gb ,e;jpahtpy;
,y;yhj xU rl;lj;jpy; cs;s jtW xU
xg;ge;jj;ij ,y;yhjjhf;fyhk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;
gphpT-21)

cld;gbf;ifapd; ,Ujug; ghUNk me;j
cld;gbf; ifapd; ghprPyidapYs;s nghUs;
rhu; ghf rhpahd Ghpjypd;wp ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
mjpy; xNu xU jug; G kl;LNk ghprPyidapYs;s
nghUs;gw;wp Ghpjypd;wp ,Ug;gJ me;j
xg;ge;jj;ij ,y;yhjjhf;fhJ. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;
gphpT-22)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2d; epyj;ij thq;fr;
rk;kjpf; fpwhu; . ,UtUNk me;j epyj;jpd;
cz;ikahd gug;gsT Fwpj;J ,UtUf;FNk




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
rhpahfj; njhpatpy;iy. ,UtUNk me;j ,lk; 20
Vf;fu; gug;Gs;sJ vd epidf;fpwhu; fs;. Mdhy;>
cz;ikapy; mJ 15 Vf;fu; gug;Gs;sjhf cs;sJ
vd;why; me;j xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhjjhfpwJ. (lhu; nrk;
rpq; vjpu; Rf;kpe;ju; rpq;> AIR 1998 SC 1400)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2-f;F xUrpy nghUl;fis
tpw;f tpUk;Gfpwhu; . tpw;gid rhu; e;j xU
cld;ghl;Lf;F ,UtUk; tUfpd;wdu; . ,UtUk;
mwpahkNyNa egu; -1-d; ,lj;jpypUe;J jpUL
Ngha;tpl;lJ. me;j xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.
(ftu; du; n[duy; ,d; fTd;rpy; vjpu; fgP u; uhk;> AIR
1948 Pat. 345 – tof;fpd; mbg;gilapy; ).

Rje;jpukhd rk;kjk;

xU cld;gbf;ifapd; xU jug; G mtu; fspd; KO
Rje;jpukhd rk;kjkpd;wp cld;gbf;if
nra;Jnfhz; lhy; mJ ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-14 fPo;f;fhZk; fhuzq;fs;
,y;yhjNghJ xUthpd; rk;kjk; Rje;jpukhdJ
vd;fpwJ:
 epu; g;ge;jk;
 msTf;fjpfkhf nry;thf;ifr; nrYj;Jjy;
 jphpj;Jf; fhl;Ljy;
 Nkhrb my;yJ
 jtW (xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; 20> 21> 22-d;
topKiwfspd; mbg;gilapy;)

epu; g;ge;jk;

,e;jpa jd;lidr; rl;lk;> 1860-dhy; jLf;fg;gl;l
nray;fisr; nra;tNjh my;yJ nra;ag; Nghtjhf
gaKWj;JtNjh epu; g;ge;jk; vdg;gLk;. my;yJ
xUtiu jd;NdhL xg;ge;jk; nra;Jnfhs;s
typAWj;Jk; tpjkhfr; rl;lj;jpw;F khwhf mtuJ
xU nghUisg; gpbj;J itj;jpUg;gJ> my;yJ
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg; Nghtjhf kpul;LtJ. (xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-15). ,Wg;gpDk;> ntWk; nghUshjhu
hPjpapyhd rl;lj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghd tYf;fl;lhak;
kl;Lk; epu; g;ge;jkhfhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdf;F nrhj;jpidj; jdJ
kfDk; kidtpAk; tpw;ftpy;iyahdhy; jw;nfhiy
nra;J nfhs;sg; Nghtjhf kpwl;Lfpwhu; . me;j
kidtpAk; kfDk; cld;ghl;by; ifnahg;gk;
,Lfpd;wdu; . me;j xg;ge;jk; nry;yhjjhFk;.
Vnddpy; xg;ge;jj;jpd; jug;gpdu; epu; g;ge;jpf;fg;
gl;Ls;sdu; . (rpf;fk; mkpu[{ vjpu; rpf;fk; Nrrk;kh>
AIR 1918 Mad 414 – d; mbg;gilapy;)

msTf;fjpfkhf nry;thf;ifr; nrYj;Jjy;

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,U jug;ghUf;FkpilNa cs;s
cwtpy; xUtu; kw;thpd; Nky; mjpfhuk; nrYj;jf;
$ba tpjj;jpy; ,Ue;J me;j mjpfhuj; ijg;
gad;gLj;jp jdf;Fr; rhjfkhf mLj;j jug; gpd;
rk;kjj;ij xUtu; ngw;why; me;j xg;ge;jk;
msTf;fjpfkhd nry;thf;fpdhy; J}z;lg;gl;lJ
vdyhk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-16(1).

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-16(1)-d;gb xUtUf;Fk;
kw;w jug;Gf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s cwT
fPo;f;fhZk; tpjj;jpy; ,Ue;jhy; mjpfhuk;
nrYj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwhu; vd;fpwJ:
 xUthpd; epiy kw;wthpd; kPJ
cz;ikahfNth my;yJ ntspg;gilahf
czUk; tifapNyh mjpfhuk; nrYj;Jk;
tpjj;jpy; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; my;yJ mtu;
kw;wtNuhL ed;kjpg;G cwNthL ,Uf;fpwhu;
vd;why; my;yJ>
 jw;fhypfkhfNth my;yJ vg;NghJNkh
taJ> cly;eyf;FiwT> kd my;yJ
cly;hPjpahd Jauj; jpd; fhuzkhf kdeyk;
Fd;wpa xUtNuhL kw;w xUtu; xg;ge;jk;
nra;J nfhz; lhy;

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Nfhapy; epu; thfj;jpd;
mjpfhhpahd egu; -1 me;j Nfhapypd; gf;juhd
egu; -2-lk; me;j NfhapYf;Ff; nfhil
mspf; FkhW mOj;jk; nfhLf;fpwhu; . me;j
xg;ge;jk; nry;yhjJ. Vnddpy; egu; -2d; kPJ
msTf;fjpfkhd nry;thf;if egu; -1
nrYj;jpAs;shu; . (rpd;dk;kh vjpu; Njthq;f
rq;fk;> AIR 1973 Mys 338).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU fld;nfhLf;Fk; egu; -1 egu; -2-
f;F mjpf tl;bf;Ff; fld; nfhLf;fpwhu; . me;j
rkaj;jpy; nghJthfNt vq; FNk fld; tl;b
tpfpjk; kpf mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ. ,q;F msTf;F
mjpfkhd nry;thf;F nrYj;jg;gltpy;iy.
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-16-y; cs;s
tpsf;fj;jpd; gb (<))

Nkhrb

Nkhrb vd;gJ fPo;f;fhZk; VjhtJ xU
nraiy xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;ghNyh my;yJ
mtuJ cle;ijNahNlh my;yJ mtuJ
Ml;fshNyh xg;ge;jj;jpd; mLj;j jug;igNah
my;yJ mtuJ Ml;fisNah Vkhw;Wk;
Nehf;fpy; my;yJ me;j xg;ge;jj;ij Vw;fr;
nra;tjw;fhfr; nra;Ak; NghJ mJ Nkhrb
vdg;gLfpwJ:
 cz;ikfshjtw;iw njhpe;Nj cz;ikahf
ele;jJNghd;W $WtJ.
 cz;ikiaj; njhpe;jpUe;Jk; mLj;j
jug;Gf;Ff; $whkhy; ,Ug;gJ
 xU nraiyr; nra;a vz;zk; ,y;yhjpUe;Jk;
mijr; nra;tjhf thf;fspg;gJ.
 xUtiu Vkhw;Wk; Nehf;fpy; nra;Ak; ve;jr;
nraYk;
 rl;lk; njspthf NkhrbahdJ vdf;$Wk;
ve;j xU nraiyahtJ nra;tJ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
xU cz;ikiaf; $whky; mikjpahf ,Ug;gJ
xd;Nw – me;j mikjp mLj;j jug;ig rk;kjpf;fr;
nra;AkhdhYk; - NkhrbahfhJ. Mdhy;> me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpd; #oypd;gb mikjpfhg;gtu; Ngr
Ntz; bapUe;Jk; mikjp fhg;ghuhdhy; my;yJ
me;j mikjpNa NgRtjw;Fr; rkkhapd; mJ
NkhrbNa. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-17)

xU Nkhrb mLj;j jug;gpdiu cld;gbf;iff;F
tw;GWj;Jkhdhy; me;j xg;ge;jk; Nkhrbapd;
fhuzkhf nry;yj;jfhjJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ nrhj;ij egu; -2-f;F
tpw;f tpUk;Gfpwhu; . cau; e;j tpiyf;F tpw;gjw;fhf>
cau; e;j tpiyf;Ff; Nfl; Fk; gpw
thbf;ifahsu; fsplkpUe;J ngw;wjhff; $Wk; rpy
ngha;ahfr; Nrhbf;fg;gl;l fbjq;fis egu; -2f;Ff;
fhl;Lfpwhu; . egu; -2 mit cz;iknad vz;zp egu; -
1-d; nrhj;ij cau; e;j tpiyf;F egu; -1-lkpUe;J
thq;f cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; . ,e;j
xg;ge;jk; Nkhrbapd; fhuzkhf nry;yhjjhfpwJ.
([hd; kpdh]; mg;fh]; vjpu; Y}ap]; Nfu; L
khy;f];> AIR 1939 Cal 473).

ntWk; mikjp xU NkhrbahfhJ. Mdhy;>
cz;ikiaf; $whky; mikjp fhg;gjhy;
kw;wtUila Kbitg; ghjpj;J mtiu xg;ge;jk;
nra;aj; J}z;Lfpwhu; vdpy; my;yJ me;j mikjp
NgRtjw;Fr; rkk; vd;why; me;j mikjp xU
NkhrbahFk;. xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-17-f;fhd
tpsf;fj;ij ,e;j gFjpia tpsf;Ftjw;fhff;
ftdpAq;fs;.

xUrpy fhg;gPL Nghd;w xg;ge;jq;fspy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
ghprPyidapYs;s midj;J cz;ikfisAk;
ntspg;gLj;j Ntz; Lk;. ,e;j tif xg;ge;jq;fs;
kpf cau; e;j ey;nyz;z xg;ge;jq;fshFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: fhg;gPl;Lj; jpl; lj;Jf;fhd tpz;zg;g
kDtpy; cs;s xU gFjpapy; me;j egu; fle;j
Ie;J Mz;Lfspy; vg;NghjhtJ kUj;Jthplk;
nrd;wpUf;fpwhuh vd;gij mq;Fs;s fl;lj;jpy; bf;
nra;AkhW cs;sJ. tpz;zg;gjhuuhfpa egu; -1
mt;thW kUj;Jtiur; re;jpj;jpUf;fpwhu; . Mdhy;>
me;jf; fl;lj;ij ‘bf;’ nra;ahky; tpl;L tpLfpwhu; .
,J xU NkhrbahFk;. (kpj;J}yhy; ehaf; vjpu;
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lj; jpl;lk;> AIR 1962 SC 814).

jphpj;Jf; fhl;Ljy;

jphpj;Jf; fhl;Ljy; vd;why; fPo;f;fhz;git mlq;Fk;:

 xU nra;jpia ntspapLk; eghplkpUe;J tUk;
Njitaw;w Neu; kiwahd typAWj;Jjy;>
mjhtJ cz;ik vd;gij xUtu;
njhpe;jpUe;jhYk; cz; ik ,y;iy
vd;gjw;fhd topapy; elg;gJ.
 Ntz; Lnkd;Nw nra;ahtpbDk; jdJ
flikapypUe;J jtWtjhy; mtUf;F
ed;ikahf Kbe;jhy; my;yJ mtUila
Ml;fs; mijr; rhjfkhf;fpf; mLj;j
jug;igj; jpirjpUg;gpj; J}z;bdhy; my;yJ
mtUf;fbapy; cs;s ahUf;fhtJ
tha;g;ghfj; jpir jpUg;gp; J}z;bdhy;
 VjhtJ xUtifapy; fsq;fkpd;wpNa
nra;ag;gl;bUg;gpDk; mJ mLj;j jug;ig
me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; rhuhk;rkhf cs;s
ghprPyidg; nghUspd;kPJ jtwpiof;fr;
nra;Akhdhy; mJ NkhrbahFk;. (xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-18

cld;ghl;bd; kw;w jug;igj; jpirjpUg;gpj;
J}z;b xg;ge;jk; nra;a itj;jhy; kl;LNk xU
jphpj;Jf; fhl;Ljy; xg;ge;jj;ij
nry;yj;jfhjjhf;FfpwJ. NkhrbAk; jphpj;Jf;
fhl;LjYk; xd;WNghy; Njhd;wpdhYk; - mjhtJ
xw;Wik ,uz;LNk – jpupj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd>
,uz;Lf;Fk; cs;s Ntw;Wik – jphpj;Jf;
fhl;Ljypy; mt;thW nra;gtu; mJ
cz;iknad ek;Gfpwhu; . Mdhy;> Nkhrbapy;
mijr; nra;gtUf;F mJ cz;ikapy;iy
vd;gJ njhpe;Jk; nra;fpwhu; .

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU epy cilikahsuhd egu; -1
Fj;jif vLg;gtuhd egu; -2-lk; xU tpl;by; 4
gLf;if miwfs; ,Ug;gjhff; $Wfpwhu; .
Mdhy; cz;ikapy; mq;Fs;s xU miw
gLf;if miwahfg; gad;gLj;j yhaf;fw;wJ.
egu; -1-f;F mJ cz;ikapy; njhpahJ. ,J xU
jphpj;Jf; fhl;LjyhFk;. ,e;j xg;ge;jk;
nry;yj;jfhjJ. (my;yh ghf; \; fhd; vjpu; R.E.
ghNuh> AIR 1917 Lah 173 – d; mbg;gilapy;)

nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fj; Njitahdit:
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug; Gfspd; jFjp

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;. gphpT-11-d;gb fPo;f;fhZk;
egu; fs; xU xg;ge;jk; nra;aj; jFjpaw;wthfs;:
 Kjpuh tajpdu;
 kdeyk; ,y;yhjtu;
 ve;j xU rl;lj;;jhyhtJ (me;jr;
rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;ltu; fs;) xg;ge;jk;
nra;aj; jFjpePf;fk; nra;ag;gl;ltu; fs;.

Kjpuh tajpdu;

Kjpuh tajpdNuhL nra;Jnfhz;l cld;gbf;if
njhlf;fj;jpNyNa ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Kjpuh tajpduhd egu; -1
gzk; nfhLg;gtuhd egu; -2-lk; mlkhdk;
itf;fpwhu; . mjw;F Kd; egu; -1-d; jhapd; rhu; ghf
egu; -2-f;F




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
jdJ kfdhd egu; -1 xU Kjpuh tajpdu; vdj;
njhpag; gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,J njhpe;Jk;> egu; -2 jhd;
xU Kjpu; tajpdu; vd vOjp ifnaOj;jpl;Lj;
jUkhW egu; -1-lk; NfhUfpwhu; . gpd; gzj;jpd; xU
njhifia egu; -2 egu; -1-f;F mspf;fpwhu; . mjd;gb
mlkhd cld;gbf;if nra;ag;gLfpwJ. egu; -1 me;j
cld;gbf;ifia ,uj;Jnra;AkhW nfhUfpwhu; .
mjw;F egu; -1 fPo;f;fhZkhW thjpLfpwhu; : (m) egu; -
1 xU Kjpu; tajpdu; (M) egu; -1 jhNd mspj;j
gpuflzj;jhy; mtu; xU Kjpuhtajpdu; vd thjhl
KbahJ (,) egu; -1 Kjpuh tajpduhapd; me;j
xg;ge;jk; nry;yhJ Mdhy; ,J nry;yhjJ my;y
(<) ePjpkd;wk; me;j mlkhd cld;gbf;ifia uj;J
nra;Akhdhy; mtu; nfhLj;jpUe;j Kd;gdj;
njhifiaj; jpUg;gpj; ju cj;jutpl Ntz;Lk;
vd;fpwhu; . ePjpkd;wNkh me;j Kjpuh tajpdNuhL
nra;ag;gl;l cld;gbf;if ,y;yhjJ vdf;
Fwpg;gpLtNjhL me;j egu; -1 me;jg; gzj;ij
jpUg;gpr; nrYj;JtJ fl; lhakpy;iy vd;fpwJ.

Kjpuh tajpdu; xg;ge;jq;fis jq;fSf;Fr; rhu; ghf
gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. Vnddpy; mtu; fs;
mjw;Ff; flikg;glhjtu; fshf ,Ue;jhYk; mtu; fs;
cilikfis jq;fs; ngahpy; itj;Jf;nfhs;sj;
jilapy;iy. (Firm Bhola Ram Harbans Lal v. Bhagat
Ram, AIR 1927 Lah 24)

rl;lg;gbahd fhg;ghsu; fs; me;j Kjpuhtajpdu;
rhu; ghf mtu; fSf;fhf xg;ge;jq;fs; nra;ayhk;.

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-68 ,q;F Kf;fpakhdJ.

“xg;ge;jk; nra;Jnfhs;s jFjpaw;wtuhf xUtu;
,Ue;jhy;> my;yJ mtu; ahnuhUtiu rl;lg;gb
cjtp nra;af; flikAs;stuhf ,Ue;jhy;>
mtUf;F mtuJ tho;f;if epiyf;Fj; jFe;jthW
kw;nwhUtu; Njitahdtw;iwAk; Nru; j;J
toq;Ffpwhu; vdpy; me;j cjtp nra;gtu; nra;j
midj;J cjtpfisAk; me;jj; jFjpaw;wthpd;
clikapypUe;J ngwj; jFjp ngWfpwhu; .‟

NkNy Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sjpy; ‘Njitahdit’ vd;gJ
xU epr;rakw;w nrhy; vd;gijf; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s
Ntz; Lk;. ,J xt;nthU #oYf;Fk; Vw;wthW
jPu; khdpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU njhopy;Kiw
Fj;Jr;rz;il tPuuhd ,tu; xU Kjpuh tajpdu; .
mjw;fhd fl;Lg;ghl;L rq;fj;jpy; mtuhy;
kDr;nra;ag;gl;L chpkKk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. me;j
chpkj;jpy; egu; -1 me;j rq;f tpjpfSf;Fk;
Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l Vw; gLj;jg;gl cs;s rl;lq;fSf;Fk;
kpff; fz;bg;ghff; flLg;gl Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ.
rq;f rl;ljpl;lj;jpw;F khwhf egu; -1 vjpuhspia
Fj;jf;$lhj ,lj;jpy; Fj;jptpl;lhu; vd;gjw;fhf
Nghl;bapypUe;J ePf;fg;gl;lijf; fhl;b me;jr; rq;fk;
egu; -1-lkpUe;J mjd; rl;ljpl;lg;gb 3000
lhyu; fis gpbj;J itj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ,jpy;
egu; -1 Kjpuh tajpduhf ,Ug;gpDk; mtu; xU
njhopy; Kiw tPuuhtjw;F me;j chpkk;
fl; lhak; vd;gjhy; xg;ge;jj;jpw;Ff; fl;Lg;
gl;ltu; vdj; jPu; g;gspf; fg; gl;lJ. (Doyle v. White
City Stadium Ltd., [1935] 1 K.B. 110)

kdeyk; Fd; wpNahu;

kdeyk; Fd; wpNahNuhL Vw;gLj;jg;gLk; ve;j
xg;ge;jKk; Kw;wpYk; nry;yhjJ. xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-12 xU xg;ge;jk; nry;yj;jf;fjhf
,Ug;gjw;F ‘kdeyk; ’ vd;gij tpsf;FfpwJ:
xUtu; xU xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;NghJ me;j
xg;ge;jj;ijg; Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sk; epiyapy; mjd;
tpisTfisg; gw;wp mwpthu; e;j jPu; g;Gfis
mtUila tpUg;gj;jpw;F Vw;g fzpf;f
KbAkhdhy; me;j egu; kdeyj;NjhL
,Ug;gjhfTk; mtu; xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s
jFjpAilatu; vd;gjhfTk; nfhs;syhk;.

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-68 – xg;ge;jk; nra;aj;
jFjpaw;wtUf;F cs;s Njitfs;gw;wpf;
$Wk;NghJ mNj Njitfs; kdeyk;
Fd;wpNahUf;Fk; cz;L vd;fpwJ.

xU rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;ltu; fs; me;jr;
rl;lj;;jhy; xg;ge;jk; nra;aj; jFjpePf;fk;
nra;ag;gl;ltu; fs;

xUrpy Ntisfspy;> xU Fwg;gpl;l rpyu; ve;jr;
rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;ltu; fNsh me;jr; rl;lj;jhy;
xg;ge;jk; nra;Jnfhs;sj; jiltpjpf;fg;
gLfpwhu; fs;. mg;gbg;gl;l Ntisapy; xg;ge;jk;
nra;thu; fshdhy; me;j xg;ge;jk; nry;yhJ.
cjhuzkhf fhu; g;gNu\d;fs; chpik Kwpfs;>
,aw;Wr; rl;lq;fs;> my;yJ rl;lq;fsplkpUe;Nj
gpwf;fpd;wd. xU fhu; g;gNu\d; mj;jifa rl;lk;>
chpik Kiw> ,aw;Wr; rl;lk; tpjpf;Fk;
tiuaiufisf; fle;J xg;ge;jk; nra;jhy; mJ
nry;yhjhfpwJ.

nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fj; Njitahdit:
rl;lg;G+u; tkhd ghprPyid

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-2(<) ghprPyidia
tiuaWf;fpwJ. me;j tiuaiuapd;gb
Kjyhtjhf> ghprPyidapy; cs;s xU nraNyh
my;yJ nrayw;wjd;ikNah cWjpnkhop
mspg;gthpd; tpUg;gg;gb ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
,uz;lhtjhf> mJ cWjpnkhop mspg;gtuhNyh
my;yJ mtuJ NtW ahuhtJ xUtuhNy
nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;. ,Wjpahf> me;jr; nraNyh
my;yJ nrayw;wjd;ikNah Vw;fdNt
epiwNtw;wg;gl;ljhfNth> epiwNtw;wg;
gLtjhfNth my;yJ vjpu; fhyj;jpy; eilngwg;
NghtjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
,e;jg; ghprPyid me;j cWjpnkhopf;Fr;
rkkhdjhfNth NghJkhdjhfNth ,Uf;f
Ntz; bajpy;iy. rl;lj;jpd; ghu; itapy; Njitg;
gLtnjy;yhk; mjw;F XusthtJ kjpg;gpUf;f
Ntz; Lk; NkYk; mijg; ngWgtUf;F rpwpjsthtJ
Neu; kiwahd khw;wk; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: 4 fhyd; ngl;Nuhy; thq;fpa
xt;nthU thbf;ifahsUf;Fk; cyff; Nfhg;ig
fhy;ge;J tPuhpd; cUtk; nghhpj;j jq;ff; fhR
toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,J thbf;ifahsNuhL ngl;Nuhy;
thq;Ftjw;fhd cld;gbf;if Vw;gLj;jf; nfhLf;Fk;
xU ghprPyid toq;fyhFk; mJ xU ghpR my;y
vdyhk;. (v];N]h ngl;Nuhypak; fk;. ypl;. vjpu;
f];lk;]; kw;Wk; vf;ir]; fk;kp\du; fs; [1976] 1
All ER 117)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ je;ijf;F fld;
cWjpr;rPl;L %yk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhiff;F
fld; gl;bUf;fpwhu; . mtu; nrhj;Jg; ghfg;
gphptpidapy; rkgq;F jdf;Ff; fpilf;ftpy;iy vd
njhlu; e;J KiwapLfpwhu; . mtuJ je;ijNah egu; -1
,t;thW KiwapLtij tpl;Ltpl;lhy; mtuJ
flidj; js;Sgb nra;JtpLtjhff; $Wfpwhu; . egu; -
1 KiwapLtij tpl;Ltpl;lNjhL jd;dplk; mtuJ
je;ij flidf; Nfl; lNghJ jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jTk;
kWf;fpwhu; . ,jpy; egu; -1 KiwapLtij
tpl;Ltpl;lij xU rhpahd ghprPyidahf
Vw;Wf;nfhs;stpy;iy. (ntha;l; vjpu; GSal;> (1853)
23 LJ Ex 36)

nghJ flikia Mw;WtJ cjhuzkhf> xU
tprhuidapd;NghJ xU miog;ghizf;F
gjpypUg;ghf ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Neu; epiyahtJ xU
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba ghprPyid MfhJ. ,jw;F
Kd;Ng ,Ue;j kw;w jug;Gf;Nfh my;yJ
r%fj;Jf;Nfh Mw;w Ntz; ba xU flikia
epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf nra;ag;gLk; xU nray;
kw;nwhU cld;gbf;iff;fhd ghprPyidahfhJ.

cWjpaspg;gthpd; tpUg;gkpd;wp Mdhy; jhdhf
Kd;te;J nra;Ak; xU nray; xU Vw;fj;jf;f
ghprPyidahfhJ.

,ufrpaf; Nfhl;ghL

xU xg;ge;jk; mjd; rk;ge;jkhd jug;gpdUf;Nf
my;yhky; NtW ahUf;Fk; chpikia toq;fhJ
flikiaj; jpzpf;fhJ. xU %d;whk; egu; me;j
xg;ge;jk; epiwNtWtijf; Nfhu KbahJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2-lk; mlkhdk; itg;gjd;
%yk; &.40>000 thq;Ffpwhu; . gpd; egu; -1 me;j
nrhj;ij egu; -3-f;F &.44>000 f;F tpw;W tpLfpwhu; .
egu; -3-lk; &.40000-id me;j mlkhdj;ij
milg;gjw;fhf itj;Jf;nfhs;SkhW Nfl;Lf;
nfhs;fpwhu; . egu; -2 egu; -3-d; kPJ tof;F njhlu; e;J
mtu; me;j mlkhdf; flid milf;Fk;gb
NfhUfpwhu; . egu; -2 mjpy; ntw;wp ngw
Kbatpy;iy. Vnddpy; egu; -1-f;Fk; egu; -3-f;Fk;
,ilapy; cs;s xg;ge;jj;jpy; egu; -2-k; xU
jug;ghf ,y;iy. (aKdh jh]; vjpu; uhk;
mj;jhu; ghz;Nl> (1911) 30 I.A. 7.

,e;j ,ufrpaf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F rpy
tpjptpyf;Ffs; cz; L. cjhuzkhf:

 epyk; rhu; e;j xg;ge;jq;fs;;: xU nrhj;jpid
xUtu; thq;Ffpwhu; . mjNdhL cs;s xU
Fwpg;gpy; me;j epyj;jpd; nrhe;jf;fhuUf;F
xU cld;gbf;if my;yJ xg;ge;jj;jpy;
Fwpg;gplg; gl;Ls;s Fwpg;gpl;l flikfs;
cs;sd vd cs;sJ vdpy; me;j
nrhj;jpid thq;Fgtu; mjpy; Fwpg;gplg;
gl;Ls;s xg;ge;jj;jpy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug; ghf
,y;yhtpl;lhYk; mtu; flikg;gl;Ls;shu; .
 nghWg;G rhu; e;j ek;gfk;: xU nrhj;J rhu; e;j
nghWg;Ngh my;yJ gpw
mf;fiwAs;sitfNsh ahu; trk;
xg;gilf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjh mtu; me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;ghf ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;
mtUf;F mij nray;gLj;Jk; chpik
cs;sJ.
 jilcj;juit Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy;: xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; \uj; jpd;gb xU jug;G %d;whk;
egu; xUtUf;f xU njhif fl;lzkhfr;
nrYj;j Ntz; Lk; vd;W ,Ue;jhy; mij
me;jj; jug;Gk; Vw;W %d;whk; egUf;Ff;
nfhLf;f Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhy; mq;F xU
%d;whk; egu; rhu; ghd flik
cUthf;fg;gLfpwJ.

,e;j xg;ge;j ,ufrpaf; Nfhl;ghl;bid
ghprPyid ,ufrpaj;NjhL Fog;gpf; nfhs;sf;
$lhJ. xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; jug;Gfs; %d;whk;
eghpd; kPJ chpikfis toq;fNth
flikfisr; Rkj;jNth KbahJ vdf; $Wk;
xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-2(<) mq;F
cWjpnkhopf;fhd ghprPyid ,Uf;Fk;tiu xU
%d;whk; jug;G mij toq;fpaJ vd;gJgw;wpf;
ftiy ,y;iy vd;fpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: jdJ kfspd; jpUkzj;jpw;F
toq;Ftjw;fhf xU rpW kuj;Jz;bid tpw;f
tpUk;Gfpwhu; egu; -1. mtuJ kfd; egu; -2 me;j
kuj;Jz;il tpw;gij mtuJ je;ij egu; -1
epWj;jptpl;lhy; egu; -2 me;j ngz; Zf;F 1000
lhyu; jUtjhff; $Wfpwhu; . Mdhy;> mt;thW
egu; -2 gzj;ijj; jutpy;iy. me;jg; ngz;Zk;
mtuJ fdtUk; egu; -2-d;kPJ mj;njhiff;fhf
tof;Fj; njhLf;fpd;wdu; . ,jpy; me;jg; ngz;
ve;jtpj ghprPyidAk; nfhLf;fhtpbDk;> me;jg;
gzj;ij mtu; ,g;NghJk; ngwyhk; Vnddpy;
mq;F mtuJ je;ijapd; ghprPyid ,Uf;fpwJ.
(ll;ld; vjpu; G+Ny> 1 ntd;l;hp]; 318).




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
cWjpnkhopj; jil:

tof;fkhd eilKiwapd;gb cWjpnkhopfs;
gfpu; e;Jnfhs;sg; gl Ntz; Lk;. rl;lk; xUgf;f
cWjpnkhopfisAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ. mg;gbg;gl;l
#oypy; me;j cWjpnkhop Vw;gtu; xU nraiyr;
nra;a flg;gLtjpy;iy. Mdhy;> me;j
cWjpnkhopia Vw;gtu; me;jr; nraiyr;
cWjpnkhop mspj;jtu; tpUk;gpagb nra;J
Kbj;jhy; me;j cWjpnkhopia Vw;wtu;
cWjpnkhop nfhLj;jthpd; cWjpnkhopiaf;
nfhz;L fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. me;j cWjpnkhop
mspj;jtu; ,g;NghJ mq;F ghprPyidNa ,y;iy
vdf;$wpj; jg;gpf;f ,ayhky; jLf;fg;gLfpwhu; .
,JNt cWjpnkhopj; jil vdg;gLfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: n`suh khefuhl; rpapd; Mizahsu;
xU efh;kd;wk; fl;Ltjw;F nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J
re;jh Nfl;lhu; . egu; -1 mjd;gb &-100 re;jh
mspj;jhu; . NghJkhd re;jh fpilj;jJk; me;jr;
re;jhf;fis ek;gp me;j efu; kd;wk; fl;Ltjw;F
fl; Lkhd epWtdj;NjhL xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhz;lJ.
egu; -1 gpd;du; me;j re;jhj; njhifiaf; fl;l
kWj;J tpl;lhu; . ,jpy; egu; -1 mtuJ re;jhj;
njhifiaf; fl;l flg;gl;ltuhff; $wg;gl;lJ.
mjpy; cs;s cWjpnkhop ahnjdpy;: ‘ePq; fs;
efu; kd;wf; fl;llk; fl;Ltjw;fhd xg;ge;jk;
Vw;gLj;Jtij Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjd; Nghpy; ehd;
mjw;fhd ,e;j; njhifiaf; fl;l cWjp
jUfpNwd; ’ vd;gjhFk;. (Nfju; ehj; rhl; lu; [p vjpu;
Nfhhp nkhfkJ> (1887) ILR 14 Cal 64).

xUgf;f cWjpnkhopapid cWjpnkhopia Vw;gtu;
me;j cWjpnkhopf;F cWjpnkhop mspj;jtu;
kjpg;gspg;ghu; vd ek;gp mjw;fhf ve;jr; nraiyAk;
nra;tjw;F Kd; ve;j Neuj; jpYk; jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;.
mjd;gpwF jpUk;gg; ngw KbahJ.

nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fj; Njitahdit:
rl;lg;G+u; tkhd Nehf;fk;

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-23 vit rl;lg;G+u; tkhd
ghprPyidfs; kw;Wk; Nehf;fq;fs; vit rl;lg;
G+u; tkhdit my;y vd tpsf;FfpwJ.

xU cld;gbf;ifapd; ghprPyidAk; Nehf;fKk;
rl;lg;G+u; tkhdit – fPo; f;fhz;git ,y;yhtpby;:
 rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;gl;lit
 mJ mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhy; mjd; ,ay;G
rl;lj;jpd; topKiwfspd; Nehf;fj;ijNa
rpjwbj;JtpLk;.
 NkhrbahdJ.
 mjpy; kw;w xUtUf;Nfh mtuJ nrhj;Jf;Nfh
fhak; Vw;gLj;jf; $baJ.
 mij ePjpkd;wk; mwnewpf;Fg; Gwk;ghdJ vd
xJf;fpAs;sJ
 nghJtpjpf;F vjpuhdJ
,e;jg; gFjpf;fhd tpsf;fq;fs; mjd; nghUis
mwpe;Jnfhs;s kpfTk; cjtpahf ,Uf;fpwJ.
,tw;iw thrpg;gij Cf;Ftpg;gJ ey;yJ.

XU rl;lj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghd xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;
gLtjw;F Kw;wpYk; jFjpaw;wJ. ‘ex turpi causa
non oritur actio’, mjhtJ jtwhd
fhuzj;jpypUe;J xU ey; y fhhpak; tuhJ.
,e;jg; nghJ tpjpapd; mu; j;jk;: ‘ex dolo malo
non oritur actio’- ‘xU mwnewpf;Nfh rl;lj;jpw;Nfh
xt;thj nraYf;fhd tof;F %yj;jpw;F ve;j
xU ePjp kd;wKk; MjuT toq;fhJ’.

Locus poenitentiae vd;why; kdk; jpUk;Gtjw;fhd
,lk;> jdJ vz;zj;ij khw;wpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd
re;ju; g;gk;> jhd; Vw;fdNt nra;jij
jpUj;jpf;nfhs;s toq;fg;gl;l tha;g;G> xU
vz;zpAs;s Nguj; jpypUe;Njh xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;Njh
mJ xU cWjpahd xg;ge;jf; flikahFtjw;F
Kd; tpyfpf;nfhs;Sk; tha;g;G> KbTwhj
fhhpaj;jpypUe;J ntspNaWtjw;fhd
chpikahFk;. (Nkhhp]; vjpu; [hd;rd;> 219
Ga.81) xU xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;glf;$ba
epiyapy; ,g;NghJk; ,Ue;jhYk;> me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;G ,e;j Locus poenitentiae–
apid gad;gLj;jp jdJ gzj;ijNah
nrhj;ijNah xg;ge;jj;jpd; kw;nwhU
jug;gplkpUe;J me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; rl;lj;Jf;Fg;
Gwk;ghd Nehf;fj;ijg; NghJkhdtiu
epiwNtw;whjNghJ jpUk;gg; ngWk; chpik
cs;sJ. mt;thW ePjpkd;wj;jpd; cjtpia
ehLk; xU jug; G me;j rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd
Nehf;fk; NghJkhd msT epiwNtWKd;
mj;jifa fhhpaj;jpw;fhf tUe;jpj; jpUe;j
Ntz; Lk;. Mdhy;> me;jj; jug;G me;jf;
rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd Nehf;fk;; epiwNtWk;tiu
fhj;jpUe;jhy;> my;yJ mj;jifa fhhpak;
epiwNtw tpUk;gpdhy;> mj;jifa fhhpak;
nghWj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl khl;lhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: fldhspahd egu; -1 jdJ
nrhj;ij N[hbf;fg;gl;l __________________

nghJ tpjpfSf;F vjpuhd cld;gbf;iffs;

nghJkf;fSf;F Jd;gk;juf;$ba my;yJ
nghJcilikfSf;Fg; ghjfkhd ve;j xU
cld;gbf;ifAk; nghJ tpjpfSf;F vjpuhdJ
vd;gjhy; ,y;yhjjhfpwJ.

‘nghJ tpUg;gj;jpw;Nfh nghJeyDf;Nfh gq;fk;
tpistpg;gJ fhyj;ijAk; ,lj;ijAk;
nghUj;jJ. xU rl;lk; epiwNtw;wg;gLtjw;fhd
fhyNk mjd; cz; ikiaAk;> jd;ikiaAk;
me;j ghjfj;jpd; tPhpaj;ijAk; jP u; khdpf;fpwJ.
nghJtpjpj; jj;Jtk; khw;wj;jfhjJ my;y
Vnddpy;> mJ khWk; r%fj;jpd; Njitf;Nfw;g
khWgLfpwJ.’ (gftj; n[D[p fpu; Nk vjpu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
fq;fhgprhd; uhkNfhghy;> AIR 1940 Bom 269).

nghJtpjpf;F khwhd cld;ghLfs; rhu; e;j rpy
cjhuzq;fs;:

 mayf vjphpAld; tpahghuk;
 nghJ mYtiy tpw;gJ (vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU
muRg; gzpahsUf;F gzk; mspj;J mtiu
Xa;T milaTk; mjd; fhuzkhf me;j
thf;FWjp mspg;gtUf;F Ntiy fpilf;FkhW
nra;tjw;fhd cld;gbf;if nra;tJ me;j
muR mYtiyNa flj;Jtjw;F xg;ghtjhy;
me;j xg;ge;jk; nry;yhjJ. (`_L
ntq;fl;luhkda;ah vjpu; J.M. NyhNgh> AIR 1953
Mad 506).
 rl;l eltbf;iffisj; jtwhfg; gad;
gLj;Jtjw;fhd cld;gbf;iffs; cjhuzkhf>
jdf;F rhu; ghf ePjpkd;wj;jpy; xU chpikapay;
tof;fpy; rhl;rp nrhd;dhy; gzk; jUtjhf
xUtu; nra;Ak; cld;gbf;if (rfhGjPd; rhfpg;
vjpu; Njhl;lh ntq;flhr;ryk; nrl;bah> AIR 1938
Mad 911).
 jtpu; epiyg; NgzYk; tof;fpy;
Mjhakiltjw;fhf xUtu; me;j tof;fpd;
jug;;NghL cld;gbf;if nra;jYk;: xUtu; ve;j
xU epahakhd fhuzj;Jf;hfTk; ,y;yhky; xU
tof;fpw;F MjuT njhptpf;fpwhu; . Mdhy;>
mjd;kPJ mtUf;F ve;jtpj Mu; tKk; ,y;iy.
,tu; jtpu; epiyg; Ngzypd; fhuzkhf Fw;wk;
nra;fpwhu; . ,J jd;dpiyapNyNa me;j
cld;gbf;ifapd; Nehf;fk; jtwhdjhf
,y;yhjtiu (cjhuzkhf epahakw;w
tof;Ffis vOg;GtJ my;yJ tof;F
Rjhl;lk;) nghJ tpjpf;F vjpuhdjy;y.
Mjhakiltjw;fhf tof;fpd; jug; NghL xUtu;
cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhs;tJ vd;gJ
jtpu; epiyg; Ngdypd; jPtpu epiyahFk;. ,J
jd;dpiyapNyNa nghJ tpjpf;F vjpuhdJ. xU
nrhj;J rhu; ghd tof;fpy; mjpypUe;J Mjhak;
miltjw;fhf xUtu; me;j tof;fpd; xU
jug;NghL cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz; L me;j
tof;fpy; jtpu; epiyg; Ngzypy; <LgLfpwhu; .
(ify;]; vjpu; jhk;rd;> (1993) 3 All ER 321).
 nghUshjhu neUf;fbapd; fhuzkhf
Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l epahakw;w cld;gbf;iffs;
my;yJ eltbf;iffs;> Mdhy;>
msTf;fjpfkhd nry;thf;ifg; gad;gLj;Jjy;>
my;yJ epu; g;ge;jpj;jypy; tuhj
cld;gbf;iffs;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU epWtdk; -1 xU muR epWtdkhd
fhu; g;gNu\d;-2-ld; xUrpy jpl;lVw;ghLfs; nra;J
nfhs;fpd; wdu; . me;jj; jpl; lj;jpd;gb me;j epWtdk; -
1-d; gzpahsu; fs; me;j fhu; g;gNu\d;-2y;
Ntiyapy; Nru; e;J nfhs;syhk; my;yJ xU rpwpa
njhifia ,og;gPlhfg; ngw;Wf;nfhz; L
ntspNawyhk;. me;j fhu; g;gNu\d;-2-d; tpjpapd; gb
xUtiu ntspNaw;w Fiwe;jJ %d;W khj Kd;
mwptpg;G mspf;f Ntz; Lk;. ,e;j tpjpia me;j
thjpfs; xU aNjr;rpfukhdJ vd;Wk;> me;j
fhu; g;gNu\d; xU jdpahNuhL Ntiy rhu; e;j
xg;ge;jk; epahakw;wJk;> mwpthu; e;jjy;yhjJk;>
rl;lj;jpd; gb Nkhrkhdk; vd Fw;wk; rhl;bdu; .
me;j xg;ge;jk; nghJtpjpf;F vjpuhdJ vd;gjhy;
nry;yhJ vd jPu; g;gplg; gl;lJ. (nrd;l;uy;
,d;Nyz;L thl; lu; buhd;];Nghu; l; fhu; g;gNu\d;
ypl;.> vjpu; GNuh[hehj; fq; Fyp> AIR 1986 SC
1571).

nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fj; Njitahdit:
ntspg;gilahf ,y;yhjjhf mwptpf;fg;glhjit

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; Fwpg;gpl;l xUtpy
cld;gbf;iffs; ,y;yhjit vd mwptpf;fpwJ.
mit:
 cld;gbf;ifspd; ghprPyidNah my;yJ
Nehf;fNkh rl;lj;jpw;F khwhdjhf ,Ue;jhy;
(gphpT-23>24)
 ghprPyidfs; ,y;yhj cld;gbf;iffs;
(gphpT-25)
 jpUkzf; fl;Lg;ghLfs; rhu; e;j
cld;gbf;iffs; (gphpT-26)
 tpahghuf; fl;Lg;ghL rhu; e;j
cld;gbf;iffs; (gphpT-27)
 rl;lebtbf;iffisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
cld;gbf;iffs; (gphpT-28)
 cWjpaw;w> ,ul;ilg;nghUs; jUk;
cld;gbf;iffs; (gphpT-29)
 ge;jaf; fhuhpd; rhu; ghf Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l
cld;gbf;iffs; (gphpT-30)
 nra;aKbahj fhhpaq;fs; nra;tjw;fhd
xg;ge;jq;fs; (gphpT-56)

Kjpuh tajpdiuad;wp NtW ve;j xUtiuAk;
jpUkzf; fl;Lg;ghL tpjpj;J Vw;gLj;jg;gLk; ve;j
xU xg;ge;jKk; nry;yhJ. mj;jifa fl; Lg;ghL
KOikahdNjh gFjpahdNjh vJthdhYk;
nry;yhJ.

tzpfk; nra;tijj; jLf;Fk; xg;ge;jk; mJ
KOikahdNjh gFjpahdNjh Vw;fg;gl;lNjh
,y;iyNah mJ nry;yhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl; L: egu; -1 kw;Wk; egu; -2 ,UtUk; xU
gFjpapd; filelj;Jk; vjphpfshtu; . egu; -2 jdJ
filia %btpLtjw;fhf egu; -1 xU Fwpg;gpl;l
njhif mspf;fpwhu; . egu; -2 mjd;gb jdJ
filia %btpl;L me;jj; njhifia egu; -1-lk;
Nfl; fpwhu; . mtu; fspilNa ,Ue;j xg;ge;jk;
nry;yhJ vd jPu; g;gspf;fg;gl;lJ. (kJ}g; Re;ju;
vjpu; uh[;Fkhu; jh];> (1874) XIV ngq;fhy; rl;l
mwpf;iffs; 767)

,e;j tpjpf;F xUrpy tpjptpyf;FfSk; cz;L.





5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
 ey;nyz;z tpw;gid: xU tzpfu; jdJ
njhopypd; ew;ngaiu kw;wtUf;F tpw;fpwhu; .
mg;NghJ ,UtUk; me;j ew;ngaiu tpw;gtu;
me;j Fwp;g;gpl;l gFjpapy; mijg;Nghd;w xU
njhopiy Muk;gpf;ff; $lhJ vd xg;ge;jk;
nra;J nfhs;fpd;wdu; . ,e;j xg;ge;jj; jpy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s jilfs; mwpthu; e;jjhf
,Uf;Fk;tiu nry;yf; $baJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Jg;ghf;fpiaf; fz;Lgpbj;J
mijj; jahhpg;gtuhd egu; -1 me;jj; njhopypd;
ew;ngaiu kw;w xU thq;FgtUf;F tpw;f
Kd;tUfpwhu; . me;j tpw;gid cld;gbf;ifapy; (m)
md;wpypUe;J 25 Mz;LfSf;F tpw;gtu; mNj
njhopiy nra;af;$lhJ. (M) ve;jtifapYk;
me;jj; njhopiyg; ghjpf;ff;$ba ve;j xU
njhopiyAk; egu; -1 mf;fhyj;jpy; nra;af;$lhJ.
me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kjy;gFjp nry;yj;jf;fJ
vd;Wk; ,uz;lhtJ gFjp mwpthu; e;jjy;y vd;Wk;
mjdhy; nry;yhJ vd;Wk; jPhg;gspf;fg; gl;lJ.
(ehu; nld;/ngy;l; vjpu; Nkf;]pk; ehu; nld;/ngy;l;
fd;]; md; mk;%dprd; fk;ngdp ypl;.> (1894) AR
535.

 $l;Lj;njhopy; rl;lk;: tpahghuf; fl;Lg;ghL
tpjpf;Fk; cld;ghL nry;yhJ vd;w nghJ
tpjpf;F ,e;j $l;Lj;njhopy; rl;lk; xUrpy
tpjptpyf;Ffis Kd;itf;fpwJ. cjhuzkhf>
gphpT-11: xU $l;Lj; njhopy; nra;Ak;
gq;Fjhuu; fs; me;jf; $l;Lj; njhopy; ,Uf;Fk;
tiu ve;j NtnwhU njhopiyAk; njhlq;ff;
$lhJ vd;w cld;gbf;if nry;Yk; vd;fpwJ.
 ePjpkd;wj;jhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
tpjptpyf;Ffs;: ,e;j tpjpf;F khwhf xUrpy
epge;jidfis ePjpkd;wq;fs; Vw;Wf;
nfhz;Ls;sd. cjhuzkhf> tpahghu
cld;gbf;iffSk;> jdpg;gl;l nfhLf;fy;
thq;fy; cld;gbf;iffSk; xUrpy
re;ju; g;gq;fspy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gLfpd;wd. xU
epWtdj;jpy; Nrit Ghpgtu; NtW ve;j xU
epWtdj;jpw;Fk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F
Nritahw;wf;$lhJ vd;gJ xU Vw;fj;jf;f
cld;gbf;ifahFk;. ,Ug;gpDk; xU
epWtdj;jpd; gzpahsuhf ,Ue;J
ntspNaw;wg;gl;l xUtu; me;j Kjyhsp nra;Ak;
njhopiy nra;af;$lhJ vd cld;gbf;if
nra;tJ nry;yhJ. mNjNeuk; mJ me;j
Kjyhspapd; ew;ngaiug; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf
vdpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;.

jdJ chpikia epiyehl; l Fwpg;gpl;l
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; %yk; kl;LNk (KOikahf) xUtu;
epiyehl;l KbAk; vd my;yJ me;j chpikia
epiyehl;l Fwpg;gpl;l fhytiu fl;Lg;ghL
tpjpf;fg;gLk; cld;gbf;if nry;yhJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU cld;gbf;ifapd;gb mjpypUe;J
cUthFk; ve;j xU tof;ifAk; tprhhpf;f Kk;ig
ePjpkd;wk; kl;LNk tprhhpf;fyhk; vd ,Ue;jJ.
Mdhy;> thjpNah thudhrp ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu; . me;j tof;F js;Sgb
nra;ag;gl;lJ Vnddpy; cld;gbf;ifapd;gb
Kk;ig ePjpkd;wk; kl;LNk tprhhpf;f KbAk;.
,e;e tof;ifg; nghWj;jtiu Kk;ig kw;Wk;
thudhrp ,U ePjpkd;wq; fSf;FNk mjpfhu tuk;G
,Ue;jJ. me;j fl;Lg;ghL KOikahdjhf
,y;yhjjhy; me;j tof;F nry;yf; $baNj
vdj; jPhg;ghdJ. (`f;fk; rpq; vjpu; fk;kd;
(,e;jpah) ypl;.> AIR 1971 SC 740).

ge;jag; nghUs; rhu; e;j cld;gbf;iffs;
nry;yhJ. ,jw;Fk; rpy tpjptpyf;Ffs; cz; L.
xU jPu; khzpf;f Kbahj xd;iw jP u; khzpj;J
mjw;fhf xU njhifiaNah my;yJ mjw;Fr;
rkkhd njhifiaNah mspg;gJ ge;jakhFk;.
,e;j tifahd ge;ja xg;ge;jq;fs;
nry;yhjJk; epiwNtw;w KbahjjhfTk;
,Ue;jhYk; mJ rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;gltpy;iy.
vdNt Kf;fpa ghpkhw;wj;jpw;F ,izahd ve;j
ghpkhw;wKk; eilKiwg;gLj;jf; $baNjahFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F xU ge;jaf;
flid milg;gjw;Fg; gzk; nfhLf;fpwhu; . egu; -1
me;jf; flid egu; -2-lkpUe;J jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;.

rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd cld;gbf;iff;Fk;
nry;yh cld;gbf;iff;Fk; cs;s NtWghLfs;

rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd cld;gbf;if vd;gJ
rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;gl;lJ MFk;. xU
nry;yj;jfh cld;gbf;if mt;thW rl; lj;jhy;
jLf;fg; glhjJ. mg;gb xU cld;gbf;if
nra;J nfhz; lhy; eP jpkd;wk; mjpy; jiyaplhJ.
vy;yh rl;lj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghd cld;gbf;iffSk;
nry;yhjit. vy;yh nry;yhj
cld;gbf;iffSk; rl;lj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghdit
my;y. ,e;j ,U tifapYNk Kf;fpakhd
ghpkhw;wk; epiwNtw;wg;gl KbahjJ. Mdhy;
Kf;fpa ghpkhw;wj;jpw;F ,izahd kw;w
eltbf;iffs; nry;yhjitahdhYk;
rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghdjhf ,y;yhjtiu
epiwNtw;wf; $baNj. (Ke;ija tpsf;fj;ijg;
ghu; f;fTk;).

gphpf;fj;jf;fit - jj;Jtk;:

rpy Neuq;fspy; xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU gFjp
jd;dpiyapNyNa rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;ljhfTk;>
kw;w gFjpfs; rl;lj;jpw;F cl;glhjitahf
,Uf;fyhk;. mg;gbg;gl;l #oypy; nghJtpjp
ahnjdpy;:

‘xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; rl;lj;jpw;F cl;glhj
gFjpia rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;l gFjpapypUe;J
Kwpf;f Kbahjjhf ,Ue;jhy; me;j xg;ge;jk;
KOtJNk nry;yhjjhFk;. Mdhy;> mijg;
gphpf;f KbAk; vdpy; me;j rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghd




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
jd;ik nghJr; rl;lj;jhy; tpise;jpUe;jhy; mjpy;
cs;s nfl;l gFjpia ePf;fptpl;L ey;y gFjpia
itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.’ (gpf;fhpq; vjpu;
,y;/g;uhNfhk;gp nuapy;Nt fk;.> (1868) LR3 CP 235)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: jq;fk; kw;Wk; ,uj;jpdk; rhu;e;jxU
<l;Lj;njhiff;fhd xg;ge;jk;. mjd; Kjy; gFjp
rl;lj;jpw;F khwhdjhfTk; ,uz;lhtJ gFjp
rl;lg;G+u; tkhdjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ,it gphpf;ff;
$bajhf ,Ue;jjhy; ,uz; lhtJ gFjpNa
epiwNtw;wg; gl;lJ. (jhk]; gpuTd; md; rd;];
ypl;. vjpu; /g]y; jPd; (1962) 108 CLR 391).

xg;ge;jk; Nghd;W Njhw;wkspg;git:

xUrpy Neuq;fspy; rl;lj;jpYk; eP jpapd;gbAk; xUtu;
ve;j xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; thrfj;ijAk; kPwhky; Fw;wr;
nray; Ghpahky; xUrpy flg;ghl;Lf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl
Ntz; ba Njit cs;sJ. mg;gbg;gl;l
flg;ghLfis xg;ge;jk; Nghd;W Njhw;wkspg;git
vdyhk;. Vnddpy;> mq;F ve;j xU xg;ge;jKk;
cz;ikapy; ,y;iy. mit rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;gpdhpd; xg;Gjiy mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lit
my;y. mtw;iw xg;ge;jk; Nghd;W Njhw;wkspg;git
vdf; $Wk;NghNj mit xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J
njhiytpy; ,Ug;gJ njhpAk;.

rl;lKk; eP jpAk; epahakw;w tpjj;jpy; tsk;
Nru; g;gijNah my;yJ kw;w xUthplkpUe;J ngw;w
gzj;ijNah my;yJ NtW ve;j ey;y
fhhpaj;ijNah jpUg;gp mspf;fhky; jdf;Nf
epahakw;w tpjj;jpy; itj;Jf;nfhs;Stijj; jLf;f
Kay Ntz; Lk; vd;w jj;Jtj;jpd;
mbg;gilapNyNa ,e;j xg;ge;jk; Nghd;W
Njhw;wkspf;Fk; flg;ghLfs; cs;sd.

epahakw;w tpjj;jpy; tsk; Nru; g;gijj; jLg;gjw;F
eltbf;if vLg;gjw;F Kd; fPo;f;fhz;gtw;iw
cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;:

 gpujpthjp me;j ey;y fhhpaj;jhy; gadile;J
tsk; ngUfp ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 ,e;j tsk; ngUfy; thjpapd; ,og;gpypUe;J
te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
 me;j tsj;ij jdf;Nf itj;Jf;nfhs;tJ
epahakw;wJ (kfhgPu; fpN\hu; vjpu; kj;jpa
gpuNjr muR> AIR 1990 SC 313).

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpTfs; - 68 -72 xUrpy xg;ge;jk;
Nghd;W Njhw;wkspf;ff;$ba flg;ghLfis
Vw;fpd;wd. cjhuzkhf gphpT-71: "xU egu; jdJ
nghUsy;yhj NtnwhUthpd; cilikia fz;L
gpbj;J vLj;J jdJ fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;Jf;
nfhs;gtuJ nghWg;G xU gpizia
itj;jpUg;gthpd; nghWg;G Nghd;wNj.

epahakw;w tpjj;jpy; nrhj;J Nru; j;j Fw;wj;jpw;fhd
eltbf;ifapypUe;J jg;Gtjw;F me;j nrhj;ijf;
fz;Lgpbj;jtu; mjd; chpikahsiuf;
fz;Lgpbf;f Ntz; Lk;. mijj; jdf;Nf itj;Jf;
nfhs;sf;$lhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU tq;fp egu; -2d; fzf;fpy;
&.1>00>000 njhpahky; fzf;F itj;J tpl;lJ.
egu; -2 me;jg; gzj;ij vLj;J tpLfpwhu; . me;jg;
gzj;ij mtu; me;j tq;fpf;Nf nrYj;j
Ntz; Lk;. (S. Nfj;ugu; rg;gh vjpu; ,e;jpad; tq;fp>
AIR 1987 Kant 236).

xg;ge;jq;fis epiwNtw;Wjy;

xg;ge;jq;fspd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfs; jhq;fs;
mspj;j cWjpnkhopfis mtw;wpypUe;J tpyf;F
ngw;wpUe;jhNyh my;yJ xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jhy;
kd;dpj;J tplg;gl;bUe;jhyd;wp fl;lhakhf
epiwNtw;w Ntz; Lk; my;yJ epiwNtw;Wk;
epiyapy; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. me;j xg;ge;jj;jpy;
NtWtifahd fUj;J ntspg;gl;bUe;jhyd;wp
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug; igr; rhu; e;jtu; ,we;J
tpl;bUe;jhYk; mtuJ gpujpepjpahy; me;j
cWjpnkhopfs; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz; Lk;. xU
jdp eghpd; jdpg;gl;l Nritfs; toq;Ftjw;fhd
cjhuzkhf xU Xtpau; xU Xtpak; tiutj
rhu; e;j xg;ge;jkhf ,Ue;jhy; me;j eghpd;
,wg;gpw;Fg; gpd; mtuJ gpujpepjpfs;
flikg;gl;ltu; fs; my;y. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-37).

xU xg;ge;jk; jdp egu; rhu; e;jjhfNth my;yJ
me;j xg;ge;jg; gyid NtW ahUf;Fk;
mspg;gijj; jLj;jhyd;wp xU xg;ge;jj;jpd;
gyid xU jug; G NtW ahuhtJ xUtUf;F
mspf;fyhk;. xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; flikia xU
jug;G ahuhtJ xUtUf;F vjpu; jug;gpd;
mDkjpNahL toq;fyhk;. Mdhy;> ,J me;j
xg;ge;jj;ij Gjpa xg;ge;jkhf;FtjhFk;. (fu; jh
fk;. ypl;.> nua;khd; md; Nfh (,e;jpah) ypl;.>
AiR 1962 SC 1810)

cWjpnkhopia Vw;Wf;nfhz; l mLj;j jug;ghy;
%d;whk; eghpd; %yk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; cWjpnkhop
epiwNtw;wg;gLtJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lhy; mJ
nry;Yk;. cWjpnkhop gyuhy; $l;lhf
mspf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy; me;j midtUk;
$l;lhfTk; gytifapYk; me;j cWjpnkhop
epiwNtw;Wk; flik cs;sJ. me;j
cWjpnkhopia Vw;wtu; me; j cWjpnkhop
mspj;j midthpd;kPNjh jdp Ml;fspd; kPNjh
eltbf;if vLf;fyhk;. mtu; fspy; xUtu; me;j
cWjpnkhopia epiwNtw;wp ,Ue;jhy;> mtu;
kw;w cWjpnkhop mspj;j $l;lhspfsplkpUe;J
mtu; fsJ gq;iff; Nfl; Lg;ngWk; chpik
cs;sJ. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-40 -43).

xg;ge;jj;ij epiwNtw;w Kd;tUjy;:





5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;G mij
epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Kd;te;J mij vjpu; jug;G
mij Vw;fhtpby; mtu; me;j xg;ge;jk;
epiwNtwhjjw;F nghWg;gy;y. NkYk; fP o;f;fhZk;
tifapy; ,y;yhjNghJ mtUf;F me;j xg;ge;jk;
toq;fpAs;s chpikfs; gwpNghfhJ:

 me;j Kd;tUjy; (toq;fy;) epge;jidaw;wJ.
 me;j toq;fy; rhpahd Neuj;jpYk; ,lj;jpYk;
toq;fg;gl;lJ.
 me;j toq;fiyr; nra;gtuhy; vij> vq;F>
vg;NghJ mtu; flikapy; KOikiaAkh
my;yJ gFjpiaah toq;f KbAk; vd;gij
me;j toq;fiyg; Vw;gtu; Ghpe;Jnfhs;sg;
NghJkhd tha;g;G toq;Fk; tpjj;jpy; me;j
toq;fy; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-39)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F xUrpy nghUl;fis
tpw;f cld;gLfpwhu; . me;j xg;ge;jg;gb egu; -1 egu; -2-
d; Miyapy; Ntiy Neuj;jpy; Nru; f;f Ntz; Lk;.
Mdhy;> egu; -1 me;jg; nghUl;fis ,uT Neuj;jpy;
mUfpy; cs;s njhlu; tz; b epiyaj;jpy;
jUtjhf Kd;te;J $Wfpwhu; . ,J xU
nry;yj;jf;f toq;fy; my;y. egu; -1-d; nghWg; ig
tpl;Ltpl KbahJ. (Nu Mz;l;& A+Ny md; Nfh.>
AIR 1932 Cal879).

xU toq;fiy Vw;f khl;Nlhk; vd Vw;fdNt
toq;fiyg; ngWk; jug;G kWj;jpUe;jhy; me;j
toq;fy; Njitaw;wjhfpwJ. (,d;lu; Ne\dy;
fhd;l;uhf;lu; ]; ypl;.> vjpu; gpurhe;j; Fkhu; ru; (decd),
AIR 1962 SC 77)

fhyhtjpahFKd; Kwpj;jy;

xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;G mtuJ cWjpnkhopia
epiwNtw;w KbahJ vd;fpwhu; my;yJ mtuJ
xl;Lnkhj;j cWjpnkhop epiwNtw;WtjpypUe;Jk;
tpyfpf; nfhs;fpwhu; vdpy; me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;
mLj;j jug;Gk; me;j xg;ge;jj;ij jdJ
thu; j;ijahNyh my;yJ nrayhNyh me;j xg;ge;jk;
njhlu ,ijr; rfpj;Jf;;nfhs;tjhff;
fhl;bapUe;jhyd;wp KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tuyhk;.
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-39)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: kuntl;bahd egu; -1 egu; -2-d;
nrhj;jpYs;s kuj;ij ntl;b mtw;iwj; jdJ
(egu; -1) tz; bapy; Vw;wp mUfpYs;s njhlu; tz; b
epiyaj;jpy; jUtjhf xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; .
mJ epiwNtWKd; egu; -1 jdJ tz; bia tpw;W
tpLfpwhu; . ,J fhyhtjpahFKd; Kwpj;jyhFk;.
egu; -2 mijr; rfpj;Jf;nfhz;L me;j xg;ge;jk;
njhlur; nra;ayhk; my;yJ me;j xg;ge;jj;ij
Kbj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. ([hd; c];]u; N[hd;];
vjpu; vltu; L ];fhl; fpNuhfd;> AIR 1919 PC 190)


epiwNtw;Wk; Neuk;> ,lk; kw;Wk; tpjk;:

epiwNtw;Wk; fhyk; Fwpg;gplg;glhtpl;lhy;
Vw;fj;jf;f fhyj;jpw;Fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl
Ntz; Lk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-46).
xg;ge;jj;jpd; ikakhf Neuk; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;
vd rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfs; tpUk;gpdhy;> me;j
cWjpnkhopia me;j Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpy;
epiwNtw;wj; jtWk;NghJ cWjpnkhopia
Vw;gtUf;F me;j xg;ge;jj;ij Kbj;Jf;
nfhs;Sk; chpik cs;sJ. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-18). nghJthff; $w Ntz; Lkhdhy;>
tzfk; rhu; e;j vy;yh xg;ge;jq;fspYk; fhyk;
vd;gJ mtrpakhd xd;whFk;. Mdhy;> xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; jug;gpdu; fhyk; vd;gJ
mtrpakhdJjhdh ,y;iyah vd;gijj;
njspthff; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,e;j cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;
fhyk; mtrpakh ,y;iyah vd;gijj; njspT
gLj;Jk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -2-d; kfsJ jpUkzj;jpw;F
,dpg;G toq;Ftjhf egu; -1 cWjpnkhop
mspf; fpwhu; . egu; -2 njspthf egu; -2-lk; me;j
,dpg;Gfs; jpUkzj;jpd;NghJ tUk; mtuJ
tpUe;jhspfSf;Fj;jhd; Ntz; Lk; vdf;
Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; . me;jj; jpUkz ehSk; Fwpg;gplg;
gLfpwJ. egu; -1 cld;ghl; bd;gb ,dpg;ig
toq;fj; jtWfpwhu; . ,q;F fhyk; vd;gJ
xg;ge;jj;jpd; mtrpakhdjhfpwJ. vdNt egu; -2
me;j xg;ge;jj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tuyhk;.

cWjpnkhop mspg;gtu; mijg; ngWgthplk;
mij epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd trjpahd ,lj;ij
KbT nra;a Ntz; Lk;. ,lk; gw;wp njspthff;
Fwpg;gplhjpUe;jhy; me;j xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J me;j
,lj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 NtW efhpYs;s egu; -2-
lkpUe;J rpy nghUl;fis thq;Ffpwhu; . egu; -1
gpd; egu; -2-I mioj;J jdJ mYtyfj;jpw;F
te;J njhifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;SkhW
$Wfpwhu; . ,J mwpthu; e;jjy;y. egu; -2 NtW
tpjkhff; $whjtiu egu; -2d; tof;fkhd
mYty; ,lj;jpy; fl;lzk; nrYj;JtJ
eilngw Ntz;Lk;. (Nfhgpuhk; fhrpuhk; vjpu;
rq;fu; uht; AIR 1950 MB 72 –d; mbg;gilapy;)

xg;ge;j epiwNtw;wk; me;j cWjpnkhop
Vw;gthpd; tpUg;gj;jpd;gb ve;j tifapYk;
mtu; tpUk;Gk; Neuj;jpYk; eilngw Ntz; Lk;.
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gphpT-50)
epiwNtw;Wjy; MfhJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl; L: thlifjhuuhd egu; -1 thlifia
chpikahsuhd egu; -2-f;F gztpil %yk;
mDg;Gfpwhu; . Mdhy;> gztpilr; nryit
gpbj;Jf;nfhz;L kPjj; njhifiaNa
mDg;Gfpwhu; . ,J me;j chpikahsu;
Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhyd;wp rhpahd Vw;fj;jf;f




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
epiwNtw;Wjy; MfhJ. (ehuhad;uht; ahNf\;tu;
uht; vjpu; lhdgh[p jkh[p> AIR 1954 Mag 270)

tha;g;gpd; ikAk; tpuf;jpailjYk;

xU nraiyr; nra;tjw;fhd xg;ge;j;jpy; me;jr;
nray; jd;dpiyapNyNa nra;aKba
tha;g;gpy;yhjpUe;jhy; mJ nry;yhJ. xg;ge;jj;jpd;
xU jug;Gf;F me;jr; nraiyr; nra;tjw;F tha;g;G
,y;iy vd ed;F njhpe;Jk; (Mdhy;> vjpu;
jug;Gf;F – cWjpnkhop Vw;gtUf;F
njhpahjpUe;jhy;) mijr; nra;tjhf cWjpnkhop
mspj;jhuhdhy; me;j cWjpnkhop mspj;jtu; mij
epiwNtw;w Kbahjjhy; me;j cWjpnkhop
Vw;wtUf;F chpa ,og;gPl;il mspf;f Ntz; Lk;.

NtW VjhtJ vjpu; ghf;fhj> jLf;f Kbahj
fhuzj;jpdhy; my;yJ me;j xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLj;jg;
gl;lgpd; mJ rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhdjhf Mfpajhy;
nfhLj;j thf;FWjpiaf; fhg;ghw;w Kbahky;
Nghdhy; me;j xg;ge;jk; nry;yhjjhfpwJ. me;j
epiwNtw;wYk; epiwNtw;w ,ayhjjhfNth
rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghdjhfNth khWfpwJ. ,jw;Fg;
ngau; tpuf;jpailjy; jj;Jtk; MFk;. (xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-56).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 ypd;rPL vz;nza;ia NtW
xU ehl;by; thOk; egu; -2-cld; mtuJ ehl;bNyNa
mspg;gjhf xU xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; .
Mdhy;> ypd;rPL vz;nza; Vw;Wkjpf;F jil
tpjpf;fg; gLfpwJ. ,g;NghJ egu; -1 me;j xg;ge;jg;gb
ypd;rPL vz;nza;ia mspf;f Ntz; bajpy;iy.
Vnddpy; me;j xg;ge;jk; tpuf;jpailjy; jj;Jtk;
fhuzkhf nry;yhjjhfptpl;lJ. (Ju; fh Njtp gfj;
vjpu; J.B. mj;thdp md; Nfh ypl;. (1970) 76 Cal WN
528)

Nrhu; e;J Nghjy; jj;Jtj;jpw;F xU xg;ge;jj;jpd;
epiwNtw;Wjy; ,ayhkNyh my;yJ rl;lj;jpw;Fg;
Gwk;ghdjhfNth khw Ntz; Lk;. xU xg;ge;jj;ij
epiwNtw;WtJ vjpu; ghu; j;jijtpl fbdkhf
,Ug;gjhNyh yhgkw;wJ vd;gjhNyh mJ ,ayhjJ
MfptplhJ. (mNyhgp gu; \j; md; rd;]; ypl;.> vjpu;
,e;jpa A+dpad;> AIR 1960 SC 588)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: cw;gj;jpahsuhd egu; -1 xU
Fwpg;gpl;l tpiyf;F rpy ,ae;jpuq;fis egu; -2f;F
tpw;f cld;gLfpwhu; . me;j xg;ge;jk;
ifnahg;gkhdJk; muR cw;gj;jpf;fhd thpia 20
tpOf;fhL cau; j;JfpwJ. egu; -1 me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l
tpiyapy; egu; -2f;F tpw;gJ yhgk; juhJ vd
epidf;fpwhu; . ,J epiwNtw;w KbahjJ vdj;
js;sKbahJ. me;j xg;ge;jk; ,g;NghJk;
nry;yj;jf;fNj. vdNt> egu; -1 me;j
cWjpnkhopia epiwNtw;w Ntz; baJ
flikahFk;.

xg;ge;jj;jpd; jug;gpdu; ‘force majeure’ nrhw;nwhliu
xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,izf;fyhk;. ,jpy; ,U
jug;gpduhYk; vjpu; ghu; f;f Kbahj fl;Lg;gLj;j
Kbahj nray;fisf; Fwpg;gpl;L mj;jifa
epfo;Tfs; Vw;gl;lhy; me;j thf;FWjpia
epiwNtw;w Ntz; ba mtrpakpy;iy. me;jr;
nrhw;nwhlu; gphptpy; nghJthf nra;a
Kbahjitay;yhj epfo;TfisAk;
cjuhzkhf> nts;sk;> Ntiy epWj;jk;>
fpsu; r;rp Nghd;witfis ,izf;fyhk;.

Gjpjhf;Fjy;:

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,U jug;gpdUk; gioa
xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; xU GJ xg;ge;jk; nra;J
nfhs;s tpUk;gpdhNyh my;yJ gioa
xg;ge;jj;ij uj; J nra;a tpUk;gpdhNyh jpUj;j
tpUk;gpdhNyh Kjy; xg;ge;jj;ij epiwNtw;w
Ntz; bajpy;iy. Mdhy;> gioa xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fg;
gjpy; Gjpa xg;ge;jk; nra;a Ntz; Lkhdhy;
me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug; Gfs;
mjw;F cld;gl Ntz; Lk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;>
gphpT62)

tpLtpj;jy;> tpl;Lf;nfhLj;jy;> ,zf;fk; kw;Wk;
jpUg;jp

xU thf;FWjp Vw;gtu; jdf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l
thf;FWjp KOikiaANkh my;yJ
gFjpiaNah Ntz;lhnkd tpl;L tplyhk;
my;yJ kd;dpj;J tplyhk;. my;yJ
epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd fhyj;ij js;spg; Nghlyhk;
my;yJ mry; thf;FWjpf;Fg; gjpy; Gjpaij
Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk; my;yJ ve;j xU
jpUg;jpfukhd nrayhf epidg;gijAk;
nra;ayhk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-63).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F &.10000 flikg;
gl;Ls;shu; . egu; -1 egu; -2f;F &.5000
nrYj;Jfpwhu; . mLj;J egu; -2 kPjKs;s &.5000-
id tpl;Lf;nfhLj;Jtpl;L jd;id me;jj;
njhifiaj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;JtjpypUe;J
tpLtpf;FkhW Nfl; Lf; nfhs;fpwhu; . ,J xU
,zf;fk; kw;Wk; jpUg;jpahFk;. ,jdhy; egu; -1
,dp flidj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j
Ntz; bajpy;iy. (fg;G+u; re;j; Nfhjh vjpu;
`pkhajypfhd; m]k;[h> AIR 1963 SC 250)

tpLtpj; jypd; tpisTk; xg;ge;jk; nry;yhJ
NghtJk;

xU nry;yj;jfhj xg;ge;jj;ij tpLtpj;jhy;
mLj;j jug;G me;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s ve;j
xU thf;FWjpiaAk; epiwNtw;w
Ntz; bajpy;iy. xg;ge;jj;ij tpLtpf;Fk; jug; G
kw;w jug;gplkpUe;J me;j xg;ge;jj;jhy; ngw;w
midj;Jg; gad;fisAk; jpUg;gp mspf;f
Ntz; Lk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-64)





5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
xU xg;ge;jk; nry;yhjJ vdf; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lhy;
my;yJ mJ cjhuzkhf> tpuf;jpailjy;
fhuzkhf nry;yhjjhdhy;> me;j cld;gbf;ifapd;
fhuzkhfg; ngw;w midj;J gyd;fisAk; mij
jpUg;gp mspf;f Ntz; Lk; my;yJ mij
mspj;jtUf;F <L nra;a Ntz; Lk;. (xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-65)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: thlifjhuuhd egu; -2lkpUe;J
chpikahsuhd egu; -1 rl; lj;jhy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l
thlifj; njhifiatpl mjpfkhd njhifia
thlifahf t#ypf;fpwhu; . egu; -1 egu; -2f;F mtu;
ngw;w $Ljy; njhifia jpUg;gp mspf;f Ntz; Lk;.
(Nrhk;uh[; vjpu; N[j;khy;> AIR 1957 Raj 392).

xg;ge;j kPwypd; tpisT: Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fk;

xUrpy Neuq;fspy;> xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpa jug;ig
mj;jug; G mtu; fspd; flikia epiwNtw;Wtij
typAWj;Jtjw;fhf kw;w jug;G jz;bf;fyhk;. ,jd;
ngau; ‘Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzk; ’ vdg;gLk;. mg;gbg;gl;l
epthuzk; rhu; e;j rl;lj;ij ‘Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr;
rl;lk; ’> 1963 y; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; KbTf;F Vw;g epiwNtw;wg;gLk;.

 xU thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;whjjhy; Vw;gl;l
,og;igf; fz;lwpa xU nghJ msTnfhy;
,y;yhjNghJk;
 nfhLf;fg;gl;l thf;fpd; kjpg;G ve;j msT
vd;why; ve;j xU gzkjpg;ghYk; <Lfl;l
Kbahjjhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJk; eP jpkd;wj;jpd;
KbNt rpwe;jJ. (Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-10)

NtWtifapy; cWjpg;gLj;jpdhyd;wp ,t;thW
fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ:

 xU mirahr; nrhj;ij khw;WtJ rhu; e;j
xg;ge;jj;ij Kwpg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ig
gzj;jhy; <Lfl;l KbahJ.
 xU mirAk; nrhj;ij khw;WtJ rhu; e;j
xg;ge;jj;ij Kwpg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ig
gzj;jhy; <Lfl;l KbAk;. ,jw;F rpy tpjp
tpyf;Ffs; cz; L mit:
o mj;jifa nrhj;J xU rhjhuzkhf
tpw;fg;gLk; nghUsy;y my;yJ me;j thjpf;F
kpf Kf;fpakhd kjpg;Gkpf;f nghUs; my;yJ
re;ijapy; fpilf;fhj mhpa nghUshFk;
o me;j nrhj;ij gpujpthjp thjpapd; Mshf
my;yJ br];B ahf mij itj;jpUf;fpwhu; .
(Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk;> gphpT-15-d;
vLj;Jf;fhl;L)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU Fwpg;gpl;l msT ];biy
egu; -2f;F tpw;f cld;gLfpwhu; . mg;NghJ me;j
];By; Miyfspy; Ntiy epWj;jk; Vw;gLfpwJ.
vdNt ];Biy thq;FtJ kpff; fbdkhfpwJ.
,g;NghJ egu; -1 me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;gb mtuJ
thf;FWjpiaf; fhg;ghw;w kWf;fpwhu; vd;why;
egu; -2f;F Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ij egu; -2f;F
mspf;fyhk;. Vnddpy; ]; By; mg;NghJ
re;ijapy; vspjhff; fpilf;ftpy;iy.
(N`hthu; L E. ngu; hp md; Nfh ypl; vjpu;
gphpl;b\; nuapy;Nt Nghu; L> (1980) 2 All ER 579.)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F xU mhpjhd
mofhd goq;fhy kug;nghUis tpw;f
cld;gLfpwhu; . Mdhy;> gpd; du; mt;thW tpw;f
kWf;fpwhu; . ,jpy; egu; -2 Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;ij Nfhu KbahJ. me;j egu; -2
mg;gbg;gl;l nghUl;fis tpw;Fk; xU
tpahghhpahthu; . mij kWtpw;gidf;fhfNt
thq;f cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz;lhu; .
(Nfh`d; vjpu; Nuhr;> (1927) 1 KB 169)

xU mwq;fhtyuhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l xg;ge;jk;
mtuJ mjpfhuj; jpw;F kPwpajhf ,Ue;jhNyh
my;yJ ek;gpf;F vjpuhdjhf ,Ue;jhNyh
mijr; nray;gLj;j KbahJ. (Fwpg;gpl;l
epthuzr; rl;lk;> gphpT-11.)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU mwq;fhtyu; – egu; -1 me;j
mwf;fl;lisapd; epyj;jpid 7 Mz;LfSf;F
Fj;jiff;F tpl mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
me;j egu; -1 egu; -2f;F me;j epyj;ij 7
Mz;LfSf;F Fj;jiff;F tpLfpwhu; . me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpy; me;j 7 Mz; L Kbtpy; mtUf;Nf
kPz;Lk; mLj;j jtidf;Fk; GJg;gpg;gjhf
cs;sJ. me;j xg;ge;jk; Fwpg;ghf epiwNtw;w
KbahJ. (Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr;rl;lk;> 1877> gphpT-
21(c)-tpd; vLj;Jf;fhl;L)

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; gFjprhu; Fwpg;ghd
nrayhf;fk;

nghJ tpjpahf fPo;f;fhz;gitapd;wp xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ij
ePjpkd;wk; tw;GWj;jhJ.

 xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;igr; rhu; e;jtu;
jdJ gq;fpd; KOikiaANk nray;gLj;j
,ayhjtuhf cs;shu; . Mdhy;>
nray;gLj;jhky; tplf;$ba gq;F me;j
KOikahd kjpg;gpy; kpff; FiwthFk;.
mij gzj;jhy; <Lfl;l KbAk;. ,e;jr;
#oypy; ve;j xU jug;ghtJ vOg;gpAs;s
tof;fpy; ePjpkd;wk; me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;
nray;gLj;jf;$ba me;j rpWgFjpia
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;jpw;F cj;jutplyhk;
kw;Wk; nray;gLj;j Kbahky; tplg;gl;l
gFjpf;F <l;Lj;njhif mspf;fTk; $wyhk;.
 xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU jug;igr; rhu; e;jtu;
jdJ gq;fpd; KOikiaANk nray;gLj;j
,ayhjtuhf cs;shu; . NkYk; nray;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
gLj;jhky; tplf;$ba gFjp:
o me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; ngUk;gFjpahFk;. ,e;jr;
#oypy; eP jpkd;wk; mLj;j jug;G mjw;fhd
njhifiar; nrYj;jpdhNyh my;yJ
ghprPyidf;fhd njhifia me;j xg;ge;jk;
KOikf;FNk Vw;fdNt nrYj;jptpl;lhNyh
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;jpw;F cj;jutplyhk;.
o gzj;jhy; <Lfl;l KbahJ vdpy; mLj;j
jug;G mj;njhifiar; nrYj;jpdhy;
my;yJ ghprPyidf;fhd njhifia me;j
xg;ge;jk; KOikf;FNk Vw;fdNt
nrYj;jptpl;lhNyh ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;jpw;F cj;jutplyhk;
,Ug;gpDk; ,e;j ,U topapYNk xg;ge;jj;jpd;
mLj;j jug;G epiwNtw;wg;glhj me;j rpW
gFjpf;fhd chpikia tpl;Lf; nfhLf;f
Ntz; Lk;. ,og;gPLk; Nfl; fyhfhJ.
 xU xg;ge;j;j;jpd; xUgFjp mg;gbNa vLj;Jf;
nfhz;lhy; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fk; ngw KbAk;
ngw Ntz;Lk;. me;jg; gFjp me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;
fl; lhak; epiwNtw;w Ntz; lhj kw;w
gFjpapypUe;J jdpj;J mjw;Nf chpa tpjj;jpy;
,Uf;fpwJ vdpy; ePjpkd;wk; me;j fl;lhak;
Fwpg;ghf nray;gLj;j Ntz; ba gFjpia
epiwNtw;w Mizaplyhk;. (Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-12)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F 100 Vf;fu; epyj;ij
tpw;f cld;gLfpwhu; . Mdhy;> egu; -1-lk; 98 Vf;fu;
epyk; kl;LNk cs;sJ. me;j tpLgl;l 2 Vf;fu;
epyk; tpw;f tpUk;ghJ NtW xUtUilaJ. me;j
98 Vf;fu; epyj;ijg; gad;gLj;j me;j 2 Vf;fu;
fl; lhak; ,y;iy. me;j 2 Vf;fu; ,og;gjhy; me;j
,og;ig gzj;jhy; <Lfl; l KbahJ vd;gjy;y.
,e;jr; #oypy; egu; -2 njhLj;j tof;fpy; egu; -1
mtuJ me;j 98 Vf;fu; epyj;ijAk; egu; -2-f;F
nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk; xg;ge;jg;gb tpw;fhj 2
Vf;fu; epyj;jpw;fhd ,og;ig egu; -1 egu; -2f;Fj; ju
Ntz; Lk; vd cj;jutplyhk; my;yJ egu; -1
njhLj;j tof;fpw;F egu; -2 mtu; nfhLf;f Ntz; ba
KOj; njhifapy; mtu; ngwhj 2 Vf;fu;
epyj;jpw;fhd njhifiaf; fopj;Jtpl;L 98 Vf;fu;
epyj;jpw;fhd njhifia kl;Lk; fl;Lk;gb
Nfhuyhk;. (Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr;rl;lk; 1877 gphpT-14-
f;fhd vLj;Jf;fhl;bd;gb)

Fwpg;ghf epiwNtw;w Kbahj xg;ge;jq;fs;

fPo;f;fhZk; xg;ge;jq;fs; Fwpg;ghf epiwNtw;w
Kbahjit:
 epiwNtw;w Kbahj xg;ge;jj;jpw;F <lhf gzk;
nrYj;jf; $baJ
 xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s \uj; Jfs; kpf mjpf
vz;zpf;ifapyhd EZf;fkhditahfNth
my;yJ mJ jdpeghpd; jpwd; rhu; e;jjhfNth
my;yJ rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdhpd; tpUg;gk;
rhu; e;jjhfNth my;yJ xU ePjpkd;wk;
jiyapl;L mijf; Fwpg;ghf epiwNtw;wr;
nrhy;y Kbahj mstpy; mjd; jd;ik
,Ue;jhy;
 xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik jP u; khdpf;ff;$ba
tpjj;jpy; ,Ue;jhy; mit Fwpg;ghf
epiwNtw;wf; $baitahFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU vOj;jhsuhd egu; -1 jdJ
Gj;jfj;ij ntspapl ntspaPl;lhsuhd egu; -1-ld;
xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; . egu; -2 Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;jpid nray;gLj;j KbahJ.
(Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk; gphpT-21-f;fhd
tpsf;fj;jpd; gb)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU epyj;jpYs;s kuq;fis
ntl;l egu; -2-ld; xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu; .
,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij nghUj;jtiu egu; -1 Fwpg;gpl;
nrayhf;fj;ijr; nray;gLj;jyhk;. Vnddpy;
,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug; Gfspd;
tpUg;gj;ijr; rhu;e;jjhf ,y;iy. (uhgu; l; b
rpy;th vjpu; Nuhfpdp vd;lu; gpiur];> AIR 1987
Kant 57).

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kwptpdhy; fpilf;f Ntz; ba
,og;gPl;ilg; ngwj; jFjpaw;w> my;yJ
epiwNtw;Wk; jFjpia ,oe; jtu; my;yJ
xg;ge;jj;jpy; jhd; epiwNtw;w Ntz; ba
Kf;fpakhd gq;if kPwpdhNyh my;yJ
xg;ge;jj;jpw;F khwhf Nkhrbapy; <Lgl;lhNyh
my;yJ njhpe;Nj me;j xg;ge;jj;jpw;F
khwhfNth> mijr; rpijf;Fk; tpjj;jpNyh
ele;J nfhz;lhNyh xg;ge;jj;jpd; Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;ij epiwNtw;w ,ayhJ. jdJ
nra;Jtpl;Nld; vd cWjpg;gLj;jhj my;yJ
me;j thf;FWjpapy; jdJ gq;fpid – mLj;j
jug;ghy; tpLtpf;fg;gl;l gFjpiaj; jtpu -
epiwNtw;w vg;NghJNk jahuhf ,Uf;Fk;
egUf;Fr; rhu;ghf Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ijr;
nray;gLj;j KbahJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-f;F xUrpy
nghUl;fis tpw;f cld;gLfpwhu;. mjd;gb egu; -
1 mjpy; xUrpy nghUl;fis mDg;gp tpLfpuhu;.
cld;gbf;ifapy; cs;s NtWrpy nghUl;fis
mDg;g egu; -1-dhy; Kbatpy;iy. ,J egu; -1
epiwNtw;w tpUg;gkpd;wp ,Ug;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ.
,jdhy; egu; -1 Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ijf; Nfhu
KbahJ. (rd; ngu;kdd;l; ngd/gpl; gpy;bq;
nrhirl;b vjpu; nt];lu;d; rgu;gd; md; `hNuh
NuhL ngu;kdd;l; gpy;bq; nrhirl;b> (1921) All ER
Rep 690 –d; mbg;gilapy;)

ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ij rl;lg;gb
nfhLf;fyhk; vd;gjw;fhff; nfhLf;f
Ntz; bajpy;iy. ,e;j mjpfhu tuk;G
csj;Nju;tpd;gb nra;a Ntz; baJ. xUrpy
re;jHg;gq;fspy; eP jpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;ij toq;fhJ. cjhuzkhf:




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
 xg;ge;j thrfk;> my;yJ rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;gpdhpd; nray;fs;> my;yJ xg;ge;jk;
Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l #oy;fs; nry;yj;jf;fjhf
,Ug;gpDk; thjpf;F Njitf;FNky; mjpfkhd
mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;
 xg;ge;jj;ij gpujpthjp epiwNtw;Wtjpy; mjpfr;
rpf;fy;fs; ,Ue;jhy; mij me;jg; gpujpthjp
czuhky; xg;ge;jk; nra;;jpUe;jhy;> Mdhy;>
mNj msT fbdk; thjpf;F ,y;yhJ ,Ue;jhy;
 gpujpthjp me;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; <Lgl;l #oy;
nry;yj;jfhjjhf;ff; $baJ ,y;iy vdpDk;
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;jpw;Fj; jFjpaw;wjhf
,Ue;jhy; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;jpid
ePjpkd;wk; nfhLf;f Ntz; bajpy;iy.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egH-1 jdJ epyj;ij egH-2-lk; tpw;f
cld;gLfpwhH. me;j tpw;gid Nguk; ele;jNghJ
me;jg; gFjpapy; xU fhy;tha; ntl;lg;gl;Lf;
nfhz;bUe;jJ. mjdhy;> me;j epyj;jpd; kjpg;G
gd;klq;F caHe;jJ. egH-2-f;F ,J
njhpe;jpUe;jhYk; egu;-1-f;F ,J njhpahJ. ,jpy;
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fk; epuhfhpf;fg;gl;lJ.
(uhkfpU\;d ehAL vjpH godpag;g nrl;bahu;. AIR
1963 Mad 17).

xU Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;jpw;fhf tof;fpLk; thjp
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;NjhL my;yJ mjw;Fg;gjpy;
,og;gPilAk; Nfhuyhk;. Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;ijf;
nfhLf;f ,ayhJ vd ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy;
mj;jifa Nfhhpf;ifia Vw; W ,og;gPL nfhLf;fT;
cj;jutplyhk;. Mdhy;> me;j ,og;gPl;bid me;j
thjf;Ff; nfhLf;f Ntz; Lk;. Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;NjhL ,og;gPLk; ju Ntz; Lk; vd
ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy; mt;thW nra;ayhk;. mg; gb
,og;gPL mspf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk; vd jPHkhdpj;jhy;
mJ rhHghf xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-73-d;gbNa
ePjpkd;wk; nray;gl Ntz; Lk;. (Fwpg;gpl;l ghpfhur;
rl;lk;> gphpT-21).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ tpl;il egu; -2-f;;F tpw;f
cld;gLfpwhu;. egu; -2 me;jj; njhifia egu; -1f;F
nfhLj;J tpLfpwhu;. Mdhy;> egu; -1 jdJ nrhj;ijf;
nfhLf;f kWf;fpwhu;. me;j Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;jpw;fhd tof;fpd; jPu;g;G 3
Mz;LfSf;Fg;gpd; egu; -2-d; rhu;ghf toq;fg;
gLfpwJ. ,e;j tof;fpy; egH-2-f;F Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;NjhL ,og;gPl; bidAk; toq;f
cj;jutplg; gLfpwJ. Vnddpy; egu; -2 me;j %d;W
Mz;Lfshf me;jr; nrhj;jpid mDgtpf;f
Kbatpy;iy. (epf;fg;gl;l Fwpg;gpl;l ghpfhur; rl;lk;>
1877> gphpT-19d; %d;whtJ gj;jpf;fhd tpsf;fj;jpd;
mbg;gilapy;)

xU xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpdhy; ve;j msT gzk;
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz; Lk; vd xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;
gl;bU;ejhy; mjd;gb nrayhf;fk; nra;ag;gl
Ntz; Lk;. Mdhy;> mg;gbg; gzj;njhif Fwpg;gplg;
gl;bUg;gJ me;j xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz; Lk;
vd;gij typAWj;Jtjw;fhf kl;LNk vdTk;
mij kPWk; jug;Gf;F Fwpg;gpl;l
nrayhf;fj;jpw;Fg;gjpy; ,og;gPL nfhLf;fyhk;
vd;gjw;fhf my;y vd ePjpkd;wk; fUjpdhy;>
ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fj;NjhL me;jj;
njhifiaAk; nfhLf;f typAWj;jj;
Njitapy;iy. (Fwpg;gpl;l ghpfhur; rl;lk;> gphpT-
23)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-d; thlifjhuu;. egu-
1 egu; -3-ld; me;j nrhj;ij kW Fj;jiff;Fj;
jUtjhfTk; mjw;F egu;-2d; mDkjpiag;
ngw; Wj; jUtjhfTk; $Wfpwhu;. mj;jifa
mDkjpia egu; -1 ngw;Wj; juhtpby; egu; -1 egu; -
3-f;F &.10>000 ju Ntz;Lk; vdTk; xg;ge;jj;jpy;
Fwpg;gplg; gLfpwJ. mjd;gpwF egu; -1 egu; -2-lk;
kWFj;jiff;F mDkjp Nfl; fNt ,y;iy.
mjdhy;> xg;ge;jg;gb &.10>000-id egu; -3f;Fj;
jUtjhff; $Wfpwhu;. ,q;F egu; -2f;F me;j
Fwpg;gpl;l nrayhf;fkhd kW Fj;jiff;F egu; -2
mDkjpj;jhy; chpik cs;sJ. (ePf;fg;gl;l
Fwpg;gpl;l ghpfhur; rl;lk;> 1877> gphpT-20d;
tpsf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;)

xg;ge;j Kwptpd; tpisTfs;: ,og;Gfs;

xU xg;ge;jj;ij xU jug;G Kwpg;gjhy; mLj;j
jug;Gf;F ,aw;ifahfNth my;yJ rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;GfSf;F xg;ge;jj;jpd;NghNj vd;d tpisT
Vw;gLk; vdj; njhpe;j ,og;Gfis <Lnra;a
Ntz; baJ Kwpf;Fk; jug; gpd; flikahFk;.
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-73) (,e;jg; gFjpf;fhd
vLj;Jf;fhl;bidg; ghu;f;fTk;)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU ,lj;ij mjpy; cs;s
gzpkidNahL Fj;jiff;F thq;Ffpwhu;.
mjw;fhd top Kd;gFjpapy; kpff; FWfyhf
,Ue;jJ mjdhy;> mjw;F NtnwhU top kpf
mtrpakhf ,Ue;jJ. Fj;jiff;F mspj;jtu;fs;
gpd;gFjpapy; cs;s ,lk; topahf me;j
,lj;jpw;F ghij mikf;f chpik cs;sJ
vd;w $w;iw ek;gpj;jhd; mij Fj;jiff;F
vLj;jpUe;jhu;. Mdhy;> gpd;Gwj;jpy; cs;s
nrhj;jpd; chpikahsH mq;F topapy;iy vdf;
$wp topju kWf;fpwhu;. ,jd;fhuzkhf egu; -1-
dhy; me;j ,lj;jpy; gzpkidia elj;j
Kbatpy;iy. mjdhy; mij egu; -1 Fiwe;j
tpiyf;F tpw;f Ntz; bajhapw;W. me;j Fj;jif
mspj;jtu;fSf;F vjpuhd tof;fpy; egu; -1f;F
,og;gPL mtu; me;j nrhj;jpid thq;fp jdJ
njhopiyr; nra;tjw;F mtu; nra;j midj;Jr;
nryTj; njhifia – me;j ,lj;ij tpw;gJ
tiu mtUf;fhd tq;fp tl;b cl;gl –
midj;ijAk; me;j tpw;gidahsu;fNs ju
cj;jutplg;gl;lJ. (N`a]; vjpu; N[k;]; kw;Wk;
rhHy;]; lhl; > (1990) 2 All ER 815).

nrhj;Jtpw;gid rhu;ghd xg;e;j KwpTfSf;fhd




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
,og;ig fzpg;gjw;F ,Utopfis cr;rePjpkd;wk;
toq;FfpwJ.

“KjyhtJ> tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; jdf;F
fpilf;f Ntz; baij fpilf;fhky; me;j xg;ge;jk;
Kwpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij ep&gpg;gtiu me;j
xg;ge;jk; xU ey;y #oypy; cz;ikahfNt
epiwNtwpapUe;jhy; ve;j msT gz kjpg;gpy; vd;d
fpilj;jpUf;Fk; vd;gijf; ftzpf;f Ntz; Lk;.
Mdhy;> ,e;j KjyhtJ topf;F cjtpahf>
,uz;lhtJ top thjp me;j Kwptpdhy; Vw;gLk;
,og;gpidj; jLg;gjw;F vj;jifa Kaw;rpfis
Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk; vd;w flikia
typAWj;JtNjhL mtH Nghjpa Kaw;rp
vLf;fhjjhy; Vw;gl;l me;j ,og;gpy; jdf;Fk;
gq;Fz;L vdf;NfhUtjw;Fj; jiltpjpf;fpwJ.”
(Kuspjhu; rpud;rpyhy; vjpu; `hpr;re;jpu
JtHf;fjh];> AIR 1962 SC 366).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Vyj;jpy; kpf mjpfkhff; Nfl; l
Vyk; Nfl; ltu; -egu;-1 me;jf; njhifia Vyk;
nfhLj;jtuhd egu; -2-f;F nfhLf; f ,aytpy;iy.
,r;#oypy; egu; -2 me;j Vyj;ij egu; -2-f;F mLj;j
mjpfgl;r Vyj;njhifia Vw;Wf;nfhz;L mtUf;F
toq;f (,d;Dk; tha;g;gpUe;jhy;) Ntz; Lk;.
,jd;%yk; ,og;gpid Fiwf;f KbAk;. (A.R.
fpU\;d %u;j;jp vjpu; Muzp efuhl;rp> (1955) 1 Mad
LJ 437).

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-73 ,og;igf; fzf;fpl
nghJthd topfisf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. NkYk;>
gy;NtW tifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; rhu;ghd rpwg;ghd
topfis fle;j Mz;Lfspy; eP jpkd;wq;fs;
fz;lwpe;Js;sd. cjhuzkhf:

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: <L: egu; -1 egu; -2-lk; xU Fjpiuia
xg;gilf;fpwhu;. me;j Fjpiu egu; -2d; ghJfhg;gpy;
,Uf;Fk;NghJ epue;ju Cdkile;jhy; me;j
,og;igf; fz;lwpAk; top ahnjdpy; me;jf;
Fjpiuapd; tpiy Cdkiltjw;F Kd; ,Ue;j
tpiyiaAk; Cdj;jpw;Fg;gpd; cs;s tpiyiaAk;
itj;Jf; fzf;fpl Ntz; Lk;. (`];j;khy; vjpu; u/gp
cj;jpd;> AIR 1953 Bhopal 5)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: fl; Lkhd xg;ge;jk;: fl;Lkhd
xg;ge;jk; ngw;w xUtH ghjpapy; Ntiyia
tpl;Ltpl;L nrd;W tpLfpwhu;. ,jd; ,og;G me;j
fl; llj;ij fl;b Kbf;f MFk; nryTj;
njhifahFk;. (Jypg;Gb ehka;ah vjpu; ,e;jpa
A+dpad;> AIR 1958 AP 533)

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: nghUl;fis tpw;gid: egu; -1
tpw;gidahsu; > egu;-2 thq;Fgtu;. ,UtUk; tpw;gid
xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;fpd;wdu;. mjd;gb egu; -2
jtwpioj;jhy; egu; -1 me;jg; nghUl;fis kW
tpw;gid nra;ayhk;. egu; -2 jtwpiof;fpwhu; vdpy;
me;j ,og;ig mry; tpiyapypUe;J kW tpw;gid
tpiy Nghf (me;j kWtpw;gid Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;Fs; eilngw;wpUe;jhy;) cs;s
njhifNa ,og;G vdf; fz;lwpayhk;. mt;thW
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; me;j kWtpw;gid
eilngwhjpUe;jhy; mjd; mrd; tpiyiaAk;
me;j xg;ge;j KwpT ehspy; re;ijapy; mjd;
tpiyiaAk; nghWj;jJ. (gp];kp mg;Jy;yh md;
rd;];> tpahghhpfs; kw;Wk; juFjhuu;fs; vjpu;
tl;lhu mYtyu;> ,e;jpa czTf; fofk;>
jpUtde;jGuk;> AIR 1987 Ker 56)

xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-73-d; ,uz;lhtJ gFjp
xg;ge;jjhuHfs; ,U jug;gpdUk; xg;ge;j
Neuj;jpNyNa me;j xg;ge;jk; kPwg;gl;lhy;
Vw;gLk; tpisTfis mwpe;jpUe;j xg;ge;jq;fs;
gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. ,J ‘rpwg;G ,og;Gfs; tpjp’
vd miof;fg; gLfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Miyapd; Kjyhspfs; -
egu;-1 mjd; xU ,ae;jpug; gFjpia me;j
,ae;jpu cw;gj;jpahshplk; rhp nra;tjw;fhf
nfhz;L Nru;f;f egu;-2-ld; xg;ge;jk;
nra;ag;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> egu; -2 mij nfhz;L
Nru;f;fj; jtWfpwhu;. egu;-1-lk; ,Ue;jJ me;j
xNu ve;jpuk; kl;LNk. ,ij egu; -2 mwpa
khl;lhu;. ,jdhy;> me;j Miyia kPz;Lk;
,af;f fhyjhkjkhfpaJ. egu; -1 mjdhy; mtu;
mj;jifa jhkjkhd fhyj;jpy; ,oe;j
yhgj;njhifia jdf;F ,og;gPlhfj; ju
Ntz; Lk; vdf; NfhUfpd;wdu;. ePjpkd;wk; me;jf;
Nfhhpf;ifiaj; js;Sgb nra;jJ. Vnddpy;>
egu;-2-f;F mjd; cz; ikfs; njhpAk; vd;w xU
fhuzk; kl;Lk; NghJkhdJ ,y;iy – gpujpthjp
me;j ,ae;jpuj;ij jahhpg;ghshplk; nfhz;L
NrHf;fhjjdhy;jhd; me;j ,og;G Vw;gl;lJ
vd;gij ep&gpf;fg; NghJkhdJ ,y;iy vdj;
jPhg;gspf;fg; gl;lJ. Mdhy;> me;j gpujpthjpf;F
jhd; jhkjg;gLj;Jtjhy; egu; -1-f;F ,og;G
Vw;gLk; vd;gij mwpe;jpUe;jhy; me;j ,og;ig
gpujpthjp Vw;f Ntz; Lk;. (N`l;yp vjpu;
ghf;]d;Nly;> (1843-60) All ER Rep 461).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU ijay;fhuu; xU Fwpg;gpl;l
,lj;jpy; eilngWk; jpUtpohtpd;NghJ mjpf
,yhgk; <l; l KbAk; vd;W vz;zp jdJ
ijay; ve;jpuj;ijAk; nghpa Jzpg;igiaAk;
,uapy;Nt fk;ngdpapy; xg;gilj;J me;jf;
Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;jpy; NrHf;Fk;gb $WfpwhH.
Mdhy;> mjd; Nehf;fj;ijNah jdf;Ff;
fpilf;f ,Uf;Fk; ,yhgk; gw;wpNah jpUtpoh
gw;wpNah njhptpf;ftpy;iy. me;j ,uapy;Nt
mij rhpahd Neuj;jpy; nfhz;L Nru;f;fhky;
me;jj; jpUtpoh Kbe;j gpd;dNu nfhz;LNgha;
Nru;f;fpwJ. me;j ijay;fhuu; me;j ,yhg
,og;igj; jUk;gbNah ijay;fhuu; me;j tpoh
,lj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W te;j nryTj;
njhifiaNah jUkhW gpujpthjpiaf; Nfhu
KbahJ. Vnddpy; me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; NghNj
,U jug;ghUf;Fk; mij kPWtjhy; Vw;gLk;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
tpisit mwpe;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. my;yJ mjd;
,ay;gpNyNa mJ ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;. (nkl;uh];
nuapy;Nt fk;ngdp vjpu; Nfhtpe;j uht;> (1897-98)
ILR 20-21 Mad 478).

jz;lidAk; jPHkhzpf;fg;gl;l ,og;GfSk;.

xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; me;j xg;ge;j kPwYf;fhd
,og;gPl;Lj; njhif Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUe;jhy; my;yJ
NtW vjhtJ jz;lid Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUe;jhy;
me;jj; jz;lid KwpT gw;wp KiwapLk; jug;Gf;F
me;j xg;ge;j kPwyhy;jhd; me;j ,og;G Vw;gl;lJ
vd;W ep&gpf;fhtpl;lhYk; me;j xg;ge;jj;jpy;
Fwpg;gpl;l njhiff;F kpfhj njhifia ,og;Gf;F
Vw;gg; ngWk; chpik cs;sJ. ,JNt me;j
xg;ge;j KwpTf;fhd jz;lidahFk;. cz;ikahd
,og;G jPHkhzpf;fg;gl;l ,og;Gf;F kpf mjpfkhf
,Ue;jhYk; thjp mj;njhiff;F mjpfkhf ,og;gPL
thq;f ,ayhJ. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-74).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 gPH ghl;by;fspYk;
gPg;gha;fspYk; milj;J tpw;Wte;jhu;. me;j
ghl;by;fisAk;> gPg;gha;fisAk; tpahghhpfs;
jpUg;gpj; jUk;NghJ mjw;fhd mtHfs; nfhLj;j
itg;Gj;njhif mtu;fSf;Fj; jpUg;gp toq;fg;
gl;lJ. me;j tpahghhpfs; gPNuhL ghl; biyAk;
tpw;Wtplf; $lhJ vd;Wk; mij egu; -1lNk jpUg;gpj;
ju Ntz;Lk; vd xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhz;ldu;.
,jdhy; ghl;bypy; milg;gJ toikahfj; njhlu
KbAk;. me;j itg;Gj;njhif me;j ghl; by;fs;
cile;jhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;GfSf;F jPHkhzpf;fg;gl;l
,og;gPlhf itg;Gj;njhif ,Ue;jjhff;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. (Aidnll; gphPthP]; ypl;. vjpu;
Me;jpu muR> (1997) 3 SCC 530).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU xg;ge;j thrfj;jpd;gb thq;Fgtu;
tpiyapd; 25 tpOf;fhl;il Kd;gzkhfr; nrYj;j
Ntz; Lk;. ,j;njhifahdJ me;j thq;Fgtu; gzk;
nrYj;jj; jtwpdhy; gwpKjy; nra;af; $ba
gzkhff; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,e;j tof;fpy; me;j
Kd;gzk; gwpKjy; nra;af;$ba gzNk vd;Wk;
Vnddpy; me;j xg;ge;jk; rhpahf epiwNtw xU
mj;jhl;rpahf ,Ue;jJ vdTk; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. (=
`Dkhd; fhl;ld; kpy;]; vjpu; lhlh Vu; fpuht;l;
ypl;> AIR 1970 SC 1986).

rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs;: <l;LWjp

xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; kw;w jug;ig ,og;gpypUe;J
(me;j ,og;G thf;FWjp mspg;gtuhNyh NtW
xUtuhNyh te;jjJ) kPl;gjhf thf;FWjp mspj;J
xg;ge;jk; nra;tJ ‘<l;LWjp xg;ge;jk; ’ vdg;gLk;.
(xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-124)

fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU <l;LWjp
xg;ge;jkhFk;. fhg;gPl;Lg; gj;jpuj;jpdhy; Kd;$l;bNa
vjpu;ghu;f;ff;$ba midj;J tifahd
,og;GfSf;Fk; ,J nghUe;Jk;. ,J me;j;
jug;gpdhy; kl;LNk cUthf;fg; gl;l
,og;GfSf;F kl;Lk; nghUe;jhJ. (xhp]h muR
vjpu; Aidnll; ,e;jpah ,d;#ud;]; fk;ngdp
ypl;.> AIR 1997 SC 2671).

xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-125-y; xU <l;LWjp
itj;jpUg;gthpd; chpikfs; tpsf;fg; gLfpd;wd.
,jpy;> me;j thf;FWjp mspg;gthplkpUe;J
<l;LWjp itj;jpUg;gtu; me;j <l;LWjp thf;FWjp
nghUe;Jk; midj;J ,og;GfisAk; thf;FWjp
mspg;gtNu nghWg;Ngu;f;f Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: Kftuhd egu; -1 xU Nfhpau;
fk;ngdpNahL (egu; -2) mtu;fSila tz;bfis
thliff;F mku;j;j xg;ge;jk; nra;J
nfhs;fpwhu;. Nfhpau;]; mNrhrpNa\d; tpjpg;gb
Xl;Leu;fspd; myl;rpaj;jpypUe;J Nfhpaiuf;
fhg;ghw;w Ntz; ba nghWg;G KftHfisr;
rhUk;. egu; -1 me;j tz;bia fbfhuq;fis
egu;-3-f;F vLj;Jr; nry;yg; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;.
me;j Xl;Lehpd; myl;rpaj;jhy; fbfhuq;fs;
Nrjkile;jd. egu; -3 egu;-2-lkpUe;J me;j
,og;gPl;il ngw;Wf; nfhs;fpwhu;. ,e;jr; #oypy;
egu;-1 egu; -2-I fhg;ghw;w Ntz; ba nghWg;gpy;
cs;shu; vd jPu;g;gplg; gl;lJ. (fpy;y];gp
gpuju;]; md; Nfh. ypl; vjpu; uha; gt;y;];
bNud;];Nghu;l; fk;. ypl;.> (1973) QN 400).

rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs;: cj;jputhjk;

xU cj;jputhj xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU
thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;Wk; tpjkhfNth> my;yJ
xU %d;whk; eghpd; flikia mtuJ jtwhf
,Ue;jhy; epiwNtw;wpj; jUtjhf nfhLf;fg;gLk;
tha;nkhop my;yJ vOj;Jg;G+u;tkhd
xg;ge;jkhFk;. cj;juthjk; nfhLg;gtiu
[hkPd; jhH vd miof;fg;gLfpwhu;. ahUila
rhu;ghf me;j cj;jputhjk; toq;fg; gLfpwNjh
mtu; ‘Kjd;ikf; fldhsp’ vd miof;fg;
gLfpwhu;. ahUf;F me;j cj;jputhjk; mspf;fg;
gLfpwNjh mtiu ‘fld; mspj;jtu; - fpubl;lu; ’
vd miof;fyhk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-126).

<l;LWjpAk; cj;jputhjKk;

<l;LWjpapy; ,U jug; gpdNu (<l;LWjp
itj;jpUg;gtu;> <l;LWjp mspj;jtu;) cs;sdu;.
Mdhy;> cj;juthjj;jpy; %d;W jug; gpdu;
(Kjd;ikf; fldhsp> [hkPd; jhuu;> fld;
mspj;jtu;) cs;sdu;. <l;LWjp xg;ge;jj;jpy;
<l;LWjp itj;jpUg;gtUf;Fk; <l; LWjp
mspj;jtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; ____ ,y;iy. me;j
<l;LWjp itj;jpUg;gtiu ,og;gPL nfhLf;f
tw;GWj;j KbahJ. (K.V. nghpaikdh
kuf;fhau; md; rd;]; vjpu; gdpad;]; md; Nfh>
AIR 1926 Mad 44).

kw;w ve;j xg;ge;jq;fisAk; NghyNt




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55







5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55
cj;jputhj xg;ge;jKk; ghprPyid ,y;yhtpby; mJ
nry;yhjjhFk;. Kjd;ik fldhspapd; eyDf;F
VjhtJ nra;jJ> VjhtJ thf;FWjp mspj;jJ
Nghd;wit xU cj;jputhjk; mspg;gjw;Fg;
NghJkhd ghprPyidfshFk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-127).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2f;F fbjk; vOjp &.1200-
I egu; 3-f;F mspf;FkhWk; mtuJ gzk; mtUf;F
fpilf;Fk; vd;Wk; mjw;Fj; jhNd cj;jputhjk;
vd;Wk; $Wfpwhu;. ,ij cj;jputhjk; vd
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. egu; -3-d; flDf;F egu; -1
[hkPd; jhuuhthu;. ([fehj; gh\h rpq; vjpu; re;jpuh
Gf;fhd; rpq;> AIR 1937 Oudh 79).

Kjd;ikf; fldhspapd; flikNahL [hkPd; jhuhpd;
nghWg;G - cj;jpuhthjj;jpy; ,jw;F khwhff;
Fwpg;gplhjtiu - ,ize;J tphptilaf;
$bajhFk;. (xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gphpT-128).
jq;fSf;Fs; xUtu; jtwpioj;jhy; kw;wtu; me;j
nghWg;ig Vw;gjhf cld;ghL nra;J nfhz;l
,Utu; %d;whtJ jug;Gf;fhf nghWg;G Vw;f
Kd;te;jhy; - me;j %d;whtJ jug; Gf;F ,Jgw;wpj;
njhpahjpUe;jhYk; my;yJ njhpe;jpUe;jhYk;
%d;whk; jug;Gf;fhd mtu;fspd; nghWg;G
Kjd;ikf; fldhspAilANjahFk;. (xg;ge;jr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-132).

Kjd;ikf; fldhsp jtwpiof;Fk;NghJ
[hkPd; jhuhpd; nghWg;G mjpfhpf;fpwJ. Kjd;ikf;
fldhsp jtwpdhy; cldbahf [hkPd; jhuu; clNd
nghWg;G Vw;fpwhu;. fldspj;jtu; cldbahf
Kjd;ikf; fldhspf;F vjpuhfr; nray;glhky;
[hkPd; jhuiuNa mDfp mjw;fhd ,og;ig Vw;f
itf;f Ntz;Lk;. (Nu gput;d;]; v];Nll;> gput; d;
vjpH gput;d; (1893) 2 CH 300). fldspj;jtu; me;j
,UtUf;Fk; vjpuhfNth (Kjd;ikf; fldhsp>
[hkPd; jhuu;) my;yJ ahuhtJ xUtUf;F
vjpuhfNth my;yJ [hkPd; jhuu;fspy; ahuhtJ
xUtUf;F vjpuhfNth tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.
(nrhf;fypq;fr; nrl;bahu; vjpu; jz;lhAjghzp
nrl;bahu;> AIR 1928 Mad 1262; FH[pj;rpq; vjpu; Fr;ru;
rpq;> AIR 1919 Lah 355; K];ypk; Ngq;f; M/g;
,e;jpah vjpu; nkhfkJ mj;jpf;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




55




1
TôPm 5 – Ït\®Vp NhPm
1 Ck§V RiPû]f NhPm
Ït\j§u áßLs
Ït\m ùNnTYoLû[ AWNôeLm
Ri¥lTRtÏm NØRôVj§p HtLjRdL
A[®tÏ JÝeÏ ¨ûXSôhÓYRtÏm
Ït\®VX NhP AûUl× A¥lTûP
LôWQUôL ®[eÏ¡\Õ, Ït\®Vp
NhPeLs Utßm Ït\eLû[ ùUn©jÕd
LôhÓm SûPØû\Ls Su\ôL
ùNVpTôh¥p Es[ NØRôVj§p ©\o
Ït\eLs ùNnYÕ RÓdLlThÓ
JÝeÏ ¨ûX TWôU¬dLlTPXôm,
JÚ ùNVp ùTôßl× ¨ûXûV DolTRtÏ
AfùNVp RY\ô] ùNVXôL CÚjRp (actus
reus) Utßm Ït\ U]ÕPu AkR ùNVûX
ùNnRp (mens rea) B¡V CWiÓ
AeLeLÞm A¥lTûPVô]ûY, CkR
ùLôsûL Xô¥u ùUô¯«p actus non facit
reum nisi mens sit rea GuT§p
©W§T- d¡\Õ, AYWÕ U]¨ûX
NhPlT¥ Ït\m NôhPdá¥VRôL
CÚkRôXu± AY¬u ùNVp UhÓúU
Ït\UôLôÕ,
ARôYÕ. JÚ ùNVûX Ït\m GuTRtÏ
ARtÏ úRûYVô] U]¨ûXÙm AY£Vm
EP²ÚjRp úYiÓm, AÕúY. AkR
ùNVÛdÏ Ït\m úTôu\ ¨\j§û]
ùLôÓdÏm, CkR U]¨ûX
CpûXùVu\ôp JÚ ùNVp Ït\j§u
RuûUûV ùT\ôÕ,
B«àm JÚ £X Ït\eLÞdÏ ¨RoN]Uô]
ùTôßl× ¨ûX (strict liability) Es[Õ,
CRtÏ “TLWl ùTôßl×” ApXÕ
ùTôßl× ¨ûX ùLôs[dá¥V Ït\eLs
Guß ùTVo, CjRûLV Ït\eL°u
GÓjÕdLôhÓLû[ £\l× NhPeL[ô]
UôtßØû\ BYQ NhPm. 1881 (Neptiable
Instruments Act, 1881) NeLf NhPm. 1962
(Customs Act, 1962) Utßm RLYp
ùRô¯pÖhT NhPm. 2000 (Information
Technology Act, 2000) B¡VYt±p
LôQXôm, CfNhPeL°p
JÚ ¨ßY]j§u CVdÏSo ApXÕ
ùTôßl×ûPV A§Lô¬Ls B¡úVôo
AkR ¨ßY]j§u Ït\eLÞdÏ
ùTôßlúTtÏm YûL«p ©¬ÜLs Es[],
CjRûLV ùLôs¨ûX ùTôßl× ¨ûX.
NmUkRlThP STÚûPV JÚ®R Ït\
U]ûR Øt±Ûm ¨WôL¬jÕ
ùTôßl× ¨ûXûV HtTÓjÕ¡\Õ,
£X YûLVô] LY]ªuûULÞm C,R,N,
®u ¸r Ït\eL[ôdLlThÓs[], C,R,N,
©¬Ü 279. ©,304H LY]ªpXôUp ùNnÙm
ùNVpLs Utßm Liê¥jR]Uô]
ùNVpLû[ Ït\eL[ôdÏ¡u\],
ùTôÕYôL JÚYo R]Õ CfûNlT¥ ùNnÙm
ùNVpLs UhÓúU Ït\UôL LÚRlThPôÛm.
2
ªÏ§Vô] LY]dÏû\®]ôp TpúYß
¾eÏLs CûZdLlTÓYRôp JÚ £X ùT¬V
A[®Xô] LY]Ut\
ùNVpLû[ Ït\eL[ôL Ae¸L¬d¡\Õ,
NhPj§u ¸r RiPû]Ùm YZeÏ¡\Õ,
B]ôp GpXôYûLVô] LY]ªuûU
ùNVpLÞm C,R,N, ¸r Ït\UôLôÕ, TX
¿§Uu\eLs A¾R LY]ªuûU
(Negligence) ApXÕ ØuúVôNû] Cu±
ùNnVlTÓm (recklessness)
ùNVpLû[ UhÓúU Ït\j§u RuûUûV
ùTßm Guß ¾oUô²jÕs[],
Ït\ U]m ØuLôXj§p Ït\j§u ªL
Ød¡VUô] á\ôL LôQlTh¥ÚkRÕ,
C,R,N,¸r Es[ Aû]jÕ Ït\eL°u
®[dLeL°Ûm Ït\ U]m Tt±
ϱl©PlThÓ JÚY¬u Ït\ U]m ApXÕ
U]¨ûXûV ¨oQ«jRl ©u]úW AYo
Ït\ªûZjRYWô Guß á\Xôm, CkR
ùNôtLs “ùTônVôL”. “úUôN¥ ùNnÕ”.
“SmTjRÏkR LôWQeLÞPu”.
“CfûNlT¥” Utßm “YuU EQof£”
BÏm,
State of Maharashtra V. Mayor Hans George
AIR 1965 SC 722 YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m
“JÚ Ït\j§p Ït\ U]m úTôu\ AeLm
CÚdL úYiÓm Gu\ôp NhPj§u
úSôdLm Øt±Ûm A¯dLlTÓm Guß
LÚ§]ôp UhÓúU Ït\ U]m Gu\
Eßl©û] NhPj§- ÚkÕ ®XdLXôm,
úUÛm CkR ®[dLm êXm Li¥l×
ùTôßl×ûPVYoLs NhPj§u
úUmTôh¥tÏ ERYXôm Gu\
ãr¨ûX«Ûm CkR ¿dLm
AàU§dLlTÓm” Guß ¾oUô]m ùNnRÕ,
úUÛm. Kartar Singh V. State of Punjab,
1994(3) SCC 569 YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m
Ït\U]m Gu¡u\ AeLm
ùY°lTûPVôLúYô ApXÕ
Uû\ØLUôLúYô ¿dLm ùNn§Pô®hPôp
Aû]jÕ RiPû]f NhPeL°Ûm AkR
AeLm CÚlTRôLúY LÚ§ ùNVpTP
úYiÓm Guß ¾oUô²jÕs[Õ,
C,R,N,®u ×\¨ûX GpûX Utßm ùTôÕ
®[dLeLs
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 3 Utßm 4 : C,R,N,®u
×\¨ûX ùNVXôh£
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 3 Utßm 4 CfNhPj§u
×\¨ûX GpûXûV Tt±VÕ, CkRl
©¬ÜLs ¨ûX Øû\ NhPjûR NôokRûY,
SûPØû\ NhPjûR NôokRûY ApX,
Ck§V SôhÓ GpûXdÏs Ït\UôL
LÚRlTÓm JÚ ùNVp Sôh¥u ùY°úV
ùNnVlThPôÛm Ït\UôLúY LÚRlTÓm
Guß C,R,N, ©¬Ü 3 áß¡\Õ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 4 CfNhPj§u ¸r
Es[ Aû]jÕ Ït\eLû[Ùm
®§®Xd¡u± ×\¨ûX GpûXdÏ
EhTÓjÕ¡u\Õ, úUÛm Ït\®Vp
3
SûPØû\f NhPm (Ï,S,N,) ©¬Ü 188 GkR
¿§Uu\j§u GpûXdÏs Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo LôQlTÓ¡\ôúWô AkR
¿§Uu\§tÏ BsYûW YZeÏ¡\Õ,
G-Ó : Ck§V Ï¥UL]ô] H ELôiPô
Sôh¥p ùLôûX ׬¡\ôo, AYo Ck§V
Sôh¥p GkR CPj§p LôQlTÓ¡\ôúWô
AkR CPj§p Es[ ¿§Uu\j§p
AYÚdÏ G§WôL YZdÏ ®NôWûQ SPj§
ùLôûX Ït\j§tLôL RiPû] YZeLXôm,
BLúY. Ck§V SôhÓ GpûXdÏ ùY°úV
Ck§V Ï¥ULu JÚ Ït\m ׬kRôp AÕ
AkR Sôh¥p Ït\UôL CpXô®hPôÛm
Ck§Vf NhPj§uT¥ AÕ Ït\UôL
CÚkRôp AdÏt\j§tLôL AYu
Ck§Vô®p Ri¥dLlTPXôm, Pheroze V.
State, 1964(2) Cr.L.J. 533.
C,R,N, Aj§VôVm 2 YûWVû\Ls Utßm
ùTôÚsTÓjÕRp Tt±V
©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiPÕ, JÚ ©¬Ü C,R,N,®u
GkRl Tϧ«p ®[dLlThÓs[úRô AúR
úTôuß C,R,N,®u Aû]jÕ Tϧ«Ûm
TVuTÓjRlTP úYiÓm Guß ©¬Ü 7
áß¡\Õ, CkR Aj§VôVj§p Es[ £X
©¬ÜLs ¸úZ ϱl©PlThÓs[],
ùTôÕ F¯Vo
“ùTôÕ F¯Vo” Gu\ YûWVû\dÏs
YÚm TpúYß SToL°u
®YWûQLû[ ©¬Ü 21 Th¥V- Ó¡\Õ,
“ùTôÕ F¯Vo” Gu\ ùNôp AWNôeL
F¯VoLs Gu\ ®[dLj§tÏ UhÓm
LhÓlTPôUp ªL ®¬YôL
YûWVßdLlThÓs[Õ, ©¬Ü 21u ¸r
YÚm Aû]jÕ SToLÞm
AWNôeLj§]ôp ¨VªdLlThPôÛm
CpûXùV²Ûm ùTôÕ F¯VWôL
LÚRlTÓYôoLs Guß ®[dLm 1
ùR°ÜlTÓjÕ¡\Õ,
AûNÙm ùNôjÕ
¨Xm. éªÙPu
CûQdLlThÓs[ ùTôÚhLs. éªÙPu
©ûQdLl
ThÓs[ ùTôÚhLÞPu ¨WkRWUôL
©ûQdLlThP ùTôÚhLû[Ùm R®W
EÚYôL Es[ GpXôl ùTôÚhLÞm
AûNÙm ùTôÚhLs GuT§p APeÏm,
úSoûU«uûU
JÚYu Utù\ôÚYàdÏ A¨VôV XôTm
AûPYRtúLô ApXÕ A¨VôV SxPm
HtTÓjÕYRtúLô ùNVp ׬ÙmúTôÕ
AYu úSoûU«u± Lô¬Vm ׬YRôL
ùLôs[lTÓm, “A¨VôV XôTm” Utßm
“A¨VôV SxPm” B¡V ùNôtLs ©¬Ü
23u ¸r úUÛm YûWVßdLlThÓs[Õ,
C,R,N,®p Es[ TpúYß ©¬ÜLs Ït\
U]jûR ϱlTRtLôL “úSoûU«uûU”
Gu\ ùNôpûX TVuTÓjÕYRôp CfùNôp
ªÏkR Ød¡VjÕYm AûP¡u\Õ,
4
“úSoûU«uûU” GuTÕ ùR°YôL
CfNhPj§u ¸r YûWVßdLlThÓs[Rôp
CRû] AkR ®[dLj§tÏ EhThÓ
TVuTÓjR úYiÓm,
úUôN¥
JÚYo Utù\ôÚYûW HUôt\ úYiÓm
Gu\ úSôdLjÕPu JÚ Lô¬Vm
ùNnÙmúTôÕ AYo úUôN¥ ùNnYRôL
ùLôs[lTÓm, “úUôN¥” Gu\ ùNôp úYß
GeÏm YûWVßdLlTP®pûX B]ôp
Mohd. Ibrahim & Others V. State of Bihar,
JT(2009) II SC 533 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m Dr. Vimala V. Delhi
Administration, AIR 1963 SC 1572 Gu\
YZd¡p “úUôN¥” ùNôp- u ׬RûX
TVuTÓj§ Es[Õ, Vimala YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m úUôN¥ Gu¡u\ ùNôp CWiÓ
AeLeLû[ ùLôiPRôLÜm AûY
HUôtßRp Utßm HUôt±VYtÏ
ùTôÚ[RôW CZl©tÏm úUXôL LôVm
HtTÓRp. Guß ¾oUô²jÕs[Õ,
BYQm
GÝjRôp. GiQôp. ϱVôp ApXÕ
CYtßs JußdÏ úUtThPYt\ôp
®[dLlThÓ Nôu\ôL TVuTÓjÕYRtùL]
EÚYôdLlThP ùTôÚú[ BYQm
G]lTÓm, “BYQm” GuT§u ®[dLm
®¬Yô]Õ, CkR ùNôp ùTôÕd áßLs
NhPm. 1897 ©¬Ü 3 (18) Utßm Ck§V
Nôh£V NhPm ©¬Ü 3-Cp
YûWVßdLlThÓs[Õ,
2000Bm Bi¥p JÚ §ÚjRf NhPm
êXm ©¬Ü 29H C,R,N,®p ÖûZdLlThÓ –
RLYp ùRô¯pÖhT NhPm. 2000 ©¬Ü 2 (1)
(t)«p Es[ “ªu T§úYÓLs” Gu\
ùNôp- u ùTôÚû[Ùm BYQm Gu\
ùNôp- u ®[dLj§u ¸r ùLôiÓ YkRÕ,
U§l×s[ LôlÀÓ
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 30u ¸r “U§l×s[ LôlÀÓ”
Gu\ôp NhPléoYUô] E¬ûUûV
EiPôdLdá¥V. ¿dLdá¥V. Uôt\dá¥V.
LhÓlTÓjRdá¥V. A¯dLdá¥V ApXÕ
®Ó®dLdá¥V BYQm ApXÕ RUdÏ
JÚ NhPl ùTôßl× EiÓ ApXÕ CpûX
Guß JÚYo JjÕdùLôs[dá¥V
BYQjûR ϱdÏm,
G-Ó : H - Ru JÚ Ei¥«u ©u×\m Ru
ùTVûW GÝÕ¡\ôo, CRu êXm A§p
RUdÏs[ E¬ûUûV NhPléoYUôL AûR
Vôo ûYj§Úd¡\ôoLú[ô AYÚdÏ Uôt±d
ùLôÓd¡\ôo, G]úY Ei¥«u ©u×\m
GÝRlThÓs[Õ U§l×s[ LôlÀÓ BÏm,
G-Ó : JÚ LPÜ ºhÓ JÚYÚdÏ JÚ
Sôh¥tÏs ÖûZVÜm ùY°úV\Üm
E¬ûUûVd ùLôÓd¡u\Õ, G]úY AÕ JÚ
U§l×s[ LôlÀÓ BÏm, (David V. State,
AIR 1968 Mad 349).
5
G-Ó : JÚ ¨ßY]j§u LQdÏl ×jRLj§p
Es[ RûXl©p TeLô°L°u ùTVoLs
Utßm AYoL°u ØRÄÓLs Utßm
ûLùVôlTeLs Aû]jÕm CÚkRôp AÕ
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 30u ¸r U§l×s[ LôlÀPôÏm,
(Hari Charan V. Girish Chandra Sadhukan,
11 Cr. L.J. 525)
ùNnRp. NhP ®úWôRUôL
ùNnVô§ÚjRûXÙm Es[PdÏm
©¬Ü 32u T¥ ùNnûLLs Guß CkR
ùRôÏl©p ϱl©hP CPeL°p GpXôm
NhP ®úWôRUôL ùNnVôUp CÚlTûRÙm
ϱdÏm, AqYôß ùTôÚs
ùLôs[ úRûY«pûX Gu\ôp AÕ
R²VôL ®[dLlTh¥ÚdÏm,
RiPû]Ls
CkRj ùRôÏl©p ©¬Ü 53 C,R,N,®p
Ït\Yô°LÞdÏ Es[ 5 YûLVô]
RiPû]Lû[ Th¥V- Ó¡\Õ, AûY
UWQ RiPû]. BÙs RiPû]. LôYp –
ùYßeLôYp ApXÕ LÓeLôYp. ùNôjÕ
T±ØRp ùNnRp Utßm ATWôRm,
UWQ RiPû] GuTÕ A¬§Ûm A¬VRô]
YZdÏL°p UhÓúU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ, JÚ
Ït\Yô°«u RiPû]ûV T¬ºXû]
ùNnÙmúTôÕ UWQ RiPû]ûV
®XdLôLÜm BÙs RiPû]ûV
®§VôLÜm LÚR úYiÓm Guß EfN
¿§Uu\m á±Ùs[Õ, (Asgar V. State of
Uttar Pradesh, AIR 1977 SC 1812).
C,R,N,®p BÙs RiPû] GuTÕ
“LÓeLôYp BÙs RiPû]ûV” ϱdÏm,
“ùYßeLôYp BÙs RiPû]ûV”
ϱdLôÕ, (Bachan Singh V. State of Punjab,
(1980) 2 SCC 898).
LÓeLôYp BÙs RiPû]«u úTôÕ
Ït\Yô° L¥] EûZl©tÏ
EhTÓjRlTÓYôo, ùYßeLôYp BÙs
RiPû]«uúTôÕ Ït\Yô° £û\dÏs
ûYdLlThÓ JÚ®RUô] úYûXdÏm
EhTÓjRlTP UôhPôo,
áhÓl ùTôßl×
áhPôL Ït\m ׬TYoL°u Ït\®Vp
ùTôßl× ¨ûXûV ®[dÏm YûL«p
C,R,N,®u ¸r TpúYß A¥lTûP ®§Ls
Es[], CûY ©¬Ü 34 – 38. 149. 120H
Utßm 120©,
ùTôÕ úSôdLm
ùTôÕYô] úSôdLjûR ¨û\úYtßm
YûL«p TXo ᥠJÚ Ït\jûR ùNnR]o
G²p AYoLs R²jR²úV AdÏt\jûR
ùNn§ÚkRôp GqYôß ùTôßlTôYôoLú[ô.
AqYôú\ JqùYôÚYÚm ùTôßlTô¡u\]o
Guß C,R,N, ©¬Ü 34 áß¡\Õ,
JÚ áhPj§p JqùYôÚ R² STÚm Gu]
ùNnRôoLs Guß ®j§VôNlTÓj§.
6
AYoL°u ùNVpLû[ R²lThP
Øû\«p ¨ì©lTRtÏ L¥]UôL
CÚdÏmùTôÝÕ ©¬Ü 34
TVuTÓjRlTÓ¡u\Õ, Manboob Shah
YZd¡p Privy Council ©¬Ü 34I
ùYt±LWUôL TVuTÓjR úYiÓùU²p
×Lô¬PlTÓm JÚ Ït\ ùNVp Ït\m
NôhPlThPYoL[ôp JÚ ùTôÕYô]
úSôdLjûR ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ áhPôL
ùNnVlThPÕ Guß ¨ì©dLl TP úYiÓm,
AqYôß ùNnRôp AkRd áhPj§p
Es[ GkRùYôÚ R²STo ÁÕm AkR
ùNVûX AYo R²VôL ùNnRôtúTôp
ùTôßl× ¨ûXûV HtTÓjRXôm,
(Manboom Shah V. Emperor, AIR 1945 (PC)
118).
“¨û\úYtßm YûL«p” Guß ©¬Ü 34p
TVuTÓj§ Es[ ùNôp- û] EfN
¿§Uu\m Shankarlal Kachrabai V. State of
Gujarat, AIR 1964 SC 1260 Gu\ YZd¡p
®[d¡Ùs[Õ, CqYZd¡p EfN¿§Uu\m
¸rLiPYôß á±Ùs[Õ,
H-ûYd ùLôpÛm úSôdLm 4 SToLÞdÏ
ùTôÕYôL CÚkRôp AYoLs AkR
úSôdLjûR ¨û\Ü ùNnYRtÏ TpúYß
ùNVpLû[ ùNnV úYiÓm, CûR ùR°Ü
TÓjR £X GÓjÕdLôhÓLs, SôuÏ SToLs
H-ûY AYWÕ Åh¥p ùLôûX ùNnV
GiÔ¡\ôoLs, JqùYôÚYÚm
ùYqúYß Y¯«p TeúLt¡u\]o,
AYoLÞs JÚYo H-®u Åh¥tÏs
ÖûZV ØVÛmúTôÕ ÅhÓ LôYXWôp
RÓdLlTÓ¡\ôo, G]úY. AYo ÅhÓ
LôYXûW ÑhÓd ùLôp¡\ôo, C§p ùTôÕ
úSôdLm H-ûY ùLôpYRtLôL CÚkRôÛm
ÅhÓd LôYXûW ÑhÓd ùLôu\Õ AkR
ùTôÕ úSôdLjûR ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ
ùNnVlThP JÚ ùNVp, G]úY. ©¬Ü 34
CRtÏ ùTôÚkÕm, Cuù]ôÚ
GÓjÕdLôhÓ JÚYûW ùLôûX ùNnÙm
úSôdLjÕPu AYo çeϪPj§p
ÖûZÙmúTôÕ AYo ApXôUp
úYù\ôÚYo AeÏ çe¡d ùLôi¥Úd¡\ôo,
B]ôp AYoRôu ùLôûX ùNnV
úYi¥VYo Guß LÚ§ AYo ÑhÓd
ùLôpXlTÓ¡\ôo, CqYôß ÑhÓd ùLôpYÕ
ùTôÕ úSôdLjûR ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ
ùNnVlThPRôp ©¬Ü 34 ùTôÚkÕm,
G-Ó : H Ut\m £ §¼ùWuß CÚh¥- ÚkR
úLôPô¬LÞPu ùY°YkÕ ©-ûV Rôd¡
ARu LôWQUôL © C\d¡\ôo, CûYúV
¿§Uu\j§u Øu× ¨ì©dLlThÓs[ûY,
úUÛm. H ©-«u ûLûV Rôd¡VRôLÜm £.
©-«u Y«tû\ Rôd¡VRôLÜm Nôh£Vm
Es[Õ, ©¬Ü 34u A¥lTûP«p
¿§Uu\m H. £ B¡V CÚYûWÙm ©-«u
ùLôûX Ït\j§tLôL ùTôßlúTtL
ûYdLXôm,
Ït\Øß N§
CÚYo ApXÕ CWi¥tÏ úUtThPYoLs
NhPj§tÏ ØWQô] JÚ ùNnûLûV.
7
ApXÕ NhPj§tÏ ØWQô] Y¯«p
NhPj§tÏ ØWQpXôR JÚ ùNnûLûV
ùNnV EPuTÓm ùTôÝÕ ApXÕ
ùNn®dÏmúTôÕ AjRûLV EPuT¥dûL
JÚ Ït\Øß N§ G]lTÓm, úUÛm. ©¬Ü
120Hu ¸r Ït\Øß N§ GuTRtÏ
Jl×ûLûV R®W úYß HúRàm JÚ ùNVp
AkR Jl×ûLûV ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ
ùNnVlTP úYiÓm, Ït\Øß N§ûVl
Tt±V NhPm ªLÜm ®¬YôL State V.
Nalini, (1999) 5 SCC 60 Gu\ YZd¡p State
V. Navjot Sandhu @ Afsan Guru (2005) II
SCC 600 Gu\ YZd¡p ®[dLlThÓs[Õ,
úUÛm 2 ApXÕ CWi¥tÏ
úUtThPYoL°u U]Õ JÚ NhP ®úWôR
ùNVûX ùNnYRtÏ Nk§dL úYiÓm Guß
Ñh¥d Lôi©dLlThÓs[Õ, CÕúY
Ït\Øß N§«u A¥lTûP AeLUôÏm,
(State V. Nalini, (1999) 5 SCC 60).
EfN ¿§Uu\m N§ ùNnTYoLs
JqùYôÚYÚm AfN§«u JqùYôÚ
ùNV- Ûm TeúLtL úYiPôm Guß
¾oUô²jÕs[Õ, CjRûLV N§Ls
ùTôÕYôL WL£VUôL CVt\lTÓYRôp
AWÑ RWl©]o Ït\m NôhPlThP
JqùYôÚYÚm Gu] ùNnYRtÏ
EPuThPôo GuTûR R²VôL ¨ì©dL
úRûY«pûX, ©¬Ü 120©. 120H«u ¸r
Ït\Øß N§ Guß
YûWVßdLlThÓs[ Ït\j§tLô]
RiPû]ûV YZeÏ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 120© Ït\Øß N§ûV CWiÓ
YûLVôL ©¬d¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 120© (1) UWQ
RiPû] BÙs RiPû] ApXÕ
CWiÓ YÚPeLÞdÏ úUtThP JÚ LôX
A[ÜdÏ LÓeLôYp RiPû] ®§jÕ
Ri¥dLlTPdá¥V JÚ Ït\jûR
ùNnYRtLô] Ït\Øß N§«p TeÏ
ùLôs¡u\ GYo JÚYÚm AjRûLV
Ït\Øß N§ûV Ri¥lTRtÏ C,R,N,®p
R²lThP Y¯Øû\ GÕÜm
ùNnVlTPô®hPôp AjRûLV Ït\j§tÏ
AYo EPkûRVôL CÚkRÕ úTôXúY
Ri¥dLlTP úYiÓm Guß áß¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 120© (2) úUúX ùNôu]
RiPû]dϬVûY CpXôR úYß
Ït\eLÞdùL] N§ ùNnVlTh¥ÚkRôp
N§«p NmTkRlThPYoLÞdÏ Bß
UôReLÞdÏ úUtTPôR LÓeLôYúXô
ApXÕ ATWôRúUô ApXÕ CWiÓúUô
RiPû]VôL ®§dLlTÓm,
NhP ®úWôRUô] áhPm
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 149 ¸r JÚ ùTôÕYô]
ϱdúLôû[ ¨û\úYtßm ùTôÚhÓ NhP
®úWôRUô] áhPj§u Eßl©]o
GYúWàm JÚ Ït\jûR ùNnRôp AkR
Ït\jûR ùNnÙm ϱdúLôÞPu AkR
áhPj§p VôùWpXôm CÚkRôoLú[ô
AYoLs Aû]YÚm AkRd Ït\j§tLôL
RiPû] ùT\ RϧÙûPVYoLs,
8
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 141 “NhP ®úWôRUô]
áhPj”ûR YûWVßd¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 34
Utßm ©¬Ü 149 JußdùLôuß
úYßThPÕ, ©¬Ü 34 ùYßm Nôh£V ®§
UhÓúU B]ôp. ©¬Ü 149 JÚ
R²lThP ¨ûXØû\ Ït\UôÏm, úUÛm.
©¬Ü 34 ùTôßl× ¨ûXûV EiPôdL
ùTôÕúSôdLm Gu¡\ úNôRû]ûV
TVuTÓjÕ¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 149 ùTôÕ
ϱdúLôs Gu¡\ úNôRû]ûV
TVuTÓjÕ¡\Õ, ùTôÕ úSôdLm
úTô- pXôUp ùTôÕ Ï±dúLôÞdÏ Øu×
GiQm Utßm U]eL°u Nk§l×. Ït\m
ùNnYRtÏ ØuúT úRûY«pûX,
NhPj§tÏ ×\mTô] ϱdúLôs AkR
CPj§úXúV AlùTôÝúR EÚYôLXôm,
©¬Ü 34p CWiÓ ApXÕ CWi¥tÏ
úUtThP SToLs úRûY, ©¬Ü 149u ¸r
Ït\m ׬YRtÏ 5 ApXÕ Ik§tÏ
úUtThP SToLs NhP®úWôRUô]
áhPj§u Eßl©]oL[ôL CÚdL
úYiÓm,
ùTôÕ ®XdÏLs
JÚ £X ùNVpLs £X NkRolTeL°p
Ït\m Gu¡u\ YûWVû\«- ÚkÕ C,R,N,
Aj§VôVm 4-u ¸r ¿dLlThÓs[Õ,
C,R,N,®u ©¬ÜLû[ CkR ®XdÏLû[Ùm
U]§p ùLôiÓ Sôm ׬kÕ
ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
®Xd¡û] ¨ì©dÏm TôWm
JÚ ùNVp ®XdÏL°p ¸r YÚ¡u\Õ
GuTûR ¨ì©dÏm TôWm Ït\m
NôhPlThPYûW NôokRÕ, Ck§V Nôh£V
NhPm ©¬Ü 105u ¸r YZd¡û] JÚ
®Xd¡u ¸r ùLôiÓ YÚm NkRolTeLs
CÚkRÕ GuTûR ¨ì©dÏm TôWm Ït\m
NôhPlThPY¬Pm Es[Õ, úUÛm.
¿§Uu\m CjRûLV NkRolTeLs CpûX
Guß ùTôÕYôL AàUô²dÏm, Nanavati
YZd¡p ¿§Uu\m CjRûLV
NkRolTeLs ¨ì©dLlTÓm YûW AûY
CpûXùV]úY LÚRlTÓm Guß
á±Ùs[Õ, (K.M. Nanavati V. State of
Maharashtra, AIR 1962 SC 605).
®XdÏLû[ ¨ì©dL úYi¥V Nôh£ RWm
EfN ¿§Uu\m Vijayee Singh and Others V.
State of Uttar Pradesh, (1990) 3 SCC 190
Gu\ YZd¡p Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
RuàûPV ùNVpLs ®XdÏLÞdÏs
YÚ¡u\Õ GuTûR ¨ì©dL úRûYVô]
RWm ùTÚmTôuûU Nôj§VdáßL°u
A¥lTûP«p Ø¥Ü ùNnV úYiÓm
Guß ¾oUô²jRÕ, C§p úNôRû]dϬV
úLs® VôùR²p Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
RuàûPV ùNVp NkúRLj§tÏ CPªu±
®Xd¡u ¸r YkÕs[Õ
Guß ¨ì©jÕs[ôWô GuTÕ CpûX,
B]ôp AjRûLV G§oYôRjûR AYo
áßmùTôÝÕ AWÑ RWl× YZd¡p
JÚ ¨VôVUô] NkúRLjûR HtTÓj§
®ÓRûX ùTßm E¬ûU ùTß¡\ôWô
9
GuTÕRôu, (Kanali B arui V. Subhas Das,
1983 Cri. L.J. 1474).
ùTôÕYôL CkR ®XdÏLs YZdÏ
®NôWûQ«uùTôÝÕRôu ¨ì©dLlTP
úYiÓm, B]ôp EfN ¿§Uu\m Vadilal
Panchal V. Dattatraya Dulaji Ghadigaonkar
and Another, AIR 1960 SC I 113 Gu\
YZd¡p JÚ ùNVp C,R,N,u ¸r YÚm
®XdÏLÞdÏs YkÕ. úUÛm CÕ
×Lô¬úXúV ùY°lTûPVôL ùR¬kRôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo BûQl ©\l©dL
UßdÏm A§LôWjûR ùTtßs[ôo, EfN
¿§Uu\m ¸rLiPYôß ¾oUô²jÕs[Õ,
“SmØu CÚdÏm £±V úLs®
Gu]ùYu\ôp Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 202-u ¸r JÚ ×Lôo EiûUVô]Rô
ApXÕ ùTônVô]Rô Guß A±kÕ
ùLôsYRtLôL EjRW®Óm ®NôWûQ AÕ
ùTônVô]Õ GuTûR Lôi©jÕ ARtLô]
A±dûLÙm AYo ®NôWûQ
A§Lô¬«PªÚkÕ ùTt\ôp AYo AkR
×LôûW AlùTôÝúR ¨WôL¬dLXôm Guß
EVo ¿§Uu\m á±VÕ N¬Vô GuTÕRôu,
AYo NhPlT¥ BûQl ©\l©júR ¾W
úYiÓm Guß Es[Rô? C,R,N,®u ¸r
Es[ ®Xd¡û] VôúWàm YôRj§p
ùLôiPôp AkR ×LôûW EP]¥VôL
Ït\®Vp SÓYo ¨WôL¬dLdáPôÕ Guß
EVo ¿§Uu\m ¾oUô²jRÕ N¬Vô]Rô?
EVo ¿§Uu\m “SôeLs HtùL]úY
á±VT¥ JÚ Ït\jûR ùY°lTûPVôL
LôhÓm ×Lôo CÚkRôp AqYZdÏL°p
Ït\®Vp SÓYo
×LôûW ¨WôL¬lTÕ ¨VôVUôÏm” Guß
á±Ùs[Õ,
Aj§VôVm 4-u ¸r Es[ ®XdÏLs –
ùTôÕ ©¬ÜLs
ùTôÚiûU RYß
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 76T¥ NhPj§u êXm JÚ
Lô¬VjûR Bt\úYi¥V
LPûUÙs[ JÚYo AlT¥ LPûU Btßm
SpùXiQjÕPu JÚ Lô¬VjûR
ùNnRôÛm ApXÕ AkR Lô¬VjûR
AjRûLV SpùXiQjÕPu RY\ôL
ùNnRôÛm AÕ Ït\UôLôÕ,
G-Ó : (1) úUX§Lô¬L°u EjRWÜlT¥ JÚ
úTôÄvLôWo áhPj§u ÁÕ ÕlTôd¡
©WúVôLm ùNn¡\ôo, AYo ÁÕ GkR
Ït\Øm NôWôÕ,
G-Ó : (2) JÚ ¿§Uu\j§u EjRWÜ ùTt\
A§Lô¬Vô] ©-dÏ H-ûY ûLÕ ùNnV
úYiÓm Guß EjRWÜ Es[Õ, AYo
RY\ôL H-Guß ¨û]jÕd ùLôiÓ £-I
ûLÕ ùNnÕ ®hPôp AÕ Ït\UôLôÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 79
GûRúVàm JÚYo ùNnYÕ
NhPlT¥ Ït\UôL CÚdÏmùTôÝÕ AYo
AkR NhPjûRl Tt±V JÚ RY\ô]
GiQm ApXôÕ ùTôÚiûU Tt±V JÚ
10
RYt±u LôWQUôL AûR Rôu ùNnYÕ
NhPlT¥ ¨VôVUô]Õ Guß
SpùXiQjúRôÓ Sm© ùNnRôp AYWôp
ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp Ït\UôLôÕ,
G-Ó : ùLôûX Guß úRôuß¡u\ ùNVûX
©-GuTYo ùNnYûR H- Lôi¡\ôo,
AqYôß ùLôûX ùNnTYûW ©¥dÏm
A§LôWm R]dÏ NhPj§u ¸r Es[Õ
Guß LÚ§ SpùXiQjúRôÓ AYûW
ûLÕ ùNnÕ RÏkR A§Lô¬Ls
Øu× ¨ßjÕYRtLôL AYûW ©¥d¡\ôo,
CeÏ ùLôûX ùNnYRôL H-dÏ úRôu±V
©-u ùNVp ©\Ï ©-«]ôp RtLôl©tLôL
ùNnVlThPÕ Guß ¨ì©dLlThPôÛm H-
JÚ Ït\Øm ùNnV®pûX,
ùTôÚiûU«u A±VôûU
Uu²dLjRdLRô]ôÛm NhPj§u
A±VôûU Uu²dLj RdLRpX Gu\
A¥lTûP«p C,R,N, ©¬Ü 76. 79
ùNVpTÓ¡\Õ, Cl©¬ÜL°p ®j§VôNm
Gu]ùYu\ôp 76u ¸r JÚYo NhPj§tÏ
EhThPRôL AàUô²dLl TÓ¡\ôo, 79u
¸r AYo
NhPj§]ôp ¨VôVlTÓjRlThPYo,
¿§Øû\ ùNVpLs
C,R,N,©¬Ü 77 JÚ ¿§T§ NhPj§u ¸r
AYÚdÏ YZeLlThÓs[ A§LôWjûR
TVuTÓj§ ùNnÙm
ùNVpLû[ TôÕLôd¡\Õ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 78 JÚ ¿§Uu\j§u EjRWÜ
ApXÕ BûQ«u A¥lTûP«p. ARu
®û[YôL ùNnVlTÓm Aû]jÕ
ùNVpLû[Ùm TôÕLôd¡\Õ,
®TjÕ
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 80u ¸r NhPléoYUô] ùNVp
Juû\ NhPléoYUô] Øû\«p
NhPléoYUô] Y¯Lû[l ©uTt± úTô§V
LY]jÕPàm. GfN¬dûLÙPàm Gq®R
Ït\d LÚjÕm GiQØm Cu±
ùNnÙmúTôÕ RtùNVXôLúYô
ÕW§xPYNUôLúYô ®û[Ùm ùNVp
Ït\UôLôÕ, Ït\m NôhPlThPYo CkR
®XdûL TVuTÓjR AYo AfùNVûX
ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ RÏkR LY]m GÓjRôo
Guß Lôi©dL úYiÓm, (LôiL –
Bhupendrasinh A. Chudarsama V. State of
Gujarat, AIR 1997 SC 3790, and Sukhdev
Singh V. State, (2003) 7 SCC 441).
Ït\ úSôdLm CpXôûU
×j§ ÑYô¾]m CpXô ¨ûX.
Ï¥ úTôûR ¨ûX. B¡VYtû\
Es[Pd¡V ®XdÏLs Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo AkR
ùNVpLû[ ùNnÙmúTôÕ JÚ®R Ït\
EQoúYô úSôdLúUô CpXôUp ùNnRôo
Gu¡\ A¥lTûP«p ùNVpTÓ¡u\], G-
Ó: C,R,N, ©¬Ü 82u ¸r 7 YV§tÏ EhThP
ÏZkûR ùNnÙm GkRùYôÚ ùNVÛm
Ït\UôLôÕ,
11
×j§ ÑYô¾]m CpXô ¨ûX
JÚYÚdÏ ×j§ ÑYô¾]m CpûX Guß
áßmúTôÕ ùTôßl× ¨ûX EiPôdL
LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V úNôRû]ûV C,R,N,
©¬Ü 84 áß¡\Õ, “×j§ ÑYô¾]m
CpXô ¨ûX” GuTRtÏ C,R,N,®u ¸r
R²lThP ®[dLm ¡ûPVôÕ, B]ôp
¿§Uu\eLs CRû] ©jÕ ¨ûXdÏ
GuTRtÏ DPôL LÚ§Ùs[],
B]ôp “©jÕ ¨ûX” GuTRtÏm R²lThP
®[dLm ¡ûPVôÕ, CÕ
TpúYß ¨ûXL°p Es[ U]¨ûX
Tô§lûT Ñh¥dLôhÓm, G]úY JÚYo
HúRàm JÚYûLVô] U]¨ûX Tô§l×dÏ
EhTh¥ÚkRôp ARu LôWQUôL UhÓúU
AYÚdÏ Ït\l ùTôßl× ¨ûX«- ÚkÕ
©¬Ü 84-u ¸r ®XdÏ ¡ûPdLôÕ, (Bapu
& Gajraj Singh V. State of Rajasthan, (2007)
8 SCC 66).
JÚ ùNVûX ùNnÙm úTôÕ ARu
RuûUûV A±V Ø¥VôR ¨ûX«úXô
ApXÕ Rôu ùNnYÕ RYß NhPj§tÏ
×\mTô]Õ GuTûR A±V
CVXôR ¨ûXûU«p JÚYo CÚkRôp
AYo AkR ùNVÛdLô] Ït\®Vp
ùTôßl× ¨ûX«- ÚkÕ ×j§ ÑYô¾]m
CpXôûU Gu\ LôWQj§]ôp ®Xd¡û]
ùTßYôo,
Nanncy Khan V. State (Delhi
Administration), (1986) 2 Crimes 328 (Del)
Gu\ YZd¡p Ït\ ùNVp SPdÏm
RÚQj§p Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u
U]¨ûXûVl Tt± JÚ®R úLs®Ùm
Nôh£L°Pm úLhLlTP®pûX, úUÛm.
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ©jÕ ¨ûX Gu¡u\
®Xd¡û]Ùm Yô§P®pûX, G]úY.
úUpØû\ÂhÓ ¿§Uu\j§p UhÓm
©jÕ¨ûX ®XdÏ úRûY Guß
ØRuØû\VôL YôRm ùNnV Ø¥VôÕ
Gußm Ït\m NôhPlThPYo C,R,N,©¬Ü
84-u ¸r TVuùT\ E¬ûU«pXôRYo
Guß ¾oUô²jRÕ,
Jagdish V. State of M.P., JT 2009 (12) SC
300 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\Øm
Ït\Yô° ØRuØû\VôL EfN
¿§Uu\j§u Øu× ©jÕ ¨ûX Gu\
®Xd¡û] YôRôÓYÕ Øû\VôLôÕ Guß
AkR YôRj§û] ¨WôL¬jRÕ,
Ï¥úTôûR ¨ûX
JÚ ùNVûX ùNnÙmúTôÕ Ï¥úTôûR
LôWQUôL ARu RuûUûVúVô ApXÕ
Rôu ùNnYÕ ¾eLô]Õ ApXÕ NhPj§tÏ
ØWQô]Õ Guú\ô A±Ùm §\u
At\YWôL Es[ JÚYWôp ùNnVlTÓm
GÕÜm Ït\UôLôÕ Guß C,R,N, ©¬Ü 85
áß¡\Õ,

12
CûNÜ
18 YV§tÏ úUtThP JÚYÚdÏ
AYÚûPV NmURj§u úT¬p
CûZdLlTÓm ÕuTjûR Ït\UôL
ùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ, CkR ®Xd¡u ¸r
CPmùT\ UWQm ApXÕ ùLôÓeLôVm
EiPôdL úYiÓm Gu\ úSôdLm
CÚdLdáPôÕ,
G-Ó: H-Ùm ©-Ùm úY¥dûLdLôL
JÚYúWôÓ JÚYo Lj§ NiûPlúTôP Øu
YÚ¡u\]o, CkR ùNVp êXm YÚm
ÕuTjûR AYoLs HtL £jRUôL
CÚd¡u\]o GuTÕ AYoL[Õ ùNVp
êXm A±VlTÓ¡u\Õ, CYoLs
®û[VôhÓ ®§Lû[ AàN¬jÕ
®û[Vô¥]ôp áP ÕuTm úSWXôm, CkR
ãr¨ûX«p H-«]ôp ©-dÏ LôVm
HtThPôp H-ÁÕ Ït\m ÑUjR Ø¥VôÕ,
AtTUô] ùNVpLs
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 95 ¸r NôRôWQ A±Üm
ÑTôYØm EûPV GYÚm JÚ ¾eûLl Tt±
Ïû\ á\ UôhPôo Guß áßm A[ÜdÏ
AkR ¾eLô]Õ AtTUô]RôL CÚkRôp
HúRàm JÚ ùNVp AjRûLV ¾eûL
®û[®d¡\Õ ApXÕ ®û[®dÏm
úSôdLjúRôÓ ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ ApXÕ
AúSLUôL ®û[®dLáÓm Guß ùR¬kÕ
ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ Guàm LôWQjRôp AÕ
Ït\UôLôÕ,
EVo ¿§Uu\m ºWôn®p JÚY¬u LôVm
ªL AtTUô]RôL NôRôWQ A±Üm
ÑTôYØm EûPV Aû]YWôÛm
LÚRlTÓm Gu\ôp AjRûLV LôVjûR
HtTÓjÕm úSôdLjÕPu ùNnVlTÓYÕ
Ït\UôLôÕ Guß ¾oUô²jÕ
RiPû]ûV Rs° ûYjÕ
YZd¡û] ¨WôL¬jRÕ, CkR Ø¥ûY
Øu²ßj§ EfN ¿§Uu\Uô]Õ
“Aû]jÕ NkRlTeLû[Ùm LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ úUp Øû\ÂhPô[ÚdÏ
CûZdLlThP ¾eÏ GkRùYôÚ NôRôWQ
A±Üm ÑTôYØm EûPV U²R]ôÛm
AtTUôL LÚRlTÓUô GuTÕRôu,
CjRûLV £±V ¾eÏLs Utßm AtUô]
ùNVpLÞdÏ RiPû] YZeÏYûR
R®olTúR ©¬Ü 95u úSôdLUôÏm,
Ït\UôLd á¥V JÚ ùNVp AtTUô]Rô
CpûXVô GuTÕ ¾e¡u RuûU
¾e¡ûZdÏm SToLs ¾e¡ûZdÏm úSôdLm
Utßm ©\ NkRolTeLû[ ùTôßjRÕ,
CRtLôL JÚ R²lThP RWm ¡ûPVôÕ,
CÕ ùYßm EPp ApXÕ U]§tÏ
CûZdLlTÓm ¾e¡û]l Tt±VÕ
UhÓUpX, JÚ ÏZkûR Utù\ôÚ
ÏZkûRûV A¥lTÕ ApXÕ JÚ ùT¬VYo
JÚ ÏZkûRûV A¥lTÕ ¾e¡ûZjRôÛm
AÕ ªLÜm £±VRôL LÚRlThÓ TX
NkRolTeL°p Tô§dLlThPYo CûRl
Tt± ×Lôo ùLôÓdL UôhPôo”,
13
CûRl Tt± úUÛm. Neelam Mahajan
Singh V. Commissioner of Police & Others,
1994 (2) Crimes 75 Utßm Keki Hor musji
Gharda V. Mehervan Rulstom Irani (2009) 6
SCC 475 LôiL,
RtLôl× E¬ûU
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 96 ØRp 106 RtLôl×
E¬ûUûVl Tt± áß¡\Õ, úUÛm CûY
JÚ U²Ru RuàûPV E«o Utßm
EûPûULû[ NhPjRtÏ ×\mTô]
SPY¥dûLL°p CÚkÕ TôÕLôdL
ùTtßs[ E¬ûUdÏ Ae¸LôWm
YZeÏ¡\Õ, RtLôl× E¬ûUûV
TVuTÓj§ ùNnVlTÓm GkRùYôÚ
ùNVÛm Ït\UôLôÕ Guß C,R,N,©¬Ü 96
áß¡\Õ, C,R,N, ©¬Ü 97 ØR- p
EPÛdLô] RtLôl× E¬ûU ©\Ï
EPûUdLô] RtLôl× E¬ûUl Tt±
áß¡\Õ, JqùYôÚYÚm RuàûPV
EPp Utßm ©\ÚûPV EPûX
GkRYûLVô] Ït\j§- ÚkÕm TôÕLôjÕ
ùLôsÞm E¬ûUûV C,R,N, ©¬Ü 99u ¸r
Es[ ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ EhThÓ
TVuTÓjRXôm,
©¬Ü 99p
ùLôÓdLlThÓs[ ¨TkRû]L°p
Ød¡VUô]Õ Gu]ùYu\ôp TôÕLôl©tÏ
úRûYVô] A[ûY ®P A§LUôL ¾eÏ
®û[®dÏm YûL«p RtLôl× E¬ûUûV
TVuTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ, úUÛm ©¬Ü 100
GkùRkR RÚQeL°p RtLôl× E¬ûU
UWQm HtTÓjÕm A[®tÏ ùNpXXôm
Guß ®Y¬d¡\Õ,
RtLôl× E¬ûU Gu\ ®XdûL
ùYt±LWUôL TVuTÓjÕYRtÏ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo ØR- p R]dÏ NôRLUôL
RtLôl׬ûU CÚkRÕ GuTûRÙm CkR
E¬ûU UWQm HtTÓjÕm A[®tÏ
CÚkRÕ Gußm ¨ì©dL úYiÓm,
úUÛm ¿§Uu\m CRû] CWiÓ
®RUôL ¨WôL¬dLXôm, ØRXôYRôL
EPûXl TôÕLôdÏm RtLôl× E¬ûU
CÚkRÕ Gußm B]ôp úRûYdÏ
A§LUôL ¾eÏ ®û[®dLlThPÕ Gußm
á\Xôm ApXÕ CkR E¬ûU UWQm
HtTÓjÕm A[®tÏ CpûX Gußm
á\Xôm, Cuù]ôÚ RÚQj§p Aû]jÕ
NkRolTeLû[Ùm LÚ§ RtLôl× E¬ûU
ØR- - ÚkúR CpûX Gußm
¾oUô²dLXôm, (Bhanwar Singh V. State of
M.P. (2008) 16 SCC 657).
U²R EPûXl Tô§dÏm Ït\eLs
C,R,N, Aj§VôVm 16 U²R EPûX
Tô§dÏm Ït\eLû[ ®Y¬d¡\Õ, úUÛm.
CÕ TX Eh©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiPÕ, £X
Ød¡VUô] ©¬ÜLs ¸úZ
®[dLlThÓs[],
E«ûW Tô§dÏm Ït\eLs (©¬Ü 299 ØRp
311 YûW)
14
©¬Ü 299 ØRp 304 – UWQm ®û[®dÏm
Ït\m Utßm ùLôûX
JÚ U²Ru Cuù]ôÚ U²Rû] ùLôûX
ùNnÙm ùNVpL°p C,R,N,®u ¸r
RiPû]dϬVûY – (1) ùLôûX
ApXôUp UWQm ®û[®dÏm Ït\m –
(C,R,N, ©¬Ü 299) ùLôûX Ït\m (C,R,N,
©¬Ü 300) Liê¥jR]m Utßm LY]d
Ïû\®]ôp HtTÓm E«¬Zl× (C,R,N,
©¬Ü 304H) Utßm RtùLôûX (C,R,N, ©¬Ü
305. 306),
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 299u ¸r UWQm ®û[®dÏm
Ït\m ¸rLiPYôß UWQm ®û[®dÏm
ùNVpLû[ ϱdÏm :-
 UWQm HtTÓjÕm
úSôdLjÕPu ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp,
 UWQjûR AúSLUôL
®û[®dLdá¥V EPp LôVjûR
®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu ùNnVlTÓm
ùNVp,
 Ru ùNnûLVôp UWQm
AúSLUôL ®û[®dLdáÓm Gu\
A±ÜPu / EQoÜPu ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp,
úUtá±VYt±p HúRàm
Juß ¨LZ®pûXùV²p JÚ ùNVp
UWQj§p Ø¥kRôÛm AÕ UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\m Guß LÚRlTPôÕ,
CkRl ©¬Ü úUÛm 3 ®[dLeLs êXm
£X áßLs CÚkRôÛm. CpXô§ÚkRôÛm
AÕ UWQm ®û[®dÏm Ït\UôLúY
LÚRlTÓm Guß ®[dLlThÓs[Õ,
G-Ó : UWQm ®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu
ApXÕ UWQm AúSLUôL
®û[®dLlTÓm Gu\ A±ÜPu JÚ
ϯ«u ÁÕ Ïf£Lû[Ùm. NÚÏLû[Ùm
H- TWl© ûYd¡\ôo, ©- GuTYo ¨Xm
EߧVôL CÚlTRôL Gi¦ ARu ÁÕ
SPdÏmúTôÕ Esú[ ®ÝkÕ UWQm
úSÚ¡\Õ, H-úUtLiP Ït\jûR ùNnRYo
B¡\ôo,
G-Ó : ©-GuTYo ×RÚdÏ ©u CÚlTÕ H-
dÏ ùR¬Ùm, B]ôp. £-CRû]
A±V®pûX, ©-u UWQjûR
®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu ApXÕ
AúSLUôL ©-dÏ UWQm ®û[VXôm
Guß A±kÕ £-I AkRl ×RûW úSôd¡
ÑÓmT¥ H-çiÓ¡\ôo, AqYôß £-ÑhÓ
AR]ôp ©-ùLôpXlTÓ¡\ôo, CeÏ £-
Ït\Yô° CpûXùVu\ôÛm H-UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\jûR ׬kRYo B¡\ôo,
CkRl ©¬ûYl TVuTÓjR UWQm
®û[®dLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm, Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo ùLôpX ¨û]jRYo
ùLôpXlTPô®h¥ÚkRôúXô úYù\ôÚYo
ùLôpXlTh¥ÚkRôúXô AÕ Ød¡VªpûX,
JÚY¬u ùLôûX ¨LrkR EPú] CkR
Ït\m ¨û\YûP¡\Õ, YuØû\ ùNV- u
JÚ AÚLôûU ®û[YôL UWQm CÚdL
úYiÓm, çWUô] ®û[YôL
15
CÚdLdáPôÕ, ©¬Ü 299-u ¸r ùLôûX
Ït\UpXôR UWQm ®û[®dÏm Ït\m
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 304u ¸r Ri¥dLj RÏkRÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 300 ¸rLiP RÚQeL°p
UWQm ®û[®dÏm Ït\jûR “ùLôûX
Ït\UôL” LÚÕ¡\Õ,
 ØRXôYRôL UWQjûR
®û[®dÏm ùNVp UWQjûR
®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu
ùNnVlTh¥ÚkRôp
 CWiPôYRôL LôVm
CûZdLlTÓTYÚdÏ AdLôVm UWQjûR
AúSLUôL ®û[®dLdáÓm Guß
Ït\Yô°«u A±ÜdÏ / EQo®tÏ TÓ¡\
EPtLôVjûR ®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu
AÕ ùNnVlTh¥ÚkRôp
 êu\ôYRôL. GYÚdúLàm
EPp LôVjûR ®û[®dÏm úSôdLjÕPu
AÕ ùNnVlThÓ AqYôß Gu¦V AkR
EPtLôVUô]Õ CVtûL«u NôRôWQ
úTôd¡p UWQjûR EiPôdÏYRtÏ
úTôÕUô]RôL CÚd¡\Õ Gu\ôp
 SôuLôYRôL. AfùNnûLûV
ùNn¡\Yo AÕ ùTÚmTôÛm
EߧVôL ¨LZdá¥V UWQjûRúVô
ApXÕ UWQjûR AúSLUôL ®û[®dLd
á¥V EPtLôVjûRúVô HtTÓjÕm
A[ÜdÏ AÕ EP]¥ ATôVLWUô]Õ
GuTûR A±kÕ / EQokÕ UWQjûRúVô
ApXÕ úUtùLôu] LôVjûRúVô
®û[®dÏm BTjûR úUtùLôsYRtÏ
VôùRôÚ LôWQØm CpXôUp Õ¦kÕ
AkR ùNnûLûV ùNnRôo Gu\ôp,
G]úY. JqùYôÚ ùLôûXÙm UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\j§u ¸r APeÏm,
B]ôp. UWQm ®û[®dÏm Ït\eLs
Aû]jÕm ùLôûXVôLôÕ,
G-Ó : CVtûL«u NôRôWQ úTôd¡p
UWQm ®û[®dL úTôÕUô] JÚ Yôs
ApXÕ JÚ EÚhÓjR¥ LôVjûRúVô H-©-
dÏ AjRûLV LôVm ®û[®dÏm
úSôdLjÕPu EiPôdÏ¡\ôo, CR]ôp ©-
C\d¡\ôo, CeÏ ©-u UWQjûR
®û[®dÏm úSôdLjûR H-
ùLôi¥ÚdLô®hPôÛm AYo ùLôûX
Ït\m ׬kRYo B¡\ôo,
G-Ó : JÚ UdLs áhPjtÏs
LôWQªpXôUp JÚ ùY¥UÚkÕ
AûPdLlThP ÀWe¡ûV ÑhÓ áhPj§p
JÚYûW H-ùLôp¡\ôo, CqYôß ùNnV H-
Øuáh¥úV §hPªPôUp CÚkRôÛm
AYo ùLôûX Ït\m ùNnRYo B¡\ôo,
©¬Ü 299 ApXÕ 300 GuTûR ¨oQ«dL
LÚRlTP úYi¥VûY
Raj Kumar V. State of Maharashtra (2009)
15 SCC 292 YZd¡p GlùTôÝùRpXôm JÚ
Ït\m ùLôûX Ït\Uô ApXÕ UWQm
16
®û[®dÏm Ït\Uô Guß ¨oQ«dL
úYiÓúUô AlùTôÝÕ AkR YZd¡û]
êuß T¥L[ôL LÚÕYÕ ÑXTUôL
CÚdÏm Guß EfN ¿§Uu\m á±Ùs[Õ,
ØRp LhPUôL LÚRúYi¥V úLs®
Gu]ùYu\ôp Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
UWQjûR ®û[®dLdá¥V ùNVûX
ùNnÕs[ôWô GuTÕ, Ït\m
NôhPlThPY¬u ùNVÛdÏm AR]ôp
®û[kR UWQj§tÏm Es[ CûQl©u
Nôh£ SmûU CWiPôYÕ LhPj§tÏ
GÓjÕf ùNp¡\Õ, CkRd LhPj§p
AfùNVp 229-u ¸r UWQjûR
®û[®dÏm Ït\Uô GuTûR
GuTûR ¨oQ«dL úYiÓm,
CkR úLs®dÏ ØRp TôoûY«úXúV Bm
Guß T§p CÚkRôp êu\ôYÕ LhPUôL
©¬Ü 300 CkR ùNVÛdÏ ùTôÚkÕUô
GuTûR BWôVúYiÓm, CkR LhPj§p
¿§Uu\m AWÑ RWl©]ôp ¨ì©dLlThP
ùTôÚiûULs Aû]jÕm ©¬Ü 300-u
¸r Es[ SôuÏ Es©¬ÜL°p HúRàm
Ju±u ¸r AkRf ùNVûX ùLôiÓ YÚUô
GuTûR ¨oQ«dL úYiÓm, CkR
úLs®dÏ T§p CpûX Guß CÚkRôp
AkRd Ït\m ùLôûX ApXôUp UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\m Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnÕ
CRtÏ ©¬Ü 304 Tϧ 1 ApXÕ 2u ¸r.
©¬Ü 299. 2 ApXÕ 3-YÕ Eh©¬®u ¸r
AfùNVp YkÕs[Rô Gu\ A¥lTûP«p
RiPû] YZeL úYiÓm,
CkRd úLs®dLô] T§p Bm Gu±ÚkÕ
B]ôp AkR YZdÏ ©¬Ü 300-u ¸r
Es[ ®§®XdÏL°u ¸r APe¡]ôp
AkR Ït\m ùLôûX ApXôUp UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\UôÏm, CRtLô]
RiPû] ©¬Ü 304 Tϧ -1u ¸r Es[Õ,
©¬Ü 300u ¸r Es[ ®XdÏLs
 LÓûUVô] Utßm §¼o
çiÓRp (LôiL K.M. Nanavati V. State
of Maharashtra, AIR 1962 SC 605).
 RtLôl×
 ùTôÕ E¯VoL°u ùNVpLs
 §¼o NiûP
 NmURm
©¬Ü 299 Utßm 300d¡ûPVp
Es[ úYßTôÓ
©¬Ü 299 Utßm 300dÏ CûP«p
Es[ úYßTôhûP Melville J. GuTYo Reg
V. Govinda, (1876) ILR 1 Bom 342 Gu\
YZd¡p LÚ§Ùs[ôo, CkR YZdÏ UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\jûR ׬kÕ ùLôsYRtÏ
RtúTôÕ ªL Ød¡VUô] JÚ Y¯Lôh¥,
CkR YZd¡p
TVuTÓjRlThÓs[ NhPlTh¥ûL Yô¬Vô]
JlÀÓ EfN ¿§Uu\j§]ôp Htßd
ùLôs[lThÓs[Õ,
©¬Ü 299(©) Utßm 300 (2) CûP«p
Es[ úYßTôÓ
17
Tô§dLlThPY¬u JÚ Ï±l©hP
EPp ¨ûX ApXÕ úYß ¨ûX Tt±
Ït\Yô°«Pm Es[ R²lThP RLYp /
A±Ü C,R,N, ©¬Ü 300(2)u ¸r
Ït\U]jûR úYßTÓjÕm AeLUôÏm,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Ït\m
CûZdLlTÓTYo JÚ Ï±l©hP ¨ûX«p
CÚlTûR A±kÕ AYÚdÏ HúRàm ¾eÏ
®û[®jRôp AÕ NôRôWQl úTôd¡p
UWQm ®û[®dL úTôRôUp CÚkRôÛm.
UWQm úSWXôm GuTûR A±kÕ JÚ
ùNVûX ùNnV úYiÓm,
UWQm HtTÓjÕm úSôdLm 300(2)u ¸r
JÚ Ød¡VUô] AeLm ¡ûPVôÕ, EPp
LôVm HtTÓjÕm úSôdLm Utßm
AjRûLV EPp LôVm AúSLUôL
UWQjûR ®û[®dÏm Gu¡\ úSôdLm
UhÓúU 300(2)dÏ úTôÕUô]Õ, C,R,N,
©¬Ü 300EPu CûQkR GÓjÕdLôhÓ (©-
I LôiL)
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 299 © Ït\Yô°«Pm
CjRûLV A±®û] G§oTôodL®pûX,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Tô§dLlThPYo.
úSônYônlThP CÚRV ¨ûXûV
ùLôiÓs[ôo GuTûR A±kÕm AYûW
AÝjRUôL A¥jÕ. AqYôß A¥jRôp
AYÚdÏ UWQm HtTPXôm GuTûRÙm
A±kÕ UWQm HtTÓjÕm YZdÏLs
CkRl ©¬®u ¸r YÚm, Ït\m
NôhPlThPÚYdÏ Tô§dLlThPY¬u
CÚRV ¨ûXûVl Tt± R²lThP A±Ü
CpûXùVu\ôÛm AYÚdÏ UWQm
®û[®dÏm ApXÕ UWQm
®û[®dLdá¥V EPtLôVm ®û[®dÏm
úSôdLm CpûXùVu\ôúXô CkRd Ït\m
LôVm HtThPôÛm ùLôûX Ït\UôLôÕ,
299 ©dÏm 300(3)dÏm CûP«p
Es[ úYßTôÓ
299 ©-«p Es[ AúSLUôL UWQjûR
®û[®dLdá¥V Gu¡\ ùNôtLÞdÏ
T§XôL CVtûL«u NôRôWQ úTôd¡p
UWQjûR ®û[®dLdá¥V Gu\
ùNôtLs 300(3)p TVuTÓjRlThÓs[Õ,
C§p UWQm HtTÓjRdá¥V EPp
LôVj§tÏm CVtûL«u NôRôWQ úTôd¡p
UWQm HtTÓjRdá¥V LôVj§tÏm
®j§VôNm Es[Õ, CÕ £±VRôL
úRôu±]ôÛm CûR LY²dL®pûX
Gu\ôp ùTÚU[®p A¿§ úSWXôm,
EPtLôVm GkR A[®tÏ UWQjûR
HtTÓjRXôm GuT§pRôu CkR ®j§VôNm
Es[Õ, ùTôÕYôL á±]ôp. GkR
A[®tÏ AÕ UWQjûR HtTÓjRXôúUô
AûR ùTôßjÕRôu Ït\ úSôdLjÕPu
HtTÓj§V AkR EPtLôVj§]ôp HtTÓm
UWQm GkR A[®Xô] ùLôûX Ït\j§u
¸r YÚm GuTûR ¨oQ«dLXôm,
“HtTÓjRdá¥V” Gu\ ùNôp 299-©«p
Es[ ùNôp, CÕ JÚ ¨LrÜd áû\ UhÓm
ϱdLôUp Nôj§Vdáû\Ùm Es[PdL
úYiÓm, CVtûL«u NôRôWQ úTôd¡p
UWQm HtTÓjRdá¥V EPtLôVm GuTÕ
18
UWQm AkR EPtLôVj§u LôWQUôL
Li¥lTôL úSÚm GuTûR CVtû«u
NôRôWQ úTôdûL LÚj§p ùLôiÓ
ϱd¡\Õ, 300(3)u ¸r YZdÏLs
YÚYRtÏ Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ùLôûX
ùNnV Gi¦«ÚdL úYiÓm Gu\
AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ, CVtûL«u NôRôWQ
úTôd¡p UWQjûR HtTÓjRdá¥V
EPtLôVjûR HtTÓjR Gi¦ CÚkRôp
UhÓm úTôÕUô]Õ,
TôodL State of Andhra Pradesh V.
Rayavarappu Punnayga and another, 1977
Cri. L.J.1, Augustine Sardana V. State of
Karnataka, 2003 Cri. L.J. 4458, Shri
Harendra Nath Borah V. State of Assam, JT
2007 (2) SC 404).
Virga Singh V. State of Punjab, 1958
Cri.L.J. 818 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m
300(3)u RuûUûV ®[d¡VÕ, AWÑ
RWl©p 300(3)u ¸r JÚ YZdûL ùLôiÓ
YÚYRtÏ ¸rLiPYtû\ ¨ì©dL
úYiÓm,
 ØRXôYRôL EP- p LôVm
Es[Õ GuTûR Lôi©dL úYiÓm,
 CWiPôYRôL CkR
LôVeL°u RuûU ¨ì©dLlTP úYiÓm,
 êu\ôYRôL AkR LôVjûR
®û[®dÏm úSôdLm CÚkRÕ
GuTûR ¨ì©dL úYiÓm, ARôYÕ AÕ
GúRfûNVôLúYô ApXÕ úSôdLm
CpXôUúXô HtThP LôVm CpûX, CûY
êußm ¨ì©dLlThPôp AkR ®NôWûQ
ùRôPokÕ
 SôuLYRôL úUtá\lThP
LôVm CVtûL«u NôRôWQ úTôd¡p
UWQm ®û[®dLdá¥V LôVm
GuTûR ¨ì©dL úYiÓm, CkR ¨ìTQm
Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u úSôdLjÕPu
CûQkRÕ ¡ûPVôÕ,
G]úY CkR YZd¡uT¥ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo CVtûL«u NôRôWQ
úTôd¡p UWQm HtTÓjRdá¥V LôVjûR
HtTÓjR UhÓúU Gu¦«ÚkÕ UWQm
HtTÓYRtÏ Gi¦«ÚdLô®hPôÛm
AÕ ùLôûX Ït\UôLúY LÚRlTÓm,
TôodL C,R,N, ©¬Ü 300p G-Ó (£),
©¬Ü 299(£) Utßm ©¬Ü 300(4)dÏ
CûPúV Es[ úYßTôÓ
2 ©¬®u ¸Ým Rôu ùNnÙm ùNVp
UWQjûR HtTÓjRdáÓm Gu\ A±Ü
EQof£ úRûY, 300(4)u ¸r Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo R]Õ ùNVp JÚ áhPj§tÏ
(R² STÚdÏ CpûX) ¾eÏ
®û[®dLdáÓm ATôVLWUô] ùNVp
Gußm CR]ôp UWQm AÚLôûU«p
Es[Õ Guàm A[®tÏ A±Ü
ùTt±ÚkRôp úTôÕm, CjRûLV UWQm
Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u ATôVLWUô]
19
ùNV- ]ôp LhPôVm ¨LZd á¥VRôL
CÚjRp AY£Vm, CfùNVp CjRûLV
Liê¥jR]Uô] ùNVûX
úUtùLôs[ GkR RÏkR LôWQØm
CpXôUp úUtùLôs[lTP úYiÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 302
CkRl ©¬Ü 300u ¸r Es[ ùLôûX
Ït\j§tÏ RiPû]ûV YZeÏ¡\Õ,
CÕ 2 RiPû]Lû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ. UWQ
RiPû] ApXÕ BÙs RiPû],
úUÛm. ATWôRj§tÏm CRu ¸r Y¯
Es[Õ,
UWQ RiPû]
Bachan Singh V. State of Punjab, AIR 1980
SC 808 YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\j§p IkÕ
¿§T§d ÏÝ UWQ RiPû]ûV
A°dLXôm Guß ¾oUô]m ùNnRÕ, CkR
YZd¡p UWQ RiPû] Ck§V
AW£VXûUl× NhPj§u `WjÕ 19 Utßm
21tÏ ×\mTô]Õ Guß Yô§PlThPÕ,
CkR YZd¡p ¿§Uu\m ¸rLiP
®§Lû[ HtTÓj§VÕ,
 UWQ RiPû] Uôtß Y¯
CpXôR ªLd ùLô¥V YZdÏL°p ªÏ§Vô]
Ït\jRuûU CÚkRôp UhÓúU
TVuTÓjR úYiÓm,
 UWQ RiPû] YZeÏYRtÏ
Øu× Ït\Yô°«u NkRolT
ãr¨ûXLÞm AkR Ït\j§u NkRolT
ãr¨ûXÙm LÚj§p ùLôs[lTP úYiÓm,
 ùTôÕYôL BÙs RiPû]
®§VôLÜm UWQ RiPû]
®§®XdLôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm, BÙs
RiPû] YZe¡]ôp AkRd Ït\j§u
ãr¨ûX«p úTôÕUô]RôL CÚdLôÕ
Guß LÚ§]ôp UhÓúU UWQj RiPû]
YZeLXôm,
 AkRd Ït\jûRf NôokR
Aû]jÕ ªûLlTÓjÕm Utßm
Ïû\ÜTÓjÕm LôWQeLû[ BWôV
úYiÓm, Cq®WiûPÙm BWônkR
©u]úW UWQ RiPû] YZeL Ø¥Ü
ùNnVXôm,
CkR ¾ol× CRtÏ ©\Ï Machi Singh V.
State of Punjab, (1983) 3 SCC 470 Gu\
YZd¡p ©uTt\lThPÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 304
Øu× á±VûRlúTôp C,R,N, ©¬Ü 304
ùLôûX Ït\m ApXôR UWQm
®û[®dÏm Ït\j§tÏ RiPû]
YZeÏ¡\Õ, CRu ¸r 2 TϧLs,
 UWQm ®û[®dÏm
úSôdLjÕPú]ô ApXÕ UWQm AúSLUôL
HtTPdá¥V EPtLôVjûR HtTÓjÕm
úSôdLjÕPú]ô ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp, (Tϧ-1)
20
 UWQm HtTÓjÕm úSôdLm
CpXôUúX R]Õ ùNVp UWQjûR
HtTÓjRXôm Gu¡u\ A±ÜPu /
EQoÜPu ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp, (Tϧ-2)
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 304-H - LY]ªuûUVôp
HtTÓm UWQm
304-H LY] Ïû\®]ôÛm Liê¥jR]Uô]
ùNVpL°]ôÛm HtTÓm UWQeLû[ Tt±
®[dÏ¡\Õ, “Liê¥jR]m” Gu¡u\
YôojûR ØuúVôNû]«uûU Gu\
ùTôÚû[ ùLôiPÕ ApXÕ JÚ ùNVûX
RÏkR £kRû]«u± ùNnYÕ Gu\
ùTôÚ°p AûRl TôodLXôm, úUÛm
LY]ªuûU GuTÕ úTôÕUô] ApXÕ
N¬Vô] AdLû\«uûUûV ϱd¡\Õ,
UWQjûR ®û[®dÏm Aû]jÕ
Liê¥jR]Uô] ùNVpLÞm Utßm
LY]dÏû\Yô] Aû]jÕ ùNVpLÞm
304-H«u ¸r YWôÕ, 304-H ©¬Ü 299
Utßm 300u EsÞßl×Lû[ ®Xd¡
ùNVpTÓm,
Mohammed Aynuddin and Miyam V. State
of Andhra Pradesh, (2000) 7 SCC 272 Gu\
YZd¡p úUpØû\ÂhPô[o JÚ úTÚkÕ
KhÓSo, JÚ TV¦ úTÚk§p H±V ©\Ï
AkRl úTÚkÕ Øu× SLokÕ
ùLôi¥ÚdÏmúTôÕ AYs AkR
Yi¥«u ùY°úV ®ÝkÕ úTÚk§u
©uNdLWm AYs ÁÕ Á± AYs AkR
®Tj§p HtThP LôVeL°]ôp
E«¬ZkRôs, CkR YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m KhÓS¬u LY]ªuûUûV
EߧVôL AàUô²dL Ø¥VôRRôp 304-H
ùNpÛT¥ BLôÕ Guß ¾olT°jRÕ,
úUÛm. ¿§Uu\m Liê¥jR]Uô] ùNVp
GuTÕ A§ AYNWUôL ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp
Gußm úYiÓm Guú\ ùNnVlTÓm ùNVp
ApX Gußm á±VÕ,
G-Ó : úYLUôL ùNpÛm Xô¬ JÚ §\kR
ùY°«p §Úm×múTôÕ AeÏ Lh¥- p
TÓjÕd ùLôi¥ÚkR JÚYo ÁÕ úUô§
AYWÕ UWQjûR EiPôd¡VÕ, CkR
YZdÏ 304 Tϧ 2 u ¸r YWôUp 304-H«u
¸r YÚm, Hù]²p. KhÓSo
úYiÓùUuú\ AkR Yi¥ûV Lh¥p
ÁÕ Ht\®pûX, (LôiL State of Gujarat
V. Haider Ali, (1976) 1 SCC 889).
ùRôZpNôo LY]ªuûU Utßm C,R,N,
©¬Ü 304-H
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 304-H UÚjÕYoLs ÁÕ
ùRô¯pNôo LY]ªuûU ×Lôo
CÚdÏmúTôÕ TVuTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ, EfN
¿§Uu\m Jacob Mathew V. State of Punjab
& Another 2005 6 SCC 1 Gu\ YZd¡p
Øu× EfN ¿§Uu\jRôp Dr. Suresh Gupta
V. Govt. of NCT of Delhi, (2004) 6 SCC
922 Gu\ YZd¡p á\lThP LÚjûR
ÁiÓm GÓjÕd á±VÕ, LY]ªuûU
Gu¡u\ LÚjÕ E¬ûU«Vp NhPj§Ûm
Ït\®Vp NhPj§Ûm ùYqúYß ®RUôL
21
AÔLlThÓs[Õ Gußm E¬ûU«Vp
NhPj§p LY]ªuûU Guß LÚRlTÓYÕ
Ït\®Vp NhPj§u ¸r LY]ªuûUVôL
LÚRlTP úYi¥V AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ
Guß ¿§Uu\m á±VÕ, LY]ªuûU JÚ
Ït\UôL UôßYRtÏ ARtϬV Ït\ U]m
CÚkRRôL Lôi©dL úYiÓm, úUÛm JÚ
ùNVp Ït\m Guß LÚRdá¥V LY]d
Ïû\YôL CÚlTRtÏ ªL A§L A[®Xô]
LY]ªuûU úRûY, A§L A[®p
LY]ªuûU CpûXùVu\ôp AkR ùNVp
E¬ûU«Vp NhPj§p UhÓúU SPY¥dûL
GÓdLjRdL ùNVXôLÜm Ït\®Vp
NhPj§u ¸r AûR G§ojÕ GÕÜm ùNnV
Ø¥VôÕ,
úUÛm. LÓûUVô] Gu¡u\ YôojûR 304-
H-®p TVuTÓjRlTPô®hPôÛm
Liê¥jR]m ApXÕ LY]ªuûUÙPu
ùNnVlTÓm ùNVpLs Guß 304-H-®p
Es[ YôojûRLs LÓûU Gu\
ùNôpÛPu NôokÕ ×¬kÕd ùLôs[lTP
úYiÓm Guß ¿§Uu\m á±Ùs[Õ,
JÚ UÚjÕYÚdÏ G§WôL Ït\®Vp
NhPjRu ¸r LY]ªuûUdLôL
SPY¥dûL GÓdL úYiÓùUu\ôp AYo
JÚ ùNVûX ùNnúRô ApXÕ ùNnVôUp
CÚkúRô AkR ùNnRp ApXÕ
ùNnVôU- ÚjRp ϱl©hP GkRùYôÚ
NôRôWQ A±Üm §\àm
Es[ UÚjÕYÚm ùNn§ÚdL Ø¥VôR JÚ
ùNVp Guß ¨ì©dL úYiÓm, AkR
UÚjÕYo ùNnR ùNV- ]ôp UWQm
ApXÕ LôVm HtTP ªÏ§Vô] Yônl×
Es[RôL CÚk§ÚdL úYiÓm, (TôodL.
Martin F.D’ Souza V. Mohd. Ishfaq (2009) 3
SCC 1)
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 306 Utßm 309 - EPkûRVôL
CÚjRp Utßm RtùLôûXdÏ ØVÛRp
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 306 RtùLôûX ùNnTYÚdÏ
EPkûRVôL ÕûQ ¨tTYûW. Ït\m
ùTôßlúTtL ùNn¡\Õ, ÕûQ ¨tRp
GuTÕ C,R,N, Aj§VôVm 5p
®[dLlThÓs[Õ, C,R,N, ©¬Ü 107p
ÕûQ ¨tRp GuTÕ ¸rLiPtû\
Es[PdÏm Guß á\lThÓs[Õ,
 Ït\m ùNnV çiÓRp
 Ït\m ùNnYRtLôL Ït\
N§«p DÓTÓRp
 Ït\m ùNnYRtÏ ER®
ùNnRp
©¬Ü 306u ¸r JÚ ùNVp YÚYRtÏ
AfùNVp ©¬Ü 107u ¸r YWúYiÓm,
C,R,N, 306 Utßm Ck§Vf Nôh£Vf NhPm
©¬Ü 113 H
Ck§V Nôh£Vf NhPm 113H-u ¸r JÚ
ùTi¦u RtùLôûXdÏ AY[Õ LQYu
Utßm LQY]Õ ÏÓmTj§]o
EPkûRVôL CÚkRôoL[ô Guß
BWôÙmúTôÕ
22
 AYs §ÚUQm Ø¥kÕ 7
YÚPeLÞdÏs RtùLôûX ùNnÕ
ùLôiPRôLÜm
 AY[Õ LQYu ApXÕ
E\®]oLs
AYû[ ùLôÓûUlTÓj§]ôoLs
Gußm ¨ì©dLlThPôp ¿§Uu\m GpXôm
ãr¨ûXLû[Ùm LÚj§p ùLôiÓ AkR
RtùLôûXdÏ AY[Õ LQYu ApXÕ
E\®]oLs EPkûRVôL CÚkRôoLs
Guß AàUô²dLXôm,
CkR ©¬Ü 1983 Bm BiÓ JÚ §ÚjRf
NhPj§u êXm A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ,
CÕ ER®Vt\. §ÚUQUô] ùTiLs
RtùLôûXdÏ AYoL[Õ LQYWôÛm
E\®]oL[ôÛm Rs[lTÓmúTôÕ
ùTÚmTôuûUVôL Nôh£VeLs
¡ûPdLôUp CÚdÏm YZdÏL°p ¿§
¡ûPlTRtLôL JÚ NØRôV SX
LiúQôhPjÕPu
A±ØLlTÓjRlThÓs[Õ,
úUÛm. CqYôß AàUô²jRp
LhPôVUô]Õ ApX, Hù]²p. NhPj§p
AàUô²dLXôm GußRôu
á\lThÓs[Õ, úUÛm. CjRûLV
AàUô]m ùLôsYRtÏ Øu× ¿§Uu\m
YZdÏ NôokR ©\ ãr¨ûXLû[Ùm
NkRolTeLû[Ùm LÚj§p
ùLôs[ úYiÓm, AjRûLV LÚjÕ CkR
AàUô]jûR ªûLlTÓjRXôm ApXÕ
AqYôß AàUô²lT§- ÚkÕ
¿§Uu\jûR RÓdLXôm, úUÛm. ©¬Ü 113-
H-®p Es[ AàUô]m G§odLdá¥V
AàUô]m BÏm,
LôiL Ramesh Kumar V. State of
Chattisgarh, (2001) 9 SCC 618 Uu\m
Rajbabu and Another V. State of Madhya
Pradesh, AIR 2008 SC 3212)
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 309 RtùLôûX ØVt£ûVÙm.
ØVt£ ùNnÙm úSôdLjÕPu ùNnVlTÓm
Aû]jÕ ùNVpLû[Ùm Ri¥d¡\Õ,
LôVm NôokR Ït\eLs - C,R,N, ©¬Ü 319 –
338
JÚYÚdÏ EPp Y- . úSôn ApXÕ
TXÅ]m ®û[d¡u\ GYÚm LôVm
®û[®d¡\ôo Guß ©¬Ü 319 áß¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 320 ùLôÓeLôVjûR ¸rLiPYôß
YûWVßd¡\Õ,
 BiûU CZdL ùNnRp
 HRôYÕ Li
TôoûYûV ¨WkRWUôL CZdL ùNnRp
 HRôYÕ Lô§u úLhÏm
§\û] ¨WkRWUôL CZdL ùNnRp
 HRôYÕ JÚ EPp EßlûT
ApXÕ êh¥û] CZdL ùNnRp
 HRôYÕ JÚ EPp Eßl×
ApXÕ êh¥u Y- ûUûV A¯jRp
ApXÕ ¨WkRWUôL TÝRôdÏRp
23
 RûX ApXÕ
ØLjûR ¨WkRWUôL EÚdÏûXjRp
 HRôYÕ JÚ GÛmûT
EûPjRp ApXÕ Tp GûRÙm CPm
ùTVW ùNnRp
 E«ÚdÏ BTjûR ®û[®d¡\
LôVm ApXÕ LôVj§]ôp úYRû]
TÓTYûW 20 SôhLs YûW LÓm ÕuTm
RWdá¥V LôVm ApXÕ 20 SôhLÞdÏ
YZdLUôL AYWÕ
AÛYpLû[ ùNnVôUp RÓdLdá¥V
Lô¬Vm ùNnRp,
C,R,N,®u ¸r LôVm ApXÕ
LÓeLôVjûR Ri¥lTRtÏ AÕ
Ru²fûNVôL C,R,N, ©¬Ü 321-u ¸r
(Ru²fûNVôL LôVm ®û[®jRp). 322u
¸r (Ru²fûNVôL LÓeLôVm ®û[®jRp)
CûZdLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm,
G-Ó : H-©-ÙPu NiûP úTôhÓ
ùLôi¥ÚdÏmúTôÕ ©-I Xj§Vôp A¥dL
ØVp¡\ôo, £, Esú[ ÖûZkÕ
NiûPûV ¨ßjR ØVp¡\ôo, CkR
NfNW®p H-©-I A¥dL ØVÛmúTôÕ H- £-
I Xj§Vôp A¥d¡\ôo, B]ôp. H-323u
¸r Ït\m ׬¡\ôo,
State of Karnataka V. Shivalingaiah, AIR
1988 SC 115 Gu\ YZd¡p Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo C\kRY¬u
BÔßl×Lû[ Rôd¡VRôp AYWÕ
EP]¥ UWQm HtThPÕ, CkR ¨LrÜ
§¼ùWuß ¨LrkRRôp Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
C\kRY¬u UWQjûR ®û[®dL úSôdLm
ùLôi¥ÚkRRôL LÚR Ø¥VôÕ Gußm
UWQm ¨LZXôm Gußm RuàûPV ùNVp
UôWûPl× HtTÓjRXôm Gu\ A±Ü
ùTt±ÚkRRôLÜm á\Ø¥VôÕ Gußm
¿§Uu\m ¾oUô²jRÕ, G]úY. CkR
ùNVp ©¬Ü 325tÏ ùY°úV ùNu\Õ,
£ßYo LPjRp. BhLPjRp Utßm
©\ Ït\eLs (C,R,N, ©¬Ü 359 – 374)
£ßYo LPjRp CÚYûLlTÓm G] ©¬Ü
359 áß¡\Õ, AûY Ck§V GpûXdÏ
ùY°úV LPjRp Utßm NhPléoYUô]
TôÕLôl©- ÚkÕ LPjRp BÏm,
©¬Ü 360u ¸r JÚYûW AYWÕ NmURm
CpXôUúXô ApXÕ AYo ùTôßhÓ
NmURm RW NhPlT¥ A§LôWm ùTt\
JÚY¬u NmURm Cu± AYûW Ck§V
GpûXdÏ AlTôp ùLôiÓ ùNu\ôp
Ck§Vô®- ÚkÕ Bû[d LYokÕ ùNpXp
Guß á\lTÓm,
©¬Ü 361u ¸r 16 YV§tÏhThP BûQ
ApXÕ 18 YV§tÏhThP ùTiûQ
ApXÕ ×j§ ÑYô¾]m CpXôR JÚYûW
AYoL°u NhPléoYUô]
LôlTô[¬PªÚkÕ NmURm ùT\ôUp BûN
Lôh¥ CÝjÕ ùLôiÓ ApXÕ çd¡d
ùLôiÓ úTôYÕ NhPléoYUô]
TôÕLôl©- ÚkÕ LYoRp Guß á\lTÓm,
24
Thakorlal D. Valgame V. State of Gujarat,
(1973) 2 SCC 413 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m ©¬Ü 361u ¸r çd¡ ùNpYÕ
Gu¡u\ YôojûR YÛdLhPôVlTÓj§
çd¡ ùNpÛRp GuTRtÏ UhÓm
EhThPÕ ApX Guß á±VÕ, G-Ó : ©
(£ßª) – AYû[ A±VôR H-AYÞdÏ JÚ
NôdúXh ùLôÓjÕ Lô¬p H\ çiÓ¡\ôo,
©-Lô¬p Hß¡\ôs, ©¬Ü 361u ¸r H-©-ûV
LPj§ Es[ôo,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 362 BhLPjRûX ®[dÏ¡\Õ,
K¬Pj§- ÚkÕ ùNpÛmT¥ JÚYûW
YuØû\Vôp LhPôVlTÓjÕ¡\ ApXÕ
YgNû]Vô] Øû\ GR]ôÛm çiÓ¡\
GYo JÚYÚm AYûW BhLPjÕ¡\ôo
Guß ùNôpXlTÓYôo,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 364-H JÚ §ÚjRf NhPm êXm
1993 Bm BiÓ A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ,
CÕ ©sû[d LPjRp Ït\m Utßm
BhLPjRp Ït\eLs Ø¥YûPkÕ
ApXÕ JÚYo LôY- p ùYÏ SôhL[ôL
ûYdLlThÓ Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
AqYôß AûPjÕ ûYjRYûW ùLôpYRôL
ªWh¥ YkRôp AYoLÞdÏ LÓm RiPû]
YZeÏYRtLôL ùLôiÓYWlThPÕ,
Cl©¬®u ¸r JÚYo AWNôeLm ApXÕ
ùY°SôhÓ AWÑ JÚ ùNVûX ùNnVúYô.
ùNnVôUp CÚdLúYô ùNnÙm
úSôdLjÕPu ApXÕ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYÚdÏ ùWôdLj ùRôûL
ùLôÓdÏm úSôdLjÕPu ùNnVlTÓm
LPjRûX Ri¥dÏm,
Tô- Vp Ït\eLs Utßm
CVtûLdÏ Uô\ô] Ït\eLs –
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 375-377
375 Utßm 376 – Yu×Qof£
©uYÚm ®YWeLs 6p HRôYÕ Ju±u
¸r YÚm ãr¨ûX«p JÚ ùTiÔPu
EPÛ\Ü ùLôsÞm JÚ Bi
Yu×Qof£ ùNnYRôL ùNôpXlTÓ¡\ôo,
 ØRXôYRôL AlùTi¦u
®ÚlTj§tÏ Uô\ôL
 CWiPôYRôL AlùTi¦u
NmURm CpXôUp
 êu\ôYRôL UWQm ApXÕ
LôVm HtTÓm Guß AlùTiûQ
AfÑßj§ AY[Õ NmURjûR ùTtß®hP
©\Ï. AY[Õ NmURjÕPu
 SôuLôYRôL. Øû\lT¥ Ruû]
UQkR LQYu Guß JÚYû] Sm©
AR]ôp NmURjûR A°d¡\ôs GuTûR
ùR¬kÕm AkR NmURjÕPu
 IkRôYRôL. ©jÕ ¨ûX«u
LôWQUôLúYô ApXÕ EQoûY UÝeLf
ùNnÙm ApXÕ EPpSXj§tÏ
JqYôRûY APe¡V HúRàm
25
ùLôÓdLlThPRôÛm AlùTi NmURm
A°dÏm ùNV- u RuûUûVúVô ApXÕ
®û[ÜLû[úVô A±Vô§ÚkÕ
AfNUVj§p AYs ùLôÓdÏm
NmURjÕPu
 B\ôYRôL. AlùTi 16
YV§tÏ EhThPYWôL CÚl©u AY[Õ
NmURjÕPu ApXÕ NmURm Cu±
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 375 JÚ ®[dLjûR
ùLôiÓs[Õ, ARôYÕ
Yu×Qof£ Ït\j§tÏ AY£VUô]
Tô- Vp EPÛ\Ü AûUYRtÏ ÖûZRp
úTôÕUô]RôÏm, úUÛm JÚYo Ru
Uû]®úVôÓ AkR Uû]® 15
YV§tÏhThPYWôL CpXôRùTôÝÕ
ùLôsÞm Tô- Vp EPÛ\Ü
Yu×Qof£ BLôÕ,
16 YV§tÏ ¸r Es[ ùTi¦u
NmURjûR LÚj§p ùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ
(Bishnu Dayal V. State of Bihar, AIR 1981
SC 39) State of U.P. V. Manoj Kumar
Panday, AIR 2009 SC 711 Gu\ YZd¡p
Tô§dLlThP ùTi 16 YV§tÏ úU- ÚkR
JÚ LôWQj§]ôp UhÓm AYs NmURm
A°jRRôL LÚR Ø¥VôÕ Guß EfN
¿§Uu\m á±Ùs[Õ,
EfN ¿§Uu\m State of Uttar Pradesh V.
Om, 1999 Cr. L.J. 5030 Gu\ YZd¡p
Tô§dLlThP ùTi TiTt\Ys, úUÛm
A¥dL¥ EPÛ\Ü ùLôsÞm TZdLm
Es[Yo Gu\ JúW LôWQj§tLôL AY[Õ
YôdÏ êXjûR SmTôUp CÚjRp áPôÕ
Guß ¾oUô²jÕs[Õ,
Madho Ram V. State of Uttar Pradesh, AIR
1973 SC 469 Gu\ YZd¡p Tô§dLlThP
ùTi¦u YôdÏêXm úYß Nôu±]ôp
EߧTÓjRlTPô®hPôÛm ARu
A¥lTûP«p UhÓúU RiPû]
YZeLXôm Guß ¿§Uu\m á±VÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 376 Yu×Qof£dLô] RiPû]
Yu×Qof£ Ït\j§tÏ Ïû\kRThNm 7
YÚP £û\ RiPû]Ùm. ATWôRØm
®§dLlThÓs[Õ,
ùTôÕYô] úSôdLjûR ¨û\úYtßm
ùTôÚhÓ JÚ ùTi Juß ApXÕ Ju±dÏ
úUtThPYoL[ôp Yu×Qof£dÏ
BhTÓjRlThPôp A§p JqùYôÚYÚm
áhPôL úNokÕ Yu×Qof£ ùNnRRôL
LÚRlTÓm, Pramod Mehto V. State of Bihar,
AIR 1989 SC 1475 Gu\ YZd¡p SôuÏ
SToLs úNokÕ JÚ ùTiûQ
Yu×Qof£ ùNnRRôLÜm ARtúLt\
UÚjÕY Nôh£VeLÞm CÚkRRôp
AYoLs Aû]Y¬u
RiPû]Ùm ¨ûX¨ßjRlThPÕ,
CqYZd¡p CYoLs Aû]YÚm
Ït\j§p TeúLt\]Wô ApXÕ Vôo
TeúLt\]o GuTûR ¨ì©dL
úRûY«pûX,
26
Ck§V Nôh£f NhPm ©¬Ü 114H – NmURm
Ck§V Nôh£V NhPm ©¬Ü 114H C,R,N,
©¬Ü 376(2)u ¸r (©¬Ü 372(2)(f) R®W)
SPjRlTÓm YZdÏL°p GeùLpXôm
 Ït\m NôhPlThPYWôp
Tô- Vp EPÛ\Ü ¨ì©dLlThÓs[úRô
Utßm
 AlùTôÝÕ AkRl ùTi
NmURm ùLôÓjRôWô CpûXVô Gu\
úLs® GÝm×m úTôÕ úUÛm
 AYs ¿§Uu\m Nôh£Vj§p
NmURm ùLôÓdL®pûX Guß á±]ôp
¿§Uu\m AYs NmURm A°dL®pûX
Guß AàUô²dL úYiÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 377 – N92 Foundation V.
Government of NCT and Others, 210 Cri.
L.J. 94 YZd¡p ¥p- EVo ¿§Uu\m
 T§ù]hÓ YV§tÏ úUXô] CWiÓ
U²RoLÞdÏ CûPúV R²lThP
Øû\«p U]ØYkÕ ¨LÝm Aû]jÕ
Tô- Vp E\ÜLÞm Ït\UôdLlTPd
áPôÕ Gußm AqYôß ùNnRp Ck§V
AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕLs 14. 15. 21
B¡VYt±tÏ G§Wô]Õ Gußm A±®jRÕ,
 C,R,N, ©¬Ü 377 NmURm Cu±
SPdÏm Aû]jÕ Bi Eßl× - ùTi
úVô² ApXôR Eßl× NôokR EPÛ\Ü
Utßm £ßYoLÞPu AqYô\ô]
E\ÜLû[Ùm Es[PdÏm,
 18 YV§tÏ ¸r Es[Yo Tô- Vp
E\®tÏ NmURm A°dL Rϧ CpXôRYo
Guß LÚRlTÓYôo,
EPûULÞdÏ G§Wô] Ït\eLs
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 378 Utßm 379 - §ÚhÓ
GYúWàm JÚYWÕ EPûU«- ÚkÕ
AûNÙm ùTôÚs HúRàm AYWÕ NmURm
CpXôUp úSoûU«u± GÓjÕd ùLôsÞm
úSôdLm ùLôiÓ. AqYôß GÓjÕd
ùLôs[lTÓm ùTôÚhÓ AkRl
ùTôÚû[ SLojÕm GYo JÚYÚm §ÚhÓ
Ït\m ùNnRRôL ùNôpXlTÓ¡\ôo,
G]úY. §ÚhÓ Ït\m ׬Rp JÚY¬u
EPûU«- ÚkÕ AûNÙm ùNôjûR AYWÕ
NmURm CpXôUp ®XdÏRp Utßm
AqYôß ®XdÏRp úSoûUVt\
úSôdLjÕPu AkRl ùTôÚû[ GÓjÕd
ùLôsYRtLôL ùNnRp B¡V CWiÓ
AeLeLû[ ùLôiPÕ,
G]úY. NmURm CpXôUp JÚY¬u
ùTôÚû[ SLojRp Utßm úSoûUVt\
úSôdLjÕPu AqYôß ùNnRp B¡V
CWiÓm Ït\j§u Ød¡V AeLeL[ôÏm,
JÚYÚdÏ Øû\Vt\ BRôVúUô ApXÕ
Utù\ôÚYÚdÏ Øû\Vt\ CZlúTô
27
®û[®dÏm ùNVp úSoûUVt\ ùNVp
Guß LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ,
úUtLiPYt±- ÚkÕ BRôVúUô.
CZlúTô ØÝûUVôL CÚdL úYi¥V
AY£Vm CpûX, RtLô- LUôL.
NhPT¥VôL E¬ûUVô[¬PªÚkÕ GÓjRôp
úTôÕUô]Õ,
G-Ó : H-úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p. ©-«u
SôûV ©-«u NmURm CpXôUp Ru
©u]ôp ùRôPokÕ YÚUôß.
SônLû[ LYok§ÝdÏm CûWûV Ru
NhûPl ûT«p GÓjÕd ùLôiÓ ùNp¡\ôo,
AkR Sôn H-I ©uùRôPW ùRôPe¡VÜPú]
AÕ §ÚhÓd Ït\Uô¡ ®Ó¡\Õ,
G-Ó : (2) H GuTYo JÚ ùTôd¡` úTûZûV
Rôe¡ ùNp¡u\ JÚ GÚûRl TôojRÜPu
ARû] úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p GÓjÕd
ùLôsYRtLôL AkR GÚûR ϱl©hP
§ûN«p ÕWjÕ¡\ôo, GÚÕ SLW
BWm©jRÜPú] H- §ÚhÓd Ït\jûR
ùNnRYWô¡\ôo,
G-Ó : (3) ©-TVQm ùNnYRtÏ Øu×
RuàûPV RhûP TôÕLôlTôL ûYjÕL
ùLôsYRtLôL H-«Pm JlTûPd¡\ôo, H-
AkR RhûP ®tß ®Ó¡\ôo, CeÏ AkRj
RhÓ ©-«u LhÓdÏs CpûX, G]úY.
AûR H-®tß ®hP úTô§Ûm ©-«u
LhÓdÏs CÚkÕ ARû] GÓdLôRRôp H-
§ÚhÓd Ït\m ׬kRRôL LÚR Ø¥VôÕ,
B]ôp H-Sm©dûL úUôN¥ ùNnRRôL
LÚRXôm,
G-Ó : (4) H-©«u úUô§WjûR ©-«u ÅhÓ
úUû_«p Lôi¡\ôo, CûR H-úSoûUVt\
Øû\«p GÓdÏmúTôÕ H-§ÚhÓ Ït\m
׬¡\ôo,
N. Mehra V. State of Rajasthan, AIR 1957
SC 369 Gu\ YZd¡p JÚYo Ck§V
®Uô]l TûP«- ÚkÕ JÚ ®Uô]jûR
NhPj§tÏ ØWQôL GÓjÕ AûR
Tô¡vRôu YûW JÚYo ùNÛjÕ¡\ôo,
CqYZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m AYo §ÚhÓ
Ït\m ׬kRRôL ¾oUô²jRÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 383 – AfÑßj§ T±jRp
JÚYûW AYÚdúLô ApXÕ AYûW NôokR
Ut\YÚdúLô ¾eÏ ®û[®dL úTôYRôL
AfÑßj§ ARu ®û[YôL JÚ
ùTôÚû[úVô ApXÕ
U§l×s[ Tj§WjûRúVô ApXÕ
U§l×s[ Tj§WUôL Uôt\jRdL
Juû\úVô AYo A°dÏmT¥ úSoûUVt\
Øû\«p çiÓRp. AfÑßj§ T±jRp
Gu\ Ït\UôÏm,
G-Ó : TQm ùLôÓdLô®hPôp H- Tt±
AYç\ôL ùY°«Pl úTôYRôL ©-
AfÑßjÕ¡\ôo, CkR AfÑßjÕYRu
êXm H-ûY TQm ùLôÓdL çiÓYRôp
©- AfÑßj§ T±jRp Ït\jûR ׬¡\ôo,
28
G-Ó : (2) JÚ ùRôûLûV H-dÏ ©-ùLôÓdL
LhÓlTÓjÕm JÚ LPu Eߧ ºh¥p
ûLùVôlTm úTôPô®hPôp ©-«u
ÏZkûRûV AûPjÕ ûYlTRôL ©-I
AfÑßjÕ¡\ôo, CR]ôp ©-
ûLùVôlTªÓ¡\ôo, C§p H-AfÑßj§l
T±jRûX ùNn¡\ôo,
G-Ó : (3) H- ©-I LÓeLôVm HtTÓm Guß
TVØßj§ úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p ©-I
ùYßm Rô°p ûLùVlTm ChÓ AûR
R]dÏ ùLôÓdLf ùNn¡\ôo, CqYôß
ûLùVôlTm ChP Rôs
U§l×s[ Tj§WUôL Uôt\dá¥VÕ G]úY
H-AfÑßj§ T±jRp Ït\jûR
ùNnÕs[ôo, Chander Kala V. Ram Kishan,
AIR 1985 SC 1268 Gu\ YZd¡p JÚ
Ts°«u RûXûU B£¬Vo JÚ ùTi
B£¬ûV êuß ùYßm Rô°p
ûLùVôlTm CPd á± CpûXùVu\ôp
AYûW Uô]TeLm TÓjÕYRôL
AfÑßj§V§u úT¬p AkR B£¬ûV
ûLùVôlTm ChPRôp RûXûU B£¬Vo
AfÑßj§ T±jRp Ït\m ׬kRRôL EfN
¿§Uu\m Ø¥Ü ùNnRÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 390 ùLôsû[
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 390T¥ GpXô ®RUô]
ùLôsû[«Ûm §ÚhúPô ApXÕ
AfÑßj§ T±jRúXô APe¡Ùs[Õ,
§ÚÓYRtÏ ApXÕ §ÚÓmúTôÕ ApXÕ
§Úh¥]ôp ùTt\ ùTôÚû[ GÓjÕf
ùNpY§p ApXÕ GÓjÕ ùNpX Ø¥Y§p
Ït\Yô° AÕ ¨û\úYßYRtLôL
GRtúLàm UWQm. LôVm. Øû\«u±
RÓjRp. EP]¥ UWQm. EP]¥ LôVm
ApXÕ EP]¥ Øû\Vt\ RÓjRp
HtTÓm Gu¡u\ AfNjûR Ru²fûNVôL
®û[®jRôp ApXÕ ®û[®dL
ØVu\ôp §ÚhPô]Õ ùLôsû[VôÏm,
Ït\Yô° AfÑßj§ T±dÏm NUVj§p
AfÑßjRlThP STÚPu CÚkRôp. AYûW.
AYÚdÏ ApXÕ úYß JÚYÚdÏ UWQm.
LôVm ApXÕ Øû\Vt\ RÓjRp
EP]¥VôL HtTÓm Guß AfNm
ùLôs[ ùNnÕ AfÑßj§ T±jRôp Utßm
AqYôß AfNm ùLôs[ ùNnÕ AqYôß
AfNm ùLôs[ ùNnVlThPYûW AfÑßj§
T±dÏm ùTôÚû[ AkR CPj§úXúV
AlùTôÝúR ùLôÓjÕ ®ÓUôß çi¥]ôp
AfÑßj§ T±jRp ùLôsû[VôÏm,
G-Ó : ©-I ¸úZ Rs° ©¥jÕ ©-«u
TQjûRÙm. SûLûVÙm ©-«u
CûN®u± AYWÕ EûPûU«- ÚkÕ H-
úUôN¥VôL GÓjÕd ùLôs¡\ôo, CeÏ H-
§ÚhûP ùNnRYo B¡\ôo Utßm AkR
§ÚhûP ùNnÙm ùTôÚhÓ Ru²fûNVôL
©-dÏ Øû\Vt\ RÓjRûX ùNn§Úd¡\ôo,
G]úY H-ùLôsû[V¥jRYo B¡\ôo,
G-Ó : H. ©-«u ÏZkûRûV çd¡d
ùLôiÓ TQlûTûV ùLôÓdLô®hPôp
ÏZkûRûV Tôû\«- ÚkÕ Å£ G±kÕ
29
®ÓYRôL ©-I AfÑßjÕ¡\ôo,
ÏZkûRdÏ EP]¥ LôVm ®û[Ùm Gu\
AfNjûR EiPôd¡VRôp ©- TQlûTûV
H-«Pm ùLôÓd¡\ôo, CqYôß ¨LrkR
AfÑßj§ T±jRp ùLôsû[ G]lTÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 403 úSoûUVtß ùNôjÕ
ûLVôPp
ûLVôÓRp GuTRtÏ C,R,N,®p N¬Vô]
®[dLm ¡ûPVôÕ, B]ôp CÕ ©¬Ü
403p TVuTÓjRlThÓs[Õ, Ït\Øß
Sm©dûL úUôN¥ Guß C,R,N, ©¬Ü 405
ØRp 409 YûW Es[ Ït\eL°p
“ûLVôPp” GuTÕ JÚ AeLUôL
®[eÏ¡\Õ,
G-Ó : ©-dÏ ùNôkRUô] ùTôÚû[ R]Õ
Guß Sm© SpùXiQjÕPu H-GÓjÕd
ùLôs¡\ôo, CeÏ H-§ÚhûP ùNnV®pûX
B]ôp. H– R]Õ RYû\ EQokR
©u]Úm AlùTôÚû[ Ru ùNôkR
ETúVôLj§tÏ TVuTÓj§ YkRôp
Cl©¬®u ¸r Ït\m ùNnRYo B¡\ôo,
(G-Ó) H-Ùm ©-Ùm SiToLs, H-JÚ Øû\
©-CpXôR úTôÕ AYÚûPV èXLj§às
ùNuß ©-«u NmURm CpXôUp JÚ
×jRLjûR T¥jÕ®hÓ §Úl© RÚm
GiQjÕPu GÓjÕ ùNp¡\ôo, CeÏ H-©-
«u Uû\ØL NmURm RUdÏ CÚdLXôm G]
LÚÕYÕ Nôj§VUôÏm, AÕ H-«u
GiQUôL CÚkRôp H-§ÚhÓ ×¬V®pûX,
B]ôp H-AkRl ×jRLjûR R]Õ ùNôkR
SXàdLôL ®tß ®hPôp AYo Ït\Øß
ûLVôPp Gu¡u\ Ït\jûR ùNnRYo
BYôo,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 403 CWiÓ
®[dLeLû[ ùLôiPÕ,
®[dLm -1 : ùLôgN LôXj§tÏ UhÓúU
úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p ùNnÙm ûLVôPp
Cl©¬®u ¸r ûLVôPp G]lTÓm,
G-Ó : ©-dÏ ùNôkRUô] AWÑ LPàR®
ºhÓ Juû\ H-LiÓ GÓd¡\ôo, ºhÓ ©-
dÏ ùNôkRUô]Õ Guß A±kúR ©uù]ôÚ
LôXj§p ©-«Pm ÁiÓm JlTûPdÏm
LÚjÕPu JÚ LPàdÏ _ôÁ]ôL AûR
APÏ ûYd¡\ôo, CeÏ H-úUtLiP
Ït\jûR CûZjRYo B¡\ôo,
®[dLm – 2 : Vôo YNØm CpXôR
ùTôÚû[ LiÓ. AûR TôÕLôdL ApXÕ
ùNôkRdLôW¬Pm AûR §Úm© JlTûPdÏm
ùTôÚhÓ AkRl ùTôÚû[ GÓd¡\ JÚYo
AûR úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p GÓdL®pûX,
BLúY. AYo CkRd Ït\m ׬kRYo
B¡\ôo, B]ôp. ARu ùNôkRdLôWûW
A±k§Úd¡\ùTôÝÕ ApXÕ A±kÕ
ùLôs¡\ Y¯ CÚd¡\ùTôÝÕ ApXÕ
ùNôkRdLôWûW LiÓ©¥jÕ A±dûL
AàlT ¨VôVUô] Y¯Lû[l TVuTÓj§
Utßm AkRf ùNôkRdLôWo ARtÏ
E¬ûUdúLôW AYûW
CVp®lTRtÏ ¨VôVUô] JÚ Lô[ A[Ü
YûW AkRl ùTôÚû[ ûYj§ÚlTRtÏ
30
Øu× Rm ùNôkR ETúVôLj§tÏ AûR
E¬VRôd¡d ùLôiPôp AYo CdÏt\jûR
ùNn¡\ôo,
G-Ó : NôûX«p H-JÚ ìTôûV AÕ
VôÚdÏ ùNôkRUô]Õ Guß
A±VôR ¨ûX«p GÓjÕd ùLôs¡\ôo,
úUtLiP ®[dLj§uT¥ AYo Ït\m
׬V®pûX,
G-Ó : Ye¡l TQf ºhÓ APe¡V L¥Rm
Juû\ H-NôûX«p LiùPÓd¡\ôo,
AdL¥Rj§u ϱl×L°- ÚkÕm
Es[Pe¡Ùs[ ®`VeL°- ÚkÕm AÕ
VôÚdÏ ùNôkRm Guß AYo A±kÕd
ùLôs¡\ôo, AkRl TQºhûP RUdÏ
E¬ûUVôd¡d ùLôs¡\ôo, AYo
úUtT¥ ®[dLj§uT¥ Ït\m ùNnRYo
B¡\ôo,
G-Ó : ©-R]Õ TQlûTûV ¸úZ
úTôÓYûR H Lôi¡\ôo, AYo ©-dÏ AûR
§Úm© ùLôÓdÏm GiQjÕPu AlTQl
ûTûV GÓjÕd ùLôs¡\ôo, B]ôp ©\Ï
Rôú] ETúVôLlTÓjÕ¡\ôo, AYo CkRl
©¬®u ¸r Ït\m ׬¡\ôo,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 405 – 409 – Ït\Øß
Sm©dûL úUôN¥
GkR Øû\«Ûm JÚ ùNôjÕ
JlTûPdLlTh¥ÚkÕ ApXÕ ùNôj§u
ÁÕ B§dLm ùTt±ÚkÕ AkRf ùNôjûR
úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p ûLVôPp ùNn¡\
ApXÕ AkR ùNôjûR R]Õ ùNôkR
ETúVôLj§tLôL Uôtß¡u\ ApXÕ
JlTûPdLlThP ùTôßl× Cu]
Øû\«p ¨oY¡dLlTPúYiÓm Guß
YûL ùNnVlThP NhPj§u GkR
LhPû[Ùm ApXÕ JlTûPdLlThP
ùTôßlûT ¨û\úYtßYûR
Jh¥ ùY°lTûPVôL ApXÕ
Uû\ØLUôL AYo ùNnÕ ùLôi¥Úd¡\
NhPlT¥Vô] JlTkRjûRÙm Á±
úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p AkR ùNôjûR
ETúVô¡d¡\ ûLVôÞ¡\ ApXÕ
Utù\ôÚYûW AqYôß ùNnV
úYiÓùUuú\ AàU§d¡\ GYo JÚYÚm
Ït\Øß Sm©dûL úUôN¥ ùNnRYo
B¡\ôo, (Som Nath Puri V. State of
Rajasthan, (1972) 1 SCC 630).
Krishan Kumar V. Union of India (1960) 1
SCR 452 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m
JqùYôÚ YZd¡Ûm Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
GkR ϱl©hP Øû\«p
ùTôÚhLû[ úUôN¥ ùNn§Úd¡\ôo
GuTûR ¨ì©dL úYiÓm Guß AY£Vm
¡ûPVôÕ; Nôj§VØm CpûX Guß
á±Ùs[Õ, ¿§Uu\m Ød¡VUôL
úSôdLjûR LôQ úYiÓm, úS¬ûPVô]
Nôh£Vm úRûY«pûX, B]ôp. Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ru²Pm CÚkR
ùTôÚhLû[ ûYjÕ Gu] ùNnRôo Guß
ùTônVôL á±]ôp AqYôß áßYÕ
31
AYÚdÏ G§WôL JÚ TXUô] Nôh£VUôL
GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTÓm,
CqYôß ûLVô[lThP TQm JÚYWôp
ùT\lTh¥ÚkÕ AYo ARtÏ LQdÏûWdL
RY± CÚkRôp C,R,N, ©¬Ü 406 –
409 ¨ì©dLlTÓm, ØR- p CkR
ùTôÚhLs Ït\m NôhPlThPYWôp
ùT\lThP] Guß AWÑ RWl©p ¨ì©dÏm
TôWm Es[Õ, ARu ©\Ï AYo Rôu
AlùTôÚhLû[ RuàûPV ùNôkR
TVàdÏ TVuTÓjR®pûX Guß ¨ì©dL
úYiÓm, JlTûPjRp ¨ì©dLlThPôp
ARu ©\Ï Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
JlTûPdLlThP ùNôj§û] GqYôß
TVuTÓj§]ôo Guß ¨ì©dL úYiÓm,
(LôiL Bhargavan Pillai V. State of Kerala,
AIR 2004 SC 2317, Mustafikhan V. State of
Maharashtra, (2007) 1 SCC 623).
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 415 – 420 HUôtßRp
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 415uT¥ JÚYûW HUôtßm
Ït\j§tÏ ùTôßlúTtL ûYdL úYiÓm
Gu\ôp AYo ùNôj§û] RdL ûYjÕd
ùLôs[ ØuYÚmùTôÝúR AYÚdÏ
úSoûUVt\ Utßm úUôN¥ ùNnYRtLô]
úSôdLm CÚkRÕ Guß ¨ì©jRp
úYiÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 415u ¸r ¸rLiPûY úRûY,
ARôYÕ JÚYûW JÚ ùTôÚû[ ©\ÚdÏ
ùLôÓdÏmT¥ ùNnYÕ Utßm JÚ
ùTôÚû[ ©\o ûYjÕd ùLôsYRtÏ
NmU§dL ùNnYÕ HUôt\p Gu\
Ït\UôÏm, CpûXùVu\ôp YgNû]Vôp
JÚYûW çi¥ AYÚûPV EPp. Es[m.
ùTôÚs. StùTVo CYt±tÏ úNRm ApXÕ
¾eÏ ®û[®dLjRdL YûL«p Juû\
ùNnV LÚjÕPu çiÓYÕ ApXÕ
Juû\ ùNnVô§ÚdL LÚjÕPu çiÓYÕ
HUôtßRp Ït\UôÏm, (LôiL Hira Lal
Harilal Bhagwati V. C.B.I. (2003) 5 SCC
257).
G-Ó : H-JÚ ùTôÚ°u úTô- Uô§¬ Juû\
©-dÏ Lôh¥ AkRl ùTôÚs Lôh¥V
Uô§¬ûVl úTôu\Õ. Guß ©-I Sm×Uôß
úSôdLjÕPu Yg£jÕ Utßm AR]ôp
AkRl ùTôÚû[ ©-TQm ùLôÓjÕ YôeL.
úSoûUVt\ Øû\«p çiÓ¡\ôo, CeÏ
H- HUôß¡\ôo,
G-Ó : H-JÚ ùTôÚû[ Yôe¡VRtLôL ©-dÏ
TQf ºhÓ Juû\ RÚ¡\ôo, AlTQf
ºhÓ ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ Guß H-dÏ ùR¬Ùm,
B]ôÛm YgNû] LÚjÕPu H-ARû]
©-dÏ ùLôÓd¡\ôo, G]úY H-HUôtß¡\ôo,
G-Ó : ûYWm ApX. Guß Rôm
A±k§Úd¡\ ùTôÚû[ ûYWm Guß H-
©«Pm APÏ ûYjÕ ©-I úSôdLjÕPu
Yg£d¡\ôo, Utßm ©-I LPu
RÚmT¥ ARu êXm CQeL ûYd¡\ôo,
H-HUôtß¡\ôo,
32
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 417. C,R,N, ©¬Ü 415 ¸r
Es[ RiPû]ûV YZeÏ¡\Õ, HUôtßm
Ït\j§tÏm E¬ûU«Vp RuûUÙûPV
JÚ JlTkRj§]ôp HtTÓm NiûPdÏm
®j§VôNm EiÓ, JlTkRm ÁßRp Juß
UhÓúU Ït\®Vp YZdÏ ùRôPoYûR
RÓdLô®hPôÛm ùYßm JlTkRm ÁßRp
UhÓúU JÚYûW C,R,N, ©¬Ü 415 ApXÕ
420 ¸r ùTôßl× ¨ûX HtLûYdL
úTôÕUô]Õ ApX, (LôiL V.Y. Jose and
Another V. State of Gujarat and Another,
(2009) 3 SCC 78, All Cargo Movers (I) Pvt.
Ltd., V. Dhanesh Badarmal Jain and Another,
2007 (12) SCALE 391).
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 420u ¸r Ït\m
G]lTÓYRtÏ HUôtßRp UhÓm
CpXôUp AkR HUôtßR- u ®û[YôL
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo HUô±VYûW JÚ
ùTôÚû[ RÚmT¥úVô ApXÕ JÚ
U§l×s[ Tj§WjûR ØÝYRôL ApXÕ
TϧVôL ùNnRp. UôtßRp. A¯jRp
B¡VYtû\ ùNnV çiP úYiÓm,
CkRl ©¬®u ¸r Ït\UôYRtÏ
Tô§dLlThPYo Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
ùTônVô]Õ Guß ùR¬kúR á\lThP
Ju±u A¥lTûP«p HUô±]ôo Gußm
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo úSoûUVt\
úSôdLjÕPu ØR- - ÚkúR ùNVpThPôo
Guß ¨ì©dLlTP úYiÓm, (Mobarik Ali
Ahmed V. The State of Bombay, AIR 1957
SC 857).
BYQeLs NôokR Ït\eLs
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 464 – 477H – ùTôn Tj§Wm.
ùTônVôYQm ׬Rp Utßm NôokR
Ït\eLs
Md. Ibrahim & Other V. State of Bihar &
Another (2009) 8 SCC 751 Gu\ YZd¡p
EfN ¿§Uu\m ùTôn Tj§WeLû[ ×û]Rp
Tt±V C,R,N,®u ©¬ÜLû[ ®¬YôL
BWônkRÕ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 463 – 465 ùTônVôYQm ׬Rp
ùTôÕ UdLÞdÏ ApXÕ GYÚdúLàm
úNRm ApXÕ ¾eÏ ®û[®dÏm ApXÕ
úLô¬dûL ApXÕ Tôj§VûR GûRÙm
BR¬dÏm ApXÕ JÚYûW Rm ùNôjûR
CZdÏUôß ùNnÙm ApXÕ HúRàm
ùY°lTûPVô] ApXÕ Eh¡ûPVô]
JlTkRm ùNnÙm LÚjÕPu ApXÕ
úUôN¥ ùNnÙm ApXÕ
úUôN¥ ùNnVlTPXôm Gu\ LÚjÕPu JÚ
ùTônVô] BYQjûR ApXÕ
BYQj§u TϧûV RVô¬d¡\ GYo
JÚYÚm ùTônVôYQm ×û]YûR
ùNnYRôL ùNôpXlTÓYôo, C,R,N, ©¬Ü 470
ùTôn Tj§Wm GuTûR ùTônVôYQm
×û]Y§]ôp HtTÓjRlThP ùTôn
BYQm Guß ®[dÏ¡\Õ,
CÕ C,R,N, ©¬Ü 465 ¸r RiPû]dϬVÕ,
33
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 464u ¸r ùTônVôYQm ׬Rp
úUÛm ®Y¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
Md. Ibrahim YZdÏT¥ CkRl ©¬Ü ùTôn
Tj§WeLû[ 3 YûLVôL ©¬lTRôL
á\lThÓs[Õ, AûY.
 ØRXôYRôL BYQjûR ApXÕ
ARu JÚ TϧûV JÚYo EÚYôd¡]ôo.
ûLùVÝj§hPôo. Øj§ûW T§jRôo ApXÕ
AlT¥ EÚYôdL ûLùVÝj§P ApXÕ
Øj§ûW T§lTRtÏ NhPléoYUô]
A§LôWm RkRôo Guß ©\ûW SmT ùNnV
úYiÓm Gu\ LÚjÕPu. AYo
AlT¥ ùNnV®pûX Guß ùR¬kÕm
AjRûLV BYQjûR ApXÕ ARu JÚ
TϧûV AYo úSoûU«u± ApXÕ
úUôN¥VôL EÚYôd¡]ôÛm ûLùVôlTm
ChPôÛm Øj§ûW T§jRôÛm AjRûLV
BYQjûR ùNpÛT¥VôdLjRdL ϱLs
HúRàm T§jRôÛm JÚ Ï±l©hP
LôXj§p EiPôdLlTPôR BYQjûR
EiPôd¡VRôL Lôh¥]ôÛm
 CWiPôYRôL JÚ BYQjûR
RôúUô ©\úWô EÚYôd¡V ©\Ï
A§Ûs[ Ød¡VUô] TϧûV
NhPléoYUô] BRôWm CpXôUp
VôúWàm SôQVªu± ApXÕ
úUôN¥ ùNnV úYiÓm Guß LÚjÕPu
EÚYôdLlThP ©\Ï WjÕ ùNnRôÛm
Uôt±]ôÛm
 êu\ôYRôL. úTôûR«p
Es[ JÚYûW ApXÕ ×j§ ÑYô¾]m
CpXôR JÚYûW Rôm Gu] ùNn¡ú\ôm
Guß ùR°Ü ùT\ôR ¨ûX«p ApXÕ
úUôN¥ ùNnYûR EQWôR ¨ûX«p
GYúWàm SôQVªu± úUôN¥VôL JÚ
BYQj§p ApXÕ A§p ùNnVlTÓm
Uôt\j§tÏ Jl×Rp RÚm YûL«p
EÚYôdL ûLùVÝj§P Øj§ûW T§dL
ùNnYûR GYo ùNnRôÛm AkR STo ùTôn
BYQjûR EÚYôd¡VYWôL á\lTÓYôo,
G]úY JÚYo ©¬Ü 664 T¥ (1) Rôu
úYù\ôÚYo Guß á±úVô. AYWôp
Ae¸L¬dLlThPYo Guß á±úVô
ûLùVôlTm ChPôp (2) BYQj§p
Uôt\m HtTÓj§]ôp (3) HUôtßRp êXm
ApXÕ LhÓlTôh¥p CpXôRY¬PªÚkÕ
BYQjûR ùTt\ôp “ùTôn BYQm”
×û]kRRôL LÚRlTÓm,
G-Ó : H-Guàm ØRpYo RuàûPV
ØLYWô] ©-«Pm JÚ Ye¡«u ÁÕ
LôúNôûX Juû\ Gݧ A§p ùRôûLûV
ϱl©PôUp 10.000 ìTôndÏ úUtTPôR
ùRôûLûV éoj§ ùNnÕ ùLôs[ A§LôWm
A°d¡\ôo, B]ôp ØLYWô] ©-
AdLôúNôûX«p úUôN¥VôL 20.000 ìTôn
Guß éoj§ ùNnÕ ùLôs¡\ôo, CeÏ ©-
ùTônVôYQm RVô¬jRYo BYôo,
G-Ó : H – JÚ LPàߧ ºh¥p “© ApXÕ
AYo ¨VªlTYÚdÏ” Guß GÝÕ
34
ûLùVôlTm ChÓs[ôo, £ AûR A¯jÕ
Ye¡«p A°lTYÚdÏ ùRôûL A°dÏm
YûL«p Uôtß¡\ôo, £ Ït\m ׬¡\ôo,
G-Ó : H- JÚ L¥Rm Gݧ A§p ©-«u
A§LôWm CpXôUp H-JÚ SpX Ti×ûPV
U²Ru Gußm AYo G§oTôWôR
LôWQeL°]ôp ÕVWUô] ãr¨ûX«p
Es[ôo Gußm á± ©-«u
ûLùVôlTjûR CÓ¡\ôo, CRu êXm
£ Utßm ©\¬PªÚkÕ TQm ùTßYRtLô]
RY\ô] úSôdLjÕPu H-ùNVpTÓ¡\ôo,
CeÏ £ Utßm ©\o RuàûPV
ùTôÚhLû[ ùLôÓdLj çiÓm
úSôdLjÕPu H ùTôn Tj§Wm
×û]k§Úd¡\ôo, G]úY. H ùTônVôYQm
×û]Rp Gu¡\ Ït\jûR ùNnÕs[ôo,
ùTônVôYQeLû[ CVtßRp. CÚl©p
ûYj§ÚjRp. TVuTÓjÕRp B¡V
Ït\eLÞdLôL C,R,N, úUÛm LÓûUVô]
RiPû]Lû[Ùm YZe¡«Úd¡\Õ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 467 – 468
U§l×s[ Tj§WjûR ùTônVôYQUôL
×û]kR HUôtßRp
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 467 ¸r U§l×s[ TjRWm.
E«p ØR- VYtû\ ùTônVôL ×û]¡\
GYÚdÏm BÙs RiPû] ApXÕ
TjRôiÓLs £û\ RiPû]Ùm.
ATWôRØm ®§dLlTÓm, úUÛm C,R,N,
©¬Ü 468 HUôtßm ùTôÚhÓ
úUtùLôs[lTÓm ùTônVôYQm
×û]RûX Ri¥d¡\Õ,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 471 -
ùTônVôYQeLû[ EiûU G]
TVuTÓjRp
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 471 ¸r ùTônVôL ×û]VlThP
BYQjûR AÕ AjRûLV BYQm
Guß ùR¬k§ÚkÕm úSoûU«u± ApXÕ
úUôN¥Vô] Y¯«p AûR EiûUVô]
BYQm Guß TVuTÓjÕúYôÚdÏ
ùTônVôL BYQm ×û]kRYÚdÏ E¬V
RiPû] YZeLlTÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 474 ¸r. C,R,N, ©¬Ü 466
ApXÕ 467p ®Y¬dLlThP JÚ
BYQjûR AÕ ùTônVôL ×û]VlThPÕ
Guß ùR¬kÕ AûR EiûU Guß
TVuTÓjÕm úSôdLjÕPu CÚl©p
ûYj§ÚlTYoLÞdÏ RiPû]
YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ,






1
TôPm – 6 : Ït\®Vp NhPm
2 : Ït\®Vp SûPØû\
NhPm
A±ØLm
Ït\®Vp SûPØû\ NhPm 1898u
CPj§p Ït\®Vp SûPØû\ NhPm
1973 ¨û\úYt\lThPÕ, Ït\®Vp
¿§Øû\ AûUlûT Su\ôL
ùNVpTÓjÕYRtLô]
SûPØû\Lû[ CkR NhPm
YZeÏ¡\Õ, Ït\eLû[l Tt±V
×X]ônÜ Utßm YZdÏ ®NôWûQ
ùNnYRtLô]
ùNVpØû\Lû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ,
C,R,N, 1860 (Utßm ©\ £\l×
NhPeLs Utßm RiPû]
NhPeLs) ¨ûXØû\ Ït\®Vp
NhPeLs ApXÕ ùNVpTÓjÕm
NhPeLs G]lTÓm, B]ôp
CkR ¨ûXØû\
NhPeLû[ SûPØû\lTÓjR úUÛm
®Y¬dÏm NhPUôL Ï,S,N, ®[eÏ¡\Õ,
CkRf NhPm Ck§V AW£VXûUl×f
NhPj§u ¸r
YZeLlThÓs[ RôdLlThÓs[ Ït\m
NôhPlThPY¬u E¬ûULÞdÏm
NØRôVm Ït\m Utßm
Ït\Yô°L°PªÚkÕ Ruû]
TôÕLôjÕd ùLôs[ úYi¥V
úRûYdÏm N¬NUUô] Ød¡VjÕYm
A°d¡\Õ,
NhPUu\m. Bh£jÕû\ Utßm
¿§jÕû\ CûPúV AW£VXûUl×
NhPj§u A±ÜûWlT¥ Es[ A§LôWl
T¡o®û] CkRf NhPm
ùNVpTÓjÕ¡\Õ, AWNôeLj§u
JqùYôÚ ©¬®tÏm ARtϬV
ùTôßl×LÞm. LPûULÞm Es[],
CfNhPm CkR A§LôWl TLoÜ
ùLôsûL Á\ôUp TôÕLôd¡\Õ, King
Emperor V. Nazir Ahmed, AIR 1963 SC
447 Gu\ YZd¡p Privy Council
¿§Uu\m ¿§jÕû\ Utßm LôYp
Õû\ JußdùLôuß CûVkÕ
ùNVpTP úYiÓm, B]ôp AûY
CWiÓm Juß úTôp ¡ûPVôÕ Guß
á±VÕ,
CfNhPm TôWôÞUu\j§]ôp
CVt\lThPôÛm CÕ HZôYÕ
AhPYûQ«u ¸r Es[ ùTôÕ
Th¥V- p CPm ùTtßs[Õ, G]úY.
Uô¨X UdL[ûYLs AW£VXûUl×
NhPj§uT¥ CkRf NhPjûR RUÕ
úRûYdúLtT Uôt±d ùLôs[Xôm,
YûWVû\Ls
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 2 CkRf NhPm ØÝYÕm
TVuTÓjRlTÓm YûWVû\
®[dLeLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ,
Ït\®Vp ¿§Øû\ AûUl©p CkRf
2
NhPm Ød¡VUô] SûPØû\
NhPUôRXôp úYß ®RUôL
YZeLlTÓm YûW CkR NhPj§u ¸r
Es[ ©¬ÜL°p Es[ YûWVû\Ls
ùTÚmTôÛm AúR ùNôtLû[ ©\
NhPeL°p TVuTÓjRlThPôp
AYtû\ ׬kÕ
ùLôs[ TVuTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 2(¥) - Ït\eLû[ YûLlTÓjRp
©¬Ü 2(H) - ©ûQ®Ó Utßm
©ûQ®Pô Ït\eLs
CfNhPj§p Es[ ØRp AhPYûQ
C,R,N, ®p Es[ Aû]jÕ
Ït\eLû[Ùm Th¥V- hÓ AYtû\
Tt±V SûPØû\
RLYpLû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ, CkR
AhPYûQ«p ©ûQ®Óm Utßm
©ûQ®Pô Guß
ϱl©PlThÓs[ Ït\eLs ©¬Ü 2(H)-
®p ®[dLlThÓs[], B]ôp ©\
NhPeLÞm Ït\eLû[ ©ûQ®Ó
ApXÕ ©ûQ®Pô Ït\eLs G]
YûLlTÓjRXôm,
GÓjÕdLôhPôL. ØRp
AhPYûQlT¥ C,R,N, ©¬Ü 323-«u
¸r CûNÜPu LôVlTÓjRp
©ûQ®Ó Ït\UôÏm, B]ôp. ©¬Ü
326 ¸r CûNÜPu ATôVLWUô]
BÙReLs Y¯Lû[ TVuTÓj§
ùLôÓeLôVm TÓjÕRp. ©ûQ®Pô
Ït\UôÏm, RLYp ùRô¯pÖhTm
NhPm. 2000 ©¬Ü 77© T¥ CfNhPj§u
¸r 3 YÚPeLÞdÏ úUp
£û\jRiPû] Es[ Aû]jÕd
Ït\eLÞm ©ûQ®Óm Ït\eL[ôÏm,
©ûQ®Óm Ït\eL°p JÚYÚdÏ
AYo ûLÕ ùNnR EPú]úV _ôÁ²p
ùY°YÚYRtLô] E¬ûU Es[Õ,
©ûQ®Pô Ït\m Gu\ôp GlùTôÝÕm
_ôÁu RWlTPUôhPôÕ Guß
AojRªpûX, AqYôß AYûW
®Ó®lTÕ ¿§T§«u ®Úl×
E¬ûU«u A¥lTûP«p Ø¥Ü
ùNnVlTÓm,
©¬Ü 2(£). 2(Gp) : ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
Utßm ©¥VôûQ úYi¥V Ït\eLs
©¥VôûQ úYiPô Ït\ YZdÏ
GuT§p LôYp A§Lô¬ ©¥VôûQ
CpXôUp JÚYûW ûLÕ ùNnVXôm,
CûRl Tt±V ϱl× ØRp
AhPYûQ«úXô ApXÕ Ut\ £\l×
NhPeL°úXô YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
CqYôß YûLlTÓjÕYRtÏ JÚ
R²lThP A¥lTûP ¡ûPVôÕ,
B]ôp. ùTôÕYôL Aû]jÕ LÓûUVô]
Ït\eLÞm ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
Ït\eL[ôÏm,
G-Ó: C,R,N, ©¬Ü 363 ¸r H
©sû[ LPjRÛdLôL (kidnapping)
ûLÕ ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, CkR Ït\m
3
©¥VôûQ úYiPô Ït\m, G]úY.
LôYpÕû\ ©¥VôûQ CpXôUp H-
ûY ûLÕ ùNnVXôm, B]ôp.
CdÏt\m ©ûQ®Óm Ït\UôÏm,
G]úY. ûLÕ ùNnRÜPu EP]¥VôL
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 436 ¸r AYo _ôÁ²p
®Ó®dLlTP úYiÓm,
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 365 ¸r H
©sû[ LPjRÛdLôL ûLÕ
ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, CdÏt\m ©ûQ®Pô
Ït\m, G]úY. H-ûY ®Ó®lTÕ
¿§Uu\j§u ®Úl× E¬ûUdÏ
EhThPÕ,
©¬Ü 2(P©së). 2(Gdv) –
AûZlTôûQ YZdÏLs Utßm
©¥VôûQ YZdÏLs
©¥VôûQ YZdÏ GuTÕ UWQ
RiPû]. BÙs RiPû]. 2
BiÓdÏ úUtThP £û\
RiPû]dϬV Ït\jûRl ùTôßjR
JÚ YZdÏ Guß ùTôÚsTÓm, ©¬Ü
2(¥©së)T¥ AûZlTôûQ YZdÏ
GuTÕ ©¥VôûQ YZdÏ ApXôR JÚ
Ït\jûRl ùTôßjR YZdÏ Guß
ùTôÚsTÓm,
CkR Uô§Vô] YûLlTÓjR- u
A¥lTûP«pRôu JqùYôÚ
YZd¡Ûm YZdÏ ®NôWûQ ùRôPÚm
GuTûR LôiL, Aj§VôVm 18 Utßm
19 ©¥VôûQ YZdÏL°u YZdÏ
®NôWûQ Øû\ûVl Tt±Ùm
Aj§VôVm 20 AûZlTôûQ
YZdÏL°u YZdÏ ®NôWûQ Øû\
Tt±Ùm áß¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 2(¥) : ×Lôo
×Lôo GuTÕ ùR¬kR ApXÕ ùR¬VôR
JÚYo Ït\m Juû\ ùNn§Úd¡\ôo
GuTRôL CkRf NhPj§u
T¥ Ït\®Vp SÓYo JÚYo SPY¥dûL
GÓdL úYiÓm Gu\ úSôdLjúRôÓ
AY¬Pm YônùUô¯VôLúYô GÝjÕ
êXUôLúYô ùLôÓdLlTÓm YôdÏêXm
Guß ùTôÚsTÓm, ×Lôo GuT§p
LôYp A±dûL APeLôÕ, Ï,S,N,®u
¸r LôYp A±dûL GuTûR
ùTôÕYZd¡p Ït\lTj§¬ûL Guß
áßYo,
©¬Ü 2(D) : ®NôWûQ
Ït\®Vp SÓYWôp ApXÕ
¿§Uu\jRôp SPjRlTÓm YZdÏ
®NôWûQ ApXôR Aû]jÕ
®NôWûQLÞm ®NôWûQ G]lTÓm,
G-Ó : Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 174 ¸r SPjRlTÓm
©úWR ®NôWûQ,
©¬Ü 2(Gu) : Ït\m
Ït\m GuTÕ AlúTôÕ AU- p
Es[ NhPj§uT¥ RiPû]dϬV
GkR ùNVÛm ApXÕ ùNVp R®ol×m
BÏm, ©¬Ü 4 Utßm 5tÏ EhThÓ
Aû]jÕ Ït\eL°u YZdÏ
4
®NôWûQLÞm CfNhPj§uT¥ SPdL
úYiÓm,
©¬Ü 3(Bo) : LôYX±dûL
LôYp A§Lô¬«]ôp Ït\®Vp
SÓYÚdÏ Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 173 (2) ¸r
úUpSPY¥dûLdÏ AàlTlTÓm
A±dûL LôYp A±dûL BÏm,
Ït\®Vp ¿§Uu\eL°u AûUl×
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 6 ØRp 23 YûW Ït\®Vp
¿§Uu\eL°u AûUlûTl Tt±
áß¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 6u ¸r EVo¿§Uu\m
R®W JqùYôÚ Uô¨Xj§Ûm AUoÜ
¿§Uu\m. ØRp ¨ûX Ït\®Vp SÓYo
¿§Uu\m. ùTÚSLo Ït\®Vp
SÓYoLs. CWiPôm ¨ûX Ït\®Vp
SÓYo ¿§Uu\m. Utßm ¨oYôLj Õû\
SÓYoLs CÚjRp úYiÓm,
ÁRØs[ ©¬ÜL°p JqùYôÚ
¿§Uu\j§u ®YWeLÞm
ùLôÓdLlThÓ ¿§Uu\eL°ûPúV
Es[ T¥¨ûX ®[dLlThÓs[Õ,
Ït\®Vp ¿§Uu\eL°u A§LôWeLs
©¬Ü 28 Utßm 29 – YZeLdá¥V
RiPû]Ls
©¬Ü 28 T¥ EVo ¿§Uu\m R]dÏ
NhPj§]ôp A§LôWm A°dLlThP
GkRYûLVô] RiPû]ûVÙm
YZeLXôm, JÚ AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m
ApXÕ áÓRp AUoÜ ¿§T§
NhPj§]ôp A§LôWm A°dLlThP
GkR RiPû]ûVÙm YZeLXôm,
B]ôp AYo UWQ RiPû]
YZe¡]ôp AûR EVo ¿§Uu\j§u
EߧTÓjÕRÛdÏ EhThPÕ,
G-Ó : YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«p
Es[ Aû]jÕ Nôh£VeLû[Ùm
LÚj§p ùLôiÓ AUoÜ ¿§T§ C,R,N,
©¬Ü 302u ¸r Ït\j ¾ol× YZe¡
UWQ RiPû] A°d¡\ôo, CkR
RiPû] EVo ¿§Uu\jRôp
EߧlTÓjRlTP úYiÓm,
©¬Ü 29 uT¥ RûXûU Ït\®Vp
¿§T§ UWQ RiPû]. BÙs
RiPû]. HÝ YÚPeLÞdÏ úUXô]
£û\jRiPû] R®W NhPj§]ôp
A§LôWm A°dLlThP GkR
RiPû]Ùm YZeLXôm, ØRp ¨ûX
Ït\®Vp ¿§T§ ApXÕ ùTÚSLo
Ït\®Vp ¿§T§ 3 YÚPeLÞdÏ
ªLôUp £û\ RiPû] ApXÕ ì,
10.000/-dÏ ªLôUp ATWôRm
YZeLXôm,
5
ûLÕ
ûLÕ GuTÕ NhPlT¥ A§LôWm
Es[ JÚYWôp Utù\ôÚY¬u ùNôkR
ÑRk§WjûR T±jRp BÏm, Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 60H (2009Bm BiÓ §ÚjR
NhPj§u êXm A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ)
CfNhPj§p Es[ ©¬ÜLsT¥ ApXÕ
©\ NhPeL°p
YZeLlThÓs[ ûLÕdLô]
©¬ÜLû[ R®W úYß Y¯L°p ûLÕ
ùNnRp áPôÕ Guß YZeÏ¡\Õ,
LôYp Õû\ ûLÕ ùNnÙm A§LôWjûR
2 NkRolTeL°p TVuTÓjÕ¡\Õ,
©¥VôûQ ùLôiúPô ApXÕ
©¥VôûQ CpXôUúXô Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 87
¸r Ït\®Vp SÓYo JÚ YZdÏ
©¥VôûQ YZdLôL CÚkRôÛm
ApXÕ AûZlTôûQ YZdLôL
CÚkRôÛm ©¥VôûQ YZeÏYRtÏ
A§LôWm ùLôiÓs[ôo, JÚ
©¥VôûQ YZdûL ×Xu ùLôiP
©\Ï Ït\®Vp SÓYo ûLÕ
ùNnYRtLôL ©¥VôûQ ©\l©dLXôm
Guß Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 204 áß¡\Õ,
ûLÕ ùNnRp Utßm Lôl©p ûYjRp
B¡V CWi¥tÏm Ød¡VUô]
úYßTôÓ EiÓ, (Niranjan Singh V.
Prabhakar Raja Ram Kharote, (1980) 2
SCC 559). JÚYo ûLÕ ùNnÙmúTôÕ
UhÓúU Lôl©p CÚjRp ¡ûPVôÕ,
AYûW LôYp Õû\. Ït\®Vp SÓYo
Øu× Øu²ûXlTÓjÕmùTôÝÕm
©\Ï. LôYp ûYl×dLôL ¿§Uu\
ApXÕ ©\ YûL LôYÛdÏ GÓjÕf
ùNpÛmúTôÕm AYo LôYp Õû\«u
Lôl©p CÚlTRôL LÚRlTÓm,
JÚYo ¿§Uu\m Øu× NWQûPkÕ
ARu BûQLÞdÏ
LhÓlTÓmùTôÝÕ AYo ¿§Uu\
Lôl©p CÚlTRôL LÚRlTÓYôo,
G]úY. ûLÕ GuTÕ JÚYûLVô]
Lôl©p ûYjRp BÏm,
G-Ó : ©¥VôûQ úYiPô Ït\j§tLôL
Ït\m NôhPlThÓs[ H ¿§Uu\j§p
NWQûP¡\ôo, H ClùTôÝÕ ¿§Uu\
Lôl©p CÚd¡\ôo,
©¥VôûQ úYiPô Ït\j§tLôL
Ït\m NôhPlThP H LôYpÕû\«]ôp
ûLÕ ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, H ClùTôÝÕ
LôYpÕû\ LôY- p CÚd¡\ôo,
6
©¬Ü 41 : ©¥VôûQ CpXôUp ûLÕ
ùNnÙm A§LôWm
©¬Ü 41 LôYp Õû\ ©¥VôûQ
CpXôUp ûLÕ ùNnÙm A§LôWm
ùTtßs[ YZdÏLs Tt± áß¡\Õ,
©¥VôûQ úYi¥V YZdÏL°p
LôYpÕû\dÏ ©¥VôûQ CpXôUp
ûLÕ ùNnYRtÏ £X NkRolTeLs R®W
ùTôÕYôL A§LôWm ¡ûPVôÕ,
LôYpÕû\ A§Lô¬«u Øu²ûX«p
©¥VôûQ úRûYVô] Ït\m
׬k§ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ RuàûPV
ùTVo Utßm ØLY¬ ùLôÓdL
Ußj§ÚkRôúXô Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 42u ¸r
LôYp A§Lô¬ JÚYûW ûLÕ
ùNnVXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 43u ¸r JÚ £X
NUVeL°p UhÓm JÚ R² STo
Cuù]ôÚYûW ûLÕ ùNnVXôm, Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 44u T¥ Ït\®Vp SÓYo ûLÕ
ùNnYRtÏ A§LôWm YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 46 : ûLÕ GqYôß
ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ
©¬Ü 46uT¥ JÚYûW ûLÕ
ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ AYo Rô]ôLúY
ûLRôYRtÏ EPuThÓ R]Õ ùNVp
êXUôLúYô ApXÕ YônùUô¯
êXUôLúYô AqYôß á±]ôp Au±
AYûW ùRôhÓjRôu ûLÕ ùNnV
úYiÓm,
JÚYo ûLÕ ùNnYûR TXôjLôWjRôp
G§ojRôúXô ApXÕ Rl©dL
ØVu\ôúXô AYûW ûLÕ
ùNnYRtLôL LôYp A§Lô¬ ApXÕ
úYß ûLÕ ùNnÙm STo úRûYVô]
Y¯Ls Aû]jûRÙm ©uTt\Xôm,
AqYôß TVuTÓjÕm Y¯Ls JÚYo
UWQ RiPû] ®§dLdá¥V Ït\m
ApXÕ BÙs RiPû] ®§dLdá¥V
Ït\m ùNnRôXu±. UWQm
®û[®dÏm A[®tÏ ùNpXd áPôÕ,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPYoL°u E¬ûULs
©¬Ü 49 : ASôY£VUô] RPeLp
áPôÕ
ûLÕ ùNnVlThP STo Rl©jÕ
ùNpYûR R®olTRtÏ AY£Vj§tÏ
úUtThP RPeLÛdÏ AYûW
Es[ôdÏRp áPôÕ Guß ©¬Ü 49
áß¡\Õ,
7
©¬Ü 50(1) : ûL§u
LôWQeLû[ ùR¬kÕùLôsÞm E¬ûU
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 50(1)u ¸r ûLÕ ùNnÙm
A§Lô¬Ls ûLÕ ùNnVlThPY¬Pm
GRtLôL ApXÕ GkR LôWQeLÞdLôL
AYo ûLÕ ùNnVlThÓs[ôo Guß
ùR¬®dL LPûUlThÓs[]o, Ck§V
AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕ 22 (1)
CûRlTt± TôodL,
©¬Ü 50(H) : ûLÕ ùNnVlThPY¬u
SiTo ApXÕ E\®]ÚdÏ ùR¬®dL
úYi¥V LPûU
©¬Ü 50Hu ¸r ûLÕ ùNnVlThPÜPu
AkR ûLÕ Tt± ®YWeLs. ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPYo ûYdLlThÓs[ CPm
B¡VYtû\ AYÚûPV SiTÚdúLô
E\®]oLÞdúLô ApXÕ
AYWôp ¨VªdLlTÓm úYß STÚdúLô
ùR¬®dL úYiÓm,
ûLÕ ùNnVlThÓ LôYp ¨ûXVj§tÏ
ùLôiÓ YWlThP EPú]úV LôYp
A§Lô¬ CkR E¬ûULû[l Tt± ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPY¬Pm ùR¬®dL úYiÓm,
CkR ©¬Ü 2005Bm BiÓ §ÚjRf
NhPj§u êXm ùLôiÓYWlThPÕ,
CÕ 2006Bm Bi¥- ÚkÕ AUÛdÏ
YkRÕ,
CkRl ©¬Ü YÚYRtÏ Øu× Ït\m
NôhPlThPY¬u A¥lTûP E¬ûULs
EfN ¿§Uu\j§]ôp Joginder Sing V.
State of U.P. (1994) 4 SCC 260 Utßm
D.K. Basu V. State of West Bengal,
(1997) 1 SCC 416 B¡V YZdÏL°p
Ae¸L¬dLlThPÕ, CkR E¬ûULs
AW£VXûUl× NhPj§]ôp
TôÕLôdLlThÓs[ A¥lTûP
E¬ûUL°u ¸r YÚYRôL
LÚRlTÓYRôp CYtû\ Á\ Ø¥VôÕ,
©¬Ü 53. 53H. 54. 55H – T§Ü
ùNnVlThP UÚjÕY¬]ôp T¬úNôRû]
ùNnVlTP úYi¥V E¬ûU Utßm
ûLÕ ùNnVlThPY¬u EPp¨ûX
TôÕLôl×
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 53 Utßm 53H ¸r ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPYûW JÚ T§Ü ùNnVlThP
UÚjÕY¬]ôp T¬úNôRû]dÏ
EhTÓjR LôYp Õû\dÏ A§LôWm
Es[Õ, CûR ûYjÕ Nôh£Vm
A°dLXôm ApXÕ Nôh£Vm
A°dLdá¥V ®`VeLû[Ùm
úNL¬dLXôm, ©¬Ü 53H
Yu×Qof£ Ït\m ùNnRYÚdLô]
UÚjÕY T¬úNôRû]dLôL R²lThP
Øû\«p YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 54u ¸r ûLÕ ùNnVlThP
STo Uj§V ApXÕ Uô¨X AWÑl
T¦«p CÚdÏm UÚjÕY
A§Lô¬VôúXô ApXÕ AjRûLV
UÚjÕY A§Lô¬ CpûXùV²p T§Ü
8
ùNnVlThP UÚjÕY A§Lô¬«]ôp
ûLÕ ùNnVlThP EPú]úV
T¬úNôdLlTP úYiÓm Guß
YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
©¬Ü 55(H)-u ¸r ûLÕ ùNnVlThPYo
VôÚûPV Lôl©p CÚd¡\ôúWô
AYÚdÏ ûLÕ ùNnVlThPY¬u
EPp¨ûX Utßm TôÕLôl©û]
EߧlTÓjR ØÝdLPûU Es[Õ,
CkRl קV ©¬Ü 2009Bm BiÓ
A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ,
Ï,S,N ©¬Ü 164(H) Yu×Qof£«]ôp
Tô§dLlThPY¬u UÚjÕY
T¬úNôRû]lTt± áß¡\Õ, CkRl
©¬®u ¸r T¬úNôRû] ùNnÙmúTôÕ
úUtùLôs[ úYi¥V Aû]jÕ
ùNVpØû\Lû[Ùm. úRûYLû[Ùm
Tt±V Aû]jÕ RLYpLû[Ùm
YZeÏ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 56-57 Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu×
B_oTÓjR úYi¥V E¬ûU
LôYp Õû\«]ôp ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPYo 24 U¦ úSWj§tÏs
Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu× B_o
TÓjRlTP úYiÓm, G-Ó : 12-6-2010.
N²d¡ZûU Auß 11 U¦dÏ ©-ûLÕ
ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, ©-13-6-2010 11 U¦dÏ
Øu× Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu×
B_oTÓjRlTP úYiÓm,
YZdL±OûW BúXô£dÏm E¬ûU /
NhP BúXôNû]
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 303 ¸r Ït\m NôhPlThP
STÚdÏ YZdL±OûW BúXô£dÏm
E¬ûU AW£VXûUl× NhPm `WjÕ
22(1) ¸r Ae¸L¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
úUÛm. Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
Ït\fNôh¥tÏ Ruû]
Es[ôdÏYRtÏ G§Wô] TôÕLôl×
E¬ûUÙm AW£VXûUl× NhPm
`WjÕ 20(3) ¸r Es[Õ,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYûW ®NôWûQ
ùNnÙmúTôÕm AYÚdÏ NhP
BúXôNû] ùTßm E¬ûU Es[Õ,
ùTôÕYô] ®§ Gu]ùYu\ôp
YZdL±OoLs Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u
Li GhÓm çWj§p CÚdLXôm.
B]ôp LôÕ GhÓm çWj§tÏ
ùY°úV CÚdL úYiÓm,
LôYpÕû\ Lôl× YuØû\dÏ G§Wô]
E¬ûU
EfN ¿§Uu\m Nilabati Behera V. State
of Orissa (1993) 2 SCC 746 EhTP TX
YZdÏL°p RY\ô] NhPj§tÏ ×\mTô]
LôY- p ûYjRp Tô§dLlThPYÚdÏ
SxP DÓ úLôÚ¡u\ E¬ûUûV
YZeÏm Guß á±Ùs[Õ, 3m RW
Utßm NhPj§tÏ ×\mTô] Y¯Lû[l
TVuTÓj§ Jl×Rp YôdÏêXeLs
Utßm ©\ RLYpLû[ LôYpÕû\
9
Lôl× YuØû\ êXm ùTß¡u\
YZdLjûR EfN ¿§Uu\m
Li¥jÕs[Õ,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo LôYpÕû\ Lôl×
YuØû\ ApXÕ £j§WYûRdÏ
EhTÓjRlTPôUp CÚdL úYi¥V
E¬ûU Ck§V AW£VXûUl× NhPm
©¬Ü 21u ¸r ùLôiÓYWlThÓs[Õ,
(Prem Shankar V. Delhi Administration,
AIR 1980 SC 1535)
úUÛm Ck§V Nôh£V NhPm 24 - 27
LôYp A§Lô¬Ls Øu× á\lTÓm
Aû]jÕ YôdÏêXeL°u Ht×j
RuûUûVÙm ¨WôL¬jÕs[Õ, CRu
êXm LôYpÕû\ ®NôWûQ.
NhPj§tÏ EhThÓm U²R
úSVjÕPàm úUtùLôs[lTÓm Guß
EߧTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ,
G-Ó : JÚ Ït\j§tLôL Ït\m
NôhPlThP H LôYpÕû\«]ôp ûLÕ
ùNnVlThÓ LôYpÕû\ LôY- p
ûYdLlThÓs[ôo, H A¥dLlThÓ
AYÚûPV YôdÏêXm
LôYpÕû\«]Wôp TXYkRUôL
GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTÓ¡\Õ, AjRûLV
YôdÏêXm NhPj§u Li¦p
ùNpÛT¥VôLôÕ,
_ôÁu
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPÜPu _ôÁ²p
®Ó®dLlTÓYRtLôL LÚRlTP
úYi¥V E¬ûUûV ùTtßs[ôo,
_ôÁu GuTÕ Ït\m NôhPlThP
JÚYo ùRôPokÕ ¿§Uu\j§p
®NôWûQdLôL B_o Byôo. úUÛm
¿§ Uu\j§u A§LôW YWm©tÏs Rôu
CÚlTôo GuTûRùVpXôm
EߧlTÓj§d ùLôiÓ AYÚûPV
®ÓRûXûV ¨oQ«dÏm SûPØû\
BÏm,
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«uúTôÕ JqùYôÚ
Ït\m NôhPlThP STÚm
G§oUô\ôL ¨ì©dLlTÓm YûW«p
AYo Ït\m ùNnV®pûX Guú\
¿§Uu\m AàUô²jRp úYiÓm,
YZdÏ ®NôWûQdÏ Øu× LôY- p
ûYdÏm TZdLm CkR ùLôsûLdÏ
G§oUô\ô]Õ, Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u
E¬ûULû[Ùm NØRôVm
Ït\eL°- ÚkÕ Ruû] TôÕLôjÕ
ùLôs[ úYi¥V úRûYûVÙm
Jl©hÓ TôodÏmùTôÝÕ YZdÏ
®NôWûQdÏ Øu× LôY- p ûYdÏm
TZdLm úRûY G]lTÓ¡\Õ,
¿§Uu\j§p _ôÁu úLôÚmúTôÕ
CqYôß LôY- p ûYjRp Ït\m
NôhPlThPY¬]ôp G§odLlTPXôm,
_ôÁu GuTÕ JÚYûW ûLÕ ùNnÙm
úSôdLjûR A¥lTûPVôL G§odLôUp
AYÚûPV ®ÓRûXûV TôÕLôlTRtÏ
10
ØVt£ ùNnÙm JÚ SûPØû\,
_ôÁ²p ®Ó®lTÕ ©¬Ü 167(2) ¸r
Es[ ¨TkRû]Ls LûP©¥dLlTÓm
CPeLs R®W Aû]jÕ
NkRolTeL°Ûm ¿§Uu\j§u
®Úl×dÏm AkRkR YZdÏL°u
ãr¨ûXûVÙm ùTôßjRÕ,
Aj§VôVm 23 ©ûQ Utßm ©ûQ
Tj§WeLs Tt±V ©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiPÕ,
Aj§VôVm 23I R®W CfNhPjRu ©\
©¬ÜL°u ¸Ým _ôÁu
YZeLlTPXôm, G-Ó : Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 81(1).
167(2) Utßm 389,
G-Ó : ¥ GuTYo §ÚhÓd Ït\j§tLôL
ûLÕ ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, Au±- ÚkÕ
59YÕ Sô[uß LôYp Õû\ AYÚdÏ
G§WôL Ït\lTj§¬ûL RôdLp
ùNnVlTP Ø¥V®pûX Guß
áß¡u\]o, ClúTôÕ ¥ ©¬Ü 167 ¸r
_ôÁ²p ®Ó®dLlTP úYi¥V
E¬ûUûV ùTß¡\ôo,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 436
JÚ STo ùNnR Ït\m ©ûQ®Óm
Ït\UôL CÚkÕ AYûW ©¥VôûQ
Cu± ûLÕ ùNnÕ LôY- p
ûYj§ÚkRôp AYo ©ûQVm RW
RVôWôL CÚkRôp AYûW LôY- p
ûYjÕs[ LôYp Õû\ AÛYXo
ApXÕ ¿§Uu\m AY¬PªÚkÕ
©ûQVm ùTtßd ùLôiÓ AYûW
®Ó®jRp úYiÓm, Rasik Lal V.
Kishore Khan Chand, Wadhwani, AIR
2009 SC 1349 Gu\ YZd¡p Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 436u ¸r ©ûQ®Óm
Ït\eLÞdLôL _ôÁu ùTßYÕ JÚ
ØÝûUVô]. G§odL Ø¥VôR E¬ûU
Guß ¾oUô²dLlThPÕ, úUÛm
©ûQ®Óm Ït\eL°p
®Úl׬ûUdÏ úLs®úV ¡ûPVôÕ
Gußm ©¬Ü 436 R®odL Ø¥VôR
RuûUûV ùLôiPÕ Gußm EfN
¿§Uu\m á±Ùs[Õ,
G-Ó : © C,R,N, ©¬Ü 471 ¸r ûLÕ
ùNnVlTÓ¡\ôo, CkRd Ït\m
©¥VôûQ úYiPô Ït\UôÏm,
B]ôp ©ûQ®Óm Ït\UôÏm, ©
ûLÕ ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ
©ûQ ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ EhTÓYRôL
á±]ôp Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 436 ¸r AYûW
EP]¥VôL _ôÁ²p ®Ó®dL
úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 436(H) : ®NôWûQd
ûL§ûV LôY- p ûYj§ÚdLdá¥V
A§LThN LôXm
CkRl ©¬Ü 2005Bm BiÓ JÚ
§ÚjRf NhPm êXm Uôof 26. 2006Bm
BiÓ AUÛdÏ YkRÕ, CkR ©¬®u
T¥ JÚYo ×X]ônÜ. ®NôWûQ
ApXÕ YZdÏ ®NôWûQ LôXj§p
AYo Ït\m NôhPlThP Ït\j§tLô]
11
A§LlT¥ RiPû]«p Tô§ LôXm
LôY- p CÚkRôp AYo R²lThP
©ûQ«u A¥lTûP«p
®Ó®dLlTPXôm, CkR ©¬Ü UWQ
RiPû] YZeLdá¥V Ït\j§tLôL
LôY- p CÚlTYoLÞdÏ ùTôÚkRôÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 437 - 439 ©ûQ®Pô
Ït\eL°p _ôÁu
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 437 ¸r JÚ ©ûQ ®Pô
Ït\j§tLôL Ït\mNôhPlThPYûW.
AYo BÙs RiPû] ApXÕ UWQ
RiPû] YZeLdá¥V
Ït\eLû[ ùNn§ÚdLXôm
Gu\ ¨VôVUô] LôWQm CÚkRôp
Au±. ¿§Uu\m (EVo ¿§Uu\m
Utßm AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m ApXôR)
Utßm LôYp A§Lô¬ AYûW
©ûQ«p ®Ó®dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 439 EVo ¿§Uu\m ApXÕ
AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ JÚYûW
_ôÁ²p ®Ó®dL £\l× A§LôWm
YZeÏ¡\Õ, Ï,S,N ©¬Ü 437u ¸r
EVo¿§Uu\m ApXÕ AUoÜ
¿§Uu\m ApXôR ©\
¿§Uu\eLÞdÏ _ôÁu YZeÏm
A§LôWm YZeLlThÓs[Õ, CkR
A§LôWm Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 439u ¸r
EVo¿§Uu\m ApXÕ AUoÜ
¿§Uu\j§tÏ Es[ A§LôWjÕPu
Jl©Pdá¥VÕ ApX,
State of Rajasthan V. Balchand, AIR
1977 SC 2447 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m A¥lTûP ®§ _ôÁu
Gußm £û\ ApX Gußm Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Rl©jÕ ®ÓYôo ApXÕ
¿§ YZeÏYûR RÓlTôo ApXÕ
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«p RûX«hÓ
Nôh£VeLû[ ªWh¥ ¿§ YZeÏYRtÏ
CûPë\ôL CÚlTôo Gu\ôp UhÓúU
_ôÁu UßdLlTP úYiÓm Guß
á±Ùs[Õ, _ôÁu YZeÏYÕ
®§VôLÜm _ôÁu UßlTÕ
®§®XdLôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm,
(LôiL - Moti Ram V. State of Madhya
Pradesh, (1978) 4 SCC 47).
Jayendra Saraswati Swamigal V. State of
Tamil Nadu AIR 2005 SC 716 Gu\
YZd¡p ùTôÕYôL ¿§Uu\eLs
©ûQ®Pô Ït\eLÞdLô]
YZdÏL°p _ôÁu YZeÏmúTôÕ
LÚj§p ùLôsÞm ®`VeLs
®Y¬dLlThP],
 Ït\j§u RuûU Utßm
Ød¡VjÕYm
 Nôh£Vj§u Ti×
 Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ E¬V
R²lThP ãr¨ûXLs
 Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
®NôWûQdÏ YWUôhPôo
Gu¡u\ ¨VôVUô] IVm
12
 Nôh£VeLs LûXdLlTPXôm
Gu¡u\ ¨VôVUô] IVm
 ùTôÕ SXm Tt±V AdLû\
úTôu\ûY JqùYôÚ YZd¡Ûm
LÚj§p ùLôiÓ _ôÁu Tt±V
Ø¥Ü GÓdLlTÓm,
CûY ØÝûUVô] Th¥Vp ApX,
JqùYôÚ Øû\ Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
_ôÁu úLôÚm ùTôÝÕm. AkR
ϱl©hP Yzd¡u úSoÜLs.
ãr¨ûXûU ùTôßjÕ Ø¥Ü ùNnV
úYiÓm,
G-Ó : AûZlTôûQLs Utßm
©ûQ®Pô ©¥VôûQLû[ AYU§jÕ
TX YÚPeL[ôL RûXUû\YôL CÚkR
H-ûY ©ûQ®Pô Ït\j§tLôL ûLÕ
ùNn¡\ôoLs, H TX YÚPeL[ôL
RûXUû\YôL CÚkR ®`Vm H-®u
קV _ôÁu UàûY T¬ºXû]
ùNnÙmúTôÕ ¿§Uu\j§]ôp LÚj§p
ùLôs[lTÓm
EfN ¿§Uu\m _ôÁu YZeL ApXÕ
UßdL LÚj§p ùLôsÞm ®`VeLs
Tt± Ram Govind Upadhyay V.
Sudarshan Singh, (2002) 3 SCC 598,
Piran V. Ram Bilas Ranj as and Pappu
Yadav, (2004) 7 SCC 528 B¡V
YZdÏLs áß¡u\],
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 437 ¸r YZeLlThP _ôÁu
©¬Ü 437(5) ¸r ®XdLlTPXôm, 437(1)
Utßm (2) ¸r _ôÁu YZeLlThP
VôûW úYiÓUô]ôÛm ûLÕ ùNnÕ
LôY- p ûYdL ¿§Uu\m
EjRW®PXôm, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 439 ¸r
YZeLlThP _ôÁû] 439(2)
T¥ ¿§Uu\m ¿dLXôm,
_ôÁu YZeLlThP ©\Ï ªL ùR°Yô]
Utßm ªLl ùT¬V Uôt\m
HtTÓjRdá¥V ãr¨ûXLs
CÚkRôXu± AûR ¿dLm
ùNnVdáPôÕ Guß EfN ¿§Uu\m
á±Ùs[Õ, _ôÁu ¿dLj§tLô]
YZdÏLs _ôÁu YZeLlThP
YZd¡- ÚkÕ úUpØû\ÂÓ ùNnYÕ
úTôuß BLôÕ, ¿§Uu\m CkR
YZdÏLû[ Ø¥Ü ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ
_ôÁu ¿dLjûR úLôÚYRtLô]
LôWQeLs ARôYÕ ¿§ YZeÏYRtÏ
G§WôL RûX«ÓRp
©ûQ ¨TkRû]Lû[ ¨WôL¬jRp
Nôh£VeLû[ Lû[jRp úTôu\Ytû\
LÚj§p ùLôs[ úYiÓm, (Dolat Ram
V. State of Haryana, (1995), 1 SCC 349).
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Ju\u ©u
Ju\ôL GqY[Ü _ôÁu
UàdLû[ úYiÓUô]ôÛm RôdLp
ùNnVXôm, B]ôp. _ôÁu
UßdLlThP ©u× ãr¨ûXLs Uô±
JÚ ×§V Uà úRûYlThPôXu±
13
CWiPôYÕ Uà HtLlTPôÕ, (Kalyan
Chandra Sarkar V. Rajesh Ranjan &
Pappu Yadav, (2005) 1 SCC 801).
ªÏkR LôXm LPkRRôp UhÓúU
_ôÁu YZeLlTP úYiÓm Guß
áßYûR ¿§Uu\m HtßdùLôs[ôÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 438 Øu _ôÁu
CkRl ©¬Ü ØRpØû\VôL 1973
NhPj§p A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ, CÕ
1898 NhPj§p ¡ûPVôÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 438 ¸r Es[ EjRWÜ
JÚY¬u ûLÕdÏ ©\Ï Rôu TVàdÏ
YÚm, JÚYo Ruû] HúRàm YZdÏ
NmTkRUôL ûLÕ ùNnVXôm Guß
Sm×YRtLô] LôWQm CÚkRôp AYo
Øu _ôÁu ùT\Xôm, AjRûLV
UàûY T¬ºXû] ùNnÕ EVo
¿§Uu\m ApXÕ AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m
×X]ônÜ A§Lô¬«Pm UàRôWûW
ûLÕ ùNnRôp _ôÁ²p EP]¥VôL
®Ó®dÏmT¥ EjRWÜ ©\l©dLXôm,
CkRl ©¬®u ¸r ùLôÓdLlTÓm
EjRWÜ. ûLÕ ùNnR ©u]úW E«o
ùTßm,
CkRl ©¬®u ¸r Es[ A§LôWm
ANôRôWUô] TiûT ùLôiPÕ
BRXôp CûR A¬V YZdÏL°p
UhÓúU. JÚYo RY\ôL YZd¡p
DÓTÓjRlThÓs[ôo Guú\ô Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo RuàûPV ÑRk§WjûR
úYß Y¯L°p RY\ôL TVuTÓjR
UôhPôo Guú\ô ùR¬kRôp UhÓúU
CkR A§LôWjûR TVuTÓjRXôm,
CkRl ©¬ûY TVuTÓjR
Ød¡VUô] ¨TkRû] Gu]ùYu\ôp
JÚYo ©ûQ®Pô Ït\j§tLô]
Ït\fNôhÓPu ûLÕ ùNnVlTPXôm
Gu¡u\ JÚ ¨VôVUô] Sm©dûL
BÏm, (Gurubaksh Singh Sibia V. State
of Punjab, 1978 Cri. L.J. 20).
B_ôWYûR LhPôVlTÓjÕm ¿§Øû\
LhPû[Ls
¿§Uu\eLs Ït\m NôhPlThPYoLs
ApXÕ Nôh£VeLû[ B_oTÓjRd
LhPôVlTÓjÕYRtÏ ¿§Øû\
LhPû[Lû[ ©\l©dLXôm, CqYûL
LhPû[Lû[ ©\l©lTRtLô]
Y¯Øû\Lû[ Aj§VôVm 6
YZeÏ¡\Õ, CûY LhPôVlTÓjR
úYi¥V ST¬u ØuLôX SPjûRûV
ùTôßjRÕ, Ï,S,N, Aj§VôVm 6
SôuLôL ©¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
 AûZlTôûQLs (©¬Ü 61 – 69)
 ûLÕ ©¥VôûQLs (©¬Ü 70 -
81)
 A±®l× Utßm _l§ ùNnRp
(©¬Ü 82 – 86)
14
 ¿§Øû\ LhPû[LÞdLôL ©\
®§Ls
AûZlTôûQLs ©¬Ü 61 – 69
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 62uT¥ Ø¥kRYûW«Ûm
AûZlTôûQLû[ úSoØLUôL
AûZdL úYi¥V ST¬Pm ùLôÓdL
úYiÓm Guß YZeÏ¡\Õ,
áhÓ ¨ßY]eLs Utßm
NeLeLÞdÏ AûZlTôûQLû[ NôoÜ
ùNnÙm Y¯Lû[ ©¬Ü 63 YZeÏ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 64 ¿§Uu\j§p
B_WôÏmT¥ EjRW®PlThÓs[ STûW
RÏkR LY]jÕPu ØVt£ ùNnÕm
LiÓ©¥dL Ø¥VôRùTôÝÕ AYÚdLô]
AûZlTôûQûV AYWÕ ÏÓmTjûR
NôokR YVÕ YkR Bi
Eßl©]¬PúUô ApXÕ AYÚPu
Ï¥«ÚdÏm úYß GY¬PúUô ùLôÓjÕ
NôoÜ ùNnVXôm Guß áß¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 65 T¥ AûZlTôûQûV A§p
ϱl©PlThÓs[ STÚdÏ
úSoØLUôLúYô ApXÕ TWYXô]
Øû\«úXô NôoÜ ùNnV Ø¥V®pûX
Gu\ôp AkR STo Ï¥«ÚdÏm Åh¥u
GÓlTô] JÚ CPj§p AûR
Jh¥ NôoÜ ùNnRp úYiÓm,
CpûXùVu\ôp ¿§Uu\m קV
AûZlTôûQûVÙm ©\l©dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 69uT¥ ©¬Ü 61 ØRp
68tÏ EhTPôUp AûZlTôûQLs
RTôp êXØm Nôo®dLl TPXôm,
ûLÕ ©¥VôûQLs ©¬Ü 70 -81
©¥VôûQLs AûY WjÕ ùNnÙm
YûW ApXÕ ¨û\úYt\lTÓm YûW
AU- p CÚdÏm Guß ©¬Ü 70
áß¡\Õ,
©¥VôûQLs 2 YûLVô]Õ,
©ûQ®Óm Utßm ©ûQ®Pô
©¥VôûQLs,
JÚ STo ûLÕ ùNnVlThPôp
AY¬PªÚkÕ RdL ©ûQVjûR
Yôe¡d ùLôiÓ AYûW LôYp Õû\
TôÕLôl©- ÚkÕ ®Ó®dLXôm Guß
Al©¥VôûQ«p ϱl©h¥ÚkRôp
AÕ ©ûQ«p ®PjRdL ©¥VôûQ
G]lTÓm, CûRl Tt±V
SûPØû\Lû[ ©¬Ü 71 áß¡\Õ,
CjRûLV ©¥VôûQLs ùTôÕYôL
©ûQ®Ó ©¥VôûQLs
G]lTÓ¡u\], B]ôp.
©¥VôûQûV ¨û\úYtßm
A§Lô¬Ls ûLÕ ùNnVlThP STûW
¿§Uu\m Øu× B_o TÓjR úYiÓm
Guß UhÓúU áß¡u\ ©¥VôûQLs
©ûQ®Pô ©¥VôûQLs G]lTÓm,
©¥VôûQLs NôRôWQUôL LôYp
A§Lô¬LÞdÏ ©\l©dLlTÓm (Ï,S,N,
15
©¬Ü 72), £X NUVeL°p ©¬Ü 72(1)
¸r ¿§Uu\m úYß GkR JÚ STÚdÏm
AûR ϱl©hÓ
EP]¥VôL ¨û\úYtßUôß
AàlTXôm,
©¥VôûQLû[ AYtû\ ©\l©dÏm
¿§Uu\j§u A§LôW YWm©tÏ
ùY°úV GqYôß ¨û\úYtßYÕ Guß
©¬Ü 77 – 81 YûW YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
©¬Ü 81u ¸r RûXûU Ït\®Vp
SÓYo ApXÕ ûLÕ ùNnVlTÓTYo
CÚdÏm UôYhPj§u AUoÜ ¿§T§
EP]¥VôL ©¥VôûQÙPu ¡ûPdÏm
RLY- u A¥lTûP«p ©ûQ®Pô
YZdÏL°p áP ûLÕ
ùNnVlThPYûW _ôÁ²p
®Ó®dLXôm,
A±®l× Utßm _l§ ùNnRp ©¬Ü 82
– 86
VôÚdÏ G§WôL ©¥VôûQ
©\l©dLlThÓs[úRô AYo
ARû] ¨WôL¬dÏm ùTôÚhÓ
RûXUû\YôLúYô ApXÕ
K¥ J°kúRô YÚ¡\ôo Guß
¿§Uu\m ¨VôVUôL Sm©]ôp
¿§Uu\m Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 82u ¸r T¸WeL
A±®l× ùNnVXôm, úUÛm. AqYôß
A±®dLlThP ST¬u AûNÙm Utßm
AûNVô ùNôjÕdLû[ _l§
ùNnYRtÏm EjRW®PXôm,
©¬Ü 87uT¥ AûZlTôûQ
YZdÏL°p AûZlTôûQdÏ
T§XôLúYô ApXÕ AûZlTôûQ
EPú]ô ûLÕ ùNnYRtÏ
©¥VôûQûVÙm ©\l©d¡u\
A§LôWjûR ¿§Uu\m ùLôiÓs[Õ,
G-Ó : ú_-dÏ G§WôL AûZlTôûQ
úLôÚmúTôÕ AWÑ RWl©]o ú_
Ck§VôûY ®hÓ ùY°úV\Xôm Guß
NkúR¡lTRôL ¿§Uu\j§Pm
áß¡u\]o, CkR RLYûX LÚj§p
ùLôiÓ ¿§Uu\m ú_-dÏ G§WôL
©¥VôûQÙm YZeL úYiÓUô Guß
Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm, CqYôß ©\l©dÏm
ùTôÝÕ RÏkR LôWQeLû[ T§Ü
ùNnV úYiÓm,
ùTôÚhLû[ RôdLp ùNnV
LhPôVlTÓjÕm ¿§Øû\ LhPû[Ls
CkRf NhPj§u ¸r ¿§Uu\eLs
Utßm ×]XônÜ ¨ßY]eLs
BYQeLs. ùTôÚhLs B¡VYtû\
ùLôiÓ YÚYRtÏm. úRÓRp
SPjÕYRtÏm. TtßûL ùNnYRtÏm
A§LôWm Es[Õ, Aj§VôVm 7
BYQeLs – ùTôÚhLs ùLôiÓ YW
ùNnYRtÏ. úRÓRp SPjÕm Øû\
TtßûL SPjÕm Øû\ B¡VYtû\
Tt± áß¡\Õ, CkR A§LôWjûR
RY\ô] Øû\«p
TVuTÓjÕY§- ÚkÕ TôÕLôlTRtLôL
RÏkR Lôl×LÞm YZeLlThÓs[],
16
CkR ©¬ÜLs YZdÏ
®NôûQ«uúTôÕ Nôh£Vj§u
Ød¡VjÕYjûR TWôU¬dL
Cu±VûUVôRÕ, GpXô
NkRolTeL°Ûm ¿§Uu\m ×X]ônÜ
A§Lô¬Ls
CfNhPj§u
A±ÜûWLû[ LûP©¥jÕ Es[]Wô
Guß GûPúTôhÓ TôodL úYiÓm,
CkR Aj§VôVm 4 TϧL[ôL
©¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
 BYQm ApXÕ úYß
ùTôÚû[ RôdLp ùNnV
AûZlTôûQ - ©¬Ü 91. 92
 úNôRû] ©¥VôûQ - ©¬Ü 93 -
98
 úRÓRp Tt± ùTôÕ ©¬ÜLs -
©¬® 99 - 101
 ©\ - ©¬Ü 102 – 105
BYQm ApXÕ úYß
ùTôÚû[ RôdLp ùNnV AûZlTôûQ
- ©¬Ü 91. 92
©¬Ü 91 ¿§Uu\m Utßm LôYp ¨ûXV
ùTôßl× A§Lô¬dÏ JÚ
ùTôÚû[ ùLôiÓ YW ùNnYRtÏ
®¬Yô] A§LôWeLû[ YZe¡Ùs[Õ,
B]ôp. CkR BYQm / ùTôÚs
×X]ônÜ. ®NôWûQ. YZdÏ
®NôWûQdÏ Aj§VôY£VUô]Õ
Gu\ôp UhÓúU CkR A§LôWjûR
TVuTÓjRXôm,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Ruû]
®Ó®dÏm Uà RôdLp ùNn§ÚkRôp
AkR NUVj§p AYÚdÏ
BQeLû[ ùLôiÓ YW ùNnYRtLô]
A§LôWm ùLôÓdLlTPôÕ, (State of
Orissa V. Debendra Nath Padhi, (2005)
1 SCC 568).
G-Ó : JÚ Nôh£ûV AWÑ RWl©]o
ÏßdÏ ®NôWûQ ùNnÙmúTôÕ AkR
Nôh£ JÚ BYQjûR A¥lTûPVôL
ùLôs¡\ôo, B]ôp. AYo AûR
RôdLp ùNnV®pûX, ClùTôÝÕ
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 91u
T¥ AkR BYQm YZdÏ ®NôWûQdÏ
Ød¡VUô]Õ Guß Lôi©jRôp AûR
ùLôiÓ YÚYRtÏ ¿§Uu\m BûQ
©\l©dLXôm,
17
úNôRû] ©¥VôûQ - ©¬Ü 93 – 98
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 93u ¸r BYQj§tLôL
AûZl× ùLôÓdLlThP STo. AûR
úRûYdúLtT ùLôiÓ YW UôhPôo
Guß ¿§Uu\m ¨VôVUôL Sm©]ôp
¿§Uu\m úNôRû] ©¥VôûQ
©\l©jÕ AkR BYQjûR
©¥VôûQ«uT¥ úRP ApXÕ
TôoûY«P EjRW®PXôm,
©¬Ü 100 úRÓRp
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 100 úRÓRp
SPjÕYRtLô] ¨TkRû]Lû[Ùm
LhÓlTôÓLû[Ùm YZeÏ¡\Õ,
CRuT¥ úRÓRp SPjÕmùTôÝÕ 2
R²lThP Nôh£Ls úRûY, úUÛm
ûLlTt\lThP ùTôÚhL°u Th¥VÛm
úRÓRp SPj§V CPj§p
Es[YoL°Pm ùLôÓdLlTP úYiÓm,
©¬Ü 102 ûLlTtßRp
©¬Ü 102 ¸r LôYp A§Lô¬dÏ
§ÚPlThPÕ Guß NkúR¡dLlTÓm
ùNôj§û] Ït\m SPk§ÚdLXôm Guß
NkúRLlTÓm ãr¨ûX«p
ûLlTtßYRtÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ,
EfN ¿§Uu\m State of Maharashtra V.
Tapas D. Neogy (1999) 7 SCC 585 Gu\
YZd¡p Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u Ye¡
LQdÏ Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 102u ¸r ùNôjRôL
LÚRlTÓm Gußm AûR.
A§Ûs[ TQj§tÏm Ït\j§tÏm
úSW¥ ùRôPo× CÚlTRôL NkúR¡jRôp
AûR ûLlTt\Xôm Guß á±VÕ,
Uû]®. ÏZkûR Utßm
ùTtú\ôoLÞdLô] ùTôÚÞR®dLô]
EjRWÜ
©¬Ü 125 – 128 APe¡V Aj§VôVm 9
Uû]®. ÏZkûR Utßm
ùTtú\ôoL°u TôÕLôl©tLô]
SûPØû\ûV YZeÏ¡\Õ, CkRl
©¬ÜLs C]Øû\ NhPeL°u
©¬ÜLÞdÏ ØWiThÓ CpûX, CûY.
Aû]YÚdÏm ùTôÚkÕ, úUÛm.
C]Øû\ NhPeL°u
©¬ÜLû[ CûY Ïû\ÜTÓjRúYô
ApXÕ TXÅ]lTÓjÕYúRô ¡ûPVôÕ,
(Captain Ramesh Chandra Kaushal V.
Veena Kaushal, (1978) 4 SCC 70).
©¬Ü 125 T¥ úTô§V YN§ Es[ JÚYo
RuàûPV Uû]® Utßm
ÏZkûRLû[ (Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 125 (1)(©)
Utßm (£)T¥ ApXÕ
ùTtú\ôoLû[ TWôU¬dL UßjRôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo AqYôß UßjR- u
Nôh£Vj§u úT¬p AkR STo UôR
ÅRj§p ùTôÚÞR® ùLôÓdL úYiÓm
Guß EjRW®PXôm,
ÑÚdÏ Øû\ YZdÏ êXm Uû]®.
ÏZkûRLs. ùTtú\ôoLÞdÏ ùLôÓdL
18
úYi¥V ùTôÚÞR®ûV ®ûWYôL
ùNVpTÓjÕYúR CkR Aj§VôVj§u
úSôdLUôÏm, EVo ¿§Uu\m Utßm
EfN ¿§Uu\m CkR ©¬®u ¸r
SPdÏm YZdÏLs E¬ûU«Vp RuûU
EûPVûY Guß á±Ùs[],
LôYpÕû\dÏ ùLôÓdLlTÓm RLYp
Utßm ×Xu BnÜ
JÚ Ït\m SPkRûR A±®dÏm
Øû\L°p. LôYp Õû\dÏ RLYp
ùLôÓlTÕ JÚ YûLVôÏm, CjRûLV
RLYp 2 YûLlTPXôm, ©¥VôûQ
úYiPô Ït\m Tt± RLYp
ùLôÓdLlTPXôm ApXÕ ©¥VôûQ
úYi¥V YZdÏl Tt± RLYp
ùLôÓdLlTPXôm,
©¬Ü 155 : ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
YZdÏlTt±V RLYp Utßm ×X]ônÜ
JÚ ©¥VôûQ úYi¥V YZdûL.
AûR ®NôWûQ ùNnÙm A§LôWm
ùTt\ Ït\®Vp SÓY¬u EjRWÜ
CpXôUp LôYp Õû\ ×X]ônÜ
úUtùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ, ©¥VôûQ
úYi¥V YZdÏl Tt±V RLYp
¡ûPjRÜPu LôYp Õû\«]o AûR
×jRLj§p ®§lT¥ T§Ü ùNnÕ RLYp
A°jRYûW Ït\®Vp SÓY¬Pm
AàlT úYiÓm,
Rϧ Es[ ¿§Uu\j§PªÚkÕ
EjRWÜ ùTt\ ©u]o LôYp Õû\
©¥VôûQ úYiPô
YZdÏLû[ ×X]ônÜ ùNnÙm AúR
Øû\«p CkR YZdÏLû[Ùm
×X]ônÜ ùNnVXôm, B]ôp
©¥VôûQ CpXôUp ûLÕ ùNnV
Ø¥VôÕ,
G-Ó: C,R,N, ©¬Ü 467 ¸r ©¥VôûQ
úYi¥V Ït\jûRl Tt±V RLYp
LôYp Õû\«]ÚdÏ ¡ûPd¡\Õ,
LôYp Õû\«]o Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 154 ¸r
ØRp RLYp A±dûLûV EP]¥VôL
T§Ü ùNnV UôhPôoLs,
©¬Ü 154 ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
YZdÏLs Tt±V RLYp
©¬Ü 154 ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
YZdÏL°p LôYp Õû\«]ÚdÏ
ùLôÓdLlTP úYi¥V RLYp Tt±
áß¡\Õ, CkR RLYp ùTôÕ YZd¡p
Gl,I,Bo, (F.I.R.) Guú\ô ØRp RLYp
A±dûL Guú\ô á\lTÓ¡\Õ,
©¥VôûQ úYiPô YZdÏl Tt±V
RLYp ¡ûPjR EPú]úV LôYp Õû\
A§Lô¬ ØRp RLYp A±dûL T§Ü
ùNnV LPûUl ThÓs[ôo, B]ôp
NÁT LôXj§p EfN ¿§Uu\ A[®p
úTôÄv A§Lô¬dÏ ØRp RLYp
A±dûL T§Ü ùNnÙmØu× ØRp¨ûX
19
®NôWûQ SPjR ARLôWm Es[Rô
GuTÕ Tt± LÚjÕ úYßTôÓ Es[Õ,
Rajinder Singh Katoch V. Chandigarh
Administration, AIR 2008 SC 178 Gu\
YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m ØRp RLYp
A±dûL T§Ü ùNnYRtÏ Øu×
ØRp ¨ûX ®NôWûQ SPjÕm LPûU
LôYp A§Lô¬dÏ Es[Õ Guß
á±Ùs[Õ,
CkR YZd¡p ¿§Uu\m : Ramesh
Kumari V. State (NCT Delhi) and others
Gu\ YZd¡p CkR ¿§Uu\j§u
¾olûTÙm. “NhPlT¥ LôYp Õû\
A§Lô¬LÞdÏ
®§dLlThÓs[ LPûUûVl Tt±Ùm
SôeLs A±úYôm, B]ôp Øu×
á±VT¥ RÏkR YZdÏL°p LôYp
A§Lô¬LÞdÏ ØRp ¨ûX ®NôWûQ
ùNnÕ Ït\fNôhÓL°p HúRàm
EiûU Es[Rô CpûXVô Guß
LiÓ©¥dÏm LPûUÙm Es[Õ,”
B]ôp. Lalitha Kumari V. State of U.P.
(2008) 7 SCC 164) Gu\ YZd¡p
BûQ ©\l©dÏmùTôÝÕ EfN
¿§Uu\m ¸rLiP EjRWûY
YZe¡VÕ,
“úUtá±VYtû\ LÚj§p ùLôiÓ
Aû]jÕ Uô¨XeL°p Es[ LôYp
Õû\ CVdÏ]o Utßm LôYp Õû\
BûQVoLÞdÏ EjRWÜ ©\l©dL
úYi¥V LhPôV ¨ûXûU Es[Õ,
ØRp RLYp A±dûL EP]¥VôL T§Ü
ùNnVô®hPôúXô ARàûPV SLûX
×LôoRôWoLÞdÏ EP]¥VôL
ùLôÓdLô®hPôúXô ×LôoRôWo
Ït\®Vp SÓY¬Pm ùNuß LôYp
Õû\dÏ SÓY¬u EjRW®u SLp
¡ûPjRÜPu YZdÏ T§Ü ùNnÕ 24
U¦ úSj§tÏs ARu SLûX
×LôoRôWÚdÏ ùLôÓdÏUôß EjRWÜ
ùLôÓdÏUôß ×Lôo ùLôÓdLXôm,”
“CqYôß SPY¥dûL
GÓdLlTPô®hPôp Ït\®Vp SÓYo
¿§Uu\ AYU§l× SPY¥dûLûV
úTôÄv A§Lô¬«u ÁÕ GÓdLXôm,
úUÛm RÏkR LôWQªu± ¿§Uu\
EjRWûY Á±VRtLôL RÏkR RiPû].
JÝeÏ SPY¥dûL GÓjRp RtLô- L
¿dLm ùNnRp úTôu\Ytû\Ùm
T¬kÕûW ùNnVXôm,”
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 154(3) ¸r LôYp Õû\
A§Lô¬ ØRp RLYp A±dûL T§Ü
ùNnV UßjRôp ×LôoRôWo ARû]
LôYp Õû\ LiLô¦lTô[¬Pm
AàlTXôm Gußm AYo
§Úl§VûPkRôp AkRd Ït\jûRl
Tt± Rôú] ×X]ônÜ ùNnVXôm
ApXÕ ×]XônÜ ùNnÙUôß ¸r
A§Lô¬dÏ EjRWÜ ©\l©dLXôm,
20
ØRp RLYp A±dûLRôu ©ûQ®Pô
Ït\j§u ¨LrÜ Tt±
LôYp ¨ûXVj§tÏ ùLôÓdLlTÓm
ØRp RLYp BÏm, G]úY. YZdÏ
®NôWûQ«u úTôÕ CRtÏ ªÏkR
Ød¡VjÕYm EiÓ, B]ôp. CkR
A±dûL«p Ït\m Tt±V Aû]jÕ
Öi¦V RLYpLÞm CÚdL úYiÓm
Guß G§oTôodL Ø¥VôÕ, ØRp
RLYp A±dûL GuTÕ RLYp
L[g£Vm úTôuß ¡ûPVôÕ, (Ramesh
Maruti Patil V. State of Maharashtra,
AIR 1994 SC 28; Surjeet Singh V. State
of Punjab, AIR 1992 SC 1389). ØRp
RLYp A±dûLûV GkR ãr¨ûX«p
AÕ LôYp Õû\«]ÚdÏ
ùLôÓdLlThPÕ Guß LÚj§p ùLôiÓ
TôoûY«P úYiÓm, A§p GpXô
RLYÛm CpXôUp CÚdLXôm,
Superintendent of Police, C.B.I. V. Japas
Kumar Singh, (2003) 6 SCC 1752 Gu\
YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m ¸rLiPYôß
¾oUô²jRÕ,
“JÚ Ït\m Tt±V Aû]jÕ
úSoÜLû[Ùm ØRp RLYp A±dûL
RLYp L[g£Vm úTôp ùLôi¥ÚdL
úYiPôm Guß Ø¥YôL
¾oUô²dLlThÓs[Õ, RLYp
A°lTYo Tô§dLlThPYo Utßm
AYûWj Rôd¡VY¬u ùTVo ùR¬VôUp
áP ×Lôo ùLôÓdLXôm, GqYôß
NmTYm SPkRÕ GuTÕ áP ùR¬VôUp
CÚdLXôm, ØR- p RLYp ùLôÓlTYo
AkR ¨Lr®u LiÔt\ Nôh£VôL
CÚdL úYiÓm Gußm AkR
Ït\jûRl Tt±V Aû]jÕ
RLYûXÙm ùLôÓdLd á¥VYWôL
CÚdL úYiÓm Guß AY£Vm
¡ûPVôÕ, B]ôp. ùLôÓdÏm RLYp
Ït\m SPkRûR Tt± ®Y¬dL
úYiÓm, úUÛm. AjRûLV RLYp
LôYp A§Lô¬dÏ ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
Ït\m Juß SPkÕs[Õ GuTûRl
Tt±V NkúRLjûR GÝlT úYiÓm,
CkRd LhPj§p ©¥VôûQ úYiPô
Ït\m SPkRÕ Gu\ NkúRLm UhÓm
CkRj RLY- u A¥lTûP«p
GÝkRôp úTôÕUô]Õ, AYo AdÏt\m
SPkRÕ Guß EߧTÓjR úYiÓm
Gu\ AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ,”
ØRp RLYp A±dûL JÚ êX
Nôh£VUôL LÚRlTP Ø¥VôÕ B]ôp.
Ck§V Nôh£Vf NhPm 157 ¸r CûR
úYß Nôu±]ôp EߧTÓj§
TVuTÓjRXôm, (Aghnoo Nagesia V.
State of Bihar, AIR 1966 SC 119; Faddi
V. State of Madhya Pradesh, AIR 1964
SC 1850)
ùTôÕYôL YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«uúTôÕ
ØRp RLYp A±dûL RôURUôL T§Ü
ùNnVlThPÕ Gu\ G§oYôRjûR
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo GÝl×Yôo, Amar
21
Singh V. Ballowinder Singh, (2003) 2
SCC 518 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m
RôURUôL ØRp RLYp A±dûL T§Ü
ùNnRRôúXúV AWÑ RWl× YZdÏ
NkúRLj§tÏ Es[ôÏm Guß GkR
®§Øû\Ùm ¡ûPVôÕ Guß
á±Ùs[Õ, úUÛm. AjRûLV
RôURm AWÑ RWl× YZd¡p NkúRLjûR
HtTÓjÕUô GuTÕ JqùYôÚ YZd¡u
úSoÜLû[Ùm NkRolTeLû[Ùm
ùTôßjÕRôu Ø¥Ü ùNnVlTP
úYiÓm Guß á±VÕ, CûRl Tt±
LQdÏ ®§Ls úTôX Ø¥Ü ùNnRp
áPôÕ,
T.T. Antony V. State of Kerala, (2001) 6
SCC 181 Gu\ YZd¡p AúR
úSoÜLû[l Tt± 2YÕ Øû\VôL ØRp
RLYp A±dûL T§Ü ùNnYÕ
NhPj§tÏ ×\mTô]Õ Guß Ø¥Ü
ùNnVlThPÕ B]ôp úUÛm
×X]ônÜ ùNnÕ 2YÕ ØRp RLYp
A±dûLûV á\lThP ¨LrÜLs
Tt±V A±dûL NUol©dL LôYp
Õû\dÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ, (Kari
Chaudhary V. Sita Devi, AIR 2002 SC
441; Upkar Singh V. Ved Prakash, (2004)
13 SCC 292)
ØRp RLYp A±dûL T§Ü ùNnR ©u×
LôYp Õû\ ®NôWûQ SPjÕYûRl
Tt± Aj§VôVm 12 áß¡\Õ,
Nôh£VeL°u YôdÏêXjûR T§Ü
ùNnRp. úRÓRp Utßm TtßûL ©¬Ü
100. 165 Utßm 102 ¸r ùNnRp.
BYQeLs Utßm ùTôÚhLû[ ©¬Ü
91u ¸r YWYûZjRp. ©¬Ü 160 ¸r
Nôh£VeLû[ YÚ®jRp. úTôu\ TX
ùNVpLû[ ùNnYRtÏ LôYp Õû\dÏ
A§LôWm Es[Õ,
©¬Ü 161. 162 - Nôh£Lû[ LôYp Õû\
®Nô¬jRp
JÚ YZdÏl Tt±V úSoÜLs Utßm
AûRf NôokR RLYpLû[ A±kR
JÚYûW Yôn ùUô¯VôL ®Nô¬dÏm
A§LôWm LôYp Õû\«]ÚdÏ ©¬Ü
161(1) ¸r Es[Õ, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 161(2) ¸r
×X]ônÜ A§Lô¬ GÝl×m Aû]jÕ
úLs®LÞdÏm EiûUVôL T§p
ùNôpXúYi¥V TôWm CkR Nôh£dÏ
Es[Õ, B]ôp. Nôh£ûV úYß Ït\
NôhÓdÏ. RiPû]dÏ ApXÕ
TtßûLdÏ ùY°lTÓjÕm YûL«p
úLs®Ls CÚkRôp ARtÏ T§p
ùNôpX úYi¥V AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ,
Nôh£Vj§u YôdÏêXjûR ©¬Ü 161
¸r YôojûRdÏ YôojûR T§Ü ùNnV
úYiÓm Guß AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ,
AYÚûPV YôdÏ êXj§u
NôWômNjûR UhÓm T§Ü ùNnRôp
úTôÕm, 161 ¸r ùLôÓdLlTÓm
YôdÏêXm BûQ ¸r ùLôÓdLlTÓm
YôdÏêXm ¡ûPVôÕ,
22
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 162 LôYp A§Lô¬ Øu×
ùLôÓdLlThP YôdÏêXj§p
Nôh£ ûLùVÝjÕ CPdáPôÕ Guß
LhPôVUôL RûP ®§jÕs[Õ, G]úY.
CjRûLV YôdÏ
êXeLû[ êXNôh£VUôL YZdÏ
®NôWûQ«uúTôÕ TVuTÓjR
Ø¥VôÕ, B]ôp Ck§V Nôh£Vf
NhPm ©¬Ü 154u ¸r Nôh£ûV ÏßdÏ
®NôWûQ ùNnÙmúTôÕ AYo Øu×
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 161 ¸r ùLôÓjR
YôdÏêXjûR AYo RtúTôÕ
ùLôÓdÏm YôdÏêXjûR ØWiTÓj§
Lôi©dL TVuTÓjRXôm, (Tehsildar
Singh V. State of Uttar Pradesh, AIR
1959 SC 1012).
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 164 Jl×Rp YôdÏêXjûR
T§Ü ùNnRp
LôYp A§Lô¬«Pm ùLôÓdLlTÓm
YôdÏêXeLs Nôh£VUôL
¿§Uu\j§p HtLdá¥VÕ CpûX
Gu\ôÛm ×X]ôn®uúTôÕ VôúWàm
RuàûPV YôdÏ êXm ApXÕ
Jl×RûX ùLôÓdL ®ûZkRôp AYo
ùTÚSLo SÓY¬PúUô Ït\«p
SÓY¬PúUô Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 164 ¸r CûR
ùLôÓdLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 164 Ït\®Vp SÓYo
Jl×Rp YôdÏêXjûR T§Ü
ùNnYRtÏ ùTtßs[ A§LôWjûRÙm
AYo LûP©¥dL úYi¥V
SûPØû\Lû[ ®Y¬d¡\Õ,
Ït\®Vp SÓYÚdÏ Jl×Rp
YôdÏêXjûR T§Ü ùNnYRtÏ.
ùNnVôU- ÚlTRtÏ ®Úl׬ûU
Es[Õ, B]ôp. T§Ü ùNnV Ø¥Ü
ùNnRôp AYo ©¬Ü 164 ¸r
Es[ SûPØû\Lû[ LûP©¥dL
úYiÓm, CkR
SûPØû\Lû[ LûP©¥dLôUp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu× Jl×Rp
YôdÏêXm Nôh£VUôL
HtßdùLôs[jRdLRpX, (Tandra Ravi
N. State of Andhra Pradesh, 2001 (CRCJ
4048).
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 164 ¸r Ït\®Vp SÓYo
Jl×Rp A°lTY¬Pm AYo Jl×Rp
A°dL LPûUlThPYo ApX Gußm
AqYôß Jl×Rp A°jRôp AkR
Jl×Rp AYÚdÏ G§WôL Nôh£VUôL
TVuTÓjRTPXôm Gußm ®[dL
úYiÓm, úUÛm. Jl×Rp YôdÏêXm
A°lTYo AûR Ru²ûNÜ T¥Rôu
AqY[Ü ùNn¡\ôo Gußm Ït\®Vp
SÓYo EߧlTÓjR LPûUlThÓs[ôo,
Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u ®NôWûQûV
©¬Ü 164(4) ¸r T§Ü ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ
Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 281 I
LûPl©¥dL úYiÓm,
23
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 167 24 U¦ úSWj§tÏs
×X]ônûY Ø¥dL Ø¥VôR ùTôÝÕ
LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V SûPØû\,
JÚYûW ©¥VôûQ CpXôUp ûLÕ
ùNnRôp 24 U¦ úSWj§tÏ úUXôL
LôY- p ûYj§ÚdL Ø¥VôÕ Guß
©¬Ü 57 áß¡\Õ, úUÛm. AYûW
LôY- p RdL ûYdL úYiÓm Gu\ôp
LôYp Õû\ Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 167I
LûPl©¥jÕ. ¿§Uu\m êXm LôYp
ûYl× EjRWûY ùT\ úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 167(2) Ït\®Vp SÓYo
Ït\m NôhPlThPYûW LôYp Õû\
LôY- p 15 SôhLÞdÏ úU- pXôR LôX
A[ÜdÏ ûYdLXôm Guß EjRW®P
A§LôWm ùTtßs[ôo B]ôp. UWQj
RiPû]. BÙs RiPû] ApXÕ 10
BiÓLÞdÏ úUXô] £û\ RiPû]
E¬V Ït\eLû[ ùTôßjÕ 90 SôhLs
YûW«Ûm ¿§Uu\ LôY- p ûYdL
EjRW®ÓYRtÏ Ït\®Vp SÓYÚdÏ
A§LôWm Es[Õ, ©\
Ït\eLû[ ùTôßjRYûW«Ûm 60
SôhLs YûW LôYp ûYl× EjRWÜ
ùLôÓlTRtÏ Ït\®Vp SÓYÚdÏ
A§LôWm Es[Õ,
CkR LôX A[®u Ø¥®p LôYp
ûYl©p CÚkRYo ©ûQ Tj§Wm
ùLôÓjRôp _ôÁ²p ®Ó®dL E¬ûU
ùTtßs[ôo, CqYôß ©¬Ü 167(2) ¸r
ùLôÓdLlTÓm _ôÁàdÏ ùTôÕYôL
NhPØû\ _ôÁu Guß ùTVo,
(Dinesh Dalmia V. State, (2007) 8 SCC
770).
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 173 - ×X]ônÜ
Ø¥Ü ¨û\YûPkR ©u
×X]ônûY ¨û\Ü AûPkRÜPu
LôYp ¨ûXVj§u ùTôßl× A§Lô¬
LôYp A±dûLûV RÏkR T¥Yj§p
AkR Ït\jûR ×Xu ùLôsÞm
A§LôWØûPV ¿§Uu\j§tÏ AàlT
úYiÓm, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 173(2) T¥ LôYp
Õû\«]o Ø¥Ü A±dûLÙm RôdLp
ùNnVXôm, ARôYÕ. Ït\m GÕÜm
SPkRRôL ùR¬V®pûX Guß á\Xôm,
©¬Ü 173 ¸r RôdLp ùNnVlTÓm LôYp
A±dûL«p LôYp Õû\«]o
áß¡u\ úSoÜLÞm AkR
úSoÜL°- ÚkÕ ¡ûPdÏm Ø¥ÜLÞm
CÚdÏm, CkR A±dûL
Nôh£VeLÞPàm ×X]ôn®u
ùTôÝÕ T§Ü ùNnVlThP
YôdÏêXeLÞPàm Ït\®Vp
SÓYÚdÏ NUol©dLlThPôÛm AYo
C§Ûs[ Ø¥ÜL[ôp LhÓlTP
úYi¥V AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ, Ït\«p
SÓYo R²lThP Øû\«p R]Õ
¿§NôokR A±ûY Ït\l Tj§¬dûL
Utßm LôYp A±dûL«p
Es[ RLYpLÞdÏ ¿§NôokR A±ûY
24
ùNÛj§ RuàûPV Ø¥ûY GÓdL
úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 173(8) ¸r Ït\®Vp
SÓYÚdÏ A±dûL AàlTlThP
©u×m קVRôL HRôYÕ Nôh£Vm
¡ûPjRôp AûR ùTôßjÕ úUÛm
×X]ônÜ ùNnYRtÏ LôYp
Õû\«]ÚdÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ,
CkR A§LôWjûR TVuTÓjR LôYp
Õû\«]o ¿§Uu\j§u AàU§
ùT\úYi¥V AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ,
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«u GkR LhPj§p
úYiÓUô]ôÛm SPjRXôm, B]ôp
TX ¿§Uu\eLs CqYôß LôYp Õû\
ùNnYRtÏ Øu× ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
CûRl Tt±V RLYp ùLôÓdL
úYiÓm Guß ¾oUô²jÕs[Õ,
GkR Nôh£Vj§u A¥lTûP«p CkR
®NôWûQ SPjRlTÓ¡\úRô
AûRlTt±V RLYp Ït\®Vp
SÓYÚdÏ HtùL]úY ùR¬k§ÚkRRôp
CjRûLV úUp ®NôWûQ NhPj§tÏ
×\mTô]Õ G]Xôm, CqYôß úUÛm
®NôWûQ SPj§V ©u]o áÓRp
Ït\l Tj§¬dûL RôdLp ùNnYôoLs,
úUp ®NôWûQ ùNnYRtLô] A§LôWm
Ramlal Narang V. State, (1979) 2 SCC
322 Utßm Hasan Bhai Vali Bhar
Quereshi V. State of Gujarat, (2004) 5
SCC 347 YZdÏL°p EfN
¿§Uu\jRôp Ae¸L¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 190 –
Ït\eLû[ Ït\®Vp SÓYo ×Xu
ùLôsÞRp
×Xu ùLôsÞRp GuTÕ Ït\®Vp
SÓYo JÚ Ït\jûRl Tt± ¿§Øû\
NôoSÕ ×Xu ùLôsÞRûX ϱdÏm,
(R.R. Chari V. State of Uttar Pradesh,
AIR 1951 SC 207) ×Xu ùLôsÞRp
Ït\jûRl Tt±VÕ, Ït\Yô°ûVl
Tt±VÕ ApX,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 190uT¥ Ït\®Vp SÓYo 3
NkRolTeL°p ×Xu ùLôs[Xôm,
 Ït\m Es[Pd¡V úSoÜLs
ùLôiÓs[ ×Lôo ¡ûPjRôp
 AjRûLV úSoÜLs Tt±V
LôYp A±dûL«u úT¬p
 LôYp A§Lô¬ ApXôR
úYù\ôÚYo êXm RLYp
¡ûPjR- u úT¬p ApXÕ
RuàûPV ùNôkR A±®u
ùTV¬p
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 173 ¸r LôYp A±dûL
RôdLp ùNnR ©u× Ït\®Vp SÓYo
©¬Ü 191 ¸r AkR Ït\jûR ×Xu
ùLôs[ Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm,
©¬Ü 154 ¸r ØRp RLYp A±dûL
T§Ü ùNnYÕ UhÓm ApXôUp RLYp
25
A°lTYÚdÏ Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu×
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 200 ¸r ×Lôo ùLôÓlTRtÏm
Y¯ Es[Õ, CkRf NkRolTeL°p
Ït\®Vp SÓYo ©¬Ü 190(1)H ¸r
×Lô¬u A¥lTûP«p
Ït\eLû[ ×Xu ùLôs[Xôm,
Ø¥YôL Ït\®Vp SÓYo RuàûPV
ùNôkR A±Ü / EQoÜT¥. A±ÜPu
SPdÏm Ït\eLû[l ùTôßjÕ ©¬Ü
190(1)(£) ¸r RôUôLúYÙm ×Xu
ùLôs[Xôm,
SôuLôYRôL. Ït\®Vp SÓYÚdÏ
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 156(3) ¸r
LôYpÕû\«]ûW ×X]ônÜ
ùNnÙmT¥ EjRW®ÓYRtÏm A§LôWm
Es[Õ, 156(3) Utßm 173(8)
¸Ýs[ A§LôWeLs JußdùLôuß
úYßThPûYVôÏm,
×Xu ùLôsÞYRtLô] Ød¡V úNôRû]
Gu]ùYu\ôp JÚ Ït\m
SPk§ÚdLXôm GuTRtLô] ØRt
TôoûY Nôh£Vm CÚjRp úYiÓm,
AkR Nôh£VeL°u A¥lTûP«p
ØWiTÓjRlThPôXu± AûY
EiûUVôL CÚdLXôm Guß
AàUô²dL úYiÓm, G-Ó : C,R,N,
©¬Ü 302-u ¸r Ït\m
CûZdLlThÓs[Õ Gußm ARtϬV
Nôh£Ls Es[Õ Gußm
LôYpÕû\«]Wôp
RôdLlThÓs[ A±dûL áß¡\Õ,
AkR A±dûLûV T¬ºXû] ùNnÕ
Ït\®Vp SÓYo C,R,N, ©¬Ü 302u ¸r
Ït\m SPdL®pûX Gußm 304H ¸r
Ït\m SPk§ÚdLXôm Gußm Ø¥Ü
ùNn¡\ôo, AlùTôÝÕ Ït\®Vp
SÓYo ©¬Ü 304H Es[ Ït\jûR
UhÓm ×Xu ùLôs[Xôm,
Ït\®Vp SÓY¬Pm ×Lôo
©¬Ü 200 ØRp 203
15-Bm Aj§VôVm (©¬Ü 200 – 203)
Ït\®Vp SÓY¬Pm ×Lôo ùLôÓlTûRl
Tt± áß¡\Õ, úUúX
®[d¡VlT¥ JÚ ×Lô¬u
A¥lTûP«p Ït\®Vp SÓYo JÚ
Ït\jûR ×Xu ùLôiPôp AYo ©¬Ü
200u ¸r ×LôoRôWûWÙm ©\
Nôh£VeLû[Ùm BûQ«u ¸r
®Nô¬dL úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 202u ¸r JÚ Ït\jûR
×Xu ùLôsÞm Ït\®Vp SÓYo
¿§Uu\ LhPû[Lû[ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYÚdÏ G§WôL ©\l©jRûX
RôURm ùNnÕ AkR YZdûL Rôú]
®NôWûQ ùNnVXôm. ApXÕ JÚ
LôYp A§Lô¬ûV ApXÕ
úYù\ôÚYûW ®NôWûQ ùNnÙUôß
EjRWÜ ©\l©dLXôm, AqYôß
®NôWûQ ùNnÕ úUp SPY¥dûL
GÓdL úRûYVô] A¥lTûP Es[Rô
CpûXVô Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm,
26
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 203u ¸r Ït\®Vp SÓYo
BûQ Eߧ ùUô¯«u ¸r ×LôoRôWo
Utßm Nôh£Ls ùLôÓdÏm
YôdÏêXeLû[ T¬ºXû] ùNnR
©u×. Utßm ©¬Ü 202u ¸r
SPjRlThP ×X]ôn®u
Ø¥ÜLû[Ùm LÚj§p ùLôiÓ. úUp
SPY¥dûL GÓdL A¥lTûP CpûX
Guß LÚ§]ôp ×LôûW
RsÞT¥ ùNnVXôm,
©¬Ü 204 ¿§Øû\ LhPû[Ls
©\l©jRp
Aj§VôVm 16 Ït\®Vp SÓYo Øu×
SPY¥dûLLû[ ùRôPeÏRp Tt±
áß¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 204u ¡r Ït\®Vp
SÓYo ×Lô¬u A¥lTûP«p úUp
SPY¥dûL GÓdL RÏkR LôWQeLs
Es[] Guß LÚ§]ôp AûZlTôûQ
®ÓdLúYô ApXÕ ©¥VôûQ
ùLôÓdLúYô A§LôWm ùTtßs[ôo,
(H.S. Bains V. State, (1980) 4 SCC 631).
×LôûWl ùTt\ÜPu Ït\®Vp SÓYo
TX Y¯Lû[d LûPl©¥dLXôm, AkRd
Ït\jûR ×Xu ùLôiÓ ×LôoRôW¬u
YôdÏêXjûR ©¬Ü 200u ¸r T§Ü
ùNnVXôm, ARu ©u× ©¬Ü 203u ¸r
YZdûL ùRôPW RÏkR LôWQeLs
CpûXùVu\ôp ×LôûW
RsÞT¥ ùNnVXôm, B]ôp. RÏkR
LôWQeLs CÚkRôp ©¬Ü 204 ¸r
¿§Øû\ LhPû[Lû[ ©\l©dLXôm,
úUÛm. YZdûL RôúU ®NôWûQ
ùNnVúYô LôYp Õû\ A§Lô¬
ApXÕ úYù\ôÚYo ®NôWûQ
ùNnVúYô Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ø¥Ü
ùNnRôp ¿§Øû\ LhPû[ûV
©\l©jRûX RôURm ùNnVXôm,
CqYôß LhPû[ ©\l©dL úYiÓUô
CpûXVô GuTûR Ø¥Ü ùNnV.
Ït\fNôhÓLû[ BR¬dÏm YûL«p
×Lôo Utßm Nôh£L°p HúRàm
Es[Pe¡V Nôj§VdáßLs Es[Rô
Guß BWônkÕ Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm,
(Nagaruwa Vs. Veeranna, (1976) 3 SCC
736).
©¬Ü 204u ¸r ¿§Øû\
LhPû[ ©\l©jR©u× LhPû[l
©\l©dLlThP Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
¿§Uu\m Øu× B_o BLúYiÓm,
CqYôß B_o TÓjÕRp JÚ
Ød¡VUô] ®`VUôÏm, Ït\®Vp
NhPjûR G°RôL SûPØû\lTÓjR
Ø¥VôÕ, CqYôß B_oTÓjÕm
EjRWÜ Ït\®Vp SÓYo AkR
YZd¡u úSoÜLÞdÏm ARtÏiPô]
NhPj§tÏm RÏkR Øû\«p
RuàûPV A±ûY ùNÛj§ Ø¥Ü
ùNn§Úd¡\ôo Gußm Lôi©dL
úYiÓm, (Pepsi Food Limited V.
Special Judicial Magistrate, (1998) 5
SCC 749).
27
Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
AûZlTôûQ ®ÓjR©\Ï RuàûPV
Ø¥®û] Uß BnÜ Uß T¬ºXû]
ùNnYRtÏ Ït\®Vp SÓYÚdÏ
A§LôWm ¡ûPVôÕ, (Adalat Prasad V.
Rooplal Juridal, 200 4 Cr. LJ 4874,
Subramaniam Sethuram V. State of
Maharashtra, 2004 Cr. LJ 4609).
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 205 ¸r Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo úSW¥VôL ¿§Uu\j§p
B_WôL úYiPôm Guß Ït\®Vp
SÓYo Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 207 – SLpLû[ YZeÏRp
LôYp A±dûL«u A¥lTûP«p
SPY¥dûL úUtùLôs[lThPPôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo RôURm CpXôUp
Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ LôYp
A±dûL. Utßm A§p
ϱl©PlThÓs[ SLpLû[Ùm Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 207u ¸r ùLôÓdL úYiÓm,
CkRl ©¬Ü Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
ªLÜm Ød¡VUô]RôÏm, Hù]²p
ØRuØû\VôL LôYp A±dûL GRu
A¥lTûP«p RôdLp
ùNnVlThÓs[úRô AûY Aû]jÕm
Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ ¡ûPd¡\Õ,
G]úY. AYo R]Õ G§o YôRjûR
RVôo ùNnYRtÏ BVjRUôLXôm, G-Ó :
©-dÏ G§WôL Ït\lTj§¬dûL RôdLp
ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ, ARàPu 400
BYQeLÞm CWiÓ ùTu
¥ûWqLÞm RôdLp ùNnVlTÓ¡u\],
CûY Aû]jûRÙm ©¬Ü 207u ¸r
ùTßYRtÏ ©-dÏ E¬ûU Es[Õ,
State of Uttar Pradesh V. Lakshmi
Brahman, (1983) 2 SCC 3872 Gu\
YZd¡p EfN ¿§Uu\m CqYôß
SLpLû[ ùLôÓjRp LhPôVUô]
ùTôßl× Gußm CqYôß ùNnRp
Ït\®Vp SÓY¬u ¨oYôLl ùTôßl×
ApX Gußm ¿§jÕû\ ùTôßlTôÏm
Guß á±VÕ, (Superintendent and
Rememberance of Legal Affairs, West
Bengal V. Satyan Bhowmik and others,
(1987) 2 SCC 109).
Ït\fNôhÓ
Aj§VôVm 17 Ït\fNôhûPl Tt±
áß¡\Õ, Ït\fNôhÓ GuTÕ JÚ
Øû\Vô] Ït\m áßRp Gußm
ARu A¥lTûP«pRôu ¿§Uu\m
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ ùNnÙm Gußm
áßYo, ¿§Uu\m Ït\fNôhûP
YûWVßdL®pûX B]ôp. Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
211 JÚ Ït\fNôh¥Ûm CÚdL
úYi¥VûYl Tt± áß¡\Õ,
JqùYôÚ Ït\fNôh¥Ûm Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo ÁRô] Ït\eLs. AkR
JqùYôÚ Ït\j§u R²lThP ùTVo
AkRd Ït\m CûZdLlThP NhPj§u
ùTVo Utßm ©¬Ü Gi. Ït\m
28
ùNnVlThP úSWm. CPm Tt±V
RLYpLs B¡V Aû]jÕm CÚjRp
úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 215u T¥ JÚ Ït\jûR
®Y¬lT§p. ApXÕ JÚ Ït\fNôh¥p
úRûYlTÓm ®YWeLû[ ®Y¬lT§p.
Ït\jûRl Tt± á\ôUp ApXÕ
®YWeLû[ á\ôUp ®ÓjRp HÕm
AjRûLV ©ûZ ApXÕ ®ÓjRp
LôWQUôL G§¬ RY\ôL §ÚlTlThPôp
Utßm AÕ ¿§dÏ ÏkRLm
®û[®j§Úd¡\Õ
Guß ¨ì©jRôXu± AYt±tÏ
Ød¡VjÕYm A°dL Ø¥VôÕ, (Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 264),
G-Ó : H-©-I HUôt±VRôL Ït\m
NôhPlThÓs[Õ, B]ôp.
GkR®Rj§p HUôt±]ôo GuTÕ
Ït\fNôh¥p ®Y¬dLlTP®pûX
ApXÕ RY\ôL ®Y¬dLlThÓs[Õ,
H-R]Õ G§oYôRm A°dÏmùTôÝÕ
Nôh£Lû[ AûZjÕ RuàûPV
RWl©û] ®Y¬d¡\ôo, C§- ÚkÕ
¿§Uu\m HUôtßRp GqYôß SPkRÕ
Guß á\ô§ÚjRp Ød¡VªpûX
Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm,
G-Ó : H-©-I HUôt±VRôL Ït\m
NôhPlTÓ¡\Õ, úUÛm. GqYôß
HUôt±]ôo GuTÕ á\lTP®pûX, H-
dÏm ©-dÏm CûPúV TpúYß
LQdÏl úTôdÏYWjÕ ¨LrkRRôp
GûRl Tt± CkRd Ït\fNôhÓ
áß¡\Õ GuTûR H-«]ôp
A±VlTP®pûX G]úY. AYWôp
RÏkR Øû\«p T§p YôRm
A°dLlTP®pûX, CkR
úSoÜL°- ÚkÕ GqYôß HUôtßRp
ùNnVlThPÕ Guß á\ô§ÚjRp JÚ
Ød¡VUô] ©ûZ Guß ¿§Uu\m
¾oUô²dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 216u T¥ ¾ol©û]
ùY°«ÓYRtÏ Øu]o GlùTôÝÕ
úYiÓUô]ôÛm ¿§Uu\m
Ït\fNôh¥û] §ÚjRÜm ApXÕ
Ït\eLû[ úNodLÜm ùNnVXôm,
AlT¥ úNodL ApXÕ Uôt\m
ùNnVlThP ©\Ï ®NôWûQûV
ùRôPoYÕ G§¬dÏ ÏkRLm
®û[®dLdá¥VÕ Guß ¿§Uu\m
ApXÕ AWÑ RWl©]o LÚ§]ôp ×Õ
®NôWûQ SPjR úYiÓm Guú\ô
ApXÕ úRûYlThP LôXj§tÏ AkR
®NôWûQûV Jj§ ûYdL
úYiÓùUuú\ô EjR®PXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 217uT¥ YZdÏ ®NôûQ
ùRôPe¡V ©u× Ït\fNôhÓ §Új§
Yû]VlTÓmùTôÝúRô ApXÕ
Ït\fNôh¥p קV Ït\eLs
úNodLlTÓmùTôÝúRô AWÑ RWl©]o
Utßm Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u
RWl©]o Nôh£Lû[ §Úm© AûZdL
29
AàU§dLlTPXôm. ARtϬV
AûZlTôûQLû[Ùm ©\l©dLXôm,
úUÛm. úYß Nôh£LÞm Ød¡Vm
Guß LÚRlThPôp AYoLû[Ùm
AûZdL AûZlTôûQ ©\l©dLXôm,
30
©¬Ü 218 ØRp 224 :
Ït\fNôhÓLû[ Juß úNojRp
JÚYo ÁÕ ÑUjRlTÓm JqùYôÚ
R²lThP Ït\j§tÏm Ï,S,N, ¸r JÚ
R²lThP Ït\fNôhÓ Yû]VlTP
úYiÓm, úUÛm. AjRûLV JqùYôÚ
Ït\fNôhÓm R²jR²úV ®Nô¬dLlTP
úYiÓm, B]ôp. Ït\m NôhPlThP
STo GÝjÕ êXUô] ®iQlTj§u
êXm AjRûLV ®ÚlTjûR
ùR¬®jRôp. AR]ôp AkR STÚdÏ
GkR Tô§l×m HtTPôÕ Guß
Ït\®Vp SÓYo LÚÕmùTôÝÕ
AjRûLV STo ÁÕ
Yû]VlThÓs[ Aû]jÕ ApXÕ
AYt±p TX Ït\fNôhÓLû[ Ju\ôL
®Nô¬dLXôm,
úUÛm. Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 219-T¥ ØRp
Ït\j§tÏm LûP£ Ït\j§tÏm
CûP«p 12 UôReLs CûPùY°dÏs
JÚ STo ÁÕ 3 Ït\eLû[ ׬kRRRôL
Ït\m ÑUjRlTÓm ùTôÝÕ AkR STo
ÁÕ AjRûLV 3 Ït\eLÞdÏ
A§LlTPôUp Ït\fNôhÓ
Yû]VlThÓ JúW ®NôWûQ«p AYo
®Nô¬dLlTPXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 220u ¸r JúW
T¬YojRû]«p APeLdá¥VÕm
ùNVpL°u JúW ùRôÏlTôL
AûUVdá¥VÕUô] JußdÏm
úUtThP TX Ït\eLû[ JúW STo
׬kÕs[ùTôÝÕ AjRûLV
JqùYôÚ Ït\j§tÏm AkR STo ÁÕ
Ït\fNôhÓ Yû]VlThÓ JúW
®NôWûQ«p ®Nô¬dLlTPXôm,
G-Ó : H-©-I NhPléoYUô] LôY- p
CÚkÕ ®Ó®d¡\ôo, AlùTôÝÕ
AeÏs[ LôYp £-dÏ LÓeLôVm
®û[®d¡\ôo, H- C,R,N, ©¬Ü 225
Utßm 333u ¸r Ït\m NôhPlThÓ
Ri¥dLlTPXôm,
Ït\fNôhÓ Yû]VlTÓmùTôÝÕ
Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u ÁÕ ØRp
TôoûY«p YZdÏ Es[RôL UhÓm
CÚkRôp úTôÕm, AkRd LhPj§p
Nôh£VeLû[ GûP«P úYi¥V
AY£Vm ¡ûPVôÕ,
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ
Aj§VôVm 18. 19. 20. 21 TXYûL
YZdÏ ®NôWûQLû[ CfNhPj§u
¸r SPjÕm SûPØû\ûV YZeÏ¡\Õ,
CfNhPj§u ØRp AhPYûQ Øu×
®[d¡VÕúTôp
Ït\eLû[ TXYûLL[ôL ©¬d¡u\Õ,
úUÛm ØRp AhPYûQ
Ït\eLû[ GkR ¿§Uu\j§u ¸r
®Nô¬dL úYiÓm Gu\
A¥lTûP«Ûm ©¬d¡\Õ,
31
©¬Ü 225 – 227 AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§u
Øu× YZdÏ ®NôWûQ
Aj§VôVm 18 AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m Øu×
Ød¡VUô] Utßm LÓûUVô]
YZdÏLs Guß LÚRlTÓm ©¥VôûQ
YZdÏLû[ ®NôWûQ ùNnV úYi¥V
©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
209 ¸r A§LôWm Es[ JÚ Ït\®Vp
SÓYo AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§]ôp
®NôWûQ SPjRlTP úYi¥V JÚ
Ït\jûR ×Xu ùLôiÓ ARtÏl ©\Ï
ARû] AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
®NôWûQdÏ AàlTXôm, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
199p Es[ ®XdÏ R®W úYß GkR
RÚQj§Ûm AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m
Rô]ôLúY úSW¥VôL JÚ Ït\jûR
AdÏt\m AUoÜ ¿§Uu\jRôp
®NôWûQdÏ E¬VRôL CÚkRôÛm
×Xu ùLôs[ Ø¥VôÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 225T¥ AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m
Øu× YZdÏ ®NôWûQ AWÑ RWl×
YZdL±OWôp SPjRlTP úYiÓm
Guß YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 227 Utßm 228 AUoÜ
¿§Uu\jRôp Ït\fNôh¥u T¬ºXû]l
Tt± áß¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 227 ¸r
YZdÏûPV T§ÜLs Utßm
BYQeLû[ BWônkÕm
CÚRWl©]¬u YôRj§û] úLhÓm
¿§Uu\m Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
G§WôL SPY¥dûL GÓdL RÏkR
LôWQeLs CpûX Guß Ø¥Ü
ùNnRôp ¿§T§ Ït\m NôhPlThPYûW
®Ó®jÕ AqYôß ®Ó®jRÛdLô]
LôWQeLû[ T§Ü ùNnVXôm,
Yogesh V. State of Maharashtra (2008)
10 SCC 394 Gu\ YZd¡p EfN
¿§Uu\m JÚ YZdÏ Ï±jÕ 2 YûLVô]
úSôdLeLs CÚkRôp AYt±p Juß
NkúRLjûR UhÓm GÝl©]ôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ït\m
NôhPlThPYûW ®Ó®dL A§LôWm
ùLôiÓs[ôo, (LôiL : State of
Karnataka V. L. Munnisami, (1977) 2
SCC 699, Union of India V. Prafulla
Kuma,r (1979) 3 SCC 4).
©¬Ü 228u T¥ Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ït\m CûZj§ÚdLXôm
Guß AàUô²dL A¥lTûP Es[Õ
Guß LÚ§]ôp ¿§Uu\m
Ït\fNôhÓdLs Yû]kÕ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Rôm Ït\m ùNnRRôL
áß¡\ôWô ApXÕ ùNnV®pûX Guß
á± YZdÏ ®NôWûQ úLôÚ¡\ôWô
Guß úLhL úYiÓm,
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo Rôu Ït\m
ùNnRRôL Jl×dùLôiPôp Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
229u ¸r AûR T§Ü ùNnÕ ARu
A¥lTûP«p Ït\j¾ol× YZe¡
RiPû]Ùm ©\l©dLXôm,
32
B]ôp. Ït\m NôhPlThPYo YZdÏ
®NôWûQ úYiÓm Guß á±]ôp
¿§Uu\m Nôh£Lû[ ®Nô¬dL Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 230u ¸r úR§ûV ϱjÕ Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 231u T¥ AWÑ RWl©]ôp
YZeLlTÓm Aû]jÕ
Nôh£VeLû[Ùm GÓjÕd
ùLôs[ Ø¥ùYÓdLXôm,
Aû]jÕ Nôh£VeLû[Ùm T¬ºXû]
ùNnÕ AWÑ RWl× Utßm G§o RWl×
YôReLû[ úLhPl©\Ï ¿§T§ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYûW ®Ó®dÏm ¾ol× Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 230u ¸r YZeLXôm, B]ôp
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
®Ó®dLlTP®pûXùVu\ôp AYo
R]Õ G§oYôRj§û] Øu²Új§
ARtϬV Nôh£VeLû[ ùLôÓdÏUôß
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 233 ¸r AûZdLlTPXôm,
CÚ RWl× YôReLû[Ùm úLhP©\Ï
¿§T§ Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 235 ¸r
¾olTôûQûV ©\l©dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 235(2) T¥ Ït\Yô° Guß
Ït\j¾ol× YZe¡V ©\Ïm Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ït\Yô° RiPû]l
Tt± R²VôL ®Nô¬dLlTÓYôo,
Ït\Yô°dÏ RuàûPV ãr¨ûXLs
Tt±Ùm ©\ NkRolTeLs Tt±Ùm
¿§Uu\j§tÏ ùR¬®jÕ RuàûPV
R²lThP NêLm NôokR
ãr¨ûXLû[Ùm
GÓjÕdLôh¥ RiPû]ûV Ïû\dL
JÚ ×§V Yônl× A°jÕ. ER®
ùNnYúR CRu úSôdLUôÏm,
AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m UWQ RiPû]
ùLôÓdÏmùTôÝÕ AkR YZdÏ
T§ÜLs EVo ¿§Uu\jÕdÏ
AàlTlThÓ EVo¿§ Uu\j§]ôp
AkR RiPû] EߧTÓj§V ©u]úW
AÕ ¨û\úYt\lTP úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N,®p Aj§VôVm 28u ¸r
Es[ ©¬Ü 366p UWQ
RiPû]Lû[ EߧlTÓjÕYRtLôL
NUol©jRp Tt± á\lThÓs[Õ,
©¬Ü 238 – 243 –Ït\®Vp SÓYWôp
©¥VôûQ YZdÏL°u ®NôWûQ –
LôYp A±dûL«u úT¬p SPjRlTÓm
YZdÏLs
Aj§VôVm 19 AûZlTôûQ
YZdÏL°u ®NôWûQl Tt± áß¡\Õ,
Aj§VôVm 19 CWiÓ TϧL[ôL
©¬dLlThÓs[Õ : LôYp A±dûL«u
úT¬p SPjRlTÓm YZdÏLs. LôYp
A±dûL ApXôUp ©\ Y¯L°p
SPjRlTÓm YZdÏLs,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 238T¥ Ït\®Vp SÓYo
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«u ùRôPdLj§p
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 207u ¸r
ùNnVúYi¥VYtû\
LûPl©¥jÕs[ôWô Guß
EߧTÓj§d ùLôs[ úYiÓm,
33
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 239 Utßm 240 ©¬Ü 227
Utßm 228I úTôu\Õ, CûY Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo GlùTôÝÕ ®Ó®dLlTP
úYiÓm Gußm GlùTôÝÕ AYÚdÏ
G§WôL Ït\fNôhÓ YûQVlTP
úYiÓm Guß áß¡u\], Ï,S,N,©¬Ü
241 ApXÕ 242 ¸r Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Rôu Ït\Yô° Guß
Jl×dùLôs[®pûX Gu\ôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo
Nôh£Lû[ ®Nô¬lTRtÏ JÚ úR§ûVd
ϱjÕ AWÑ RWl©p YZeLlTÓm
Aû]jÕ Nôh£Lû[Ùm ùTtßd
ùLôsYôo,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 243 ¸r Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo ARu ©\Ï RuàûPV
G§o YôRjûR ùRôPe¡ R]Õ TdLjÕ
Nôh£ûVÙm ùLôÓdLXôm,
©¬Ü 244 – 247 - Ït\®Vp SÓYWôp
©¥VôûQ YZdÏL°u ®NôWûQ –
LôYp A±dûL ApXôÕ ©\ Y¯L°p
SPjRlTÓm YZdÏLs
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 244 ¸r LôYp A±dûL
ApXôUp ©\ Y¯L°p SPjRlTÓm
©¥VôûQ YZdÏL°p Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ït\®Vp SÓY¬u
Øu× ùLôiÓYWlThPÜPu SÓYo
AWÑ RWl× YôRjûR úLhPl ©\Ï
AWÑ RWl©p ùLôÓdLlTÓm Aû]jÕ
Nôh£Lû[Ùm ùTtßd ùLôsYôo,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 244 ¸r Nôh£Lû[l ùTt\
©\Ï Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ G§WôL
YZdÏLs GÕÜm CpûX Guß SÓYo
Ø¥Ü ùNnRôp Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 245 ¸r
AYo ®Ó®dLlTPXôm, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
245 (2) ¸r Ït\®Vp SÓYo. Ït\m
NôhPlThPYûW CRtÏ Øu×
Es[ GkR LhPj§Ûm AYo ÁÕ
YZdÏ SPjÕYRtLô] úTô§V
LôWQeLs CpûX Guß ¨û]jRôp
®Ó®dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 246 ¸r Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ït\jûR
CûZj§ÚdLXôm Guß AàUô²dL
LôWQeLs CÚkRôp SÓYo AYÚdÏ
G§WôL Ït\fNôh¥û] Yû]V
úYiÓm, ARu ©\Ï Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo RuàûPV G§o
YôRjûR ùLôÓjÕ Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 243 ¸r
Nôh£Lû[Ùm NUol©dLXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 248 – 250 Aj§VôVm 19u
CWiÓ TϧLÞdÏm ùTôÚkÕm, Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 248 ¸r Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo Ït\m ùNnV®pûX
Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnRôp Ït\Yô°
CpûX Guß ®ÓRûX BûQûV
T§Ü ùNnVXôm, B]ôp. Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü
248(2) ¸r SÓYo Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
Ït\Yô° Guß Ø¥Ü ùNnRôp
RiPû]l Tt±V
YôReLû[ Ït\Yô°«u RWl©p
34
úLhP©\Ï NhPlT¥ RiPû]
YZeLXôm,
35
©¬Ü 251 – 259 Ït\®Vp SÓYWôp
AûZlTôûQ YZdÏL°u ®NôWûQ
AûZlTôûQ YZdÏLs Aj§VôVm
20u ¸r
Es[ SûPØû\lT¥ ®Nô¬dLlTÓm,
AûZlTôûQ YZdÏLs ©¥VôûQ
YZdÏLû[ ®P Ïû\kR Ød¡VjÕYm
ùLôiÓs[Rôp ©¥VôûQ YZdÏLs
úTôp Ït\fNôhÓ Yû]VlTÓY§pûX,
B]ôp. Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 251u ¸r Ït\j§u
NôWômNm Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏ
ùLôÓdLlThÓ AYo AûR
Jl×dùLôs¡\ôWô ApXÕ G§o YôRm
ùLôÓd¡\ôWô Guß úLhLlTÓm,
SûPØû\«p Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 251u ¸r
CqYôß ùNnVlTÓYÕ “A±®l×
Yû]Rp” G]lTÓm, CÕ Ït\fNôhÓ
Yû]R- - ÚkÕ úYßThPÕ, Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 251u ¸r Øû\Vô] Ït\fNôhÓ
Yû]YRtÏ úRûY GÕÜm
CpûXùVu\ôÛm ARtÏ Gq®R
RûPÙm ¡ûPVôÕ, CûR ùNnYÕ
SÓY¬u ®Úl׬ûUûV ùTôßjRÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 256 ¸r ×LôoRôWÚdÏ
AûZlTôûQ ùLôÓdLlThÓ Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo
YÚYRtLôL ¨VªdLlThP úR§«p
(ApXÕ ARtÏ ©\Ï GkR úR§«Ûm)
×LôoRôWo YW®pûXùVu\ôp
Ït\®Vp SÓYo Ït\m
NôhPlThPYûW ®ÓRûX ùNnVXôm,
£X NUVeL°p YZdûLj Rs°l
úTôPXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 258 ¸r ×Lôo ApXôUp
úYß Y¯L°p SPjRlTÓm
AûZlTôûQ YZdÏL°p GkRùYôÚ
ØRp ¨ûX Ït\®Vp SÓYÚm
RûXûU Ït\®Vp SÓY¬u
NmURjÕPu GkR ¨ûX«Ûm
®NôWûQûV ¨ßjRXôm, úUÛm
Ød¡VUô] Nôh£Lû[ ®Nô¬jR ©u×
®NôWûQ ¨ßjRlThPôp SÓYo
®Ó®dÏm ¾ol×ûWûV T§Ü
ùNnVXôm, CpûXùVu\ôp
®Ó®dÏm ¾ol×ûW«u úR§«- ÚkÕ
Ït\m NôhPlThPYûW ®Ó®dLXôm,
©¬Ü 260 – 265I
APd¡Ùs[ Aj§VôVm 21
YZdÏL°p LûPl©¥dL úYi¥V
®NôWûQ SûPØû\Lû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ,
©¬Ü 260 ÑÚdÏ Y¯«p ®NôWûQ
SPjRlTP úYi¥V
Ït\eLû[ Th¥Vp CÓ¡\Õ,
®NôWûQ Utßm YZdÏ ®NôWûQdLô]
©¬ÜLs
Aj§VôVm 23 Utßm 24 CkR
NhPj§u ¸r Es[ TXYûLVô]
®NôWûQ Utßm YZdÏ ®NôWûQl
Tt±V ©¬ÜLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ, G-Ó :
272 ¸r Uô¨X AWÑ EVo¿§ Uu\m
R®W AkR Uô¨Xj§tÏs CÚdÏm
36
JqùYôÚ ¿§Uu\j§Ûm TVuTÓjR
úYi¥V ùUô¯ûV ¾oUô²dLXôm,
©¬Ü 273 ¸r Ït\m NôhPlThPY¬u
Øu²ûX«p UhÓúU
Nôh£ ùLôÓdLlTP úYiÓm Guß
á\lThÓs[Õ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 280 ¸r JÚ Nôh£«u
Nôh£VjûR T§Ü ùNnÙmúTôÕ
AeÏs[ RûXûU SÓYo
®NôWûQ«uúTôÕ Nôh£ A°lTY¬u
SPjûR. ÏQm Tt± Rôu Ød¡Vm G]
LÚÕm ϱl×Lû[ T§Ü ùNnYRtÏ
LPûUlThÓs[ôo,
G-Ó : ¡ë Gu¡\
Nôh£ ®NôWûQ«uúTôÕ RuàûPV
T§pLû[ Uôt±d ùLôiúP«ÚkRôs,
CkR SPjûRûV RûXûU RôeÏm
SÓYo T§Ü ùNnV úYiÓm,
Ï,S,N ©¬Ü 300 Ck§V AW£VXûUl×
NhPj§u `WjÕ 20(2)u
ØuUô§¬VôÏm, Autrefois acquit
Gu¡\ ùLôsûLdÏ CkRl ©¬®u
A¥lTûPVôÏm, CRuT¥ JÚYo
RϧÙûPV ¿§Uu\j§]ôp JÚ Øû\
®Nô¬dLlThÓ JÚ Ït\j§tLôL
Ri¥dLlThúPô ApXÕ
®Ó®dLlThúPô CÚkRôp AYo Uß
Øû\ AúR Ït\j§túLô ApXÕ AúR
úSoÜLÞdúLô ApXÕ úYß
Ït\j§tLôL Yû]VlThP úYß
Ït\fNôh¥túLô ùTôßlúTtL ûYdL
Ø¥VôÕ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 306 – 308 áhPô°Ls
Utßm ©\ÚdÏ Uu²l× YZeÏRp
Tt± áß¡\Õ, Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 313 ¸r
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo RôUôLúY
AYÚdÏ G§WôL
ùLôÓdLlThÓs[ Nôh£VjûRl
Tt±Ùm AkRd Ït\jûRl Tt±Ùm
®[dÏYRtLôL YônlT°dL Ït\®Vp
SÓYÚdÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ, CkR
YôdÏêXm Eߧ ùUô¯ BûQ«u
¸r T§Ü ùNnVlTPô®hPôÛm
LhPôVm T§Ü ùNnVlTP úYiÓm,
CkR ®NôWûQ«u úTôÕ úLhLlTÓm
úLs®LÞdÏ. Ït\m NôhPlThPYo
T§p A°dL®pûX Gu\ôúXô
ùTônVô] T§p A°jRôúXô. AYo
RiPû] HtL úYi¥V AY£Vm
¡ûPVôÕ,
©¬Ü 320 NUWNm ùNnVdá¥V
Ït\eLs
×LôoRôWÚdÏm Ït\m
NôhPlThPYÚdÏm CûP«p ¨VôVUô]
Y¯«p ¾ojÕd ùLôs[dá¥V £X
YûLVô] Ït\eLs NUWNm
ùNnVdá¥V Ït\eLs Guß
YûLlTÓjRRlThÓs[], CWiÓ
YûLVô] Ït\eLû[ NUWNm
ùNnVdá¥V Ït\eLs G]Xôm, ©¬Ü
37
320(1) ¿§Uu\j§u AàU§ CpXôUp
NUWNm ùNnVdá¥V Ït\eL°u
Th¥VûX ùLôiÓs[Õ, B]ôp
320(2) ¿§Uu\j§u AàU§
úRûYlTÓm
Ït\eLû[ Th¥V- Ó¡\Õ,
JÚ Ït\jûR NUWNm ùNnY§]ôp
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ®Ó®dLlTÓYôo
Guß Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 320(8) YZeÏ¡\Õ,
G-Ó : ©-«u ×Lô¬u úT¬u H-ÁÕ
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 323 ¸r Ru²fûNVôL
LôVlTÓjÕm Ït\j§tLôL SPY¥dûL
GÓdLlTÓ¡\Õ, H-Ùm ©-Ùm
RUd¡ûPúV NUWNm ùNnÕ
ùLôs¡u\]o, CkRd Ït\m Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 320(1) ¸r YÚYRôp ¿§Uu\j§u
AàU§«pXôUp CdÏt\jûR NUWNm
ùNnÕ ùLôs[Xôm,
G-Ó : ©-«u ×Lô¬u úT¬u H-ÁÕ
C,R,N, ©¬Ü 500-u ¸r ªWh¥V
Ït\j§tLôL SPY¥dûL
GÓdLlTÓ¡\Õ, H-Ùm ©-Ùm
RUd¡ûPúV NUWNm ùNnÕ
ùLôs¡u\]o, CkRd Ït\m Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 320(2) ¸r YÚYRôp ¿§Uu\j§u
AàU§ ùTtß CdÏt\jûR NUWNm
ùNnÕ ùLôs[Xôm,
Ït\eLû[l Tt±V NÛûLd úLôÚRp
2006 Bm BiÓ §ÚjRf NhPj§u
êXm Aj§VôVm 21-H
A±ØLlTÓjRlThPÕ, ©¬Ü 265(H)
ØRp 265(Gp) YûW Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo ¿§Uu\j§u
AàU§ÙPu ---I AWÑ RWl×Pu
ùRôPeLXôm, CkR Aj§VôVm
Sôh¥u NØRôV Utßm ùTôÚ[ôRôW
RWjûR Tô§dÏm Ït\eLÞdÏ.
ùTiLs Utßm 14 YVÕdÏhThP
ÏZkûRLÞdÏ G§WôL CûZdLlTÓm
Ït\eLÞdÏ ùTôÚkRôÕ, Uj§V AWÑ
JÚ A±®l× êXm GqYûL Ït\eLs
Sôh¥u NØRôV Utßm ùTôÚ[ôRôW
SXjûR Tô§dLdá¥VûY
Guß ¨oQVm ùNnÙm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 265(D) GkùRkR
NkRolTeL°p ¿§Uu\m “JÚYÚdÏ
JÚYo TWvTW §Úl§ A°dÏm
YûL«p” Ït\m NôhPlThPYÚdÏm
AWÑ RWl©]ÚdÏm CûPúV
Ø¥dLlThPRôL. CkR Aj§VôVj§u
¸r ¨û\Ü ùNnVXôm Guß
YZeÏ¡\Õ,
úUp Øû\ÂÓ. ºWônÜ Utßm
UôtßRp
úUp Øû\ÂhÓ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
®NôWûQ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ E¬V
Aû]jÕ A§LôWeLÞm Es[Õ,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 386 úUp Øû\ÂhÓ
38
¿§Uu\eL°u
A§LôWeLû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ, TX
YZdÏL°p úUpØû\ÂÓ GuTÕ
YZdÏ ®NôWûQ«u ùRôPof£ Gußm
úUpØû\ÂhÓ ¿§Uu\m Aû]jÕ
Nôh£VeLû[Ùm Uß T¬ºXû]
ùNnVXôm Gußm YZeLlThÓs[Õ,
Ï,N,S, ©¬Ü 391 ¸r úUpØû\ÂhÓ
¿§Uu\m úUÛm Nôh£VeLû[ T§Ü
ùNnYRtÏ EjRW®PXôm, úUÛm.
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 394 ¸r ©¬Ü 377 Utßm
378 ¸r YÚm úUpØû\ÂÓLs Ït\m
NôhPlThPYo C\kRôp Ø¥YûPÙm,
©¬Ü 374 : Ït\j ¾ol©tÏ G§Wô] úUp
Øû\ÂÓ
AUoÜ ¿§T§ ApXÕ áÓRp AUoÜ
¿§T§«]ôp SPjRlThP
®NôWûQ«u úT¬p ApXÕ úYß
¿§Uu\j§p SPjRlThP ®NôWûQ«p
Ït\j¾ol× ApXÕ HÝ YÚPeLÞdÏ
úUp LôYp RiPû]
©\l©dLlThPôp Ït\Yô° ¾olûT
G§ojÕ ©¬Ü 374(2) ¸r
EVo¿§Uu\j§p úUpØû\ÂÓ
ùNnVXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 374(3) ¸r ©¬Ü 374(3) H. ©.
£. ¸r ùLôÓdLlThP RiPû]ûV
G§ojÕ AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§p ©¬Ü 374(2)
®p YZeLlThÓs[Ytû\ R®W GpXô
YZdÏLû[Ùm úUp Øû\ÂÓ
ùNnVXôm,
©¬Ü 377 : RiûPdÏ G§WôL
AWNôeLj§u úUp Øû\ÂÓ
Ït\®Vp SÓYo A°dÏm RiPû]
Ïû\YôL CÚlTRôL ¨û]jRôp
AWNôeLm Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 377 ¸r AUoÜ
¿§Uu\j§p úUp Øû\ÂÓ ùNnVXôm,
úYß ¿§Uu\j§]ôp RiPû]
YZeLlThPôp EVo ¿§Uu\j§pRôu
úUp Øû\ÂÓ
ùNnVlTP úYiÓm,
©¬Ü 378 : ®ÓRûX ¾ol×dÏ G§Wô]
úUp Øû\ÂÓ
®ÓRûX ¾ol×dÏ G§WôL AWNôeLm
úUp Øû\ÂÓ ùNnVXôm, EVo
¿§Uu\m Ru Øu Es[ Aû]jÕ
Nôh£VeLû[Ùm Uß BnÜ ùNnÕ
Rôú] úYß Ø¥ùYÓdLXôm Gu\ôÛm
Ït\m NôhPlThPYo ¨WTWô§ Gu¡u\
AàUô]m ®NôWûQ ¿§Uu\j§]ôp
ùLôÓdLlThP ®ÓRûX ¾ol©]ôp
úUÛm ¨ûX¨ßjRl TÓ¡\Õ, G]úY.
ªLl ùT¬V ApXÕ Ød¡VUô]
LôWQeLs CÚkRôXu± ®ÓRûX
¾ol©û] Uôt\m ùNnV Ø¥VôÕ,
State of Madhya Pradesh V. Munshi
Singh (2009) 14 SCC 170 Gu\ YZd¡p
EfN ¿§Uu\m Nôh£VeLû[ CWiÓ
39
LiúQôhPeL°p TôoûY«P Ø¥Ùm
Gu\ôp ®ÓRûX ¾ol×dÏ G§Wô]
úUpØû\ÂhûP T¬ºXû]
ùNnÙmúTôÕ EVo ¿§Uu\m úYß
YûLVô] LiúQôhPjûR ®NôWûQ
¿§Uu\m ùLôi¥ÚkRôp Ït\j ¾ol×
YZe¡«ÚdLXôm. Gu\ JÚ
LôWQj§tLôL UhÓúU ®ÓRûX
¾ol©p RûX«PdáPôÕ Guß
á±Ùs[Õ,
©¬Ü 389 : úUpØû\ÂÓ ¨ÛûY«p
CÚdÏm YûW RiPû]ûV ¨ßj§
ûYjRp
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 389 ¸r úUpØû\ÂÓ
Ø¥YôÏm YûW úUp Øû\ÂhÓ
¿§Uu\m Ït\Yô°dÏ G§WôL
YZeLlThP RiPû]ûV
ùNVpTÓjÕYûR ¨ßj§ ûYdLÜm
Ït\Yô° £û\«- ÚkRôp AYûW
_ôÁ²p ®Ó®dLÜm BûQ«PXôm,
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 389(3) ¸r Ït\Yô° R]dÏ
G§Wô] Ït\j ¾ol©tÏ úUp. úUp
Øû\ÂÓ ùNnYRôL Lôi©jÕ.
¸rLiP ¨TkRû]Ls Nk§jRôp.
 Ït\Yô° _ôÁ²p CÚkRRôLÜm 3
YÚPeLÞdÏ úUp CpXôR £û\
RiPû] ùLôÓdLlThPÕ
Gu\ôúXô.
 ©ûQ®Ó Ït\j§tLôL Ït\j
¾ol× YZeLlThPÕ Gußm
Ït\Yô° _ôÁ²p Es[RôLÜm
¨ì©jRôp Ït\Yô°ûV _ôÁ²p
®Ó®jÕ. úUp Øû\ÂÓ ùNnÕ.
RiPû]ûV ¨ßj§ ûYlTRtLô]
BûQûV úUpØû\ÂhÓ
¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕ ùT\ úRûYVô]
SûPØû\Lû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ, G-Ó :
Ït\®Vp SÓYWôp H. JÚ YÚP £û\
RiPû] ùTß¡\ôo, CRtÏ G§WôL H
AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§p úUp Øû\ÂÓ
ùNnV Gi¦Ùs[ôo, YZdÏ LôXm
ØÝYÕm H _ôÁ²p CÚkRôo,
ClùTôÝÕ _ôÁ²p ®Ó®dLlThÓ
úUpØû\ÂÓ ùNnÕ
RiPû]ûV ¨ßj§ ûYlTRtLô]
BûQûV ùTßYRtÏ H-dÏ E¬ûU
Es[Õ,
©¬Ü 397 – 405 : ºWônÜdLô] A§LôWm
©¬Ü 397 ¸r EVo ¿§Uu\m ApXÕ
AUoÜ ¿§Uu\m ARu A§LôWj§u
¸r Es[ GkR ¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕm
T§ÜLû[ úLhÓ. T¬ºXû] ùNnÕ
AûY N¬VôL. NhPlT¥VôL. Øû\VôL
Es[Rô Guß N¬TôodLÜm AkR
¿§Uu\j§]ôp YZeLlThP EjRWÜ.
RiPû]. LiÓ©¥l× ¨VôVUô]Rô
Guß N¬TôodLÜm A§LôWm
ùTtßs[Õ,
40
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 399 AUoÜ ¿§Uu\j§u
A§LôWeLû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ, ©¬Ü 401
EVo ¿§Uu\j§u ºWônÜdLô]
A§LôWeLû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ,
EVo ¿§Uu\j§u úUpØû\ÂÓ
Utßm ºWônÜ A§LôWj§tLô]
úYßTôÓLs ¸rLiPYôß :
 úUp Øû\Âh¥p Ït\j ¾olúT
N¬«pûX Gu\ôp EVo
¿§Uu\m RûX«PXôm, B]ôp.
ºWôn®p RûX«ÓYRtÏ
¿§dúL CûPëß ®û[®dLl
ThÓs[Õ Guß ¨ì©dLlTP
úYiÓm,
 úUp Øû\Âh¥p EVo
¿§Uu\m JÚ Ït\j ¾ol©û]
®ÓRûX ¾olTôLÜm. ®ÓRûX
¾olûT Ït\j ¾olTôLÜm
Uôt\Xôm, B]ôp. ºWônÜ
ùNnÙmùTôÝÕ EVo ¿§Uu\m
®ÓRûX ¾ol©û] Ït\j
¾olTôL Uôt\ Ø¥VôÕ, (Ï,S,N,
©¬Ü 410(3) TôodL)
 EVo ¿§Uu\j§u úUp
Øû\ÂÓ A§LôWjûR
®NôWûQ Ø¥YûPkRl
©u]úW TVuTÓjRXôm,
B]ôp ºWônÜ A§LôWm
®NôWûQ«u GkRùYôÚ
LhPj§Ûm Cߧ EûW (order)
©\l©dLlThPôp. ARtùL§WôL
TVuTÓjRXôm, G-Ó: ©¬Ü 216
¸r Ït\fNôhÓ Yû]VlTÓm
BûQdÏ G§WôL,
 EVo ¿§Uu\m RuàûPV
ºWônÜ A§LôWjûR RôUôLúY
ApXÕ GkRùYôÚ ST¬u
úT¬Ûm TVuTÓjRXôm,
B]ôp. úUp Øû\ÂÓ
A§LôWm YZdÏûWdÏm E¬ûU
Es[ STWôp UhÓúU
TVuTÓjRlTP Ø¥Ùm,
Aj§VôVm – 23 : Ït\®Vp
YZdÏL°u UôtßRp
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 406 – 412 ùYqúYß
¿§Uu\eL°]ôp Ït\®Vp
YZdÏLs Uôt\m ùNnVlTÓYûR
ϱjÕ áß¡u\], ©¬Ü 406 ¸r EfN
¿§Uu\m JÚ EVo ¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕ
Utù\ôÚ ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
YZdÏLû[Ùm úUpØû\ÂÓLû[Ùm
Uôt\m ùNnVXôm, úUÛm CRu ¸r
JÚ EVo ¿§Uu\j§u ¸r
Es[ ¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕ Utù\ôÚ EVo
¿§Uu\j§u ¸r Es[ úYù\ôÚ
¿§Uu\j§tÏm Uôt\m ùNnVXôm, G-
Ó : ¥ ùRôûXLôh£«p Ck§Vô
ØÝYÕm J°TWlTlTÓm A[®p
EûWVôtß¡\ôo, AkR EûW
41
Aû]YûWÙm çiÓmT¥ CÚkRRôp
¥-dÏ G§WôL 20 SLWeL°p TX
Uô¨XeL°p ØRp RLYp A±dûL
T§Ü ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ, CkR YZdÏLs
Aû]jûRÙm JúW ¿§Uu\j§tÏ
Uôt\m ùNnÕ ùLôs[ ¥-dÏ E¬ûU
Es[Õ, CkR YZdÏLs ùYqúYß
¿§Uu\eL°u A§LôWj§u ¸r
YÚYRôp CjRûLV Uôt\m úLôÚm
Uà EfN ¿§Uu\j§u Øu×
NUol©dLlTP úYiÓm,
©¬Ü 407 ¸r EVo ¿§Uu\m
RuàûPV A§LôW YWm©u ¸r
YZdÏLû[ Uôt\m ùNnÕ ùLôs[Xôm,
úUÛm. EVo ¿§Uu\m Ru ¸r
Es[ GkRùYôÚ ¿§Uu\j§- ÚkÕm
JÚ YZdûL YôTv ùTtß AkR
YZdÏ ®NôWûQûV Rôú] SPjRXôm,
¿§Uu\j§u Es[ôokR A§LôWeLs
Ï,S,N, ©¬Ü 482 EVo ¿§Uu\j§u
Es[ôokR
A§LôWeLû[ Ae¸L¬d¡\Õ, CÕ
CkR Es[ôokR A§LôWm
TVuTÓjRlTÓm 3
NkRolTeLû[ G§oúSôdÏ¡\Õ,
ARôYÕ 1, CkR NhPj§u ¸r JÚ
BûQûV ùNVpTÓjÕRp 2, CkR
NhPj§u SûPØû\ûV RY\ôL
TVuTÓjÕY§- ÚkÕ RÓjRp 3,
¿§ûV ùTßRp,
CkR A§LôWm úUtá±V LôWQeL°u
A¥lTûP«p Ït\®Vp
YZdÏLû[ ùNpXjRLôRûY Guß
A±®l× ùTßYRtÏm TVuTÓjRXôm,
CkRl ©¬®u RuûUûV ®[dÏm TX
¾ol×Ls Es[], E¬ûU«Vp
SûPØû\f NhPm 1908 ¸r
Es[ Es[ôokR A§LôWj§tÏ
úYßThÓ CkRf NhPj§u ¸r
Es[ Es[ôokR A§LôWm
EVo¿§Uu\j§tÏ UhÓúU Es[Õ,
CûY ®¬Yô] A§LôWeL[ôL
CÚkRôÛm RÏkR YZdÏL°p ¿§ûV
YZeÏYRtÏ UhÓúU TVuTÓjRlTP
úYiÓm, CkR A§LôWeLû[ ªL
LY]UôL TVuTÓjR úYiÓm Gußm
JÚ Øû\Vô] AWÑ RWl× YZdÏ
Tô§dLlTPôUp TVuTÓjRlTP
úYiÓm Gußm EfN ¿§Uu\m
ÁiÓm ÁiÓm á±Ùs[Õ, G-Ó :
¡ë 1dÏ G§WôL Ït\®Vp AjÕÁ\p
Utßm §ÚhÓdLôL £-«]ôp ØRp
RLYp A±dûL T§Ü
ùNnVlThÓs[Õ, ¡ë-2 20
YÚPeL[ôL ùY°Sôh¥p CÚkÕ
YÚ¡\ôo, AYÚdÏ £-I ùR¬VôÕ,
Ït\m ×Xu ùLôs[lThPl ©\Ï
AûZlTôûQ ¡ë-1dÏ T§XôL ¡ë-
2dÏ AàlTlTÓ¡\Õ, ¡ë-2 ©¬Ü 482
¸r CkR YZdÏ ùNpXjRdLRpX Guß
A±®l× úLôÚYRtÏ E¬ûU
ùTtßs[ôo,
42
G²àm ØRp RLYp A±dûL ApXÕ
×Lô¬p Es[ Ït\fNôhÓLû[ ØRp
TôoûY«p úSôdÏm úTôÕ. AûY
ØÝûUVôL Htßd ùLôs[lThPôÛm
áP AûY GkR Ït\UôLÜm LÚRlTP
Ø¥VôÕ Guú\ô ApXÕ AûY
Øt±Ûm SmTjRLôRlT¥ CÚkRôúXô
EVo¿§Uu\m Ït\m
NôhPlThPYÚdÏ G§WôL YZdÏ ùRôPW
LôWQm CpûX Guß CkRl ©¬®u
¸r Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm, G-Ó : H-dÏm ©-
dÏm ùTôÚhLs YZeÏYRtLô]
JlTkRm Es[Õ, CVtûL ºt\j§u
LôWQj§]ôp H-
ùTôÚhLû[ YZeL®pûX, H
úYiÓùUuú\ Ruû] ùTôÚhLs
YZeLôUp HUôt±VRôL © ×Lôo
ùLôÓjÕ ARu úT¬p ×Xu
ùLôs[lThÓ ©-dÏ G§WôL
AûZlTôûQ ©\l©dLlTÓ¡\Õ,
CkR ×Lôo ùNpXjRdLRpX Guß ©¬Ü
482dÏ ¸r A±®dLlTP H-dÏ E¬ûU
Es[Õ,
(LôiL – R.P. Kapur V. State of Punjab,
AIR 1960 SC 866, State of Haryana V.
Bhajan Lal, (1992 Supp 1 SCC 335) ;
Inder Mohan Goswami V. State of
Uttaranchal, (2007) 12 SCC 1 ; Divine
Retreat Centre V. State of Kerala, (2008)
3 SCC 542; SMS Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
V. Neeta Bhalla, (2007) 4 SCC 70.


5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju;T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
nghUs; 7 – tiuntOJk; thjhLjy; kw;Wk;
vLj;Jr;nrhy;Yjy;
rl;l tiuantOJjy;
rl;l tiuantOJjy; tptupg;gJ vd;dntd;why;
rl;l cupikfspd; gbfkhjy; kw;Wk; Nfhu;it>
rYif> nray;$W> flik my;yJ epfo;epiyapd;
xU jpl;lkhd cUtkhFk;.
rl;l tiuntOJfypd; nghJthd nghUs;gLj;Jjy;
• tiuntOjypd; xg;ghtzk;> fUtp my;yJ
Mtzk;.
• thOk; cjhuzk; xg;ge;jkhf> ,uz;L
jug;gpdu;fSf;F ,ilNa Nghlg;gLk;.
• ,uz;L jug;gpdUf;F ,ilNa rl;l cwTfis
xOq;FgLj;Jtjw;fhd cj;Njrk;.
rl;l tiuantOJjypy; ,uz;L Kf;fpa
tpjpKiwfs;
• “rhjhuz czu;Tf;fhd thu;j;ijfs; ”:
thu;j;ijfs; kw;Wk; nrhw;nwhlu;fis mjd;
msthd kw;Wk; rhjhuz mwpjy; Nghy;
cgNahfg;gLj;jp cWjpgLj;jTk;.xU rhjhuz
Mq;fpy thu;j;ijapd; nghUs;> Nfs;tpf;fhd
epfo;ghL kw;Wk; mijr; rhu;e;j Njitfs; MFk;.
• “xNu khjpupahd nrhy;ypay; ” :jpUk;g jpUk;g
tuf;$ba xt;t;nthU thu;j;ijfs; my;yJ
nrhw;fis xNu khjpupahf gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sjh
vd;gij cWjpgLj;jTk;. ePq;fs; nghUis khw;w
tpUg;gg;gl;lhy; jtpu cq;fs; nkhopia
khw;wNtz;lhk;. Mdhy; ePq;fs; nghUis khw;w
tpUk;gpdhy; gpwF vg;nghOJk; nkhopahf khw;wTk;.
$lNt mjd; mbg; gil tpjpKiwahdJ xNu
Mtzj;jpy; xNu thu;j;ijf;F ntt;NtW
nghUs;fs; ,Uf;f$lhJ> jtpu rpy ghlf;Nfhg;gpy;
re;ju;g;gtrj;jhy; fl;lhakhf mfw;Wjy;.
rl;l tiuntOjypd; tiffs;:
nray;fs;: ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l
kw;Wk; cq;fshy; fpilf;fg;ngWk; tiff;Fwpfs;
jug;gpdu;fSf;F ,ilNa> ,e;j
tiuntOJjypy;> Fwpg;gpl;l Kbit miljy;
kw;Wk; tof;fkhd tpsf;fk; kw;Wk; rl;l
cwTfis xOq;FgLj;Jjy; fhuzkhFk;.
cjhuzq;fs;: tpw;gid xg;ghtzk; > mlkhd
xg;ghtzk;> md;gspg;Gfs; kw;Wk; capy;fs;.
• jd;tag;gLj;Jjy;: jd;tag;gLj;jypd;
tiuntOJjy; tbtikg;G MdJ> Mtzj;jpy;
,Ue;J ntspg;gLj;jf;$ba thf;Fthj
tupirf;fhuzk; kw;Wk; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
epr;rakhd mgpg;uhaj;ij tbthf;fk; nra;J
thrfiu ek;gitj;jy;.
cjhuzq;fs;: Fw;wr;rhl;L>vOjg;gl;l
mwpf;iffs;> xg;Gjy; gj;jpuj;jpd; Nky;
KiwaPL> kw;Wk; [hkPd; tpz;zg;gq;fs;.
• tpsf;fk;: mg;gbg;gl;l tiuntOJjy;fs;>
rhjhuzkhf Njitg;gLk; jfty;fis kl;Lk;
nfhz;lJ kw;Wk; thrfUf;F cgNahfkha;
,Uj;jy;.
cjhuzq;fs;: fl;rpjhuupd; fbjq;fs;> kw;Wk;
rl;lf; fUj;Jfs;.
rl;l tiuntOJjypd; %d;W epiyfs;:
rl;l tiuntOJjypd; ntt;NtW tifahd
NtWgl;l mZFjy;fs;> %d;W-epiy ePjpKiw
fl;lis> njhopYf;F Gjpjhf tUk;
tof;fwpQu;fSf;F kpfTk; cgNahfkha;
,Uf;fkhW tptupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ:
jpl;lKiw epiy
• tptuf;fl;lisfis fl;rpjhuuplk; ,Ue;J
ngWjy;: ,jd; njhlu;ghf> cupikAs;s my;yJ
rupahd eguplk; ,Ue;J ngwg;gl;l
tptuf;fl;lis ahTk; rupghu;f;fg;gLtJ kpf
Kf;fpak;.
• cz;ikahd kw;Wk; rl;l R+oiktpy;>
jug;gl;Ls;s tptuf;fl;lisfis Muha;jy;
kw;Wk; mtw;iw jdpj;jdpahfg; gpupj;jy;:
Kf;fpaj; jfty;fis Muha;e;J fz;Lgpbj;jy;
mjhtJ jug;gpdupd tpguq;fs;> Nehf;fq;fs;>
jug;gpdupd; flikfs; kw;Wk; cj;jputhjq;fs;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Nghd;witfs; MFk;. tzpf tshf nrhj;Jf;fs;
njhlu;ghd tplaj;jpy;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l gFjpf;F
Neupilahf nrd;W ghu;g;gNj nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;
kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l tpjkhf kidg;gpupit Muha;e;J
fz;Lgpbj;jy;.
• fhuzq;fis Muha;e;J fz;Lgpbj;jy; kw;Wk;
Mtzq;fis cUthf;fypy; gpd;dhy; cs;s
Fwpf;Nfhs;fs;: gy tiuntOjy;fs;
tof;fwpQu;fshy; cUthf;fg;gl;lhYk;> fl;rpjhuupd;
tptuf;fl;lisfSf;F Vw;g nra;JKbg;ghu;.
mjdhy;> fl;rpjhuupd; ,yf;F> eyd;fs;> kw;Wk;
tptuf;fl;lisfis fz;lwpa kpf Kf;fpa Kjy;
gbahFk;. $l;L ];jhgd t];jhf ,Ue;jhy;>
fl;rpjhuupd; tpahghu Nehf;fq;fis Muha;e;J
fz;lwptJk; $l NjitahfpwJ.
• nghUj;jkhd etPd rl;lj;ij Muha;jy; kw;Wk;
rupahd gbtj;ij my;yJ Kd;Djhuj;ijf;
fz;lwpjy;: ghjpf;fg;gl;l xg;ghtzk; my;yJ
Mtzk; jahupf;fg;gl;L> rl;lj;ij MNyhrpj;jy;
kw;Wk; Muha;jy;> kw;Wk; rl;lj;jhy;> VNjDk;
fl;Lg;ghLfs; jpzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjh vdTk; my;yJ
rl;lj;jpy; VNjDk; khw;wk; cs;sjh vdTk;
jPu;khdpj;jy;.
• milahsq;fhl;Lk; Nju;Tfs;: tof;fpd;
elj;ijapy; Kd;Ndw;ghlhf> khw;Wtopfis
ntspg;gLj;Jjy;. mNj topia fl;rpjhuuplk;
vLj;Jr; nry;Yjy; kw;Wk; nghUj;jkhd khw;W
topfis kdjpy; itj;J> rl;l R+oiktpy;
fl;rpjhuUf;F vd;d Njit vd;gij Kjd;ik
Nehf;fkhf va;jg; ngWjy;.
vOJk; epiy
• Nfhl;Lg;gl tiuit jahu; nra; : nghJthd
jpl;lkhf tiuT fUjg;gl;ljw;Fg; gpwF
Mtzq;fis tiugtu; tplaj;ij my;yJ
ikaj;ij Fwpj;J itj;J> tiutpy;
,izf;fg;gl;lij mtu; cj;Njrpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Muha;e;J fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l midj;J tof;F
tplaj;ij Nfhl;Lgl tiutpy; nrhy;yg;glNtz;Lk;.
kw;Wk; fl;rpjhuuplk; ,Ue;J tof;F njhlu;ghd
tpguq;fs; Njitg;gLjy;. Ntz;Lk; vd;why;
tpguf;fl;lisfis ehLjy; Ntz;Lk;.
ehrplu; V rhf;fP]; ( ,e;j thu; j;ij epWtdj;jpd;
ngaiuf; Fwpf;fpwJ. )
,e;j tpjpahdJ> Fwpg;Gfspy; cs;s
thu;j;ijfisf; fz;lwpe;J> mij cldbahf
• tiutpw;fhf Nahridfis cUthf;fy; :
Nfhg;Gf;fhd tiuT jahuhdJk;> tiutpy;
,izf;fg;gl Kbe;j> mij Muha;e;J kw;Wk;
rl;lk; kw;Wk; epfo;ghl;by; NkYk; gy
Nahridfis vz;zpg;ghu;j;jy;>
• jpl;lkpLjy; epiyapy; fUJk; midj;J
cs;slf;fq;fSk; tiutpy; ,izf;fg;gl;L
cWjpgLj;jpf;nfhs;ycjy; Ntz;Lk;:
jpl;lkpLjy; epiyapy; vLf;fg;gl;l Fwpg;Gfs;
ahTk; MNyhrpj;J ,e;j epiyapy;
Fwpf;NfhshFk;. ju;f;fuPjpahf tiuit
xOq;FgLj;Jjy; epiyapy; tiuT gbtj;jpy;
nghUj;jkhd kw;Wk; xNu khjpupahd tiuit
rupghu;g;gJ NjitahfpwJ. ,yf;fzk; kw;Wk;
nkhopia xNu khjpupahf cs;sjh vd
rupghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. tof;fpy; cs;s midj; J
cWg;GiufSk; Nru;f;fg;gl;Ls;sjh vd
rupghu;f;Fk; gl;baiy jahupf;fTk;.
jpUj;j epiy
• tpjpKiwfs;> cz;ikahd epiy kw;Wk;
rl;l Muha;r;rp gw;wp kW-Ma;T nra;jy;.
• $l;Lg;nghUj;jk; cWjpg;gLj;j jpUk;g
vOJjy;.
• tof;if njspthfTk; kw;Wk; gadu; -
NjhoikAzu;Tld; kW-xOq;FgLj;Jjy;.
• tof;if njhFj;jy; kw;Wk;
• vOj;Jf; Nfhu;it kw;Wk; nra;Aspy;
ftdkha; ,Uj;jy;.
fl;likg;G kw;Wk; nghUs;tpsf;fj;jpd;
newpKiwfs;
tiuT jahupf;Fk; nghOJ tiuT jahupf;f
jFjpahdtu;fs; fl;likg;G kw;Wk;
nghUs;tpsf;fj;jpd; newpKiwfs; ahTk;
mtrpakha; kdjpy; nfhs;sTk;. nghUs;
tpsf;fj;jpd; newpKiwfs; kpf Kf;fpakhdit
Vndd;why; cz;ikahd epiyia mwpe;J
nfhs;s> ePjpkd;wk; vt;thW mZFfpwJ vd;W
,J vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ. rpy nghUs;tpsf;fj;jpd;
newpKiwfs; MdJ>
,ay;ghdJ thrfj;jpy; mjpfkhd thu;j;ijfs;>
tiuaWf;fg;gl;l thu;j;ijfis vLj;J>
nrytPLfshy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,n[];nlk
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
mtw;Wld; ,izf;fg;gl;L nghUs;nfhz;L
,izf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ,e;j R+oikT
newpKiwahdJ mijf;Fwpf;Fk; thu;j;ij my;yJ
nrhw;nwhlu; nghUs;nfhs;Sjypy; jdpj;J epw;Fk;
Mdhy; Rw;Wr;R+oy; xspaiktpy;.
‘Mq;fpy thu;j;ijfs; mtw;iwr;
Rw;wpAs;sitfspy; ,Ue;J epwj;ij ngWk;.
njhFg;gpy; ,Ue;J xd;Wkpy;yhj thu;j;ijfs;
thf;fpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J vLj;J >jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;l
tof;fpy; ,Ue;Njh my;yJ mfuhjpapy; ,Ue;J
Fwpg;Gfs; vLj;J jdpahf tptupf; fg;gl;Nlh kw;Wk;
nghUSjd; mt;thf;fpaj;ij kPz;Lk; Nru;j;jy;
Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; mtw;iw jdp thu;j;ijfshf
tpepNahfpf;fNtz;Lk; ’ ( gpau;l; tp. ];bntu;l;
mbg;glhahff; nfhz;lJ> (1983) Vrp 109 )
tpsf;fk;: gpufdg;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lj;jpy;> Ruq;fj;jpy;
,Ue;J vLf;fg;gl;l ntbkUe;Jfs; ngl;b my;yJ
jfu lg;ghtpy; mtrpak; mLj;Jr; nry;yg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Nky;Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s fhuzj;jpy; gpujpthjp
Jzpahdhy; Md ig cgNahfg;gLj;jp cs;shu;.
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s Nfs;tpahdJ>
Jzpg;igahdJ $wg;gl;Ls;s tiuaiwapy;
cs;sjh vd ghu;f;fNtz;Lk;. “eha;r;ru; V Nrhrp]; ”
tpjpapy;> Jzpg;igahdJ> $wg;gl;Ls;s
tiuaiwapy; ,y;iy kw;Wk; rl;lrigapd;
Nehf;fk; vd;dntd;why; lg;ghtpw;F epfuhd gyk;
nfhz;l VNjDk; nghUis cgNahfpg;gJ.
(/gh];lu; tp. bk;/Ng]; Nfrhd;> mij
mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L(1887) 18 QBD 428)
v[P];lk; n[dpup]; (xNu khjpupahd tpjk;> ufk;
my;yJ ,aw;if)
• ,e;j tpjp “eha;r;ru; V Nrhrp]; ” newpKiwapd;
kw;nwhU fUj;jhFk;.,uz;L my;yJ mjw;Fk;
Nkw;gl;l nghUs;fs;> xu; tifiar; rhu;e;jjhf
,Ue;jhy; mJ nghJthd thu;j;jfisg; gpd;gw;Wk;.
me;j nghJthf thu;j;ijfs; ahTk; xNu ufj;ij
Nru;e;j;jhFk;. ,e;j newpKiwapy; cs;s gz;gpd;
fPo;> xU nghUspd; mNj fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l
 NtW Nehf;fk; ,y;yhj;ijf; Fwpg;gJ.
(C. I. T.> cja;G+u; tp.nkf;Nlhty; mz;l;
fk;ngdp.> (2009) 10 SCC 755)
• vf;];g;nuNrh A+dpd]; v];l; vf;];f;ShrpNah
My;nlupa];( xU nghUspd; nrhw;nwhlu;>
n[dpuP]; newpKiwapy;> vg;gbapUg;gpDk;>
khwhd Nehf;fk; ,y;yhjgl;rj;jpy;>,e;j
,n[];nlk n[dpuP]; newpKiw
cgNahfg;gLj;jyhk;.
tpsf;fk;: Nfs;tp vOk;GtJ vd;dntd;why;>
fPo;f;fz;l gl;bayhd khkprk;> kPd;> Nfhop>
fha;fwpfs;> goq;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju kspifahTk;>
nuhl;b kw;Wk; jpz;gz;lq;fSld;
cs;slq;fpajh. gpd;du; KbntLf;fg;gl;lJ
vd;dntd;why;> khkprk;> kPd;> Nfhop> fha;fwpfs;>
goq;fs; ,itahTk; ,aw;ifg; nghUl;fspd;
tifahFk;. Mdhy; nuhl;b kw;Wk;
jpz;gz;lq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;l nghUl; fshFk;.
mjdhy; ,n[];nlk n[dpuP]; newpKiw
cgNahfg;gLj;jp mt;thwhd kspiffs;
jdpg;gl;l tifahfg; gpupf;fg;gl;ldu;. (`a;
itl;ly; ypkpNll; tp. ];ilyp gpupl;
fhu;g;nghNu\d; mbg;gilahf nfhz;lJ> (1967)
65 LGR (UK) 344)
tifiar; rhu;e;j Fwpg;gpl;l thu;j;ijfspy;
kl;Lk; ,t;tpjp cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLk;.
milahsg;gLj;jf;$ba tifia tpl Fiwthf
,Ue;jhy; nghJthd thu;j;ijfis kl;Lk;
vLj;J mijr; rhu;e;j nghUs; jUjy;. mjw;F
rhd;whf> ,e;j tpjpapd; cz;ikahd Nehf;fk;
vd;dntd;why;> jug;gpdupd; njspthd
Nehf;fq;fis mwpjy;.
,n[];nlk n[dpuP]; tpjpia vg;nghOJ
cgNahfg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
• nghUs; cs;slf;fpaJ ahnjdpy; Fwpg;gpl;l
thu;j;ijfspd; fzf;fPly;.
• nghUs; fzf;fPl;by; mlq;fpAs;s tif
my;yJ gpupTfs;
• fzf;fplyhy;> tif my;yJ gpupit
ntspNaw;wg;glhky; ,Uj;jy;.
• fzf;fplypy; nghJthd tpjpKiwfisg;
gpd;gw;wNtz;Lk;. kw;Wk;>
Nkw;gl;l nghUs; kw;Wk; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l
nraw;ghl;Lg;nghUs;fs; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ mij
jdpj;jdpahfg; gbf;Fk; nghOJ> xt;nthU
nraw;ghl;Lg;nghUs;> mjw;Fupa nghUis
nrYj;jNtz;Lk;.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
kw;nwhd;bd; ntspNaw;wk; MFk;)
RUf;fkhf vf;];g;nuNrh A+dpd]; newpKiwahf
vd;dntd;why;> xJf;fPL epiwa nghUl;fis
cs;slq;fpaJ. mjpy; rpyJ kl;LNk Fwpg;gplg;gLk;.
cjhuzq;fs; vd;W Fwpg;gplg;glhky; ,Ue;jhNyh
my;yJ NtW VNjDk; fhuzq;fSf;fhf
Fwpg;gplg;glhky; ,Ue;jhNyh mijj;jptpu
kw;witahTk; Kd;nkhopjypy; ,Ue;J mfw;wg;gLk;.
nghJthd tpjpg;gb> gl;baiy cjhuzkhf
vLj;Jf;nfhz;L kw;Wk; Nru;f;fg;gl;lJ Nghd;w
thu;j;ijfis KOikahf cgNahfpf;fhky;
,Ug;gJ.
tpsf;fk;. ,e;j thf;fpak;> xt;nthU FbkfDk;
thf;fspf;f cupik ngw;wtu;. mijf; Fwpg;gJ
vd;dntd;why;> Fbkfdhf ,y;yhjgl;rj;jpy;>
thf;fspf;f cupik ,y;iy.
• ,e;jpahtpd; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; ,ij rupahf
tof;Ffspy; gad;gLj;jp cs;sJ. nrhw;nwhlu;
thu;j;ijahd kl;Lk; my;yJ jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j
Nghd;w thu;j;ijfs; rl;l vy;iyf;Fl;gl; l
gFjpfspy; gad;gLj;j Njitapy;iy. ,q;F
mjpfgl;r vf;];g;nuNrh A+dpd]; v];l;
vf;];f;ShrpNah My;nlupa];
gad;gLj;jp rl;l vy;iyia ePf;fyhk;. (A. B.
C.Nykpdhu;l; g;iuNtl;. ypkpNll;. tp.V.gp.
Vn[d;rP];> Nryk;> VIMu;> 1989 SC 1239)
• nunld;Nlh rpq;Fyh rpq;yp]; (Fwpg;GfSf;F
kl;Lk; 20 ,Wjpapy; kl;LNk)
rl;lj;jpd; thf;fpaq;fspy; cs;slf;fpaJ gy;NtW
Kd;nrYj;Jfpu kw;Wk; gy;NtW tpisTfis
Vw;gLj;Jfpw thu;j;ijfis gpupj;J gbf;fNtz;Lk;.
mjhtJ xt;nthU nrhw;nwhlUk; kw;Wk;
ghtj;ijAk; rupahd nghUis ghtpf;fNtz;Lk;.
vq;F xU fLikahd thf;fpaj;jpy; xd;Wf;F
KbTf;F tuNtz;Lk; vd;gij mwpahky;
nra;Jtplf;$ba tpjj;jpy; nghpjhfhky; jLf;Fk;
Nehf;fpyhditahFk;. cz;ikapy; ,j;jifa
mikg;gpd; Nehf;fk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfis xU
ikag; gpur;ridfspy; xUikg;gLj;jp mjd;%yk;
nryTfisAk; Neuj;ijAk; Fwpg;ghf
tprhuidapd;NghJ rhl;rpfspd;
vz;zpf;ifkpr;rg;gLj;JtjhFk;.’ (yd;ld; md;
yq;fhi\u; ,d;#ud;]; fk;ngdp vjpu; gpdha;
tpsf;fk;. A $Wifapy; ehd; jpl;lkpl;L>
kuGupikahf vd;Dila cz;ikahd kw;Wk;
nrhe;jkhd nrhj;ij B jUfpNwd;. jpl;lkpLjy;
vd;w nrhy; cz;ikahd nrhj;ij Fwpf;fpwJ
kw;Wk; kuGupik vd;w nrhy; nrhe;j nrhj;ijf;
Fwpf;fpwJ.
mjd;gb> ,e;j newpKiwia cgNahfg;gLj;jp>
Nky;Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s thf;fpaj;ij> gpd;tUkhW
gad;gLj;jNtz;Lk;. ehd; jpl;lkpl;L vd;Dila
midj;J cz;ikahd nrhj;ijAk; kw;Wk;.
kuGupikahf vd;Dila nrhe;jkhd nrhj;ij
B jUfpNwd;.
thJiufs;
thJiufs; nghJthf
chpik tof;F tprhuidKiw njhFg;Gr; rl;lk;>
(1908) cj;juT-6 tpjp-1 thJiu vd;why; xU
KiwaPL my;yJ vjpu; tof;Fiu vdf;
$WfpwJ.
thJiufis fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sthWk;
tiuaWf;fyhk;:
xU tof;fpy; thjpAk; gpujpthjpAk; xUtH
kw;wtUf;F vjpuhf ju;f;fk; nra;tjhFk;. Mdhy;
,e;jj; ju;f;fk; xUKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L xU rhpahd
mYtyfj;jpy; vOj;Jg; G+Htkhf thJiufshf
itf;fg; gLtjhFk; ”. (lhk;ypd;]; rl;l mfuhjp)
‘thJiu vd;gJ ele;j cz;ikfis fhuz
fhupa hPjpahfTk; rl;lg;G+HtkhfTk; vOg;gg;gLk;
thq;fpaq;fshFk;. ,J thjpapd; tof;F
%yj;ijNah my;yJ gpujpthjpapd; jw;fhg;gpd;
mbg;gilfisAk; Kd;itf;fpwJ” (rl;l
nrhw;fsQ;rpak;)
thJiufspd; KO Nehf;fk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;Gfis xU gpur;ridia ikag;gLj;j
itg;gjhFk;. thJiu rhu;e;j tpjpfs; me;j
gpur;ridia rk;ge;jg;gl;l ve;j xU jug;Gk;
me;jg; gpur;rid vg;NghJ tof;Ff;F te;jJ>
ve;j ve;jf; fUj;Jf;fisg;gw;wp tpthjpj;J
‘thJiufs; Kiwg;gb ,y;iy vd;gjw;fhf
kl;Lk; mtw;iw xJf;fhJ. me;j thJiufspy;
rhuKk; kw; w jug;Gf;F vjpuhf jg;ngz;zj;ij
cUthf;fhkYk; ,Uf;Fk; tiuAk; mJ ve;j
msT Fog;gkpf;fjhfTk; my;yJ
fiyEZf;fkpd;wp vOj;jg;gl;bUg;gpDk;
mtw;iw ePjpkd;wk; xJf;fhJ.’ (Nfjhu; yhy;
vjpu; `hp yhy;> AIR 1952 SC 47).
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
fpU\;d kpl;lu;> AIR 1999 SC 162).
vdNt> thJiufspd; Nehf;fkhf
fPo;f;fhz;gtw;iwf; $wyhk;:
 rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;GfspilNa cs;s
cz;ikahd gpur;ridia cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;
 mtu;fSf;fpilNa cs;s Kuz;ghLfis
FWf;FtJ
 xt;nthU jug;Gk; ve;nje;j Nfs;tpfis
Kd;itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJgw;wpj; njsptila
itg;gJ
 xU jug;G kw;w jug;ig Mr;rhpa%l;Ltij
jtpu;g;gJ> NkYk;
,t;thW ePjp jtwhky; ghu;j;Jf; nfhs;tJ
thJiu fPo;f;fhz;gtw;iw cs;slf;fpaJ:
 thjpiag; nghWj;jtiu – KiwaPL
gpujpthjpiag; nghWj;jtiu vjpu; KiwaPL
 jhthtpy; cs;s fUj;Jfis tpsf;F tjw;fhf
gpur;ridfisf; fl;likg;gjw;F Kd;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdupd; my;yJ
MNyhrfu;fspd; thf;F%yq;fs;.
KiwaPl;bNyh vjpHKiwaPl;bNyh Fwpg;gplg;gLk;
Mtzq;fs; thJiuapy; ,Uf;fhJ.
KiwaPl;bNyh vjpu; KiwaPl;bNyh cs;s
thf;F%yq;fs; xd;iw xd;W vjpu;f;fj;jf;f
tifapNyh my;yJ Kwz;gLk; tifapNyh
ve;jmsT vd;why; xd;iw Vw;Wf;nfhs;tNjh
cWjpg;gLj;JtNjh kw;nwhd;iw ePf;ff;$ba
mstpy; ,Uf;ff;$ba thJiufs; Kwz;ghLs;s
thJiufs; vdg;gLk;. ePjpkd;wk; xd;iw xd;W
Kwpabf;fhj khw;W Nfhhpf;ifia Kd;itf;FkhW
ghpe;Jiuf;fyhk;.
thJiufisfis ePjpkd;wk; mtw;wpd;
cz;ikahd kjpg;ig czu KOikahf
thrpf;fpd;wd.
epju;rdkhd cz;ikf;Fk; ajhu;j;jkhd
tptuq;fSf;Fk; tpj;jpahrk; cz;L. vy;yh
ajhu;j;jkhd tptuq;fSk; tof;fpw;Fl;gLj;jg;
gLtjpy;iy vDk;NghJ ePjpkd;wk; rpwe;j
tptuq;fisf; Nfl;fyhk;. ajhu;j;jkhd tptuq;fis
mspf;fj; jtWtJ tof;fpw;Nfh kWg;Gf;Nfh
nfhy;gpioahfptpLk;.
thJiufSf;F vj;jid Mjhuq;fSk; <L MfhJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2-lkpUe;J gzj;ijj;
jpUk;gg; ngWtjw;fhf tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;.
thJiufspd; mbg;gil tpjpfs; (CPC> cj;juT-
6 tpjp-2)
 xt;nthU thJiuAk; rl;lj;ijad;wp
cz;ikiaNa $w Ntz;Lk;.
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfshy; typAWj;jg;gl;lhYk;
,y;iyahdhYk;> xt;nthU rl;lj;jpw;fhd
Nfhhpf;ifiaAk; fz;lwpe;J mij Ma;tJ
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Nf chpa nghWg;G vd;gjd;
mbg;gilapNyNa ,e;j tpjp cUthfpAs;sJ.
ele;j cz;ikfis tpsf;fhJ rl;lj;jpd;
ca;j;JzHTfis vLj;Jf;$wp thJiuapy;
Fwpg;gpLtJ jtwhd KiwahFk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: jdJ thJiuapy; egu; -1 jhNd
,we;j jdJ je;ijahd egu; -2-d; thuPR vdf;
Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,J xU ca;j;Jzu;jyhFk;. egu; -
1 jdJ thJiuapy; egu; -2f;F jhd; vt;thW
thhPrhf cs;shu; vd;gijf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
tpjpf;fhd tpyf;F: thJiuapy; mjw;fhd
rl;lj;ijf; Fwpg;gplf;$lhJ vd;w tpjpf;F
tpyf;fhf ntspehl;Lr; rl;lq;fisf; Fwpg;gpl;Nl
thJiu ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ePjpkd;wq;fs; me;j
ePjpkd;wk; cs;s ehl;bd; rl;lq;fshNyNa
fl;Lg;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wd. kw;w ehl;Lr;
rl;lq;fSf;F ePjpkd;wk; fl;Lg;gLtjpy;iy.
ntspehl;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;kPJ xU jug;G ek;gpf;if
itj;J Mjhukhf itf;f tpUk;gpdhy; mij
xU cz;ikahff; fUjpNa thJiuapy;
Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
 thJiuapy; epju;rdkhd cz;ikfis
kl;LNk Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
thjpapd; tof;F %yj;jpw;Nfh gpujpthjpapd;
jLg;Gf;Nfh epju;rdkhf ele;j cz;ikNa
Mjhukhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. tof;F%yk;
cs;sJ vdf; Fw;wk; Rkj;jNth my;yJ
,y;iy vd kWg;gjw;Nfh Fw;wk; Rkj;jf;$ba
my;yJ eP&gpf;ff;$ba cz;ikNa epju;rdkhd
cz;ikahFk;.
cz;ikfisf; nfhz;L (factum probantia) thjp
me;j ep&gpf;f Ntz;ba cz;ikfis
ep&gpf;fpwhH vd;gjw;Fk; cs;s NtWghl;il
tpsf;FfpwJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xUrpy jtwhd
nray;fSf;fhf egu; -2-d;kPJ tof;Fj;
njhLf;fpwhu;. mtuJ thJiuapy; mj;jifa
jtwhd nray;fisr; Rl; bf;fhl;b mit egu; -2-
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpy; jpUg;gpj; jUk; flidj;
jUtjhf egu; -2 $wpaij ep&gpf;Fk; Mjhuk;
thJiuapy; ,y;yhjNghJ mj;jifa KiwaPl;bid
tprhuidf;F vOg;g KbahJ.
tpjptpyf;Ffs;:
 ele;j xU epfo;Tf;fhd cWjpg;ghL my;yJ
thjp my;yJ gpujpthjpapd; tof;Ff;fhd
midj;J epge;jidfSk; ele;jJ vd;gjw;fhd
Mjhuk; thJiu my;yJ vjpu; thJiuapy;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mit Fwpg;ghf ep&gpf;fg;
gl;bUf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy. xU Kd;Ng ,Ue;j
epge;jidapd; epfo;tpid cl;fpilahff; $w
Ntz;bajpUg;gjhy; vjpu; jug;gpdu; mq;Nf xU
epge;jid Kd;Ng ,Ue;jJ> Mdhy; mJ
epfotpy;iy vd thjpl Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb
thjplj; jtWk;NghJ xj;j epfo;T ,Ue;jjhff;
nfhs;sg;gLk;. (CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-6).
rl;lk; jq;fs; rhu;ghf ,Ug;gjhff; fUJk;
epju;rdkhd cz;ikfis mit Fwpg;ghf
kWf;fhjtiu my;yJ mij ep&gpf;Fk.
nghWg;G vjpu; jug;Gf; F ,Uf;Fk;tiu ve;j xU
jug;Gk; mtw;iw tof;fpw;Fl;gLj;j Ntz;bajpy;iy.
(CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-13).
 Nrjhuk; rhu;ghd ve;j xU Fw;wr;rhl;ilAk;
jdJ vjpu; thJiuapy; gpujpthjp Fwpg;gpl
Ntz;bajpy;iy. Mdhy;> rpwg;ghd Nrjhuq;fs;
kw;Wk; Nrjhuj;ij mjpfkhf;Fk; my;yJ
mtw;iw Fiwf;Fk; cz;ikfis Fwpg;ghf
kWf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ jtW vd;W ep&gpf;f
Ntz;Lk;. (CPC, cj;juT-8 tpjp-3).
 thJiufs; cz;ikfisf; $Wtjw;fhfNt
Mjhuq;fisf; $Wtjw;fhf my;y
,e;j tpjp ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba
cz;ikfSf;Fk; (factum probandum) ve;j
gad;gLj;j Ntz;bajpy;iy. (ehruyp frkyp vjpu;
/g];yhd; gPtp> AIR 1975 Guj 81).
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpd; Kjy; thJiuNahL
xj;Jg;Nghfhj Nfhhpf;ifNah cz;ikahd Fw;wr;
rhl;Nlh jpUj;jj;jpd; %YNkad;wp mDkjpf;fg;gl
khl;lhJ. ‘thJiuapypUe;J gpwo;tJ’
mDkjpf;fg;gl khl;lhJ. (CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-7).
vjpu; jug;gpdhy; xU xg;ge;jj;ij ntspg;gilahf
kWj;jy; vd;gJ me;j xg;ge;jj;ij kWg;gjhf
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gLNk md;wp me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;
rl;lj;jd;ikia kWg;gjhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;sf;$lhJ.
(CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-8).
dhy;jhd; nra;ag;gl;lJ vdTk; mjdhy; egu; -1
,og;Gfisr; re;jpj;jjhfTk; Fw;wk; rhl;l
Ntz;Lk;. mtu; re;jpj;j ,og;Gfs; ve;j
tifspy; egu; -2d; mj;jifa jtWfshy;
ele;jJ vd;gij tpsf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy.
tpjptpyf;Ffs;: ghptu;j;jidfs; mtu;fspd;
Gj;jfq;fspy; gjpT nra;ag; gl;Ls;sjhfTk;>
mwptpg;Gfs; ,U jug;ghuhYk; ghpkhug;gl;Ls;sd
vdTk; Fw;wr; rhl;Lfis kw;w jug;G
Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;sJ vd;gijf; fhl;b
,e;jpahtpy; Kiwrhuhtpjj;jpy; tpjptpyf;Ff;fhd
cjhuzkhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;Ls;sJ.
 mg;gbg;gl;l cz;ikfs; kpff; FWfpa
Kiwapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
NjitahdNghJ thJiufs; gj;jpfshfg;
gphpf;fg;gl;L thpirahf vz;fsplg;gl;L
ehl;fs;> $Ljy;fs;> vz;fs; Mfpad
vz;fshYk; vOj;jhYk; vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
vq;nfy;yhk; gpd;gw;w KbANkh mq;nfy;yhk;
rpwpa vspa thf;fpaq;fisg;
gad;gLj;JtNjhL nrag;ghl;Ltpid kw;Wk;
tpidAhpr;nrhy;yhly; Mfpatw;iwj; jtpu;f;f
Ntz;Lk;.
CPC-apd; ,izg;G-m-tpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s
gbtj;ij vy;yh thJiufspYk; gad;gLj;jf
$ba ,lq;fspy; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;j Kbahj ,lq;fspy;
mitNghd;w gbtq;fisg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
(CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-3).
F[uhj; ePjpkd;wk; CPC-apd; ,izg;G-m-tpy;
nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s me;j gbtq;fs; xU khjphpNa
fl;lhakhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;bajpy;iy
vdf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j gbtq;fis CPC,
cj;juT-6 tpjp-3-ld; ,izj;Jg; ghu;f;f
Ntz;LNkad;wp thu;j;ijf;F thu;j;ij
cs;s fPo;f;fhZk; ve;j xU nghUisAk;
jpUj;Jk;gbNah ePf;Fk;gb $wNth nra;ayhk;.
(CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-16):
 Njitaw;w> mtJ}whd> mw;gkhd>
ntWg;G+l;Lk; tifapy; ,Ue;jhy;
 Kw;rhu;Gs;s ju;krq;flkhd my;yJ
tprhuidiaj; jhkjg;gLj;jf;$ba tifapy;
,Ue;jhy;
ePjpkd;w eltbf;ifia jtwhfg; gad;gLj;Jk;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu; -2f;F vjpuhf xU xg;ge;jk;
rhu;ghf tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;. mij egu; -2 jdJ
vjpu; thJiuapy; me;j xg;ge;jj;ijNa kWf;fpwhu;.
,e;j kWg;ig mg;gb xU xg;ge;jNk ,y;iy vd
kWf;fpwhNuad;wp rl;lg;G+Htkhdjh ,y;iyah vd;w
Nfs;tp voNtapy;iy. me;j xg;ge;jk; nry;yhJ vd
egu;-2 thjpl Ntz;Lkhdhy; mijf; Fwpg;gpl;L vjpu;
thJiu ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. me;j xg;ge;jj;ij
kWg;gJ kl;Lk; NghjhJ.
XU Mtzk; rhu;ghf nghJthf tof;Fj;
njhlHe;jhy; me;j Mtzj;jpd; tpisT rhu;ghf
kl;Lk; Fwpg;gpl;L tof;Fj;njhlu;e;jhy; NghJkhdJ
mjd; KO my;yJ gFjpfs; gw;wpa tpsf;fk;
Njitaw;wJ (CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-9).
tpjptpyf;F: xU mtJ}W tof;fpy; mq;F gad;
gLj;jg;gl;l thu;j;ijfs; Kf;fpakhdJ vdNt
mtw;iwf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
VjhtJ xUtUf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l xU cz;ik
rhu;e;j mwptpg;gpid Fw;wk; Rkj;j Ntz;baJ
mtrpakhFk;NghJ me;j mwptpg;gpid xU cz;ik
vd;w Kiwapy; Fw;wk; Rkj;jpdhy; NghJkhdJ.
mjd; Fwpg;gpl;l thrfq;fs;> me;j mwpgpg;G
ntspahd #oy; Nghd;wit tpsf;fg;gl Ntz;baJ
mtrpakhdJ vd;why; kl;LNkad;wp mtw;iwAk;
Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. (CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-2).
xU tof;F%yj;jpd; xU gFjpahf ,j;jifa
Fwpg;Gfs; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtw;iw Fwpg;ghf
thJiuapy; cz;ikg;nghUshff; Fwpg;gplg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,Ug;gpDk; mJ xU Kd;Ng ,Ue;j
epge;jidapd; epfo;thf kl;LNk tpjp-6d;gb
,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtw;iw thJiuapy; Fwpg;gpl
Ntz;bajpy;iy
tof;fpd; ve;jf; fl;lj;jpYk; ePjpkd;wk; thJiuapy;
 cWjpg;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; ,j;jifa
jpUj;jq;fs; ,y;iy vd;why; my;yJ ntWk;
Kiwg;gbahf khw;Wtjw;fhfNth my;yJ
gadw;wjhfNth mjd; rhuk; rhuhjjhf
,Ue;jhy;
 Kd;nkhope;Js;s jpUj;jk; thjpapd; tof;if
Kw;wpYk; khw;wf;$baJ vd;why;
 fhyf;nfL Kbe;jjhy; gpujpthjpf;Ff; fpilj;j
chpikia ,j;jifa jpUj;jk; gwpj;JtpLk;
vdf; fUjpdhy;
 ,e;jj; jpUj;jj;jpd; tpisT Kw;wpYk;
NtwhdjhfTk; GjpjhfTk; Kd;Df;Fg;gpd;
Kuzhdjhf ,Ue;jhy; kw;Wk; jpUj;jj;jpw;fhd
tpz;zg;gk; rl;l eltbf;ifapd; gpw;gFjpapy;
vOg;gg;gl;bUe;jhy;
tifapy; ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
thJiuiaj; jpUj;Jjy;
ePjpkd;wk; rhpnadf; fUJtij rhpnadf;
fUJk; tpjj;jpy; thJiuapy; khw;wk; nra;a
,Ujug;GNk ve;j xU jUzj;jpYk; mDkjpf;fg;
gLtu;. me;j ,Ujug;gpdhpilNa cs;s
cz;ikahd Kuz;glf;$ba Nfs;tpfis
cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fj;jpy; ,j;jifa
jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;tJ mtrpakhfpwJ.
(CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-17).
thJiufs; fPo;f;fhZk; Ie;J topfspy;
Nkw;nfhs;syhk;:
 ePjpj;jPHg;Gfs;> jPHg;ghizfs;> kw;Wk;
cj;juTfspy; cs;s vOj;Jg;gpio>
fzf;Fg;gpiofspy; jpUj;jq;fs;. (CPC, S.152)
 rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdhpilNa cs;s
Kuz;ghl;Lf;Fhpa Nfs;tpia cWjpg;gLj;Jk;
Nehf;fpy; xU tof;fpd; eltbf;iffspy;
jpUj;jq;fs;. (CPC, S.153)
 jug;Gfis ePf;Fjy; my;yJ ,izj;jy;.
(CPC, cj;juT- tpjp-10(2))
 ePjpkd;wk; Nfl;Lk; nfhs;Sk; tpjj;jpy; vjpu;
jug;gpd; thJiuiaj; jpUj;Jjy;. (CPC,
cj;juT-6 tpjp-16)
 jdJ thJiuiaNa jpUj;Jtjw;fhd
tpz;zg;gk; nrYj;jp jpUj;jk;
Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;. (CPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-17)
jpUj;jk; Nkw;nfhs;tJ xU chpik vdf; Nfhu
KbahJ. mtw;iw mDkjpg;gJk; kWg;gJk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; csj;Nju;tpidg; nghWj;jJ. tpjp-
17-d; fPo; ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fg; gue;j csj;Nju;T
mjpfhuk; thJiufisj; jpUj;Jtjw;F cs;sJ.
Mdhy;> mt;thW jpUj;Jtjw;F fPo;f;fhZk;
xUrpy fl;Lg;ghLfis ePjpj; jPu;g;Gfs;
toq;fpAs;sd:
 rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;GfspilNa cs;s
cz;ikahd Kuz;glf;$ba Nfs;tpfis
 thjp jdf;Fr; NruNtz;ba Nfhhpf;ifapd;
xUgFjpia tpl;Ltpl vz;zpdhy; mg;gb
tpl;Ltpl;l Nfhhpf;ifapd; kjpg;G
 ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;gpid cWjp
nra;aTk;> tof;F mDkjpf;Fk; ePjpkd;wf;
fl;lzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhfTk; tof;fpd;
chpg;nghUSf;fhd gz kjpg;G Mfpa
tptuq;fs; thJiuapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
 ey;nyz;zj;NjhL jpUj;jk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy vdpy;
jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw; nfhs;syhfhJ.
thJiuapidj; jpUj;Jtjw;F cs;s tpjpNa
nghJthf>vjpu; thJiuf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. ,Ug;gpDk;>
ePjpkd;wq;fs; vjpu; thJiuapy; jpUj;jk;
Nkw;nfhs;s jhuhskhf cs;sd. Vnddpy;>
Kw;rhu;gpid cUthf;Fk; tha;g;G vjpu; thJiuj;
jpUj;jj;jpy; mjpfkhf ,Ug;gjpy;iy.
thJiu
xt;nthU tof;Fk; thJiuia Kd;itg;gjhy;
njhlq;fg;gLfpwJ. xt;nthU thJiuapYk;
gpukhzg; gj;jpuj;jpd;%yk; cz;ikfs; ep&gpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. (CPC, gphpT-26).
CPC-apd; cj;juT-6 tpjp-2 xt;nthU thJiuapYk;
fPo;f;fhZk; tptuq;fs; fl;lhak; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
vd;fpwJ.
 tof;F njhLf;fg;gLk; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; ngau;.
 thjpapd; ngaH> tphpthf;fk;> ,Ug;gpl Kfthp
 gpujpthjpapd; ngaH> tphpthf;fk;> ,Ug;gpl
Kfthp Mfpad ve;j msT mWjpapl;Lf; $w
KbANk me;j msT
 thjpNah gpujpthjpNah Kjpuh tajpduhfNth
my;yJ kdeyk; ,y;yhjtuhfNth ,Ue;jhy;
mJgw;wpa thf;F%yk;.
tof;F %yj;ij cs;slf;fpa ele;j rk;gtq;fspd;
tpsf;fk; kw;Wk; mJ Njhd;wpa fhyk;
 me;j ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhu tuk;gpw;F
cl;gl;lJ vd;gij tpsf;Fk; cz;ikfs;
 thjpahy; Nfhug;gLk; ghpfhuk;
 tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs; mirahr; nrhj;jhf
,Ue;jhy; KiwaPL mr;nrhj;J gw; wpa
njspthd tpsf;fj;ij - mjd;%yk;
mr;nrhj;jpidf; fz;lwpAk; tpjj;jpy; -
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mr;nrhj;jpd;
vy;iyfisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAkhdhy; my;yJ
gzf;nfhLg;gdT Mtz my;yJ rHNt
vz;fisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAkhdhy; me;j
vy;iyfisNah my;yJ vz;fisNah Fwpg;gpl
Ntz;Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-3)
 thjp xU gpujpepjp vDk; Kiwapy; tof;Fj;
njhlHe;jpUe;jhy; tof;Fj; njhLf;fj;
Njitahd midj;J Kaw;rpfisAk;
vLj;Js;sij tpthpj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
vy;yh thJiufisAk; fPo;fhz;gJNghy;
gphpf;fyhk;:
jiyg;G kw;Wk; chpik %yk;: jiyg;gpy;
ePjpkd;wk; gw;wpa tpthpg;GfSk; chpik %yKk;
Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUf;Fk;. ,tw;Ws;> ngau;> taJ
kw;Wk; ,Ujug;gpdupd; ,Ug;gplq;fs; mlq;Fk;.
,tw;NwhL thjp kw;Wk; gpujpthjpfs; gw;wpa
tpthpg;GfSk; ,Uf;Fk;.
nghUslf;fk;: thJiuapd; nghUslf;fg;
gFjpia fPo;f;fhz;gJNghd;W gphpf;fyhk;.
 mwpKfg;gFjp> tpsf;fkhd thf;fpaq;fspy;
tof;fpd; rhuj;ijNah my;yJ thJiuapd;
nghUs;fisNah cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
 vy;yh Kf;fpa cz;ikfs; kw;Wk; Kf;fpa
tptuq;fs;
 tof;F %yj;ijf;$Wk; thrfq;fs;
 ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gug;gsT rhu;e;j kw;Wk; gzk;
rhu;ej mjpfhu tuk;G rhu;e;j thrfq;fs;.
,jpy; me;j tof;fpd; kjpg;Gj; njhifiaAk;
ePjpkd;wf; fl;lz epu;zaj;jpw;fhff; Fwpg;gpl
Ntz;Lk;.
kd;whl;L: thjp ngwj;jFjpahd epthuzk;
thJiuapd; ,e;j kd;whl;Lg; gfjpapy;
Fwpg;gpLtijg; nghWj;J cs;sJ. vdNt>
epthuzj;ijr; rhpahff; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
jdJ thjj;ij thjp ep&gpf;fj; jtwpdhYk;>
gpujpthjp njhLf;fk; tof;fpypUe;J thjp
epthuzk; ngw tha;g;G cs;sJ.
Kf;fpa epthuzj;ijr; rhu;e;j kw;w
epthuzq;fisf; Fwpg;ghf thJiuapy; Fwpg;gpl
Ntz;bajpy;iy.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ %jhijahpd;
nrhj;jpypUe;J jdf;Fr; NruNtz;ba nrhj;ijg;
gphpj;Jj; jUkhWk; jhd; KjpuhtaJilatdhf
CPC-apd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-3> 4> 5 Mfpad
thJiuapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU
cz;ik rhu;e;j Fw;wr;rhl;bw;Fk; Fwpg;ghf
gpujpthjp jdJ kWg;ig mspf;Fk;gb $WfpwJ.
gpujpthjp jg;gpf;Fk; tpjj;jpNyh> njsptw;w
my;yJ tof;fkhd kWg;igj; njhptpf;fhky;
thJiuapd; rhuj;jpy; cs;s fUj;Jf;F
Fwpg;ghf gjpy; ju Ntz;Lk;. thJiuapy; cs;s
xt;nthU cz;ik rhu;e;j Fw;wr;rhl;Lk;
gpujpthjpahy; Fwpg;ghf kWf;fg;glhtpl;lhNyh
my;yJ mjd; cs;fpilahditfis
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
(rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-4)
 me;j tof;fpd; chpg;nghUs; kPJ thjpf;F
cz;ikahd MHtk; cs;sJ vd;gijAk;
mjd; fhuzkhf mtNu thjpahy; Nfhug;gLk;
Nfs;tpfSf;Fg; gjpyspf;ff; flikg;gl;Ls;shu;
vdTk; fhl;l Ntz;Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7
tpjp-5)
 me;j tof;F fhyk; fle;jjhf ,Ug;gpd;
fhytuk;Gr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fspf;fj;
Njitahd fhuzq;fisf; thJiuapy; fhl;l
Ntz;Lk;. (rl;lj;jpd; cj;juT-7 tpjp-6)
vjpu; thJiu
vjpH thJiu vd;gJ thjpapd; thJiuf;F
gpujpthjp jUk; gjpy; vdyhk;. ,jpy; thJiuapy;
cs;s midj;J Kf;fpakhd ajhu;j;jkhd
cz;ikfisg;gw;wpAk; tpsf;fg; gl;bUf;Fk;.
gpujpthjp tof;fpw;fhd jdJ vjpH thJiuia
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; rku;g;gpj;jJk; mtuJ jug;G thjj;ij
mJ ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,g;NghJ> me;j tof;F xU
Nghl;bahfp ePjpkd;wk; ntw;wpahsiuj;
Nju;e;njLf;FkhW Nfhug;gLfpwJ. nghJthf vy;yh
KiwaPLfSf;Fk; thJiufSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;
tpjpfs; vjpu; thJiuf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.
CPC-apd; cj;juT-8 tpjp-1 gpujpthjpf;F jdJ vjpu;
tof;Fiuiaj; jhf;fy; nra;tjw;F mtUf;F
miog;ghiz mDg;gg;gl;l ehspypUe;J 90 ehl;fs;
mtfhrk; mspf;fpwJ.
khwhf me;j tof;F Vd; tof;Nf ,y;iy vd;gij
ep&gpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
 gadw;wjhf;Fjy; my;yJ vjpu; Nfhhpf;if:
tof;fpd; Kjy; tprhuidapd;NghNj gpujpthjp
gadw;wjhf;Fjy; my;yJ vjpu; Nfhhpf;ifia
vOg;Gjy; %yk; jdJ kWg;igj; njhptpf;fyhk;.
,j;jifa kWg;Gfis tof;fpd; gpw;gFjpapy;
rhpahd fhuzq;fSf;fhf Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lkhdhy; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mDkjp Njit.
Nkw;gl;l thJiufs;:
gpujpthjp jdJ vjpu; thJiuia rku;g;gpj;j gpd;du;
gpujpthjpapd; gadw;wjhf;Fjy; my;yJ vjpu; Nfhhpf;if
Nghd;w kWg;Gfisj; jtpu NtW ve;j thJiufSk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wpAk; ePjpkd;wk; fUJk;
tpjj;jpYkd;wp NtW tifapy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;sf; $lhJ
ntspg;gLj;jhkNyh my;yJ mit Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy vdf; Fwpg;gplhtpl;lhNyh
mit Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhfNt nfhs;sg;gLk;.
thJiuapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU
cz;ik rhu;ej; Fw;wr;rhl;LfisAk; vjpu;
thJiu rkhspf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU Fw;wr;rhl;il
kWf;Fk;NghJ jl;bf;fopf;fpw tpjj;jpy;
gjpyspf;fhky; mjd; rhuj;jpw;F tpsf;fkspf;f
Ntz;Lk;. mtUila gjpy; Neubahf Fwpg;ghf
,y;yhky; jl;bf; fopf;Fk; tpjj;jpy;
,Uf;Fkhdhy; me;j cz;ik Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;
gl;ljhfNt nfhs;sg;gLk;. mg;gbg;gl;l #oypy;
mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tNj xU ep&gdk; vd;gjhy;
kw;nwhU ep&gdk; Njitapy;iy. (gjj; md;
Nfh vjpu; <];l; ,e;jpah bNubq; fk;ngdp> AIR
1963 SC 538).
gpujpthjpapd; kWg;G fPo;f;fhZk; tifapy;
mikayhk;:
 FWf;fPL: thJiuapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
cz;ikahd Fw;wr;rhl;Lfis FWf;fPL
nra;tjd; %yk; gpujpthjp Vw;Wf;
nfhs;syhk; my;yJ kWf;fyhk;. gpujpthjp
thJiuapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU
Fw;wr;rhl;ilAk; rkhspf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mt;thW nra;ahky; tpLtJ me;jf; Fw;wr;
rhl;bid gy Neuq;fspy;
Vw;Wf;nfs;tjhfNt nfhs;sg;gLk;.
Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd; %yk; rpwg;GkWg;G kw;Wk;
jtpu;j;jy;: thJiuapy; cs;s Fw;wr;rhl;bid
gpujpthjp Vw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. Mdhy;> mjpy;
Gjpa cz;ikfisf; $Wtjd;%yk; me;jf;
Fw;wr; rhl;bd; tpisitf; Fiwf;fyhk;.
 rl;l kWg;G: rl;lf; Nfs;tpfis vOg;Gtjd;
%yk; gpujpthjp thJiuapy; cs;s
Fw;wr;rhl;Lfis me;j tof;fpd;
jd;ikiaNa kWf;fyhk;. me;j tof;fpd;
,Ug;ig Nfs;tpNfl;gJ kl;Lk; NghjhJ
M];jp chpik khw;wk;
M];jp chpik khw;wk; vd;gJ mt;Thpikia
tpw;gJ kw;Wk; mirAk; my;yJ mirahr;
nrhj;jpid xUthpd; tho; ehspNyNa jUtijf;
Fwpf;fpwJ. (,e;jpa Kj;jpiur; rl;lk;> 1899>
gphpT-2(10)
xU jdp kdpjNuh> gyNuh NtW xUtUf;Nfh
my;yJ gyUf;Nfh jdJ xU nrhj;jpd; kPJs;s
chpikia xU gj;jpuj;jpd; %yk; khw;wpj;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
vd CPC-apd; cj;juT-8 tpjp-9 $WfpwJ.
,e;j tpjpapd;fPo; efiyNah kWg;igNah thjpNah
gpujpthjpNah ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; mDkjpNahLk;
ePjpkd;wk; rhpnadf; fUJk; tpjj;jpYk;
rku;g;gpf;fyhk;. GjpanjhU tof;F%yj;ijNah
my;yJ Fw;wr;rhl;ilNah ,t;thW efy; my;yJ
kWg;gpd; %yk; nfhz;Ltu ,ayhJ. ,tw;wpd;
Nehf;fk; kWg;gjw;Nfh my;yJ cz;ikf;fhd
tpsf;fk; mspf;fNth kl;LNk ,tw;iwg; gad;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk;.
Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;jpy; KiwaPLfs;:
KiwaPLfs; chpikapay; rhu;e;jJ vd;whYk;
Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;jpy; tiuaWf;fg;gltpy;iy
vd;whYk; mg;gbg;gl;l tiuTfs; nghJthf:
 CrPC, (1963)-d; gphpT- 200-d;gb jdpg;gl;l
Fw;wtpay; Fw;wr;rhl;bidj; jahupj;jy;
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltiu tpLtpf;ff; NfhUk; kD
jahupj;jy; (CrPC, S.245)
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltu; Neu;epiyahtjpypUe;J
tpyf;fspf;ff; NfhUk; kDj; jahhpg;G (CrPC,
S.317)
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltiu gpizapy; tpLtpf;ff;
NfhUk; kDj;jahupg;G (CrPC, S.436, 437)
ifjhtjw;F Kd; gpiz NfhUk; kD (CrPC, S.438)
 cau;epjp kd;wj;jpw;NfAhpa mjpfhuj;ijg;
gad;gLj;jp miog;ghidia uj;Jnra;af;
NfhUk; kDj; jahupg;G (CrPC, S.482)
mirahr;nrhj;jpd; chpikia Ma;T nra;tjw;F
rpwe;j top Kjypy; me;j chpikgw;wpa RWf;ff;
Fwpg;ngLf;f Ntz;Lk;. chpikgw;wpa RWf;ff;
Fwpg;G vd;gJ xU RWf;fkhd mNj Neuk; xU
Fwpg;gpl;l thpirapy; njhlf;fj;jpypUe;J ,Wjptiu
me;j chpik vt;thW ahhplkpUe;J vg;NghJ
ve;jtopapy; khw;wg;gl;lJ vd;gij xt;nthU
tpy;yq;fg;gb thpirg;gLj;jp mij thq;FgtUf;F
tpsf;fpf; $WtjhFk;.
xU xg;ghtzk; ,t;thW tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ:
 tpUg;ghtzj; jd;ikaw;w tpjj;jpy; Kiwahf
vOjg;gl;lJ.
 ,J cUthf;Ftjw;F> mwptpg;gjw;F>
cWjpg;gLj;j> Rkj;j> tiuaWg;gjw;F my;yJ
KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf ,aq;FfpwJ
my;yJ Njhd;WfpwJ.
 rpy rhpahd chpik my;yJ eyk;
jUtijNa M];jp chpik khw;wk;
vdg;gLfpwJ. vdNt M];jp chpik khw;wk;
nra;tJ vd;gJ xU nrhj;jpd; kPJs;s xUthpd;
chpikia kw;w xUtUf;F khw;wp jUtjw;fhd
midj;J fPo;f;fhZk; Njitahd eltbf;if
fisAk; Nkw;nfhs;tjhFk;:
 chpikia Ma;T nra;jy;
 chpikia khw;wpj; jUtjw;fhd
mtzq;fisj; jahupj;jy;
 khw;wpj; jUtjw;fhd midj;J
tptuq;fisAk; Nrfhpj;jy;
 Kiwg;gbahfr; nra;tjw;fhd midj;J
Vw;ghLfisAk; Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;
M];jp chpikia khw;wpj; jUjy; vd;gJ xU
epyj;jpd;kPJ xUtUf;F cs;s chpikia
kw;wtUf;F khw;wpj; jUtJ my;yJ mlkhdk;>
kPShpik Nghd;w tpy;yq;fj;ij mDkjpg;gJ.
xU cz;ikahd M];jp chpik khw;wk;
epahakhd chpik khw;wk; gpd; mjd; Kbtpy;
rl;lg;gbahd chpik khw;wk; Mfpa ,U
Kf;fpa gbfisf; nfhz;lJ.
chpikia Ma;T nra;jy;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jpd; chpikiag; ghjpf;Fk;
midj;J jdpg;gl;l kw;Wk; nghJ
Mtzq;fisAk; Ma;T nra;tNj chpikia
Ma;T nra;jyhFk;. ,e;jj; Njlypy; nghJthf
gioa xg;ghtzq;fs;> mwf;fl;lisfs;>
capy;fs; kw;Wk; tpy;yq;fq;fis Ma;T nra;J
chpik rhpahd tpjj;jpNyNa xt;nthUtUf;Fk;
khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gij cWjpg; gLj;j
Ntz;Lk;. NfhshWs;s chpik vd;gJ ,jw;F
Kd;du; ,e;j nrhj;jpid itj;jpUe;jtUf;F
cz;ikahf rhpahd Kiwapy; chpik
khw;wg;gltpy;iy vd cWjpg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ
me;jr; nrhj;jpd; tptupg;gpy; jtNwh my;yJ
me;j chpikapNyh mij khw;wpatpjj;jpNyh
jtWs;sJ vd;gij ntspg;gLj;Jk
xg;ghtzj;jpd; rhpahd ehis cWjpg;gLj;j
rhl;rpfs; Vw;wf;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
xU xg;ghtzj;jpy; cs;s ehspy;jhd;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ vd;gJ kWf;fj;jf;f xd;Nw.
(Uf;Fkzp mk;khs; vjpu; mq;fkh ehAL> AIR
1926 Mad 744)
xg;ghtzj;jpd; jug;Gfs;:
ve;j xU xg;ghtzj;jpw;Fk; Fiwe;jJ ,uz;L
egu;fs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J
cUthFk; xU xg;ghtzj;jpw;F xU xg;ge;jk;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
kw;nwhUtifapy; $Wtjhdhy;> xg;ghtzk; vd;gJ
rl;lg;gbahd xU MtzkhFk;. ,jd; %yk;
vjhtnjhU chpik my;yJ flik cUthf;fg;gl>
khw;wg;gl tiuaWf;fg;gl> mjpfhpf;fg;gl> ,y;yhky;
nra;tjw;fhf my;yJ gjpTnra;ag;gl cs;sJ
my;yJ Njhd;WfpwJ.
chpikkhw;w xg;ghtzj;jpd; gFjp:
xg;ghtz tpthpg;G
xU xg;ghtzj;jpd; tpthpg;G mjd; Fzj;jpYk;>
,ay;gpYk; mJ Kbthdjy;y. xg;ghtzq;fis
tpsf;Fk;NghJ mjd; tpthpg;Gf;F mjpf
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; juj; Njitapy;iy vdj; njhpfpwJ.
xUrpy Neuq;fspy; mjpfg;gbahd tpthpg;G
cz;ikahd ghpkhw;wj;ij kiwf;fTk; nra;ayhk;.
me;j tpthpg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dhy; nrd;W mjd;
rhuj;ijAk; mjd; cz;ikj;jd;ikiaAk;
fz;lwpa Ntz;Lk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU xg;ghtzk; xU ghfg;gphptpid
Mtzk;Nghd;w tpjj;jpy; vOjg;gLfpwJ. xU je;ij
gps;isfSf;Fg; gphpj;Jf; nfhLg;gJ Nghd;W mJ
Njhd;WfpwJ. Mdhy;> tprhhpj;jNghJ je;ijapd;
jdpg;gl;l nrhj;J kfDf;F khw;wg;gLfpwJ. mij
xU nfhilahf mspg;gJNghd;W vOjg;gLfpwJ.
(nghd;D vjpu; jhYfh Nyz;L Nghu;L> rpj;J}u;> AIR
1982 Ker 330).
epiwNtw;Wk; ehs;:
xt;nthU xg;ghtzKk; ehs; Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
xU xg;ghtzk; ehs; Fwpg;gplg; glhjjhNyh
my;yJ tha;g;Ng ,y;yhj ehs;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUg;gjhNyh nry;yhjjhfhJ. xU
njspthfTk; ,Ue;jhy; nray;gLj;Jk; gFjp me;jf;
fl;likg;igg; ghJfhf;fpwJ. ,e;j ,U gFjpfSNk
njspthf ,Ue;J Mdhy; xd;Wf;nfhd;W Kuzhf
,Ue;jhy; nray;gLj;Jk; gFjpiaNa ek;gp vLj;Jf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.’
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdhpd; vz;zq;fspd;kPJ re;Njfk;
tUk;NghJ mij tpsf;f ,g;gFjpiag;
gad;gLj;jpdhYk;> njhlu;r;rpahd tptuq;fs; gFjp
rl;lg;gb Njitaw;w gFjpNa. (,e;jpa A+dpad;
vjpu; mkNue;jpu ehj; rh;fhuh> AIR 1967 Cal 119)
njhlu;r;rpahd tpsf;fg;gFjpia xU rl;lj;jpd;
KfTiug;gFjpf;F xg;gplyhk;. nray;gLj;Jk;
gFjpf;F rhpahd cjtpahf ,g;gFjp ,Uf;Fk;.
njhlu;r;rpahd tpsf;fg;gFjpia ,U tifahfg;
gphpf;fyhk;:
 tptupf;Fk; njhlh; tpsf;fk;: ,q;F nrhj;ij
Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd jFjpAilatu;fshf mtu;fs;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> nrhj;J khw;wk;
rhu;e;j xg;ghtzj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu xU
KjpuhtajpdNuh my;yJ FiwAilatNuh
mtUf;nfd;W xU flik Fwpg;gplg;glhjtiu
xU ngWgtuhf ,Uf;fyhk;. mg;gb xU
#oypYk; xU xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLj;jj; jFjpaw;wtu;
clikia mspg;gtuhf my;yJ khw;Wgtuhf
,Uf;f KbahJ.
xg;ghtzj;jpd; ,U jug;gpdUk; ed;whf
tpthpf;fg; gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,Ug;gpDk;>
jtwhd tpthpg;G mspf;fg; gl;bUg;gpDk; my;yJ
mtuJ rhpahd ngaud;wp NtnwhU ngaiu
mtu; mspj;jpUe;jhuhdhYk; rhpahd milahs
rhl;rpak; ,Ue;jhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
xU FOitr; rhu;e;j jdpegu;fs; ,ize;J
FOtpd; ngahpy; - mf;FOit ,dk; fz;lwpAk;
tpjj;jpy; ,Ue;jhy; xU xg;ghtzj;jpd; jug;ghf
,Uf;fyhk;. cjhuzkhf> ‘egu;-1-d; fldhspfs; ’
njhlur;rpahd tptuq;fs;:
njhlu;r;rpahd tptuq;fs; vd;gJ xU
xg;ghtzj;jpNyh> cld;gbf;ifapNyh my;yJ
NtW Kiwahd Mtzj;jpNyh jug;gpdiuAk;
kw;w tptuq;fisAk; tpthpf;Fk; thrfq;fisf;
Fwpf;Fk;. ,J ghpkhw;wg; gFjpf;F Kd;du;
mtw;iw mwpKfg;gLj;Jk; tpsf;fg;gFjpahf
mikAk;. (Mq;fpyr;rl;l mfuhjp – N[htpl;)
nray;gLj;Jk; gFjpf;F cjTk; gFjpahf ,J
,Ug;gpDk; ,e;j tptug;gFjpapNyNa
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdupd; vz;zk;
ntspg;gLfpwJ. ,J rhu;ghf yhu;L v];]u;
,t;thW Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;:
‘njhlu;r;rpahd tptuq;fs; njspthf ,Ue;J>
nray;gLj;Jk; gFjp njsptw;wjhf
,Uf;Fkhdhy; tptuq;fs; me;j fl;likg;igg;
ghJfhf;fpwJ. ,jw;F khwhf tptuq;fs; gFjp
njsptw;wjhfTk; nray;gLj;Jk;gFjp
 khw;wp mspf;fg;gLk; nrhj;jpid khw;wp
mspg;gtNu me;jr; nrhj;jpd; midj;J
eyd;fspd; xl;Lnkhj;j chpikahsu;.
mtUf;F me;jr; nrhj;jpid khw;wp mspf;f
KO chpik cs;sJ
 me;jr; nrhj;ijg; ngWgtu; me;jr; nrhj;jpd;
eyd;fs; KOtijAk; Mz;L
mDgtpj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; chpik cs;sJ.
 khw;wp mspf;fg;gLk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jpy;
ahnjhU tpy;yq;fKk; ,y;iy.
 ,e;j nrhj;jpid khw;wp mspg;gtu; kw;w
,Jrhu;ghd Njitg;gLk; Mtzq;fis
cWjpg;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; epiwNtw;wp me;jr;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
khw;wpj; jUgthpd; chpikapd; tuyhw;iw me;j
epiwNtw;Wk; ehs;tiu me;j chpik
toq;fg;gl;l my;yJ me;j chpikahsu; ngw;w
tpjk; Fwpj;Jk; tpthpf;Fk;.
 mwpKfj; njhlu;tpsf;fk;: ,q;F ,e;j chpik
khw;wk; Vw;gLj;Jk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdhpd;
Nehf;fk; kw;w xg;ghtzq;fisNah my;yJ
cld;gbf;iffisNah Rl;Lk; Nehf;fk;
Mfpatw;iw tpsf;Fk;.
`gpad;jk;:
`gpad;jj;jpd; Nehf;fk; me;j nrhj;Jhpikiag;
ngWgtUf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; eyd;fis
tiuaWg;gjhFk;. ,e;j `gpad;jk; %ykhf
ngWgtUf;F fpilf;Fk; eyd; KOikahdjhfNth
my;yJ tiuAWf;fg;gl;ljhfNth ,Uf;Fk;.
khw;wj;jpw;F cs;shf;fg;gLk; nrhj;jpy; tpy;yq;fk;
VJk; ,Ug;gpd; `gpad;jj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;bUf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
xg;ge;j cld;gbf;if thrfq;fs;:
xg;ge;j cld;gbf;if thrfq;fs; vd;gJ xU
jug;igNah my;yJ ,U jug;igANkh my;yJ
rpyiuNah my;yJ gyiuNah fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
thrfq;fs; mlq;fpa gFjpahFk;. mij
thpirahfTk; gy tifapYk; vOJtJ xt;nthU
ngUgthpd; my;yJ mspg;gthpd; thpirg;gb
vOJtJ nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,jdhy;>
Fog;gq;fs; jtpu;f;fg;gl;L ngWgtUf;Nfh
mspg;gtUf;Nfh ahnuhUtUf;Fk; me;j
cld;gbf;if rhuhky; ,Uf;f KbAk;. cjhuzkhf>
ghprPyidf;fhf nrhj;J chpik khw;wk; nra;Ak;
tpahghhpapd; xg;ge;j thrfk; ,t;thW ,Uf;Fk;.
 tuT tiffs;: xg;ghtzj;jpNyNa
ghprPyidapd tuitg; gjpT nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wr;rPl;L> fld;cWjpr;rPl;L kw;Wk; fhNrhiy
Nghd;w khw;wj;jf;f Kiwahtzkhf ,Ue;jhy;
mit Vw;fdNt ghprPyidf;F Kd;dNu
nra;ag;gl;ljhff; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
 nray;gLj;Jk; thu;j;ijfs;: ,e;jg; gFjp me;jg;
ghpkhw;wj;jpd; jd;ikiaAk; Nehf;fj;ijAk;
tpsf;FfpwJ. ,e;j nray;gLj;Jk; thu;j;ijfs;
njspthdjhfTk; ,UnghUsw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
rk;ge;jg;gl;l khw;wg;gLk; nrhj;jpd; tpguk;
(nghjpfs;):
nghjpfs; vd;gJ khw;wg;gLk; nrhj;J my;yJ
xl;Lnkhj;j eyd;fspd; tpguk; MFk;. ,j;jifa
tptuq;fs; RWf;fkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jpy;
ftdkpd;wp ,Ue;jhy; tof;ifr; re;jpf;f
Ntz;bajpUf;Fk;. mj;jifa khw;wg;gLk; nrhj;J
nrhj;jpd; chpikia KOikahf KO
eyd;fNshL mspg;ghu;.
rhl;rpak;:
rhl;rpak; vd;gJ me;j xg;ghtzj;jpd;
rhl;rpfs;gw;wpa gFjpahFk;. ,jpy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;Gfspd; Nehf;fk; fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sthW
,Uf;Fk;.
‘,e;j xg;ghtzk; fPo;f;fhz;gJNghd;W
rhd;wspf;fpwJ’
nray;gLj;Jk; gFjp:
nray;gLj;Jk; gFjp nghJthf
fPo;f;fhz;gtw;iw cs;slf;fpajhf ,Uf;Fk;:
 ghprPyid: ghprPyid vd;gij thf;FWjpf; F
,izahf ngWgtuhy; mspf;fg;gLk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jf;f njhifNah my;yJ
NtW ve;j xU eyNdh MFk;. xg;ge;jk; ,U
jug;gpdhplkpUe;Jk; thf;FWjpfis mspf;Fk;
tifapy; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mjw;fhd
flikAk; kW jug;gpd; thf;FWjp
epiwNtw;wiy Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; nghWg;Gk;
,U jug;Gf;FNk cs;sJ.
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdu; jq;fsJ
ghpkhw;wj;jpd;NghJ jq;fspilNa cs;s
ghprpyidfs; NghJkhdjh vd;gij jPu;khzpf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ghprPyidiaj; jPu;khzpg;gjpy;
ePjpkd;wq;fs; jiyapLtij tpUk;Gtjpy;iy.
nghJthf xg;ge;jk; nra;tjpy; cs;s
Rje;jpuj;jpy; ePjpkd;wq;fs; jiyapLtjpy;iy.
jq;fSila Rje;jpukhd tpUg;gj;ijr;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfs; gad;gLj;jpg; Nguk;Ngrp
xg;ge;jj;jpd; eyidg; ngWtjpy;
jiyapLtjpy;iy. rl;lg;G+h;tkhd eydhf
,Uf;Fk;tiu rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;Gfs;
ghprPyidfis KbTnra;a kO chpik
cs;sJ.
chpikia mspg;gtUf;F
ghuk;ghpaj; jd;ikiaf; fhg;gjw;fhff; nfhLf;fg;
gLk; rYifahFk;. ,J nghJthf nrhj;jpidg;
ngWgtuhy; nrhj;J mspg;gtUf;F mspf;fg;gLk;
rYif vdyhk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ nrhj;ij egu; -2f;F
khw;wp mspf;Fk;NghJ> me;jr; nrhj;ij mDFk;
chpikia jdf;Nfh NtW ahUf;Nfh xJf;fPL
nra;J nfhs;syhk;.
rhd;Wiuj;jy;:
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
my;yJ eyDf;F ngau; ,Ue;jhy;
mg;ngaiuf;nfhz;L tpthpj;J vOj Ntz;Lk;. mJ
rhu;ghf xU ml;ltizia ,izj;J mjpy; me;j
nrhj;J my;yJ eyid tpthpj;J vOJtJ eyk;
jUk;.
tpjptpyf;FfSk; xJf;fPLfSk;
xU nrhj;ijg; ghfg;gphptpid nra;J
mspf;Fk;NghJ xUrpy tpjptpyf;FfisAk;
xJf;fPLfisAk; itf;fyhk;. gphpf;fg;gLk; nrhj;J
gw;wpa nghJthd tpthpg;Gfs; ,j;jifa
tpjptpyf;Ffs; kw;Wk; xJf;fPLfSf;F cl;gl;lNj.
tpjptpyf;F vd;gJ nghJthf mspf;fg;gl;l eydpy;
xU gFjpia gpbj;Jf; nfhs;StjhFk;. vy;yh
tpjptpyf;FfSk; me;j xg;ghtzj;ij
Vw;gLj;Jk;NghJ ,Ue;j me;jr; nrhj;J gw;wpajhf
mjpy; cs;s chpik rhu;e;jjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mj;jifa tpjptpyf;Ffs; me;j xg;ghtzj;ij
kWg;gjhf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L:
egu;-1 jdJ nrhj;jpid egu; -2f;F khw;wp
mspf;Fk;NghJ me;j epyj;jpypUe;J fdpkq;fis
vLf;f njhlu;e;J chpik cs;sJ vdf;
Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;. ,J nrhj;jpidg; gphpf;Fk;NghJ
Vw;gLj;jg;gLk; tpjptpyf;fhFk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;j
tpjptpyf;F egu;-2f;F mspf;fg;gl;l chpikiag;
ghjpf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; mikayhfhJ. fdpkk; vLg;gJ
vd;gJ me;j epyj;jpd; mbg;gFjpapy; cs;s
kz;izAk; vLj;jhy; me;j epy chpikia
mspj;jJ mu;j;jkw;wjhf;Fk;.
xJf;fPL vd;gJ nrhj;ijg; ngWgtu; me;j
ifnahg;gkpLtij Neubahfg; ghu;j;jpUf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
 mthplkpUe;J jdpg;gl;l Vw;gpidg; ngw;wpUf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
 xt;nthUtUk; me;j xg;ghtzj;jpy; jq;fs;
ifnahg;gq;fis xg;ghtz epiwNtw;Wgtu;fs;
Kd;dpiyapy; ifnahg;gkpl Ntz;Lk;.
xU xg;ghtzk; nry;yj;jf;fjhtjw;F rl;lg;gb
rhl;rpfs; rl;lk; tw;GWj;jhjtiu fl;lhak; ,y;iy.
rhl;rpfspd; rhd;nwhg;gk; mtrpakhdjy;y.
xg;ghtzk; epiwNtwpagpd; mjpy; rhl;rpfspd;
rhd;nwhg;gk; kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy;
fPo;f;fhz;gtw;Wf;F mtrpakhdJ:
 milkhdk; (nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-59).
 nfhil (nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-124)
 capy; (,e;jpa kuGhpikr; rl;lk;> 1925> gphpT-63)
CrPC, cj;juT-6 tpjp-1(4)-d;gb midj;J
xg;ghtzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J tptuq;fisAk;
Vw;W rk;ge;jg;gl;l jug;gpdu; fPo;f;fhz;gJNghd;W
nghJthf rhd;wspf;fpd;wdu;:
‘NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;Gfshd ehq;fs; Nkw;fz;l tptuq;fs;
midj;Jk; cz;iknad ,e;j ehspy; ,e;j
Mz;by; ,q;Nf ifnahg;gkpl;Ls;s rhl;rpfspd;
Kd;dpiyapy; rhd;wspj;J xg;gkpLfpNwhk; ’.
,J xg;ghtzj;jpd;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,Wjpg;
gFjpahFk;. fl;lhak; ,t;thWjhd; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lnkd;gJ ,y;iy vdpDk; ,g;gFjpia
,Wjpahf itj;Jf;nfhs;tJ rpwe;j KiwahFk;.
xg;ghtzk; xU epWtdj;jhNyh my;yJ rl;l
mikg;ghNyh ,e;j rhd;Wiuj;jypy; mtu;fs;
rhd;wspj;J xg;gkpLtNjhL mtu;fspd;
Kj;jpiuiaAk; gjpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xg;ghtzj; jahhpj;jy; ,Wjpahf;Fjiyj;
njhlu;e;J me;j Mtzk; Kiwahd mjpfhuk;
ngw xg;ghtzkhf my;yJ Kiwahtzkhf
khw;w Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j Kiwg;gbahd
nray;fspy; rhd;nwhg;gkpLjy;> gjpT nra;jy;>
my;yJ Kj;jpiuapLjy; my;yJ ,it
midj;Jk; my;yJ rpytw;iw mtw;Wf;Fupa
rl;lk; Fwpg;gpLtJNghd;W Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
rhd;nwhg;gkpLjy;:
xg;ghtzk; my;yJ Kiwahtzj;jpy;
rhd;nwhg;gkpLjy; vd;gJ xd;W my;yJmjw;F
Nkw;gl;ltu;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy; epiwNtw;wg;
gLtNjhL mjw;F Mjhukhf> rhd;nwhg;gkpLk;
gFjpapy; mJ epiwNtwpajhff; $wp jq;fs;
ifnahg;gq;fis ,Lfpd;wdu;.
xU Kiwahd rhd;nwhg;gj;jpw;fhd mtrpakhd
epge;jid vd;dntdpy; nghJthf ,uz;L
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;ltu;fs;:
me;j Mtzj;ij epiwNtw;Wgtu;fs; me;j
xg;ghtaj;jpy; m;y;yJ Kiwahtzj;jpy
mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j tpUg;GWjpapy;yh
Kiwahtzq;fs; Nghd;W Njhd;wpdhy;
 mirahr; nrhj;jpid xt;nthU Mz;Lk;
Fj;jiff;F tpLk; my;yJ xU Mz;Lf;F
Nky; Fj;jiff;F tpLk; Mtzq;fs;
 cUthf;f> mwptpf;f> mspf;f> tiuaWf;f>
my;yJ KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf
epfo;fhyj;jpNyh my;yJ vjpu; fhyj;jpNyh
VjhtJ xU chpikia my;yJ mirahr;
nrhj;J rhu;e;j ePjpkd;wj; jPu;g;G> jPu;g;ghiz>
cj;juT rhu;e;j tpUg;GWjpapy;yh
Kiwahtzq;fs; kw;w xUthplk;
khw;Wk;NghNjh epakpf;Fk;NghNjh cs;s
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
KiwaPLfSk; xU cWjpnkhopg; gj;jpuj;NjhLjhd;
rku;g;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ. ve;j xU
cWjpnkhopg; gj;jpuKk; cWjpnkhop MizauhNyh
my;yJ rhd;WWjp toq;Fk; tof;FiuQuhNyh
rhd;nwhg;gkplg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ.
xg;ghtzq;fis gjpT nra;jy;:
xg;ghtzq;fisg; gjpT nra;tjd; Nehf;fKk;
Fwpf;NfhSk; kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy; vd;dntdpy;:
 Mtzq;fSf;F nghJg; gjpT Kiwia
mspg;gjd; %yk;
 xU Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;jpidg; ghjpf;Fk;
 rl;l chpikfs; kw;Wk; flikfs; rhu;e;j
nra;jpfis nghJkf;fSf;F mspf;fTk;
 mjd; rl;l chpikiaj; njhlu;e;J fhg;gjd;
%yk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; rl;l Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
tha;e;jjhf ,Uf;fTk;
 Nkhrbfisj; jLf;fTk;
gjpT nra;jy; xg;ghtzj;jpd; xUrpy gFjpfSf;F
kPwKbahj;jd;ikiaAk; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijAk;
mspf;fpwJ. (N[hfp jh]; vjpu; /gfpu; ge;jh> AIR
1970 xuprh 22)
fPNo jug;gl;Ls;s Mtzq;fs; fl;lhakhfg; gjpT
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. (gjpTr;rl;lk;> 1908> gphpT-17).
 mirahr;nrhj;J nfhilahfj; jUk;
Kiwahtzk;
cUthf;f> mwptpf;f> mspf;f> tiuaWf;f> my;yJ
KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf epfo;fhyj;jpNyh
my;yJ vjpu; fhyj;jpNyh VjhtJ xU
chpikiaNah eyidNah E}W &gha;f;F Nkyhd
kjpg;G cs;s my;yJ
mYtyuhy; nghJ Vyj;jpy; xU nrhj;ij
thq;fpajw;fhf thq;fpatUf;F mspf;fg;gLk;
rhd;wpjo;
fPo;f;fhZk; Mtzq;fs; gjpT nra;ag;gLtJ
tpUg;gj;jpw;F tplg;gLfpwJ:
 cUthf;f> mwptpf;f> mspf;f> tiuaWf;f>
my;yJ KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf
epfo;fhyj;jpNyh my;yJ vjpu; fhyj;jpNyh
VjhtJ xU chpikiaNah eyidNah E}W
&gha;f;F fPohd kjpg;G cs;s my;yJ
mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j nfhil kw;Wk; capy;
Kiwahtzq;fs; jtpu gpw Kiwahtzq;fs;
 xU chpikiaNah nrhj;JhpikiaNah>
eyidNah cUthf; f> mwptpf;f> mspf;f>
tiuaWf;f> my;yJ KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf ve;j xU ghprPyidf;fhd
fl;lzNkh my;yJ tuitNah ngw;wjw;fhd
Kiwahtdk;
Mtzk;
khepy muRfs; jq;fs; murpjopy; ntspapl;Ls;s
tpjptpyf;FfNshL fPo;f;fhZk; Mtzq;fs;
gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;bajpy;iiy:
 ve;j xU fyitahd MtzKk;
 [ha;d;l; ];lhf; epWtdj;jpy; gq;F
njhlu;ghd ve;j xU KiwahtzKk; (me;j
epWtdj;jpd; nrhj;Jtifapy; mirahr;
nrhj;Jfs; ,Ue;jhy;$l)
 VjhtJ xU chpikia my;yJ mirahr;
nrhj;J rhu;e;j chpikia cUthf;f>
mwptpf;f> mspf;f> tiuaWf;f> my;yJ
KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf mg;gbg;gl;l
epWtdj;jhy; toq;fg;gl;l fldPl;L Mtzk;
 Nknyhg;gk; ,lg;gl;l my;yJ khw;wk;
nra;ag;gl;l mg;gbg;gl;l epWtdj;jhy;
toq;fg;gl;l fldPl;L Mtzq;fs;
 xU Mtzk; jhNd xU chpikiaNah
my;yJ mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j
chpikia cUthf;fhj> mwptpf;fhj>
mspf;fhj> tiuaWf;fhj> my;yJ
KbTf;Ff; nfhz;Ltuhj Mtzq;fs;
 xU ,zf;fj;jPu;T rhu;e;j jPu;g;ghiz
my;yJ cj;juT jtpu ePjpkd;wj;jpd; ve;j
xU jPu;g;ghizNah my;yJ cj;juNth
kw;Wk; tof;fpw;Fl;gl;l mirahr;nrhj;J
rhuhj ve;j xU MtzKk;
 muR toq;fpa ve;j xU mirahr; nrhj;Jk;
 tUtha; mYtyuhy; ghfg;gphptpid
nra;ag;gl;l Kiwahtzk;
 epiyf;nfhil mwf;fl;lisr; rl;lk;> 1890-d;
mbg;gilapy; me;j mwf;fl;lisapd;
nghUsUf;F tof;fg;gl my;yJ
tpyf;fg; gLtjw;fhf mspf;fg;gl;l ve;j xU
cj;juTk;
 milkhdj; njhifapd; KOtijANkh
my;yJ gFjpiaNah ngw;Wf;nfhz;ljw;F
mj;jhl;rpahf xU milkhd
Mtzj;jpd;Nky; cs;s epiyf;nfhil
my;yJ tuTr;rPl;L
tUtha; mYtyu; my;yJ FbAhpik
gFjpapy; ,Ue;jhYk; vq;F me;j rl;lk;
gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwNjh mq;F mjpfhuk;
toq;FKwpahy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;L mij xU
ePjpgjp mq;fpfhpj;jpUe;jhy;
 mjpfhuk; toq;F Kwpapid epiwNtw;Wk;
Neuj;jpy; mjd; Kjy;tu; ,e;jpahtpd; ve;jg;
gFjpapYk; ,y;yhky; me;j mjpfhuk;
toq;FKwpahy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;L mij xU
rhd;WUjp toq;Fk; tof;FiwQuhNyh> ve;j
xU ePjpkd;wj;jhNyh> ePjpgjpahNyh>
Fw;wtpay; eLtuhNyh> J}juhNyh my;yJ
Jizj; J}juhNyh my;yJ kj;jpa murpd;
gpujpepjpahNyh mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
 xU Mz;bw;F kpfhj milkhd Mtzq;fs;
 xU chpikiaNah nrhj;JhpikiaNah>
eyidNah cUthf;f> mwptpf;f> mspf;f>
tiuaWf;f> my;yJ KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf epfo;j;jg;gLk; mirAk;
nrhj;J rhu;e;j capy; Kiwahtzq;fs; jtpu
gpw Kiwahtzq;fs;
capiyg; gjpT nra;tJ vd;gJ tpUg;gj;jpw;F
tplg;gLfpwJ. gjpT nra;tJ mJ
epiwNtwpajw;fhd rhl;rpahfNt nfhs;sg;gLk;.
mjw;F Nkw;gl;l Gdpjk; mspf;fg;gLtjpy;iy.
(,e;jpa thhpRhpikr; rl;lk;> 1925> gphp-63).
gjpTr; rl;lk; gphpT-32-d;gb gjpT nra;ag;gl
Ntz;ba xt;nthU MtzKk; gjpT
mYtyfj;jpw;F fPo;f;fhz;gtuhy; nfhz;Ltug;gLk;:
 epiwNtw;Wk; xU egu; my;yJ mtuJ Ms;
 epiwNtw;Wgthpd; gpujpepjp my;yJ mtuhy;
epakpf;fg;gl;l xUtu;
 mtuJ Kftu;> gpujpepjp> my;yJ mjpfhuk;
toq;F Kwpahy; epakpf;fg;gl;ltu;
gjpTr; rl;lk; gphpT-33-d;gb fPo;f;fhZk; mjpfhuk;
toq;F Kwp kl;LNk Vw;fg;gLk;:
 mjpfhuk; toq;F Kwpapid epiwNtw;Wk;
Neuj;jpy; mjd; Kjy;tu; ,e;jpahtpd; ve;jg;
gFjpapy; ,Ue;jhYk; vq;F me;j rl;lk;
gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwNjh mq;F mjpfhuk;
toq;FKwpahy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;L mij mtH
,Uf;Fk; gFjpiar; rhu;e;j xU ghjpthsuhNyh
my;yJ Jizg;gjpthsuhNyh mjpfhug;
G+Htkhf mq;fPfhpj;jpUe;jhy;
mjpfhuk; toq;F Kwpapid epiwNtw;Wk; Neuj;jpy;
mjd; Kjy;tu; ,e;jpahtpd; ve;jg
Kiwahtz tUkhzq;fs; fPo;f;fhz;gtw;Wf;fhf:
 khw;wk;
 tpw;gid
 Fj;jif
 milkhdk;
 nfhil
 NtW ve;j tpahghu uPjpahd eltbf;if
Kj;jpiur; rl;lk; xt;nthU eltbf;ifiaAk;
mjw;F ,izahd Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzj;ijAk;
gl;baypLfpwJ. xU Mtzj;ij KOikahf mjd;
eltbf;iffis Ma;T nra;jgpd;dNu mjw;fhd
Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzk; mjw;F ,izahd
gl;baypypUe;J epu;zapf;fg; gLfpwJ.
rhpahf Kj;jpiuaplg;glhj Mtzk; xU
Mjhukhff; fhl;lg;gLk;NghJ ePjpkd;wk; Kj;jpiur;
rl;lk; gphpT-33-d;gb elf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ.
fPo;f;fhz;gtu;fs; xU gjpT mYtyfj;jpNyh>
ePjpkd;wj;jpNyh mjpfhuk; toq;F Kwp
mspg;gjw;fhf gjpT mYtyfk; tuj;
Njitapy;iy:
 cly; CdKw;Nwhu; mtUila eyj;jpw;F
ey;yjpy;iy vdpy;
 xU chpikapay; tof;fpdJ my;yJ
Fw;wptpay; tof;fpdJ rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;l
ifjp
 ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Neu;epiyahtjpypUe;J
tpyf;fspf;fg;gl;l egu;fs;.
gjpTr;rl;lk;> gphpT-49-d;gb xU gjpT nra;ag;gl
Ntz;ba Mtzk; gjpT nra;ag;gltpy;iy
vdpy; mJ xU rhl;rpakhf Vw;fg;glhJ. Mdhy;
mjid xU Jiz eltbf;ifahf
Vw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. ,g;gbg;gl;l Jiz
eltbf;if gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba
eltbf;ifapypUe;J gphpf;fg;glf;$bajhf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j Jiz eltbf;if
fl;lhakhfg; gjpT nra;a Ntz;banjhd;whf
,Uf;ff; $lhJ. (K.B. rhfh md; rd;]; gp.ypl;
vjpu; nltyg;kd;l; fd;ry;ld;l; ypl;> (2008) 8 SCC
564).
Mtzq;fis Kj;jpiuapLjy;:
,e;jpa murpayikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd;gb
 Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzk; tUkhdk; midj;Jk;
me;je;j khepyj;jpw;Nf chpaJ.
 Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzj;ij epu;zak; nra;Ak;
chpik kj;jpa rl;lrigiar; rhUk;
 me;j Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzj;ijj; js;Sgb
nra;tNjh Fiwg;gNjh khepy
rl;lkd;wj;ijr; rhUk;.
 Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzj;ij t#ypg;gJ mij
epu;tfpg;gJ midj;Jk; kj;jpa kw;Wk; khepy
murpd; nghJr; nrayhFk;.
Kj;jpiuf; fl;lzk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
mjw;fhd jz;lidaspj;J rhpahd Kj;jpiuf;
fl;lzj;ij gphpT-34-d;gb t#ypf;f Ntz;Lk;. me;j
Kj;jpiuf;fl;lzk; fl;lg;glhjtiu me;j Mtzk;
gphpT-35-d;gb xU Mjhukhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl
khl;lhJ. (uhk; uj;jd; vjpu; g[;uq; yhy;> AIR 1978
SC 1393).
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Fwpg;Gfs; :
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; NjHT
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;

ghlk; 8: rhl;rpar; rl;lk;

Kd;Diu

,e;jpar; rhl;rpar; rl;lk;> 1872 vd;gJ xU
eltbf;ifr; rl;lkhFNkad; wp epue;jukhd rl;lk;
my;y. rhl;rpar; rl;lj;jpy; cs;s rpy gphpTfs;
(cjhuzkhf> gphpTfs; 52-55 kw;Wk; 115-117)
Fbikapay; eilKiwf;nfd;w jdpahd \uj; Jfs;>
mNjNghd;W rpy gphpTfs; (cjhuzkhf> gphpTfs;
24 – 30) Fwpg;ghff; Fw; wtpay; rhu;e;j
\uj; Jfshf ,Ug;gpDk; rhl; rpar; rl;lk;
Fbikapay; kw;Wk; Fw; wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;Fg;
nghJthd rl;lkhFk;.

rhl;rpar; rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpaf; nfhs;iffshtd:

 rhl;rpak; rk;ge;jg;gl;l gpur;rid rhu;e;jjhf
,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 Nfs;tpg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fs; mDkjpf;fg;glf;$lhJ.
 kpfr; rpwe;j rhl;rpaNk vy;yh epiyfspYk;
mDkjpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. ([hdfp ehuhad; Nghau;
vjpu; ehuahd; ek;Njt; fjk;> (2003) 2 SCC 91).

gFjp-1 cz;ikfspd; nghUj;jk;

tiuaiwfs;:

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-3 gy gjq;fis tiuaWf;fpwJ.
mtw;wpy; rpy ePjpkd;wk;> cz;ik> Mtzk;>
rhl;rpak;> ep&gdk;> ,Wjp ep&gdk;. gy
tiuaiwfs; tpupthditay;y. khwhf> mit
kw;wtw;iwAk; cs;slf;fpaitahf cs;sd.
cjhuzkhf> ‘ePjpkd;wk; ’> ‘cz;ik’> ‘gpur;ridapy;
cs;s cz;ikfs; ’> kw;Wk; ‘rhl;rpak;’ Mfpa
tiuaiwfisf; ftzpAq;fs;.

‘cz;ik’ vd;w gjk; cs;slf;fpajhf cz;ik
vd;gJ ve;j xU nghUNsh> nghUs;fspd; epiyfs;>
nghUs;fspd; njhlu;Gfs;> Gyd;fshy;
czuf;$bait> kw;Wk; jd; epidTs;s ve;j xU
kd epiyiaAk; cs;slf;fpaJ vd;fpwJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU egu; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fUj;Jf;
nfhz;Ls;shu;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l cs;Nehf;fk;
nfhz;Ls;shu;> ey;y vz;zj;jpy; my;yJ
Nkhrbahfr; nray;gLfpwhu;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l
thu;j;ijiaf; Fwpg;gpl;l mu;j;jj;jpy;
gad;gLj;Jfpwhu; my;yJ ,Uf;fpwJ my;yJ
xU Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l czu;T
,Ue;jJ vd;gJ cz;ikahFk;.

xU cz;ik kw;Nwhd;NwhL rl;lj;jhy;
(cz;ikapd; nghUj;jk; rhu;e;j) Fwpg;gplg;gLk;
VjhtJ xUtifapy; ,ize;jpUf;Fkhdhy; xU
cz; ik kw;nwhd;Wf;F nghUj;jkhf cs;sJ
vd;W $wyhk;. xU gpur;ridapy; cs;s
cz;ik vd;gJ ve;j xU cz;ikAk;
jhdhfNth my;yJ kw;nwhU cz;ikfNshL
,ize;Njh ,Uf;ff;$ba my;yJ ,Uf;fhj
,aw;if> VjhtJ xU chpikapd;> flikapd;
vy;iy> my;yJ ,ayhik xU tof;fpy;
cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l my; yJ epuhfhpf;fg;gl;lit
midj;Jk; njhlUk;. vy;yh nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikfSk; gpur;ridapd; cz;ikahfhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-I mbj;Jf;
nfhd;wjhff; Fw;wk; rhl; lg; gLfpwhu;. me;j
tof;F tprhupf;fg;gLk;NghJ fPo;f;fhZk;
cz;ikfs; gpur;ridapy; ,Uf;fyhk;. (m) egu; -
2-d; rhTf;F egu; -1 fhuzkhthu; (M) egh; -1 egu; -
2-I rhfbf;f tpUk;gpdhu; (,) egu; -2 egu;-1-I
jpBnud;W Nfhgg;gLj;jpdhu;. egu; -2-f;F xU jPuhj
Neha; ,Ue;jJ vd;gJ nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; me;j cz;ik
gpur;ridf;Fhpa cz; ikahFk;.

rhl;rpak; vd;w gjk; gytw;iw cs;slf;fpajhf
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
itf;fg;gLk; xU nghUshf mijf; fUjyhk;.
mij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;Nl xU ePjpkd;wk;
gpur;ridapy; cs;s cz; ik ,Ue;jjh
,y;iyah vdj; jPu;khzpf;fpwJ. rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-
3-y; cs;s tiuaiw tha;nkhop kw;Wk; Mtz
rhl;rpaq;fisf; Fwpg;ghf tpsf;FfpwJ.

xU ePjpkd;wk; jd; Kd; itf;fg;gl;ltw;iw
Muha;e;J me;j cz;ik ,Ue;jJ vd
cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ my;yJ xU tpNtfkhd




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

kdpjh; me;j xU gpur;ridf;Fhpa #oypy;
,t;thWjhd; ele;jpUf;f KbAk; vd;W ek;gpdhy;
mJ ep&gpf;fg; gl;ljhff; nfhs;sg;gLk;.
(ep&gpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w gjj;jpd; tiuaiwiaf;
fhzTk;). rl;lk; ‘ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy’ vd;gjw;Fk;
ngha;nad ep&gpg;gjw;Fk; Ntw;Wikia rl;lk;
tpsf;FfpwJ. ,J ‘ep&gpf;Fk; Rik’ vd;gjw;Fk;
‘ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juk; ’ vd;gjw;Fk; cs;s
Ntw;Wikia czu toptFf;Fk;.

ep&gpf;Fk; Rik:
xU cz;ikia Fw;wk; Rkj;Jgtu; ahNuh
mtUf;Nf mij ep&gpf;Fk; RikAk; nghJthf
,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ,e;j tpjp rl;lj;jpd;
A+fj;jpidg; nghUj;J vj;jug; Gf;F ,e;jr; Rik
cs;sJ vd;gJ KbT nra;ag;gLk;. (nra;aJ
mf;gu; vjpu; fh;ehlf muR> AIR 1979 SC 1848).

cjhuzkhf. khw;wj;jF Kiwahtzr; rl;lk;> 1881>
gphpT-188-d; fP o; cs;s Fw;wtpay; tof;fpy;
Fw;wr;rhl;il ep&gpf;Fk; nghWg;G thjpf;F /
fhNrhiyia ngUgtUf;F rhu;ghf A+fk;
,Uf;fpwJ mjhtJ jdJ flid milf;f me;j
fhNrhiyia vLj;jtu; vLj;jpUg;ghu; vd epidf;f
tha;g;G cs;sJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltu;
mj;jifa Kw;rhu;G vz;zj;ij tprhuizapd;NghJ
rhpahd rhl;rpaq;fisf; nfhz;L Kwpabf;f
Ntz; Lk;.

ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juk;

ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juk; rl;l eltbf;iffspd;
jd;ikiar; rhu;e;Js;sJ. Fbikapay; tof;Ffspy;
ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juk; nghJthf tha;g;Gfis
rPu;J}f;fpg; ghu;j;J KbT nra;jyhFk;. Mdhy;>
Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juk;
ve;jtpj re;Njfj;jpw;Fk; ,lkpd;wp ep&gpg;gjhFk;.
vdNt> Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; cs;s ep&gdj;jpd;
nre;juk; Fbikapay; tof;Ffspy; cs;s
ep&gdj;jpd; nre;juj;ijtpl cau;e;jjhFk;.

Fw;wj;jpd; fLik mjpfhpf;Fk;NghJ Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;
gl;ltiu Fw;wthspahf;f mjpfkhd msT
cWjpg;ghL Njitg;gLtjhy; ep&gdj;jpd;
nre;juKk; fLikahf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. (nksrk;
rpq;fuha; vjpu; Nkw;F tq;f muR>(2003) 12 SCC 377).
Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; Fw; wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltu;
mg;ghtp vDk; mDkhdk; cs;sJ mjhtJ
mtu; mg;ghtpay;y vd;gij ep&gpj;J mtiuj;
jz;bf;Fk; Rik Fw;wk; Rkj;JgtUf;F
cs;sJ. Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltu; mg;ghtp
vd;gij Fw;wk; Rkj;Jgtu; jtW vd
vd;gpf;fhky; tpl KbahJ.

,Ug;gpDk;> Fw;wtpay; rl;lq;fspy; cs;s
gpwu;ngUl;Lf; mDgtpf;Fk; flg;ghL gw;wp
Fwpg;gpLtJ mtrpak;. cjhuzkhf> khw;wj;jF
Kiwahtzr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-141>
mj;jpahtrpag; nghUl;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-10>
Rq;fr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-140> cs;ehl; L cw;gj;jpr;
rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-9mm Nghd;w rl;lq;fspd; fP o;
xU egu; jhd; NtiyapypUe;Fk; epWtdj;jpy;
gjtpapd; nghUl;L Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;bUe;jhy;>
me;jf; Fw;wr;rhl;il mjhtJ me;jf; Fw; wk;
gw;wpj; njhpahJ vd ep&gpf;Fk; Rik Fw;wk;
rhl;lg;gl;lg;gl;ltiuNa NrUk;.

cz;ikfspd; nghUj;jk;

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-3 - xU cz;ik kw;Nwhd;NwhL
rl;lj;jhy; (cz;ikapd; nghUj;jk; rhu;e;j)
Fwpg;gplg;gLk; VjhtJ xUtifapy;
,ize;jpUf;Fkhdhy; xU cz;ik
kw;nwhd;Wf;F nghUj;jkhf cs;sJ vd;W
$wyhk; vd;fpwJ. rl;lj;jpd; mjpfhuk;-2
(gphpTfs; -5-55) cz;ikfspd; nghUj;jk; gw;wp
tpsf;FfpwJ.

‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj; jf;fit’ kw;Wk;
‘nghUj;jkhdJ’ vd;w gjq;fs; xd;Wf;F
khw;whf kw;nwhd;W gad;gLj;jg; gl;lhYk; ,it
,uz;LNk ntt;NtW nghUs; cs;s
gjq;fshFk;. xU cz;ik nghUj;jkhdjhf
,Uf;fyhk; Mdhy;> trjp kw;Wk; nfhs;if
mbg;gilapy; mjd; rhl; rpak; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s
Kbahjjhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;fpwhu; /gpg;rd;. xU
cz;ikapd; rhl;rpak; Vw;fj;jf;fjh vd;gij
KbT nra;a me;j cz;ik
nghUj;jkhdJjhdh vd Kjypy; fz;lwpa
Ntz; ba Njit cs;sJ. gpd;du;> me;j
rhl;rpaj;ij rl;lj;jpd; \uj; Jfs;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwjh vdTk; ghu;f;f Ntz; Lk;.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: tof;Fj; njhlu;e;j egu; -1 xU
xg;ge;jj;ij jhd; kPwpajhf xg;Gf;nfhz;L jdJ
tof;fwpQUf;F xU fbjk; vOjpAs;shu;. mJ
nghUj;jkhd cz;ikahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;>
mij xU rhl;rpakhf rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-126
mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-6: ‘nu]; n[];Nj’:

,e;jg;gFjp xNu ghptu;j;jidapd; xU gFjpahfNt
cs;s cz;ikapd; nghUj;jk; gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.
xNu ghptu;j;jidapd; mq;fkhf xU cz;ik
,Ue;jhy; gpur;ridapd; mq;fkhf ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;
cz;ikfs; nghUj;jkhditfNs vd ,g;gFjp
$WfpwJ. xNu my;yJ ntt;NtW Neuj;jpy;
,lj;jpy; epfOk; cz; ikfSf;Fk; ,J nghUe;Jk;.

‘ghptu;j;jid’ vd;w nrhy;iy ru; N[k;]; ]; Bgd;
‘cz;ikfspd; $l;lk; xNu nrhy; nfhz;L
miof;Fk; tifapy; kpf neUq;fp ,Ue;jhy;
cjhuzkhf xU Fw;wk;> xU xg;ge;jk;> xU jtW
my;yJ NtW ve;j xU rk;ge;jg;gl;l
gpur;ridf;Fhpa tprhuidapd; nghUshf
,Uf;Fkhdhy; mijg; ghptu;j;jid vd
miof;fyhk; vd tiuaWf;fpwhu;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-I mbj;Jf; nfhd;wjhff;
Fw;wk; rhl;lg; gLfpwhu;. egu; -1 my;yJ egu; -2
my;yJ mbf;Fk;NghJ mtu;fs; mUfpypUe;jtu;fs;
vd;ndd;dnty;yhk; Ngrpdhu;fs; vt;thW
nray;gl;lhu;fs;> mjw;F rw;W Kd;Dk; gpd;Dk;
vd;d nra;jhu;fs; vd;gJ me;jg; ghptu;j;jidapd;
mq;fkhf cs;sJ. vdNt mit midj;Jk;
nghUj;jkhd cz;ikfNs.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1-lk; Nru;f;FkhW egu; -2-lk;
Nfhug;gl;l nghUl;fis egu; -2 Nru;j;jhuh ,y;iyah
vd;gNj Nfs;tp. mg;nghUl;fs; egu; -1-lkpUe;J gyu;
topahf egu; -2-I milfpwJ. ,q;F ,ilapy;
elf;Fk; xt;nthU Nru;g;Gk; nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikNa.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-6-dhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
cz;ikfs; Mq;fpNya rl;lj;jhYk; ‘nu];
n[];Nj’ vDk; Nfhl;ghl;bdhy; Vw;fg;gLfpwJ.
Mdhy;> ‘nu]; n[];Nj’ vDk; nrhy; gynghUs;
jUk; nrhy;yhFk;. gpur;ridapd; cz; ik kw;Wk;
gpw #oypy; elf;Fk; cz; ikfisAk;
Fwpg;gjhf cs;sJ. vdNt> me;jg; gjj;ijNa
xJf;fptpl Ntz; Lk; vdg; gy mwpQu;fs;
$Wfpd;wdu;. ,t;thW ,Ug;gpDk;> me;jg; gjk;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk; #oiyg; Ghpe;Jnfhs;tJ
mtrpakhFk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -7 Kjy; 9 tiu:

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -7 - 9 xU ghptu;j;jidapd;
mq;fkhd cz;ikfspd; nghUj;jj;jpw;fhd
Nfhl;ghl;il rl; lj;jpd; gphpT-6 $WtJ Nghd;W
tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

gpur;ridapy; cs;s cz; ik my;yJ
nghUj;jkhd cz;ikf;F jahupg;ghf my;yJ
Nehf;fk; mspf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; ele;j my;yJ
fhl;lj;jf;f ve;j xU cz; ikANk
nghUj;jkhd cz;ik vd;fpwJ gphpT-8. NkYk;
ve;j xU jug;gpd; tof;F njhlu;ghd jahhpg;G
kw;Wk; nray;ghLfs; MfpadTk;
nghUj;jkhdNj vd;fpwJ.

gphpT-8-d; tpsf;fk;(1) ‘nray;ghL’ vDk;
nrhy;iy tpsf;Fk;NghJ xU thf;fpak; me;j
thf;fpaj;ij kl;Lk; tpsf;fhJ me;j
thf;fpaj;NjhL ,ize;j nray;fisAk;
tpsf;fpdhyd;wp mit me;j nray;ghl; Lf;Fs;
tuhJ vd;fpwJ. ,q;F thf;fpaj;ijAk;> me;j
thf;fpaj;NjhL ,ize;J tUk; nray;fisAk;
mjd; tpsf;fj;ijAk; gphpj;Jg; ghu;f;fpwJ.

gphpT-8-d; tpsf;fk;(2) ve;j xU eghpd;
nray;ghLk;> mthplk; my;yJ mtuJ
Kd;dpiyapy; my;yJ mtu; Nfl; Fk;gb
$wg;gl;l ve; j xU thf;fpaKk; mJ mtuJ
nraiyg; ghjpf;Fkhdhy; mJ Kf;fpakhdJk;
nghUj;jkhdJk; MFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2f;F &.10>000
fld; gl;Ls;shuh vd;gJ Nfs;tp. ,q;F egu; -1
egu;-3-lk; fld; Nfl; lJk;> egu; -1-d;
Kd;dpiyapNyNa egu;-4 egu; -3-lk; ‘egu;-1-I
ek;ghNj> mtu; Vw;fdNt egu; -2-lk; &.10>000
fld; gl;Ls;shu; ’ vdf; $wpaijf; Nfl; Ls;shu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

cz;ikAk; NkYk;> mjw;F ve;jtpjg; gjpYk;
$whky; egu; -1 nrd;wJk; nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikfNs.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;shu;. me;j
Fw;w epfo;Tf;F Kd;Dk;> gpd;Dk;> elf;Fk;NghJk;
cs;s cz;ikfs;> me;j tof;fpy; mtUf;F
Mjuthd Njhw;wj;ij mspf;Fk; rhl; rpaq;fis egu;
xd;W mspj;jit> xUrpy jdf;F vjpuhd
rhl;rpaq;fis mopj;jJ> kiwj;jJ> rhl; rpak;
tuhky; jLj;jJ> rhl;rpak; mspg;gtiu tuhky;
nra;a gzkspg;gJ my;yJ ngha;rhl;rpak; $w
itg;gJ midj;JNk nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikfshFk;.

Nehf;fk;:

#oy; rhl;rpaq;fs; Njitg;gLk; tof;Ffspy;
jug;gpdhpd; nray;fspd; my;yJ nra;ahky;
tpl;ljd; gpd;dzpapy; cs;s Nehf;fj;ij ep&gpg;gJ
Kf;fpakhdJ. Nehf;fk; vd;gJ Fwpf;Nfhs; my;y.
gpshf;]; rl;l mfuhjp tiuaiwapd;gb Nehf;fk;
vd;gJ xUtiu xU nraiyr; nra;a top
tFf;Fk; xd;whFk;. nghUj;jkhd cz;ikf;F
my;yJ gpur;ridapd; cz; ikf;Fg; NghJkhd
rhl;rpak; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ Nehf;fk; nghUj;jkw;wjhfp
tpLfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2 jdf;Fg; gzk; mspf;f
gzg;gj;jpuj;ijf; fhl;b tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;. egu; -
2 mg;gb xU gzg;gj;jpuj;ijNa kWf;fpwhu;. me;jg;
gzg;gj;jpuk; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ljhff; $wg;gLk;
ehlfspy; egu; -2-f;F xU fhupaj;jpw;fhfg; gzk;
Njitg;gl;ljw;fhd Mjhuq;fs; ,q;F
nghUj;jkw;wjhfpwJ.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-11

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-11 ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpd; mjpfhuk; -2-d;
kPjkhd \uj; J vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ. rl;lj;jpd;
gphpT-7 my;yJ 32 Nghd;witfshy; nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikfshf;fg;gl;ljpypUe;J ,e;jg; gphpT
khWgLfpwJ. ,e;j rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-11-d;gb xU
cz;ik nghUj;jkhf Ntz; Lkhdhy; mJ
nghUj;jkhd cz;ikia ,Uf;fr; nra;fpwjh
my;yJ gpur;ridf;Fhpa cz;ikf;F tha;g;G
mspf;fpwjh vd;gij Ma;e;j gpd;dNu
Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ.

Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; mbf;fb gad;gLj;jg;
gLk; Fw;wk; ele;j ,lj;jpy; ,y;iy vd;w
thjk; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-11-y; Fwpg;gplg;Lk; rhl; rpa
tpjpapd;gb vOg;gg;gLk; xd;W vd;gij
epidtpy; nfhs;s Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;jf;fhl;L: xU Fwpg;gpl;l ehspy; egu; -1
fy;fj;jhtpy; xU Fw;wk; ,ioj;jhuh vd;gNj
Nfs;tp. egu;-1 me;j ehspy; yh$hpy; ,Ue;jhu;
vd;gJ xU nghUj;jkhd cz;ikahFk;. me;j
Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;ij xl;b me;j egu; -1 Fw;wk;
ele;j ,lj;ij tpl;Lj; njhiytpy; ,Ue;jhu;
vd;gJ me;jf; Fw; wj;ij egu; -1 nra;tjw;fhd
tha;g;ig kpfTk; Fiwf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> tha;g;ig
Kw;wpYk; Gwf;fzpf;ftpy;iy vd;gJk; mtu;
nra;jhu; vd;gjw;fhd nghUj;jkhd
cz;ikahFk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; - 17-23: xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy;

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-17-d;gb xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy;
vd;gJ ‘gpur;ridf;Fhpa cz;ik my;yJ
nghUj;jkhd cz;ik rhu;e;j VjhtJ xU
mDkhdj;ij toq;Fk; xU tha;nkhoptop
my;yJ vOj;Jtop my;yJ kpd;top $w;whFk;.
NkYk; mJ fPo;f;fhZk; #oypy; rk;ge;j;g;gl;l
VjhtJ xU eguhy; $wg;gl;ljhFk; ’ vd;fpwJ.

gphpT-17-y; $wg;gl;Ls;s tiuaiwapd;gb
rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -18 – 20 me;j egu;fisAk;
#oiyAk; tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gJ vjpu;jug;gpd; thjk;
cz;ikahdNj vd;W kw;w midj;J
rhl;rpaq;fisAk; xJf;fptplf;$ba xU
cz;ikapd; $w;whFk;. ,e;jg; gFjp
tha;nkhoptop my;yJ vOj;Jg;G+u;tkhd
(Mtz) xj;Jf;nfhs;siyNa Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ.
gphpT-18 xj;Jf;nfhs;tjhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;sf;
$ba nray;ghLfis tpsf;FfpwJ.

xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjiy xU jug;Gf;F vjpuhd
rhl;rpakhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

mj;jug; G Kd; itj;j thjq;fNshL
xj;Jg;Nghfhjjhf cs;sJ. cjhuzkhf> xUtu;
jdJ njhopy; $l;lhsp jdf;Fg; gzk;juf;
flikg;gl;Ls;shu; vd tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;.
Mdhy;> mNj egu; $l;lhspf;F vOjpa fbjj;jpy;
jdf;F mf;$l;lhsp ve;j xU njhifAk; ju
Ntz; bajpy;iy vd vOjpapUe;jhy; mJ xU
xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjyhf vLj;Jf;nfhz;L me;j tof;F
js;Sgb nra;ag;glyhk;.

xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjiy ePjpkd;w kw;Wk; eP jpkd;wj;jpw;F
ntspNa xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy; vd ,U gphpTfshfg;
nghJthfg; gphpf;fyhk;. ePjpkd;wk; %yk;
xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gJ xU jug;G jdJ jug; G
Mjhuq;fis tprhuidf;F Kd;dNu
Vw;Wf;nfhs;SjYk; jdJ thjq;fis
ep&gpf;fKbahJ mij xj;Jf;nfhs;SjYk; MFk;.
Mdhy;> ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspNa xj;Jf;nfhs;sy;
vd;gJ tof;fpd; Mtzq;fspy; tuhj tho;f;ifapd;
rhjhuz re;ju;g;gq;fspy; eilngWtjhFk;. ePjpkd;w
top xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjiyg; Nghyd;wp ntspNa
nra;ag;gLk; xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy; jil cj;jutpd;
jhf;fk; cs;sjy;yhj tof;if XusNt
fl; Lg;gLj;Jk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-21-d;gb xU xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy;
vd;gJ nghUj;jkhdJk; mij mspj;jtUf;F
vjpuhd ep&gdkhfTk; MfpwJ. Mdhy;> mtw;iw
mij mspj;jtuhNyh my;yJ mtu; rhu;ghfNth
xUrpy Fwpg;gpl;l re;ju;g;gq;fisj; jtpu gpw
Neuq;fspy; ep&gpf;f KbahJ. ,jd; gpd;ddpapy;
cs;s Nfhl;ghL vd;dntdpy;> me;j Fw;wj;ij
xj;Jf;nfhs;SgtUf;F mtuJ $w;iw ep&gpf;Fk;
tha;g;gspf;fg;gl;lhy; xg;Gf;nfhs;tjd;%yk; mtuJ
Fw;wr; nraypd; ; tpisTfspypUe;J jg;gpf;f
tha;g;ig cUthf;fpf; nfhs;sf;$Lk; .

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Mtzk; cz; ikahdjh
Nghypahdjh vd;gJ rhu;ghd tof;F egu; -1 kw;Wk;
egu; -2f;F ,ilNa eilngWfpwJ. egu; -1 mJ
cz;ikahdNj vd;fpwhu;. egu; -2 mij kWf;fpwhu;.
egu; -2 vg;NghjhtJ me;j Mtzk; cz; ikhadJ
vdf;$wpa $w;iwf;nfhz;L ep&gpf;fyhk;. egu; -2
mjw;F khwhf egu; -1 me;j Mtzk; ngha;ahdJ
vdf; $wpa $w;iwf;nfhz;L mJ NghypahdJ vd
ep&gpf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> egu; -1 jhNd nfhLj;j xj;Jf;
nfhs;siy mJ cz;ikay;y vd ep&gpf;f
KbahJ.

xU xj;Jf;nfhs;siy mij mspj;jtNu
ep&gpf;f %d;W tpjptpyf;Ffis gphpT-21
mspf;fpwJ. ve;j xU nfl;l Nehf;fKk;
,y;yhky; xU Fbikapay; tof;fpy;
rkurj;jpd;nghJ nfhLf;fg;gl;l xU $w;wpid
gphpT-21 ghJfhf;fpwJ. me;j Neuj;jpy;
nfhLf;fg;gLk; ve;j xU $w;WNk
nghUj;jkhfhJ. mij mtu;fSf;F vjpuhfTk;
gad;gLj;j kbahJ.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; 24-30: xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; 24-26 nghUe;jh xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yj;ij tpsf;Ffpd;wd. Mdhy;> gphpTfs;
27-30 Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jf;f xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yj;ij tpsf;Ffpd;wd. rl;lj;jpy;
xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; vd;gJ tiuaWf;fg;
gltpy;iy. gf;fhyh ehuhad Rthkp vjpu; vk;guu;
(AIR 1939 PC 47)-y; xU xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;
vd;gJ xd;W xj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk; my;yJ
me;j Fw;wj;jpd; vy;yh cz;ikfisAk;
xj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ jdpg;gl;l
fTd;rpy;. mijj; njhlu;e;J cr;rePjpkd;wKk;
xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; vd;gJ xd;W
xj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk; my;yJ me;j
Fw;wj;jpd; vy;yh cz;ikfisAk;
xj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ. jhd;
Fw;wkw;wtu; vd kde;jpwe;J $Wjy; xU
xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; MfhJ.

vy;yh xg;Gjy; thf;F%yKNk
xj;Jf;nfhs;SjyhFk;. Mdhy;> vy;yh
xj;Jf;nfhs;SjYk; xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;
MfhJ. Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; eilngwf;
$baJ xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; MFk;. Mdhy;>
Fbikapapy; tof;Ffspy; eilngWtJ
xj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy; MFk;. xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;
mijr; nra;gtUf;F kpfg; nghpa jz;lidiag;
ngw;Wj; jUk;. vdNt> mj;jifa xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yk; jhdhf ele;jjh vd;gjw;F mjpf
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ju Ntz;Lk;. xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;
nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lkhdhy; jhdhf
Kd;te;J mspj;jjhf ,Ug;gNjhL Fw;wk;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

Rkj;jg;gl;ltuhy; mJ ele;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

xg;Gjy; thf;F%yj;ij ePjpkd;w kw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspNa eilngWtJ vd ,U
gphpTfshfg; nghJthfg; gphpf;fyhk;. Fw;wtpay;
eilKiwr; rl;lk;> 1973-d; gphpT-164-d;gbNa
ePjpkd;w xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; gjpT nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
mj;jifa xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; nghUj;jkhdjhf
,Uf;f Ntz; Lkhdhy; CrP.C-apd; gphpT-164-d;
ghJfhg;gpd; gbAk; topKiwapd;gbANk eilngw
Ntz; Lk;.

ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspNa eilngWk; xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yk; gytPdkhd rhl;rpakhfNt
nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. mtw;wpd;kPJ ek;gpf;if
itf;FKd; mtw;iw cWjpg;gLj;JtJ kpfTk;
Kf;fpak;. xU mjpfhuj; jpy; ,Ug;gtuhy; tw;GWj;jp>
kpul;b> Mirfhl;b> cWjpnkhop mspj;J
ngwg;gl;ljhf ePjpkd;wj;jhy; fUjg;gLk; xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yq; fis gphpT-24 ntspg;gilahfj;
jLf;fpwJ. xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; nghUe;jhjjhff;
fUj kpul;ly; my;yJ Mirfhl;Ljyhy; ele;jJ
vd ep&gpf;f Ntz; ba Njitapy;iy.
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F me;j xg;Gjy; thf;F%yj;jpd;kPJ
xU re;Njfj;ij cUthf;fpdhy; NghJkhdJ.
(uh[];jhd; muR vjpu; uh[h uhk;> (2003) 8 SCC 180).

gphpT-25 fhty; mjpfhhpfspd;Kd; Fw;wk;
Rkj;jg;gl;ltuhy; mspf;fg;gLk; xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yj;jpw;Fj; jil tpjpf;fpwJ. fhty;
mjpfhupfs; jq;fspd; mjpfhuj;jpdhy; rl;lj;jpw;Fg;
Gwk;ghd topfspd; %yk; kpul;b> nfhLikg;gLj;jp>
tw;GWj;jp xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; ngwf;$lhJ vd;gNj
,e;j gphpT-25-d; Nehf;fkhFk;. ,j;jifa Fw;wtpay;
eltbf;iffis 1884-ypUe;Nj fhz KbfpwJ.
(Fapd; vk;gpu]; vjpu; ghG yhy;> ((1884) ILR 6
All 509). ghG yhy; tof;fpy; fhty; mjpfhhpfs;
jtwhd topfisg; gad;gLj;jp Fw;wk;
rhl;lg;gl;lthplkpUe;J xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; ngWtJ
jLf;fg;gLtjw;fhfNt rhl;rpar; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-25
tiuaWf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; mj;jifa fhty;
Jiwapdupd; eltbf;iffis KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;Ltu Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ. Mdhy;> mj;jifa
eltbf;iffs; ,d;Wk; njhlu;fpwJ. rl;lj;jpd;
gphpT-25 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltUf;F rl;lg;G+u;tkhd
ghJfhg;igAk; fhty; mjpfhhpfs; Fw;wk; rhl; lg;
gl;lthplkpUe;J kpul;b xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;
ngWtijj; jLf;Fk; tpjj;jpYk; mike;Js;sJ.

NkYk;> gphpT-25 ,e;jpa murpay; rhrdj;jhy;
toq;fg;gl;l chpikahd jd;idNa Fw;wk;
rhl;lhjpUg;gij cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ. Rq;f kw;Wk;
cs;ehl; L cw;gj;jpj;Jiw mYtyu;fs;
MfpNahu; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-25-dhy; tpyf;fspf;fg;
gl;Ls;sdu;. (gQ;rhg; muR vjpu; gu;fj; uhk;> AIR
1972 SC 276).

‘jlh’ kw;Wk; ‘nghlh’ rl;lq;fSk; ,e;j gphpT-25-
ypUe;J tpyfpAs;sd. ,q;F fLikahd
ghJfhg;Gld; fhty; cau; mjpfhhpfsplk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;l xg;Gjy; thf;F%yq;fs;
Vw;fg;gLfpd;wd.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-26

fhty; Jiwapd; ghJfhg;gpy; tprhuidapd;NghJ
nfhLf;fg;gl;l xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; nry;yhJ
vdTk; mNj xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; cldbahf
xU ePjpgjpapd; Kd;dpiyapy; mspf;fg;
gl;bUe;jhy; Vw;fyhk;. Mdhy;> mit Ch;[pjg;
gLj;jg;gl Ntz; Lk;. ghpT-25-d; njhlu;r;rpahf
,e;jg; gphpitf; fhzyhk;. ,q;Fk;> fhty;
Jiwapdu; kpul;b mbj;J xg;Gjy; thq;fptplf;
$lhJ vd;gjw;fhfNt cs;sJ. fhty;Jiwapd;
‘fhtypy;’ ,Ug;gJ vd;gJ ‘rpiwapy; ’ vd;W
nghUsy;y.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-27

Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltu; fhtypy; cs;sNghJ
mthplkpUe;J ngw;w me;j cz;ikf;F
rk;ge;jg;gl;l ve;j xU nra;jpANk ep&gpf;fg;gl
Ntz; Lk;. ,e;jg; gFjpiaNa tprhuid
Vn[d;rpfs; gad;gLj;jp Fw;wq;fspd;
Mjhuq;fisf; ntspapLfpd; wd.

me;j fpilj;j nra;jp xd;iwj; jpUk;gf;
fz;lwpa cjt Ntz; Lk;. Vw; fdNt mg;nghUs;
vq; Fs;sJ vd fhty; Jiw mwpe;jpUf;Fkhdhy;
,e;jr; nra;jpahy; gad; ,y;iy. gphpT-27-d;
Nehf;fk; vd;dntdpy;> me;j Fw;wk; rhl;lg;
gl;ltuhy; toq;fg;gl;l xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l cz;ikfNshL xj;jpUe;jhy;
mj;jifa xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; xj;jpUf;Fk;
mstpw;F cz;ik vdf; nfhs;syhk;.

gphpT-27 kw;w gphpTfshd 25 kw;Wk; 26d;
\uj; jhfNt mjd; nkhop mbg;gilapy; fUjg;
gLfpwJ. Gyf;Fwp Nfhl;ilah vjpu; fpq; vk;guu;>
AIR 1947 PC 67> tof;fpy; jdpf; fTd;rpy; ,t;thW
$WfpwJ:

‘gphpT-27 rhpahd Kiwapy; thu;j;ijfs; xOq;F
gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. vdNt> ,jw;F Ke;ija
gphpTfs; toq;fpa jilfSf;F tpyf;fspf;fpwJ.
fhty;Jiwapd; fhtypy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ mspj;j
Fwpg;gpl;l rpy thf;F%yq;fs; ep&gpf;fg;gl
Ntz; Lk; vd;fpwJ. ,e;jg; gphpT fhtypy;
,Uf;Fk;NghJ Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;lthplkpUe;J ngw;w
nra;jpiaj; njhlu;e;J fz; Lgpbf;fg;gl;l cz;ik
kl;Lk; ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.’

Kk;ig muR vjpu; fjp fhY Xfhl;> AIR 1960 SC
1125 tof;fpy; 11 ePjpgjpfs; nfhz;l mku;T gphpT-
27-dhy; mDkjpf;fg;gLk; thf;F%yk; mq;F me;jr;
nra;jpiag; ngw tw;GWj;Jjy; gad;gLj;jp
,Ue;jhyd;wp mJ murpay; rhrdj;jpd; gphpT-
20(3)w;Fg; nghUe;jhJ vd;wJ.

,e;j \uj; jpd; murpay; rhrdj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;
cj;jpug; gpuNjr muR vjpu; jpNahkd; cghj;aha>
AIr 1960 SC 1125 tof;fpy; vjpuf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. cr;r
ePjpkd;wk; ,e;j gphpT-27 murpay; rhrdj;jpd; gphpT-
14-w;F vjpuhf ,y;iy vd;Wk; fhtypy;
,Ug;gtUf;Fk; fhtypy; ,y;yhjtUf;Fk; cs;s
chpik khWgLfpwJ vd;Wk; xNutif ghJfhg;G
mspf;f KbahJ vd;Wk; jPu;g;gspj;Js;sJ.

rkPgj;jpy; njhlue;j tof;fhd jpUkjp nry;tp
kw;Wk; gyu; vjpu; fu;ehlf muR> 2010 (4) SCALE 690>
fl; lhag;gLj;jp %is Ntiyiag; glnkLj;jy;>
ehu;Nfh Ma;T> ngha; $Wfpwhuh vd;gijf;
fz;lwpAk; Ma;T Mfpad jdpkdpjhpd; chpikf;F
vjpuhdjhy; murpay; rhrd chpikf;F vjpuhdJ
vd;fpwJ. Mdhy;> mj;jifa Ma;Tfs; gphpT-27-
d;gb nra;ag;gl;ljhf thjplg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> cr;r
ePjpkd;wNkh me;j Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltNu Kd; te;J
mj;jifa Ma;TfSf;F cld;gl;L mspf;Fk;
nra;jpfs; kl;LNk nghUe;Jk; vdj; jPu;g;Gf;
$wpAs;sJ.

rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhfg; ngwg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fs;

khepyk; vjpu; et;N[hj; re;J kw;Wk; m/g;rd;
FU> (2005) 11 SCC 600 – y; xU xypehlhtpy;
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l / njhiyNgrp ciuahly;
gjpT rhl;rpaj;ij Vw;gij Nfs;tpf;F
cl;gLj;jpaJ. ,J nlyfpuh/g; rl;lj;jpw;F
vjphudJ. nlyfpuh/g; rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghf
mr;nra;jp ngwg;gl;lJ vd;w fhuzj;jpw;fhf
my;yJ rl;lg;G+u;tkhfg; ngwtpy;iy vd;w xU
fhuzk; kl;LNk me;jr; rhl; rpaj;ij Vw;gij
jLf;f KbahJ vd;fpwJ.

rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghfg; ngwg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fis
Vw;gjpy; ,e;jpa ePjpkd;wq;fs; rl;lj;jpw;Fg;
Gwk;ghf xU rhl;rpaj;ijg; ngw;wpUe;jhYk;
mij xU Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhfg;
gad;gLj;jyhk; vd vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg; gLfpwJ.
,e;jf; nfhs;ifia cr;r ePjpkd;wKk; Vw;Wf;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. (G+u;zk;khs; vjpu; bnuf;lu; M/g;
,d;];ngf;rd;> (1974) 1 SCC 345).

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-29

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -24-28-y; Fwpg;gplg;glhj
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspNa ngwg;gLk; xg;Gjy;
thf;F%yk; gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-30

gphpT-30 cld; Fw; wk; Rkj;jg;gl;lthpd;
thf;F%yk;gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. ,e;j tpjpKiw
gphpT-133-cld; xg;gpl;Lg; ghu;f;fyhk;. ,e;jg;
gphpT-133 Fw;w cle;ijahshpd; rhl;rpak;gw;wpf;
$WfpwJ. xU Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;lthpd;
cle;ijahshpd; rhl; rpak; nghUj;jkhdJ
vd;fpwJ.

xU Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhf mtuJ
cle;ijahsupd; rhl; rpaj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk;
NghJ mij cWjpg;gLj;JtJ mtrpak; vd;W
cr;r ePjpkd;wk; fUJfpwJ. ,e;jf; fUj;Nj
gphpT-30-y; fpilf;Fk; rhl;rpaj;jpw;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

RNu\; Gju;khy; fyhdp vjpu; kfhuh\;bu muR> 1998
(7) SCC 377-y; xU cld; Fw; wk; Rkj;jg;gl;lthpd;
thf;F%yj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp Fw;wk;
Rkj;jg;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhf mtUk;; ePjpkd;w
tprhuidapy; ,Ue;jhyd;wp rhl;rpakhfg; gad;gLj;j
KbahJ vd;fpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -3-I nfhiy nra; jjhf egu; -1
kw;Wk; egu; -2 ,UtUNk Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;Ls;sdu;.
egu; -1 jhDk; egu; -2-k; ,ize;J nfhiy nra;jjhf
xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; mspf;fpwhu;. ,e;j
thf;F%yj;jpd; jhf;fj;ij egu; -2-f;F vjpuhfg;
gad;gLj;jyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-3-I nfhiy nra;jjhf
Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;shu;. egu; -1-k; egu;-2-k;
,ize;Nj mf;nfhiyiar; nra;jjw;fhd Mjhuk;
cs;sJ. ,q;F egu; -2 jhDk; egu; -1k; ,ize;Nj
me;jf; nfhiyiar; nra;jjhff; $Wfpwhu;. ,q;F
egu; -2-d; xg;Gjy; thf;F%yj;ij egh; -1-f;F vjpuhfg;
gad;gLj;j KbahJ. Vndd;why;> egu; -2 xU cld;
Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;ltuy;y.

gphpTfs; -32> 33: rhl;rpfs; vd;W $wKbahjtu;fspd;
thf;F%yq;fs;:


 xU ,we;j kdpju;
 xU njhiye;JNghd kdpju;
 rhl;rpak; mspf;fKbah epiyaile;j xUtu;
 xUth; Neubahf te;J rhl; rpak; mspf;f
Ntz; Lkhdhy; eP z; l fhyk; fhj;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;
vd;w epiyapy; ,Ug;gtu;fs;

MfpNahhpd; thf;F%yq;fs; xUrpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy;
Vw;fj;jf;fJ vd;fpwJ gphpT-32.

,wg;G thf;F%yq;fs;:

rl;lj;jpd; gpupT-32(m) xU rhtpw;fhd fhuzk;
rhu;ghd thf;F%yq;fs; gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. ,j;jifa
thf;F%yk; ,wg;G thf;F%yk; vdTk; miof;fg;
gLfpwJ. ,ej gphpT-32 Nfs;tpg;gl;l rhl;rpaj;jpw;F
tpjptpyf;fhFk;. tujl;ridf;fhf nfhLik
tof;Ffspy; nghJthf ,e;j tpjpKiw mjpfkhfg;
gad;gLj;jg; gLfpwJ. tujl;ridahy; ghjpf;fg;
gl;ltu;fs; mtu;fs; thf;F%yk; mspf;Fk;
epiyapy; cs;sdu; vd kUj;Jtu;
rhd;wspj;jgpd; jq;fspd; jug;G thf; F%yk;
mspf;f ,t;tpjp gadspf;fpwJ. ,tw;iwg;
gpd;du; me;j tof;fpy; gad;gLj;jyhk;.

gf;fhyh ehuhadRthkp tof;fpy; ,we;jtu;
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lthpd; tP l;bw;Fr; nrd;W gzk;
t#ypj;J tUtjhfr; jd; kidtpaplk;
$wpAs;shu;. rpy ehl;fSf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ cly;
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl; ltu; thq;fpa xU ngl;bapy;
milf;fg;gl;Lf; fple;jJ. ,q;F ,we;jtu; jd;
kidtpaplk; filrpahff; $wpr; nrd;w
thu;j;ijfs; tof;fpy; rhl;rpakhf gphpT-
32(m)tpd; fPo; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;ld. ,J xu
#oy; rhl;rpakhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. xU
,wg;G thf;F%yk; nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lkhdhy; me;j thf;F%yk; mspj;jtu;
me;j rk;ge;jg;gl;l epfo;tpy; mile;j
fhaq;fshy; ,we;jjhf ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -40 – 45: nghUj;jkhd
Ntisapy; eP jpkd;wq;fspd; jPu;g;Gfs;:

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-40:

xU tof;if ftdj;jpy; nfhz;Ls;s my;yJ
xU tof;if tprhupf;Fk; ve;j xU
ePjpkd;wj;ijAk; Vw;fdNt cs;s VjhtJ xU
jPu;g;Ngh my;yJ cj;juNth> my;yJ MidNah
jLf;Fkhdhy; me;j ePjpkd;wk; mij
tprhhpf;fyhkh my;yJ epWj;jp itf;fyhkh
vd;gjw;F mJ xU nghUj;jkhd cz;ikahFk;.
,t;thW> gphpT-40-d; fP o; xU jPu;g;gpd; nghUj;jk;
me;j tpjpKiwapy; toq;fg;gl;ls;s ,aw;if
tpjpiar; rhu;e;jjhf cs;sJ. mjhtJ> xUtu;
xNu tof;F%yj; jpw;fhf ,uz;L Kiw
jd;bf;fg; glf;$lhJ.

Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; murpay; rhrdj;jpd;
gphpT-20(2)-y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mij
CrP.C. apd; gphpT-300 tpthpf;fpwJ. ,q;F> xU
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltu; Vw;fdNt xU
ePjpkd;wj;jhy; tprhupf;fg;gl;L jz;bf;fg;gl;Nlh
my;yJ tpLtpf;fg;gl;Nlh ,Ug;ghuhdhy;
mtu;kPJ mNj Fw;wj;jpw;fhf ,uz;lhtJ Kiw




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

tof;fpl;L tprhupf;f KbahJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU nly;ypapy; thOk; eguhd egu; -1
jpUbtpl;ljhff; Fw;wk; rhl; lg;gl;L xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; jd;lid nfhLf;fg;gLfpwhu;. me;j
tof;fpd; tof;F%yj;jpd; xU gFjp fhd;G+hpYk;
eilngw;wjhy; fhd;G+hpy; cs;s ePjpkd;wk; me;j
cz;ikfisf; fhl;b tof;Fj; njhLf;f
KaYfpwJ. ,g;NghJ egu; -1 nly;yp ePjpkd;wj;jpd;
jPu;g;ig fhd;G+u; eP jpkd;wj;jpy; fhl;bdhy; mJNt
xU nghUj;jkhd cz;ikahf gphpT-40-d;fPo;
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;L ,uz; lhtJ Kiw
tprhupg;gijj; jLf;f KbAk;.

Fbikapay; tof;Ffspy; ,e;j tpjp Fbikapay;
eltbf;ifr; rl;lk;> 1908> gphpT-11-y; fhzg;gLfpwJ.
,g;gphpT ‘nu]; [_bfhjh’ jj;Jtj;ijg; gw;wpf;
$WfpwJ. xU gpur;rid rhu;e;j tof;F xU
nghUj;jkhd ePjpkd;wj;jhy; tprhhpf;fg;gl;L
jPu;g;gspf;fg; gl;lgpd; mNj tof;if kPz; Lk;
tprhuidf;F vLj;Jf;nfhs;s KbahJ.

Fw;wtpay; eP jpkd;wj;jpw;F Fbikapay; eP jpkd;wj;
jPu;g;gpd; nghUj;jk; kw;Wk; Fbikapay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F Fw;wtpay; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;gpd;
nghUj;jKk;:

Fw;wtpay; eP jpkd;wj;jpw;F Fbikapay; eP jpkd;wj;
jPu;g;gpd; nghUj;jk; kw;Wk; Fbikapay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F Fw;wtpay; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;gpd;
nghUj;jKk; xU Kf;fpakhd Nfs;tpahFk;. gpNuk;
rq;fu; vjpu; fhty; Ma; thsu; kw;Wk; xUtu;> (2002)
8 SCC 87 tof;fpy; cr;r ePjpkd;wk;
kw;wtw;Wf;fpilapy; ,t;thW $WfpwJ:
 rhl;rpar; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT 40-43-d; fP o; Vw;fdNt
toq;fg;gl;l ,Wjpj; jPu;g;gpd; kPJ ek;gpf;if
nfhs;syhk;.
 xNu jug; gpdhpilNa cs;s Fbikapay;
tof;Ffspy; ‘nu]; [_bfhjh’ Nfhl;ghl;il
filgpbf;fyhk;.
 Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; Cr.P.C. apd; gphpT-300-
d;gb xUKiw xU egu; jz;bf;fg;gl;Nlh my;yJ
tpLtpf;fg;gl;Nlh ,Ue;jhy; mtiu kPz;Lk; mNj
Fw;wj;jpw;fhf tprhhpf;f KbahJ.
 xNu fhuzj;jpw;fhf Fbikapay; tof;Fk;
Fw;wtpay; tof;Fk; ,Ug;gpd; Fbikapay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;Ng gphpTfs; 40-43y; cs;s
epge;jidfs; rhpahf ,Ue;jhy; nghUj;jkhFk;.
Mdhy; mJNt ,WjpahdJ vdf; $w KbahJ.

NkYk; me;j Ke;ija Fbikapay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;Ngh> cj;juNth ve;j
mstpw;F fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ me;j tof;Fg;
nghUs; rhu;e;jitfspy; ,WjpahdJ vd;gij
mq;Fjhd; jPu;khdpf;f KbAk; vd;fpwJ me;j
ePjpkd;wk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -2-d; nrhj;jpw;Fs; egu; -1
mj;JkPwpdhu; vd;W$wp jhNd me;jr; nrhj;jpd;
chpikahsu; vdg; gpufldg;gLj;jp egu; -1-lk;
cs;s jdJ nrhj;ij jpUg;gpj; juf; $wp
tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;. mtUf;F rhu;ghf tof;F
KbfpwJ. mjd;gpwF jdJ nrhj;ij
mgfhpj;jhu; vd egu; -1-d; kPJ egu; -2 Fw;wtpay;
tof;Fj; njhLj;jhuhdhy; Fbikapay; tof;fpd;
jPu;g;G nghUj;jkhd cz;ikahf
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg; gl;L me;j nrhj;jpd;
chpikahsu; egu;-2 vd gpufldg;gLj;jyhk;.
,q;F egu; -1 jz;bf;fg;glyhk;.

vdNt> xt;nthU tof;fpYk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l me;j
jPu;g;Ngh> cj;juNth nghUj;jkhdjh vd
Kjypy; Nfl; f Ntz; Lk;. ,uz;lhtjhf> mJ
nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Ue;jhy;> mjd; jhf;fk; vd;d
vdf; Nfl; f Ntz; Lk;. xU Fiwthd
Nehf;fj;jpw;F cjhuzkhf> Nehf;fk; my;yJ
gpur;ridapd; cz;ik Nghd;wtw;Wf;F mJ
nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;>
Fw;wtpay; tof;fpd; jPu;g;G fl;lhakhf
Fbikapay; tof;iff; fl;Lg;gLj;jhJ.

xU Fw;wtpay; tprhuidapy; xU ePjpkd;wNk
xU Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;lthpd; Fw;wj;ij
jPu;khzpf;f KbAk;. mq;F mjd;Kd;
itf;fg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fspd; mbg;gilapNyNa
KbntLf;fg;gl Ntz; LNkad;wp me;jj;
jug;GfspilNa eilngw;w Fbikapay;
tof;fpd; KbT ve;jtpjj;jpYk; fl;Lg;gLj;jf;
$lhJ. xU jPu;g;Ngh> KbNth vy;yh
tof;FfspYk; xU rhl;rpakhf
mDkjpf;fg;glhJ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-44

gphpTfs; -40>41 kw;Wk; 42-d;fPo; vjpu; jug;G
nghUj;jkhdjhff; $Wk; jPu;g;G mjw;Fj; jFjpaw;w
ePjpkd;wj;jhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ my;yJ
NkhrbahfNth tQ;rff;$l;lhfNth ngwg;gl;lJ
vdf; fhl;b ve;j xU jug;Gk; thjhlyhk;.

rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -45-51: nghUj;jkhd Neuj;jpy;
%d;whk; eghpd; fUj;J

xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lk; rhu;e;j jfuhwhf ,Ue;jhy;
ePjpkd;wq;fs; newpQh;fspd; fUj;ij ehlyhk;. xU
%d;whk; eghpd; fUj;Njh ek;gpf;ifNah tof;fpw;F
nghUj;jkw;wjhf vdNt Vw;fj;jf;fjy;y vdpDk;;
xUrpy Fwpg;gpl;l re;ju;g;gq;fspy; %d;whk; eghpd;
rhl;rpak; nghUj;jkhdjhf rl;lk; fUJfpwJ.

ty;Ydu; rhl;rp
S. toq;FtJ> ntspehl;L rl; lk;> mwptpay;
my;yJ fiy> milahsf;ifnaOj;J my;yJ
ifNuif mr;R Mfpatw;iwr; rhu;e;j fUj;ij
ePjpkd;wk; cUthf;fNtz; Lk;. rk;gtj;jpw;F
ty;Yeu;fspd; fUj;J nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;.
,e;j khjpupahd rhl;rpfs; kpfTk; gytPdkhdJ.
ek;gj;jFe;j rk;gtj;ij Neupy; fz;l rhl;rp/rhd;W>
itf;fg;gl;l Nkd;KiwaPL kUj;Jtrhd;W/
Fw;wtpay; tof;F tprhuizapd; nghOJ> kUj;Jt
ty;Yeu;fspd; rhl; rp. ( uhkhfhe;j; uha;.kjd; uha;>
2003 (12) SCC fhz;f) ePjpkd;wk; gapw;rpia
mwpTWj;JtJ> ftdk; kw;Wk; vr;rupf;if>
ty;Ydh;fspd; rhl;rp eltbf;ifapd; nghOJ
Kd;ddp rhl;rpia Kaw;rpg;gJ. ( Kuhup.yhy;
kj;jpa gpuNjr khepyk;. AIR 1980 SC 531
Ss.45 kw;Wk; 47> mq;fPfupg;gJ vd;dntd;why;>
rhl;rp vOj;jhsuha;> ifnaOj;J ty;Yeupd;
fUj;Jgb ep\&gpf;fg;gLjy;. kw;Wk; rhl; rp $Wk;
egu; njupag;gLj;JtJ vd;dntd;why;> egupd;
ifnaOj;J Nfs;tpahfpwJ. S.73 rl;lj;jpd; fPo;
Fwpf;fg;gLtJ ahnjdpy;> ePjpkd;wk; MdJ>
ifnaOj;Jfs;> vOj;Jfs; my;yJ Kj;jpiuia
xg;gPL nra;a mjpfhuk; cs;sJ.

S.52 rl;lk;: elj;ij nghUj;jkhdnghOJ
S.52 kw;Wk; 55> Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy;>
rhl;rpapd; Fzj;ij eltbf;if
Nkw;nfhs;tJld; S S.52 kw;Wk; 54 ,d;
nghOJ> Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy;
fl; rpf;fhuu;fspd; rhl;rpapd; elj;ij
Nkw;nfhs;fpwJ.
“elj;ij” vd;w nrhy;> tpsf;fTiuapd; fP o;>
S.55 cs;slq;fpaJ ahnjdpy;> ,uz;bYk;
mjhtJ egupd; ew;ngau; kw;Wk; kdepiy.
S.52 rl;lj;jpd; fP o;> Fw;wtpay; tof;F
tprhuizapy;> NghJkhd rhl;rp> ey;y xOf;fk;
vd $Wk; tiu> Fw;wk; rhl; lg;gl;ltupd;
jPaFzk; vd mwpag;gLk;. ,e;j tof;Ffspy;>
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltUf;F jPaFzk; vd;gJ
nghUj;jkhFk;.
gFjp II: Mjhuk;
ep&gpf;fg;gl;l Njitapy;yhj rk;gtq;fs;.
S.57 toq;FtJ> ePjpkd;wk;> ePjpJiwiar;
rhu;e;j mwpf;if kw;Wk; S.56 ,d;
jd;ikapdhy;> mJ Nghd;w rk;gtq; fis
ep&gpf;fj;Njitapy;iy.,e;j rk;gtq;fs;
cs;slq;fpaJ vd;dntd;why;> vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>
vy;yh tpj rl;lq;fSk;> ,e;jpa
vy;iyf;Fl;gl;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;>
Neuq;fisg;gpupj;jy;> cyfj;jpd; Gtpapay;
gpupj;jy;> nghJthd gz;biffs;> tpujk; kw;Wk;
tpLKiwfs;> mYtyf murpuopy;
nrupag;gLj;Jjy; Ntz; Lk;.
S.58 toq;FtJ> mr;rk;gtq;fs;> jug;gpduhy;
xj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;l rk;gtq;fs;
ep&gpf;fj;Njitapy;iy.
SS. 59-60 rl;lk;> tha;nkhop rhl;rp
midj;J thf;F%yk;> mjhtJ ePjpkd;wk;
mDkjpj;j my;yJ mspf;fg;glNtz; ba
thf;F%yk;> rhl;rpf;F Kd;G njhlu;Gila
rk; gtq;fs; tprhuizapd; fP o;
tprhupf;fg;glNtz; Lk;. ,J tha;nkhop rhl;rp vd
miof;fg;gLfpwJ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;
S. toq;FtJ> Mtzj;jpy; jilnra;ag;gl;l
cs;slf;fq;fspy;> midj;J rk; gtq;fSk;>
tha;nkhopahf ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. S.
“nrhy;yf;Nfl; l Nfhl;ghl;by; fUj;J njuptpg;gJ”
kw;Wk; tha;nkhop rhl;rpahf midj;J tof;Ffspy;
Neubahfj; Njitg;gLfpwJ.
,Ug;gpDk;> rhl;rp> rk;gtj;jpy; rhl; rpahf> mtd;>
Neubahf mwpe;j nra;jpia kl;Lk; jhd;
mspf;fKbAk;.
tpsf;fk;: B, A f;F jug;gl;l njhiff;fhf>
mtUila Ramwptpd;gb> rk;gtj;jpd; jd;ikahy;>
A ,B tpw;F fld; jUk;nghOJ> C mr;rk;gt
,lj;jpy; ,Ug;gJ. C apd; tha;nkhop rhl;rp
nghUj;jkhdJ. kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpy; Neubahf
rhl;rpahtJ. vg;gbahUe;jhYk;> C ,d; rhl;rp
$WtJ> vd; dntd;why;> X vd;dplk; $wpaJ> “A, B
aplk; fld; Nfl; ly; ” nrhy;yf;Nfl; l rhl;rpahf
mspj;jpUg;gJ nrhy;yf;Nfl; l Nfhl;ghl;bd;
tpjptpyf;F kw;Wk; rl;lj;jhy;> nghUj;jkhf
njuptpg;gJ.
Mtzg;glr; rhl; rp
S. tptupg;gJ(kw;Wk; tpsf;FtJ) Mtzq;fspd;
gpupT> “nghJ Mtzq; fs; ” kw;Wk; S. toq;FtJ>
nghJ Mtzq;fs;;> jdpahu; Mtzq;fisj jtpu>
midj;J Mtzq;fs;. ,e;j
nrhy; “Mtzg;glf;fhl;rp” tptupg;gJ> S. ,e;j
midj;J Mtzq;fSk;> ePjpkd;wj;jhy;>
fz;fhzpf;fg;gl;lg toq;fg;gLfpwJ.
Kjz;ik kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rp:
S. epiyapy;> Mtzq;fspd; cs;slf;fq;s;; ahTk;>
Kjz;ik my;yJ ,uz;lhtJ epiy rhl;rpahy;
ep&gpf;fg;gLtJ. S. toq; FtJ> ,uz;lhtJ epiy
rhl;rpapy;. tiuaiw cs;gl kw;Wk; mjd; Rw;W>
rhd;wpjo; efy;fs;> ,ae;jpu nray;Kiwapd;
cz;ikahd efy;fs;> rupNeu; mYtyupd;
Mtzq;fs; kw;Wk; xU eguhy; Mtzj;jpd;
cs;slf;fq;fs; gw;wpa tha;f;fzf;Ffs;> mtdhy;
my;yJ mtshy; ghu;g;gJ.

rl;lk; S. ,d; fP o; toq; FtJ> xNu re;ju;g;g
R+o;epiyapy;> Kjz; ik rhl;rp ,y;yhjpUf;Fk;
gl;rj;jpy;> ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rpia
cgNahfpj;Jf;nfhs;syhk;. kw;Wk; Nfs;tpapy;
rk;gtj;jpd; rpwg;ghf mtrpakha; nfhLf;f
,aYk;. ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rp> vg;nghOJ
mspf;f KbAk; vd;why;> Mtzj;jpd;
,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rp ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ.
Mtzj;jpy; ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rp
mspf;fKbahJ. vg;nghOJ vdpy;> cz;ikahd
Mtzq;fis mDkjpf;f ,ayhJ vd
mwpag;gLk;.
tpsf;fk;: efypy; ,Ue;J NtW xU gpujpia
jahu; nra;jy;>Mshy; gpd;du; mij mrYld;
xg;gpLtJ ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rpahFk;. Mdhy;
xg;gplg;gl;l efy;> cz;ikahdnjdpy;>
,uz;lhk; epiy rhl;rp ,y;iy. ,Ug;gpDk;>
efy;> mjpypUe;J NtW xU gpujp jahu;
nra;ag;gl;lNjh. mJ mrYld; xg;gplg;gl;lJ
MFk;.
jfty; njhopy;y El;gk; rl;lk; gb> ,r;rl;lk;
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. kpd;dpay; gjpNtl;by;>
mDkjpj;J mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. S. – A
toq;FtJ> kpd;dpay; gjpNtl;by;
cs;slf;fq;fs;> ahTk; S. – B ,y;
,zf;fkhf ep&gpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. S. – B ,y;
toq;FtJ> kpd; dpay; gjpNtl;by; epge;jidapd;
fPo; ep&gpf;f ,aYk;.
S S. - rl;lk;: Mtzg;gl rhl;rpay; tha;nkhop
tpyf;fy;
S. rl;lk;
S. toq;FtJ> xg;ge;j fhyj;jpd;nghOJ>
Mtzk; Fiwf;fg;gLtJ kw;Wk; midj;j;
tof;FfspYk;> ve;j xU tp\aj;jpYk;>
rl;lj;jhy; Njitg;gLk; Mtzk;> kl; Lk;
Mtzkhf mij ep&gpf;f ,aYk; my;yJ
NkYk; ,uz;lhk; epiy rhl; rpapy; cs;s
cs;slf;fq;fs;> Fwpg;gpl;l rpy tof;Ffspy;
kl;Lk; mtrpakhFk;>.
,e;jg; gpuptpy;>rpwe;j rhl;rpahf tpjpfshf
Nru;j;jy; - rpwe;j rhl;rpf;F jFjpahf cz;ikr;
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

rk;gtj;ij ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd;G
ep&gpf;fg;glNtz; Lk;.

tpsf;fk;: xg;ge;jk; cs;slf;fpaJ gyjug;gl;l
fbjq;fs; vd;why;> mjpy; cs;s midj;J
fbjq;fSk; ep&gpf;fg;gLtJ mtrpakhfpwJ.
tpsf;fk;: A, B f;Fmspj;Js;s gzj;jpw;fhd
urPjpy;> B nrYj;jg;gl;lJ vd ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
tha;nkhopahf njhif nrYj;jptpl;ljhf $wy;.
,e;j rhl;rp mDkjpf;fj;jf;fJ.
S. rl;lk;
S. Jiz S. toq;FtJ> xU Kiw xg;ge;jj;jpy;>
vOj;J rhl;rpahf ep\&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;> mjd;gpwF>
,U jug;gpdu;fSf;F ,ilNa> cs;s Kuz;ghL>
tpj;jpahrk;> mjpfupf;fr;nra;jy; my;yJ ,jd;
epajpfis fopj;jy;> Nghd;w vd;j xU rhl;rpAk;
thnkhop xg;ge;j;jpy; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,e;jg;gpupT
cs;slq;fpaJ tpyf;;$Wfs;> ,e;j Vw;ghl;bd;
NkYk; ,je; gpd;dhy; cs;s Nehf;fq;fis
tptupf;fpd;wJ.
tpsf;fk;: fhg;GWjp fhg;gPlhdJ> nghUs;fspd;
Nky;> gad; gLfpwJ. mjhtJ “fy;fj;jhtpy; ,Ue;J
yz;ldpw;F nry;Yk; fg;gy;fspy; ”. Fwpg;gpl;l
fg;gypy; vLj;Jr; nrd;w nghUs;fspy; ,og;G
Vw;gLjy;> me;j rk;gtj;jpy;> Fwpg;gpl;l fg;gy;>
fhg;gPl;by; ,Ue;J tha;nkhopahf ePf;fptpLjy;>
,tw;iw ep&gpf;f ,ayhJ.
tpsf;fk;: A xg;Gf;nfhz;lgb> B f;F \&gha; >
khu;r; > ,y; rupahf vOj;J %ykha; njhif
nrYj;jg;gbjy;. me;j rk;gtk;> mNj rkaj;jpy;>
tha;nkhopahf Nghlg;gl;l xg;ge;jgb> njhif khu;r;
tiu nrYj;jg;gltpy;iy vd ep&gpf;f ,ayhJ.
tpsf;fk;: A , B aplk; thliff;F tpLjpia
vLf;fpd;whu;. kw;Wk; B ml;ilapy;> “miwfs; &gha;
vd xU khjj;jpw;F” vd mjpy; vOjp ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
mij> A tha;nkhop xg;ge;jkhf ep&gpf;f ,aYk;.
,e;j epajpfs;> gFjp thupaj;jpy; cs;slf;fpaJ
MFk;.

gFjp 111 Mf;fk; kw;Wk; rhl; rpapd; gad;fs;
nka;g;gpf;Fk; nghWg;G
Ss. – rl;lk;
eltbf;ifapd; Kd;G> ePjpkd;wk; MdJ>
jug;gpdupd; cupikfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfis
Muha;e;J jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;L> ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd;G
itf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
Ss. – > fPo; rl;lk; Fwpg;gpLtJ> ve;jr;
rk;gtj;jpy;> ve;j jug;gpdu;> ep&gpf;fg;gl
Ntz; baJ nghWg;Gfis ntspg;gLj;JtJ
mtrpak;.
S. rl;lk;
S. epiyapy;> ahu;> rk;gtk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd
cwcjpahf ,Uf;fpwP u;fNsh> mtd; rk;gtk;
,Ug;gjhf epUgpj;Jf;fhl;l Ntz; Lk; kw;Wk; ahu;
ve;j egu; mr;rk;gtk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd
epUgpf;Fk; fl;lhaj;jpy; ,Uf;fpdwhNuh> mtd;
me;j egupd; Nky; nka;g;gpf;Fk; nghWg;G
cs;sJ.
tpsf;fk;: A > ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;ghf> mtu;
Fwpg;gpl;l epyj;ij cupikahf nrhj;jhf B
,lk; thq;Ffpd;whu;. rk;gtj;jpd; fhuzkhf>
vij mtu; nrhj;jhf thq;fpdhNuh mij B
mJ cz;iknad kWf;fpwhu;. A mij rk;gtk;
ele;Js;sd vd ep&gpj;jy; mtrpak; MfpwJ.
S. rl;lk;
S. toq;FtJ> VNjDk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l
rk;gtj;ij eguplk; nka;g;gpf;Fk; nghWg;G
cs;sNjh> vtu; mr;rk;gtk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd
ePjpkd;wk; ek;gNtz; Lk; vd tpUg;gg;gLfpwhNuh>
mijj;jtpu me;j eguplk; jhd; me;j nghWg;G
cs;sJ> md;j ep&gpf;Fk; nghWg;G rl;lj;jplk;
cs;sJ.
Ss. – rl;lk;
Ss. – rl;lk; toq;FtJ> nka;g;gpf;fj;
NjitAs;s nghWg;Gfspd; tpjpfs; my;yJ
Fwpg;gpl;l rk;gtj;ijg;t gw;wp mwpKfg;gLj;Jk;
rhl;rp> Fwpg;ghf me;egupd; Nky;


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

tpjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
S. rl;lk;
S. toq;FtJ> mjhtJ Fw;wtpay; tof;fpy;>
vg;nghOnjy;yhk;> Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltu;> mtsJ
tof;fpd fPo;> VNjDk;> nghJthd tpjptpyf;Ffs;>
,e;jpa Fw;wtpay; FwpaPL (“the IPC”), fPo;
Muhag;gLjy; my;yJ VNjDk; tpNr\
tpjptpyf;FfSf;Fs; my;yJ tpyf;$W
nfhz;bUe;j IPC my;yJ VNjDk; ,ju rl;lk;>
rpy re;ju;g;g R+o;epiyfs; Fw; wk; rhl;lg; gl;ltuplk;
ep&gpf;fNtz; ba nghWg;gpy; ep&gpj;J itj;jy;
kw;Wk; eP jpkd;wk; rpy re;ju;g;g R+o;epiyfis
,y;iynad mEkhdpj;jy; mtrpakhfpwJ.
tpsf;fk;: A >nfhiy Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;Ls;shu;.
vd itj;Jf;nfhz;lhy;> rpj;j RthjPdkpd;ik
fhuzj;jhy;. mts; nraypd; jd;ikiag; gw;wp
mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. A >mtSf;F kdeyk; ed;whf
cs;sJ vd ep&gpj;jy; mtrpak;.
tpsf;fk;: A >nfhiy Fw;wk; rhl; lg;gl;Ls;shu;. vd
itj;Jf;nfhz;lhy;>mjhtJ fLikahd kw;Wk;
jpBnud;W Mj;jpuk; mile;jhy;> mtd;
kNdhjplj;ij ,oe;Js;shs;. A mq;Nf> fLikahd
kw;Wk; jpBnud Mj;jpuj;jhy; jhd; vd;gij
ep&gpj;jy; mtrpakhfpwJ.
S. >,d; rl;lk;
S. toq;FtJ vd;dntd;why;> VNjDk; xU rk;gtk;
VNjDk; xU egupw;F mwpTf;F mg;ghw;gl;L
njupe;Nj> me;egUf;F ep&gpf;Fk; nghWg;G cs;sJ.
,e;j gfu;T tpjptpyf;fhdJ. mjhtJ S. ,y;
cs;slq;fpa nghJthd tpjpKiwfs; toq;FtJ>
mr;rk;tj;ij ep&gpf;Fk; nghWg;G me;egupw;F
cs;sJ. nfhs;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; S.
cld;gLtJ ahnjdpy;> rpy jw;fhg;G tp\aj;jpy;
kl;Lk;> gpujpthjpapd; Ramwptpd; gb> kw;Wk;
gpujpthjpia jtpu;j;J> Prk;gtj;jpy; njhlu;GilaJ
kw;nwhU egu; vd njupa te;jnghOJ mtu;
cld;gl KbahJ.
tpsf;fk;:xU egu; ve;j Nehf;fKk; ,d;wp nray;gLk;
nghOJ mjhtJ xU ghj;jpuk; kw;Wk; nraypd;
tpisTfis mwpTWj;JtJ vd;dntd;why;>mtu;
Nky; Nehf;fk; ,Ug;gJ Nghy; ep&gpg;gJ.mjhtJ
xUegu; EioTr;rPz;bd;wp gazpf;fpwhu;. mtuplk;
EioTrPl;L ,Ug;gjhf ep&gpf;Fk; nghUg;gpy;
mtu; ,Uf;fpwhu;.
mEkhdk;
xU rk;gtk; njhlu;e;J ,Ug;gjhf ePjpkd;wk;
ek;Gjy;. ,J “tpA+fk; my;yJ
nghUz;ikJzpG” vd mwpag;glyhk;. ,J xU
tpjp kw;Wk; rl;lj;ijg; gilj;jy; kw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wk; tpA+fj;ij mioj;jy;. Fwpg;gpl;l
rk;gtj;jpy; ,Ue;J my; yJ rhl;rpaplkpUe;J>
tUk; Fwpg;gpl;l mEkhdk; vg;gbapUg;gpDk;>
cz;ik my;yJ rupahdepiy>mEkhdk; vd
ep&gpf;fg;glhtpby;> mEkhdpf;fg;gl;l tpA+fj;ij
epd;W kWj;Jiuj;jy;.
tpA+fj;jpd; tpisthf> Kjy; fl;l tpA+fk;
epUgpf;Fk; nghWg;G ,Uf;Fk; tiu kw;Wk;
,y;iynadpy;> tpA+fk; kWj;Jiuf;Fk; tiu
gpujpthjpf;F rk;gtk; rhjfkhFk;.nghWg;ghsp>
gpd;du; Kjy; jug;gpdupy; khw;wg;gLthu;.
tpA+fk; Fwpj;Js;sJ Nghy;> mjhtJ nghJ
kdpj mDgtj;jpy; my;yJ nfhs;ifapy;
kw;Wk; mDgtk; tpAfk; ,uz;L tifg;gLk;.
nghUz;ikj; JzpG kw;Wk; rl;lj;JzpG.
rl;lk; S. fhz;f. ePjpkd;w epiyapy;> rl;lj;jhy;
mspf;fg;gl;l rk;gtk; “mEkhdpf;fyhk; ”
rl;lj;jhy; mspf;fg;gl;lNeubahd rk;gtk;
“mEkhdpf;fg;g;glyhk; ” kw;Wk; rpy Fwpf;fg;gl;l
ep\&gpf;fg;gl;l rk;gtq;fs; kw;nwhU rk;gtk;
Kbthf ep&gpf;fg;gLjy;.
Ss. – rl;lk;
Ss. – tpA+fk; njhlu;ghd Mtzq;fs;>
mjhtJ tpA+fj;jpd; gb> cz;ikahd
rhd;wpjs; efy;fs; (s. > tpA+fj;jpd;gb
rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l Mtzq;fs; rhl; rpf;nfd
gjpthjy; (s. > tpA+fj;jpd; gb murhq;f
mjpfhupahy; jpl;lq;fis tiuaWj;jy;> (s. >
kw;Wk; tpA+fj;jpd;gb Mtzq;fs; ahTk; tUl
gioiktha;e;jJ vd fUJjy; (s.



5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

S.113-A, 113-B, kw;Wk; 114-A ,d; rl;lk;
S.113-A, 113-B, kw;Wk; 114-A Nghd;w khw;wq; fs; >
kw;Wk; ,y; mjw;Fupajha; Nru;f;fg;gLfpwJ.
Nkw;fz; l Vw; ghLfs;> mr;RWj;jypw;fhf
Nru;f;fg;gl;lJ. kw;Wk; ngz; fSf;F vjpuhf Fw;wk;
rhl;Ljypd; tpfpjk; mjpfupf;fyhk;.
S.113-A (s.498- A, IPC IPC ,y; fhz;f)
toq;FtJ> Nfs;tp vOk;nghOJ> mjhtJ xU
ngz; jw;nfhiyapy; <LgLk;nghOJ> fztuhf
my;yJ mts; fztups; VNjDk; cwtpdwhf
,Uf;Fk;gl;rj;jpy;> kw;Wk; mts; jpUkzk; Md
Njjpapy; ,Ue;J tUlj;jpw;Fs; mts;
jw;nfhiyapy; <LgLk; nghOJ> kw;Wk; mtspd;
fztu; my;yJ cwtpduhy; nfh^ukhf mts;
Jd;gg;gl;bUe;jhy; eP jpkd;wk;> mtspd;
jw;nfhiyf;F ,ts; fztiuNah my;yJ
cwtpdiuNah jw;nfhiyf;F cle;ijahf
,Ue;jhy; vd Fw;wk; rhl; lg;gLthu;. mEkhdq;fs;
,e;jg; gpuptpd;fPo; fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.
S.114-A toq;FtJ>ngz;jug;gpy; eP jpkd;wj;jpw;F
Kd;> mtSf;F rhl;rpahf> mts; ghYwtpy;
rk;kjpf;fhj nghOJ. kw;Wk; ghYwT epfo;Js;sJ
vd Nfs;tp vOk; gl;rj;jpy;> ghYwT mts;
mDkjpAlNdh my;yJ mDkjpapd;wpNah
,Ue;jhYk;> ePjpkd;wkhdJ mtspd; mDkjpapd;wp
jhd; ghYwT epfo;e;Js;sjhf fUJk;. S.114-A
Fwpg;gpLtJ> S.376 (2) fPo; fw;gopg;G
epfo;e;Js;sjhf Fw;wk; rhl; Ljy;> jilnra;jy;
S.376 (2) (f).
S.113-A (s.304- B, IPC IP C ,y; fhz;f)
toq;FtJ> jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz; l ngz;.
tujl;rizf;nfhLikahy; ,we;jpUg;ghsh vd
eguhy; Nfs;tp vOk; kw;Wk; mg;ngz; cwtpduhy;
nfhLikahf Jd;Gwj;jg;gl;Nlh my;yJ
mr;RWj;jYf;F MshfpNah ,Ue;jhy; mtw;iw
ePjpkd;wk;> mts; tujl;rizf; nfhLikf;F
Mshfp mts; jw;nfhiyapy; MLgl;bUf;fyhk;
vd;W mEkhdpf;fg;gl;L KbT nra;Ak;. NkYk; ,J
jpl;lkpl;L nra;ag;gl;lJ vd; gJ nghUj;jkhFk;.
kw;Wk; cwtpsufspd; nray; vd;Wk;
jPu;khdpf;fg;gLk;. ,J rk;ge;jg;gl;l tof;fpy;>
rk;gtk; kw;Wk; tpisTfis rhu;e;jJ. NkYk; ,J
NjhuhakhfNth kw;Wk; tujl;rizapd;
mbg;gilapy; nfhLik vd Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;L
kw;Wk; ,J xU tujl;rizf;nfhLik rhT vd
itj;Jf;nfhs;syhk;.
,e;j %d;W Vw; ghLfSk; cau;ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
ngupa mstpy; Vw;ghLfis vLf;fg;gLk; kw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wk; kw;Wk; clupePjpkd;wq; fisg;
nghUj;J> mjhtJ uh[;ghG kw;Wk; kw;nwhUtu;
kj;jpag;gpuNjr khepyk;. JT (2008) SC 25
kw;Wk; kj;jpag;gpuNjr khepyk;> JT (2009) 2SC
419
S.114 rl;lk;

S.114 ePjpkd;w mEkhdg;gb> fUJtJ
vd;dntd;why;> VNjDk; rk;gtk;> ,ay;ghd
epfo;T> kd;jd; elj;jpa jpl;lkpl;l nray;
kw;Wk; nghJkf;fs; kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l tpahghu
el; Gfs; vd ,tw;wpy; VNjDk; xd;wpw;fhf ,J
Neu;e;jpUf;fyhk; vd mEkhdpf;fg;gLk;. Mdhy;
,e;jg; gpupT fl;lhag;gLj;jpaJ my;y. kw;Wk;
,e;j Fwpg;gpl;l tof;Ffspy;> rpy mEkhdq;fs;
rupahf cgNahfg;gLj;jg;glyhk;.
tpsf;fk;: ePjpkd;wk; mEkhdpf;fg;glyhk;.
• me;j Mz;> xUtupd; cilikfisj;
jpUbdhy; mJ jpUl;lhFk;. my;yJ
nghUs;fis mtu;fSf;F ngwg;gl;bUe;jhy;
mtupd; cilikfSf;F mtu; gzk;
nrYj;jg;glNtz; Lk;.
• ePjpJiw rhu;e;j kw;Wk; ,ju mYtyf
nray;fs; tof;fkhf elj;jy; Ntz; Lk;.
• me;j rhl; rpfs; kw;Wk; mspf;ftpy;iy
vdpy;> kw;Wk; rhl;rp Kd;itf;fg;gl;lhy;>
me;egupw;F mjhtJ epWj;jg;gl;l egUf;F
ghjkhf ,Uf;Fk;.
• rl;lj;jhy; Nfl; fg;gLk; Nfs;tpfSf;F
me;egu; gjpyspf;f kWj;jhy;> mtUf;F
ghjfkhd R+o;epiy cUthFk;.
S S. 115-117. rl;lk;:Kuz;jil.


5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;
SS.115 toq;FtJ vq;F xU eguhy; mtupd;
cWjpnkhop> rl; lk;> my;yJ tpLgNly;>
Nehf;fj;Jldhd fhuzk; my;yJ kw;nwhU eguhy;
mDkjpj;J tp\aj;ij cz;iknad ek;Gjy;
kw;Wk; ek;Gtij nray;gLj;Jjy;> VNjDk;
nghUj;jkhdij mDkjpj;jy; my;yJ mtuhy;
kw;Wk; gpujpepjpapd; ,ilapy; Kd;njhlu;jy;
my;yJ mtupd; gpujpepjpahy; me;j tp\aj;jpd;
cz;ikia jplkhf kWj;jy;.
Kuz;jil vd;gJ rl;lj;jpd; Nfhl;ghLk;> ve;j
xU egu;> mtuhy; cld;gl;Ls;s KiwaPL my;yJ
mtuhy; njhlq;fp elj;jg;gLjy;. ,J rl;lj;jpd;
tpjpfNsh my;yJ rkepiyNah ,y;iy. Mdhy;
,J xU Nfhl;ghl;bd; rhl;rpahFk; .
Kuz;jil vd;gJ rl;lj;jpd;
Nfhl;ghlhFk;. ve;j xU egu;> mtuhy;
cld;gl;Ls;s KiwaPL my;yJ mtuhy; njhlq;fp
elj;jg;gLjy;. ,J rl;lj;jpd; tpjpfNsh my;yJ
rkepiyNah ,y;iy. Mdhy; ,J xU tpjpapd;
rhl;rpahFk;. Kuz;jil vd;gJ cupikapay;
rl;lj;jpd; tpjpfs; MFk;. kw;Wk; NkYk; ,J
Fw;wtpay; eltbf;ifapy; ,J cld;glhjJ.
Kuz;jil kw;Wk; kWjPu;g;Gj; jilf;F ,ilNa
cs;s NtWghLfs;.
Kuz;jilahdJ> kWjPu;g;Gj; jil tpjpfspy;
,Ue;J NtWgl;lJ. xUNtis Kuz;jilapd;
nghOJ> mtd; my;yJ mts; Kd;G
vLj;Jiuj; jij> vjpu;jug;gpw;F vjpuhff;$w jLj;jy;.
Mifahy;> kWjPu;g;Gj; jilAld;> mjpfhuKs;s
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ,Ue;J> gpd;G ngwg;gl;l jPu;khdk;>
mNj tp\ak; eP jpkd;wj;jpd; Kd;G kPz;Lk; nray;
Fog;gk; Mf KbahJ.
kW jPu;g;Gj; jilapy;> ,J xU gpw;gl;l ePjpkd;wk;>
rl;ltuk;G ,y;iy. Mifahy;> xUNtis mjw;F
Kuz;jilapy;> xU eguhy; cWjpgLj;jpa rk;gtk;
my;yJ Kd;G vLj;Jf;$wpa Kd;ddp khwhj
rhl;rpapy; cWjpnkhop Kuz;jilahjy;.
NkYk;> Kuz;jil kw;Wk; Nkhrbf;F ,ilNa
cs;s NtWghLfs; MdJ> Kuz;jilapy;> xU
epfo;T fz;lwpa ,aytpy;iy vdpy;> Mifahy;

Nkhrbf;fhuu;> epfo;tpd; fhuzpia mspj;jy;.
NkYk; Kuz;jilahdJ tpyf;F mspj;jypy;
,Ue;J Kw;wpYk; NtwhdJ.
tpsf;fk;: B cs;Nehf;fj;Jld; kw;Wk;
jtwhf> jd;dplk; me;j Fwpg;gpl;l kid
,Ug;gjhf A it ek;gitj;jy;. kw;Wk; B
I kid thq;fj; J}z;Ljy; > kw;Wk;
kidf;f;fhf njhifia nrytplj;J}z;Ljy;.
gpd;du;> me;j kid A nrhj;jhfptpLfpwJ
kw;Wk; me;j kidia tpw;fKw;gLk; nghOJ
mtUf;F mJ cupj;j;jha; ,y;iy. mJ
mtUf;F cupj;jhdJ vd mDkjpj;J
ep&gpf;f,ayhJ.
S S. 116 kw;Wk; rl;lk;:
S S. 116 kw;Wk; rl;lk;> uz;jilapd;
Nfhl;ghl;bd;gb> tpsf;fk; MFk;. kw;Wk;
Kuz;jilapd; Fwpg;gpl;l tof;Ffspy;
eltbf;if vLf;fg;gLjy;. rfd;yhy; Nkj;jh>
`upgha; gl;Nly;> SCC 223 fzf;fPL nra;a
Kuz;jilapd; Nehf;fj;jpy; nfhz;L tUk;
tof;if fl;Lg;gLj;Jjy; Kuz;jilapd;
gy;NtW tiffis cs;slf;fpaJ MFk;.
mjhtJ Kuz;jilapy; gjpTnra;ag;gl;l
tof;F Kuz;jilapy; nray;fs; kw;Wk;
Kuz;jil ,d;/gah];.
Kuz;jilapy;> gjpTnra;ag;gl;l tof;fpy;>
Kjd;ikg;gpur;rpidAld; jPu;g;gpd; jhf;fk;
MfpwJ kw;Wkp ,jd; mDkjpg;G rhl;rp.
Kuz;jil Nfhl;ghl; by; xU egu;
Kuz;jilahy;> kdk; ,wq;fp Nfz;bf;nfhs;Sk;
nray;> my;yJ mtupd; Kd;Ndhu;fspd;
tpUg;gkhdJ> ngwg;gl;l cilikapd;
tpUg;gkhdJ> ngwg;gl;l cilikapd; nrhj;J
my;yJ nraypd; fP o; rpy rhjfk; Kuz;jil
vk;/gah]; MdJ> xg;ge;j cld;ghl;by; tUjy;
MFk;.jug;gpdiu vjpuhf Nehf;fj;jpw;F
,zq;FkhW mjhtJ nrhj;Jf;fis khw;WkhW
J}z;b Kuz;jil thjpLjy;.

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

Ss.118 – 134 rl;lk;: rhl;rpahsu;
Ss.118 toq;FtJ> mjhtJ midj;J egu;fSk;
rhd;W $w jFjpahtu;fs;. Mifahy; eP jpkd;wk;
fUJtJ ahnjdpy;> kpf ,sikahd taJ> kpfTk;
tajhdtu;fs;> kdk; my;yJ cly; rhu;e;j
Neha;fs; my;yJ NtW VNjDk; fhuzpfs; Nghd;w
fhuzq;fshy;. Nky;Fwpg;gpl;ltu;fspd; Nfs;tpfis
mtu;fshy; Gupe;J nfhs;tjpy; my;yJ mtu;fspd;
Nfs;tpf;F mwpe;jtu;fspd; gjpyhf
vLj;Jf;nfhs;tjpy; jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. rl;lk;
toq;FtJ> rhl;rpahsu; mtuhy; Ngr ,ayhj
fhuzj;jhy; kw;Wk; rhl; rpiashu; VNjDk; xU
tifahy; mtd; my;yJ mts; Gupe;J
nfhs;sf;$ba epiyapy; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;. me;j
rhl;rpahdJ> Ss.119 fPo;> tha;nkhop rha;rpahf
fUjg;gLk;. fztd; kw;Wk; kidtp> S.120 fPo;>
jFjp tha;e;j rhl;rpahsuha;> xUtUf;F xUtu;
vjpuhf mjhtJ Fw;wtpay; kw;Wk; cupikapay;
eltbf;ifapy;> jFjp tha;e;jtu;fs;. S. rl;lk;
toq;FtJ> ePjpgjp my;yJ Fw;wtpay; ePjpgjp
,y;yhky;> mtupd; elj;ijapy; eP jpkd;wj;jpy;
ePjpgjp my;yJ Fw;wtpay; ePjpahy; Nfs;tp
vOg;gKbAk;. ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jdpg;gl;l cj;jputpd;
gb> mtd; xU fPo;epiy Copau;> midj;J
tpjkhd ,ju tpisTfspy;> vg;gbapUg;gpDk;>
ePjpgjp kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; ePjpgjp jFjpahd
rhl;rpfshf tpjptpyf;fhdtu;fs;.
Ss.122 – 129 rl;lk;:
cilikfspd; gpur;rpidapy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;s epiy
kw;Wk; rpiw>VNjDk; xU egu;> gjpg;gpt;
ntspaplg;glhj mYty; gbNtl;by; njhlu;Gila
VNjDk; gpur;rpidapd; epiy> mjhtJ jiyik
,myhfh rk;ge;jg;gl;l mDkjpia jtpu;j;J S.124
iaikfs; njhlu;gpy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;s> nghJ
mYtyu;> mtUila mYty; gw;wpa ek;gpf;ifapy;>
me;j mYtyu; mtupd; ntspaPl;lhy; nghJeyd;
ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd czu;jy;.
tof;fwpQu; kw;Wk; fl;rpf;fhu;Uf;F ,ilNa cs;s
Jiwg;gzp njhlu;Gfs; S.126 fPo; ghJfhf;fg;gl;L>
,U jug;G tpyf;f$w;wpy; tpthjpf;fg;gLk; tp\ak;
MFk;.

tpsf;fk;: A thbf;ifahsu;> B aplk;
$Wfpwhu;. tof;fwpQu;> “ Nkhrbapy; <Lgl;Nld;.
kw;Wk; eP q;fs; vd;id jw;fhj;jy; mspg;gPu;fs;
vd ehd; tpUk;Gfpd;Nwd;. ” vdf; $Wfpwhu;.
,e;j mwpf;ifahdJ ntspaPl;by;
ghJfhf;fg;gLk;.
tpsf;fk;: A gzNkhrbf;fhf nra;j;jw;fhf
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;glf;$Lk; vdTk;> epWj;jg;gLfpwhu;
B tof;fwpQu;> mtiu jw;fhj;jy; nra;fpwhu;.
,e;j tof;F eltbf;ifapd; NghJ> B
tof;fwpQu;> cw;WNehf;FtJ ahnjdpy;> A
fl; rpf;fhuupd; tq;fpf;fzf;F Gj;jfj;jpy;> Fw;wk;
rhl;lg;gl;Ls;s A gzNkhrb nra;j njhif>
mtu; gzpapy; ,Ue;jnghOJ> tq;fpf;fzf;F
Gj;jfj;jpy; ,y;iy. ,e;j rk;gt tof;fp
eltbf;ifapy;NghJ> B ftdpj;jJ vd;dntdpy;>
Nkhrbapy; <Lgl;ljhf Njhd;wpdhYk;> MapDk;
eltbf;ifapd; Muk;gj;jpy; Njhd;wpdhYk;>
MapDk; eltbf;ifapd; Muk;gj;jpy;
ntspapLtJ ghJfhf;fg;gltpy;iy.
S.132 rl;lk;
S.132 ,lk;ngw;wpUg;gJ> vy;yh rhl;rpahsufSk;
cz;ik NgRtJ flikahFk;. S.132 >
toq;FtJ> rhl;rpahsu;> Nfs;tpf;F gjpy;
mspg;gjpy; ,Ue;J jQ;rk; vLj;Jf;nfhs;s
KbahJ. me;j gjpy; mtUf;F
cle;ijahfyhk;.
gpuptpy;> vg;gbapUg;gpDk;> tpyf;f$W
epiyapy;> mtuJ gjpyhy;> Fw;wk;
rhl;bapUg;gtu;> xU ngha;ahd rhl;rpia
jUtjpy; > jtpu> me;j rpy gjpy; mjhtJ
rhl;rpahsu; VNjDk; ifjhfpapUg;gpd;> my;yJ
Fw;wk; rhl;b ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ rhl;r;ahsu;
VNjDk; gaq;futhj eltbf;ifapy;
<Lgl;bUe;jhy; Nghd;wit MFk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> S.132 > toq; FtJ> mjhtJ A.20
(3) murpay; rhrdj;ijg; ghJfhj;jy; (yf; \pg;l;
nrhuhupah. k`huh\;buh khepyk; AIR 1968 SC
938)




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45

midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;
S.135 – 166 rl;lk; : rhl;rpahsu;fspd; tprhuiz
S.134> toq;FtJ>Fwpg;gpl;l> vz;zpf;ifAs;s
rhl;rpahsu;fs;> VNjDk; tof;fpy; Njitg;gLk;
VNjDk; rk;gtj;jpw;F Njitapy;iy. cluePjpkd;wk;
ifahz;l epiwa tof;Ffspy;> rhl;rpahsupd;
juj;ij kl;Lk; jhd; epWj;jpAs;sJ. vz;zpf;ifia
my;y.
S.134> toq;FtJ> cupikapay; kw;Wk; Fw; wtpay;>
nray;Kiw rl;lj;ij> jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;l Mizia
rhl;rpahsu; cUthf;fpa kw;Wk; Ma;T nra;jij
gpuNahfpj;J jug; gLfpwJ.
S.137> tptupg;gJ> vd;dntd;why;> Kjz; ik
tprhuizapy;> jug; gpdupd; rhl;rpahsu;
tprhuizf;fhf mtis mioj;jy;. NkYk;
tptupg;gJ> vd;dntd;why;> vjpu;jug;gpdu; thapyhf>
rhl;rpahsiu FWf;F-tprhuiz nra;jy;. S.137>
tptupg;gJ> jug; gpdu; rhu;ghf> FWf;F tprhuizf;F
gpwF mtis mioj;jy;.
S.138> njspthf toq;FtJ> tprhuiz
cj;jputpd;gb> kw;Wk; kpf Kf;fpakhf toq;FtJ>
rk;gt vy;iyf;F cl;gl;lg FWf;F – tprhuiz
nra;aj;Njitapy;iy. mtspd; Kjz; ik
tprhuizapy;> rhl;rp ep&gpf;fg;gl;lJ.
Gydha;tpd; Ntisapy; FWf;F-tprhuiz kw;Wk;
mwpf;iffs; cgNahfk;
S.145> njspthf toq;FtJ> mtshy; Ke;ija
mwpf;ifapy; vOjg;gl;Nlh my;yJ vOJjy;
Fiwf;fg;gl;Nlh rhl;rpia FWf;F-tprhuiz
nra;tJ kw;Wk;> mJ tof;fpd; Nfs;tpfSf;F
nghUj;jkhjy;.
rhl;rpapd; FWf;F tprhuizapd;nghOJ>
Gydha;tpd; nghOJ> cUthf;fg;gl;l
mwpf;iffis> tof;F njhlu;e;jtu;
kWj;Jf;$Wtij kl;Lk; cgNahfpf;fKbAk;.
mjhtJ S.145> ,y; rupahf Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
(rhl; ghy; nly; ypapy; ,Ue;J fhz;f> Ml;rp AIR
AIR 1976 SC 294)


tpyf;$W S.162 Cr. P.C., Gydha;tpd; nghOJ>
fhty;Jiwahy; rhl;rpahsuplk; gjpTnra;ag;gl;l
mwpf;if> rhl;rp tof;F njhlu;e;jtu;
kWj;Jf;$Wk;nghOJ kl;Lk; cgNahfpf;f
KbAk; vd S.145 rl;lj;jpy; rupahf
Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. tpyf;f$W 4.162 (1) Cr.
P.C., apy; ghu;itapy;> tpNr\kha;
Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
S.161 ,d; fP o; cUthf;fg;gl;l mwpf;iffs;>
tof;F njhlu;e;jtupd; cWjpghl;Lld;
cgNahfpf;fKbahJ. jLg;G eltbf;if my;yJ
ePjpkd;w rhl;rpahf ( jhrpy;jhu; rpq;
cj;jpugpuNjrk;> AIR 1959 SC 1012 mwpf;if)
tpil miktpdh
S.141 tptupg;gJ> tpil miktpdh vd;gJ>
VNjDk; Nfs;tpf;F tpil MNyhrpg;gJ> xU
egu;> tpUg;gq;fis my;yJ vjpu;ghu;g;Gfis $wp
ngWtJ. Kjz;ikfl; l tprhuizapd;nghOJ>
my;yJ kW-tprhuizapd;nghOJ>
Nfs;tpfSf;F mDkjp ,y;iy. ePjpkd;w
mDkjpiaj; jtpu. (S.141, S.143 )
vg;gbapUg;gpDk; toq;fg;gLtJ ahjdpy;> tpil
iktpid> FWf;F tprhuizapd; nghOJ
xUNtis Nfl;fg;glyhk;. FWf;F
tprhuizf;fhd fhuzk; vd;dntd;why;> cs;Ns
kiwe;J itj;j rk;gtq;fis ntspf;nfhz;L
tUjy; kw;Wk; Fw;wk; rhl; lg;gl;ltuplk;
rhl;rpgw;W jFjpAilikahjy;.
gpwo; rhd;WiuQu;
S.141, rhl;rpahf miof;fg;gLgtu;> mtSf;F
VNjDk; Nfd;tpfis Nfl;f xU egiu
mDkjpj;jy;> mjhtJ vjpu;jug;G thapyhf
FWf;F-tprhuiz nra;ag;gLjy;. ,e;j gpupT
thf;F%yk; eltbf;ifapd; nghOJ>
cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,J Ngr;R tof;fpy;>
gpwo; rhd;WiuQu; vd mwpag;gLfpwJ.
rhl;rpapd; epiyapd; nghOJ> mopf;fg;glf;$ba
Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gl;ltu; tof;fpy;>
Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gl;ltu;> mDkjpAld; tUe;jpf;
Nfl; Lf;nfhz;lJ. mjhtJ rhl;rp> gpwo;
rhd;WiuQu; elj;jg;gLjy;kw;Wk; mJ Nghd;u
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;
tof;Ffspy; tof;F tprhuizapd; NghJ>
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; flik MdJ> murhq;f
tof;fwpQiu> gpfo; rhd;WiuQiu rhl;rpahf elj;j
mDkjpg;gJ> ([p.v];. gf; \;.khepyj;jpy; ,Ue;J AIR
1979 SC 569 fhz;f )
ugP e;ju; Fkhu;Njt;> xup]; ]h khepyk;> AIR 1977 SC
170 kw;Uk; Nfhyp yf; \;ke; gha;. F[uhj;> AIR
2000 SC 210 ,J cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jp
itj;jJ> mjhtJ KO tof;F tprhuizapd;
NghJ gpwo; rhd;WiuQuhf rhl;rp epuhfupf;fg;gl
Njitapy;iy. kw;Wk; eP jpkd;wk; tof;F
tprhuizapd; xU gFjpapd; NghJ
rhu;e;jpUj;jy;.mJ ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; gw;iw
capu;G+l;Lk;. tof;F tprhuizapd; nghOJ> gpwo;
rhd;WiuQu; tof;F njhlu;e;jtu; tof;fpy;>
Mjutspj;J cgNahfg;gLj;Jjy;.,ij fUj;jpy;
itj;J> rkPgj;jpa Nghf;Ffspy;> tof;F
tprhuizapd; nghOJ> tof;F njhlu;e;jtu; rhl; rp
jd; gpwo; rhd;WiuQuhf jpUk;Gjy; kw;Wk;
fhty;Jiwapy; jug;gl;l mwpf;ifia kWj;J $wy;>
ePjpkd;w tof;F tprhuizfs; ,g;nghOJ tof;F
njhlu;jiy Cf;fg;gLj;JfpwJ. mjhtJ S.340 Cr.
P.C.,,d; fP o;> rhl;rpf;F vjpuhf> epd;W ngha;ia
nka;g;gpg;gJ.
rhl;rp$Wgtu;fs; gw;W jFjpAilikAld;
Fw;wQ;rhl;Ljy;
S S.153 kw;Wk; toq;FtJ> rhl;rpahsupd; gw;W
jFjpAilik topfspy;> Fw;wQ;rhl;Ljy;. ,jpy;
Fwpf;fg;gLtJ vd;dntd;why;> jPu;khdq;fs; > S.155
epiyahd epd;W jPu;khdpj;J> kw;Wk; murhq;fjug; G
tof;fwpQu;> fw;gopg;Gtof;fpy;> mtspd; gw;W
jFjpAilikapy;> mts; elj;ij rupapy;iy vd
FWf;Ftprhuizapy; Fw;wk; rhl; Ljy;.
tpsf;fk;
A, B apd; kPJ tof;F njhlu;fpwhu;. mjhtJ B f;F
tpw;fg;gl;L> tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;l nghUs;. C $Wfpwhu;.
nfhLf;fg;gl;l rhl;rpfs; $WtJ vd;dntd;why;>
Kd; epfo;tpy;> mtd; B f;F tpepNahfk;
nra;Js;shu; vdf;$Wfpwhu;. Kd;epfo;tpy; mtd;
$WtJ vd;dntd;why;> mtd; B f;F nghUl;fs;
tpepNahfk; nra;atpy;iy vdf;$Wfpwhu;. rhl;rp
mDkjpf;fj;jf;fJ.


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;
Fwpg;Gfs;
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
!
© 2010 & .
.
.





9:



' '

' '
. ' '
' '
.

"




,




,

." (P. J.
Fitzgerald

(Ed.), Salmond on Jurisprudence,
12th edn., Universal Law Publishing Co. Pvt.
Ltd., 1966,

. 1)

, "
?"



.





; ,


' '


.







;






.”
(P. J. Fitzgerald

(Ed.), Salmond on
Jurisprudence, 12th edn., Universal Law
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1966,

. 15)


' ' .

'

'
;
,

!
© 2010 & .
.
.


.



,
,

.


.


,


.

,




.
.
, AIR 1973 SC 1461


'
' v.
, AIR

1973 SC
1461. ,






.




,




.





:


?

"



"

.


,








,




.
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



,


,


.





,









. (P. J. Fitzgerald (Ed.),
Salmond on Jurisprudence, 12th edn. Universal
Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1966, p.16)




.




'
'
,

,

.


,


.



,



.



,


.

. . .



,



.

!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,



"



" .



'
',


'
.



.






,



.



.


:


;
• ;


;


;

;

;


;




.


' -
'

.


?


,

!
© 2010 & .
.
.


.

,

.



'
'

.
. , 115


,




. "

"


,

.





.
' ,

' .
,



-
.

' '


'
,
,
'(Ronald Dworkin,
“„Natural‟ Law Revisited‟, 34 University of Florida
Law Review 165 (1982).




,

!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,
,
,
,


,


,
,
P. J. Fitzgerald (Ed.), Salmond on
Jurisprudence, 12th edn., Universal Law
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1966, p. 25-26)
,
,


?
' '
? X
?
' ' '
'
?

,


' '

,
?
,
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



' '
,
,
,
'
,
?
,
,



,

, "
;
;




,

'
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

'
'

,



'
'
'
'


,
;

'


,
; (
;


!
© 2010 & .
.
.



,
' '
' '


,
,



,
'
'
,

,
,
,

, ,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



,
--

' '
, '
'

,
,
,
,
--
' '
,


'
' , ,


, A.19(1)(a)
III ,




, A.19(2)
' ,
'
' '
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,
,
'
'

,
Andrew Altman, Arguing
About Law, 2nd edn., Wadsworth Publishing
Company, Belmont, 2001, pp.161- 164).


?
,
,
?

,

,
,
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,
,
,



(Andrew Altman, Arguing About Law, 2nd edn.
Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont,
2001, pp.161-164).



,
,

,

,


'
'

' '.
,
'
'

,
,
,
' '
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



,
'
' '
'
,
,
,
,
--



,
,


1779-1861)
1822-1888)
1779-1861) ,
,



'
' '
,
-

!
© 2010 & .
.
.



,

,
' ' ;

,


,
;

,
' '


,


, ,

"

,


,
,
;

,
,




!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,

1870-1964),

,
"...
,

, ,
,


, ,
,
' '
,

,






?

,
John
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1972).

,



,
;



( )
, ( )


'
'
' '
,
'
' ,

,
,


,



,
,
?

, ,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.


,
,
?

,

,
,
, ,
(Amartya Sen, The Idea
of Justice, Penguin Books, New York, 2009,
p.12).


,
?
' '
,
' '
,
' '
,
,




!
© 2010 & .
.
.



, , ,
,


, Hohfeld, 23, Yale Law
Journal 16 (1923) and Hohfeld, 26 Yale Law
Journal 710 (1917))




,

. ,
,

, ,
,
,
-



! !

' '
' '
-

,
,
X
Y
,
' '
' '
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

X
'
Y '
'
' '
----
,

X ' '
'
'
'X
'
' '


, (2007) 3 SCC 169
,
' '

,



' '
' '
'
'
,
' '
'
'
,
' '
' '

'' '
' '


, ,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



! ! !


,
X Y
,
X ' '
Y ' '


, X
' '
,
X


CBI/SPE) ,
JMM ,
105


A.105: "(1)
;
,
,
,
,
(3)
,
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

,
,
,
15
, 1978,
-

, ,
,
, Aa.105(2)
105(3)
,

' '
' '
' '
,
,
' '
,
' ' ' '
' '
' '




?
?
?
?
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.



, ,
, ,
, ,
,
--


,



,

,
, , ,
'
'
,
,
,
,
, 1897 ( The General
Classes Act)

S. 13 '
,
1)
;
(2)
-





,
,
,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.


' '


,
;
,
(H. L. A. Hart, “Positivism and
the Separation of Law and Morals”, 71 Harvard
Law Review 593, 619 (1958).


,
' '

?
?
,
,
,
,
-

?
,
,

!
© 2010 & .
.
.




,
?
'
?
?



.

' '. ?
?
,
,
,
?

.
'
'
, '
'


!
© 2010 & .
.
.

' , , ,
,
'
' -
,
,
--

A.12
,
,

' '
, ' '
(Ramana Dayaram Shetty v.
International Airport Authority of India, AIR 1979
SC 1628)



,
,
,
' '
,


, AIR 1995 SC 470
TOMCO)
1969
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

1991
,
69
,




"
,


2007) 3 SCC 169


2(s) ' '
Ss.17 19(1)
'
'
,
,
,

,
!
© 2010 & .
.
.

, '
20


!
! 185
© 2010
&
.

.





.
ÁÇUSøµbºPÐUPõÚ
öuõÈÀ ö{Ô¬øÓPÒ
©ØÖ® {hzøu ÂvPÒ

ÁÇUSøµbºPÒ ¤ß£ØÓ ÷Ási¯
öuõÈÀ {hzøuPÎß uµ|ø»PøÍ TÖ®
ÂvPøÍ ÁSUS® AvPõµ® C¢v¯ £õº &
PÄß]¾US ¬ußø©¯õÚuõP C¸¢u
÷£õv¾®, C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]»õÀ
E¸ÁõUP¨£mh ÂvPÒ ÷£õx©õÚuõP
CÀø». ÁÇUSøµbºPÎß E¶ø©PÒ,
]Ó¨¦¶ø©PÒ ©ØÖ® Pmk¨£õkPÒ,
E¶ø©°¯À {øh¬øÓ \mh® 1908,
ÁÇUSøµbº \mh® 1961 ©ØÖ®
£õµ®£¶¯[Pξ® CÖv¯õP £À÷ÁÖ
E¯º}v©ßÓ[PÒ ©ØÖ® ©õ|»
£õºPÄß]ÀPÒ ÁSzu ÂvPξ®
Põn¨£kQÓx. (B°À Asm ÷{a_µÀ
÷Pì Pªåß Gvº BL¨÷åõº
Gshº¤øµ\ì , AIR 1993 Bom 217).
ÁÇUSøµbº & Áøµ¯øÓ :
ÁÇUSøµbº GߣÁº ÁÇUSøµbº
\mhzvß RÌ H÷uÝ® J¸ £mi¯¼À
÷\ºUP¨£mhÁº BÁõº. (ÁÇUSøµbº
\mh® (¤¶Ä 2 (1) (2)).
÷\ºUøP²®, £vÄ® :
C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À AuÝøh¯
ö\¯ÀPøÍ |øÓ÷ÁØÓ ÁÇUSøµbº
\mhzvß RÌ ÂvPøÍ E¸ÁõUP»õ®.
SÔ¨£õP C¢u ÂvPÒ ÁÇUSøµbº £vÄ
ö\´¯ uS¢uÁºPÎß ÁS¨¦ ©ØÖ®
ÁøPPøͨ £ØÔ TÖQÓx. (¤¶Ä 49 (1)
(ag) ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®).
ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®, ]» {£ºPøÍ ©õ|»
£mi¯¼À ÁÇUSøµbºPÍõP
÷\ºUPUThõx GßÖ TÖQÓx.
A¢u {£ºPÒ , RÌPshÁºPÒ BÁº.
 JÊUPU÷Pk \®£¢u¨£mh
SØÓ[PÎÀ ushøÚ ö£ØÓÁº.
 wshõø© (SØÓ[PÒ) \mh®,1955
ß ¤¶ÄPÎß RÌ TÓ¨£mh
SØÓ[PÐUPõP ushøÚ ö£ØÓÁº.
 ©õ|» A¾Á»P® AÀ»x
£o°¼¸¢x }UP¨£mhÁº AÀ»x
»UP¨£mhÁº AÀ»x JÊUPU÷Pk
\®£¢u¨£mh SØÓa\õmkUPõP
}UP¨£mhÁº AÀ»x »UP¨£mhÁº.
C¢u uøh ushøÚ ö£ØÓÁ¶ß
Âkuø»°À C¸¢x Cµsk BskPÒ
AÀ»x £o¯õͺ AÀ»x A¾Á»¶ß
£o}UP® AÀ»x »USu¼À C¸¢x
Cµsk BskPÒ Áøµ ©mk÷© C¸US®
GßÖ ¤¶Ä 24 A(1), ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®
TÖQÓx. (£õºUP ÷á. Gß. ã S¨uõ Gvº
GÀ. ã Aìéõ®, AIR 1959 Aìéõ® 134).
¤¶Ä 24 (A)(1) ushøÚ GßÖ
SÔ¨¤hÂÀø». C¢u uøh SØÓ®
PshÔ¯¨£mh BÚõÀ 1958 ß RÌ
|ºÁQUP¨£k® {£¸US ö£õ¸¢uõx. (¤¶Ä
24 (A)(2) ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®).
Euõµn® : A GߣÁº Aµ_ £oUS
Âsn¨¤zuõº. J¸ SÔ¨¤mh \uÃu
£o°h[PÒ J¸ SÔ¨¤mh
¤Ø£kzu¨£mh ÁS¨¤Ú¸US
JxUP¨£mi¸UQßÓÚ. JxUP¨£mh
ÁS¨ø£a \õµõu ÷Áø»ø¯¨ ö£Ó
÷Ásk® GßÓ GsnzvÀ C¸¢u „A‟
GߣÁº ÷Áø»ø¯¨ ö£ÖÁuØPõP
ö£õ´¯õÚ \õßÔuøÇ \©º¨¤zuõº.
ö£õ´¯õÚ \õßÔuøÇ \©º¤¨£x
JÊUPU÷PhõÚ SØÓ® GßÖ TÓ¨£mk A
GߣÁº usiUP¨£mhõº. A GߣÁº
AÁ¸øh¯ Âkuø»°À C¸¢x Cµsk
Á¸h[PÒ Áøµ ÁÇUSøµbµõP £vÄ
ö\´u¼À C¸¢x uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº.
(S©õ¶ ©õx¶£õmiÀ Gvº TkuÀ
Bøn¯º, iøµ£À öhÁ»¨ö©sm, AIR
1995 SC 94).
Euõµn® : A GßÓ ÁÇUSøµbº B GßÓ
Gvº uµ¨¦ ÁÇUSøµbøµ EnÄ
Cøh÷ÁøÍ°ß ÷£õx Pzv¯õÀ uõUQÚõº.
A¢u ÷{µzvÀ, A GߣÁº x¨£õUQ¯õ¾®
_mhuõPa ö\õÀ»¨£kQÓx. A GߣÁº
A¢u SØÓzvØPõP usiUP¨£mhõº ©ØÖ®
E¯º}v ©ßÓ¬® A¢u ushøÚø¯ EÖv
ö\´ux. ©õ|» £õº PÄß]À A GߣÁøµ
C¢u wµ {hzøu ÷PkUPõP
ÁÇUSøµbµõP £o¯õØÖÁvÀ C¸¢x
uøh ö\´¯ ¬i²®. ©õ|» £õº PÄß]¼ß
JÊUPU SÊz öuõÈÀ AÀ»x ©ØÓ
{hzøu ÷Pk ö\´uÁ¸US ushøÚ
AÎUS®AvPõµ® £øhzux. (î®Pz A¼
Põß Gvº DìÁº ¤µ\õz Bº¯õ, AIR 1997
SC 864).
÷©ØTÔ¯ Euõµn[Pøͨ ÷£õ»
JÊUPU ÷PhõÚ SØÓzvØPõP
usiUP¨£mhÁº, ÁÇUSøµbº £vÄ
ö\´u¾US Âsn¨¤zuõÀ AÁ¸øh¯
Âkuø»°À C¸¢x Cµsk Á¸h[PÒ
£vÄ ö\´u¾US ©ÖUP¨£kQÓõº.
Euõµn® : ÷©ØTÔ¯
GkzxUPõmiÀ, Pzv¯õÀ uõUQ¯uØS
£v»õP A GߣÁº ©õ|» Aµ_ A¾Á»µõP
C¸¢x £nzøu v¸i¯ SØÓ® (ì÷hm
Á[Q, AÀ»x Á¸©õÚ Á¶xøÓ)
ö\´v¸¢uõÀ, AÁº JÊUPU ÷PhõÚ SØÓ®
ö\´uÁº BQÓõº. GÚ÷Á AÁº ÁÇUPÔbº
£vĨ £mi¯¼À C¸¢x Cµsk
BskPÒ }UP¨£kQÓõº.
A GߣÁº Âsn¨¤zv¸¢x
JÊUPU ÷PhõÚ SØÓzvØPõP ushøn
ö£ØÖ £mi¯¼À C¸¢x
}UP¨£mi¸¢uõÀ, AÁ¸øh¯
Âkuø»°À C¸¢x Cµsk BskPÒ
Áøµ ÁÇUSøµbµõP¨ £vÄ ö\´¯
AÝ©vUP¨£h ©õmhõº.
Euõµn® : wshõø© (SØÓ[PÒ) \mh®
1955ß RÌz ushøÚ ö£ØÔ¸¢uõÀ A
GߣÁº ÁÇUPÔbº £mi¯¼À C¸¢x
}UP¨£kÁõº. A÷u ÷£õÀ, Âsn¨£®
ö\´uÁº wshõø© (SØÓ[PÒ) \mh®
1955 ß RÌ ushøn ö£ØÔ¸¢uõÀ
Cµsk BskPÒ £vÄ ö\´u¼À C¸¢x
uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº.
£vÄ ö\´u¼À ÷©õ\i AÀ»x
ö£õ´UTØÖ :
J¸Áº ¬UQ¯©õÚ ö£õ¸sø©°ß
÷©À ö£õ´UTØÖ AÀ»x ÷©õ\i AÀ»x
uPõ|ø» ÁئÖzu¼ÚõÀ uÚx ö£¯øµ
ÁÇUSøµbº £mi¯¼À ÷\ºzv¸UQÓõº
GßÖ C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À
v¸¨v¯øh¢uõÀ, AÁ¶ß ö£¯øµ C¢v¯
£õº PÄß]À ÁÇUPÔbº £mi¯¼À C¸¢x
}UP® ö\´¯»õ®. A¢u {£¸US AÁ¸øh¯
£vø»U ÷PmP J¸ Áõ´¨¦ ÁÇ[Põ©À
ö£¯º }UP® ö\´uõÀ Ax ö\¯¾US Áµõx.
(¤¶Ä 26 (1), Á. \mh®, 1961).
÷©õ\i Gߣx J¸ {»£õk ö£Ö®
Gsnzxhß H©õØÖuÀ BS®.
(G”ì.¤.ö\[PÀÁµõ¯ {õ²k Gvº öáP{õz
AIR 1994 SC 583).
Euõµn® : ¤ (P) GߣÁº ÁÇUSøµbµõP
£vÄ ö\´¯ {õkQÓõº. ¤ (P) GߣÁº
C¢v¯ ushøÚa \mh® ¤¶Ä 411 ©ØÖ®
473 ß RÌ ö£ØÓ ¬¢øu¯ ushøÚPøÍ
öÁÎUPõmhÂÀø». „¤‟ ß ö£¯º
£mi¯¼À C¸¢x }UP¨£mhx. C¢v¯
J¨£¢ua \mh® ¤¶Ä 17 ß RÌ ¤ ÷£_®
Phø© EÒÍÁº. Âsn¨£zvÀ ¬¢øu¯
ushøÚPøÍU SÔ¨¤k® £Sv CÀ»õu
÷£õv¾®, ¤ AuøÚ öÁÎUPõmi C¸UP
÷Ásk®. (÷áõQ¢uº ][ Gvº C¢v¯ £õº
PÄß]À, AIR 1975 öhÀ¼ 192).
Euõµn® : ¤ (P) ÁÇUSøµbº,
uÚUS GvµõP {hzøuU ÷PmiØPõÚ ÁÇUS
|¾øÁ°À C¸¢uøu ©øÓzx ÂkQÓõº.
¤ (P) GߣÁº ÁÇUSøµbº \mhzvß R̨
£vÄ ö\´¯ uPõuÁº BQÓõº. (C¢uº ][. In
re 1963 (65) PLR 619).
u¯Ä ö\´x C¢v¯ J¨£¢u \mh®
¤¶Ä 17 ß RÌ EÒÍ Euõµn[PøͲ®,
¤¶Ä 18 ß RÌ EÒÍ ö£õ´UTØÔß
Áøµ¯øÓø¯²® C¢u £SvUPõP PõsP.
ÁÇUSøµbµõP £vÄ ö\´²®
J¸Áµx Âsn¨£zvøÚ J¸ ©õ|» £õº
PÄß]À ©Özv¸¢uõÀ, Aøu ©Özu
©õ|» £õº PÄß]À ©ØÖ® C¢v¯ £õº
PÄß]ÀPÎß GÊzx -»©õÚ \®©u®
CßÔ ÷ÁÖ G¢u ©õ|» £õº PÄß]¾®
A÷u {£¶ß ÁÇUSøµbµõPa ÷\ºUS®
Âsn¨£zvøÚ HØÖU öPõÒÍõx (¤¶Ä
27, Á.\mh® 1961).
©ØÓ¨ £oPÎß «x uøh:
\mhzöuõÈø» GkzxU öPõÒÍ
¸¨£® Eøh¯Áº J¸ Áõ´ø£ E¸ÁõUP
÷Ásk®. J¸Áº ÁÇUSøµbµõP \mhz
öuõȼÀ ~øÇ¢uõÀ, ÁÇUSøµbº
£oø¯ {hzxÁuØS HØ£ uÚx
©Ú|ø»ø¯ E¸ÁõUP ÷Ásk®. ©ØÓ
GxÄ® C¸UPUThõx. C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À
ÂvPÒ, 1975 ©ØÓ öuõÈ¼ß ÷©À
uøhPøÍ ÂvUQÓx. (Re S, J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº, µS{õz§º AIR, 1936 Pat 1).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº uÛzu |ø»°À
÷ÁÖ G¢u öuõȼ¾® Dk£h ¬i¯õx.
ÁÇUSøµbº öuõÈÀ ©õs¦US GvµõP
¤ÓöuõÈ¼ß ußø© CÀø» GßÖ uS¢u
©õ|» £õº PÄß]À P¸vÚõÀ, A¢u
Tmhõsø©°À ÁÇUSøµbº J¸
EÓ[S® £[Suõµº BP C¸UP»õ®.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II,
¤¶Ä VII, Âv 47).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº \õuõµn A©¸®
Pmhnzxh÷Úõ CÀ»õ©÷»õ, J¸
|ÖÁÚzvß C¯USÚµõP÷Áõ AÀ»x
C¯USÚº SÊÂß uø»ÁµõP÷Áõ C¸UP
¬i²®. GÛÝ® ÁÇUSøµb¶ß,
C¯USÚµõP÷Áõ AÀ»x C¯USÚº
SÊÂß uø»ÁµõP÷Á EÒÍ Phø©PÒ
|ºÁõP ¬iÄPøÍ Gk¨£uõP÷Áõ AuøÚ
A©À£kzxÁuõP÷Áõ C¸UP ¬i¯õx. J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº J¸ |ÖÁÚzvß
÷©»õsø© C¯USÚµõP÷Áõ AÀ»x
ö\¯»õ͵õP÷Áõ C¸UP Thõx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv IV , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 48).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, ÁÇUSøµbº £o°À
Dk£mk C¸US® ö£õÊx, J¸ {£¶ß,
Aµ]ß, Pmhõsø©°ß |ÖÁÚzvß
AÀ»x Aø©¨¤ß \®£Í® Áõ[S®
¬Ê÷{µ £o¯õ͵õP C¸UP ¬i¯õx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÷ÁÖ £o°øÚ GkzxU
öPõshõÀ AÀ»x ÷\º¢uõÀ, A¢u
ÁÇUSøµbº £õº PÄß]¾US ¯õ¸øh¯
£vÂÀ A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº ö£¯º C¸UQÓx
GßÖ öu¶¯¨£kzu ÷Ásk®. ©ØÖ®
£o¯õ͵õP C¸US® Áøµ ÁÇUSøµbº
£o ö\´¯ Thõx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 49).
©õ|» £õº PÄß]À J¸
ÁÇUSøµbøµ, ©zv¯ AÀ»x ©õ|» Aµ_,
AÀ»x H÷uÝ® ö£õx |ÖÁÚ® AÀ»x
\mh¨£i¯õÚ Aø©¨¤ß \®£Í® ö£Ö®
¬Ê÷{µ \mh A¾Á»µõP £o¯õØÓ
AÝ©vUP ¬i²®. (¤¶ÄPÒ 28 (2) (a)
©ØÖ® 24 (1) (E), ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®
÷\ºzx £iUP BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI ,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä VII , Âv 49).
\mh A¾Á»º GߣÁº ©zv¯
AÀ»x ©õ|» Aµ_ AÀ»x H÷uÝ® ö£õx
|ÖÁÚ® AÀ»x \mh¨£i¯õÚ
Aø©¨¤ß \õº£õP }v©ßÓzvÀ
ö\¯À£h÷Áõ AÀ»x Áõvh÷Áõ
|¯ªUP¨£mh {£º BÁõº. (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII , Âv
49).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ¤Ó¨¦ ¬øÓ
Áõ¶_¶ø© -»©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x Gg_{µõP
CÓ[S¶ø© -»©õP÷Áõ J¸ Sk®£z
öuõÈø» ö£ØÔ¸¢uõÀ, A¢u Sk®£z
öuõÈø» öuõhµ»õ®. A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº
uÛzu |ø»°À A¢u öuõȼß
|ºÁõPzvÀ £[S ö£ÓUThõx. J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº ¤Ó¨¦ ¬øÓ Áõ¶_¶ø©
AÀ»x Gg_{º CÓ[S¶ø© AÀ»x
E°¼ß -»® ö£ØÓ H÷uÝ® öuõȼß
J¸£[QøÚ øÁzv¸¨£øu öuõhµ»õ®.
A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº uÛzu |ø»°À ¤Ó¨¦
¬øÓ Áõ¶_¶ø© AÀ»x Gg_{º
CÓ[S¶ø© AÀ»x E°¼ß -»® ö£ØÓ
H÷uÝ® öuõȼÀ |ºÁõPzvÀ £[S
öPõÒÍ ¬i¯õx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 50).
Euõµn®: A GߣÁº AÁº \®£¢u¨£mh
öuõÈ»õͺ uPµõÖ ÷©À }v©ßÓzvÀ
|¾øÁ°À C¸US® ö£õÊx öuõÈÀ
uPµõÖPÒ \mh® ¤¶Ä 17 B ß RÌ
ÁõÌUøP¨ ö£õ¸Ðu £izöuõøP
ö£ØÖU öPõsk® A÷u ÷{µzvÀ £vÄ
ö\´u ÁÇUSøµbµõP¨ £o ö\´uõº. „A‟
GߣÁº {hzøuU ÷Pk SØÓÁõÎ BQÓõº.
AÁº ÁÇUSøµbµõP £o ö\´Áv¼¸¢x
uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº. (÷åU ©U§¨
íúø\ß Gvº B¢vµ £õº PÄß]À, AIR
2003 NOC 2915).
Euõµn® : ÷©ØPsh GkzxUPõmiÀ,
öuõÈÀ uPµõÖPÒ \mhzvß RÌ A GߣÁº
CǨ¥k ö£ÓÂÀø»ö¯ßÓõ¾® A
GߣÁº ÁÇUSøµbº £o°À C¸US®
ö£õÊx J¸ {£¶h÷©õ, Aµ]h÷©õ,
Tmhõsø©°h÷©õ, |ÖÁÚzvh÷©õ
AÀ»x J¸ Aø©¨¤h÷©õ \®£Í® ö£Ö®
¬Ê÷{µ £o¯õ͵õP C¸¢uõÀ, „A‟
GߣÁº C¢u ÂvPøÍ «Ö£ÁµõP BQÓõº.
Euõµn® : ÷©ØTÔ¯ EuõµnzvÀ, A
GߣÁº }v©ßÓ[PÎÀ, ©zv¯ AÀ»x
©õ|» Aµ_UPõP÷Áõ AÀ»x H÷uÝ®
ö£õx |ÖÁÚzvØPõP÷Áõ AÀ»x
C¯ØÓ¨£mh \mhzuõÀ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh
Aø©¨¤ØPõP÷Áõ ö\¯À£hÄ® AÀ»x
ÁõvhÄ® ©õ|» £õº PÄß]À ÂvPÎß RÌ
AÝ©vUP¨£h ¬i²®.
Euõµn® : ÷©÷» EÒÍ GkzxUPõmiÀ ,
öuõÈÀ uPµõÖPÒ \mhzvß RÌ CǨ¥k
Áõ[SÁuØS £v»õP, A GߣÁº \õuõµn
A©¸® Pmhn® ö£ØÖU öPõs÷hõ
CÀ»õ©÷»õ, J¸ |ÖÁÚzvß
C¯USÚµõP÷Áõ AÀ»x C¯USÚº SÊ
uø»ÁµõP÷Áõ C¸¢uõÀ , AÁº C¢u
ÂvPøÍ «ÓÂÀø». Tku»õP A
GߣÁ¶ß C¯USÚº AÀ»x uø»Áº
£u塧 £oPÒ |ºÁõP ¬iöÁk¨£uõP
C¸UP÷Áõ AÀ»x AI GߣÁº
÷©»õsø© C¯USÚº AÀ»x
ö\¯»õ͵õP÷Áõ C¸UP ¬i¯õx.
Euõµn® : ÷©÷» EÒÍ GkzxUPõmiÀ,
A GߣÁº, ¤Ó¨¦ ¬øÓ Áõ¶_¶ø©
-»©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x Gg_{º CÓ[S¶ø©
-»©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x E°¼ß -»©õP÷Áõ
ö£ØÓ Sk®£z öuõÈ¼ß £[QÀ
öuõhµ»õ®. GÛÝ® A GߣÁº ÷©ØPsh
öuõÈ¼ß |ºÁõPzvÀ uÛzu |ø»°À
£[S ö£Ó ¬i¯õx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº,
 £õµõЩßÓ ©÷\õuõUPøÍ
Fv¯zvØPõP ©Ö B´Ä ö\´¯»õ®.
 \®£ÍzvÀ \mh £õh ¦zuP[PøÍ
£v¨¤ØS u¯õº ö\´¯»õ®.
 ©õnÁºPÐUS \mhz
÷uºÄPÐUPõP £°Ø] AÎUP»õ®.
 ÷uºÄ ÂÚõzuõÒPøÍ u¯õº
ö\´¯Ä® ÷\õuøÚ ö\´¯»õ®.
 ÂÍ®£µ® ©ØÖ® ¬Ê ÷{µ £o
ÂvPÐUS Em£mk J¼ £µ¨¦uÀ,
£zv¶øP öuõÈÀ, ö\õØö£õÈÄ ©ØÖ®
\mh AÀ»x \mh©À»õu £õh[PøÍ
£°ØÖÂzu¼¾® Dk£h»õ®
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 51).
C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À ÂvPÒ J¸
ÁÇUSøµbøµ¨ £Sv ÷{µ £o°À ©õ|»
£õº PÄß]À J¨¦u¾hß Dk£h
AÝ©vUQÓx. Áµ®¦øµ¯õP :
©õ|» £õº PÄß]¼ß £i A¢u¨
£o°ß ußø© CÁ¸øh¯ öuõȾUS
GvµõÚuõP, ¬µnõÚuõP, ©ØÖ® öuõÈÀ
©õs¦US ¬µnõÚuõP C¸UPUThõx.
C¢u Âv C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À
AÆÁ¨÷£õx öÁΰk®
ö{Ô²ÖzuÀPÐUS Em£mhx. (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII
, Âv 52).
ÁÇUSøµb¶ß Phø©PÒ :
C¢v¯ £õº PÄß]À ÂvPÎß RÌ,
©ØÓ Phø©PÒ uµ, J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
Pm]UPõµºP¸US, }v©ßÓzvØS Ehß
£o¯õØÖ& £ÁºPÐUS ©ØÖ® Gvº
uµ¨¤Ú¸US Phø© Eøh¯Áº BQÓõº.
ÁÇUSøµb¶ß Pm]UPõµ¸US Eøh¯
Phø©PÒ
ÁÇUSøµ SÔ¨ø£ HØÖU öPõÒЮ
Phø©
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓzvÀ
AÀ»x wº¨£õ¯zvÀ AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ
H÷uÝ® AvPõµzvÀ EÒÍ ÁÇUSøµ
SÔ¨ø£ HØÖU öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk®.
ÁÇUSøµbº Pmhn®, ÁÇUSøµb¶ß
ÁÇUSøµbº ©ßÓzvÀ C¸US® |ø»,
©ØÖ® ÁÇ[S® ußø©US JÆÄ®
AÍÄøh¯uõP C¸UP ÷Ásk®. J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº ]» ]Ó¨¦ `Ì|ø»PÎÀ J¸
SÔ¨¤mh ÁÇUSøµ SÔ¨ø£ HØP
©ÖUP»õ®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI ,
Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII, Âv 7).
Euõµn® : ‘C’ GߣÁ¸US GvµõÚ SØÓ
ÁÇUQÀ , C ÁÇUSøµbº ©ßÓ -zu
EÖ¨¤ÚºPÎß £o°øÚ¨ ö£Ó
¬i¯ÂÀø». C JÆöÁõ¸ EÖ¨¤Úøµ²®
AqSQÓõº. KÆöÁõ¸Á¸® C US
BáµõP ©ÖUQÓõºPÒ. ]» -zu
EÖ¨¤ÚºPÒ ¦Põºuõµ¸hß C¸US®
CnUP® Põµn©õP ©ÖUQÓõºPÒ. ©ØÓ
AøÚÁ¸® ¦PõºuõµµõÀ ukzx
|Özu¨£kQÓõºPÒ. J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
uµ¨¤ÚºPÎøh÷¯ J¨¦UöPõÒͨ£mh
Pmhn ö\¾zxu¼ß ÷£¶À AÁ¸US
ÁÇ[P¨£mh ÁÇUSøµU SÔ¨ø£, Gvº
uµ¨¤Ú¸hß EÒÍ CnUP® Põµn©õP ,
|µõP¶UP G¢u E¶ø©²® CÀø» (»õÀhº
Gvº \õTº AP©x AIR 1929 Qudh 672).
J¨¦U öPõsh A¾Á¼À C¸¢x
v¸®£¨ ö£Óõ©À C¸US® Phø©.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUQ¼¸¢x
v¸®£¨ö£ØÓõÀ, A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº
÷Áø» ö\´¯õu Pmhnzøu
Pm]UPõµ¸US v¸®£ ÁÇ[P ÷Ásk®
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 12).
Euõµn®: “A” J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, J¸
ÁÇUQ¼¸¢x K´Ä ö£Ó ¸®¤Úõº. A
G¢u Põµnzøu²® uõUPÀ ö\´¯ÂÀø».
A AÁ¸øh¯ Pm]UPõµ¸US® ÷£õx©õÚ
AÔ¨¦ ö\´¯ÂÀø». A AÁº
EøÇUPõu Pmhnzøuz v¸®¤ uµÄ®
EÖv AÎUPÂÀø». A A¢u
ÁÇUQ¼¸¢x K´Ä ö£Ó
AÝ©vUP¨£h©õmhõº (£÷hÀ ©Pß»õÀ
uÛä£õ´ Gvº £÷hÀ »m_ªuõì
{õµõ¯s£õ´ Pß\Põµõ, AIR 1988 Guj 48).
ÁÇUSøµbº \õm]¯õP AøÇUP¨£k®
ö£õÊx ÁÇUSøµU SÔ¨ø£ HØÖU
öPõÒÍõ©À C¸US® Phø©: &
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº , \õm]¯õP
AøÇUP¨£kÁõº GßÓ {®£zuS¢u
Põµn® C¸US® ÷£õx A¢u ÁÇUQß
ÁÇUSøµ SÔ¨ø£ HØÖU öPõÒÍ÷Áõ
AÀ»x A¢u ÁÇUQÀ BáµõP÷Áõ Thõx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUøP HØÖU öPõsh
¤ÓS ¬UQ¯©õÚ ö£õ¸sø©ÂÚõÂÀ
\õm]¯õP AøÇUP¨£kÁõº GßÖ
öu¶¢uõÀ ©ØÖ® Pm]UPõµ¶ß {»ß
£õvUPõ©À K´Ä ö£Ó ¬i¢uõÀ, A¢u
ÁÇUSøµbº öuõhº¢x ¬ßÛø»¯õSuÀ
Thõx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯®
II , ¤¶Ä VII , Âv 13).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ¬UQ¯ \õm]¯õP
BS® ö£õÊx, ©ØÖ® {Àö»snzvß
£i v¸®£¨ ö£Öu¾UPõÚ Âsn¨£®
AÎUP¨£k® ÷£õx®, J¸ E¶ø©°¯À
}v©ßÓ® A¢u {£øµ ÁÇUSøµbµõP
¬ßÛø»¯õP ÷Áshõ® GßÖ EzuµÂh
EÒÍõº¢u AvµõP® ö£ØÖÒÍx (¤¶Ä
151, E¶ø©°¯À {øh¬øÓ \mh® 1908).
Euõµn®: J¸ £õP¨¤¶ÂøÚ ÁÇUQÀ , A,
GßÓ J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ¤µvÁõv „D‟ ¤ (P)
°hª¸¢x ö£ØÓ Bøn²Öv BÁn®
JßøÓa \©º¨¤zuõº. Ax ÁÇUQØS
¬UQ¯©õÚ JßÓõS®. A¢u Bøn²Öv
BÁn® ÁÇUSøµbº „A‟ ÂÚõÀ
Aøh¯õÍ® Põmkuø» AhUQ°¸¢ux.
A C¨÷£õx Bøn²Öv BÁnzvß
Esø©z ußø©ø¯ |¹¤US® ¬UQ¯
\õm] BQÓõº. A GߣÁº C¢u ÁÇUQÀ
\õm]¯õP AøÇUP¨£kÁõº GߣuõÀ
BáµõPz uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº (\zµ£v
]Áõâ Gvº ¥Põº, AIR 1990 Pat 157).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, uµ¨¤Ú¸øh÷¯
EÒÍ ¤µa\øÚPÒ ÷©À EÒÍ {»ß
\®£¢u©õP ¬Êø©¯õÚ öÁΨ£kzxuÀ
Phø© Eøh¯Áº. uµ¨¤Ú¸US Cøh÷¯
EÒÍ CnUP® SÔzx ÁÇUQß
Bµ®£zv¾® ÁÇUS {øhö£Ö® ÷£õx®
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ußÝøh¯ Pm]U
Põµ¸US öu¶¯¨ £kzu ÷Ásk®. J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº A¢u ¤µa\øÚ°À A¢u
ÁÇUSøµb¶ß {»ß AuõÁx Pm]UPõµº
A¢u ÁÇUSøµbøµ |¯©Ú® ö\´¯
÷uøÁ¯õÚuõP C¸¢uõÀ Aøu öu¶¯
£kzu ÷Ásk® (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI ,
Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII , Âv 14).
Euõµn®: A GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbøµ C
GÝ® Pm]UPõµº D GÝ® Phßuõµ¶h®
C¸¢x Cµsk Phß J¨¦a^mkPÎß ÷©À
EÒÍ £nzøu Ámi²hß ö£Ó ÁÇUS
uõUPÀ ö\´¯ J¨£¢u® ö\´x
A©ºzxQÓõº. ÁÇUSøµbº A A¢u D
GߣÁøµ 7 & 8 BskPÍõP öu¶¢uÁº. A
ÁÇUPÔbº , D GߣÁ¸UPõP CÓ[S¶ø©
\õßÔuÌ ö£Ö® ÁÇUQÀ BáµõQ²ÒÍõº.
ÁÇUSøµbº A ÁÇUSøµ SÔ¨ø£ HØÖU
öPõshõº. BÚõÀ D GߣÁ¸hß Eøh¯
¬ß öuõhºø£ öÁΨ£kzuÂÀø». A
Âv 14I «Ô²ÒÍõº. HöÚßÓõÀ A
ÁÇUSøµbº D GߣÁ¶h®
GÀ»õÁØøÓ²® öÁΨ£kzv°¸UP
÷Ásk®. A ÁÇUSøµbº D GߣÁ¸hß
EÒÍ öuõhºø£ „C‟US öu¶¯¨£kzv¯
¤ÓS, „C‟\®©vzuõÀ „A‟ ÁÇUSøµbµõP
£o¯õØÓ»õ®. (Â.],µ[Pxøµ Gvº
i.÷Põ£õ»ß AIR 1979 SC 281).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯
uÛ¨£mh P¸zøu uºzx Pm]UPõµ¶ß
{»øÚU Põ¨£õØÓU Phø© Eøh¯Áº.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, AÁ¸U÷Põ
AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ GÁ¸US® ¸®£zuPõu
ÂøÍÄPøÍ HØ£kzuõu Ásn®, GÀ»õ
{À», ©ØÖ® ÷{ºø©¯õÚ, ÁÈPÎÀ,
Pm]UPõµ¶ß {»øÚ Põ¨£õØÓ ÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº SØÓÁõ롧 SØÓzøu¨
ö£õÖzu G¢u P¸zx C¸¨¤Ý®, SØÓ
ÁÇUQÀ SØÓ® \mh¨£mhÁøµ Põ¨£õØÓ
÷Ásk®. J¸ ÁÇUSøµb¶ß (Phø©)
\mhzvØS ©mk÷© Eøh¯x Gߣøu
¦¶¢x öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk®. \mh®, J¸ {£º
÷£õx©õÚ \õm]¯® CÀ»õ©À
usiUP¨£hU Thõx GßÖ TÖQÓx (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII
, Âv 15).
Euõµn® : C GߣÁº uõß C¢v¯
ushøÚa \mh® ¤¶Ä 289 ß RÌ SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mhuõÀ A GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbøµ
|¯ªUQÓõº. C uõUS® Gsn[PÐøh¯
ö\À»¨¤µõoø¯ PÁÛUPz uÁÔ¯uõÀ
SØÓ¬Ö PÁÚªßø© GßÓ SØÓ®
ö\´uuõP SØÓ® \õmh¨£kQÓõº. A uõUS®
¤µõoPÎÚõÀ £õvUP¨£mhÁº GßÖ
P¸x÷Áõ®. ©ØÖ® A CzuøP¯ ¤µõoPÒ
\-PzvÀ C¸UPUThõx GßÖ P¸xQÓõº.
A, CzuøP¯ ¤µõoPÎß E¶ø©¯õͺPÒ
uS¢u £õh® PؤUP¨£h ÷Ásk® GßÖ
{®¦QÓõº.
C[S A, ÁÇUSøµbº C GߣÁøµ
SØÓÁÇUQÀ Põ¨£õØÖ® Phø©£mkÒÍ
÷£õx AÁ¸øh¯ ö\õ¢u Gsn[PÒ
Auß ÁÈ°À Áµ AÝ©vUP Thõx. A
÷ÁÖ GÁ¸US® ¸®£õuøua ö\´QÓõº
GßÖ P¸u¨£h ¬i¯õuÁº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº, C GߣÁº ÷£õx©õÚ Buõµ®
©ØÖ® \õm]¯® CßÔ usiUP¨£h
Thõx GßÖ Áõvh ÷Ásk®.
(¬P©x \õvU Gvº G®£µº (1904) KRL 1059
(All)
|µ£µõvPøÍz usiUS® GsnªÀ»õu
SØÓ ÁÇUQk® Phø© :
SØÓ¯À Â\õµøn°À
ÁÇUQk£Áº |µ£µõvø¯z usiUPõu
ÁøP°À SØÓ ÁÇUQh ÷Ásk®. SØÓ
ÁÇUQk£Áº, SØÓa\õmh¨£Á¶ß
SØÓ©ØÓz ußø©ø¯ öÁΨ£kzx®
¬UQ¯©õÚÁØøÓ ©øÓUPÂÀø» GßÖ
EÖv ö\´¯ ÷Ásk®.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä VII , Âv 16).
Euõµn® : P GߣÁº D GߣÁøµ öPõø»
ÁÇUQÀ SØÓÁÇUQkQÓõº. A¢u ÁÇUS
öÁSÁõÚ FhP PÁÚzøu Dºzu JßÖ.
{À» ÁÇUøP E¸ÁõUQ¯uØPõP P
¦PǨ£mhõº. \õm] ö\õÀ» u¯õµõP C¸¢u
P \õm]PøÍ PshÔ¢uõº. ]Ôx {õmPÒ
PÈzx, A¢u 9 \õm]PÎÀ 8 ÷£º u[PÍx
ÁõUS -»[PÎÀ C¸¢x v¸®£¨
ö£ÖÁuõP P PshÔ¢uõº. \õm]PÎß
{®£Pzußø©ø¯ P \¢÷uQUP Bµ®¤zuõº.
\õm] ö\õÀ» u¯õµõP C¸US® J¸
\õm]²® £¼¯õÚÁøµU öPõÀ¾®
Gsn¬øh¯Áº GßÖ P PshÔ¢uõº.
C¢u `Ì|ø»°À, ÷PÒÂUS¶¯
\õm]¯[PÎß ÁõUS-»zvÚõÀ P
GߣÁº D GߣÁøµ ÁÇUQkÁv¼¸¢x
»PÄ® AøÚzx ö£õ¸sø©PøͲ®
öÁΨ£kzx£ÁµõPÄ® C¸US® Phø©
Eøh¯Áº. (÷hÂì Gvº ì÷hm 660 SE 2D
354).
Pm]UPõµ¸øh¯ Põ¨¦øhø© ©ØÖ®
µP]¯z uPÁÀPøÍ öÁΰhõ©À C¸US®
Pmk¨£õkPøÍ «Óõu Phø© JßÖ
EÒÍx. Cx C¢v¯a \õm]¯ \mh®, 1872
¤¶Ä 126ß RÌ Á¸QÓx. (\õm]¯ \mh®)
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÷{µi¯õP÷Áõ AÀ»x
©øÓ¬P©õP÷Áõ C¢v¯a \õm]¯ \mh®
¤¶Ä 126 ß RÌ EÒÍ Pmk¨£õkPøÍ
«ÖuÀ Thõx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä VII , Âv 17).
C¢v¯a \õm]¯ \mh® ¤¶Ä 126
öuõÈÀ \õº¢u ©ØÖ® CµP]¯
ö\´vPøͨ£ØÔ TÖQÓx ©ØÖ®:
 ÁÇUSøµbº A©ºzu¾UPõP
Pm]UPõµµõÀ ÁÇUSøµb¸US
AÎUP¨£mh H÷uÝ® ö\´vz öuõhº¦PÒ.
 öuõÈÀ \õº¢u £oUPõP
A©ºzu¼ß ÷£õx ÁÇUSøµb¸US {ßS
AÔ¢u ÁÇUSøµb¸US ÁÇ[P¨£mh
BÁnzvß £SvPÒ
 ©ØÖ® |£¢uøÚPÒ, ©ØÖ®
ÁÇUSøµbøµ A©ºzx® ÷£õx
Pm]UPõµ¸US ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇ[Q¯
AÔÄøµPÒ BQ¯ÁØøÓ²®
EÒÍhUQ¯x. (¤¶Ä 126, C¢v¯ \õm]¯
\mh®).
öÁΰhõ©À C¸UP ÷Ási¯x
RÌUPshÁØøÓ EÒÍhUQ¯x.
 \mh ¬µnõÚ ÷{õUPzvß
öuõhºa]UPõP AÎUP¨£mh H÷uÝ®
ö\´v öuõhº¦PÒ, ©ØÖ®
 ÁÇUSøµbµõÀ AÁ¸øh¯
£o°ß ÷£õx, Pm]UPõµº -»©õP÷Áõ
AÀ»x Pm]UPõµ¶ß \õº£õP÷Áõ, £o
Bµ®£zvÀ C¸¢x H÷uÝ® SØÓ® AÀ»x
÷©õ\i ö\´¯¨£mi¸¨£uõP
PÁÛUP¨£mh ö£õ¸sø©.
Euõµn® : A GߣÁº B GßÓ
ÁÇUSøµb¶h®, "{õß ö£õ´ BÁn®
¦øÚuÀ SØÓ® ö\´v¸UQ÷Óß, ©ØÖ®
}[PÒ GÚUPõP ÁÇUSøµbµõP C¸¢x
GßøÚU PõUP ¸®¦Q÷Óß, GßÖ
TÖQÓõº. J¸Áº SØÓÁõÎ GÚz öu¶¢x
AÁ¸UPõP ÁõuõkÁx SØÓ ÷{õUP®
BPõuuõÀ, C¢u ö\´vz öuõhº¦
öÁΰku¼À C¸¢x £õxPõUP¨£kQÓx
(S.126 (a), Evidence Act).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº RÌPsh u¸n[PÎÀ
uPÁÀPøÍ öÁΰh»õ®.
 Pm]UPõµº uPÁÀPøÍ
öÁΰkÁuØS öÁΨ£øh¯õÚ \®©u®
öu¶ÂzuõÀ, J¸ ÁÇUSøµbºuPÁÀPøÍ
öÁΰh ¬i²®.
Euõµn®: GkzxUPõmhõP ÷©ØTÔ¯
GkzxUPõmiÀ, A GߣÁº B GÝ®
ÁÇUSøµb¶h®, ""{õß ö£õ´ BÁn®
¦øÚ²® SØÓ® ö\´v¸UQ÷Óß ©ØÖ®
{õß E[PøÍ GÚUPõP ÁõuõhÄ® GßøÚU
PõUPÄ® ¸®¦Q÷Óß'', GßÖ TÖ® ÷£õx
, A GߣÁº B ÁÇUSøµb¶h®, }v£v
GßøÚ ©ßÛzuõÀ, {õß SØÓ[PøÍ
J¨¦U öPõÒÁvÀ ©QÌa] AøhQ÷Óß'',
GßÖ® TÖQÓõº. C[S B C¢uz uPÁø»
}v©ßÓzvØS öu¶¯¨£kzu»õ®, BÚõÀ
}v£v ©ßÛUP u¯õµõP C¸US® ÷£õx
©mk÷© öÁΨ£kzu ¬i²®. B
ÁÇUSøµbº öÁΰh J÷µ Põµn®, A
GÝ® Pm]UPõµº öÁΨ£øh¯õÚ \®©u®
AÎzv¸UQÓõº GߣuõÀ uõß ©mk÷©.
Pm]UPõµº \mh¬µnõÚ ÷{õUPzvß
öuõhºa]¯õP H÷uÝ® uPÁÀ öPõkzuõÀ,
AuøÚ J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº öÁΰh»õ®.
(¤¶Ä 126(1), C¢v¯ \õm]¯ \mh®).
QÍõºU Gvº ²øÚöhm ì÷hmì
GÝ® ¬UQ¯ ÁÇUQÀ, ².Gì Ea\ }v
©ßÓ®, J¸ Pm]UPõµº ÷©õ\i
ö\´ÁuØPõÚ AÔÄøµø¯
ÁÇUSøµb¶h® ÷Pmk¨ö£ÖQÓõº. AÁº
\mhzvß £i £õxPõUP ¬i¯õuÁº. A¢u
Pm]UPõµº Esø© öÁΨ£h AÝ©vUP
÷Ásk®. (QÍõºU Gvº ²øÚ÷hm
ì÷hmì 289 USI , 15, (1933)).
Euõµn® : A GÝ® Pm]UPõµº B GÝ®
ÁÇUSøµb¶h® ""{õß ö£õ´ BÁn®
-»® J¸ ö\õzøu Aøh¯ ¸®¦Q÷Óß.
AuØS }[PÒ GÚUPõP Áõvh ÷Ásk®''
GÚU TÖQÓõº. C¢u uPÁÀ J¸ SØÓ
÷{õUPzvß öuõhºa]¯õÚuõÀ Cx
öÁΨ£ku¼¸¢x £õxPõUP¨£hÂÀø»
(S.126(b), \õm]¯ \mh®).
Euõµn®: A GߣÁº øP¯õhÀ SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mhÁº . AÁº B GßÝ®
ÁÇUSøµbøµ ußøÚ Bu¶UP
A©ºzxQÓõº. ÁÇUS {øhö£Ö® ö£õÊx,
A Âß PnUS ¦zuPzvÀ Bµ®£zvÀ
CÀ»õu „A‟ øÁ øP¯õhÀ SØÓ®
ö\´v¸¨£uõP ö\õÀ»¨£k® £n® £vÄ
ö\´¯¨£mi¸UQÓx Gߣøu B
ÁÇUSøµbº PÁÛUQÓõº. B ÂÚõÀ
PshÔ¯¨£mh ÷©õ\i ö\´v¸¨£uØPõÚ
ö£õ¸sø© öÁΨ£ku¼À C¸¢x
£õxPõUP¨£hÂÀø» (¤¶Ä 126(c),
C¢v¯ \õm]¯ \mh®).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº RÌPsh
u¸n[PÎÀ uPÁÀPøÍ
öÁΰh»õ®.
 Pm]UPõµº \mh ¬µnõÚ
÷{õUPzvß öuõhºa]¯õP H÷uÝ® uPÁÀ
öPõkzuõÀ, AuøÚ J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
öÁΰh»õ®. (¤¶Ä 126, C¢v¯ \õm]¯
\mh®).
 QÍõ_U Gvº ²øÚöhm
ì÷hmì GÝ® ¬UQ¯ ÇUQÀ, ².Gì.
Ea\}v©ßÓ®, J¸ Pm]UPõµº ÷©õ\i
ö\´ÁuØPõÚ AÔÄøµø¯
ÁÇUSøµb¶h® ÷Pmk¨ ö£ÖQÓõº. AÁº
\mhzvߣi £õxPõUP ¬i¯õuÁº. A¢u
Pm]UPõµº Esø© öÁΨ£h AÝ©vUP
÷Ásk®. (QÍõºU Gvº
²øÚöhmì÷hmhì 289, USI, 15,
(1933).
Euõµn®: A GߣÁº øP¯õhÀ SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mhÁº. AÁº B GßÝ®
ÁÇUSøµbøµ ußøÚ Bu¶UP
A©ºzxQÓõº. ÁÇUS {øhö£Ö®ö£õÊx,
A Âß PnUS ¦zuPzvÀ Bµ®£zvÀ
CÀ»õu "A'øÁ øP¯õhÀ SØÓ®
ö\´v¸¨£uõP ö\õÀ»¨£k® £n® £vÄ
ö\´¯¨£mi¸UQÓx Gߣøu B
ÁÇUSøµbº PÁÛUQÓõº. "B'ÂÚõÀ
PshÔ¯¨£mh ÷©õ\i ö\´v¸¨£uØPõÚ
ö£õ¸sø© öÁΨ£ku¼À C¸¢x
£õxPõUP¨£hÂÀø». (¤¶Ä 126(C )
C¢v¯ \õm]¯ \mh®).
¤¶Ä 126ß RÌ EÒÍ Ph£õk A¢u
£o ¬i¢u ¤ÓS® öuõhºQÓx. (¤¶Ä
126, C¢v¯ \õm]¯ \mh®).
ÁÇUS ÷£õh yshõ©À C¸US®
Phø©
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUS ÷£õh
yshUThõx. ÷ÁÖÁõºzøuPÎÀ, J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº J¸ uµ¨¤Úøµ ÁÇUS ÷£õh
ysh÷Áõ Em£kzu÷Áõ Thõx. (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv II, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II ,
Âv 18).
Sk®£ ÷ÁÖ£õkPÒ, ¤µa\øÚPÒ
©ØÖ® ¬µs£õkPøÍ \©õuõÚ©õP
wº¨£x uõß \mhöuõÈÀ EÖ¨¤Ú¶ß
¬uÀ Phø© BS®. CuøÚa ö\´Áuß
-»® ÁÇUSøµbº uõß ÁÇUQh
yskQÓõº GßÓ ö£õx P¸zøu ö£õ´
GßÖ |¹¤UP ÷Ásk®. (}v¯µ\º µõä
Q÷åõº ¤µ\õz, £õmÚõ ÷µõmh¶ Qͨ
Tmh®, 1956 AIR £zv¶øP ¤¶Ä).
Euõµn®: C GߣÁº -uõøu¯º ö\õzvÀ
¤¶ÂßÔ 1/3 £[S öPõsh -ßÖ
Áõ¶_PÎÀ J¸Áº BÁõº. C, A GÝ®
ÁÇUSøµbøµ AqQ Sk®£a ö\õzvÀ
EÒÍ AÁµx £[øP ÁÇUS ÷£õhõ©À
\©õuõÚ©õP ¤¶UP ÷ÁskQÓõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº C- °h® ußÝøh¯ C¸£x
BskPõ» ÁÇUSøµbº AÝ£ÁzvÀ
}v©ßÓzvØS ö\ßÖ ¤µa\øÚ ö\´£Áº
uõß Sk®£a ö\õzx ¤µa\øÚ°À AvP
£[SPøÍ ö£ÖQÓõº GßÖ TÖQÓõº. A,
C[S ÁÇUQh yskQÓõº. C GߣÁº A
ÁÇUSøµbøµ AqQ Sk®£
¤µa\øÚø¯ \©õuõÚ©õP wºUP Á¸QÓõº.
BÚõÀ A, ÁÇUSøµbº Sk®£zøu
ÁÇUQh C- I yskQÓõº.
ÁÇUSøµbº uÚx Pm]UPõµ¶ß
uPÁÀPøͨ ö£ØÖ Auß«x ©mk÷©
ö\¯À£h ÷Ásk®; ÷ÁÖ GÁ¶ß uPÁÀ
«x® ö\¯À£hU Thõx (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 19).
Euõµn® : A GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbº,
AÁ¸øh¯ Pm]UPõµº ¤µvÁõv°ß
\mh¨£i¯õÚ v¸©n©õÚ ©øÚ¯õP
CÀ»õuuõÀ Pm]UPõµ¶ß ÁÇUøP v¸®£
ö£ÖQÓõº. A- ÁÇUSøµbº uÚx
Pm]UPõµ¶h® C¸¢x G¢u uPÁÀ AÀ»x
SÔ¨¦® ö£Óõ©À, ÷©¾® ö£õ´¯õÚ EÖv
ö©õÈ°ÚõÀ öÁØÖ uõÎÀ Áõ[Q¯
øPö¯Êzx -»® ÁõÌUøP ö£õ¸ÐuÂ
÷Pmk Âsn¨¤UQÓõº. A ÁÇUSøµbº,
Pm]UPõ¶ß uPÁÀ AÀ»x SÔ¨¦ CßÔ
ö\¯À£mhuõÀ öuõÈÀ {hzøuU ÷Pk
SØÓ® CøÇzuÁµõQÓõº. (U¯õß \¢u Gvº
C¢v¯ £õºUPÄß]À (1997) 11 Sec
(108).
Euõµn®: P GߣÁº J GÝ® Á¯uõÚ,
£»RÚ©õÚ, ©ØÖ® ©Ú|ø» vhªÀ»õ
uÁÖUPõP J¸ E¸ÁõUP¨£mh ÁÇUøP
öuõh[SQÓõº. P Cx \®£¢u©õP A GÝ®
ÁÇUSøµb¸US SÔ¨¦ ©ØÖ® uPÁÀ
u¸QÓõº. A ÁÇUSøµbº J GߣÁøµ
÷{¶À £õºzux CÀø», ©ØÖ® ¯õ¸øh¯
uPÁ¼ÚõÀ P ö\¯À£kQÓõº GßÖ A-
US öu¶¯õx. C¢u `Ì|ø»°À, P
US A GÝ® ÁÇUSø»b¸US uPÁÀ
u¸® AvPõµ® CÀ»õuuõÀ ÁÇUS |ßÖ
÷£õQÓx. A ÁÇUSøµbº Esø©¯õÚ
Pm]UPõµº Jß uPÁÀPÒ ©ØÖ®
SÔ¨¦PÎߣi ©mk÷©
ö\¯À£h÷Ásk® GßÖ Âv 19 TÖQÓx.
(©÷P¢vµ ¤µuõ¨ ][ Gvº £u®
S©õ¸÷uÂ, AIR 1993, 143).
ÁÇUQ¼¸¢x Á¸® £¯ÝUS HØ£
Pmhn® ö£Ó HØ£õk ö\´Áøu
uºUS® Phø©
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUQß
¬iÂøÚ øÁz÷uõ AÀ»x ¬iÂÀ
Qøh¨£ÁØÔß J¸ £Svø¯÷¯õ
Pmhn©õP |ºn°UP ¬i¯õx. (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv II, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II,
Âv 20).
Euõµn®: A GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbº C GÝ®
£o°À C¸¢x }UP® ö\´¯¨£mh J¸
Pm]UPõµ¸hß J¸ J¨£¢u® ö\´uõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº ¬¢øu¯ \®£Í® ©ØÖ®
£izöuõøPø¯ ö£ØÖ u¢uõÀ uÚUS
¹.5000 Pmhn©õP ÷Ásk® GßÖ
Pmhn J¨£¢u® ö\´QÓõº. Âv 20ß RÌ
A, ÁÇUSøµbº, ÁÇUQß öÁØÔø¯¨
ö£õÖzx Pmhn® ö£ÖÁ÷uõ AÀ»x
ÁÇUS ¬iÂÀ J¸ £Svø¯ Pmhn©õP
ö£ÖÁ÷uõ uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓx. C¢u
HØ£õk AÝ©vUP¨£hõx. (¤.
öÁ[Phõz¶ \õìv¶ Gvº \ºuõº ÷P\º ][,
1975(2) APLJ 180). J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
ÁÇUPõk ÷Põ¸¶ø©°ß {»£õøh÷¯õ
AÀ»x J¸ £Svø¯÷¯õ ö£ÖÁuõP
J¨£¢u® ö\´¯÷Áõ, AÀ»x AuøÚ
©õØÔUöPõkUP÷Áõ AÀ»x AuøÚ
Âø» öPõkzx Áõ[P÷Áõ Thõx.
BÚõÀ Cx RÌUPshÁØÖUS
ö£õ¸¢uõx.
 Aµ_ ¤øn¯zvÀ EÒÍ
PhÜmk £zvµ®, £[S ©ØÖ® C¸¨¦US
ö£õ¸¢uõx.
 \mhzvÚõÀ AÀ»x
£ÇUPzvÚõÀ ©õØÓzuUP ¬øÓ
BÁnzvØS ö£õ¸¢uõx.
 ö£õ¸mPÎß E¶ø©
-»zvØPõÚ ÁoP BÁnzvØS
ö£õ¸¢uõx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 21).
Euõµn®: A GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbº DUS
GvµõÚ ÁÇUQÀ C GÝ® Pm]UPõµøµ
Bu¶UQÓõº. A¢u ÁÇUSUS wº¨£õøn
ÁÇ[P¨£kQÓx. A¢u wº£õønø¯ A,
C- °h® C¸¢x ©õØÔ ö£ÖQÓõº. C¢u
©õØÖ¶ø© BÁn® D GߣÁº C US ¹.
276 PhߣmhÁº. A¢u wº¨£õøn A÷u
AÍÄ £nzvØPõP A US ©õØÓ¨£kQÓx.
A, D-US GvµõP wº¨£õønø¯
|øÓ÷ÁØÖ® {hÁiUøP GkUQÓõº. A
ÁÇUPõk ÷Põ¸¶ø©ø¯ Áõ[Q¯uõÀ Âv
21ß RÌ, {hzøuU ÷Pk SØÓ® CøÇzuÁº
BQÓõº. (Re L, J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, AIR
1938 Mad 276). J¸ ÁÇUPøµbº AÁµx
ö£¯¶÷»õ AÀ»x ¤Ó¶ß ö£¯¶÷»õ
AÁ¶ß {»ÝUPõP÷Áõ AÀ»x ¤Ó¶ß
{»ÝUPõP÷Áõ ÷{µi¯õP÷Áõ AÀ»x
©øÓ¬P©õP÷Áõ, RÌUPshÁØÔÀ
TÓ¨£mkÒÍ ö\õzx {hÁiUøP°À,
H»zvÀ £[S öPõÒÍ÷Áõ AÀ»x
Áõ[P÷Áõ ¬i¯õx.
 J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº öuõÈÀ
¬øÓ°À \®£¢u¨£mh H÷uÝ® J¸
ÁÇUQß AÀ»x ÷©À¬øÓ±k AÀ»x
©ØÓ }v©ßÓ {hÁiUøP°ß wº¨£õøn
AÀ»x EzuµøÁ |øÓ÷ÁØÖ® ö£õ¸mk
ÂØ£øÚ ö\´¯¨£k® ö\õzx.
 J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯
Pm]UPõµº \mh¨£i H»® GkUP÷Áõ
AÀ»x Áõ[P÷Áõ AvPõµ® EÒÍ
ö\õzvøÚ H»® GkUP÷Áõ AÀ»x
Áõ[P÷Áõ ö\´¯»õ®.
 Pm]UPõµº öÁΨ£øh¯õP
A¢u ÁÇUSøµbøµ AÁ¸UPõP H»®
GkUP AÝ©v AÎzv¸UP ÷Ásk®.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä
II, Âv 22).
Euõµn® : A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUQÀ
J¸ ö\õzøu ö£¯¶À ¦øÚ {£µõP C¸¢x
Áõ[P¨£mhx. A, ÁÇUSøµbº A¢u
ÁÇUQÀ ÁÇUSøµbµõP ÷uõßÔ
öÁßÓõº. B GßÓ ¦øÚ{£º A GßÓ
ÁÇUSøµb¸US Âkuø» £zvµ® GÊvU
öPõkzuõº. A ÁÇUSøµbµõP ö\¯À£k®
ÁÇUQÀ EÒÍ {»¨£õøh Áõ[Q¯uõÀ,
AÁº Âv 22ߣi SØÓ® ö\´¯
uÁÓõQÓõº (æÆ {õµõ¯s»õÀ Gvº ªº
A®áz A¼, AIR 1925 Qudh 130).
}v©ßÓ H»zvÀ H»® GkUP÷Áõ (Aµ
ÁÇUQß B´Ä¨ ö£õ¸ÍõP Á¸®
ö\õzvøÚ Áõ[P÷Áõ ö\´¯õ©À
C¸US® Phø©).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, ÷{µi¯õP÷Áõ AÀ»x
©øÓ¬P©õP÷Áõ,
 }v©ßÓ H»zvÀ
£[Sö£Ó÷Áõ AÀ»x
 AÁ¶ß £¯ß£õkUPõP÷Áõ
(A) ¤Ó¶ß £¯ß £õmkUPõP÷Áõ AÁ¶ß
ö£¯¶÷»õ (A) ¤Ó¶ß ö£¯¶÷»õ
ÂØ£øÚ, uõÚ®, £¶ÁºzuøÚ (A)
÷ÁöÓx® E¶ø©©õØÓ® -»÷©õ A¢u
ö\õzvøÚ Áõ[P ¬i¯õx.
J¸ ÁÇUQÀ, ÷©À ¬øÓ±k AÀ»x
H÷uÝ® }v©ßÓ {hÁiUøP°À B´Ä¨
ö£õ¸ÍõP EÒÍ ö\õzøu ÁÇUSøµbº
uõß öuõÈÀ¬øÓ¯õP AvÀ £[S
ö£Ö®÷£õx Áõ[P ¬i¯õx (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä II, Âv
22A).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, Pm]UPõµõÀ GÊzx
-»©õP AÝ©v ÁÇ[P¨£k®ö£õÊx,
AÁ¸øh¯ Pm]UPõµº \mh¨£i¯õP H»®
÷PmP÷Áõ AÀ»x Áõ[P÷Áõ E¶ø©
EÒÍ ö\õzøu A¢u Pm]UPõµ¸UPõP H»®
÷PmP÷Áõ AÀ»x Áõ[P÷Áõ ö\´¯»õ©.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II,
¤¶Ä II , Âv 22). ÁÇUSøµb¶ß ö\õ¢u
ö£õÖ¨¦ |ø»°À EÒÍ Phß £nzøu
ÁÇUSøµbº PmhnzvÀ \¶
ö\´¯UThõx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, ÁÇUSøµbº
£o°ß÷£õx GÇõu ö\õ¢u ö£õÖ¨¦
|ø»°À EÒÍ £nzøu (Phß)
ÁÇUSøµbº PmhnzvÀ \¶ ö\´¯
¬i¯õx. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 23).
Euõµn® : A J¸ ÁÇUPøµbº C
GߣÁ¸US ÁõhøP £n® ¹.500
öPõkUP ÷Ásk®. C GߣÁº A
ÁÇUSøµbøµ E°À GÊu AqQÚõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº, uõß E°À GÊv
u¸ÁuõPÄ®, A¢u 500 ¹£õ´ PhøÚ
A¢u PmhnzvÀ \¶ ö\´ÁuõPÄ®
TÖQÓõº. A, ÁÇUSøµbº uÛ ö£õÖ¨¦
|ø»°À öPõkUP ÷Ási¯ ÁõhøP
PhøÚ E°À Hx® PmhnzvÀ \¶
ö\´ÁuõÀ, A, ÁÇUSøµbº ¶ 23I
«Ö£ÁµõP BQÓõº.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯
Pm]UPõµõÀ AÁº «x øÁzv¸US®
{®¤UøPø¯ uÁÓõP £¯ß£kzu÷Áõ
AÀ»x Av¼¸¢x H÷uÝ® £¯øÚ÷¯õ
ö£ÖuÀ Thõx. (BCI, ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä II, Âv 24).
Euõµn® : A J¸ ÁÇUPøµbº T GÝ®
E°À GÊx£ÁµõÀ E°À GÊu
|¯ªUP¨£kQÓõº. A, AÁº E°À GÊx®
£vÄ ¦zuPzvÀ TUS E°À GÊv
öPõkzuuõP SÔ¨¦ £vÄ ö\´QÓõº. Tß
PnÁº CÓ¢u ¤ÓS, T, B GÝ®
ÁÇUPÔbøµ A©ºzxQÓõº. BGÝ®
ÁÇUSøµbº A ÁÇUSøµb¶h® A¢u
E°ø» ÁÇ[S©õÖ ÷Pmhõº. Aß
v¸¨¤UöPõkUPõ©À C¸US® ö\¯À Aß
«x T øÁzv¸US® {®¤UøPø¯
Sø»¨£uõP EÒÍx (áõß i`éõ Gvº
GmÁºmAÛ (1994) 25CC 64).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¶h®
ÁÇ[P¨£mh Pm]UPõµ¶ß £nzvØS
PnUS øÁzv¸UP ÷Ásk®.
A¢u PnUS,
 öuõøP Pm]UPõµ¶h® C¸¢x
AÀ»x AÁ¸UPõP ö£Ó¨£mhuõ Gߣøu
Põmh ÷Ásk®.
 Pm]UPõµ¸UPõP ö\´u
ö\»Ä, ©ØÖ®
 PmhnzvØPõP GkUP¨£mh
£n® ÷uv ©ØÖ® ¬UQ¯ SÔ¨¦PÐhß
C¸UP ÷Ásk®. ( BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv II,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II , Âv 25).
Euõµn® : A ÁÇUSøµbº C GÝ®
Pm]UPõµ¸UPõP SØÓ ÷©À ¬øÓ±miÀ
BáµõÚõº. Aa_U ö\»ÄUPõP ¹.750I A,
Pm]UPõµ¶h® C¸¢x ö£ØÓõº. A A¢u
£nzøu }v©ßÓzvÀ ÷£õmk øÁzuõº.
A ÁÇUSøµbº, C-ß \®©u® CßÔ ö\»Ä
ö\´¯¨£hõu ¹. 242I v¸®£¨ö£ØÖ
AuøÚ øÁzxU öPõshõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº, C-°h® C¸¢x®
}v©ßÓzvÀ C¸¢x® £n® ö£Ö®÷£õx
¬øÓ¯õÚ PnUS øÁzv¸UPõ©À
C¸¨£uõÀ, A {hzøuU ÷Pk SØÓ®
CøÇzuÁµõQÓõº. A ÷©¾® GÆÁÍÄ
£n® ö\»Ä ö\´¯¨£mhx, ©ØÖ®
}v©ßÓzvÀ C¸¢x v¸®£¨ ö£Ó¨£mhx
Gߣøu²® Põmi°¸UP ÷Ásk®. A
ÁÇUSøµbº, AøÚzx SÔ¨¦PøͲ®,
÷uvPøͲ® ©ØÖ®
ö\»ÄUSÔ¨¦PøͲ® øÁzv¸UP
÷Ásk® (M. ÁÇUSøµbº, Re AIR 1957
SC 149).
Pm]UPõµ¶h® C¸¢x £n®
ö£Ö®ö£õÊx Ax PmhnzvØPõP
AÀ»x ö\»ÄPÐUPõP ö£Ó¨£mhuõ
Gߣøu SÔ¨¦ -»® Põs¤UP
÷Ásk®. }v©ßÓ {hÁiUøP
{øhö£Ö®ö£õÊx, G¢u J¸
ÁÇUSøµb¸®, Pm]UPõµß GÊzx
-»©õÚ \®©uªßÔ ö\»ÄUSU öPõkzu
£nzøu Pmhn©õP ©õØÓUThõx (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II,
Âv 26).
Euõµn®: A, ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓzvÀ
C¸¢x J¸ öuõøPø¯ Pm]UPõµ¶ß
\®©u® C¸¢x ö£ÖQÓõº. A-ÁÇUSøµbº
Pmhn® £õUQ C¸¨£uõP ö\õÀ¼
AuøÚ PÈzu ¤ÓS «v £nzøu
©mk÷© Pm]UPõµ¸US ÁÇ[QÚõº. A,
}v©ßÓzvÀ C¸¢x £n® ö£Ö®ö£õÊ÷u
Ax PmhnzvØPõP ö£Ó¨£mhuõ AÀ»x
ö\»ÄPÐUPõPÁõ ö£Ó¨£mhuõ Gߣøu
SÔ¨¦ GÊv øÁUP ÷Ásk®. ÁÇUS
¬i²® ¬ß¦ A ÁÇUSøµbº £nzøu
Pmhn©õP ©õØÔ GkzxUöPõÒÍ ¬i¯õu
PõµnzuõÀ, {hzøuU ÷Pk SØÓ®
CøÇzuÁº BQÓõº. (Á¶öPõshõ
Põ÷©ìÁµ®©õ Gvº y¶ ÂìÁ{õuß, AIR,
1964 AP 158).
ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯
Pm]UPõµ¸UPõP £n® ö£ØÓÄhß
AuøÚ Pm]UPõµ¸US öu¶¯£kzu
÷Ásk®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 27).
Euõµn®: A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, C GÝ®
Pm]UPõµ¸UPõP £n® ö£ÖQÓõº. A A¢u
£n® Áõ[Q¯øu CUS
öu¶¯£kzuÂÀø». A £n®
ö£ØÓÂmhõº GßÖ öu¶¢u ¤ÓS C A¢u
£nzøu ÷PmQÓõº. C ÷Pmh÷£õx®, A
A¢u £nzøu öPõkUPÂÀø». A,
{hzøuU÷Pk SØÓªøÇzuÁº BQÓõº. A
A¢u £nzøu ö£ØÓ Eh÷Ú÷¯ AuøÚ
CUS öu¶¯£kzu ÷Ásk®. (Re J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº, AIR 1961 Ker 209 (FB)).
}v©ßÓ {hÁiUøP ¬i¢u ¤ÓS,
J¸ ÁÇUSøµb¸US ö\»ÄUPõP
öPõkUP¨£mh £nzøu÷¯õ AÀ»x
AÁ¶ß øP°À ÁÇUSUPõP
öPõkUP¨£mh £nzøu÷¯õ Pmhn
£õUQ¯õÀ \¶ ö\´x öPõÒÍ»õ®. (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä II,
Âv 28).
Euõµn® : ÷©ØPsh GkzxUPõmiÀ, A
ÁÇUSøµbº ÁÇUS ¬i¢u¤ÓS
AÁ¸US ÁÇ[P¨£hõu Pmhnzøu
Av¼¸¢x GkzxU öPõÒÍ»õ®.
}v©ßÓ ÂvPÎߣi
ÁÇUSøµb¸US ö\¾zu¨£h ÷Ási¯
Pmhnzøu, Ax ö\¾zu¨£hõ©À
C¸US®÷£õx AÁ¶ß øP°À C¸US®
£nzvÀ ÁÇUS ¬i²®÷£õx
PÈzxUöPõÒÍ ¬i²®. «v £n®
C¸¨¤ß Ax Pm]UPõµ¸US v¸¨¤z
uµ¨£h÷Ásk®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 29).
Euõµn®: ÷©ØTÔ¯ GkzxUPõmiÀ, A
ÁÇUSøµbº, AÁ¸US ö\¾zu¨£hõ©À
C¸US® Pmhnzøu AÁº Áõ[Q¯
£nzvÀ C¸¢x GkzxU öPõÒͬi²®.
BÚõÀ Ax A¢u ÷{µzvÀ {øh¬øÓ°À
EÒÍ }v©ßÓ ÂvPÎß RÌ Aø©¯
÷Ásk®. «v£n® C¸¨¤ß AuøÚ
C-US ö\¾zu A Phø© £mhÁº BQÓõº.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, AÁ¸øh¯
Pm]UPõµº PnUSPøÍ £õºUP
¸®¤ÚõÀ ©ØÖ® AuØS¶¯ ¤µv
Pmhnzøu ö\¾zvÚõÀ, Auß ¤µvø¯
AÁ¸US ÁÇ[P ÷Ásk® (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 30).
Euõµn® : ÷©ØTÔ¯ GkzxUPõmiÀ, C
¤µvø¯ ÷ÁsiÚõÀ, A ÁÇUSøµbº
AuøÚ ÁÇ[P ÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯ øP°À EÒÍ
£nzøu PhÚõP ©õØÖ® HØ£õmiÀ
Dk£h ¬i¯õx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI ,
Azv¯õ® II, ¤¶Ä II Âv 31).
Euõµn® : ÷©ØTÔ¯ GkzxUPõmiÀ C ß
\õº£õP ö£ØÓ £nzøu A ÁÇUSøµbº
PhÚõP ©õØÖÁv¼¸¢x uøh
ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº. ÷ÁÖÂu©õP TÔÚõÀ,
Pmhn® ©ØÖ® ö\»Äz öuõøP PÈzu
¤ÓS «v £nzøu CUS ÁÇ[P
÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº \mh
{hÁiUøPUPõP÷Áõ AÀ»x
ö\´øPUPõP÷Áõ AÁ¸øh¯
Pm]UPõµ¸US Phß ÁÇ[SÁv¼¸¢x
uøh ö\´¯¨£kQÓõº. AÁº A¢u
Pm]UPõµµõÀ ÁÇUSøµbµõP
A©ºzu¨£k® ö£õÊx Phß ÁÇ[P
¬i¯õx. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 32).
ÂÍUP® : J¸ ÁÇUS AÀ»x }v©ßÓ
{hÁiUøP°ß ¬ß÷ÚØÓzvØPõP,
}v©ßÓ ÂvPÎߣi }v©ßÓzvØS
Psi¨£õP £n® ö\¾zu ÷Ásk® GßÓ
|ø»°À, Pm]UPõµ¶h® Hx® HØ£õk
ö\´¯õ©À £n® ö\¾zvÚõÀ C¢u
Âvø¯ «ÖÁuõP BPõx.
ÁÇUS ÷©À¬øÓ±k AÀ»x
H÷uÝ® J¸ Âå¯zvß«x AuøÚ
Bµ®¤¨£uØS AÔÄøµ ÁÇ[Q C¸US®,
AÀ»x ÁõxøµPÒ Áøµ¢v¸US®,
AÀ»x J¸ uµ¨¤Ú¸UPõP
ö\¯À£mi¸US® ÁÇUSøµbº Gvº
uµ¨¤Ú¸UPõP ö\¯À£h÷Áõ,
}v©ßÓzvÀ BáõµõP÷Áõ, Bu¶UP÷Áõ
Thõx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯®
II, ¤¶Ä II, Âv 33).
Euõµn®: A ÁÇUSøµbº C GÝ®
¦Põºuõ¸UPõP J¸ SØÓ ÁÇUQÀ
÷uõßÖQÓõº. ¤ÓS A, D GÝ® SØÓ®
\õmh£¨£mhÁ¶h® C¸¢x ÁÇUSøµ
SÔ¨¦PøÍ ö£ÖQÓõº. GÀ»õ
ö£õ¸sø©PøͲ® ö\õÀ¼ ÁÇUS
\®£¢u¨£mh GÀ»õ uµ¨¤Ú¶h¬®
ö\õÀ¼ ÁÇUS \®£¢u¨£mh GÀ»õ
uµ¨¤Ú¶h¬® \®©u®
ö£ÓÂÀø»ö¯ßÓõÀ, A, ¬u¼À
¦Põºuõ¸UPõP ÷uõßÔ ¤ÓS SØÓ®
\õmh£mhÁ¶h® C¸¢x ÁÇUSøµ
SÔ¨¦PøÍ ö£ØÖUöPõshuõÀ, Âv
33&ø¯ «Ö£ÁµõP BQÓõº. (\¢vµ÷\Pº
÷\õª Gvº µõáìuõß £õº PÄß]À, AIR
1983 SC 1012).
}v©ßÓzvØS ö\´¯ ÷Ási¯
Phø©PÒ
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº G¨÷£õx÷©
AÁ¸øh¯ ©õs¦ ©ØÖ®
_¯©¶¯õøu²hß }v©ßÓzvÀ {h¢x
öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk®. J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
Aiø©÷£õßÖ ö\¯À£hThõx.
G¨ö£õÊöuÀ»õ® J¸ }vzxøÓ A¾Á»º
uÁÖ ö\´uuØS uS¢u Põµn® C¸¨¤ß,
AuøÚ E¯º AvPõ¶PÎh® ¬øÓ°kÁx
J¸ ÁÇUSøµb¶ß E¶ø© ©ØÖ® Phø©
BS®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , Azv¯õ¯®
II , ¤¶Ä I, Âv 1).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, }v©ßÓ
AÁ©v¨¦ SØÓ® ö\´v¸¢uõÀ,
Av¼¸¢x Âk£hÂÀø»ö¯ßÓõÀ,
}v©ßÓzvÀ ÷PmP¨£h÷Áõ,
ö\¯À£h÷Áõ Thõx. (æ¯õ®»õÀ ¯õì
Gvº C¢uº\¢z öá°ß ©ØÖ® J¸Áº AIR
2008 MP15).
E¯º}v©ßÓ®, J¸ÁÇUSøµbº
E¯º}v©ßÓzv¾® ©ØÖ® RÇø©
}v©ßÓ[Pξ® ö\¯À£k® ¬øÓ
SÔzx |£¢uøÚ ÷£õh AvPõµ®
£øhzuuõÀ J¸ {£øµ AÁº }v©ßÓ
AÁ©v¨¦ ö\´v¸¢uõÀ, AÁøµ
}v©ßÓzvß ¬ß ÷uõßÖÁv¼¸¢x
uøh ö\´¯ ¬i²®. (¤¶Ä 34 (1)
ÁÇUSøµbº \mh®).
C¢v¯ }v©ßÓ®, Si¯µ_zuø»Áº
J¨¦u÷»õk, J¸ {£º }v©ßÓzvß ¬ß
öuõÈÀ ö\´²® ÂvPøÍ EÒÍhUQ¯
}v©ßÓ {øh¬øÓPøÍ JÊ[S£kzx®
ÂvPøÍ E¸ÁõUP ¬i²® GߣuõÀ,
Ea\}v©ßÓ¬® AÁ©v¨¦ ö\´u
ÁÇUSøµbøµ Auß¬ß öuõÈÀ ö\´¯
uøh ö\´¯ ¬i²®. (EÖ¨¦ 145(1) (a),
C¢v¯ Aµ]¯À Aø©¨¦).
Ea\}v©ßÓ® J¸ ©v¨¦Özx
}v©ßÓ® BS®. Ax AÁ©v¨¦
ö\´uÁºPøÍ usiUS® AvPõµz÷uõk
©v¨£Özx }v©ßÓzvØPõÚ GÀ»õ
AvPõµ[PøͲ® öPõshx. (EÖ¨¦ 129,
C¢v¯ Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦).
C÷u AvPõµ® GÀ»õ
E¯º}v©ßÓ[PÐUS®
AÎUP¨£mi¸UQÓx. E¯º}v©ßÓ¬®
©v¨¦Özx }v©ßÓ® BS®.
E¯º}v©ßÓ¬® AÁ©v¨¦ ö\´uÁºPøÍ
usiUS® AvPõµz÷uõk ©v¨¦Özx
}v©ßÓzvØPõÚ GÀ»õ AvPõµ[PøͲ®
öPõshx. (EÖ¨¦ 215, C¢v¯
Aµ]¯»ø©¨¦).
}v©ßÓ AÁ©v¨¦ Cµsk ÁøP¨£k®.
E¶ø©°¯À AÁ©v¨¦
J¸ }v©ßÓzvß wº¨¦, wº¨£õøn,
ö{ÔPÒ, EzuµÄ, ÷£µõøn AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ
}v©øÓ PmhøÍPÐUS RÌ £i¯õÀ
C¸¨£x AÀ»x }v©ßÓzvØS ÁÇ[Q¯
EÓv÷¯Øø£ ÷Áskö©ß÷Ó «ÖuÀ,
E¶ø©°¯À AÁ©v¨¦ BS®. (¤¶Ä 2
(b), }v©ßÓ AÁ©v¨¦ \mh® (1971).
SØÓ AÁ©v¨¦
SØÓ AÁ©v¨¦ Gߣx ÷£\¨£mh
AÀ»x GÊu¨£mh ÁõºzøuPÒ, AÀ»x
ø\øPPÒ AÀ»x öu¶²® ©õv¶ £h[PÒ
AÀ»x ÷ÁÖÁøP°À öÁαk -»®
AÀ»x ÷ÁÖ H÷uÝ® ö\´øP°ß -»®
RÌPõq® ÂøÍÄPøÍ HØ£kzxÁx
BS®.
 }v©ßÓ AvPõµzvøÚ
AÁyÖ ö\´Áx AÀ»x AÁyÖ ö\´¯
Põµn©õ°¸¨£x AÀ»x SøÓ¨£x
AÀ»x SøÓ¨£uØS Põµn©õ°¸¨£x
AÀ»x
 H÷uÝ® }v©ßÓ
{hÁiUøP°À S¢uP® ö\´Áx AÀ»x
SÖURk ö\´Áx AÀ»x,
 }v£¶£õ»ønø¯ H÷uÝ®
ÁøP°À SÖURk ö\´Áx® AÀ»x
SÖURk ö\´¯ Põµn©õ°¸¨£x® AÀ»x
uøh HØ£kzxÁx® AÀ»x uøh
HØ£kzu Põµn©õ°¸¨£x.
Euõµn® : Ea\}v©ßÓ® Bµ®£zv÷»÷¯
uÒУi ö\´u EzuµÂÚõÀ
£õvUP¨£mh A ÁÇUSøµbº,
Ea\}v©ßÓzvÀ uõUPÀ ö\´u
}v¨÷£µõøn°À, C¢u ö£õ¸mPÎÀ
C¢v¯ uø»ø© }v£v ö\¯À£mhx
¬øÓ¯õÚx AÀ»; uÒУi ö\´u ö\¯À
ußÛaø\¯õÚx, \mhzvØS ¬µnõÚx.
}vUS ¬µnõÚx GßÖ® C¢u ö\¯À
EÖ¨¦ 14US ¬µnõÚx GßÖ®
TÔ°¸¢uõº. Cx Ea\}v©ßÓ
\zv¯zvØS GvµõÚx. uø»ø©
}v£v°ß A¾Áø» SøÓ TÔ¯x ö£¶¯
AÁ©v¨¦. ÷©¾® A¢u EzuµÄ I¢x
}v£vPÒ öPõsh }v©ßÓzuõÀ
ÁÇ[P¨£hõuuõÀ Cx \¶¯õÚ EzuµÄ
AÀ» GßÖ® TÔÚõº. }v©ßÓ® CuøÚ
AÁyÖ GßÖ® Âv 2I «Ô¯uõÀ
{hzøuU÷Pk GßÖ® Cx J¸ SØÓ
}v©ßÓ AÁ©v¨¦ GßÖ® TÔ¯x.
÷©¾® }v©ßÓ® ÁÇ[Q¯
EzuµøÁ J¸ EzuµÄ AÀ» GßÖ
ö\õÀÁx }v£¶£õ»ønø¯ SÖURk
ö\´ÁuõPÄ®, }v©ßÓ ¬iÄußø©ø¯
uõUSÁuõPÄ® ©ØÖ® }v©ßÓ
AvPõµzvøÚ ÂÚõ Gʨ¦ÁuõPÄ®
EÒÍöuÚ TÔ¯x. (Dr.i.].÷\UÚõ Gvº
©õs£ø© Ea\}v©ßÓ uø»ø© }v£v,
AIR 1996 SC 2481).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓzvÀ
©¶¯õøu ªUP ö\¯À£õk Eøh¯ÁµõP
C¸UP ÷Ásk®. }v©ßÓzvß
©õs¦uõß J¸ _u¢vµ \¬uõ¯zvØS
÷uøÁ¯õÚx GßÖ ¦¶¢x öPõÒÍ
÷Ásk® (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ® II, ¤¶Ä I , Âv 2).
}v©ßÓzvÀ C¸US® J¸
ö£õ¸mTÔß ¬iÄUPõP uPõ|ø»
ÁئÖzuø» uºUS® Phø©: J¸
ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓ ¬iÂøÚ
\mh¬µnõÚ AÀ»x ¬øÓ¯ØÓ
ÁÈPÎÀ uPõ|ø» ÁئÖzuÀ Thõx.
|¾øÁ°À C¸US® J¸ ÁÇUQøÚ¨
ö£õÖzx }v£v²hß uÛzx ö\´v
£¶©õØÓ® ö\´Áx uøh ö\´¯¨£mhx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II ,
¤¶Ä I, Âv 3).
Euõµn® : A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, D
GߣÁøµ J¸ SØÓ¯À ÁÇUQÀ
Bu¶zx AÁ¸UPõP Áõvmhõº. C
GߣÁøµz uõUQ¯uõP D SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mhõº. C GߣÁ¸US uø»°À
Ai£mhøu R GÝ® ©¸zxÁº Bµõ´¢x
AvÀ G¾®¦ ¬ÔÄ C¸¨£uõP TÔÚõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº D GßÓ
SØÓg\õmh¨£mhÁ¶h® ¹.300 u¢uõÀ
AÁ¸US \õuP©õÚ AÔUøP ö£ØÖz
u¸ÁuõP TÔÚõº. A ÁÇUSøµbº {hzøu
÷Pk ö\¯À ö\´v¸UQÓõº ©ØÖ® Âv 3I
«Ö£ÁµõP BQÂmhõº. HöÚÛÀ A
ÁÇUSøµbº \mhzvØS ¬µnõÚ ©ØÖ®
¬øÓ¯ØÓ ÁÈPÎÀ wº¨¦ ö£Ó uPõ|ø»
ÁئÖzu¼À Dk£mkÒÍõº. (\¢vµ÷\Pµ
÷\õª Gvº µõáìuõß £õºPÄß]À AIR
1983 SC 1012).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº,
 ÷{ºø©¯ØÓ ÁÈPÎÀ
Pm]UPõµøµ ö\¾zxÁøu, AÀ»x
 ÁÇUSøµbº ö\´¯UThõu
ö\¯ø»a ö\´¯ }v©ßÓzøu÷¯õ,
Gvºuµ¨¦ ÁÇUSøµbøµ÷¯õ AÀ»x
uµ¨¤Úøµ÷¯õ ö\´¯U Thõx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº uÁÓõÚ ÁÈPÎÀ
{hUS® Pm]UPõµøµ Bu¶¨£øu ©ÖUP
÷Ásk®. J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº Pm]UPõµ¶ß
Áõ´a ö\õÀ»õP ö\¯À£kÁøu uºUP
÷Ásk®. ÷©¾® J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº
AÁ¸øh¯ ö\õ¢u ¬iøÁ÷¯ P¸zx
©õØÓzvß ÷£õx ö©õÈPÎÀ £¯ß£kzu
÷Ásk®; CÈÁõÚ uõUSuÀPøÍ
ÁõxøµPÎÀ uºUP ÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº Áõuõk®÷£õx
A£zu©õÚ ö\õØPøÍ £¯ß£kzxÁøu
uºUP ÷Ásk®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 4).
Euõµn®: ÷©ØTÔ¯ EuõµnzvÀ A,
J¸ ÁÇUPSøµbº D GߣÁøµ SØÓ
ÁÇUQÀ Bu¶US®÷£õx, D GߣÁº C
GߣÁøµ uõUQ¯ ÁÇUQÀ ÁÇUSøµbº
DI AqQ AÁ¸US \õuP©õÚ AÔUøP
ö£ØÖ u¸ÁuõP ö\õÀÁuØS £v»õP D
GߣÁº A ÁÇUSøµbøµ AqQ
AÁ¸US \õuP©õÚ AÔPøP ö£ØÖuµ
÷ÁsiÚõÀ, A ÁÇUSøµbº AuøÚ
uºUP ÷Ásk®. AuߤÓS® D
AÆÁõ÷Ó TÔÚõÀ, Âv 4ߣi A
ÁÇUSøµbº DI Bu¶¨£øu uºUP
÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓzvÀ
÷uõßÖ®÷£õx G¨÷£õx÷© ÁSzx
Aø©UP¨£mh Eøh ©ØÖ®
{øh¬øÓPÎÀ C¸UP ÷Ásk® (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I,
Âv 5).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, ¤¶Ä 30,
ÁÇUSøµbº \mhzvÀ ö\õÀ»¨£mh
H÷uÝ® AvPõ¶, }v©ßÓ® AÀ»x
wº¨£õ¯zvß ¬ß C¸US®÷£õx, A¢u
}v©ßÓ® AÀ»x wº¨£õ¯zvß J÷µ
EÖ¨¤Úº AÀ»x EÖ¨¤ÚºPÎÀ J¸Áº
A¢u ÁÇUSøµb¸US RÌUPõq®
EÓÁõP C¸¢uõÀ, ÷uõßÓ÷Áõ,
ö\¯À£h÷Áõ, Áõvh÷Áõ Thõx.
 uP¨£Úõº, uõzuõ, ©Pß,
÷£µß, ©õ©õ, \÷Põuµº, ©¸©Pß, ¬uÀ
Azuõß, PnÁº, ©øÚÂ, ©PÒ, \÷Põu¶,
Azøu, ©¸©PÒ, ©õ©Úõº, ©õª¯õº,
©õ¨¤ÒøÍPÒ (©PÎß PnÁº),
ø©zxÚº, ©¸©PÒ (©PÛß ©øÚÂ)
AÀ»x ø©zxÛ.
C¢u Âv°À }v©ßÓ® Gߣx
}v©ßÓ®, }v©ßÓõ»¯® AÀ»x
wº¨£õ¯® BQ¯ÁØÔÀ EÒÍ }v£v
AÀ»x EÖ¨¤Úº AÀ»x uø»Áº
ÁÇUSøµb¸US ÷©ØPsh EÓÂÚµõP
C¸¢uõÀ ö\¯À£hThõx (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 6).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº }v©ßÓzøu
uµ ÷ÁÖ Ch[PÎÀ PÊzuo AÀ»x
ÁÇUPÔbº A[Qø¯ Ao¯Thõx.
Âv»US C¢v¯ £õºPÄß]À AÀ»x
}v©ßÓ® ÁSzuø©US® Ch[PÒ
AÀ»x ÂÇõUPÎÀ Ao¯»õ® (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® I , ¤¶Ä I,
Âv 7).
J¸ ÁÇUPÔbº H÷uÝ® J¸
Aø©¨¦, ìuõ£Ú®, \-P® AÀ»x
|ÖÁÚzvÀ ö\¯À£kzx® SÊÂÀ
EÖ¨¤ÚµõP C¸¢uõÀ, A¢u Aø©¨¦
ìuõ£Ú®, \-P® AÀ»x |ÖÁÚzvØS
BuµÁõP÷Áõ }v©ßÓ®, wº¨£õ¯® AÀ»x
G¢u AvPõ¶°ß ¬ß¦® ÷uõßÓUThõx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv II , Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä
I, Âv 8) ö\¯À£kzx® SÊ Gߣx G¢u
ö£¯¶À AøÇUP¨£mhõ¾® Ax A¢u
Aø©¨¦, ìuõ£Ú®, \-P® AÀ»x
|ÖÁÚzx ö£õx ÷©»õsø©
A¾ÁÀPøÍ PÁÛUS® AvPõµ®
£øhzu SÊ AÀ»x ]» {£ºPøÍ
öPõsh Aø©¨¦ BS®.
C¢u Âv }v©ßÓ {s£µõP
BáµõS® EÖ¨¤Ú¸US® ©ØÖ®
PmhnªßÔ £õºPÄß]À,
CønUP¨£mh \mh \-P® AÀ»x
ÁÇUPÔbº \[PzvØPõP ÷uõßÖ®
ÁÇUSøµbºPÐUS® ö£õ¸¢uõx (amicus
curiae).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸US £n
\®£¢u©õÚ £¯ß£õk C¸US®ö£õÊx
A¢u ÁÇUQÀ ö\¯À£h÷Áõ Áõvh÷Áõ
Thõx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯®
I , ¤¶Ä I, Âv 9).
Euõµn® : J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁº Phß
öPõkzuÁµõP C¸US®ö£õÊx ö{õi¨¦
|ø» ÁÇUQÀ A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº
ö\¯À£hThõx. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® II , ¤¶Ä I, Âv 9).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, J¸ Pm]UPõµ¸US
¤øn¯õ͵õP÷Áõ AÀ»x Pm]UPõµº
¤øn¯õ͵õP C¸UP uSv¯õÚÁº Gß÷Óõ
G¢u }v©ßÓ {hÁiUøPPξ®
ö\¯À£h¬i¯õx. (Bcl ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI,
Azv¯õ¯® I, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 10).
Euõµn®: A ÁÇUSøµbº C GߣÁøµ
J¸ SØÓÁÇUQÀ Bu¶zuõº. C
J¸¤øn°»hUTi¯ SØÓ®
\õmh¨£mhÁº. A ÁÇUSøµbº Cß Phß
wºUS® \Uvø¯ \õßÓÎUQÓõº. A
ÁÇUSøµbº, Âv 10I «Ö£ÁµõP
BQÓõº. (Âá´ ][ µz÷uõº Gvº
¬µÎ»õÀ, 1980 1 (SCR) 205).
Gvºuµ¨¤Ú¸UPõP EÒÍ Phø©PÒ
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº Gvº uµ¨¤Ú¸hß
A¢u ¤µa\øÚ £ØÔ Gvº uµ¨¦
ÁÇUSøµbº -»©õP ©mk÷© ö\´v
£¶©õØÓ® ö\´x öPõÒÍ ¬i²®. (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I,
Âv 34) (Aö©¶UP ÁÇUPÔbº \[P®,
öuõÈÀ ö{Ô ö£õÖ¨¦ ÂvPÒ DR
&7104).
Euõµn®: A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº W ©ØÖ® S
GßÓ Cµsk \÷Põu¶PÐUQøh÷¯Úõ
ö\õzx uPµõÔÀ W GߣÁøµ Bu¶zuõº.
S GߣÁº T GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbµõÀ
Bu¶UP¨£mhõº. W GߣÁº A- °h® uõß
ö£¸®£[SUS Bø\¨£hÂÀø». £øǯ
|øÚÄPøÍU öPõsh Qµõ©zx Ãk
©ØÖ® QøhzuõÀ ÷£õx® GßÖ TÖQÓõº.
A ÁÇUSøµbº S GߣÁøµ ÷{¶øh¯õP
AqQ Qµõ©zx Ãmøhz uµ GÀ»õ
ö\õzxUPøͲ® u¸ÁuõP Qµõ©zx
Ãmøhzuµ GÀ»õ ö\õzxUPøͲ®
u¸ÁuõP ¬ßö©õÈQÓõº. A ÁÇUSøµbº
S GߣÁøµ ÷{µi¯õP AqQ¯uõÀ Âv
34I «Ö£ÁµõP BQÓõº. A ÁÇUSøµbº,
Gvºuµ¨¦ ÁÇUSøµbº T- I AqQ C¸UP
÷Ásk®.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº GÊzx
-»©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x }v©ßÓ Âv-»®
ö\¯À£kzu ¬i¯õuuõP C¸¢uõ¾®
Gvºuµ¨¦US ö\´x öPõkzu GÀ»õ
\mh£i¯õÚ EÖvö©õÈPøͲ®
|øÓ÷ÁØÓ ÷Ásk®. (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv
VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 35).
Euõµn® : A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, C GßÓ
Pm]UPõµ¶h® C¸¢x J¸ ö\õzøu
Áõ[QÚõº. A¢u ö\õzvß J¸ ÁÇUQß
B´Ä ö£õ¸Ò BS®. C-ß E¶ø©°ß «x
£À÷ÁÖ \¢÷uP® C¸¢ux. A A GÝ®
ÁÇUSøµb¸US® öu¶²®. A AuøÚ
÷ÁÖ J¸ -ßÓõ® {£¸US ÂØ£uß -»®
÷©¾® ¤µa\øÚPÐUS ÁÈ ÁSzuõº. A
öuõÈÀ {hzøu÷Pk ö\´uÁº BQÓõº.
A AÁ¸øh¯ Pm]UPõµ¸US ©mkªßÔ,
-ßÓõ® {£¸US® }v©ßÓzvØS®
÷{ºø©¯õP C¸UP ÷Ásk®. A
}v£¶£õµønø¯ ©v¨¤ÇUPa ö\´uÁº
BQÓõº. (¤.i. S¨uõ Gvº µõ® -ºzv
(1997) 7SCC 147).
\P ÁÇUPøµbºPÐUPõP EÒÍ
Phø©PÒ
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº ÷Áø»ø¯
÷Ásh÷Áõ AÀ»x ÷{µi¯õP÷Áõ
AÀ»x ©øÓ¬P©õP÷Áõ ÂÍ®£µ¨£kzu
Thõx, RÌPõq® ÁÈPÎß -»® CuøÚ
ö\´¯UThõx.
 _ØÓÔUøP, ÂÍ®£µ[PÒ,
uµPºPÎß -»÷©õ, uÛzu ö\´v öuõhº¦
-»÷©õ, AÀ»x
 uÛ¯õP AøÇUP¨£hõu
Eøµ¯õhÀ -»©õP÷Áõ AÀ»x,
 ö\´vuõÎÀ ÁºnøÚ
öPõk¨£uß -»©õP÷Áõ ö\´¯UThõx.
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯ |ÇØ£h®
A¢u ÁÇUS \®£¢u¨£mh Ch[PÎÀ
öÁΰh¨£h AÝ©vUP Thõx (BCI
ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI , ¤¶Ä I, Âv 36).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµb¶ß ö£¯º£»øP AÀ»x
SÔ±k £»øP RÌUPõq® ÂvPøÍ
ö£õÖzx C¸UP÷Ásk®.
 Ax |¯õ¯©õÚ AÍÄ
Eøh¯uõP C¸UP ÷Ásk®.
 A¢u £»øP A¢u
ÁÇUSøµbøµ H÷uÝ® £õºPÄß]À
AÀ»x ÁÇUPÔbº \[Pzvß uø»Áº
AÀ»x EÖ¨¤Úº GßÖ öÁΨ£kzu
Thõx.
 Ax A¢u ÁÇUSøµbºPÒ
H÷uÝ® {£º AÀ»x Aø©¨¦ AÀ»x
H÷uÝ® ö£õ¸mTÖhß \®£¢u¨£mhÁº
GßÖ öÁΨ£kzu Thõx.
 Ax A¢u ÁÇUSøµbº
H÷uÝ® ]Ó¨¦ £o°À EÒÍÁº GßÖ
öÁΨ£kzu Thõx.
 A¢u £»øP ÁÇUSøµbº
J¸ }v£v AÀ»x uø»ø©
ÁÇUSøµbº GßÖ öÁΨ£kzu Thõx.
(BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä
I, Âv 36).
Euõµn®: A GßÓ ÁÇUPÔbº ©õ|»
Aµ_US ÁÇUSøµ SÔ¨ø£ ÷Ási Piu®
GÊvÚõº. A GߣÁº öuõÈÀ {hzøu ÷Pk
ö\´uÁº BQÓõº. (Âv 36).
(©íõµõèmµõ £õºPÄß]À Gvº
G®.Â.h÷£õÀPº, AIR 1976 SC 242).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº AÁ¸øh¯
öuõÈÀ £oø¯÷¯õ AÀ»x ö£¯øµ÷¯õ
AÝ©v AÎUP¨£hõu Aø©¨¦
£¯ß£kzu AÀ»x EvÁ¯õP GkzxU
öPõÒÍ AÝ©vUP ¬i¯õx (BCI ÂvPÒ,
£Sv VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 37).
Euõµn®: A J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº E GÝ®
ö£õÔ¯õ͸hß Tmhõsø©°À
Cøn¢uõº. A¢u Tmhõsø© £zvµ®
C¸Á¸® »õ£ {mh[PøÍ \¶\©©õP
£Qº¢x öPõÒÍ ÷Ásk® GßÖ TÔ¯x. A
©ØÖ® E C¸Á¸® ö£õÔ°¯À
J¨£¢u[PÎÀ \mh B÷»õ\øÚ
ÁÇ[SQÓõºPÒ. \mh B÷»õ\øÚ £o°À
QøhUS® Á¸©õÚzøu EGÝ®
ö£õÔ¯õ͸hß £Qº¢x öPõÒÁuõÀ A
GÝ® ÁÇUSøµbº Âv 37I A¢u
Tmhõsø© Aø©¨¤ß -»® «ÖQÓõº.
÷©¾® E GߣÁº ©õ|» £õºPÄß]¼ÚõÀ
\mh B÷»õ\øÚ ÁÇ[P
AÝ©vUP¨£hõu÷£õx, AÁÇUSøµbº E
ö£õÔ¯õÍøµ \mh B÷»õ\øÚ ö\´ÁuõÀ
{hzøu÷Pk CøÇzuÁº BQÓõº. 2
(Âv¬øÓ {. 5.24, |³¯õºU ÁÇUPÔbº
\[P®).
J¸ ÁÇUSøµbº, uß Pm]UPõµº
Pmhn® ö\¾zx® |ø»°À
C¸US®ö£õÊx ÂvPÒ TÖ®
Pmhnzøu Âh SøÓÁõÚ Pmhnzøu
HØÖU öPõÒÍ ¬i¯õx (BCI ÂvPÒ, £Sv
VI, Azv¯õ¯® II, ¤¶Ä I, Âv 38).
midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; NjHT
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
ghlk; 11: nrhj;J rl;lq;fs;

,e;jpahtpy; ve;jr; rl;lj;jpdhYk; ‘nrhj;J’ vd;w
thu;j;ij tiuaWf;fg;gltpy;iy. nghJthf ,e;j
thu;j; ij rl;l chpikfs; kw;Wk; nghUshjhu
kjpg;Gs;s eyd;fs; Nghd;witfis
cs;slf;fpajhfNt fUjg;gLfpwJ. nrhj;J vd;gij
NkYk; gy gpupTfshfg; gpupj;Jg; ghu;f;fyhk;:
mirAk; kw;Wk; mirahr; nrhj;Jf;fs;>
njhlf;$ba njhlKbahr; nrhj;Jf;fs;> cly;
rhu;e;j kw;Wk; cly;rhuh nrhj;Jf;fs; vd gy
gpupTfshf tifg;gLj;jyhk;.

mirahr; nrhj;J vDk; nrhy; nghJg; gphpTfs;
rl;lk;> 1897-d; %yk; tiuaUf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ.
mjd;gb fPo;f;fhz;git mlq;Fk;:
 epyk;
 epyj;jpypUe;J fpilf;Fk; eyd;fs;
 G+kpNahL ,ize;Js;sit kw;Wk; G+kpNahL
,ize;Js;stw;NwhL epiyahf xl;bapUg;git

Fj;jif> milkhdk; kw;Wk; thlif Nghd;witAk;
mirhahr; nrhj;Jf;fspd; eyd;fshf cs;sjhy;
mirahr; nrhj;Jf;fshfNt fUjg;gLfpd;wd.
thlifia t#ypg;gjw;fhd chpikahshpd; chpik
kw;Wk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l rpW ,lj;jpy; Vy tpw;gid
ele;jjw;fhf njhif t#ypf;Fk; chpik
MfpadTk;$l epyj;ijr; rhu;e;jjhf ,Ug;gjhy;
mirahr; nrhj;jhfNt nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rl;lk;> 1882-d;gb fPo;f;fhZk;
re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xU nrhj;J epyj;NjhL
,ize;jpUg;gjhff; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ:

 mr;nrhj;J epyj;jpy; Cd;wpapUe;jhy; (kuk;
nrbfs; Nghd;wit). kuk;> nrbfs; Nghd;wd
epyj;jpy; Cd;wpapUg;gjhy; mit mirahr;
nrhj;Jf;fNs. ,Ug;gpDk;> nrhj;J khw;Wr;
rl;lj;jpd; gb epd;Wnfhz;bUf;Fk; tsuhkuk;>
tpisr;ry;fs; kw;Wk; Gw;fs; mirahr;
nrhj;Jf;fshff; nfhs;s KbahJ vd;fpwJ.
,q;F epw;Fk; tsuhkuk; vd;gij tPL fl;lNth
my;yJ tPL gOJghu;f;fNth Cd;wpitf;fg;
gl;bUf;Fk; kuk; vdf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. epw; Fk;
tsuhkuk; vd;gJ capNuhL cs;s kuky;y.
tsUk; kuk; vd;gJ capNuhL cs;sNjhL
epyj;jpypUe;J rj;ij cwpQ;rp thof;$baJ.
,j;jifa tsUk; kuk; xU mirahr;
nrhj;jhFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: ,e;jpar; #oypy; epw;Fk; kuk; vd;gJ
Ntk;G> Njf;F> fUNty; Nghd;witfisf;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.

 xU nrhj;J G+kpapy; gjpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fkhdhy;:
xU nrhj;J G+kpapy; gjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjh
,y;iyah vdf;fz;lwpa gjpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;
tpjk; kw;Wk; gjpf;fg; gad;gl;bUf;Fk;
nghUs; Mfpad fUj;jpy; nfhs;sg;
gLfpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf> gjpf;fg;
gad;gl;bUf;Fk; nghUs; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: nrq;fw;fs; thpirahf xd;wpd;kPJ
xd;W xU fha;e;j Rtuhf (rpnkd;l; my;yJ gpw
fyitnfhz;Nlh my;yJ ,y;yhkNyh)
fl; lg;gl;bUe;jhy; mJ G+kpapy; gjpf;fg;gl;ljhff;
nfhs;sg;gLk;. vdNt mJ xU mirahr;
nrhj;jhFk;. Mdhy;> mNj fw;fs; xU
fl; Lkhdk; nra;gthpd; ,lj;jpy; trjpf;fhf
thpirahf xU Rtu; Nghd;W xd;wpd;kPJ xd;W
mLf;fg;gl;bUf;Fkhdhy; mJ G+kpapy;
gjpf;fg;gl;ljhff; nfhs;sKbahJ. vdNt mJ
mirahr; nrhj;jhfhJ.

 G+kpapy; gjpf;fg;gl;Ls;s nrhj;NjhL me;j
G+kpapy; gjpf;fg;gl;l nrhj;ijg; G+uzkhf
mDgtpf;f cjtpahf mtw;NwhL
,ize;jpUf;Fk; nghUl;fs;: ,tw;wpy; xU
tPl;bd; fjTfs;> [d;dy;fs;> Nghd;wit
mlq;Fk;. ,it tPl;NlhL ,ize;jpUe;J
me;j tPl;il mDgtpf;f cjTfpd;wd.

nrhj;J khw;wk;:

xU nrhj;jpd; chpik khw;wk; fP o;f; fhZk;
VjhtJ xU tifapy; eilngwyhk;:

 xUtu; jhdhf Kd;te;J kw;wtUf;F khw;wpj;
jUtJ. (nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lj;jpdhy;
tiuaWf;fg;gl;lJ)
 thuPR my;yJ guk;giutop nrhj;J khw;wk;
(guk;giu nrhj;J rhu;e;j jdpg;gl;l
rl;lq;fshy; tiuaWf;fg;gl;lJ)
 rl;lg;gb kw;nwhUtUf;F nrhj;ij khw;wk;
nra;tJ jUtJ (epyk; ifafg;gLj;Jk;
rl;lj;jpdhy; tiuaWf;fg; gl;lJ)

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lNk ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l thOk; egu;fspilNa eilngWk;
(epWtdq;fs;> kd;wq; fs; kw;Wk; FOf;fs;
cl;gl)> nrhj;J khw;wj;jpw;fhd Kf;fpakhd
rl;lkhFk;. nrhj;J khw;wk; vd;gJ xU egu;
jdJ nrhj;jpid epfo;fhyj;jpNyh> vjpu;
fhyj;jpNyh xU tho;gtUf;Nfh my;yJ gy
capNuhL cs;stUf;Nfh my;yJ mtUf;NfNah




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




my;yJ mtUf;Fk; kw;w xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;ltu;fSf;Nfh chpik khw;wk; nra;J
jUtjhFk; ’ vd;fpwJ nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lk;.

‘thOk; egu;fs; ’ vd;gJ epWtdq;fs;> kd;wq;fs;>
FOf;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwAk; (mit Kiwg;gb gjpT
nra;ag;gl;lhYk; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;)
cs;slf; fpajhFk;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-7-d;gb xU nrhj;ij
xUtu; khw;wk; nra;a Ntz; Lkhdhy; fP o;f;fhZk;
jFjpfs; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;: (m) xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak;
jFjp (M) nrhj;jpd; chpikahsuhfNth my;yJ
nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;Ak; mjpfhuk; ngw;wtuhfNth
,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;gtUf;F
me;jr; nrhj;J chpikahdJ ,y;yhtpby; me;jr;
nrhj;jpid khw;wk; nra;Ak; mjpfhuj; ij (gtu;
M/g; ml;lhu;dp my;yJ Kftu;)

NtW Nehf;fj;jpid ntspg;gLj;jpapUe;jhNyh
my;yJ kiwKfkhff; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhNyh md;wp
nrhj;J chpik khw;wj;jpd; %yk; nrhj;J
ngWgtUf;F nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;J jUgtu;
mDgtpj;J te;j midj;J chpikfSk;
eyd;fSk; nrhj;J khw;wk; ngWgtUf;F
cldbahfr; rl;l epfo;thfr; nrd;W tpLfpwJ.
(nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-8).

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: nrhj;J rhu; rl;l epfo;Tfshtd:

 khw;wk; ngWk; nrhj;J epykhf ,Ue;jhy; > me;j
epyj;NjhL mDNghf ghj;jpaij me;j
epyj;jpypUe;J khw;wj;jpw;Fg;gpd; tUk; midj;J
tUtha; > thliffSk;
 khw;wk; ngWk; nrhj;J epyj;NjhL
,ize;jpUf;Fk; ,ae;jpukhf ,Ue;jhy;> mjd;
mirAk; gFjpfs;
 khw;wk; ngWk; nrhj;J tPlhf ,Ue;jhy;>
mjNdhL ,ize;Js;s mDNghf ghj;jpaij>
me;j tPl;bypUe;J tUk; midj;J thlif
kw;Wk; gpw tUtha;fs;> G+l;Lfs;> rhtpfs;>
fjTfs;> [d;dy;fs; kw;Wk; me;j tPl;il
KOikahf epiyahf mDgtpf;fj; Njitahd
midj;Jg; nghUl;fSk;.

nrhj;J khw;wk; Nghd;W khw;wKbahr; rpy
chpikfs; cs;sd. mit:

 nrhj;J thhPrhFk; tha;g;G my;yJ rl;lg;
G+h;tkhd cwT tha;g;G Nghd;w chpikfs;.
,q;F Fwpg;gplg;gLk; tha;g;G ntw;W tha;g;GfNs
eydilAk; tha;g;Gfs; my;y.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L:
 egu;-1 ,e;J eguhd ,tUf;F mtNu
Nru;j;j nrhj;J cs;sJ. mtUf;F xU
ifk;ngz;Zk; (egu; -2) xU rNfhjuUk;
(egu; -3) cs;sdu;. egu; -2-d; MAs;
fhyj;ijtpl mjpf ehl;fs; egu;3 capu;
tho;e;jhy; mtUf;F me;jr; nrhj;jpd; kPJ
ntWk; tha;g;G cs;sJ. ,e;j chpikia
mtu; khw;wpf; nfhLf;f KbahJ.
 me;j egu; -1 jdJ kidtpahd egu; -2-
f;Fk; mtUf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ
gps;isfSf;Fk; ; nryTf;fhd fUidj;
njhifahf mspg;ghuhdhy; gpd; egu; -3f;F
chpik jug; gLkhdhy; me;j chpik egu; -
1f;F Foe;ij cs;sijg; nghUj;Jk;
me;j eyd;fs; khw;wg;glf; $bajh
vd;gijAk; nghUj;jjhFk;.
 epge;jid kPwYf;fhf kWgjpT chpik
khw;wj;jf;fjy;y

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ epyj;ij egu; -2f;F
me;j epyj;jpy; Fsk; ntl;lf;$lhJ vd;w
epge;jidNahL 5 Mz;LfSf;Ff; Fj;jiff;F
tpLfpwhu;. Mdhy;> egu; -2 me;j epge;jidf;F
khwhf Fsk; Njhz;lNt egu; -1 me;j epyj;ij
epge;jid kpwypd; fhuzkhf kW Fj;jiff;F
egu;-3-lk; tpLfpwhu;. me;j khw;wk; nry;yhJ.

 Kf;fpa nrhj;J khw;wk; ,d;wp mjd;
mDNghf ghj;jpaij kl;Lk; khw;wj;
jf;fjy;y.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU rpW epyg;gFjpapd;kPJ
xUtUf;F toq;fg;gLk; chpik cjhuzkhf
mLj;j xU rpW epyg;gFjpia mDgtpf;f
toq;fg;gLk; ghij me;j epy chpikkhw;wk;
,d;wp khw;wj; jf;fjy;y.

 xU nrhj;jpd; eydpd;kPJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l
chpikahsUf;F kl;Lk; jdpg;gl;l tpjj;jpy;
toq;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; chpik khw;wj;jf;fjy;y.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L:
 xU egUf;F mtuJ jdpg;gl;l
gad;ghl;Lf;fhff; tpl;Lf;nfhLf;fg;gl;l
tPl;bid mtu; khw;wk; nra;a KbahJ
 egu;-1 egu; -2f;fhf cg;G tpistpf;f
cld;gLfpwhu;. cld;gbf;if
epge;jidapd;gb egu; -2 mtu; toq;Fk;
cg;gpd; msTf;F Vw;g njhifiag; ngw
chpik cs;sJ. egu; -2 ,e;j chpikia
gpwUf;F mspf;f KbahJ. Vnddpy; ,e;j
chpik jdpg;gl;l chpikahFk;.
(ekr;rptha FUf;fs; vjpu; fjpu; mk;khs;
(1894) ILR 17 Mad 168).




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




 vjpu;fhy guhkhpg;Gf;fhd chpikia khw;w
KbahJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU rkur xg;ge;jj;jpd;gb xUtUf;F
guhkhpg;Gf;fhf toq;fg;gl;l fpuhkq;fs; mtuJ
tho;ehspy; ahUf;Fk; me;j chpikia khw;w
KbahJ vd toq;fg;gl;l chpikia xU
vjpu;fhyg; guhkhpg;G chpikahff; fUjg;gLk;.
vdNt mij khw;w KbahJ.

 tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk; rhjhud chpik khw;w
KbahjJ.
,q;F ‘rhjhuz’ vDk; thu;j;ij Kf;fpakhdJ.
ghjpf;fg;gl;l xU jug;gpd; chpik tof;Fj;
njhLf;Fk; chpikahFk;. xU nfhLikf;F
vjpuhfNth my;yJ xg;ge;j kPwYf;F vjpuhfNth
tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk; chpikia khw;w KbahJ.
,Ug;gpDk; xU nrhj;J khw;wj;jpd;NghJ me;jr;
nrhj;J rhu;e;j ,og;gPL ngWk; chpikNahL
me;jr; nrhj;J khw;wk; ngw;wpUf;Fkhdhy;> me;j
chpik khw;wk; nry;Yk;. xU flNdh my;yJ
eltbf;if vLf;fj;jf;f chpikf;Nfhhpf;if
vd;gJ xU rhjhuz tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk;
chpikahfhJ. vdNt mj;jifa nrhj;J khw;wk;
nry;Yk;. mNjNghd;W> xU chpikf;Nfhhpf;if
xU jPu;g;gpNdhL ,izf;fg;gl;bUf;Fkhdhy; mij
xU rhjhuz tof;Fj; njhLf;Fk; chpikahff;
fUj KbahJ. vdNt mjd; khw;wk; nry;Yk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-f;F 10 Nfhzpg;igfis
vjpu;fhy xU Njjpapy; tpw;fr; rk;kjpf;fpwhu;. egu; -2
me;j eyid egu; -3f;F tpw;W tpLfpwhu;. mjd;gpd;
egu; -1 me;j xg;ge;jj;ij kPWfpwhu;. xg;ge;j
kPwypdhy; cz; lhd ,og;gPL Nfl;L egu;-3 tof;Fj;
njhLf;fpwhu;. ,t;tof;fpd; %yk; egu; -3 ,og;gPl;ilg;
ngw KbAk;. Vnddpy; egu; -2 egu;-3f;F mspj;j
,og;gPL ngWk; chpik rhjhuz chpikay;y.
khwhf me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; eyidg; ngWk;
chpikahFk;. khwhf> egu; -2 egu; -3f;F xg;ge;j
kPwYf;Fg;gpd; nfhLj;j ,og;gPL ngWk; chpik
rhjhuz chpikahf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mJ nry;yhJ.

 nghJ mYty; kw;Wk; nghJ mYtyh;fspd;
rk;gsk; Mfpad khw;wj;jf;fjy;y.
 giltPuu;fSf;Fk;> flw; gil> tpkhdg;gil Nghd;w
tPuu;fSf;Fk; Xa;Tngw;w Kd;dhy; muR
Copau;fSf;Fk; KjpNahUf;Fk; toq;fg;gLk;
cjtpj;njhif khw;wj;jf;fjy;y.
 fPo;f;fhZk; tpjj;jpy; nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;a
,ayhJ: (m) ghjpf;fg;gLk; eydpd; ,aw;iff;F
vjpuhdjhf ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ (M) rl;lj;jpw;F
vjpuhd Nehf;fj;jpw;fhfNth ghprPyidf;fhfNth
(,) nrhj;J khw;wpg; ngwr; rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;
gl;Nlhu;.
xU rpy nrhj;Jf;fs; ,aw;ifahfNth khw;wj;
jf;fjy;y. ,tw;wpy; r%fj;jpw;Nf chpa
nrhj;Jf;fs; mlq;Fk; (cjhuzkhf> r%fj;jpd;
nrhj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; ahu; xUtUf;Fk;
chpikahfhj nrhj;Jf;fSk;) – fhw;W> jz; zP u;>
xsp kw;Wk; gpw. NkYk; tzpfk; nra;a Kbahr;
nrhj;jhd nghJr; nrhj;Jf;fs; my;yJ rkak;
rhu;e;j nrhj;Jf;fs;.

xUtu; rl;lj;jpdhy; nrhj;J khw;wj;
jiltpjpf;fg; gl;bUe;jhy; mtu; nrhj;J khw;wr;
rl;lj;jpdhy; jLf;fg;gLfpwhu;. cjhuzkhf>
nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-136 xU ePjpgjp> xU
rl;l mwpQu; my;yJ ePjpkd;wj;ijr; rhu;e;j xU
mYtyu; Nghd;Nwhu; eltbf;if vLf;fj;jf;f
chpikf; Nfhhpf;if khw;wq; fisg; ngw
KbahJ vd;fpwJ.

 jhd; thliff;F cs;s tPl;il thlifjhuu;
kw;nwhUtUf;F khw;w KbahJ. xU
v];Nll;bd; tptrhap my;yJ Fj;jifjhuu;
mtu;fsplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;Ls;s epyj;ijNah
eyidNah khw;wk; nra;a KbahJ.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-43-d;gb xUtu;
jtwhfNth my;yJ NkhrbahfNth mtUf;F
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;jpid khw;wk; nra;Ak;
mjpfhuk; ngw;wpUg;gjhff; $wpf; nfhz;L>
me;jr; nrhj;jpid tpiyf;F tpw;fg; Nghtjhf
mwptpj;jhy;> mj;jifa khw;wk; ahu; ngaUf;F
khw;wg;gLfpwNjh mtiug; nghUj;jtiu me;j
nrhj;J khw;Wgtu; gydilAk;tiu
nry;yj;jf;fNj. gphpT-43-d;gb mq;F jtWjyhd
my;yJ Nkhrbahd Ms;khwhl;lk; ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;. ,J nghUs; khw;wk; ngWgtu; me;j
khw;wk; nra;J jUgtUf;F mjpfhuk; ,Ug;gjhf
KOikahf ek;gp ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. mj;jifa
Nkhrbahd Ms;khwhl;lj;ij ek;ghky;
,Ue;jpUg;ghuhdhy; gphpT-43 nghUe;jhJ. NkYk;>
me;j khw;wk; xU tpiynfhLj;Jg; ngw;wjhf
,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. xU md;gspg;ghf mspf;fg;
gl;bUf;Fkhdhy; me;j khw;wk; gphpT-43-d;
gyidg; ngw KbahJ. ,Wjpahf gphpT-43 –d;
fPo; cs;s chpik jhdhfNt nghUe;jhJ.
khwhf> Nfl;Lg; ngw Ntz; baJ. me;j
xg;ge;jj;ij kWj;jpUe;jhNyh my;yJ mjw;Fhpa
njhifiaj; jpUk;gg; ngw;wpUe;jhNyh gphpT-43
nghUe;jhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ je;ijahd egu; -2-
lkpUe;J gphpe;jgpd; egu; -3-f;F %d;W epyq;fis
(m> M> ,) jdf;F me;j epyq;fis tpw;gjw;F
mjpfhuk; cs;sjhff; $wp tpw;fpwhu;. me;j
%d;W epyq; fspy; epyk;-, egu;-1f;Fr; nrhe;jk;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




,y;iy. ghfg; gphptpidapd;NghJ egu; -2 me;j
epyk; -, -idj; jdf;Nf itj;Jf;nfhz;lhu;. mtu;
,we;jJk; mtuJ thupR vDk; Kiwapy; me;j
epyk; -,-ia egu;-1 ngWfpwhu;. egu; -3 me;j
xg;ge;jj;ij xJf;fhky; me;j epyk; -,-iaj;
jdf;Fj; jUk;gb egu; -1-lk; Nfhuyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU nrhj;ij khw;Wtjw;fhd
mjpfhuk; ngw;wtuhf fhl; bf;nfhs;fpwhu;. me;jr;
nrhj;ij mt;thNw egu; -2f;F milkhdk; nra;J
nfhLf;fpwhu;. Mdhy; egu; -1f;F me;jr; nrhj;jpd;
kPJ chpa mjpfhuk; ,y;iy. fhyg;Nghf;fpy; egu; -1
mj;jifa khw;wj;jf;f mjpfhuj; ijg; ngw;W mNj
nrhj;jpid egu; -3-f;F khw;wpf; nfhLf;fpwhh;. me;jr;
nrhj;ij egu; -2f;F milkhdk; nra;J
nfhLj;jpUg;gJ egu; -3f;Fj; njhpahJ. me;j khw;wk;
egu; -2-dhy; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F Kd;dNu ele;J
tpl;lJ. egu; -2d; milkhdk; egu; -3-d; mjpfhuj;jpw;F
cl;gl;lJ.

nrhj;J khw;wj;jpy; cs;s fl;Lg;ghLfs;

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpT-10-d;gb xU
nrhj;ij khw;wpg; ngw;wtu; my;yJ mtUf;F
mbapy; cs;Nshu; me;jr; nrhj;ij khw;Wtjw;F
tpjpf;fg;gLk; KOikahd fl;Lg;ghLfs; vJTNk
nry;yhJ. KOikahd fl;Lg;ghLfs; nry;yhJ.
XusT fl;Lg;ghLfisg; gphpT-10 jLf;fpwJ. xU
fl; Lg;ghL KOikahdjh my;yJ KOikaw;wjh
vdf; fz;lwpa mjd; tpisitg; ghu;f;f
Ntz; LNkad;wp me;jf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; thu;j;ijfis
ftdpf;ff; $lhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 me;jr; nrhj;ijj; jhdkhf toq;ff;
$lhJ vd;gJ nry;Yk;> Vnddpy;> mJ
KOikahdjy;y.
 nrhj;jpidg; ngw;wtu; %d;W Mz; LfSf;F
ahUf;Fk; khw;wyhfhJ vdf; $Wk; fl;Lg;ghL
nry;Yk;. Vnddpy; mf;fl;Lg;ghL KOikaw;wJ.
khwhf> nrhj;jpidg; ngw;wtu; ,UgJ
Mz;LfSf;F ahUf;Fk; khw;wyhfhJ vdf;
$Wk; fl;Lg;ghL xU KOikahdjhff; fUjg;
gLfpwJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -2-f;F xU nrhj;ij tpw;fpwhu;. ,q;F
egu;-2 egu; -1-ld; xU jdpg;gl;l tpjj;jpy; me;jr;
nrhj;J tpw;fg;gLkhdhy; mij thq;Fk; Kjy;
chpikia egu;-1f;F mspj;J cld;ghL nra;J
nfhs;fpwhu;. egu;-2 me;jr; nrhj;ij tpw;f
Kad; why; me;j cld;ghL nry;Yk;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; gphpT-10 ,U
tpjptpyf;Ffis Vw;fpwJ. KjyhtJ> Fj;jif
rhu;e; jtw;wpy; nrhj;J tpw;gidf; fl;Lg;ghLfs;
me;j Fj;jif jhuUf;Nfh my;yJ mtuJ
Ml;fSf;Nfh rhjfkhdjhf ,Uf;Fkhdhy;
mit Vw;fj; jf;fNj. ,uz; lhtjhf> xU
nrhj;J xU jpUkzkhd ngz;Zf;F tpw;fg;
gLkhdhy; (,e;J> ,Ryhk; kw;Wk; Gj;j
rkaj;ijr; rhu;e;j ngz;fs; jtpu) me;jr;
nrhj;ij mtuJ jpUkzj;jpd; NghJ khw;wNth
my;yJ tpw;fNth fl;Lg;ghLfs; tpjpf;fyhk;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-11 xU nrhj;J
khw;wj;jpd; NghJ xU nrhj;;jpd; kPJ xUtUf;F
cs;s chpik kw;nwhUtUf;F khw;wpf;
nfhLf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> me;j chpik
my;yJ mij mDgtpf;Fk; tpjk; xU
Fwpg;gpl;l tpjj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk; vdf;
Fwpf;fg; gl;bUf;Fkhdhy;> me;jr; nrhj;ijg;
ngw;wtu; me;jr; nrhj;ij ve;jtpj fl;Lg;ghLk;
,y;yhjJNghy; fUjp mDgtpf;fNth my;yJ
tpw;WtplNth chpik cs;sJ vd;fpwJ. gphpT-10
xU nrhj;J khw;wj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghLfs;gw;wpf;
$Wk;NghJ gpupT-11 nrhj;Jhpikia
mDgtpg;gJgw;wpf; $WfpwJ. nrhj;ij
mDgtpg;gjpy; tpjpf;fg;gLk; fl;Lg;ghLfs;
KOikahd chpikf;F Kuz;ghlhf cs;sJ.
Mdhy;> XusT chpikf;F xj;Jg; Nghtjhf
cs;sijf; ftdpf;fyhk;. gpupT-11 KOikahd
nrhj;J chpik khw;wk; gw;wpNa $WfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F md;gspg;ghf xU tPl;il
me;j tPl;by; egu;-2 trpf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;w
fl; Lg;ghNlhL mspf;fpwhu;. me;j md;gspg;G
KOikahdJ vd;gjhy; mf;fl;Lg;ghL
nry;yhjjhfpwJ. egu; -2 me;j tPl;by;
trpf;fyhk; my;yJ trpf;fhkYk;
,Uf;fyhk;.
 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F md;gspg;ghf xU tPl;il
me;j tPl;by; egu;-2 trpf;f Ntz; Lk; mg;gb
trpf;fhtpby; me;j md;gspg;G jpUk;gk;
ngwg;gLk; vd;w fl;Lg;ghNlhL mspf;fpwhu;.
me;jf; fl;Lg;ghL nry;Yk;. Vnddpy; me;j
md;gspg;G KOikahdJ ,y;iy.

kw;nwhU rpW epyg;gFjpia mDgtpg;gjw;fhf
xU epyg;gFjpiag; gw;wp xUrpy cj;juTfis
me;j epyj;ij khw;wpf; nfhLg;gtu; Fwpf;fyhk;.
mg;gbg;gl;l cj;juTfSk; mij kPwpdhy;
mjw;fhd ,og;gPl;ilAk; me;j epyj;ij khw;wpf;
nfhLg;gtu; Nfl; Lg; ngwyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F KO md;gspg;ghf xU tPl;il
me;j tPl;bd; cauj;ij me;j tPl;bd;
mUfpYs;s egu; -1d; tPl;bw;F tUk; fhw;W>
ntspr;rj;ijj; jLf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; mjpfhpf;ff;
$lhJ vd;w fl;Lg; ghNlhL mspf;fpwhu;. ,e;jf;
fl; Lg;ghL nry;Yk;
 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F jdJ epyj;jpidf; Fj;jiff;F
mspf;fpwhu;. Mdhy;> me;j epyj;jpd; kj;jpapy;
cs;s rpy epyg;gFjpiaj; jd; gad;ghl;Lf;fhf
itj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhu;. me;j epyg;gFjpia
mDgtpf;Fk; tpjkhf egu; -2 jdJ Fj;jif
epyk;topahf top juNtz; Lk; vd epge;jidia
nfhLf;fpwhu;. ,e;j epge;jid nry;Yk;.

xU mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j chpik khw;w
xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s fl;Lg;ghL nghJthf xU
cld;gbf;if vd miof;fg; gLfpwJ. xU
cld;gbf;if ,U tifahf mikayhk;: (m)
Neu;kiw cld;gbf;if (xU nraiyr; nra;AkhNwh
my;yJ gzk; nrYj;JkhNwh xU flik
cilaJ) (M) vjpu;kiw cld;gbf;if (xU
Fwpg;gpl;l nraiyr; nra;aj; jiltpjpj;Jr;
nra;ag;gLk; cld;gbf;if). mirahr; nrhj;J
rhu;e;j cld;gbf;ifapy; cld;gbf;if epyk;
rhu;e;jjhf ,Uf;fyhk;. me;j epyj;jpd; gad;
my;yJ flik me;j epyj;ij khw;wpg;
ngWgtUf;F rhu;ghfr; nry;Yk;. ,t;tifahd
cld;gbf;iffs; me;j epyj;jpd; ,ay;G> gz; G>
my;yJ kjpg;gpidg; ghjpf;ff; $baJ. vjpu;kiw
my;yJ fl; Lg;gLj;Jk; cld;gbf;if epyk;
rhu;e;jjhfTk; Neu;kiw cld;gbf;if epyk;
rhuhjjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-40 fPo;f;fhz;gtw;iwf;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd:

 xU mirahr; nrhj;jpd; rpwe;j Rje;jpukhd
mDgtj;jpw;fhf>
 xUtUf;F kw;nwhUthpd; epyj;jpd;kPJs;s
mtuJ chpikia jtpu;j;J
 me;j epy chpikahshpd; mDgtj;ij XusT
fl; Lg;gLj;Jk; chpik cs;sJ.

mj;jifa chpikia nrhj;ij khw;wpg;
ngWgtUf;F chpa Kd;dwptpg;Gf; nfhLj;J
mDgtpf;fyhk;. mj;fifa chpikia xU
tpiynfhLj;Jg; ngw KbahJ my;yJ nrhj;ij
khw;wpg; ngWgtUf;F Kd;dwptpg;Gf; nfhLf;fhky;
ngw KbahJ.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-40-y; fhzg;gLk; ,e;j
tpjpia ‘jy;f; vjpu; khf;];N` tpjp’ vd
miof; fpd;wdu;. (jy;f; vjpu; khf;];N`> (1848) 41
ER 1143). nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; gphpT-40 kw;Wk;
gphpT-11 Mfpatw;iw ,izj;Jg; ghu;j;jhy;:
 mry; nrhj;J khw;wpg; ngWgtu; Neu;kiw
kw;Wk; vjpu;kiw cld;gbf;if Mfpatw;why;
fl; Lg;gLj;jg; gLfpwhu;. Mdhy;>
 mLj;j nrhj;J khw; wpg; ngWgtu; fP o;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfs; epiwNtw;wg; gl;bUe;jhy;
vjpu;kiw cld;gbf;ifahy; kl;LNk
fl; Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpwhu;:
o tpiynfhLj;J nrhj;J khw;wpg;
ngWgtUf;F Kd;dNu me;j epge;jidfs;
njhptpf;fg; gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
o ,e;j cld;gbf;if mjd; mUfpYs;s
kw;nwhU epyj;jpd; mDgtj;jpw;fhdJ
kl;Lky;yhJ mJ me;j cld;gbf;if
nra;Jnfhz; ltUilajhfTk; ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;.
 tpiynfhLj;J nrhj;Jhpikia khw;wpg;
ngw;wtu; Mdhy; me;j cld;gbf;ifiag;
gw;wp Kd;dNu mwpahjpUe;jhy; mtiu
vjph;kiw cld;gbf;if$lf; fl;Lg;gLj;jhJ.
,jw;F khwhf tpiynfhLj;J nrhj;Jhpik
thq;fhjtu; cld;gbf;if gw;wp Kd;dwpTg;Gg;
ngwhtpbDk; mtu; vjpu;kiw
cld;gbf;iff;Ff; flLg;gl;ltuhthu;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1f;F xNu xU epyk;jhd; cs;sJ
mijAk; egu; -2f;F tpw;WtpLfpwhu;. ,q;F
Neu;kiw my;yJ vjpu;kiw cld;gbf;if
vJthdhYk; egu; -2-If; fl;Lg;gLj;jhJ.
 egu;-1f;F ,U epyq;fs; epyk; -1 kw;Wk; epyk; -2
cs;sd. ,tw;wpy; epyk; -1-id egu;-2-f;F
epyk;-2-id mDgtpf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; fl;Lg;ghL
tpjpj;J tpw;WtpLfpwhu;. ,j;jifa
cld;gbf;if (Neu;kiw my;yJ vjpu;kiw
cld;gbf;if vJthdhYk;) egu; -2-If;
fl; Lg;gLj;Jk;.
 egu;-2 me;j epyk; -1-id egu; -3f;F
tpw;WtpLfpwhu; vdpy; egu; -3-id me;j egu; -1-
ld; nra;Jnfhz;l cld;gbf;if
fl; Lg;gLj;Jk;. Mdhy;> me;j cld;gbf;if
vjpu;kiwahdjhfTk;> mJgw;wp egu; -3-f;Fj;
njhpag; gLj;jpapUf;f Ntz; Lk;.

gpwf;fhj egUf;F nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;jYk;
epiyj;j jd; ikf;F vjpuhd tpjpAk;:

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gpupT-5 nrhj;J khw;wk;
,U thOk; egu;fSf;fpilNa eilngWtjhf
tiuaWj;jhYk;> gphpT-13 gpwf;fhj eghpd;
eyDf;fhfr; nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;tij Vw;fpwJ.
,e;j tpjp gad;ghl; Lf;F ,U epge;jidfs;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




cs;sd. mitahtd:
 gpwf;fhj egUf;F nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;AKd;
me;j nrhj;J xU thOk; egUf;F cjhuzkhf
xU mwf;fl;lis khw;wg; gl Ntz; Lk;.
 gpwf;fhj egUf;F nrhj;J khw;wk; nra; a me;jr;
nrhj;J KOikahd kpFjpahd nrhj;jhf
,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.

vdNt> xU nrhj;jhdJ xU gpwf;fhj egUf;F
khw;wk; nra;AKd;du; thOk; vj;jid
egu;fSf;fhdhYk; chpik khw;wk; nra;J
nfhLf;fg;glyhk;> Mdhy;> xU gpwf;fhj egUf;F
tho;ehSf;fhd nrhj;J khw;wk; mDkjpf;fg;
gLtjpy;iy.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 jdJ nrhj;ij egu; -2-f;F chpik khw;wk;
nra;J jUfpwhu;. mtUila tUq;fhy
kidtpNky; cs;s ek;gpf;ifapd; fhuzkhf
egu;-1-d; tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk; mij
mspf;fpwhu;. mtuJ tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ
Kjy; gps;isf;Fk; mtuJ tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd;
egu;-1-d; ,uz;lhtJ %j;j gps;isf;Fk; NrUk;
vd cs;sJ. egu; -1-d; %j;j gps;isf;F
mspf;fg;gLk; nrhj;J khw;wk; mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;F kl;LNk khw;wg;gLfpwJ vd;gjhy;
mJ nry;yhJ.
 egu;-1 jdJ nrhj;ij egu; -2-f;F mtuJ
tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk; chpik khw;wk; nra;J
jUfpwhu;. mtUf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ gpwf;fhj Kjy;
Foe;ijf;Fk; mij khw;wpf; nfhLf;fpwhu;.
Mdhy;> mf;Foe;ij jdJ kjj;ij khw;wpf;
nfhz;lhy; me;j chpik khw;wk; ghpKjy;
nra;ag;gLk; vd Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;. ,e;j chpik
khw;wk; nray;gLj;j KbahJ. Vnddpy; me;j
khw;wj;jpy; egu; -2-d; gpwf;fhj %j;j Foe;ijf;F
mspf;fg;gLk; nrhj;J KOikahd kpFjp
,y;yhky; xU epge;jid cs;sJ.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-14-d;gb tho;e;J
nfhz;bUf;Fk; xUthpd; my;yJ gyhpd;
tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; eyk;jUk; tpjj;jpy;
eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz; ba xU nrhj;Jhpik
khw;wNkh my;yJ thOk; Kjpuh taJila xUtu;
Kjpu; tajilAk;NghJ mDgtpg;gjw;Nfh khw;wk;
nra;J ju KbahJ. gphpT-14 NkYk;> thOk;
xUthpd; my;yJ gyupd; tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd;
xUtUf;F mspf;f KbahJ. mjhtJ xU thOk;
egUf;F cs;s chpikf;Fk; gpwf;fg;NghFk; egUf;F
eilngwg;NghFk; chpik khw;wj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa
,ilntsp ,Uf;fyhfhJ vd;fpwJ. chpik khw;wk;
eilngWk; ehspy; gpwf;fhJ mjw;F Ke;ija

xg;ge;jk; KbTf;F tUk; ehspy; gpwe;J tpl;lhy;
me;j Gjpa chpik khw;wk; cldbahf
eilKiwf;F te;J gioa xg;ge;j
Kbtpd; NghJ mtNu me;jr; nrhj;jpd;
chpikahsuhfpwhu;. Mdhy;> me; jr; nrhj;ij
KOikahf mDgtpf;Fk; chpik mtu; Kjpu;
tajilAk;NghNj fpilf;Fk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 xU gz;iz egu; -1f;F toq;fg;gLfpwJ.
gpd;du; mNj gz;iz egu; -2f;F mtuJ
tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
mtUf;Fg;gpd; egu;-2-d; gpwf;fhj Foe;ijf;F
mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F egu; -2-d; gpwf;fhj
Foe;ij egu; -2-d; ,wg;Gf;F Kd;dNu
gpwe;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; xU nrhj;jpid chpik
khw;wk; nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. mtUf;Fg;gpd;
egu;-2-d; 25 tajilAk; (chpik
khw;wj;jpd; NghJ gpwf;fhj) Foe;ijf;Fr;
nrd;W NrUk; vd mspf;fpwhu;. egu; -2f;F
mtuJ tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk; mspf;fg;gLk;
chpik khw;wk; nry;Yk;. Mdhy;> mtuJ
tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; egu; -2-d; gps;isf;F
mspf;fg;gLk; chpik nry;yhJ. Vnddpy;>
mJ Kjpuh taijf;fle;J eilngWfpwJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -2-f;F mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; kw;Wk; egh;-2-d;
tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; egu; -3-f;Fk; mtuJ
tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ 17 tajilAk;
gps;isf;Fk; xU nrhj;jpid chpik khw;wk;
nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. egu; -3-d; gpwf;fhj
Foe;ijf;Fr; nra;ag;gLk; chpik khw;wk;
nry;Yk;.

gphpT-14-d; tpjp jdpg;gl;l cld;ghLfis
fl; Lg;gLj;jhJ. Vnddpy; ,J xU
nrhj;Jhpikia cUthf;Ftjpy;iy. nrhj;J
khw;wr; rl;lk; gphpT-15> xU nrhj;J khw;wk; xU
FOkj;jpw;F khw;wk; nra;J jug; gLk;NghJ
mf;FOkj;jpy; cs;s xUrpyiug; nghUj;jtiu
gphpT-13 kw;Wk; gphpT-14-d;gb nry;yhjjhdhYk;
me;j chpik me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l egu;fisg;
nghUj;jtiu kl;LNk Njhy;tpailANkad;wp
me;j KO FOkj;jpw;Fk; nghUe;jhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2f;F mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; xU nrhj;jpid chpik khw;wk;
nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. mtUf;Fg;gpd; egu; -2-d;
,d;Dk; gpwf;fhj Foe;ijfSf;Fr; nrd;W
NrUk; vd cs;sJ. Mdhy;> ngz; Foe;ijf;F
mtuJ tho;ehSf;F kl;LNk NrUk; vd




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




cs;sJ. gphpT-13-d;gb me;j epge;jidapd;
fhuzkhf nry;yhjjhfpwJ. Mdhy;> ,J me;j
ngz; Foe;ijiag; nghUj;jtiu kl;LNk
Njhy;tpailANkad;wp kw;w Mz; Foe;ijfSf;Fg;
nghUe;jhJ.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-16-d;gb ‘nrhj;J
khw;wr; rl;lj;jpd; gphpTfs; -13> 14 –d; fhuzkhf
xUtUf;Nfh my;yJ xU FOkj;jpw;Nfh
nra;ag;gLk; khw;wk; Njhy;tpailAkhdhy;> me;jj;
Njhy;tpf;Fg;gpd;du; me;j chpik khw;w
xg;ge;jj;jpNyNa Fwpg;gplg;gLk; vjpu;fhyj;jpy;
eilngw cs;s midj;J chpik khw;wq; fSNk
Njhy;tpAWk; ’.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ kUkdpd; kfshd egu; -2-
f;F md;gspg;ghf mtuJ tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk;
mspf;fpwhu;. egu;-2f;Fg;gpd; mtuJ re;jjpaUf;F
KOikahf mspf;fpwhu;. mtUf;F Mz; Foe;ij
,y;yhtpby; mtuJ ngz; Foe;ijfSf;Fr; NrUk;.
Mdhy;> mij mtu;fs; tpw;ff;$lhJ. egu; -2-f;Ff;
Foe;ijfNs ,y;iy vd;why; egu; -1-d;
kUkfDf;Fr; NrUk; vd;fpwJ. ,q;F egu; -2-d; ngz;
Foe;ijfSf;F chpa epge; jidahy;
nry;yhjjhfpwJ. vdNt> mjw;Fg;gpd; eilngWk;
egu; -1-d; kUkfDf;F mspf;fg;gLk; chpik khw;wk;
nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-16-d;gb nry;yhJ.

Mdhy;> mLj;j chpik khw;wk; Kjy; chpik
khw;wj;ijr; rhuhjjhf ,Ue;jhy; Kjy; chpik
khw;wj;jpw;F khw;whf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; Ke;ija
chpik khw;wj; njhy;tp me;j mLj;j chpik
khw;wj;ijj; Njhy;tpAwr; nra;ahJ. ,U khw;W
epge;jidfs; ,Ue;J xd;W Njhy;tpAw;why; mLj;j
khw;W epge;jid Vw;fj;jf;fjhdhy; Njhy;tpAWk;
epge;jid xJf;fg;gl;L Vw;fj;jf;fij
nray;gLj;jyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2-f;F tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; gpd; mtuJ ,d; Dk; gpwf;fhj
Foe;ijf;Fk; xU nrhj;ij chpik khw;wk; nra;J
nfhLf;fpwhu;. egu;-2-f;F Foe;ij ,y;yhtpby;
mtuJ tho;ehSf;Fg;gpd; egu; -3f;Fr; NrUk; vd
cs;sJ. egu; -2-d; gpwf;fhj Foe;ijf;Fr;
nra;ag;gLk; chpik khw;wk; nry;yhJ Mdhy;>
mjw;F khw;whf cs;s egu; -2-f;Ff; Foe;ij
,y;yhtpby; egu; -3-f;Fr; NrUk; vd;w gFjp nry;Yk;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-17-d;gb chpik khw;wk;
nra;ag;gLk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jpypUe;J fpilf;Fk;
tUkhdj;ij nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;gthpd;
tho;ehSf;Fg; gpd;Dk; Nru;f;f Ntz; Lk; vd;Nwh
my;yJ nrhj;J khw;w ehSf;Fg;gpd; 18
Mz;LfSf;F NkYk; Nru;f;f Ntz; Lk; vd;Nwh
,Ue;jhy; mj;jifa epge;jid NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;Fg;gpd; mjpfhpj;jhy; nry;yhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 egu;-2f;F mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; xU nrhj;jpid chpik khw;wk;
nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. mtUf;Fg;gpd; egu; -2-d;
,d;Dk; gpwf;fhj Foe;ij 18 tajilAk;nghJ
nrd;W NrUk; vd cs;sJ. NkYk;> me;jr;
nrhj;jpypUe;J tUk; tUkhdj;ij egu; -2 mtuJ
tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk; kw;Wk; egu; -2-d;
Foe;ijf;F chpik khw;wk; nra;J 20
Mz;Lfs; tiuAk; Nrfhpf;f Ntz; Lk; vd
cs;sJ. ,e;j epge;jid gphpT-17-y;
Fwpg;gplg;gLk; 18 Mz;Lfisf; fle;J
nry;tjhy; nry;yhJ. mjd;gb mj;jifa
epge;jidf; fhyk; KbTw;wJNghd;W vz;zp
me;j Nrfhpj;j tUthia tpw;Wtplyhk;.

Mdhy;> Nky; Fwpg;gpl;l tpjpf;F 3
tpjptpyf;Ffs; cz; L. Mit:
 nrhj;J khw;wpj; jUgthpd; flid
milg;gjw;Nfh my;yJ me;jr; nrhj;jpy;
chpik cs;s kw;w ahUila flid
milg;gjw;Nfh mj;jifa Nrfhpg;Gj; Njit
vdpy; mjw;fhd epge;jid.
 nrhj;J khw;wpj; jUgthpd; Foe;ijfSf;F
my;yJ mtuJ jatpy; mr;nrhj;jpy;
chpik cs;stu;fSf;fhfr; xU gFjp
jug;gl Ntz; Lk; vdpy; mjw;fhd epge;jid
 rk;ge;jg;gl;l khw;wg;gLk; nrhj;jpd;
guhkhpg;Gf;fhfTk; ghJfhg;Gf;fhfTk; cs;s
epge;jid

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; gphpT-14> 16> 17-f;fhd
nghJthd tpjptpyf;F:

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; gphpT-14> 16> 17-d; tpjpfs;
nghJ kw;Wk; jUk fhupaq;fSf;fhd
nrhj;Jhpik khw;wj;jpw;Fg; nghUe;jhJ.

epiyahd kw;Wk; epiyaw;w chpikfs;

xU nrhj;jpd; kPJs;s chpik epiyahdjhfNth
my;yJ epiyaw;wjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. nrhj;J
khw;wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-19 epiyahd
nrhj;Jhpikgw;wpf; $WfpwJ. nrhj;Jhpik
khw;wj;jpy; cs;s thrfk; fP o;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfs; vijAk; tpjpf;fhjNghJ
xUtUf;F nrhj;Jhpik epiyahdjhf
cUthfpwJ:
 me;j chpik khw;wk; nray;gLtjw;fhd
Fwpg;gpl;l ehs; Fwpf;fg;gltpy;iy> my;yJ
 mJ cldbahf eilKiwf;F tUfpwJ
vdf; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy> my;yJ




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




 xU Fwpg;gpl;l epfo;T epfo;e;j
gpd;du;eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; vd
Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

fPo;f;fhZk; tpjj;jpy; ,Ug;gpDk; xU nrhj;Jhpik
epiyahdJ: (m) mr;nrhj;Jhpikia mDgtpf;Fk;
fhyk; js;spg;Nghlg;gl;Ls;sJ. (M) me;jr;
nrhj;jpd;kPJ NtnwhUtUf;F Kd;dNu chpik
cs;sJ (,) mr;nrhj;jpd; tUthkdj;ijf; me;jr;
nrhj;ij mDgtpg;gjw;Ff; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk;tiu
Nru;j;J itf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;w epge;jid cs;sJ
(<) Fwpg;gpl;l epfo;T epfo;e;jhy; kw;nwhUtUf; F
mr;nrhj;Jhpik nrd;WtpLk;.

nrhj;Jhpik ngWgtu; me;jr; nrhj;Jhpik
eilKiwf;F tUKd; ,we;J tpl;lhYk;> me;j
epiyahd nrhj;Jhpik khwhJ. mr;nrhj;Jhpik
eilKiwf;F tUKd;Nd mJ mtUila
nrhj;jhFtNjhL mij kw;wtUf;F khw;wTk;
RtPfhpj;Jf;nfhs;sTk; chpik cs;sJ.
nrhj;Jhpik ngw;wtu; mij mDgtpg;gjw;F
Kd;dNu ,we;Jtpl;lhYk; nrhj;Jhpik ngw;wthpd;
,wg;Gf;Fg;gpd; mtuJ rl;lg;G+u;tkhd thhpRf;F
me;j epiyahd chpik nry;fpwJ.

,d;Dk; gpwf;fhj Foe;ijf;F nrhj;Jhpik
khw;wg;gl;bUe;jhy; mtu; mij vjpu;fhyj;jpy;
mDgtpg;gjhf ,Ug;gpDk; mtu; gpwe; jJNk me;j
epiyahd chpik mtiur; Nru;fpwJ. (nrhj;J
khw;wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-20).

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F mtuJ tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk;
mtUf;Fg;gpd; egu;-3-f;Fk; xU nrhj;jpid
chpik khw;wk; nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. ,q;F egu; -
3-d; chpik epiyahdNj. Vnddpy; egu; -2-d;
,wg;Gf;Fg;gpd; egu;-3-f;Fr; Nru;tJ
cWjpahfpwJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -3d;kPJs;s ek;gpf;ifapd; fhuzkhf
egu;-2f;F xU nrhj;jpid chpik khw;wk;
nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;. egu; -3 25 tajilAk;NghJ
me;jr; nrhj;ij egu; -2 egu; -3-f;F nfhLf;f
Ntz; Lk; vd cs;sJ. ,q;F egu; -3d; chpik
epiyahdNj. egu; -3 18 tajilAk;NghJ me;jr;
nrhj;ij mDgtpf;f chpik cs;sJ. (nrhj;J
khw;Wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-14-d;gb).
 xU nrhj;J rkkhf egu; -1> 2 kw;Wk; egu; -3
MfpNahUf;F rkkhf mtu;fs; 18
tajilAk;NghJ Nru Ntz; Lk; vd mspf;fg;
gLfpwJ. 18 tajilAk; Kd; ,we;J tpl;lhy;
mr;nrhj;J egu;-4-w;F chpaJ vd cs;sJ.
,q;F egu; -1> egu;-2 kw;Wk; egu; -3-d; chpikfs;
epiyahdNj. xU epfo;itg; nghWj;J me;j
chpik ,Ue;jhy;$l mtu;fspd; chpik
epiyahdNj.

epiyaw;w chpik vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l
cWjpaw;w epfo;T epfo;e;jhNyh my;yJ
epfohtpl;lhNyh kl;LNk mspf;fg;gl;l xU
nrhj;Jhpik eilKiwf;F tUk; vd
,Uf;Fkhdhy; mJ epiyaw;w chpikahFk;.
Fwpg;gpl;l epge;jid epfo;T ele;jhNyh my;yJ
eilngwhJ ,Ue;jhNyhjhd; me;j chpik
mtUf;F KOikahdjhf epiyahdjhf
,Uf;Fk;. epiyaw;w nrhj;Jhpikapy;
epfo;fhyj;jpy; xUtu; xU nrhj;jpd;
chpikahsuhf ,Uf;f KbahJ. epiyaw;w
jd;ikNa nrhj;Jhpik ngWtjw;F xU Kd;
epge;jidahf cs;sJ. epiyaw;w chpik
nghJthf khw;wj;jf;fNj. ,Ug;gpDk;> me;jr;
nrhj;Jhpikapid mj;jifa nrhj;Jhpik
ngWgtu; mDgtpf;FKd; ,we;Jtpl;lhy;
mj;jifa khw;wk; Njhy;tpailtjhy; mij
kw;wtu; RtPfhpf;f KbahJ.

xU epiyaw;w chpik vd;gJ tof;Fj;
njhLf;Fk; rhjhuz chpikapypUe;J
khWgLfpwJ. epiyaw;wp chpik ngWgtu;
nrhj;Jhpik khw;wk; ngWk; ehspy; xUtu; xU
nrhj;jpd; chpikahsuhtjw;fhd tha;g;ig
kl;LNk ngWfpwhu;. Mdhy;> mJ vjpu;fhy
epiyaw;w jd;ikapd; fhuzkhf
KOikailahky; cs;sJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:
 egu;-1> xU ,e;J kjj;jtu; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
nrhj;Jf;fhd chpikahsu; jdJ kidtp
egu;-2 kw;Wk; rNfhjuiutpl;L (egu; -3) ,we;J
tpLfpwhu;. egu; -3 me;jr; nrhj;ij milAk;
tha;g;ig kl;LNk ngWfpwhu;.
 egu;-1 jdJ kidtpahd egu; -2f;F jdJ
nrhj;ij mtuJ tho;ehs; KOikf;Fk;
gpd;du; mtUf;Fg;gpd; kfd; egu; -3-f;Fk; xU
nrhj;jpid chpik khw;wk; nra;J
nfhLf;fpwhu;. jtwpdhy; egu; -4-f;F ,e;jr;
nrhj;J nry;Yk;. ,q;F egu; -4-d; chpik
epiyaw;wJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -2f;F mtuJ tho;ehs;
KOikf;Fk; mtUf;Fg;gpd; egu; -3-f;Fk;
(mtu; tho;e;jhuhdhy;)xU nrhj;jpid
chpik khw;wk; nra;J nfhLf;fpwhu;.
jtwpdhy; egu; -3 kw;Wk; egu; -4-d; chpik
epiyaw;wJ.

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-21-d;gb xUtu; 18
tajilAk;NghJ chpik ngWthu; vd;W
,Ue;jhy;> mJtiu rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jpd;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




tUkhdk; mtuJ gad;ghl;Lf;F chpaJ my;yJ
vjpu;fhyj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz; baJ vd; why;
mtupd; chpik epiyaw;wjhff; fzf;fpl KbahJ
vd;fpwJ.

epge;jidAld;$ba nrhj;Jhpik khw;wk;

xU epge;jidapd; Nghpy; xU nrhj;Jhpik toq;fg;
gLfpwJ vd;why;> me;j epge;jid eilngw
KbahjpUe;jhNyh> rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;gl;lhNyh>
mij epiwNtw mDkjpj;jhy; rl;lj;jpd;
eyj;jpw;Nf NfL tpistpf;Fk; jd;ikAs;sJ
vd;whNyh> my;yJ Nkhrbahdjhf ,Ue;jhNyh
my;yJ kw;wtUf;Nfh my;yJ kw;wthpd;
nrhj;jpw;Nfh jPq;fhFk; vd;whNyh me;jr;
nrhj;Jhpik Njhy;tpailfpwJ. NkYk;> me;j
epge;jidapd; ngWk;gFjp epiwNtw;wg;gl;lhNy
KOikahf epiwNtw;wg;gl;ljhff; nfhs;syhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-2-f;F mtu; egu;-3-idj; jpUkzk; nra;J
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w epge;jidNahL egu; -1
xU nrhj;jpid khw;wpf; nfhLf;fpwhu;. me;j
khw;wk; epfOk; ehspy; egu; -3 ,we;J tpLfpwhu;
vdpy; me;j khw;wk; nry;yhjjhfpwJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -2-f;F mtuJ fdtiu tpl;Lg; gphpa
Ntz; Lk; vd;w epge;jidNahL xU nrhj;jpid
khw;wpf; nfhLf;fpwhu;. me;j khw;wk;
nry;yhjjhfpwJ.
 egu;-1 egu; -2-f;F mtu; egu; -3> egu;-4 kw;Wk; egu; -
5-d; Vw;NghLjhd; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s
Ntz; Lk; vd;w epge;jidNahL xU nrhj;jpid
khw;wpf; nfhLf;fpwhu;. egu; -5 ,we;J tpLfpwhu;.
egu;-2 kw;w ,Utuhd egu; -3> egu;-4-d; Vw;NghL
jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhu;. vdNt ,q;F egu; -
2 me;j epge;jidia epiwNtw;wpajhff;
nfhs;syhk;.

epge;jidAld;$ba nrhj;Jhpik khw;wk; vdpy;> xU
nray; epiwNtw;wj;ij epge;jidahff; nfhz;L
me;j khw;wk; ,Uf;Fkhdhy;> me;j nray;
epiwNtw;wj;jpw; fhd fhy msT Fwpf;fg;glhJ
,Ue;jhy; me;j epge;jidia vf;fhyj;jpYk;
epiwNtw;w KbahjjhfNth my;yJ ePz;l
fhyj;jpw;F epiwNtw;w KbahjjhfNth
mr;nrhj;jpd; chpikiag; ngWgtu; nra;jhy; me;j
epge;jid Kwpabf;fg; gl;ljhff; nfhs;syhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ kuz capypy;; egu;-2
jdJ kfisj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;
vdTk;. mg;gb ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpy; me;j capYf;F
egu; -2 fl;Lg;glhjtu; vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;. egu; -2
NtnwhU ngz;iz kze;J nfhs;fpwhu;. ,jd;%yk;
me;j epge;jid epfo Kbahky; nra;J
tpLtjhy;> me;j capYf;F mtu; fl;Lg;gl
khl;lhu;.

,jw;F khwhf> xU nraYf;fhd fhy msT
Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUe;jhy; kw;Wk; me;jr; nray;
Njhy;tpAw;w epiyapy; me;j chpik
NtnwhUtUf;Fr; nry;Yk; vdf;
Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhy; me;j NtnwhUtu; jdf;F
me;jr; nrhj;Jhpik fpilf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;w
vz;zj;jpy; me;j epge;jidia epiwNtw;w
KbahjthW jLj;jhy;> me;j epge;jidia
epiwNtw;w NghJkhd fhyk; $Ljyhf mspf;fg;
glyhk;. mthpd; Nkhrbapd; fhuzkhf me;j
epge;jidia vf;fhyKk; my;yJ ePz;l
fhyj;jpw;F epiwNtw;w KbahjthW
nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhy; me;j epge;jid epiwNtw;wg;
gl;ljhff; nfhs;syhk;.

‘yp]; ngd;ld;]; ’ Nfhl;ghL

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-52 nghJthf
mwpag;gLk; ‘yp]; ngd;ld;]; ’ Nfhl;ghl;bid
(epYit tof;F) Vw;fpwJ. ,jd;gb> fPo;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfspy; VNjDk; ,Ue;jhy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
mirahr; nrhj;jpid khw;wNth mJ rhu;e;j
nray;fspy; <LglNth jLf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;:

 rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;;J rhu;e;j tof;F
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epYitapy; my;yJ
tprhuidapy; cs;sJ
 mt;tof;F my;yJ ePjpkd;w tprhuid xU
tQ;rf Nehf;fk; nfhz;ljy;y.
 tof;fpy; my;yJ ePjpkd;w tprhuidapy;
ikakhf cs;s rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jhFk;.
 tof;fpy; cs;s nrhj;J khw;wg;gl;bUf;f
Ntz; Lk; my;yJ tof;Fj;
njhlu;e;jpUg;gtUf;F mjpy; rk;ge;jk; ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;.
 me;j nrhj;ij tpw;gJ mLj;j jug;igg;
ghjpf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.

xU tof;fpd; ve;j xU jug; igAk; ,e;jr;
nrhj;Jhpik khw;wk; ghjpf;Fk; vd;why; kl;LNk
,e;j gphpT-52 jiyapLk; . me;jr; nrhj;Jhpik
khw;wk; my;yJ ve;j xU nraYk; jd;dpNyNa
nry;yhjjy;y kwhf mjdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk;
jug;gpdhy; nry;yhjjhf;ff;$bajhFk;. mJ
me;j tof;fpd; jPu;g;igg; nghWj;J mikAk;.
,q;F me;j nrhj;ijg; ngWgtUf;F me;j
tof;Fgw;wp Kd;dwptpg;G cs;sjh vd;gijg;
nghWj; jJ.






5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-2-lk; cs;s xU tPL rk;ge;jkhf egu; -1 xU
tof;ifj; njhLf;fpwhu;. me;j tof;F
epYitapy; cs;sNghj egu; -2 me;j tPl;il
egu;-3-f;F tpw;W tpLfpwhu;. egu; -1-d; tof;F
js;Sgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. egu; -2 egu; -3-f;F
tpw;wJ nry;Yk; rhpahdJ.
 egu;-2-lk; cs;s xU tPL rk;ge;jkhf egu; -1 xU
tof;ifj; njhLf;fpwhu;. me;j tof;F
epYitapy; cs;sNghj egu; -2 me;j tPl;il
egu; -3-f;F tpw;W tpLfpwhu;. egu; -1-d; tof;fpy;
mtUf;F rhu;ghf jPu;g;G tUfpwJ. egu; -2 egu; -3-
f;F tpw;wij egu; -1 epidj;jhy; nry;yhjjhf;f
KbAk;.
 egu;-1 jdJ epyj;ij egu; -2f;F Fj;jiff;Ff;
nfhLf;fpwhu;. egu; -2 me;j epyj;ij
Mf;fpukpj;Js;s egu; -3-f;F vjpuhf tof;Fj;
njhLf;fpwhu;. tof;F epYitapy; cs;sNghJ
egu;-1 me;j epyj;ij egu; -4-f;F khw;wpf;
nfhLj;J tpLfpwhu;. tof; F epYit egu; -1 egu;-
4-f;F khw;wpf; nfhLj;jijr; nry;yhjjhf;fhJ.
Vnddpy; me;j me;jj; jug; gpdu; tof;fpd; ve;j
xU jug;Gk; ,y;iy.
 egu;-1 jdJ tPl;il egu; -2f;F tpw;W tpLfpwhu;.
mjd;gpwF egu; -3 ePjpkd;wj;jpy; egu; -1f;F me;j
tPl;il tpw;f chpikapy;iy vdTk; me;j tPl;L
chpikiaj; jdf;Fg; ngw;Wj; jUkhWk; $wp
tof;Fj; njhLf;fpwhu;. me;j tof;F epYitapy;
cs;sNghNj egu; -2 me;j tPl;il egu; -3-f;F
tpw;W tpLfpwhu;. ,q;F egu; -3 me;j tof;fpy;
egu;-1-f;F vjpuhf ntw;wp ngw;whYk; egu; -3-d;
chpik khwhJ. Vnddpy; me;j tof;F
njhlug;gLk; Kd;dNu egu; -1 egu; -2f;F tpw;W
tpl;lhu;. NkYk; egu; -2 me;jr; nrhj;ij egu; -3f;F
tpw;Fk;NghJ me;j tof;fpd; xU jug;ghf
,y;iy. (ghy uhkr;re;jpuh vjpu; jt;yh> 27 BLR
38).
 egu;-1-lk; cs;s nrhj;jpd; kPJ tof;Fj;
njhLf;f egu; -1 kw;Wk; egu; -2 ,ize;J
kiwKfkhf jpl;lkpLfpd;wdu;. egu; -1 me;j
tof;fpy; jPtpukhf <LgLk;NghJ me;jr;
nrhj;ij egu;-2 egu;-3-f;F tpw;WtplTk;
jpl;lkpLfpd;wdu;. egu;-3-lkpUe;J ngWk;
njhifia ,UtUk; gq;fpl;Lf;nfhs;syhk;
vdTk; KbT nra;fpd;wdu;. egu; -2 tof;Fj;
njhLf;fpwhu;. jpl;lkpl;lthNw egu; -1 tof;fpy;
jPtpukhf <LgLk;NghJ me;j tof;F epYitapy;
,Uf;Fk;NghJ tpw;w fhuzj;ijf; fhl;b me;j
tpw;gid js;sp itf;fg;gLk; vd;w vz;zj;jpy;
me;jr; nrhj;ij egu; -2 egu; -3-f;F tpw;W
tpLfpwhu;. egu; -2-d; tof;F jPu;g;gplg; gLfpwJ.
me;j tof;F jpl;lkpl;l rjp vd;gjhy; egu; -3-f;F
tpw;fg;gl;lJ xJf;fg;glhJ.

gFjp epiwNtw;wf; Nfhl;ghL

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-53(m) gFjp
epiwNtw;wf; Nfhl;ghl;il cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.
fPo;f;fhZk; epge;jidfs; epiwNtw;wg;
gl;bUe;jhy; mJ gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz; bajhf
,Ue;jhYk; epiwNtw;wg;glhJ ,Ue;jhy;>
my;yJ rl;lg; G+u;tkhf epiwNtw;Wk; Kiwapy;
epiwNtw;wg; glhjpUe;jhy; me;j nrhj;J rhu;ghf
nrhj;J khw;wk; nra;J jUgtu; ve;j xU
epthuzKk; (xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
epthuzk; jtpu) ngwj; jLf;fg; gLfpwhu;.

 VjhtnjhU mirahr; nrhj;jpid tpiyf;F
chpik khw;wk; nra;Ak; xg;ge;jk; vOj;Jg;
G+u;tkhf nrhj;jpidg; ngWgtuhNyh my;yJ
mtuJ rhu;ghf xUtuhNyh ifnahg;gk;
,lg;gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;. ,jd;%yk;> me;j
xg;ge;jk; epiwNtwpaij cWjpg; gLj;j
KbAk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 xU md;gspg;G nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;>
gFjp epiwNtw;w epthuzk; ngw
KbahJ. Vnddpy; ,e;j khw;wk;
tpiynfhLj;J khw;wg;gl;ljy;y.
 xU ,e;J $l;Lf; FLk;gj;jpd; jiytu;
mf;FLk;gj;jpd; rhu;ghf xg;ge;jj;jpy;
ifnahg;gkpl;bUe;jhy; nrhj;J khw; wr;
rl;lk;> gphpT-53(m) tpd;gb nry;Yk;.
 nrhj;J khw;wk; ngw;wtu; me;jr; nrhj;ij
KOtijANkh mjd; gFjpiaNah
mDgtj;jpy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;f
Ntz; Lk; . my;yJ Vw;fdNt mDgtj;jpy;
,Ue;jpUf;Fkhdhy;> njhlu;e;J mDgtpjJ
mijg; ngUf;fp ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;. me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fg; gpwF mj;jifa
nray;ghLfs; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
 me;j nrhj;ijg; ngw;wtu; Vw;fdNt
epiwNtw;wpNah my;yJ epiwNtw;Wk;
epiyapNyh ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU thq;ff;$batu; Vw;fdNt
cgNahfj;jpy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhy;
mjw;fhd Vw;Wf;nfhz;l tpiyiaf; nfhLf;f
Kbahj fhuzj;jpdhy; mij
vLj;Jf;nfhz;lij kWf;f KbahJ. (gr;ru;jh];
vjpu; mfkjhghj; efuhl;rp> AIR 1941 Bom 346).

Vw;fdNt mDgtpj;J te;jijj; njhlu;e;J
mDgtpf;f gFjpepiwNtw;w jw;fhg;gpidg;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




gad;gLj;jyhNkad;wp mij Kw;wpYk;
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg; gad;gLj;j KbahJ. NkYk;> xU
nrhj;ij tpiyf;Fg; ngw;wtUf;Fr; rhu;ghf mij
gFjp epiwNtw;wkhf mDgtpj;J te;jijj;
njhpahky; thq;fpdhy; mtUf;F tpjptpyf; F
mspf;fpwJ gphpT-53(m). vdNt> gFjp
epiwNtw;wj;ijf; fhl;b mj;jifa gFjp
epiwNtw;wj;ij mwpahJ tpiyf;Fg; ngw;wtUf;F
vjpuhf thjpl KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> mj;jifa
gFjp epiwNtw;wj;ij mwpahJ mij tpiyf;F
thq;fpaij ep&gpf;f Ntz; ba nghWg;G
thq;fpatUf;Nf chpajhFk;.

ve;j xU rl;lj;jpd;gb xU xg;ge;jk;
nry;yhjjhdhy; mj;jifa chpik khw;wj;jpw;Fk;
,e;j gphpT-53(m) nghUe;jhJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: i`juhghj; Fj;jifr; rl;lj;jpy;
Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghyd;wp (xU goq;Fbapduhy; goq;Fb
my;yhj xUtUf;F tpw;fg;gLtJ) jhrpy;jhhplk;
Kd; mDkjp ngwhky; xU tpw;gid
xg;ge;jj;jpd;gb mij mDgtj;jpy;
vLj;Jf;nfhs;tJ rl;lg;gb Fw;wkhFk;. vdNt>
,q;F gphpT-53(m) nghUe;jhJ. (nkuhk; nghr;rhk;
vjpu; khepy murpd; Kftu;> AIR 1978 AP 242).

mirahr; nrhj;J tpw;gid

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; mirahr; nrhj;J tpw;gid
vd;why; vd;d vd; gij ,t;thW tiuaWf;fpwJ:
chpik khw;wk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpiy nfhLj;J
my;yJ cj;juthjj;jpw;fhf my;yJ gFjp tpiy
nfhLj;J my;yJ gFjp cj;juthjk; mspj;J
chpik khw;wk; ngWtNj nrhj;J tpw;gidahFk;.
,q;F tpiy vd;gJ xU njhifiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ.
me;j tpiy vd;gJ gzkhf ,y;yhtpby; mJ
tpw;gidahfhJ. &. 100 kjpg;Gs;s njhlf;$ba
mirahr; nrhj;J kw;Wk; mirahr;nrhj;J rhu;ej
gpw njhlKbah chpikfs; Nghd;wit gj;jpug;
gjpT nra;jypd; %yNk khw;wg;gl KbAk;.
,j;jifa #oypy; gj;jpug; gjpT tpw;gid
epiwNtw;wj;jpw;F xU Kd; NjitahfpwJ. me;jg;
gj;jpug;gjpT epiwNtWk;tiu me;j chpik khw;wk;
KOik miltjpy;iy. njhlKbah chpik
vd;gJ me;j mirahr; nrhj;jpid
cz;ikapNyNa ngWtjw;F Kd; mthplk; ,Ue;j
chpikfisf; Fwpf;fpwJ. cjhuzkhf> me;jg;
gFjpapy; kPd;gpbf;fr; nry;Yk; chpik> my;yJ
Clhf ele;J nry;Yk; chpik Nghd;w chpikfs; .

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-54 ‘tpw;gid
xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fk; ’, ‘tpw;gidf;fhd xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fk; ’
cs;s Ntw;Wikia tpthpf;fpwJ. tpw;gidf;fhd
xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ vjpu;fhyj;jpy; xU nrhj;jpid
tpw;gjw;fhd xg;ge;jkhFk;. me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyk;tiu mjhtJ me;j nrhj;J cz; ikapy;
thq;Fgtiur; nrd;W NrUk;tiu me;jr; nrhj;J
nrhj;J khw;Wgthpd; mDgtj;jpNyNa
KOikahf cs;sJ.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk;> gphpT-56-d;gb> xd;W
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l nrhj;jpd; chpikahsu;
mtw;iw milkhdkhf xUtUf;Fk; mtw;wpy;
xd;iw kw;nwhUtUf;Fk; tpw;fpwhu; . mij
thq;Fgtu; NtW xU xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhjgl;rj;jpy;
me;j milkhdf; flid mtUf;F tpw;fhj gpw
nrhj;J tUkhdj;jpypUe;J milf;f Ntz; Lk;.
,e;j chpik khu;\y;ypq; chpik vd
miof;fg; gLfpwJ. milkhdk; ngw;wtUila
my;yJ mtuJ Ml;fSf;F chpa chpikia
ghjpf;fhj tifapy; ,e;j khu; \y;ypq; chpik
,Uf;Fk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: nrhj;J-1> nrhj;J-2 kw;Wk;
nrhj;J-3 Mfpait xU milkhdr;
nrhj;JfshFk;. milkhdk; nfhLj;jtu; nrhj;J-
1-id ve;j xU tpy;yq;fKk; ,y;yhky; egu; -1-
f;F tpw;fpwhu;. me;jr; nrhj;ij milkhdkhfg;
ngw;wtu; ,e;j khu; \y;ypq; chpikapd; %yk;
Njitahd milkhdf; flidg;ngw kw;w
nrhj;Jf;fshd nrhj;J-2 kw;Wk; nrhj;J-3-
ypUe;J ngw;W milf;f Ntz; Lk;.

milkhdk;

milkhdk; vd;gJ xU mirahr; nrhj;jpd;
chpikia kw;nwhUtUf;F fPo;f;fhZk;
fhuzq;fSf;fhf khw;WtjhFk;: (m) Vw;fdNt
ngw;w xU flid milg;gjw;fhfNth (M)
jw;NghJ ngw;w my;yJ ngwg;NghFk; flid
milg;gjw;fhfNth my;yJ (,) xU Gjpa
mYtYf;fhf cs;s fld;fis milg;gjw;fhf.
chpikia khw;wpj; jUgh; milkhdk; jUgtu;
vdTk; chpikiag; ngWgtu; milkhdk;
ngWgtu; vdTk; miof;fg;gLtu;.

nrhj;J khw;wr; rl; lk; fP o;f;fhZk; milkhd
tiffis Vw; fpwJ:

rhjhuz milkhdk;:

,e;j rhjhuz milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk;
nfhLj;jtu; milkhdf; flidj; jdpg;gl;l
tpjj;jpy; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j Ntz; Lk;. mij
jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jj; jtwpdhy; milkhdk;
ngw;wtu; mij tpw;fTk; NkYk; me;j
milkhdf; flidj; jpUk;gg;ngwj; Njitahd
midj;J eltbf;iffisAk; Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




,q;F nrhj;J mDkhd khw;wk; vJTk;
eilngWtjpy;iy. vdNt milkhdk; ngw;wtu;
me;jr; nrhj;jpypUe;J fpilf;Fk; thlif kw;Wk;
gpw tUkhdq;fisg; ngw chpikapy;iy. me;j
milkhdf; flDf;fhf rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;ij
jdjhf;fpf; nfhs;sTk; KbahJ. milkhdk;
ngw;wtu; mr; nrhj;ij ePjpkd;wk; %yk; tpw;Fk;
chpik xd;Nw ,e;j milkhdk; ngw;wtUf;F
cz;L.

milkhdk; ngw;wtUf;F milkhdf; flid
milf;ff; flik ,Ug;gjhy;> milkhdk; ngw;wtu;
jdJ milkhdf; flidg; ngwNth me;j
nrhj;jpd;kPJ eltbf;if vLf;fNth ePjpkd;wj;ij
mDfyhk;. milkhdk; ngw;wtu; njhLf;Fk; tof;F
milkhdf; flidj; jpUk;gg; ngWtjw;fhf vdpy;
me;j jPu;g;G gzk; rhu;e;j jPu;g;ghFk;. me;j
milkhdr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j tof;fhf ,Ue;jhy;>
mtu; me;jr; nrhj;jpid tpw;f chpik
NfhUtjhFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: ‘jtwpdhy;> vdf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd
me;j tPl;L epyj;jpd; milkhdj;ij mtUila
Kjy; kw;Wk; tl;bNahL jpUg;gpr; nrYj;JNtd; ’
vDk; thu;j;ijfs; milkhd xg;ge;jj;jpy;
,Ug;gjhy; mJ rhjhuz milkhdkhff; nfhs;sg;
gLfpwJ. (ghyRg;ukzpad; vjpu; rptFU> (1911) 21
Mad LJ 562).

epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid milkhdk;:

,j;jifa milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk; nfhLg;gtu;
Nghypahf mtuJ milkhdr; nrhj;ij fPo;f;fhZk;
epge;jidfNshL tpw;fpwhu;. (m) milkhdf;
flidj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jj; jtWk; gl;rj;jpy;>
me;j tpw;gid KOikahdjhf MFk;. (M)
milkhdf; flidj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jpdhy;> me;j
tpw;gid nry;yhjjhfptpLk; my;yJ me;j
milkhdg; nghUis thq;fpatu; jpUg;gp mspf;f
Ntz; Lk;. epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid
milkhdj;jpy; me; j milkhdr; nrhj;J jpUg;gp
mspg;gJgw;wp mNj Mtzj;jpy; ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk
mJ ,t;tifiar; rhUk;. ,q;F me;j tpw;gid
KOikahdjy;y khwhf NghypahdNj. (mjhtJ>
,J xU tpw;gidNghd;w Njhw;wj;ij kl;LNk
mspf;fpwJ).

,j;jifa epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid
milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk; nfhLj;jtUf;F
jdpg;gl;l tpjj;jpy; me;j milkhdj;ij
milf;Fk; flik ,y;iy. milkhdk; ngw;wtu;
me;j milkhdj;ij milkhdf; fhyj;jpw;F
Kd;dNu Kbg;gJ xd;Nw epthuzkhFk;. me;j
milkhdk; ngw;wtu; milkhdj;ij Kbj;Jf;
nfhs;s ePjpkd;w jPu;itg; ngw;whuhdhy;
milkhdk; nfhLj;jtu; me; j milkhdr;
nrhj;ijj; jpUg;gpg; ngWk; chpik ,y;iy.
me;jg; Nghypahd tpw;gid KOikaile;J
milkhdk; ngw;wtNu chpikahsuhfp tpLfpwhu;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xNu nrhj;J rhu;e;j milkhdk;
rhu;e;j Mtzq;fis me;j xNu jug; gpdu;
tpw;gidg; gj;jpuk; kw;Wk; nrhj;jpidj; jpUg;gpj;
jUk; Mtzk; vd ,U Mtzq;fshf vOjpdu;
vdpy; mJ epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid
milkhdk; MfhJ.

mDNghf milkhdk;

mDNghf milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk; mspg;gtu;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l nrhj;jpid milkhdk;
ngWgthplk; me;j milkhdj; njhifiaj;
jpUg;gpj; jUk;tiu mij jdJ fl;Lg;ghl;by;
vLj;Jf;nfhs;syhk; mjd; midj;J thlif
kw;Wk; tUkhdq;fis epu;dapj;J mjd;
tUthapd; %yk; me;j %yjdj;jpd; tl;b
kw;Wk; KjyPL my;yJ ,uz;ilAk; ngwg;
gad;gLj;jpf;nfhs;syhk; ,e;j xg;ge;jk;
fl; Lg;ghl;by; vLj;Jf;nfhs;tJ rhu;e;jjhf
cs;s fhuzj;jhy; me;jr; nrhj;ijj; jdJ
fl; Lg;ghl;by; vLj;Jf;nfhs;s tof;Fj;
njhLf;fyhNkad;wp mij tpw;fNth Kd;dNu
me;j milkhdj;ij Kbj;Jf;nfhs;sNth
tof;Fj; njhlu KbahJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jd;dplk; cs;s xU
Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;ij milkhdkhf egu; -2-f;F
vjpu;fhyj;jpy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l ehspy; mspf;f
cld;gLfpwhu;. me;j ehs;tiu mtu; ngw;w
gzj;jpw;F 24% tl;b juTk; Kd;tUfpwhu;.
,j;jifa milkhdk; xU mDNghf
milkhdkhFk;.

Mq;fpNya milkhdk;

,j;jifa Mq;fpNya milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk;
mspg;gtu; me;j milkhdf; flidj; jpUg;gpr;
nrYj;j cld;gLfpwhu;. mJtiu me;j
milkhdg; nghUis milkhdk; ngWgtUf;F
KOikahf me;j flidj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jk;
NghJ me;j milkhdg; nghUisj; jpUg;gpj;
je;Jtpl Ntz; Lk; vd;w epge;jidNahL mspf;f
Kd;tUfpwhu;. epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid
milkhdk; Nghy; ,J Nghypahdjd;wp ,J
cz;ikahd tpw;gidahFk;. ,Ug;gpDk;
Mq;fpNya milkhdk; ngWgthpd; chpik xU
thq;Fgthpd; chpikiatplf; FiwthdjhfNt
cs;sJ.




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




nrhj;J Mtz milkhdk;

rkkhd milkhdk; vdTk; miof;fg; gLk;
,t;tif milkhdj;jpy; jdJ nrhj;J Mtzj;ij
milkhdk; ngWgthplNkh my;yJ mtuJ
KfthplNkh xg;gilj;J mjw;fhf xU njhifiag;
ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjhFk;. ,q;F me;j milkhdk;
ngWgtupd; chpik kw;w rhjhuz milkhdj;jpy;
cs;s chpik Nghd;wNj. mjhtJ milkhdk;
ngw;wtu; me;j milkhdg; nghUis me;j
milkhdf; flid jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j typAWj;jp
tof;Fj; njhLf;fNth Njitg;gl;lhy; tpw;gjw;Nfh
chpik cs;sJ.

FsWgbahd milkhdk;:

kw;w Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ve;j xU milkhd tifapYk;
tuhj xU milkhdj;ij FsWgbahd milkhdk;
vdg;gLfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 xU rhjhuz mDNghf milkhdk; vd;gJ xU
FsWgbahd milkhdkhFk;. ,e;jtif
milkhdj;jpy; milkhdk; ngw;wtu; me;j
milkhdr; nrhj;ijg; ngw;W mjpypUe;J tUk;
tUkhdj;ijf; nfhz;L mtuJ KjyPl;ilAk;
mjd; tl;biaAk; my;yJ ,uz;ilAk;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. NkYk;> me;j milkhd
Kjpu;T ehSf;F Kd; milkhdf; flid
milf;fj; jtwpdh; mr;nrhj;ij tpw;fTk;
chpik cs;sJ.
 xU epge;jidAld; $ba tpw;gid mDNghf
milkhdk; vd;gJ xU FsWgbahd
milkhdkhFk;. ,e;j tifapy; milkhdk;
ngw;wtuplk; me;j milkhdr; nrhj;J cs;sJ.
me;j milkhdj; njhifiaj; jpUg;gpr;
nrYj;Jk; Fwpg;gpl;l ehSf;F Kd; jpUg;gpr;
nrYj;jj; jtwpdhy; milkhdk; ngw;wtu;
epge;jidAld;$ba tpw;gid milkhdk;
ngw;wthpd; chpikiag; ngWfpwhu;.

milkhd Kiwfs;

milkhdk; fP o;f;fhz;gtw;why; ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ:
(m) mDkhdg; nghUis jpUg;gp mspj;jy; (M)
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l Mtzk; my;yJ (,) chpikg;
gj;jpuj;ij ghJfhf;f mspj;jy;

xU milkhdj; njhif &.100-f;F Nky; ,Ue;jhy;
mijj; jpUk;gg; ngw Ntz; Lkhdhy; gjpTnra;j
Mtzkhfr; nra;a Ntz; Lk;. nrhj;J Mtzj;ij
mspg;gjd;%yk; milkhdk; itg;gJ ,e;j
tpjpf;Fs; tuhJ. Vnddpy; NtnwhU jdp Mtzk;
,q;F gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz; ba Njitapy;iy.
rhjhuz milkhdj;jpy; mDNghfj;jpy; cs;s
nghUisj; jpUg;gpj; jUtjhy; milkhdk;
ghjpf;fg;glhJ vd;gjhy; mij gjpT nra;tJ
mtrpakhdjhFk;. mj;jifa gjpT nra;ag;gLk;
Mtzj;jpy; ,U jug;Gk; ,uz;L rhl;rpfspd;
%d; ifnahg;gkpl Ntz; Lk;. mij me;j
rhl;rpfs; cWjpg;gLj;jpf; ifnahg;gkpl
Ntz; Lk;.

jpUg;gpg; ngWk; chpik

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rhl;lk;> gphpT-60-d;gb
milkhdf; flidj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jk; mNj
Neuk; me;j milkhdg; nghUisj; jpUg;gpg;
ngWk; chpik cs;sJ. me;j milkhdf; fld;
jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jg;gl;L tpl;lJk; me;j
milkhdk; nfhLj;jtu; fP o;f;fhz;gtw;iwf;
Nfhu chpik cs;sJ:

 milkhdg; gj;jpuj;ijAk; kw;Wk; nrhj;J
Mtzj;ijAk; jpUg;gpj; jUk;gbAk;
 nrhj;J mDkhdj;ijj; jpUg;gpj; jUk;gbAk;
(milkhdk; ngw;wthpd; mDgtj;jpy;
,Ue;jhy;)
 nrhj;ijj; jpUg;gpg; ngw jdJ nrhe;jr;
nrytpy; Njitahd eltbf;iffs;
vLf;fyhk; my;yJ milkhdk; ngw;wthpd;
chpik Kbe;jij milkhdk; ngw;wtu;
Vw;gij Mtzkhf;fp (milkhdk; gjpT
nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhy;) mij gjpT nra;J
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

milkhd epiwNtw;wk; Fwpj;j tof;F VJk;
njhlq;Ftjw;F Kd;dNu nrhj;ijj; jpUg;gpg;
ngWk; chpik cs;sJ.
milkhdr; nrhj;ijj; jpUg;gpg; ngWk; chpik
vd;gJ rl;lg;gbahdJ. milkhdk; ngw;wthpd;
jpUg;gpg;ngWk; chpikf;Ff; nfhLf;Fk; ve;j xU
jil kw;Wk; ,ilQ;ry;fs; nry;yhjjhFk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 xU milkhd Mtzj;jpy; ‘me;j
milkhdr; nrhj;ij milkhdk;
nfhLj;jtu; Fwpg;gpl;l ehl;fSf;Fs; jpUg;gpg;
ngWk; chpikiag; gad;gLj;jj; jtwpdhy;>
me;j milkhdg; nghUspd;kPJ milkhdk;
mspj;jtUf;F ve;j xU chpikAk; ,y;iy.
NkYk; me;j milkhd MtzNk tpw;gid
Mtzkhff; nfhs;sg;gLk; ’ vd cs;sJ.
,q;F cs;s jpUg;gpg;ngWk; chpikf;F
,ilQ;ry; Vw;gLj;Jk; epge;jid nry;yhJ.
(fq;fhju; vjpu; rq;fu;yhy;> AIR 1958 SC 773).




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




 milkhdk; jpUg;gpg; ngWk; fhyk; 200
Mz;Lfs; vdf; Fwpg;gpLtJk; jpUg;gpg; ngWk;
chpikf;F ,ilQ;ry; vd;gjhy; nry;yhJ.

gpdhkp

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-100 gpdhkpia
,t;thW tiuaWf;fpwJ: ‘rl;lj;jpdhNyh my;yJ
,U jug;gpduhNyh xU jug; gpd; mirahr; nrhj;J
NtW xUtUf;Fr; Nru Ntz; ba gzj;jpw;F <lhf
,Ue;jhy;> mJ xU milkhdkhf ,y;yhjNghJ
me;jr; nrhj;ijg; ngw;wthplk; me;jr; nrhj;J
gpdhkpahff; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.’ nrhj;J khw;wr;
rl;lj;jpd; rhjhuz milkhdj;jpw;Fg; nghUe;Jk;
midj;J tpjpfSk; ,jw;Fg; nghUe;Jk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 jdJ jha;top jhj;jhtplkpUe;J xU
gz;iz epyj;ijg; ngWfpwhu;. jdJ kw;nwhU
Gjy;tuhd egu; -2-If; ftdpj;Jf;nfhs;s me;jg;
gz;izapypUe;J fpilf;Fk; thlifiaf;
nfhz;L tUlj;jpw;F xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhif
mspf;f Ntz; Lk; vd;w epge;jidia Vw;W
me;jr; nrhj;ijg; ngWfpwhu;. ,q;F egu; -2
me;jr; nrhj;jpd; gpdhkp Mthu;.

Fj;jif

nrhj;J khw;Wr; rl;lk;> gphpT-105 Fj;jifia
,t;thW tiuaWf;fpwJ: xU mirahr; nrhj;ij
mDgtpf;Fk; chpikia xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;Nfh> my;yJ epiyahfNth xU Fwpg;gpl;l
tpiyngw;wjhNyh my;yJ cWjpaspj;jjhNyh
my;yJ gzk; my;yJ kjpg;Gkpf;f nghUisf;
nfhLj;jjhNyh> my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F
xUKiw nfhLg;gjhNyh khw;wpj; jUtNj
Fj;jifahFk;. nfhLj;j tpiy my;yJ
nfhLg;gjhf mspj;j thf;FWjpNa cgupj;
njhifahFk;. me;j Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;nfhUKiw
fl; Lk; njhif thlifahFk;.

xU Fj;jif xU nrhj;jpd; kPJ xU chpikia
mspf;fpwJ. ,e;j Fj;jifia chpkj;jpypUe;J
NtWgLj;jpg; ghu;f;f Ntz; Lk;. ,e;jpa mDNghfg;
ghj;jpaijr; rl;lk;> 1882-d;gb mLj;jtUf;F
chpikahd cilik mtuJ mDNghfj;jpy;
cs;s cilikapy; xUtUf;Fr; nrd;WtuNth
my;yJ epyj;jpw;Fs;Nsh me;j tshfj;jpy;
EioaNth chpik mspf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy; mjw;F
chpkk; vd;W ngau;. ,e;j chpkj;jpd; %yk;
fpilj;j chpik khw;w KbahjJ. ,jw;F khwhf>
Fj;jifjhuUf;F me;jr; nrhj;jpd;kPJ chpik
mspf;fpwJ vd;gjhy; mij khw;wTk; RtPfhpf;fTk;
KbAk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 egu;-1 jdJ xU ,lj;ij xU re;ijahfg;
gad;gLj;j egu; -2f;F xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;F xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhiff;fhf
mDkjpf;fpwhu;. egu;-2 me;j re;ijapy;
fl; lzk; t#ypf;f chpik cs;sJ. kw;Wk;
me;j re;ijiar; Rj;jkhf itj;Jf;nfhs;s
cld;gbf;iffs; nra;J nfhs;sTk;> me;j
Fj;jiff;fhyk; Kbe;jJk; jpUg;gpj; juTk;
chpik cs;sJ. Mdhy;> me;j epyj;jpy;
egu;-1-d; mDkjpapd;wp khw;wk; nra;a
chpik ,y;iy. ,j;jifa fl; Lg;ghLfs;
,Ue;jhYk;> egu;-2-f;Fg; NghJkhd mjpfhuk;
me;j epyj;jpy; cs;sJ. ,J chpkk; my;y.
 xU tq;fpapd; tshfg; gFjp mq;F
fl; lzkpd;wpj; jq;fp ,Uf;Fk; tq;fp
NkyhsUf;F chpik mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J
xU chpkNkad;wp Fj;jif my;y.

xU mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j Fj;jif
xt;nthU tUlKk;> my;yJ xU Mz;Lf;F
Nkw;gl;l fhyj;jpw;F> my;yJ thlif xU
tUlj;jpw;fhdjhf epuzapf;fg; gl;bUe;jhy;
me;j Fj;jif gjpT nra;ag;gl;bUf;f Ntz; Lk;.
NtW ve;j xU Fj;jifAk; gjpT nra;ag;glyhk;
my;yJ tha;nkhopahfNt Vw; W me;jr; nrhj;ij
mDNghfj;jpy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

md;gspg;G:

md;gspg;G vd;gJ xU mirahr; nrhj;jpd; kPJ
xUtUf;Fs;s chpikia jhdhf Kd;te;J
ve;j tpiyiaAk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;shky; kw;w
xUtUf;F khw;wpf; nfhLg;gjhFk;. me;j
md;gspg;Gr; nrhj;J mg;NghJ ,Uf;f Ntz; Lk;.
vjpu;fhyj;jpy; fpilf;Fk; xd;iw md;gspg;ghf
mspf;f KbahJ. NkYk;> mj;jifa md;gspg;G
jhdhf Kd;te;J nra;ag;gl;ljhf ,Uf;f
Ntz; Lk;> kpul;ly; my;yJ gaKWj;Jjypd;
%yk; khw;wg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.

xU mirahr; nrhj;J md;gspg;G fl;lhakhfg;
gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz; Lk;. mij ,U rhl;rpfs;
cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mirAk;
nrhj;ij md;gspg;ghf mspg;gJ Neubahf
mLj;jthpd; mDNghfj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;tjd;
%yk; eilngwyhk;.

xU md;gspg;G xUKiw kw;wtUf;Ff;
nfhLj;jgpd; md;gspg;G mspj;jtiug;
nghUj;jtiu jpUg;gpg; ngw KbahJ. Mdhy;>




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




fPo;f;fhZk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xUtu; xU
md;gspg;igj; jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;:

 md;gspg;G mspj;jtUk; ngw;wtUk; xU
Fwpg;gpl;l epfo;tpid ikakhf itj;J mjw;F
,zq;fpdhy; . ,q;F me;j md;gspg;G
mspj;jthpd; tpUg;gk; kl;Lk; Kf;fpag;glyhfhJ.
 mJ xU xg;ge;jkhf (tpiy ,y;yhjJ jtpu)
,Ue;jpUf;Fkhdhy; mJ uj; jhfpapUf;Fk; vDk;
gl;rj;jpy;. ,g;gbg;gl;l fhuzq;fs; Nkhrb
my;yJ msTf;fjpfkhd nry;thf;ifr;
nrYj;JtjhFk;.

Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzj;jpw;fhd ghpfhuk;

Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzj;jpw;fhd ghpfhuk; vd;gJ xU
rkkhd eptuzkhFk;. ,J nghJthf ,og;gPL
rhpahdjhf ,y;yhjNghJ me;j ,og;gPl;Lf;Fg;gjpy;
jUk; epthuzkhFk;. NkYk;> me;j epthuzj;ijg;
ngWgtu; me;j xg;ge;jj;ij epiwNtw;w tpUg;gk;
njhptpf;f Ntz; Lk;. Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk;>
1963> gphpT-5> 6 fPo;f;fhZk; ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l
mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j eltbf;ifAk;
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;Ltug; glyhk; vd;fpwJ:

 xU Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;jpd; chpik ahUf;F
vd;gJ Fwpj;j tof;F
 xU Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;jpd; mDNghf chpik
ahUf;F vd;gJ Fwpj;j tof;F
 thjp Vw;fdNt mDNghfj;jpy; ,Ue;jij
kl;Lk; itj;J mtuJ mDkjp ,d;wp vLf;fg;
gl;lJ vd;w fhuzj;jhNyh my;yJ rl;l
uPjpahf vLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;w
fhuzj;jpw;fhfNth njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;F.

xUtu; xU mirahr; nrhj;jpd; kPJ chpik
nfhz;lhbdhy; mij chpikapay; eltbf;ifr;
rl;lk;> 1908 Fwpg;gpLk; Kiwapy; mij
kPl;nlLf;fyhk; vd;fpwJ Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk;>
gphpT-5. xUtu; Vw;fdNt mDNghfj;jpy; ,Ue;jij
kl;Lk; itj;J mtuJ mDkjp ,d;wp vLf;fg;
gl;lJ vd;w fhuzj;jhNyh my;yJ rl; l uPjpahf
vLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;w fhuzj;jpw;fhfNth me;jr;
nrhj;jpid kPl;Lj; jUkhW njhLf;fg;gLk; tof;F
mg;gb vLf;fg;gl;l ehspypUe;J 6 khjj;jpw;Fs;
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F tu Ntz; Lk;. ,e;jf; fhuzj;ijf;
fhl;b muRf;F vjpuhfTk; tof;Fj; njhlu KbahJ.

xU xg;ge;jk; my;yJ cld;gbf;ifia itj;J
Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzj;jpw;fhd gupfhuk; gpujpthjpia
xg;ge;j tpjpfspy; jug;gl;Ls;s midj;J jw;fhg;G
topfisAk; gad;gLj;j chpikaspf;fpwJ.
mg;gbg;gl;l jw;fhg;G ‘KbTwhj xg;ge;jk; > my;yJ
xU xg;ge;jk; FsWgbapd; fhukhfr; nry;yhJ>
epiwNtw;Wk; tha;g;G ,y;yhj fhuzk;> me;j
xg;ge;jj;jpd; Nehf;fk; rl;lj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghdJ’
Nghd;w fhuzq;fis cs;slf;fpajhf
,Uf;fyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU Fwpg;gpl;l
epiwNtw;wj;jpw;fhd tof;fpy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s nrhj;J rhu;e;j tpsf;fj;jpy;
me;j epyj;jpd; rhpahd gug; G> mjd; vy;iyfs;>
gl;lh vz; Nghd;wit Fwpf;fg;glhjpUe;jhy;
me;j xg;ge;jk; Fiwghlhf cs;sjhy; ,ij
eilKiwg; gLj;j KbahJ. (efu; rpq; vjpu;
`u;df; rpq;> (1996) 6 SCC 699).

Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzj;jpw;fhd ghpfhuj;ijg; ngw
Ntz; Lkhdhy; xU ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F fPo;f;fhZk;
,U epge;jidfs; rhpghu;f;fg;gl Ntz; Lk; vd
Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk; gphpT-10
Fwpg;gpLfpwJ:

 Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l xU nraiyr;
nra;ahjij fzf;fpLk; xU nghJf; fUtp
vJTk; ,y;iy vdpy; my;yJ
 Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l me;j Fwpg;gpl;l
nraypd; jd;ik ve;j xU njhifahYk; <L
nra;a KbahJ vd;w epiy ,Ue;jhy;

kl;LNk Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ghpfhuj;ijg; ngw KbAk;.

mirahr; nrhj;J khw;wk; rk;ge;jkhf> me;j
Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;ij khw;wj; jtWtjd; %yk;
Vw;gLk; xg;ge;j kPwYf;F xU njhif vd;gJ
rhpahd ghpfhuk; my;y vd ePjpkd;wk;
fUJfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu;-1 jdJ tPl;il egu; -2f;F
&.1>00>000-f;F tpiyNgrp tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;
nra;fpwhu;. egu; -2f;F egu; -1 mj;njhif
mspj;jJk; mf;Fwpg;gpl;l tPl;ilg; ngw;Wj;ju
tof;fpl chpik cz;L.

Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lk;> gphpT-13-d;gb jdf;F
chpik ,y;yhj my;yJ rhpahd chpik
,y;yhj xU nrhj;ij tpw;fNth my;yJ
Fj;jiff;F tplNth xUtu; xg;ge;jk; nra;J
nfhz;lhy; mr;nrhj;ij thq;Fgtu; my;yJ
Fj;jifjhuu; fP o;f;fhZk; chpik ngWfpwhu;:

 tpw;wtu; my;yJ Fj;jif mspj;jtu;
mr;nrhj;jpypUe;J tUkhdk; ngWthuhdhy;
me;j tUkhdj;ij Fj;jifjhuu; my;yJ
thq;Fgtu; vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: murplkpUe;J Fj;jifahfg;ngw;w




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




nrhj;jpd; Fj;jif chpikia egu; -1 egu; -2f;Ff;
nfhLf; fpwhu;. egu; -1f;F mt;thW khw;wp mspf;f
chpik ,y;iy. vdNt> muR me;j Fj;jifia
uj; J nra;Jtpl;L egu; -2-f;F Fj;jiff;Ff;
nfhLf;fpwJ. egu; -1 muRf;F vjpuhf me;j
Fj;jifia uj;J nra;jjw;F vjpuhfj; njhLj;j
tof;F mtUf;F rhu;ghfj; jPu;g;ghfpwJ. ,g;NghJ
egu; -1 kPz;Lk; me;j Fj;jif chpikiag;
ngWfpwhu;. me;jf; Fj;jiff;fhyk; Kbe;jJk; egu; -1
me;jr; nrhj;ij murplk; xg;gilf;fpwhu;. egu; -2
,g;NghJ me;jr; nrhj;ij kPz; Lk; ngw chpik
cs;sJ. (fy;ahd; G+u; iyk; xu;f;]; vjpu; gPfhu;
muR> AIR 1954 SC 165).

 xU chpik khw;wj;ijg; ngw kw;nwhUthpd;
rk;kjk; my;yJ mtUk; ,ize;J khw;wpj;ju
Ntz; Lk; vd;why; me;j egu; mtuJ
rk;kjj;ijNah my;yJ khw;Wtjw;Nfh ,zq;ff;
flikg; gl;Ls;shu;. my;yJ me;j tpw;gtNuh
my;yJ Fj;jif mspg;gtNuh me;j
rk;kjj;ijg; ngw;Wj;juf; flikg;gl;Ls;shu;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: Fj;jif mspj;jthpd; rk;kjj;NjhL
xU Fj;jifia khw;wpj;ju Ntz;bajpUe;jhy; me;j
Fj;jif nfhLj;jtu; me;j thq;Fgtu; kjpg;Gf;F
chpatuhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; rk;kjj;ijf;
nfhLf;fhky; ,Uf;fyhfhJ. me;j Fj;jifr;
nrhj;ij thq;Fgtu; me;j Fj;jif
mspj;jthplkpUe;J rk;kjk; ngw;Wj;jUk;gb
tpw;gtiuf; Nfl; Lf;nfhs;syhk;.

 xU tpy;yq;fkw;w Mdhy; milkhdk;
itf;fg;gl;l nrhj;ij tpw;gtu; me;j
milkhdj; njhif tpw;fg;gLk; njhifiatpl
mjpfkhf ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpy; tpw;gtu; mij
kPl;nlLf;Fk; chpik kl;LNk cilatuhf
,Uf;fpwhu;. thq;Fgtu; me;j milkhdj;ij
milj;J rhpahd Kiwapy; me;j nrhj;ijj;
jUk;gb tpw;gtiu tw;GWj;jyhk;.
 tpw;gtNuh my;yJ milkhdk; nfhLg;gtNuh
gFjp epiwNtw;wj;ijf; fhuzk; fhl;b tof;Fj;
njhlu;e;jhy; me;j tof;F rhpahd
chpikapy;iy vd;w fhuzj;jhy; js;Sgb
nra;ag;gl;lhy; me;jg; gpujpthjpf;Fj; jhd;
nfhLj;j njhifiaj; jpUk;gg;ngwTk; mjd;
tl;biaAk; kw;Wk; tof;Fr; nryitAk;
ngwTk; chpik cs;sJ.

NkYk;> xU mirahr; nrhj;J rhu;e;j tpw;gjw;fhd
my;yJ Fj;jiff;fhd xg;ge;jk; fP o;f;fhZk;
tpw;gtUf;F my;yJ Fj;jif mspj;jtUf;Fr;
rhu;ghf nray;gLj;j KbahJ:
 xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLj;Jk;NghJ me;jr; nrhj;Jf;F
cz;ikahd chpikahsu; mtu; ,y;iy
vdj; njhpe;Jk; xg;ge;jk; nra;gtu;
 thq;FgtUf;F rpwpjsTk; re;Njfk; ,y;yhj
tifapy; me;jj; jug;GfNsh my;yJ
ePjpkd;wNkh khw;wk; nra;af; Fwpg;gpl;l
ehspy; nrhj;Jhpikia toq;f Kbahjtu;.

vdNt> thq;Fgtu; njhLj;j tof;fpy; tpw;wtu;
my;yJ Fj;jif mspj;jtu; mthplk; Fiwthd
chpik ,Ue;jijf; fhuzk; fhl;l KbahJ.
Mdhy;> Fj;jif mspj;jtu; njhlu;e;j tof;fpy;
Fj;jif ngw;wtu; my;yJ thq;fpatu; mijf;
fhuzkhff; fhl;lyhk;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:
 egu;-3-f;F chpa xU nrhj;J vdj; njhpe;Jk;
egu;-1 egu;-2f;F mr;nrhj;ij tpw;fpwhh;. ,q;F
egu;-1 Fwpg;gpl;l epiwNtw;wj;ijf; fhuzk;
fhl;b tof;Fj; njhlu egu; -3 me;j
tpw;gidia cWjpg;gLj;jpdhYk; chpik
,y;iy.
 tpw;gidf;F ,U jug; Gk; rk;kjpj;jgpd;du;
xU rl;lj;ijf;fhl;b me;j nrhj;J
ifafg;gLj;jg; gLfpwJ. me;j
cld;gbf;if ehSf;Fk; mJ epiwTngWk;
ehSf;Fk; ,ilapy; tpw;gthpd; chpikapy;
re;Njfk; ,y;yhky; ,y;iy. tpw;gtu; me;j
cld;gbf;ifapd; Fiwghl;ilf;fhl;b
epthuzk; ngw KbahJ. Mdhy;> thq;Fgtu;
mijf; fhuzkhff; fhl;l KbAk;.
(mNrhrpNal;ll; N`hl; ly;]; M/g; ,e;jpah
ypl; vjpu; uha; gfJ}u; N[hj;khy;
nfhj;jhypah> (1953) FCR 441 (Pak)).

gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;l fl;lisfs;:

XU nrhj;jpd; cz; ikahd chpikahsu; me;j
chpikiaf; kWg;gtUf;F vjpuhf tof;Fj;
njhLf;fyhk;. ,jd;%yk; mtu;jhd; me;j
nrhj;jpd; cz; ikahd chpikahsu; vdg;
gpufldg;gLj;jg;gLthu;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 xU nrhj;jpd; chpikahsu;.
Mdhy;> egu; -2 me;jr; nrhj;J jdf;Nf chpaJ
vdTk; mijj; jdf;Fj; jUk;gbak; $Wfpwhu;.
,q;F egu; -1 me;jr; nrhj;Jhpik jdf;Nf
chpaJ vd gpufldg;gLj;Jk;gb tof;Fj;
njhLf;fyhk;.

jil cj;juTfs;:

Fwpg;gpl;l epthuzr; rl;lj; jpd; gb xUtu;
,ilf;fhy my;yJ epue;juj;jil




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;




5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50




cj;juTfisg; ngwyhk;. ,ilf;fhy cj;juT
vd;gJ xUtu; xU nraiyr; nra;ahky;
,Ug;gjw;Nfh my;yJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l nraiyr;
nra;aNth cj;jutpLtjhFk;. jil cj;juTfs;
jw;fhypfkhdjhfNth ePz;lfhy cj;juthfNth
,Uf;fyhk;. ePjpkd;wq; fs; fP o;f;fhz;gtw;iwr;
rhpghu;j;jgpd; jw;fhypfj; jil cj;juTfisg;
gpwg;gpf;fyhk; (F[uhj; ghl;ypq; fk;ngdp vjpu;
nfhf; NfhNfhyh fk;ngdp> AIR 1995 SC 2372):

 me;j thjpf;F me;j tof;fpy; Kjy;epiy
jug;gh
 ,jd; mD$yq;fisAk; ghjpg;GfisAk;
rPu;J}f;fpg; ghu;f;Fk;NghJ thjpf;Fr; rhu;ghdjh
 jil cj;juT mspf;fg;glhtpl;lhy; thjpf;F
cs;s ,og;G <Lnra;a Kbahjjh

Nghd;w fhuzq;fisr; rPu;J}f;fpg; ghu;f;f Ntz; Lk;.

epue;juj; jil cj;juTfs; nghJthf thjpf;fhd
flikfis epiwNtw;WtjpypUe;J tpyFtijj;
jLg;gjw;fhf mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. thjpapd; xU
nrhj;jpd;kPJs;s chpikia my;yJ mDNghf
chpikiag; gpujpthjp vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg; Nghtjhf
kpul;Lk;NghJ my;yJ vLj;Jf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ
mijj; jLf;f ePjpkd;wk; fP o;f;fhZk;
fhuzq;fSf;fhf epue;juj; jil cj;juitg;
gpwg;gpf;fyhk;.

 thjpapd; nrhj;jpd; nghWg;ghsuhf gpujpthjp
,Ug;ghuhdhy;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: egu; -1 jdJ nrhj;jpid egu; -2f;Fk;
mtuJ Foe;ijfSf;Fk; ghfg;gphptpid nra;J
nfhLf;fpwhu;. gpd;du; me;jr; nrhj;ij egu; -3f;F
tpw;f xg;ge;jk; nra;fpwhu;. egu; -2 my;yJ mtuJ
ahuhtJ xU gps;is mj;jifa tpw;gidf;Fj;
jilNfhhp tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.

 Mf;fpukpg;ghy; Vw;gLk; cz;ikahd Vw;fdNt
ele;j my;yJ el;f;fg;NghFk; ,og;igf;
fz;lwpa rhpahd nghJthd fUtp ,y;yhj
epiy ,Ue;jhy;
 me;j Mf;fpukpg;gpd; ghjpg;G gzj;jhy;
<Lfl;lKbahj; jd;ik nfhz;ljhf ,Ue;jhy;
 gytifahd eltbf;iffisj; jLf;f jil
cj;juT Njitg;gl;lhy;

vLj;Jf;fhl;L: xU fpuhk kf;fs; xUthpd; epyj;jpd;
topahf top Nfl; fpwhu;fs;. mj;jifa fpuhk
kf;fspy; ngUk;ghyhNdhUf; F vjpuhf egu; -1
Vw;fdNt mtu;fSf;F mtUila epyj;jpy; elf;fg;
ghij ,y;iy vd gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;l jPu;g;igg;
ngw;Ws;shu;. kw;w gyUk; mq;F ghij Nfl;L
tof;Fj; njhLf;fpd;wdu;. ,q;F epue;juj;
jilNfhhp egu; -1 tof;Fj; njhLf;fyhk;.






5




10




15




20




25




30




35




40




45




50


midj;jpe;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; Nju; T
jahhpg;Gg; ghlg; Gj;jfk;
2010 ,e;jpa tof;fwpQu; Fohk; kw;Wk; nua; d; Nkf;fu; bnua; dpq; & nuf;&a; l;nkd;l; gpiuNtl; ypkpnll;. midj;J chpikfSk; gjpT nra;ag;l;lJ. ,e;jg;
Gj;jfj;ij chpikngwhky; gad;gLj;JNthu; my;yJ kW jahhpg;Gr; nra;Nthu; chpa chpikapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffSf;F cs;shtu;

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful