Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

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Contents

Forward ...................................................................................................................................................................v
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................................vii
Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics .........................................................................................................3
Static water pressure ....................................................................................................................................................4
Dynamic water pressure .............................................................................................................................................6
Exercises on basic hydraulics .....................................................................................................................................9

Step two: Obtaining site information .................................................................................................................13
Step three: Determining irrigation requirements ..............................................................................................19
Soil type .......................................................................................................................................................................19
Exercises on site information and irrigation requirements .................................................................................23

Step four: Determining water and power supply .............................................................................................27
Calculating water meter capacity and working pressure .....................................................................................27
Rule number one ......................................................................................................................................................................................27
Rule number two ......................................................................................................................................................................................28
Rule number three ....................................................................................................................................................................................28

Exercises on water capacity and pressure ..............................................................................................................30

Step five: Selecting sprinklers and spacing ranges .........................................................................................35
Selecting sprinklers ....................................................................................................................................................35
Spray sprinklers ........................................................................................................................................................................................35
Rotating sprinklers ....................................................................................................................................................................................35
Bubblers and drip irrigation devices ........................................................................................................................................................35

Exercises on selecting sprinklers ..............................................................................................................................40
Spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates .........................................................................................41
Exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates ..................................................................47
Locating sprinklers on the plan ...............................................................................................................................48
Exercises on locating sprinklers ...............................................................................................................................52

Step six: Lateral layout, circuiting sprinklers into valve groups .....................................................................55
Locating valves, main lines and lateral piping .......................................................................................................57
Calculating lateral operating time ...........................................................................................................................58
Sample lateral number 1 ..........................................................................................................................................................................59
Sample lateral number 2 ..........................................................................................................................................................................59

Step seven: Sizing pipe and valves and calculating system pressure requirements ...................................65
Exercises on calculating system pressure requirements ......................................................................................71

Step eight: Locating the controller and sizing the valve and power wires ...................................................75
Locating the controller ..............................................................................................................................................75
Sizing valve wires .......................................................................................................................................................75
Sizing power wires .....................................................................................................................................................78

Step nine: Preparing the final irrigation plan ....................................................................................................83
Exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan ................................................................85
Irrigation references ..................................................................................................................................................86

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual iii

........104 Maximum precipitation rates ........................................................................................................................................................................Contents Solutions ...........................105 Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss ..........................................................................105 Slope reference ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings .......................................................97 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe.....................................................................91 Solutions to exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan ...................117 Soil characteristics .........94 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe ..................................................................118 Slope reference .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................91 Solutions to exercises on calculating system pressure requirements .......111 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe ..............................................110 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe ..........................................................................................99 Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube .................90 Solutions to exercises on locating sprinklers .....................................................................................115 Pressure loss in valves and fittings .........................................................................104 Soil characteristics ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on selecting sprinklers ...............................................117 Maximum precipitation rates .........................................................................100 Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe..........................................................................................................................................................................................................103 Estimated service line sizes ..............................................................S...............................107 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe ..................................................................................................................................116 Pressure loss through swing check valves ...................................................................................................118 Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss .............................................................................................105 Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves ................................107 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe ...........................................................................................................116 Climate PET ...........................................................................................................................................................102 Pressure loss in valves and fittings ..........................................................108 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe ...........................................90 Solutions to exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates ............................................................................................................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on basic hydraulics ......................................................................................................96 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Index ....................................................................................................................................................................91 Technical Data ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe...................................................................103 Climate PET ...........................................................................................................................................101 Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube .........................................................................................................................................................................118 Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves ..........................................................................................................................................................................113 Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe...............................................................89 Solutions to exercises on site information and irrigation requirements ...............................119 Appendix............................................................................................................................................................................................................114 Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube ...............103 Pressure loss through swing check valves .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................121 Table of formulas ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................123 Table of figures ..................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on water capacity and pressure ......116 Estimated service line sizes ..............94 U..................................106 International System Units........................................................................................................................................................129 iv Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .............................................................................................................................................................112 Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube .........................................................94 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe ..................................................................................................................................95 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe.................................................. Standard Units ............................................................................................................................................................................90 Solutions to exercises on circuit configuration and operating time ......................109 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe ..................103 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

be sure to review the practical exercises at the end of each section. are found in the exercises. The editors of the Landscape Irrigation Design Manual hope such an opportunity is available to you and that the information presented here is of benefit. new information and tips. The main omission from a design manual such as this is the real. Intended as a very basic text for irrigation design.Forward This manual was prepared at the request of numerous individuals who either wished to learn the basic techniques of landscape irrigation design or who are teachers of the subject. this manual proceeds as if the reader has no prior knowledge in the subject. not covered in the previous section. As you use this manual. In some cases. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual v . hands-on experience of designing and then installing a landscape irrigation system.

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This manual is part of the effort to promote properly designed landscape irrigation systems. Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg. difficulties.S. Corp.Introduction Properly designed. Some metric data has been altered to simplify examples. With that said. these could become the basis for a coordinated national policy toward water conservation. All rights reserved. Even intermediate level design students may find it helpful to “brush up” on hydraulics before going on to further studies.. typographical or otherwise. Understanding the basic hydraulics material in the first section of the manual is very important. installed. ©2000 Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corporation. please turn the page to discover some facts about the nature of water. In some water short areas. or if there is any error herein. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. It is our goal to present the material as simply as possible while explaining some theory behind the process. or injuries should arise from or in connection with the use or application of this information. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual vii . shall not be responsible or liable. maintained and managed landscape irrigation systems greatly reduce the volume of irrigation water that is wasted every year. we have seen the beginnings of planned water conservation efforts. If any problems. In time. Note: Information contained in this manual is based upon generally accepted formulas. Note: Metric data (International System Units) contained in this manual is not always a one-to-one conversion from U. Today many municipalities require home or business owners to submit irrigation designs for approval prior to construction. especially to new students of irrigation design. computations and trade practices. Standard Units). measurements (U.S. or any agent or employee thereof.

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Understanding Basic Hydraulics 1 .

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we can easily determine the static (no flow) water pressure within any pipe. produce efficient designs and eliminate waste.05 bar) P = W = .433 psi (0. When the area is constant.866 psi (0.05 kg/cm2 A 1 cm x 1 cm cm2 P = 0. the pressure is doubled.433 psi (0. A container 1 in2 (1 cm2) and filled with water to a height of 1 ft (50 cm) — the pressure (psi/bar) would equal: Understanding Basic Hydraulics P = W = . the more weight.866 lb A 1 in x 1 in 1 in2 P = W = 1 gm/cm3 x 100 cm3 = 100 gm = 0.3 lbs (1 kg) and water has a specific weight per cubic foot of 62. To convert feet of head to pressure in Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 3 . It makes no difference if the 1 ft (50 cm) of water is held in this narrow container or at the bottom of a 1 ft (50 cm) deep lake.1 bar) Consider a 1 in2 (1 cm2) container filled with water to a depth of 1 ft (50 cm).866 psi 0. with sound hydraulics. In addition to wasting money. Water is also quite heavy — one gallon (one liter) of water weighs 8. The factors for converting pressure to feet of head (meters of head) and feet of head (meters of head) back to pressure are both multipliers. Hydraulic analysis is important to minimize financial risks. Properly designed piping.05 bar) at the base of the container. Lack of design know-how can also cost the system owner more money because the designer may over-design the system to avoid unknown factors. Controlling the water flow velocity.433 x 2 ft of height = . and pressure. The more height to a column of water. leading to stressed landscaping material. reduces wear on the system components and lengthens service life.05 bar x 2 = 0.1 Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics Hydraulics is defined as the study of fluid behavior. Water is relatively incompressible.433 lb A 1 in x 1 in 1 in2 P = W = 1gm/cm3 x 50 cm3 = 50 gm = 0. then the force in pounds (kilograms) is dependent on. 24 in (100 cm) 12 in (50 cm) 1 in 1 in (1 cm) (1 cm) 1 in 1 in (1 cm) (1 cm) Figure 1: Water towers filled at 12 in and 24 in (50 cm and 100 cm) If you double the height of the water. The area we are concerned with is only 1 in2 (1 cm2) at the bottom of either container. Poor hydraulic design results in poor performance of the irrigation system. force. at rest and in motion.036 lb in3 x 12 in3 = 0. can greatly reduce maintenance problems over the life of an irrigation system. such as 1 in2 (1 cm2). a poor hydraulic design will often waste water. The formula for water pressure looks like this: P = force = F area A P = pressure in pounds per square inch (kilograms per square centimeter) F = force in pounds (kilograms) A = area in square inches (square centimeters) The force is created by the weight of the water above the point where it is being measured. Water takes the shape of the container. holding velocity within proper limits. simply. By using this conversion factor.036 lb in3 x 24 in3 = 0. One foot (50 cm) of water creates a pressure of . or even broken pipes and flood damage. the height of the water.1 bar This relationship between pressure and elevation is known as “feet of head” (meters of head). Pressure is expressed as pounds per square inch (kilograms per square centimeter) and abbreviated as psi (kg/cm2 or bar).4 lbs (one ton per cubic meter). Water responds to gravity and seeks its own lowest level (responding to gravity).10 kg/cm2 A 1 cm x 1 cm cm2 P = 0. To accomplish all these things we need to understand the nature of water. Water exerts pressure — defined as the force of water exerted over a given area. .

To convert pressure in psi to feet of head.Understanding Basic Hydraulics psi. We will be discussing static water pressure as a starting point for hydraulic design of an irrigation system. is the city water main with a fairly high static pressure of 111 psi (7. to where it’s needed is the hydraulic basis of irrigation design. using this factor we can determine that a water tower with a water surface 200 ft (100 m) above the point where we need it would create a pressure of 86. From the main line there is a supply pipe made of 1-1/2 in (40 mm) copper that rises 3 ft (1 m) to . As we have seen in our discussion regarding the relationship between pounds per square inch (bar) and elevation. multiply the pressure by 2. Hydrodynamic refers to the properties of water in motion.1 kg/cm2 = 10kg/. The supply system to this home looks like this (see Figure 3): at point “A. By elevating water in tanks. For example.6 psi (10 bar). Moving water.433 One foot of water = . A water-filled main line. 1 kg/cm2 = 10 meters of water = 1 bar. One psi = 2. multiply the pressure by 10. pressure.” under the street at a depth of 4 ft (1. We will be following the complete irrigation design process for this project throughout the manual. multiply the feet by . or boost.2 m). 200 ft (100 m) 86. Whether from elevation differences or by mechanical means.31 = 231 feet of head. above where the water is needed. Static water pressure refers to the pressure of a closed system with no water moving. towers and reservoirs. water height can create pressure. divide the meters by 10. Water systems may also be pressurized by a pump or a pump can be used to increase. at the correct flow and pressure.6 psi at its base. For example. 100 meters of water x 0.433 produces 86. Here is an example of a simple system for supplying water to a house from a city main line. One meter of water = 0. Static water pressure is an indication of the potential pressure available to operate a system.cm2 or 10 bar of pressure at its base. 10 kg/cm2 = 100 meters of head. Static water pressure There are two ways to create static water pressure.1 kg/cm2. Pressure of 100 psi (10 bar) would only lift the water 231 ft (100 m). we would know that we can’t pump water up into a lake that is 300 ft (200 m) above our water source if we had a pumping water pressure available of 100 psi (10 bar).7 bar). understanding the static pressure at the water source for an irrigation system is where hydraulic calculations begin.433 psi. static pressure is created. (To convert pressure in bar or kg/cm2 to meters of head. For example. would experience full static pressure with only pressure variation due to elevation. For example.31 ft of water.) Further.) Calculating with this factor in advance. 200 ft of water height x . with all valves closed.31. (To convert meters of head to pressure in kg/cm2. 100 psi x 2.6 psi (10 bar) Figure 2: Water tower – 200 ft (100 m) Figure 3: Water supply to a house 4 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual The word hydrostatic refers to the properties of water at rest.

we start at point “A” where the water purveyor advises that we can expect a static pressure in their main line of 111 psi (7.33 psi static pressure at the valve (3 m ÷ 10 = 0.” the hose bib in the garage. Points “D” and “E.05 bar = 7.7 bar – 0.3 m) above the point where the service line enters the house is a hose valve connection. had the main line been located 10 ft (3 m) above the site. the static pressure at the hose bib would have been: 10 ft x .5 m) rise in elevation that we calculate as follows to get a static pressure for point “F:” Understanding Basic Hydraulics pressure in the city main been low.” When gathering information at a project site.8 psi (7.7 bar static pressure in the main line = 8. the “worst case” situation will be on hot weekend days in the summer when a lot of people irrigate Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 5 . Had the Figure 4: Static water pressure A sound irrigation design cannot begin with subjective terms like “good pressure.7 bar) for a remainder of 108. are on the same elevation as point “C.1 bar).5 m) from the meter location to the house.52 bar) at point “G.” so they have the same 109.433 psi (0.33 psi + 111 psi static pressure in the main line = 115.5 ÷ 10 = 0. the static pressure can be calculated. Between points “E” and “F” there is a 2 ft (0.433 psi (divide the 2 m rise by 10) and subtract the 2.3 psi (7.1 connect to the meter and is 12 ft (4 m) in length.3 psi (0. However. the designer or other person gathering the site data could have measured the water pressure with a pressure gauge rather than using the water purveyor’s estimate.866 psi = 108.866 psi (0.3 m) above point “F. For example. (7.6 bar). There is a small rise in elevation of 2 ft (0.299 psi (1 m ÷ 10 = 0. say 40 psi (2.) At any point along the main line. it is important to design the irrigation system for the “worst case” pressure conditions.03 bar) from the 108. Since the supply source is from below. the designer would adjust the design and equipment selection to provide a system that operates correctly even with the low service line pressure. At the curb side is an existing 3/4 in (20 mm) size water meter. all the elevation change coming down to the project would have produced pressure gains instead of losses. the static pressure at point “C” is 111 psi – 1. the static pressure remaining at point “F”.433 psi = . Therefore. If the water main was in a street higher than the site.” which are on each side of the meter. the water pressure is too low for typical landscape irrigation requirements and a booster pump will be necessary.0 bar static pressure at the valve) To begin an irrigation system design you must have critical data or make critical assumptions about the water source. the 1.” or “high pressure.1 bar).7 psi (7.4 psi (7. Connected to the meter is a 3/4 in (20 mm) copper service line that runs 35 ft (11 m) to where it enters the house through the garage. 1 ft (0. so it is a loss.2 bar) answer from 111 psi (7. Static water pressure at the point-of-connection is a necessary part of the data needed to start an irrigation system design. 2 x . (The location of the tap into the service line may also be referred to as the point-ofconnection or POC.7 bar).433 psi = 1. In the previous example.7 bar) pressure.5 bar) in rounded numbers.36 psi (7.7 psi (7. The designer may choose to cut (or tap) into the service line anywhere between the meter and the house to start the main line for the irrigation system. 1.7 psi – . a water pressure reading or valid pressure assumption is very important. is 1 ft (0. Point “C” is 3 ft (1 m) above the main and we would calculate the pressure at point “C” as follows: 3 ft x . the designer will need to consider and control the high water pressure condition on this site.1 bar) for a remainder of 109.” A more direct way to calculate the static pressure for point “G” would be to multiply the 6 ft rise in elevation by .55 bar) at point “F” to determine there is approximately 108. In this case.8 psi. In most locales.6 bar) static pressure.05 bar) 109. Point “B ” in this diagram is at the same elevation as the main line and has the same 111 psi (7.6 bar – 0.8 bar).433 psi = 4.3 bar + 7.3 psi (0. or for simplification.55 bar) Point “G. In some instances.1 bar) is a weight against the source pressure.6 psi (0.” for which we would calculate the static pressure by subtracting . Finally. To calculate the static water pressure available to the site.

the higher the flow velocity. When a valve is opened. The faster the water moves through a pipe.5 m/s). The loss varies with differing types of pipe. and it is good to call them even if a pressure reading is made at the site. In addition to checking a pipe chart to find velocity for a certain type and size of pipe at a given flow.45 and then dividing that answer into 10 gpm. 6 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual V = velocity in feet per second (meters per second) dia = inside diameter of pipe in inches (millimeters) One example in your manual is for 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe with a flow of 10 gpm ( 0.24 x L/s dia2 A typical water path has lots of friction Figure 5: Water path with friction The amount of water flowing through the components of the system also affects the friction loss. (By multiplying 0. Friction loss is a pressure loss caused by water flowing through pipes. is an important factor to understand. valves. . and the higher the pressure loss. Pipes.63 L/s by 1273. By squaring the inside diameter of the pipe. different pipes have varying dimensions and degrees of internal smoothness. This fact makes each type of pipe hydraulically unique. For example. so they can provide data regardless of the season.5 m/s) are less likely to cause damaging surge pressures. Larger sizes are for larger flow ranges within each equipment series. The water purveyor may also be able to predict if pressures may change in the future. they may be planning to install a new pump to increase pressure or conversely. The formula is: V= gpm 2. the physical size of the water path through a component also determines how much pressure is lost. The water purveyor probably uses a computer model to predict the lower summer pressures in their system.63 L/s). The pressures calculated in the previous example were all static water pressures with no water movement in the system. meters cubed per hour (m3/h) or liters per second (L/s). lower pressure Pipe flow loss charts are available for quickly determining the pressure loss at particular flows.Understanding Basic Hydraulics their lawns. The dynamic water pressure is the pressure at any point in the system considering a given quantity of water flowing past that point. In addition to the pound per square inch loss per 100 ft (bar loss per 100 m).57 m/s.5 m/s) as an acceptable maximum velocity. as well as elevation gains or losses. small valve.5 ft/s. in gallons per minute (gpm). and the resistance creates a pressure loss. This flow loss is usually given as pounds per square inch (bar) loss per 100 ft (100 m) of pipe. through various types and sizes of pipe. The industry has established 5 ft/s (1. Good advice can generally be obtained from the professionals working for the water purveyor. .24 and then dividing by the diameter squared. Large Flow Small Valve Lower Pressure Figure 6: Large flow. we arrive at 3. A sprinkler equipment manufacturer’s catalog contains flow loss charts for each piece of water-handling equipment and for each size in which they are available. and components in the system. the rate at which water moves within the components of the system.) It’s much easier to get this information from the pipe chart. Velocities less than 5 ft/s (1. and multiplying the product by 2. Fast moving water can cause other problems in a system as well. The more water being forced through the system. you can use an equation to determine flow mathematically. fittings. the higher the friction loss. we arrive at 10. Dynamic water pressure Dynamic water pressure or “working pressure” differs from static pressure because it varies throughout the system due to friction losses. The roughness and turbulence on the inside surfaces of pipes and components creates a drag or friction on the passing water. which causes the pressure of the flowing water to decrease. Velocity. we have a new pressure situation to take into account. pressure losses due to friction increase rapidly as velocities increase beyond 5 ft/s (1. friction loss charts will often show the velocity of the water passing through the pipe at that flow rate.622 in. the additional houses to be built in the future may cause the pressure to be lower. and water in the system begins flowing.45 x dia2 V = 1273. water meters and backflow prevention devices all offer resistance to water flowing. Also. Because of this. fittings.

33 7.94 1.81 12.27 m3/h or 0.57 0.02 4. Turn to the class 200 PVC chart and read down the leftmost column to 16 gpm (3.77 4.80 5.17 0.33 12.54 36.41 8.54 psi (6.85 1.12 0.840 0.26 0.89 9.140 1 in 1.4 per 100 ft (0.03 0.71 1.40 6.80 56.07 0. we would first turn to the pipe chart for that type of pipe.62 0.824 0.42 0.83 3. The other column under each pipe size on the chart contains the friction loss data in pounds per square inch (bar) lost per 100 ft (100 m) of pipe.55 11.41 9.315 1.97 2.03 0. We already know that a 10 gpm (2.42 15.55 ft/s (3.36 4.57 1.51 2.60 12.049 0.04 33.11 psi (loss per 100 m is 0.55 psi (0.52 0. Ten gpm (2.22 m/s) is the velocity of the water for 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe when flowing 10 gpm (2.47 5.22 2.42 3.92 2. at the same 10 gpm (2.15 3.05 m/s). The loss per 100 ft is 3.43 42. we read a pound per square inch (bar) loss of only 2.88 2.40 2.93 1. Read across to the second column under the 1 in (25 mm) size.23 0.73 7.15 0.21 0.40 3.47 0.75 0.27 m3/h or 0.96 3. The shaded area that runs diagonally across the face of the chart shows where the flows cause velocities to exceed 5 ft/s (1.21 8.27 m3/h or 0. The first column shows the velocity in feet per second (meters per second).55 3.63 L/s) flow through 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe.70 bar x 0.64 0.63 0.19 5.05 2.90 bar) would be lost for every 100 ft (100 m) of 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe at a flow of 10 gpm (2.11 0.07 1. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.5) and get a total loss of about 1.42 2.63 L/s) flow. the 10 gpm (2.59 2.5 (0.37 0.20 1.84 1.69 110.09 0. Looking across to the 1 in (25 mm) size pipe.10 1.41 1.39 7.20 25.90 1.27 10. PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLA (1120.27 m3/h or 0.70 bar).01 L/s). 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.93 6. Because we want to know the loss for only 50 ft (50 m) of that pipe we would simply multiply 3.5 bar per 100 m).77 20.63 L/s).35 2. We will discuss pipe sizing later in this manual.39 0.25 0.86 15. In the columns on the far right and left of the chart are the flows in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) with the lowest flow at the top and increasing flows as you read down the chart.66 10.07 28. Read down the left-hand column for flow to 10 gpm (2.01 5.5 m/s) rule is one factor used to size pipe in a sprinkler system.38 8. Understanding Basic Hydraulics across to the friction loss number under the 1/2 in (15 mm) size pipe. 10.14 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps 1.31 0.28 2.61 10.78 0.98 21.62 0.42 0.11 3.27 m3/h or 0.99 3.14 5.59 1.12 30. According to the 5 ft/s (1. Using the same flow of 10 gpm (2.00 3.14 3.74 1.27 m3/h or 0.89 14. Standard Units) or 108 (International System Units) of the Technical Data section of this manual and look at the friction loss characteristics chart for Schedule 40 PVC pipe (shown below).57 2. We also know that the flow velocity is under our 5 ft/s (1.48 1.050 0.60 4.51 1.380 0.63 L/s) flow in 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 is deep within the shaded area.01 13. If we wanted to determine the friction loss through 50 ft (50 m) of 1 in (25 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe flowing at 16 gpm (3. This is a typical chart showing the losses through various sizes of Schedule 40 PVC pipe across a wide range of flows.48 18.27 6.13 8.45 39.660 1.87 18.63 L/s) flow in this 1/2 in (15 mm) pipe creates a velocity of more than 10 ft/s (3.5 m/s) velocity.64 0.46 11.86 3.20 2.85 4.20 4.1 Turn to page 95 (U.24 1.66 0.109 3⁄4 in 1.44 0.5 m/s) limit because it is not in the shaded area.70 4.18 1. As you can see.72 3.33 3.76 16.44 5.60 7.28 4. read Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 7 .35 bar).89 1. This is the same velocity we calculated with the velocity formula.14 14.43 1.14 6.28 1.77 9.07 4. The maximum 5 ft/s (1.622 0.92 90.46 3.33 0.55 23.14 2.63 L/s) and then read across to the first column under the 1/2 in (15 mm) size. But.12 0.5 m/s) rule. pipe size can make a big difference in controlling friction loss.08 0. we would not try to force 10 gpm (2.21 14.61 0.27 m3/h or 0. There is another important indicator on the friction loss chart.113 11⁄4 in 1.28 5.18 0.30 45.63 L/s).01 L/s) flow.63 m3/h or 1.16 4.71 5. For example.01 0.80 2.00 6. look over at 1 in (25 mm) for the same flow. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1⁄2 in 0.20 3.63 m3/h or 1. Across the top of the chart find pipe sizes beginning on the left with 1/2 in (15 mm) size and running across the page to 6 in (160 mm) size on the right.49 10.09 Figure 7: Schedule 40 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 108 for a metric version of the chart above.58 0.11 psi x .67 7.27 m3/h or 0.133 11⁄2 1.63 L/s) in the leftmost column.85 2.22 5.94 72.60 1.88 2.60 8. Two columns of data are given for each size of pipe listed.49 1.15 8.63 L/s) is above the shaded area for 1 in (25 mm) and is well below 5 ft/s (1.44 9.27 m3/h or 0.65 14.5 m/s).11 1.S.25 1. 30.73 1.

61 5.91 56.05 0.56 0.71 5.59 1.27 13.78 0.2 0.51 4.65 3.079 1 in 1.54 0.17 0.27 0.02 41.75 12.68 2.65 13.06 1.82 5.85 3.83 2.090 2 in 2.49 0.43 10.22 0.94 2.900 1.53 0.45 6.79 1.60 7.06 0.65 8.02 0.6 3.42 15.0 1.00 0.70 5.04 4.26 1.50 0.375 2.32 0.40 15.02 0.68 0.86 1.Understanding Basic Hydraulics PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.050 0.18 6.26 5.80 2.09 5.86 4.53 3.47 2.55 0.58 3.08 1.78 8.10 0.00 21.78 1.72 5.660 1.76 1.62 6.92 7.66 6.42 0.03 0.26 0.56 0.31 18.69 3.54 12.23 1.85 11.86 1.75 0.149 0.83 11.65 10.62 1.32 7.30 5.06 0.06 0.00 0.57 0.4 0.97 4.37 17.20 2.08 0.12 2.3 1.66 2.34 0.11 3.24 1.1 2.90 1.77 0.83 25.82 3.10 11.11 0.03 0.64 0.06 0.26 0.97 4.77 6.01 0.04 9.18 0.94 1.08 0.85 5.15 16.3 3.6 0.01 0.46 1.20 2.23 0.56 1.34 6.09 0.5 0.02 2.19 1.15 1.48 2.37 1.46 4.80 1.70 30.04 0.79 0.43 0.00 43.96 1.30 3.9 4.14 0.46 2.77 4.17 3.09 1.24 9. When you complete the exercises you can check your work in the Solutions section on page 87.16 0.05 8.10 1.36 0.58 18.93 2.15 6.30 1.61 3.14 0.14 25.063 11⁄2 in 1.51 6.55 8.82 0.32 29.87 0.37 0.25 4.51 0.24 0.89 2.82 3.13 9.5 1.97 6.38 11.04 33.17 2.89 3.61 0.55 13.502 0.98 14.44 1.27 17. 8 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .060 SIZE OD ID Wall Thk flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 11⁄4 in 1.28 0.12 2. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.3 0.89 7.70 0.13 0.24 1.74 6.720 0.20 4.7 3. 3⁄4 in 1.05 10.03 3.43 3.06 5.21 14.01 0.81 15. turn to the next page in the manual and do the exercises for both static and dynamic conditions. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.75 0.30 0.60 7.95 9.28 0.41 1.88 3.75 3. Now that you know how to calculate static pressure changes due to differing elevations and how to read a pipe chart to determine friction losses.7 0.4 0.4 1.07 1.65 1.88 0.22 0.51 1.58 8.34 0.44 1.20 6.73 2.26 0.94 10.44 0.40 0.59 2.02 0.14 0.08 8.4 2.53 2.8 2.41 0.58 21.66 36.46 0.42 1.00 1.1 0.36 2.47 0.95 1.2 1.98 2.22 0.35 2.42 6.49 9.23 8.30 2.07 0.87 17.72 0.6 1.2 4.18 0.93 1.5 Figure 8: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 110 for a metric version of the chart above.01 0.13 4.27 8.12 0.02 0.8 0.20 1.59 0.29 2.113 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss veloc fps 0.72 2.31 5.17 0.41 4.96 9.09 3.55 4.47 0.83 3.9 1.27 1.26 5.51 18.3 0.23 2.30 12.19 5.07 0.65 10.930 0.93 7.50 8.34 4.22 0.04 0.87 4.35 0.32 12.62 0.02 2.19 5.67 0.04 0.97 1.78 9.0 3.315 1.30 3.44 1.189 0.98 13.36 0.51 1.6 0.25 3.52 0.

Answer the questions below for a system flow of 26 gpm (5. Keep in mind that dynamic pressure is a running total of friction losses and elevation losses or gains.1 Exercises on basic hydraulics Using the diagram below of an elevated water tank and its piping system. Understanding Basic Hydraulics Starting with point B’s dynamic pressure.64 L/s). 100 ft (30 m) C B 80 ft (24 m) 50 ft (15 m) D 75 ft (23 m) 100 ft (30 m) E A. If the 100 ft (30 m) section of pipe between points D and 160 ft (50 m) E angled up 75 ft (23 m) in elevation instead of down. All the pipe in the system is 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 PVC. Points B and C are on the same elevation. answer the following: Point C’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar). fill in the blanks in the hydraulic analysis. E. point E’s dynamic pressure would be ______ psi (bar). Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 9 . Point B had a static pressure of ______ psi (bar). Point D’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar). What is the static pressure at the following points? Point D _______ Point E _______ D. To find the static water pressure in pounds per square inch (bar) at point B you would multiply by ______ and get an answer of ______ psi (divide by ______ and get an answer of ______ bar). After you subtract the friction loss caused by the above flow through 100 ft (30 m) of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe the dynamic pressure at B is ______ psi (bar). B. A Point E’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar).9 m3/h or 1. Point B in the system is 160 ft (50 m) below the water's surface at point A. How many pounds per square inch (bar) difference is there in the static pressure at these two points? C.

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Obtaining Site Information 2 .

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Even if the plan does not have all the details necessary. Without an accurate site plan of the field conditions. preferably by a direct reading with a pressure gauge. Newer homes may even have a computer-generated drawing available. A little pre-planning can prevent costly problems in the field! It is best to minimize the crossing of utilities with the irrigation system piping and. as well as the size of the water meter and the size. Indications of the soil type (sandy. it is important to note the location of any new planting areas and the types of vegetation that these areas will contain. A residential site might fit well on a plan with a scale of 1 in = 10 ft (1 cm = 1 m). or be impacted by having water sprayed on it. 10 or 15 m) are all common plan sizes for commercial projects. The shape of the area should be drawn on the site plan with all sides and dimensions accurately measured and represented on the drawing. Complete and accurate field information is essential for designing an efficient underground sprinkler system. The steps are: 1. locating valves and main lines 6. clay like or a mixture) and the wind direction are also very helpful. Preparing the final irrigation plan Obtaining site information is a very important step in the design procedure. there is little hope for an accurate irrigation plan. Locate all trees and shrub areas and pinpoint the plant material on the drawing. When this cannot be done at the site. Larger areas call for smaller scales to accommodate manageable plan sizes. If an existing drawing cannot be obtained. hook it up to a hose bib or garden valve. Determining water and power supply 4. Indicate any particularly dense shrubs or hedges or low trees that could hinder the sprinkler coverage. daily shade. further. Sizing pipe and valves and calculating total system pressure loss 7. driveways. a scaled drawing on graph paper is a good alternative for small sites.2 Step two: Obtaining site information To ensure the complete and proper design of an irrigation system. The static water pressure should be ascertained. Take additional measurements to assist in drawing any curves and odd angled borders. A site plan is a scaled drawing of the areas that are impacted by the irrigation system. since many housing contractors now use CAD for home and lot design. Turn the valve on to take the pressure reading when no other water outlet on the site is open. light or utility poles. a drawing with all the Obtaining Site Information appropriate measurements should be made so a scaled drawing can be created. A 200-acre (81 ha) golf course might be drawn up with a scale of 1 in = 100 ft (1 cm = 30 m). Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 13 . Examples are areas of high or constant wind. The location of the water source. If the site being designed falls within a city boundary. parking areas. Before going through the effort of creating a site plan yourself. A 100 ft (30 m) wide lot would only be 10 in (30 cm) wide on the drawing. length and material of the service line should be indicated on the site plan. heavy clay soil. check to see if a plan already exists. to avoid locating any equipment on top of utilities. Obtaining site information 2. such as windows close to the lawn areas. One important note: before beginning any site plan development. Note everything you see that could possibly impact the irrigation system. stairways. it could provide a solid base to start the site plan. such as the water meter. be sure to check with the local utility companies for the location of any buried lines on the site. A convenient scale should be selected that best fits the area onto a plan with good readable details. especially since there are so many trades involved in the site design process. Indicate where there are slopes and in which direction and how steeply the ground slopes. retaining walls. Lateral layout (or “circuiting” sprinklers). Locate all buildings. 1 in = 20. It is particularly important to note site features that will significantly affect how the irrigation system will be designed or managed. and any other features of the site. Selecting sprinklers and other equipment 5. Also make note of areas where water drift or over spray cannot be tolerated. there may be a site plan or survey on record at the city or county planning/zoning department. When using a gauge. Determining the irrigation requirement 3. follow this eight-step procedure. or coarse sandy soil. The steps in this procedure must be taken in this order to reduce the chances of overlooking important factors in the process. Take sufficient measurements to ensure accuracy. Locating controllers and sizing wire 8. Almost all large sites have some sort of existing site plans. The hydraulic data should always be noted. In addition to plotting existing planting areas. 30 or 40 ft (1 cm = 6. walkways.

When the drawing from the field data is finally prepared. it should represent an accurate picture of the site and all the conditions concerning the project. the rating (voltage and amperage) needs to be noted. make note of the desired location and source of power for the pump. obtain the model. the available funds or budget of the owner may determine what type of suitable irrigation system can be designed. horsepower and electrical characteristics of the pump. Further. The pump manufacturer will be able to provide the performance curve for the pump. If electrical power is available. This knowledge is necessary to begin an efficient irrigation plan specifically tailored to the property.Obtaining Site Information If the water source for the project includes a pump. Some municipalities have time of day restrictions for watering. 14 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . Also. Any special considerations of the site should be noted. a pressure and flow test of the pump is advisable in case the performance has changed with wear. Should a pond or lake serve as the water source and no pumping plant currently exists.

2 Obtaining Site Information Figure 9: Basic plan drawing Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 15 .

Obtaining Site Information Figure 10: More detailed plan drawing 16 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

Determining Irrigation Requirements 3 .

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45 in (8 to 11 mm) “worst case” under 70° F (21˚ C) as an average midsummer high between 70° and 90° F (21˚ and 32˚ C) as midsummer highs over 90° F (32˚C) over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] In the table. Later in this manual. and the amount of moisture it can hold. These figures are rough estimates for these types of climates for an average midsummer day. To help determine in which climate your project is located.” “Warm. Other major factors are humidity and wind speed. Take the sample from a representative part of the site. will greatly affect the irrigation operational schedule. To answer the questions “How much water has to be applied to the plant material?” and “How often and how long does the system need to run?.” or “Cool” that are listed below the PET table. we will also consider matching the scheduling of automatic irrigation controls to both the sprinkler precipitation rate and the system irrigation requirement. and from approximately the same depth to which you will be watering. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 19 .30 to . An irrigation system should always be designed to adequately water the project in the “worst case” condition. if you want to water to a depth of 6 in (15 cm). dig down 6 in (15 cm) to take your soil sample. The three categories of “Cool.25 in (5 to 6 mm) . the “worst case” condition listed at the top of the ET range for that climate type.20 in (4 to 5 mm) . which is the maximum average rate of water use for plants in a given climate. Choosing sprinklers to match the irrigation requirement is a critical consideration for the designer. The ability of soil to hold moisture. Although it is a rough guide to water requirements and not geared to a specific plant. Also listed are the humidity ranges that establish the “Humid” and “Dry” classifications.30 in (6 to 8 mm) .20 in (4 to 5 mm) . The simplest way to determine the soil type is to place a moistened soil sample in your hand and squeeze. note the factors that affect the water use rate for a given climate type. The percentage of each of these three particles is what determines the actual soil texture. In the table. If the air is humid. The hotter the climate. the designer wants to provide an irrigation system that can meet peak season (summer time) ET rates. The intake rate of the soil will influence the precipitation rate and type of sprinkler that can be utilized. as the requirement for your project. there is virtually an unlimited number of soil types possible. The combination of these is evapotranspiration (ET).25 to . a combination of these extremes produces the greatest water requirement. At the upper end of the scale. This is usually midsummer when the average daily temperature is at or near its highest for the growing season or when humidity is averaging its lowest percentages.” “Warm” and “Hot” indicate that temperature has an influence on water use.45 in (8 to 11 We will be discussing the precipitation rate of sprinklers later in the design process. When you have determined the climate type for the area where your project is located. silt and clay particles. evaporation will be lower as compared to a climate with the same average temperature but drier air. Because the percentage of any one of these three particles can differ. and by transpiration.15 in (3 to 4 mm) . Of course. which is the amount of water used by the plant.30 to . a “Cool Humid” climate has an ET range in inches (millimeters) of water required per day of . use the highest number.15 to . The local climate is one of the main factors that influences how much water is needed to maintain good plant growth.10 to . At the design stage. The soil type on the project site is a factor in determining how fast and how often water can be applied to the plant material.” a number of factors need to be examined. the more water loss is expected. consult the notes on “Hot.15 in (3 to 4 mm).10 to . a “Hot Dry” climate produces a requirement of . the table below and in the Technical Data section of this manual will help establish a ball park figure for your project. The plant water requirement includes the water lost by evaporation into the atmosphere from the soil and soil surface.3 Determining Irrigation Requirements Step three: Determining irrigation requirements mm) per day. Reference evapotranspiration is multiplied by a crop coefficient to obtain the ET rate for a specific plant or turf. Climate PET Climate Cool Humid Cool Dry Warm Humid Warm Dry Hot Humid Hot Dry Cool Warm Hot Humid = = = = Inches (millimeters) Daily . Soil is made up of sand. A given texture and volume of soil will hold a given amount of moisture. ETo stands for reference evapotranspiration. Soil type Soil absorbs and holds water in much the same way as a sponge.20 to .15 to . In other words.

Micro-sprays or conventional sprinkler irrigation may be more appropriate. Hygroscopic water (essentially no drainage) • Capillary water is moisture that is held in the pore spaces of the soil and can be used by plants. The moisture held in soil can be classified in three ways: Permanent wilting point • Hygroscopic water is moisture that is held too tightly in the soil to be used by plants. moisture levels below the Permanent Wilting Point will result in the death of the plants. Readily available water Available water (AW) Capillary water (slow drainage) Figure 12 shows the availability of water for use by plants. Field capacity represents the boundary between gravitational water and capillary water. Field capacity Note: Emitters should not be used in very course soils as water will percolate downward before it can spread far enough horizontally. water is more likely to be absorbed vertically. Capillary action is the primary force in spreading water horizontally through the soil. but will not spread very far horizontally. The opposite is true for finer soils. Figure 12: Soil/water/plant relationship • Gravitational water drains rapidly from the soil and is not readily available to be used by plants. continuous soil • Maximum wetting patterns show the relationship between vertical and horizontal movement of water in SOIL TYPE SOIL TEXTURE SOIL COMPONENTS INTAKE RATE WATER RETENTION DRAINAGE EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Loam Silty loam Silt Medium Medium Medium Medium Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately fine Clay loam Sandy clay loam Silty clay loam Moderately low Moderately low Moderately low High High High Fine texture Sandy clay Silty clay Clay Low Low High High Loamy soil Clay soil Moderately coarse Figure 11: Soil characteristics 20 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Low erosion Good drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Drainage Severe erosion .Determining Irrigation Requirements Figure 11 lists the general characteristics of the three main soil types. Because hygroscopic water is not usable by plants. Figure 13 shows the way water is absorbed in the three different soil types: The permanent wilting point represents the boundary between capillary water and hygroscopic water. It is the upper limit for soil moisture that is usable by plants. Saturation Gravitational water (rapid drainage) In coarser soils. One of the most significant differences between different soil types is the way in which they absorb and hold water. Both gravity and capillary action influence vertical movement of water.

40 (10) 0. applying water faster than the soil can receive it.9 m 1. once wet.40 (10) 0.80 (20) 1. the rate for coarse. erosion or soil puddling.30 (8) 0.10 (3) Heavy clay or clay loam 0.3 the soil up to the maximum wetted diameter.30 (8) 0.15 (4) 0.00 (25) 0. it will form a cast that can be easily handled.40 (10) Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 1.25 (6) 0. Once the maximum wetted diameter is reached.00 (51) 2.00 (51) 2.3 – 0.20 (5) Silt loams over compact subsoil 0.00 (51) 1.75 (44) 1. but will crumble easily when touched. As the angle of slope increases.0 in/ft 17 mm/m Fine (clay loam) 3.25 (32) 1.08 (2) 0.0 – 4. Squeezed in the hand when dry.0 – 6.75 (19) 0. • Available water (AW) is the amount of water that is readily available for use by plants.60 (15) 0.6 – 1.25 (32) 0. dictates how quickly water can be applied by the irrigation system. the soil is quite plastic and flexible.5 in/ft 21 mm/m Determining Irrigation Requirements SOIL TYPE CHARACTERISTICS Coarse Soil particles are loose. When dry.20 (5) 0.50 (38) 1.10 (3) 0. The fine textured soils. The soil’s intake rate.” “onion.75 (19) 0. water movement is downward.00 (25) 1. forming the traditional “carrot.0 ft 0. In the upper left section of the rate columns.00 (25) 0. Medium Has a moderate amount of fine grains of sand and very little clay. When wet.0 ft 0. it can be readily broken.10 (3) 0. Figure 13: Soil infiltration and wetting pattern for drip irrigation In the Technical Data section of this manual and on page 20. When squeezed between the thumb and forefinger.9 – 1. is a chart labeled “Soil characteristics.00 (25) 0.4 in/ft 12 mm/m Medium (loam) 2.50 (13) Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 1.00 or 2 MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: INCHES PER HOUR (MILLIMETERS PER HOUR) SOIL TEXTURE Course sandy soils 0 to 5% slope cover bare 5 to 8% slope cover bare 8 to 12% slope cover bare 12%+ slope cover bare 2. Fine When dry. Squeezed when wet.00 (25) 0.2 m 2. Coarse.50 (38) 1. the soil will form a ribbon that will not crack.25 (32) 0.0 ft 0.50 (38) 1.06 (2) Figure 15: Maximum precipitation rates for slopes Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 21 .” and “radish” profiles.50 (13) 0. the intake rate decreases because of the higher potential for runoff.75 (19) 1.00 (25) 1.8 m 2.15 (4) 0. Soil Type Wetting Pattern Maximum Wetted Available Diameter Water (AW) Coarse (sandy loam) 1. it falls apart when pressure is released. The main problem we wish to avoid is The “Maximum Precipitation Rates for Slopes” chart (Figure 15) lists the United States Department of Agriculture’s recommendations for the maximum PR values for certain soil types with respect to soil plant cover and percent of slope. Figure 14: Determining the soil type Look particularly at the information in the last three columns.12 (3) 0.00 (25) 1.40 (10) 0.50 (13) 0. Squeezed when moist.80 (20) 0.75 (44) 1.40 (10) 0.00 (25) 0. This causes runoff. sandy soil absorbs water very quickly while silts and clays have a very low intake rate.30 (8) Uniform silt loams 1.40 (10) Light sandy loams uniform 1. it will form a cast. all of which waste water and can cause damage. may form hard lumps or clods.” Different soil types are outlined on this chart along with properties that influence the irrigation design.60 (15) 0.0 – 3.75 (19) 0. Rolling terrain further complicates the problem of matching the application rate from the sprinklers with the intake rate of the soil.50 (13) 0.75 (19) 0. or how fast it absorbs water.50 (13) 0. sandy soil that presents a flat surface is 2. retain moisture longer than do the coarsegrained soils. • Maximum wetted diameter is the greatest distance water will spread horizontally from an emitter.60 (15) 0.15 (4) 0.30 (8) 0.

60 30° 58 ft (18 m) 40 21° 48 ft (15 m) 50 26° 34 ft (10 m) 67 33° 70 35° 2:1 50 ft (15 m) 1.06 in (2 mm). either in inches per week or inches per day (centimeters per week or millimeters per day). he may need to convert the data to the slope reference with which he is most comfortable or familiar for drawing purposes. % 0 0° Angle 10 5° 43 ft (13 m) 5:1 Depending on how the information has been given to the designer. When this estimate is established. the designer determines. heavy clay soil with a surface slope of 12% will accept water only at or below 0.Determining Irrigation Requirements in/h (51 mm/h).5:1 0 ft (0 m) 47° 44 ft (13 m) 110 50° 42 ft (13 m) 120 52° 26 ft (8 m) 130 54° 28 ft (9 m) 140 63° 62° 60° 59° 58° 56° 27 ft (8 m) 15 ft (5 m) 57 ft (17 m) 32 ft (10 m) 0 ft (0 m) 19 ft (6 m) 200 190 180 170 160 150 80 38° 40 ft (12 m) Figure 16: Slope reference 22 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 19 ft 10:1 (6 m) Before going on to this next step. 30 16° 42 ft (13 m) 33 18° 16 ft (5 m) 3:1 Keeping the above factors in mind. 20 11° Ratio 90 42° 0 ft (0 m) 100 45° 0 ft (0 m) 1:1 . the irrigation requirement for the project. he is ready to go on to the next step in the design procedure. which is determining the water and power supply available to the site. This means that irrigation equipment could easily cause run off or erosion if not specified and spaced correctly. SLOPE REFERENCE CHART PERCENT. The answers to the exercises are in the Solutions section on page 87. ANGLE AND RATIO The “Slope Reference” chart (Figure 16) explains the relationship of angle. however. try the exercises on the next page concerning irrigation requirements and obtaining site information. percent and ratio of slopes. In the other extreme.

ETo stands for __________. Sandy soil ____ Clay soil____ K. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 23 . A _______ is a scaled drawing of the site to be used in designing a system. A school playing field or a neighborhood park would most likely only be irrigated at _______. What is the “worst case” in inches (millimeters) per day for a cool. G. E. dry climate? J. Which of the soils listed below has a slower water intake rate and a longer water retention time than the other? Put an X after this soil type. Put an X after the following items that should be noted or sketched at the site before attempting to design the system. The _______ water pressure should be recorded with the other information obtained on the site. I. a 100% slope has a ratio of 1:1 and an angle of _______ degrees. Wind direction and velocity ____ Tree locations ____ Walkways and driveways ____ All buildings ____ Location of water source ____ Area measurements ____ Walls and fences ____ Slopes ____ D. ET stands for ___________.3 Determining Irrigation Requirements Exercises on site information and irrigation requirements A. F. Two factors that affect the ET are _______________ and ___________________. C. A climate that has a midsummer average daily high temperature of 80° F (27° C) and an average relative humidity for the same period of 67% would be classified as a ________________ climate. B. H. Concerning steepness.

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Determining Water and Power Supply 4 .

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contact your water purveyor. we use three rules. in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). Pressure gauge completely different size than the meter. Sometimes. the lowest flow.4 Step four: Determining water and power supply In the first section of this step. available for irrigation. The gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) flows are listed in the right and left hand columns. the “Estimated Service Line Sizes” chart above and in the Technical Data section of this manual will show you how to wrap a string around the pipe and measure the string to determine the pipe size. The needed data includes: • static water pressure • water meter size • service line size • service line length • type of service line pipe The static water pressure should have been determined either by the direct pressure gauge reading. To make sure this pressure loss limit is not exceeded. To ascertain this flow limit. as our available flow for the system.1 cm) 1 in (25 mm) 1 1/4 in (32 mm) Figure 18: Estimated service line sizes If you can’t find the service line size. The line may be a 3 1/4 in (83 mm) 3 1/2 in (89 mm) 4 in (10. the size is printed inside the reading lid of the meter. the meter sizes are listed across the top of the chart and the Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 27 . the size of the meter can be a determining factor in the flow available for the system. we will take the most restrictive value.7 bar) 10% Only 11 psi (0. 20 mm. The service line statistics are necessary to figure out which pipe flow loss chart to use in this step.77 bar) loss allowed Water main Figure 19: Pressure loss from water main to water meter This rule prevents heavy pressure loss from occurring early in your system. at the point-of-connection (POC) for the system. 40 mm and 50 mm). Rule number one The pressure loss through the water meter should not exceed 10% of the minimum static water pressure available in the city main. the designer needs to establish two points of critical information concerning the water supply. The first number is the flow in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) available for the irrigation system. Length of string 2 3/4 in (70 mm) Size of service line copper 3 /4 in (20 mm) Size of service line galvanized The size of the water meter is usually stamped or cast somewhere on the upper half of the meter itself. Each of these rules will give us a result expressed as gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). 3/4 in. Typical water meter nominal sizes include 5/8 in . Remember that the lower pounds per square inch (bar) figure for the summer.2 cm) 5 in (12. When we have established these three values. As you will see in a moment. or obtained from the water purveyor. Calculating water meter capacity and working pressure To find out the flow. at the previously determined flow. 1-1/2 in and 2 in (18 mm. look at a water meter flow loss chart. 1 in. 25 mm. The second is the working pressure in pounds per square inch (bars). we restrict the flow through the meter. The length of this line will be used with the appropriate pipe chart when determining the working pressure at the point-ofconnection. daylight pressure (or “worst case” condition) is the number to use. Now let’s see how all this information is used. Water meter Outside faucet Figure 17: Faucet with pressure gauge Determining Water and Power Supply 111 psi (7. right next to the dials. The information gathered on site plays an important role here. This chart is set up much like a pipe flow loss chart.7 cm) 1 1/4 in (32 mm) 1 in (25 mm) 3/4 in (20 mm) 4 3/8 in (11. If you are unable to find the water meter size.

4 5. If we can only accept a loss of 10% of this 111 psi (7.0 1.6 11. 28 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual In the velocity column under that size.2 2.5 0.4 15.9 1.6 5.7 0.7 4.4 2.9 1.77 bar) is the closest pound per square inch (bar) loss that does not exceed 11 psi (0.5 7.8 3.80 m3/h or 1.6 0.Determining Water and Power Supply flow losses in pounds per square inch (bars) are listed under each size of water meter.2 45 2 in Looking back to the water meter flow loss chart for the column under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size.25 L/s).75 = 1.35 ft/s (2.41 ft/s (1. Applying the second rule.1 1.3 0. 9.6 3.2 1.5 m/s) is suitable for thermoplastic pipe.89 L/s x .7 12.2 8.91 m3/h or 0.1 0.3 1.2 0. According to the chart. We know that the site has a 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter and the main line static pressure is 111 psi (7.2 0.2 1. we see that this is caused by a flow of 30 gpm (6.2 13.0 3.5 psi (0.1 4. For 3/4 in (20 mm) copper water tube.6 4.4 0.5 m/s). the limit of 4.3 0.7 9.0 1 in 0.6 3.77 bar). find the highest flow that creates a velocity at.3 3.0 bar) is the last loss listed and reading across the column. or immediately below. This is typical of the types of problems a designer may run into on a project.8 0.3 6. 5 ft/s (1.3 0. we calculate 75% of this 30 gpm (6.8 1.1 3. we can read down to the highest velocity that does not enter the shaded area on the chart. consider the residential water supply system we analyzed previously.7 bar). In this example. then we need to know the flow in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) that will produce a loss of about 11 psi (0.2 1.0 1.3 1. Read down the column under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size in the water meter flow loss chart until you find the closest pound per square inch (bar) loss at.4 4.9 1.75 = 22.0 1. or just below.5 11.8 2. read down to the last pound per square inch (bar) loss number listed.5 to 2.6 1.8 8.3 3.42 L/s).5 0.8 1. This loss corresponds to the gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) flow in the left hand column that is the maximum safe flow for the 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter.7 0.8 2.8 13 9 11⁄2 in 0.4 1.1 2.9 9.6 17 Figure 20: Pressure loss through water meters (partial) Please see page 119 for a metric version of the chart above.36 m3/h or 0.34 m/s) corresponds to a flow limit of 6 gpm (1.38 L/s).1 7.5 0. As an example of using this chart in applying rule number one.29 m/s) as the limit and see what flow that velocity allows. 11 psi (0.8 6.0 1.80 m3/h x .8 2.27 m3/h or 0.7 12.3 9.8 0. .64 L/s) is the flow to satisfy rule number one. 0.6 10.6 1. Rule number three The velocity of flow through the service line should not exceed 5 to 7-1/2 ft/s (1.9 4. We will see in a moment how the designer contends with this small service line situation.3 1. the unit will eventually fall out of calibration and ultimately fail.7 3.77 bar).0 6. This is so restrictive that we will use 7. Rule number two The maximum flow through the meter for irrigation should not exceed 75% of the maximum safe flow of the meter.0 15. Under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size. 24 gpm (5.9 2. but this criteria is overly restrictive and impractical with the metallic pipe commonly used in the water purveyor’s delivery system.2 5.4 0. 3 in 4 in This is similar to the 5 f/s (1. According to the chart.0 3.3 m/s).4 1.80 m3/h or 1.6 1.9 7. Because the 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter in our example has a 3/4 in (20 mm) copper service line.4 1.0 3⁄4 in 0. If a system is designed with a flow that over-taxes the water meter.5 ft/s (2.4 0.77 bar). This places our velocity in the shaded area on the chart and still only gains us 4 gpm (0.1 6.0 2.5 1.24 m/s) is produced at a flow of 10 gpm (2. we can look up the required flow limit in the flow loss chart for copper pipe.6 0. Pressure loss: psi gpm This rule is designed to protect the water meter from excess demand.90 m3/h or 1.6 5.2 2.0 4.5 gpm (6.5 m/s) rule we covered in Chapter 1.6 0.75 = 5.2 0.1 0.89 L/s).4 10. 7.10 m3/h or 1.6 0. Fifteen psi (1.0 13. Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss Nominal Size flow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 5⁄8 in 0.7 0.89 L/s) safe flow so we are limited to 30 gpm x . Holding the velocity at 5 ft/s (1.7 bar).63 L/s) for 3/4 in (20 mm) copper tube.

• Any restrictions on the use of the power at particular times of the day and any changes in the cost of power relative to those times. To calculate working pressure.30 1.42 10.44 9.18 1. we will have the dynamic pressure in pounds per square inch (bar) at a flow of 10 gpm (2.20 5.68 27.06 72.3 m/s) velocity rule for service line.33 2. This is usually not a problem unless the property is in an outlying area.5 to 2.97 5.02 62..59 7.30 10.52 11.31 1.41 42.82 2.02 0.65 108. The answers are in the Solutions section.875 0.15 40.93 1.88 45.049 3⁄4 in 0.93 4.36 14.99 5.73 26.79 17.98 1.70 16.18 0. or uses its own generating equipment.69 23.84 13.24 22.82 10. These are the two critical numbers needed to start designing the irrigation system.06 12.09 13.19 20.85 0.55 2.09 3.065 11⁄2 i 1.04 2.065 11⁄4 in 1.82 1.40 5.84 7.23 21.51 L/s) limit #2: 75% of meter’s safe flow rule.71 37.60 2.34 27.13 0.63 L/s) flow through all the components of the water service system right up to where we will cut into the service line to start the sprinkler system. In the above examples.55 11.34 8.95 14..97 1. Service line Water meter POC Main Figure 22: Water main.53 4. At the end of this section.23 2.52 49. water meter.63 L/s).10 5.19 0.23 11.65 0.78 1. the next items to check are: • The location of the 120 V AC (230 V AC) power for the automatic irrigation controller.61 7.84 10.88 15.67 8. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 29 . These factors may determine where the automatic controls for the system will be located.89 3.24 9.17 17.81 16.64 10.20 2. 22.29 11.20 26.71 11.80 52.23 1. the most restrictive is the service line rule where the flow capacity for the system is 10 gpm (2.92 84.47 12. 24 gpm (5.70 14.16 12.53 4.76 13.87 3.5 ft/s (1.68 4.42 16.47 2.23 14.55 0. 10 gpm limit (2.94 5.47 2.27 19. Our three rules-of-thumb have given us three limits: #1: The 10% static pressure loss through water meter rule.44 8.62 1.29 3.59 10.95 1.76 6.4 TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft) TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140 Sizes 1⁄2 in thru 3 in.06 2.11 51.750 0.28 5.15 17.09 4.26 5.63 9.71 7.61 0.995 0.24 18.46 4.63 L/s).79 5..89 10.51 13.18 17.67 1.06 9.87 7.94 8.43 15.51 7.20 0.69 16. With the available flow understood. POC and service line Following these calculations.44 19.60 7.90 3. we take the 10 gpm (2. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.39 1. In completing this step in the process of determining the project’s water and power supply.53 11.57 8. on page 89.73 5.11 0.97 3.44 m3/h or 1..35 17.75 6. you will have the opportunity to follow this process through while filling in the blanks for the hydraulic calculations using the sample system we have been discussing.21 10.57 0.46 2.41 8.05 0.79 6.95 7. From the source to Determining Water and Power Supply the POC.48 18.42 L/s) limit #3: 5 to 7.10 m3/h or 1.20 23.73 1.02 13. the working pressure for the system can now be determined.46 0.73 15.28 11.67 4.31 6.15 0.88 3.37 0.73 1.94 43.64 2.652 0.375 1.48 1.51 30.75 13.41 5.34 3.21 4.52 4. turn the page and complete the exercises. Now that we’ve gone over the processes for determining the water and power supply.065 1 in 1.83 81..86 2.64 51.66 2.86 14.14 5.5 gpm (5.049 SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 5⁄8 in 0.41 17.91 2. 1⁄2 in 0.22 14.64 3.42 19.527 0. take into account any elevation losses or gains and calculate the remaining working pressure.53 12.21 4.87 34.64 19.83 4.41 65. what time of day they will be operated and how tightly they will need to be scheduled.57 32.06 15.27 m3/h or 0.37 9.89 77.52 0.35 14.11 1.83 5.99 6.81 10.41 1.16 14. we will choose the flow that is the most restrictive to establish our system capacity.05 1.83 3.97 35.26 0.94 3.33 0.53 0. • The stability of the power available.47 15.84 2.46 0.27 m3/h or 0.74 0.78 0.54 0. Make sure the power location and rating are noted on the plan.18 0.06 0.21 2.89 9.35 8.37 63.072 flow gpm velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 1.70 4.57 1.27 m3/h or 0. we will calculate the friction (or flow) loss through all those components.745 0.95 57.63 L/s) Of these three rules for calculating the flow for the irrigation system.74 Figure 21: Type K copper pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 115 for a metric version of the chart above.94 6.10 2.63 2.12 4.74 0.85 32.245 0.37 7.38 0.. But first.36 2.625 1. The place where the designer determines to start the irrigation main line is called the point-of-connection (POC).88 6.27 m3/h or 0.625 0.37 1.15 3.66 92.48 0.22 0. we must turn our attention to another part of this section.125 0.98 9.05 7.40 2.10 18.72 4.41 0.08 8.58 6.88 99.89 38.

” dividing this number by 3. Using the diagram below of our sample residential water supply system. fill in the blanks in the process for determining working pressure at maximum flow capacity. which is ________ psi (bar).06 to get the psi (bar) loss for only 6 ft (6 m) which is ________. can be determined using the “Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings” figure in the Technical Data section of this manual. B. We have estimated the loss for 6 ft (6 m) of tubing in “C. for 100 ft (100 m) of this tubing.” The loss for a 3 ft (3 m) length is ______ psi (bar) at the maximum system flow. Our pressure in the city main under the street is _______ E. 1-1/4 in (32 mm). 5 3 ft (3 m) 111 psi (7. 90° elbow. That is the loss for component #2. Three rules work to establish the most restrictive flow as the available flow. In the left column of the chart you can see the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tube size and that the 90° elbow column is immediately to its right. Describe the rules. 2 3 4 6 ft (6 m) 30 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 6 ft (6 m) elbow and has the same psi (bar) friction loss as component #2. F. which is ________ psi (bar). Rounding up to the nearest whole psi (rounding up to one decimal place in bar). Component #3 in this system is a 3 ft (3 m) length of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) copper tube. the elbow fitting. Component #6 is a 1-1/4 in bronze gate valve for which there is a chart included here. There is an elevation rise of 3 ft (3 m) between psi (bar). a A. Is this a loss or a gain in pressure? ________ 3 ft (3 m) 6 7 1 1/4 in (32 mm) 3/4 in 8 1 in (20 mm) (25 mm) 1 1/4 in copper (32 mm) 9 10 . Component #4 is another 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 90° copper Component #5 has the same friction loss as component #3. We know the loss for a 6 ft (6 m) length from “C. Multiply this loss by .7 bar) G. divide 3 m by ______) and get a psi (bar) change of ________. the loss for a 2 ft (2 m) length of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tube at the maximum acceptable flow would be _______ psi (bar).Determining Water and Power Supply Exercises on water capacity and pressure D. look up the loss for 100 ft (100 m) of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) type K copper tube when the maximum system gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) is flowing through it. To find out the change in pressure we multiply 3 by ______(in metric units. C. the loss is _____ psi (bar). The loss at this same flow for component #2. 1 components #2 and #4. To determine the psi (bar) loss in component #1 in the diagram. This chart tells you that a 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 90° elbow has the same flow loss as ______ feet (meters) of straight 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tubing. H. The gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) is between two listed flows on the chart.

00 .144 22.360 49.00 .00 .653 11.048 0.00 .16 . – ______ psi/bar.02 .448 4.10 .002 0.00 .00 .00 .23 .00 .552 0.04 .008 0.034 0.00 .00 .004 0. – ______ psi/bar.03 .00 .069 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .010 0.40 .00 .007 0.00 .14 . What is the loss at this flow for component #8.00 .08 .097 0.014 0.200 0.00 .24 .00 .00 .00 .927 19.028 34.09 .012 0.00 .001 0.01 .07 .85 .00 .685 24.00 .03 . – ______ psi/bar.017 0.00 .00 .06 .00 .370 0.00 .034 0.00 .00 .13 .040 79.00 .004 0.43 .07 .00 .23 .134 1.690 1.00 . K.003 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 . ______ psi/bar.00 .028 Figure 23b: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (International System Units) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 31 .00 .968 63. I.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .019 0.007 0.00 .896 54.00 .11 . Standard Units) Bronze Gate Valves l/s m3/h 0.002 0.043 0.001 0.00 .290 3 0.00 .03 .00 .02 .895 8.00 .00 .017 0.021 0. – ______ psi/bar.006 0. – ______ psi/bar.17 .00 .00 .380 90.00 .400 124.432 58.00 . a 1 in bronze gate valve? ________ psi (bar).00 .00 .008 0.00 .005 0.740 136.00 .00 .02 .02 .00 .379 2.40 .306 20.00 .00 .00 . – ______ psi/bar.54 .00 .02 .402 4.00 .752 36.10 .00 .01 .00 .003 0.00 .411 13.003 0.001 0.00 .28 .19 .021 0.00 .00 .005 0.24 .43 .00 .00 .23 .21 .006 0. component #7.00 .11 .00 .00 .00 .00 (loss in psi) Valve Size (in inches) 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 .04 .814 2.01 .001 0.00 .00 .138 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .069 0.137 5.608 18.00 .00 .34 .06 .07 .07 .09 .00 .00 .00 .018 4 0.005 0.580 31. J.00 .00 .340 13.069 2.00 .62 .17 . Determining Water and Power Supply Bronze Gate Valves GPM 1 2 5 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 1/ 2 3/ 4 .011 0.01 .034 1.00 .002 0.00 . This loss is ________ psi (bar).14 .009 0.003 0.01 . – ______ psi/bar.159 0.28 .85 .S. Static pressure in the main is Loss through component #1 is Loss through component #2 is Loss through component #3 is Elevation loss is Loss through component #4 is Loss through component #5 is Loss through component #6 is Loss through component #7 is Loss through component #8 is The remaining pressure at #9 is + ______ psi/bar.00 .022 0.004 0.00 .29 . The loss for a 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter.00 . – ______ psi/bar.00 .680 27.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .012 0.00 .227 0.30 .001 0. – ______ psi/bar.454 1.02 .50 .001 0.67 .216 31.00 .060 113.00 .00 .00 .00 .001 0.00 .04 .10 .00 .030 0.11 .824 45.00 .504 68.06 .516 6.288 40.072 11.00 .007 0.00 .00 .00 .00 . L.032 12.804 9.00 .010 0.06 .00 . Fill in the following to find the working pressure at position #9 at the maximum flow allowable for the system.00 .015 0.00 .00 .00 .046 0.00 .043 0. the designer requires that the installer cut into the service line and “tee off” to start his sprinkler system submain.004 0.4 In the left column of the chart find the gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) that most closely approximates the maximum allowable system flow and read across to the pound per square inch (bar) loss for a 1-1/4 in valve.04 .05 .18 .274 9.010 0.00 .00 .016 0.00 .720 102.014 0.016 0.00 .00 .002 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .05 .00 .00 .548 17.124 0.03 .62 Figure 23a: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (U.001 0.00 .31 .012 0.00 .475 37.30 .00 .005 0.00 .030 0.22 .00 .00 .05 .268 3.02 .00 .07 .019 0.00 .14 . is _______ psi (bar) at the system's maximum flow.00 .00 .001 0.00 . You now know the dynamic or working pressure at point #9 when flowing the maximum acceptable gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) for the system.923 41.03 .00 .00 .013 0.059 0.021 0.133 27.001 0.010 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .008 0.00 .02 .15 .00 .003 0.006 0.00 .00 .790 15.001 0.003 0.00 .758 3.080 1/ 2 3/ 4 (loss in bar) Valve Size (in inches) 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 0.00 .001 0.26 .345 0.18 .003 0. At the #9 position.00 .00 .00 .15 .05 .42 .037 0.00 .028 0.021 0.01 . Position #9 is called the ________ .536 6.169 16.

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Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges 5 .

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As we have seen in the Understanding Basic Hydraulics section. Each type of sprinkler has a performance range for proper operation and these ranges must fit within the available flow and pressure criteria. We will be discussing precipitation rates of sprinklers in detail later in this section. When sprinklers with varying precipitation rates are connected together. a number of factors should be considered. Even the same type of sprinklers may require separate valving to match up water application with the rest of the sprinklers. Also. Areas with special climatic conditions will require special sprinklers. and precipitation • soil type and the rate at which it can accept water • compatibility of the sprinklers (which can be grouped together) The size and shape of the areas to be irrigated often determine what type of sprinkler will be used. the owner or maintenance personnel are required to over-water one area to sufficiently water another. Matched precipitation allows the same Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 35 . As we discussed in the Obtaining Site Information section. Selecting sprinklers There are a number of types of sprinklers and irrigation devices. however. shrubs. the sprinkler’s application rate cannot exceed the soil’s ability to accept water. matched precipitation-rate sprinklers are available. You will see later just how he did it. sprinklers with differing rates of application should be separated into different valve circuits.5 Step five: Selecting sprinklers and spacing ranges Selecting sprinklers. Windy areas may demand low-angle sprinklers that keep the water near the ground where it resists being blown away. One of the most important rules in circuiting sprinklers is to avoid mixing different types of sprinklers together on the same valve whenever possible. Most of the criteria for sprinkler selection is based on information gathered or calculated in those early steps. temperature. Rotating sprinklers • impulse or impact sprinklers • pop-up gear drive sprinklers Bubblers and drip irrigation devices • zero radius or short radius types • ultra-low volume types When selecting the proper sprinklers for a project. In our sample residential design we asked the designer to violate this “don’t-mix-thesprinklers” rule once or twice and to design his way out of the problem. Excessive summer heat in arid climates may need either higher flow sprinklers or multiple irrigation cycles with standard sprinklers to maintain the plant material. the available water pressure and flow limit is the Valve Spray Head Impact Drip Emitter Bubbler Figure 24: Avoid mixing sprinkler heads on each valve Sprinkler compatibility is particularly important when laying out laterals or circuiting sprinklers into groups that will be served by the same valve. is premature. These units discharge proportional flows of water that match the arc or part of a circle they cover. Lawns. low PR sprinklers are usually needed on slopes to reduce the potential for runoff and erosion. The main types of equipment are: Spray sprinklers • shrub spray sprinklers • pop-up spray sprinklers Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges designer’s criteria for equipment selection. The goal is to select the type of sprinklers that will cover the area properly using the least number of sprinklers. Today. trees and ground covers may all require different types of sprinklers. Low precipitation rate sprinklers may be required to adjust the rate of water application to the intake rate of the soil. The type of plant material to be irrigated can also dictate which type of sprinkler is to be used. without first researching the information supplied by the earlier steps in the design process. Each sprinkler type has a particular range of applications for which the designer would specify them. Some of these factors are: • type of sprinklers requested by the owner • size and shape of the areas to be watered • types of plant material to be irrigated • water pressure and flow available • local environmental conditions such as wind. both of which are a function of the water supply. It is alarming to note that many would-be designers make step five the first step of their design. A full circle sprinkler discharges twice the flow of a half circle sprinkler and a quarter circle sprinkler discharges half of what the half circle unit does.

This type of nozzle allows the designer and installer to adjust the arc of coverage from 0 to 360°.45 m3/h) Figure 26: Spray sprinklers Quarter circle 1 gpm (0. with application capability of 1 to 4 in/h (25 to 102 mm/h). The designer must keep this in mind on tight. Rotating sprinklers are available in riser-mount configuration for irrigating larger shrub and ground cover areas. Spray sprinklers generally emit single or double sheets or fans of water in a fixed pattern.5 to 6.13 L/s 0. one-third circle and quarter circle.9 cm) 12 in (30. Let’s look at some of the applications for various types of sprinklers and irrigation sprinklers and examine where they would be best used on a landscaping project. three-quarter circle.” a hybrid spray nozzle intended to handle the occasional odd-shaped. stairways and sidewalks utilize these units as pop-up shrub sprinklers.91 m3/h) 11 in (27. 36 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Shrub spray sprinklers and pop-up spray sprinklers often use the same nozzles. and many .06 L/s 0.5 cm) pop ups. with precipitation rates from about 1/3 to 1-1/2 in/h (8 to 38 mm/h). With the availability of 6 and 12 in (15. but they are mounted on their respective body types. The sprinklers pop down after operation. Stream sprays are another type of spray sprinkler that use fixed arcs of coverage. In general. These patterns are usually a particular part of a circle or arc. Spray sprinklers are required for smaller landscaped areas.23 m3/h) Figure 25: Matched precipitation rate sprinklers The most common patterns are full circle. Also available is the “variable arc nozzle” or “VAN. reducing the potential for vandalism and increasing pedestrian safety.45 m3/h) Full circle 4 gpm (0.2 and 30. Because spray sprinklers have an operating range of approximately 15 to 30 psi (1. or for projects that have lower available water pressures. Instead of fixed arcs of coverage. In addition to the arcs. or sloping ground that may not accept water quickly.13 L/s 0.5 cm) Half circle 2 gpm (0.0 to 2. they distribute water in numerous. individual fingers.25 L/s 0. two-thirds circle.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges type of sprinklers. and in pop-up versions for watering turfgrasses. for those areas with enclosed borders requiring tightly controlled spray.1 bar) and throw water across a radius of 5 to 22 ft (1. to be circuited on the same valve and deliver the same PR rate. Half circle 2 gpm (0. rotating sprinklers have a single nozzle or pair of nozzles that revolve to distribute water over the area of coverage. Stream sprays have a more acceptable range for these applications. Part circle units have a reversing or shutoff mechanism to avoid watering outside their arc pattern. no matter what arc they cover. most part circle rotating sprinklers are adjustable from about 20 to 240°. for areas with dense tree growth that would significantly hinder a rotating sprinkler’s coverage and for areas that have mixed sections of plantings that require differing amounts of water. some specialty spray patterns like center strips. some shrub areas near walkways. side strips and end strips are available. Rotating sprinklers use various means for converting a portion of the flow and pressure passing through them into “drive” energy to turn the sprinkler. But instead of emitting a sheet or fan.7 m). Fan spray sprinklers distribute water fairly quickly. half circle. fine-grained soils. in-between area. they are most often used for irrigating small areas.

32 to 6.03 to 0. tight soils. The distance of throw is much greater than for spray sprinklers.9 bar) range. and less trenching are definite advantages of rotating sprinklers compared to spray sprinklers. Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges The large radius sprinklers are usually more economical. The advantage of a bubbler is that it can irrigate a specific area without overthrow onto other plants. rotor pop-ups retract after operation to be out of the way of mowing equipment and foot traffic. The primary concerns for a designer using a bubbler system are to avoid runoff and erosion by confining the water in a planter or tree basin.5 m) radius streams. you can mount the impact sprinkler on a riser above the plant material where the stream will be unobstructed over its long radius of throw. rotating sprinklers usually apply water much more slowly than spray sprinklers because the water is spread out over greater areas. The most common type of bubbler delivers anywhere from 1/2 to 3 gpm (0.68 m3/h or 0. Drip irrigation and low-flow devices have some of the advantages of bubblers and a few more. Rotating sprinklers can throw from about 20 ft (6. Higher operating pressures are common for rotating sprinklers compared to spray sprinklers. Full circle only units are also available. In a large.11 to 0. Fewer sprinklers.13 to 22. Some of the latest developments in bubbler systems are the stream bubblers.7 to 6. This makes rotating sprinklers appropriate for slopes. and energy and water efficient for large-area irrigation. Like a pop-up spray sprinkler. open lawn area. There is less chance of runoff or erosion.5 can be switched to the 360° (full circle) setting. Bubblers and drip irrigation devices produce short throw or zero radius water distribution. and other areas where slower application rates are desired.31 L/s) or more span the wide variety of flows for rotating sprinklers. and very little puddling because of the ultra-low flows of drip devices. most rotating sprinklers on the market today operate somewhere in the 25 to 100 psi (1.61. fewer fittings. Discharges of 5 to 100 gpm (1. The precipitation rates for these large sprinklers run more in the 1/4 to 2 in/h (6 to 51 mm/h) range. depending on the pressure available and how it is adjusted. and the pressure compensating bubbler. The emitter. The most easily recognized type of rotating sprinkler is the impact sprinkler. Figure 28: Bubbler Figure 27: Rotating sprinklers Despite their large water flow. which discharges the same flow despite wide variations in water pressure.68 m3/h or 0.48 m) of radius for larger units. rotor pop-ups can irrigate vast areas with substantially fewer sprinklers than spray sprinkler irrigation would require.19 L/s). where their streams are uninterrupted and allowed full coverage. which throw gentle two-to-five foot (0. The water either runs down the riser supporting the sprinkler or sprays out a few inches (centimeters) in an umbrella pattern. Bubblers can be used in very narrow or small planting areas.10 m) minimum for the small units to well over 100 ft (30. and can be adjusted to low flow so large numbers of bubblers can be mounted on one line. It should be noted that the flow demands for large radius sprinklers are much higher. Available in a wide range of sizes. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 37 . Using a side-driving lever to create rotation. and to provide proper drainage in situations where an overflow would cause damage.

For further. D39030C). Newly arrived in the low flow sector of irrigation are the tiny sprayers and spinners. this is the actual distance determined by the manufacturer’s testing at the various water pressures listed. Knowing both the pressure and discharge requirements of the sprinklers is very important. The idea behind the application of drip irrigation is to maintain a somewhat constant.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges the most common drip device. In this way. Figure 30: Multi-outlet emitter device Multi-outlet emitters.4 bar) and reduce it to almost zero. the performance chart for the sprinkler contains several pieces of important information. you can see the type of data supplied to help you with your selection. For most sprinklers. in gallons per hour (liters per hour). Figure 29: Emitter device The arc or pattern of coverage is usually diagrammed for quick reference so the designer can see if the needed pattern is available in that particular series of sprinklers or nozzles. barbed inlets for installation. or with threaded inlets for riser mounting. are operated much longer per irrigation cycle than sprinklers. and in the case of drip emitters. the water exits the unit one drop at a time. Usually given in feet (meters). This is the water delivery rate in inches per hour (millimeters per hour) at particular sprinkler spacings. using a punch on polyethylene tubing. PRs of 1/3 in/h (8 mm/h) or lower are common. see the Rain Bird Xerigation Design Manual (Catalog No. These units are spaced similar to sprinklers but have very low precipitation rates. or individual tree irrigation. The answers are in the Solutions section on page 90. ground cover. detailed information on designing drip irrigation for landscape. by number. When looking for a particular type of sprinkler in a manufacturer’s catalog. The most common flow rates for emitters are 1/2 gph ( 2 L/h). turn to the exercises on page 40 and answer the questions on selecting sprinklers. In the example below. is designed to take a water pressure at its inlet of about 20 psi (1. These little rotating spinners and fixed arc sprayers can be mounted with adapters on risers or on high pop sprinkler bodies for shrub. use distribution tubing from each outlet on the unit to the desired emission point. . This is a major change from the flow rates for sprinklers. in general. Emitters. the discharge is given in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). The model number of the sprinkler or nozzle is called out so it can be specified. near optimum level of soil moisture in the plant’s root zone. The discharge of the nozzle or sprinkler is given for each pressure noted in the chart. Emitters are available with 38 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Some equipment catalogs now include the precipitation rate of the sprinkler. The spacings are usually stated as a percentage of the diameter of the sprinkler’s coverage. First. Another important number from a sprinkler performance chart is the radius or diameter of throw. essentially several emitters in one body. This range is usually the minimum to maximum pressures under which the sprinkler will deliver good distribution of water throughout the entire area of coverage. in the legend of the irrigation plan. The operating pressure range of the unit is also noted so that the designer will know the pressure requirements for the performance desired. This moisture level is constantly available to the plant without saturating the soil. We will get back to this concept in a moment. as we have seen in the basic hydraulics section. and 2 gph (8 L/h). 1 gph (4 L/h).

32 1.23 .4 3.75 0.5 4.30 .06 .23 2.10 .16 .6 .60 .18 .4 3.87 1.62 1.50 1.39 2.74 2.21 2.5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges 15 Standard SERIES 30˚ trajectory Nozzle Pressure psi Radius feet Flow gpm Precip.39 2.9 4.08 .40 .05 .04 .9 4.5 2.48 2.5 2.63 .32 1.0 2.56 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 15H 1.9 4.00 1.78 2. mm/h 15F 1.01 2.10 1.39 2.08 .58 2.20 .5 2.87 1.07 2.01 1.6 .0 1.5 4.63 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 15TT 1.62 1.01 1.21 .15 .28 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 15Q 1.58 2.0 2.15 .0 1.07 2.16 .11 . in/h 15F 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 2.5 4.6 .01 1.83 15T 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 0.87 1.32 1.4 3.93 2.01 1.5 2.87 1.65 0.07 2.0 2.19 . mm/h Precip.5 2.01 1.1 3.1 3.9 4.83 15TQ 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 1.0 1.07 2.32 1.4 3.58 2.70 2.87 1.5 4.5 4.1 3.83 15H 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 1.62 1.4 3.0 2.1 3.30 3.87 1.1 3.87 1.42 .62 1.0 2.65 1.30 1.0 2.18 .9 4.1 3.58 2.42 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 15T 1.39 2.0 1.72 .6 .39 2.0 1.60 3.48 2.4 3.32 1.83 0.25 2. Standard Units) 15 Standard SERIES 30˚ trajectory Nozzle Pressure Radius bar meter Flow L/s Flow m3/h Precip.95 2.39 2.5 4.32 1.58 2.5 2.05 .28 .55 .01 1.21 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 Figure 31b: Nozzle performance (International System Units) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 39 .54 .00 3.07 .83 15Q 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 0.12 .07 2.6 .84 52 47 41 40 60 55 48 46 15TQ 1.23 .62 1.58 2.12 . in/h Precip.6 .84 .17 .06 .08 .83 Figure 31a: Nozzle performance (U.48 .13 .85 2.07 2.9 4.24 .11 .15 .45 .36 .62 1.S.0 1.83 15TT 15 20 25 30 11 12 14 15 1.

Spray sprinklers generally have fixed arc patterns ___ Rotor pop-ups usually have adjustable arcs ___ For large-radius coverage. The radius of coverage for a sprinkler ___ The company’s profit and loss statement ___ The model numbers for the equipment ___ The flow requirement for sprinklers ___ The pressure requirement for sprinklers ___ The arc pattern for a sprinkler ___ . Area size ___ Area shape ___ Water pressure ___ E. Spray sprinklers on risers ___ Bubblers on risers ___ Impact sprinklers on risers ___ High pop-up spray sprinklers ___ D. Put an X after the items below that can usually be found in an irrigation equipment manufacturer’s catalog. Put an X after each of the factors below that affect sprinkler selection. Put an X after the type of sprinkler you should specify for the center of the outfield on an automatic sprinkler system for a baseball field. Put an X after each true statement listed below.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Exercises on selecting sprinklers A. For small patches and strips of lawn area. Pop-up spray head ___ Rotor pop-up ___ Shrub stream spray ___ Drip emitter ___ Bubblers ___ C. Put an X after the type of sprinklers listed below that would be most economical and efficient for irrigating several acres of ground cover. spray sprinklers require more water pressure than rotating sprinklers ____ Types of plants ___ An emitter is a drip irrigation device ____ Flows available ___ Slope on site ___ B. which type of sprinklers should be used for irrigation? Put an X after the correct type. an impact sprinkler would be a better choice than a spray sprinkler ___ Wind conditions ___ In general. Spray sprinklers on risers ___ Bubblers on risers ___ Rotor pop-ups ___ Impact sprinklers on risers ___ Pop-up spray sprinklers ___ 40 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual F.

More water Inches (mm) Less water 40 (ft) 12 (m) Figure 32: Measuring sprinkler distribution with containers When a sprinkler is tested to determine its distribution rate curve (often abbreviated as DRC). and consequently the best SC. Rain Bird can provide graphics that help ascertain the best DRC. SC is the average depth of water in the catch cans divided by the depth of water in the catch can having the least amount of water. Beyond this 60% line. 60% of Diameter 60% of Radius 60% of Radius Figure 35: 60% diameter sprinkler spacing The maximum spacing recommended. is where the sprinkler is located. SC is one. These weak spots may show up as lighter green turf. This is the 60% of diameter that was noted earlier. should ideally look like a 30° slope coming down from the sprinkler location — a wedge. SC is calculated for overlapping sprinklers. where the sprinkler radius came to an Figure 33: Sprinkler water distribution graph 60% of radius Figure 34: 60% sprinkler radius The area under the first 60% of the sprinkler’s radius is generally sufficiently irrigated to grow vegetation without the need for an overlapping sprinkler. high winds. California. pressure and nozzle combinations to determine which combination has the potential to apply water with the greatest efficiency. Actual SCs are greater than 1. yellowing or brown foliage or dead plant material. therefore. The resulting data. and non-existent. so its 60% of radius line meets the 60% line of its neighbor. One metric used to compare DRCs is the scheduling coefficient or SC. the project owner often overwaters the rest of the areas trying to make up for the lack of water in the weak spots. The less effective. Finally. Practically speaking. last 40% of each sprinkler’s throw is overlapped into the more effective close-in coverage of the adjacent sprinkler. the amounts of water. A perfect. Head-to-head.0 and the potentially most efficient overlap patterns are those with the lowest SC. closer spacing is recommended.15 is considered excellent. let’s take a look at sprinkler distribution in general. In the case of a full circle sprinkler. spacing as close as 40% may be required. an SC of 1. diminishing with distance. In cases where very coarse soil. the sprinkler is placed at a given point and containers are positioned at equal intervals along a leg of the expected radius of coverage. there would be a container far enough from the sprinkler to have no measurable water.5 Spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates Before talking about sprinkler spacing patterns. DRCs can be obtained from Rain Bird or they can be obtained from an independent testing agency such as the Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT) in Fresno. The calculation can be done on a theoretical basis or using catch can measurements made on site by operating a built irrigation system. turfgrass will exhibit dry spots within the area of the spacing pattern. when plotted on a graph. low humidity or high heat inhibit effective irrigation. Understanding the DRC also allows the comparison of sprinkler. Where winds are a threat to good coverage. and the need for overlapping sprinkler coverage in particular. is the most common spacing used in landscape irrigation. become less and less effective and eventually will not support plants. 5 2 10 3 15 5 20 6 25 8 30 9 35 11 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges end. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 41 . or CIT has a computer program available that can be used to compare DRCs. When sprinkler spacing is stretched. The sprinkler is operated for a predetermined amount of time and then the water in each container is measured to determine how well the sprinkler distributed the water. or 50% sprinkler spacing. When the system is installed and this problem of “stretched” spacing shows up. the graph would look like a cone with the sprinkler location at the center and the sloping sides indicating less and less water being measured as the distance increases from the sprinkler.

Once the designer chooses the equipment he or she plans to use. L = S x . the spacing should be reduced as indicated below. the sprinklers can be spaced further using triangular spacing than with square spacing. The recommendation on the chart for low or no wind is for 55% spacing. To minimize the effects of wind trouble when using the square pattern. In most cases. 70% + 50% Spacing Figure 37: Square sprinkler spacing pattern The weakness in square spacing coverage is caused by the diagonal distance between sprinklers across the pattern from each other. The square pattern. There are three main types of sprinkler spacing patterns and a number of variations to adapt these patterns to special situations. The wind may move the weak spot slightly away from the center and summer heat may make the weak spot quite large if it is a common climatic condition for the site. 50% Figure 36: 50% sprinkler head spacing For sites with wind velocities of: Use maximum spacings of: 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) 8 to 12 mph (13 to 19 km/h) 55% of diameter 50% of diameter 45% of diameter One of the main reasons for carefully selecting the sprinklers is so they can be accurately plotted on the plan. the distance between sprinklers in opposite corners of the pattern is over 70% spacing.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges sprinklers) are recommended. and that confine the design to that pattern. or do not require part-circle sprinklers. Because the rows of sprinklers are offset from adjacent rows to establish the triangular pattern. proper spacing is the next critical step.866 S L Figure 39: Triangular sprinkler spacing pattern . And on projects with higher winds. less installation time and lower maintenance costs over the life of the system. has some advantages over square spacing. Although the square pattern is the weakest for proper coverage if not used carefully. is used for irrigating areas that are square themselves. When the sprinklers are spaced head-tohead along the sides of the square pattern. with its equal sides running between four sprinkler locations. where the sprinklers are spaced at equal distances from each other. enclosed areas often rule out the use of other patterns. closer spacings (which require more 42 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Weak spot Figure 38: Square sprinkler spacing pattern weak spot The triangular pattern is generally used where the area to be irrigated has irregular boundaries or borders that are open to over spray. Fewer sprinklers on the site means less equipment cost for the project. This additional distance between sprinklers often means fewer sprinklers will be required on the project. The equilateral triangle pattern. or have borders at 90° angles to each other. This 70% diagonal stretch across the square pattern can leave a weak spot at the center. depending on the severity of the wind conditions. The site information will usually dictate what spacing pattern makes those arcs of coverage fit into the planting areas. the weak spot that could be a problem in square spacing is absent.

gradually slide Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 43 . and comes to a tree or row of shrubs. If large rotors on a golf course were spaced at 80 ft (25 m) in an equilateral triangular pattern. For sites with wind velocities of: 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) Combinations of the various patterns mentioned so far may be used on the same area of a project to adapt to special conditions.5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges The dimensions of a spacing pattern are often labeled “S” and “L. By sliding the pattern to maintain spacing requirements along a curving border. the sliding pattern allows for a gradual change from perhaps square or rectangular spacing to a parallelogram. there is no unequally stretched spacing like the diagonal line in square spacing. the distance between rows of sprinklers would be 80 ft (25 m) x .28 ft (21.866.866 = 69. the designer avoids bunching up sprinklers on the inside curves and stretching the spacing on outside curves. the degree of coverage can be maintained even though the pattern doesn’t match the rest of the area. while following the outside curve of the scalped area of the baselines. In an equilateral triangular spacing pattern. the distance “L” (the height of the triangle) is the sprinkler spacing “S” x . The chart allows greater distances between sprinklers beginning with 60% spacing and reducing down to headto-head spacing for windier areas. In each case listed on the chart.” “S” stands for the spacing between sprinklers and “L” stands for the spacing between the rows of sprinklers or laterals. By closing in the spacing across the wind and opening up the length of the pattern with the wind. If the designer is laying out sprinklers for a lawn area.65 m). For sites with wind velocities of: 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) 8 to 12 mph (12 to 19 km/h) Use maximum spacings of: 60% of diameter 55% of diameter 50% of diameter The rectangular pattern has the advantages of fighting windy site conditions and being able to fit in areas with defined straight boundaries and corners. After positioning the sprinklers to surround or pass through the area of the obstructions. Use maximum spacings of: L = 60% of diameter S = 50% of diameter 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) L = 60% of diameter S = 45% of diameter 8 to 12 mph (13 to 19 km/h) L = 60% of diameter S = 40% of diameter Figure 42: Sliding pattern To adapt to a curving boundary. the length of the pattern remains at 60% spacing. Figure 41: Staggered sprinkler spacing pattern S = 80 ft (25 m) L = 69. By staggering the pattern from square or rectangular to a slightly tilted parallelogram or to triangular shape. while the distance across the wind is decreased to combat increasing velocities. the designer can return from the staggered pattern to the original spacing pattern.28 ft (21. the designer can maintain good sprinkler coverage. for instance.65 m) Figure 40: S and L triangular sprinkler spacing pattern As you can see. a staggered spacing pattern to adjust for the obstacles can be used. the spacing recommendations of an equilateral triangular pattern are somewhat less restrictive for windy conditions. A good example for the use of the sliding pattern method is the sprinkler spacing often designed for the outfield of a baseball field. and then to triangular spacing and back again if necessary. Because of this factor. The designer may start with rectangular spacing behind third base and.

will apply water at slightly more that 1/4 in (6. the next thing to know is the rate at which the sprinklers will apply the water. Each sprinkler has a radius of throw of 40 ft (12 m) at 40 psi (3 bar). Using the same 40 ft x 40 ft (12 m x 12 m) spacing that we used earlier.3 (1000) is derived as follows: 1 gal water = 231 in3 1 ft2 = 144 in2 (1000 mm = 1 m) Question: If one gallon of water was applied to 1 ft2 how deep in inches would the water be? 231 in3/gal = 1. To work this into the constant. if the rate will apply enough water during acceptable operating times to meet the irrigation requirement (which it should). Each full circle sprinkler delivers only 1/4 of its flow into the area between the four sprinklers.25 m3/h) each are added together.94 mm/h 12 m x 12 m 144 The above calculation tells the designer that the sprinklers at that spacing. you can use the equivalent of one sprinkler’s discharge as the gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour) for the precipitation rate formula.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges through the parallelogram patterns to triangular behind second base.604 in deep 144 in2/ft2 One of the multipliers in the upper half of the equation is the gallons per minute applied by the sprinklers. The average precipitation rate is expressed in inches per hour (millimeters per hour).1 gpm (0.25 m3/h) is delivered per sprinkler into the area between them.2648 in/h 40 ft x 40 ft 1600 PR = 1000 x 1 m3/h = 1000 = 6. you do not need to convert the 1000 before using it in the formula. .3 x gpm (applied to the area) SxL PR = 1000 x m3/h [applied to the area] SxL this to gallons per hour we need to multiply by 60 minutes. secondly.4 gpm (1 m3/h). let’s look at those same sprinklers in half circle configuration. they are the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler or 4. This sliding method of spacing the sprinklers would continue right out to the part-circle sprinklers along the outfield fence. and continue sliding back through the patterns to rectangular again behind first base.25 m3/h) contributed by each sprinkler to area Figure 43: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with full circle sprinkler The formula for this example would be: PR = 96. The formula looks like this: PR = 96. A simple formula is used to calculate precipitation rates for sprinklers using the area inside the sprinkler spacing and the gallons per minute (cubic meters per hour) being applied to that area. we multiply 1. if given the pressure required.4 gpm (1 m3/h) total per sprinkler. The diagram of the sprinkler pattern would look like Figure 43. (In the International System Units version of the formula.1 gpm (0. The other 3/4 of each sprinkler’s rotation pattern is outside the area. When four sprinklers delivering 1. The precipitation rate of the sprinklers selected should be calculated to determine first if the rate exceeds the soil’s intake rate (which it shouldn’t) and.3 = a constant which incorporates inches per square foot per hour gpm = the total gpm applied to the area by the sprinklers S = the spacing between sprinklers L = the spacing between rows of sprinklers PR = the average precipitation rate in millimeters per hour 1000 = a constant which converts meters to millimeters m3/h = the total m3/h applied to the area by the sprinklers S = the spacing between sprinklers L = the spacing between rows of sprinklers The constant of 96.9 mm) per hour.604 in x 60 min and we come up with the 96. To convert 44 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 40 ft (12 m) 1. 40 ft (12 m) Where: PR = the average precipitation rate in inches per hour 96.) Let’s look at an example of a precipitation rate calculation for four full circle impact sprinklers. because the multipliers already are in meters cubed per hour.1 gpm (0. With full circle sprinklers.3 x 4.72 = .4 gpm (1 m3/h) and the sprinklers are spaced at 40 ft (12 m) square spacing. With 4.3 for the formula. only 1. a discharge of 4. If the designer knows how many inches (millimeters) of water per week or per day will be required to properly maintain the plant material for the project.4 gpm = 423.

In this example.56 m3/h = 560 = 46. using four sprinklers instead Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 45 .866 = 18.33 m3/h).6 gpm (0. and the other is the height of the pattern.4 gpm (1 m3/h) per sprinkler and all the sprinklers now set at half circle.3 x 8.28 m3/h) Quarter circle = . The pattern would look like this: 70 ft (21 m) 27.4 gpm (0. the formula would be: PR = 96.2 gpm (0. Triangular spacing is just as easy to work with when calculating the precipitation rate as square or rectangular spacing.866.4 gpm (0.14 m3/h) The spacing pattern might look like this: Half circle 1.6 gpm (0. The main difference is calculating the height of the pattern before using it as one of the dimensions in the formula. With each sprinkler in the half circle setting. the formula is: PR = 96. Spray sprinklers have fixed arcs of coverage and some have matched precipitation rates.12 = 1.56 m3/h) Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Quarter circle . the spacing between rows of sprinklers. large size rotor pop-up sprinklers are spaced head-to-head at 70 ft (21 m) in a triangular pattern.9 (6.2 gpm (0.5 The total amount of water being applied to the area by these matched precipitation rate spray sprinklers is: 40 ft S (12 m) 40 ft L (12 m) 2. The dimensions to use in the PR formula for this situation are 70 ft x 60.529 in/h 40 ft x 40 ft 1600 PR = 1000 x 2 m3/h = 2000 = 13.8 gal (2 m3/h) was determined by adding up the part of the discharge from each sprinkler that it contributed to the area. The easiest way to calculate the PR for triangular patterns is to treat them as parallelograms. In this case.8 gpm (2 m3/h).6 gpm (0.8 gpm = 847. we are only interested in the area between four adjacent sprinklers.2 gpm (0. regardless of pattern Discharge: Full circle = 2. was 2.33 m 3/h) Figure 46: Calculating triangular sprinkler spacing One dimension in the spacing pattern is 70 ft (21 m).14 m3/h) Figure 45: PR calculation for four spray heads Total = 2. The amount of flow per sprinkler.56 m3/h) applied to the area In calculating the rate for this example. one half of its flow was distributed into the square pattern while the other half went into the neighboring pattern.56 m3/h) Half circle = 1.6 gpm (0.5 m3/h) multiplied by four sprinklers for a total of 8. This height is the spacing multiplied by . The gallons per minute (meters cubed per second) from each of these full circle sprinklers is 27.5 m3/h) contributed by each sprinkler to area With the same performance specs of 4.19 m).14 m3/h) [1/2 of its discharge] Quarter circle sprinkler = 0. Let’s look at a PR calculation for four spray sprinklers in the corner of a lawn area with these statistics: Spacing: S = 11 ft (3 m).4 gpm = 231.14 m3/h) [1/4 of its discharge] Half circle sprinkler = 0.14 m3/h) [1/2 of its discharge] Half circle sprinkler = 0.14 m3/h) [all of its discharge] Figure 44: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with part circle sprinkler Full circle 2.28 m3/h) 12 ft (4 m) Full circle sprinkler = 0. The 8. L = 12 ft (4 m) Operating pressure at the sprinklers = 25 psi (1.19 m).2 gpm (0.75 in/h (47 mm/h).4 gpm (0.67 mm/h 3x4 12 Having completed the calculation.89 mm/h 12 m x 12 m 144 Even though there are eight sprinklers in the diagram.866 = 60.9 gpm each (6.7 bar) Radius of throw = 11 ft (3 m). then.44 = . the designer knows to expect a precipitation rate of 1.3 x 2.62 ft (21 m x 18. we have a height calculation of 70 ft x .2 gpm (0.6 gpm (0.28 m3/h) 11 ft (3 m) Half circle 1.62 ft (21 m x . the spacing between sprinklers.75 in/h 11 x 12 132 PR = 1000 x .6 gpm (0.

633 in/h 70 ft x 60. The other two.99 Now that you have been exposed to calculating precipitation rates.33 m3/h = 6330 =16.19 m 381. When examining the pattern as a parallelogram.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges of three. however. see how you do on a few sample problems relating to what we have covered.62 ft 4243. then compare your answers to those in the Solutions section on page 90.57 mm/h 21 m x 18.9 gpm = 2686. Turn the page and complete the exercises. Figure 47: Calculating the PR for triangular sprinkler spacing patterns The PR calculation for this example would be: PR = 96. contribute proportionally larger flows so that the total flow matches that of four sprinklers in a rectangular pattern.4 PR = 1000 x 6.3 x 27. 46 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .77 = . you can see that two of the sprinklers are contributing less of an arc (and therefore a smaller part of their flow to the area) than the other two.

“S” and “L” in the precipitation rate formula refer to: Sprinkler spacing and row spacing ____ Distance between sprinklers on a line and between that line and the next ____ “S” is spacing between sprinklers.3 x ? gpm = ?x? H. this manual suggests using _________ as the number of heads in the pattern and treating the pattern like a ____________. What is the maximum sprinkler spacing recommended in this manual when site conditions are near optimum (very limited irrigation interference from wind. Which spacing pattern below has a wind-fighting advantage as well as being adaptable to areas with straight borders and 90° corners? Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges gpm (m3/h) per sprinkler = 5 (2) distance of throw = 45 ft (15 m) type of sprinkler = impact (rotating sprinkler) sprinkler setting = full circle Rectangular pattern ____ Triangular pattern ____ Square pattern ____ Elliptical pattern ____ C.3 x ? gpm = ?x? 1000 x ? m3/h = ?x? Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 47 .45) radius of sprinkler = 15 ft (5 m) type of sprinkler = half circle spray sprinkler D.) for good sprinkler coverage? If you can see one sprinkler from its neighbor. In the procedure for calculating the PR for equilateral triangular spacing. Answer the questions concerning the diagram below: 15 ft (5 m) 15 ft (5 m) 15 ft (5 m) 15 ft (5 m) 15 ft (5 m) 15 ft (5 m) spacing pattern = equilateral triangle gpm (m3/h) per sprinkler = 2 (0. “L” is for spacing between rows of sprinklers on their laterals ____ G. 96. Fill in the blanks of the formula for the precipitation rate of the sprinklers depicted in the above diagram. etc. The answer to the formula is in ________ per _________. I. that’s close enough ____ Head-to-head spacing only 60% of the sprinkler’s diameter of throw ____ The outer radius of throw from one sprinkler touching the outer radius of throw of the next sprinkler ____ F.5 Exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates Put an X after the correct answers below. Calculate the precipitation rate for the sprinklers in the diagram below. The flow in the precipitation rate formula is: Always the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler ____ Never the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler ____ Only the flow entering the pattern we're checking ____ The grains per million of grit in the water ____ E. soil type. The 96. A. The height of the sprinkler pattern can be determined by multiplying 15 ft (5 m)times ____________ for an answer of ____________ ft (m). which spacing pattern has the probability of a “weak spot?” Sliding pattern ____ Rectangular pattern ____ Triangular pattern ____ Square pattern ____ Elliptical pattern ____ Fill in the formula and the PR. 1000 x ? m3/h = ?x? 96. If not designed carefully. Sliding pattern ____ 45 ft (15 m) 45 ft (15 m) 45 ft (15 m) 45 ft (15 m) 45 ft (15 m) B.3 (1000) in the precipitation rate formula: Is a constant ____ Converts minutes to hours ____ Is for full circle sprinklers only ____ Converts feet-of-head (meters-of-head) to psi (bar) ____ There are seven sprinklers in the diagram. heat.

To make up for poor coverage. we can see that low-flow drip irrigation has . add or delete sprinklers and check spacing before drawing in any pipe routing. this larger foliage acts as a barrier to good distribution.Where possible.03 L/s]) or a standard flow bubbler (1 gpm [0.5 m). 3. For information on designing drip irrigation.23 m3/h or 0. sprinkler spacing and calculating precipitation rates. Let’s see how the designer handled planters and narrow beds in the sample project (see Figure 50). visually check the entire system for proper spacing and good coverage. Small planters and narrow planting beds can usually be adequately irrigated with drip irrigation. D39030C).06 L/s] or more) using a basin to catch any runoff. if not to be watered by bubblers or drip irrigation. see the Rain Bird Xerigation Design Manual (Catalog No. will cost the system owner many times the money saved on initial installation.” move out into the open areas by using sliding or staggered spacing. surround it with at least three sprinklers so it doesn’t affect coverage of the other plantings. “Trouble areas” are those with odd shapes. Figure 49: Sprinkler pattern for hedges A dense hedge. stream bubblers or short-radius spray sprinklers. Properly locating the sprinklers is extremely important! An irrigation system is one of the few items that is purchased and then buried in the ground. Overthrow Figure 48: Sprinkler pattern for shrubs and trees The exact locations of trees on (or to be planted on) the site are important so the designer can provide for them in sprinkler spacing. Here are some of the things to keep in mind after you have selected the sprinkler for a particular area: 1. the rotors will have to be valved separately from those spray sprinklers. After establishing the sprinkler locations in the “trouble areas. instead. the owner will likely apply more water.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Locating sprinklers on the plan With all that has been covered concerning sprinkler performance. The goal in positioning the sprinklers is to make sure all areas that require irrigation have adequate sprinkler coverage. For the sprinklers spaced too near. 2. If the turf area on your plan is covered by all spray sprinklers except for rotor pop-ups on one slightly wider spot. flood bubblers. If a planter is narrow with walled or bermed borders. Over the life of the system. we are now ready to use this information to properly locate sprinklers on the plan. For trees or large bushes and hedges that are not to be irrigated separately.50 gpm [0. confined spaces or other features that require special spacing considerations. Try not to isolate three or four special sprinklers that will require their own valve if it really is not necessary. prominent obstructions.25 gpm to . Remember the next step after plotting the sprinklers is to group them into valve circuits or laterals. After locating all the sprinklers on the plan. and even minor mistakes in the design or installation phases of the project can be costly to correct.11 m3/h or 0. The row of sprinklers on the project that might be eliminated because all the other rows were stretched. use the same types of sprinklers over a given area. Begin laying out sprinklers in trouble areas first. This is the time to make any slight adjustments. can often be thrown into by nearby sprinklers. Slightly wider planting areas can use stream bubblers that can throw gentle streams out to a radius of 5 ft (1.02 to 0. bubblers are to be used for trees or hedges. If the tree or large bush can be 48 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual watered along with the turf or ground cover without over watering. If.06 to 0. Remember not to stretch the spacing between sprinklers beyond their recommended ranges. much money will be lost in water waste. a low flow bubbler should be used (. From the designer’s plan. the sprinklers in the area should surround and throw into or under the plants. Major problems are difficult to correct after a system has been installed. Let’s look at some typical sprinkler-locating methods for handling various types of planting areas. Narrow lawn strips can be watered by shortradius spray sprinklers with strip pattern nozzles. flood bubblers can be used to fill the reservoir area under the plants.

the U-Series nozzle was selected for the back lawn. In the past. For strips that are 4 to 7 ft (1. the designer has a decision to make for areas in the 20 ft (6. more than 6 to 7 ft (1. that have been adapted to 12 in (30. the designer chose flood bubblers mounted on risers for the climbing plants. The 30 ft (9. Half circle nozzles would create overspray into other areas. the designer has shown the check arcs for the sprinklers.” the designer has specified tiny micro-sprays. In the one isolated part of area “H”. A decision between using three rows of spray sprinklers. then rotating sprinklers delivering less than .” the designer has selected 12 ft radius (3. more open areas are easier to design irrigation for than smaller more broken up areas.67 m) range. This nozzle is less susceptible to wind drift. These nozzles have a “bow tie” or half-bow tie pattern and are located down the center of the area.75 in (19 mm) of water per hour would be better than spray sprinklers delivering over 2 in (51 mm) of water per hour. The unusual shape of area “G” lends itself to using VAN nozzles.10 m) range. third and quarter circle nozzles would not provide enough coverage. It may be difficult to avoid overthrow or gain complete coverage with a larger radius sprinkler. or variable arc nozzles. For strips with trees in the center of the shrub or lawn area. Narrow strips and confined areas often use low-angle trajectory or flat-angle spray sprinklers to reduce the chances of over spraying the area. higher throw of the rotating sprinkler. In the wider lawn areas. or xeri-sprays. The drip irrigation pipe is shown graphically by a single dashed line winding through the planting beds. pop-ups for lawns and shrub sprinklers or high-pops for shrub areas can be used with center strip or end strip spray nozzles. Perhaps the higher cost per unit of rotating sprinklers would be more than offset by elimination of the middle row of spray sprinklers because the installation expense of Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 49 . Because drip irrigation has very low flows. two rows of spray sprinklers would be stretched too far.13 m) wide.22 to 2. However. condominiums and offices where overspray is unacceptable. Spray sprinklers are often more appropriate for areas that have lots of curving edges.57 m) or so. drip emitters and sprinklers are never mixed on the same valve. may be influenced by any number of factors. light-impact sprinklers that have a range from 17 to 40 ft (5. In the planting beds of area “I.66 m radius) spray nozzles and in the narrow part of the lawn in area “C. In area “B. Sprinklers which exhibit over spray can be adjusted in the field using the throw adjustment capability of the head. Wider. Beyond 15 ft (4. On the irrigation plan. The individual emitters that provide water to the plants are typically not shown on the designer’s plan.” he has switched to 10 ft radius (3. the side strip nozzle can cover the area from each edge of the strip instead of the center where the trees would block the spray. such as the common areas between apartments. the designer is using standard arc spray patterns. on the edge of the walkway between the houses. so the designer has decided to irrigate the entire lawn with 4 in (10.83 to 2.05 m radius) nozzles. Spray sprinklers were used where the area to be watered was 30 ft (9.2 cm) pop-up spray sprinklers rather than use rotor pop-ups.14 m) wide or less. Wider strips. With the advent of the small turf area rotor pop-ups and small. small impact sprinklers and rotor pop-up sprinklers had a radius of about 40 ft (12. “E” and “H” each represent individual drip laterals. Showing the check arcs on the plan gives the designer a visual indication that all areas are effectively covered. Check arcs represent the maximum effective radius for the sprinkler. an important consideration since the prevailing wind is toward the house. simply switching to a larger radius may not be the best design answer either. Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Area “E. perhaps the spray sprinklers are more appropriate for watering the area.19 m).” the back lawn. If low trees would obstruct the longer.5 cm) pop-up spray sprinklers. or switching to a two-row design with rotating sprinklers. VAN.5 been used for the planting beds.57 m) radius spray sprinklers — a row of half circle sprinklers down each edge of the area. are used when the standard arc configuration does not provide adequate coverage. The trees in the planting beds will use multi-outlet emitters. and a row of full circle sprinklers down the center. with four outlets open. Because it is subjected to more wind. typically measured in gallons per hour (liters per hour) as opposed to gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). The shrubs each have two single-outlet emitters. Landscaped strips can be irrigated in several ways. Areas “D”. VANs are adjustable to any arc from 0° to 360°.14 m) wide area was commonly handled by three rows of 15 ft (4. They also point out any areas where over spray may occur. If low precipitation rates were required for this medium-wide area. Many strips and planter areas are bordered by walkways. has very few wide areas. can use half circle spray sprinklers throwing in from both edges.19 m) with an adjustment range down to the mid-30 ft (10.18 to 12.13 m) in dimension.

locating sprinklers 50 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Figure 50: Plan.

Large lawns. lawn area. sports fields. parallelogram and triangular spacing patterns can be used for maximum spacing and wind resistance. then check your answers in the Solutions section on page 90. Before we proceed to that step. not just because of moderate lawn width. With this accomplished. open areas are the domain of the rotating sprinkler. At this point in the design process. but also because the high-angle throw of the rotors might drift to the back windows in the constant wind. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 51 . parks. the drawing of the irrigation plan should show every area to be irrigated and designed with properly spaced sprinklers. Very large. The more common rectangular.5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Figure 51: Plan. who takes into account the special needs of the site along with practical experience. schools. In the ”Alternate Back Yard” illustration (see Figure 51) you can see what the sprinkler locations would have been if the landscape plan for our sample project had a wider. more open. the designer is ready to proceed with the next step. alternate backyard trenching and installation would go down. which is to group the sprinklers into valve groups. Note how few rotor pop-up sprinklers are required for the large area and how low the lateral flows might have changed. complete the exercises on page 52. slopes. vast shrub or ground cover areas. This particular project did not require rotor pop-ups. The decision is up to the designer. golf courses and agricultural fields allow for the efficient use of large radius sprinklers.

0 m) radius impact sprinkler ____ E. it is best to plot the sprinklers to _______________ the bush or tree to avoid blocking the sprinklers’ coverage of the lawn. which spray sprinkler listed below would be spaced closest to its "60% stretch rule" across the shrub bed if there was a row of the heads down each side? A 15 ft (4. Without knowing any other information about the site.2 m). A. What was the total number of sprinklers required for the illustration in question “C?” 8 sprinklers ____ 10 sprinklers ____ 12 sprinklers ____ 13 sprinklers ____ 14 sprinklers ____ 15 sprinklers ____ 52 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Bubbler ____ Impact sprinkler ____ Side strip ____ Fan spray sprinkler ____ . If the area in the illustration was 30 ft x 60 ft (9.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Exercises on locating sprinklers Put an X after each correct answer to the multiple choice questions.5 m) radius sprinklers would be required for head-to-head coverage. For a shrub bed that is 14 ft (4. what type of sprinkler should be plotted at the locations shown? A 15 ft (4. how many would be required for head-tohead coverage? 6 sprinklers ____ 8 sprinklers ____ 10 sprinklers ____ 12 sprinklers ____ F.4 m) radius pop-up spray sprinkler ____ A bubbler ____ An impact sprinkler ____ A rotor pop-up ____ An emitter ____ A side strip ____ I. H.0 m) and the owner of the property had mistakenly installed only six 15 ft (4.6 m x 7. plot the positions on the drawing where additional 15 ft (4.6 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ A 10 ft (3.0 m) radius rotor pop-up sprinklers.0 m x 18.0 m) radius rotor pop-ups in question “E” be using? Square ____ Sliding ____ Triangular ____ Rectangular ____ G. If the original six sprinklers for the question “C” illustration were 30 ft (9.5 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ B. D.5 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ A 12 ft (3.4 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ A 6 ft (1.5 m) radius spray sprinklers in the positions shown.6 m) radius pop-up spray sprinkler ____ could be watered efficiently by which two items below? An 8 ft (2.0 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ An 8 ft (2. If a tree or large bush in the center of a lawn area can tolerate the same amount of water as the turfgrass.5 m) radius shrub sprinkler ___ A 30 ft (9. A single tree rose with a basin dug out around its base A 12 ft (3. In the spacing illustration below. Which spacing pattern would the 30 ft (9.3 m) wide. if the area were a lawn and the lawn dimensions were 12 ft x 24 ft (3. what type of sprinkler listed below would most likely be best for a large slope application? C.

Lateral Layout,
Circuiting Sprinklers
into Valve Groups

6

6
Step six: Lateral layout, circuiting
sprinklers into valve groups
This is the designer’s first opportunity to discover the
number of valves that the project will require and what size
controller or timer will be needed. At this step in the
process, the drawing of the plan should be complete to the
point where every area to be irrigated has been drawn with
properly spaced sprinklers. We know that the available flow
for the project was determined to be 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or
0,63 L/s).
We start establishing laterals by first adding up the flows of
similar sprinklers in each area. The spray sprinklers in area
“A” are one such group. Adding up the flow for all 10
sprinklers produces a flow of 6.3 gpm (1,43 m3/h or 0,40 L/s).
In the front yard, the designer has split the front lawn into
three valves, two in area “B” and one in area “C.. Area “C”
was placed on a separate lateral because the sprinkler
spacing is different enough from area “B” to warrant a
different zone. Also, area “B” receives full sunshine nearly
all day while area “C” gets a larger amount of afternoon
shade. Area “B” has a total of 10 sprinklers and a total
demand of about 14 gpm (3,18 m3/h or 0,88 L/s), while the
six sprinklers for area “C” require approximately 6 gpm
(1,36 m3/h or 0,38 L/s). Because 14 gpm (3,18 m3/h or 0,88
L/s) is greater than the 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or 0,63 L/s)
available flow, it is necessary to create two valves.
Area “D” is a drip irrigation zone. To calculate the required
flow for the lateral, the designer completed the following
calculations. The number of shrubs was multiplied by the
number of emitters per shrub. That result was then
multiplied by the flow of an emitter to produce the number
of gallons per hour (liters per hour) in the area. To convert
to the more typical gallons per minute (liters per second),
the flow is divided by 60 (3600). Because area “D” has 25
shrubs with two emitters per shrub, the calculation looks
like this:
25 shrubs x 2 emitters/shrub = 50 emitters
50 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 50 gph (200 L/h)
50 gph/60 min/h = .833 gpm or almost 1 gpm
(200 L/h/3600 s/h = 0,0555 L/s or almost 0,06 L/s)
Area “E” is another shrub bed with drip irrigation. The
calculations for the flow are a little more complex because
there are trees present in this bed. Trees are irrigated with a
six port multi-outlet emitter which has four ports open.
The flow for the trees is calculated like the shrubs, but with
four emitters instead of two. Therefore the calculations are:

Lateral Layout, Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups
34 shrubs x 2 emitters per shrub = 68 emitters
68 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 68 gph (272 L/h)
3 trees x 4 emitters per tree = 12 emitters
12 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 12 gph (48 L/h)
The trees and shrub flows are added together and divided
by 60 minutes (3600 seconds) to obtain the gallons per
minute (liters per second):
68 gph + 12 gph = 80 gph (272 L/h + 48 L/h = 320 L/h)
80 gph ÷ 60 min = 1.3 gpm (320 L/h ÷ 3600 sec = 0,0888 L/s or 0,09 L/s)
Area “F” is a full-sun lawn area that accounts for most of
the space in the back yard. There are 45 sprinklers in the
yard, with a total flow (when evaluated as a group) of a little
over 100 gpm (22,68 m3/h or 6,31 L/s). With our maximum
available flow of 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or 0,63 L/s) this means
that there will be a minimum of 10 or 11 valves to cover the
area. The designer has tried to keep the same kind of
sprinklers together on the valves. This means that full circle
sprinklers are on different laterals than part circle
sprinklers. While most pop-up sprays have matched
precipitation rates, keeping fulls and parts separate allows
the homeowner the ability to have more control of the
irrigation system. Often areas along a wall or fence require
less water than those in the center of the turf, because of
shade or screening from wind.
Area “G,” a semi-circular area of perennials and trees, will
be irrigated by variable arc nozzles on 12 in (30,5 cm) popups. Total flow for the six sprinklers is 5 gpm (1,13 m3/h or
0,32 L/s).
Area “H” is another drip zone. There are 15 shrubs and four
trees in this area. Flow calculations are:
15 shrubs x 2 emitters per shrub = 30 emitters
30 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 30 gph (120 L/h)
4 trees x 4 emitters per tree = 16 emitters
16 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 16 gph (64 (L/h)
30 gph (120 L/h) + 16 gph (64 L/h) = 46 gph (184 L/h)
46 gph (184 L/h) ÷ 60 min (3600 sec) = .76 gpm (0,05 L/s)
Area “I” has two perennial beds, one of which is near a
window. To minimize over spray onto the house, but still
use sprays for the perennials, the designer selected microsprays. Here, the low-flow spray heads are used with 12 in
(30,5 cm) pop-up sprays. Using the high pop-ups allows
the sprays to be up high enough to be effective, but retract
out of the way when the irrigation is complete. Radius and
flow for each of the sprays can be controlled by a ball valve
that is built into the device. Maximum flow for each xerispray is 0.52 gpm (0,12 m3/h or 0,02 L/s), which when

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 55

Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Figure 52: Plan. lateral layout 56 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .Lateral Layout.

11 m3/h or 0. The designer has chosen the 1402 0. the differing watering times and frequencies require separate valving. main lines and lateral piping is the next part of the design process. There are several other lateral circuit configurations that could reduce the size of the pipe required while supplying the same number and type of sprinklers. Finally. To minimize the possibility of damage from over sprinkle. Risers are used here since the plants are in a very low traffic area. As we learned in the basic hydraulics section of this program. #1 #2 #3 Figure 54: Split-length lateral configurations The total flow for the circuit is split in half.13 m3/h or 0. • The valves and/or valve boxes should be located where they will not interfere with normal traffic or use of the area (i. the portion of the pipe that feeds all the sprinklers would be the largest. After adding up all the areas. Balanced loss reduces variation in sprinkler performance because of more uniform pressure availability. the main line and lateral lines can share the same trench in some areas of the project to reduce labor costs. minimize the length of the main line pipe route were possible. • Normally. • Main line pipes are the most expensive pipes. where the valve is located at the extreme end of the line. Valves installed below ground should be housed in valve boxes and not buried directly in the ground. Pressure differences between the sprinklers on the extreme ends of the lateral are the greatest in this method. This can cause large variations in discharge and performance between the sprinklers. Here are some factors that will help guide the placement of these components: • Valves should be accessible for maintenance and servicing. main lines and lateral piping Locating the valves. has several advantages over the straight line lateral circuit. the main line should have adequate cover. which can often reduce the size of pipe required and balance the pressure losses throughout the circuit.6 multiplied by the 10 devices. #1 #2 #3 Figure 53: Straight line lateral valve configurations The straight line lateral circuit. • If convenient. a valve box lid on the surface of a football field is unacceptable). Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups Here are some examples of circuiting the sprinklers into valve and lateral pipe configurations in relation to the rules mentioned above. but not where the sprinklers will douse the operator. The split-length lateral circuit.03 L/s) bubbler. • Where possible. area “J” has three climbing plants that are irrigated by flood bubblers on risers. • Valve and main line locations should be kept in mind when circuiting sprinklers and drawing in lateral pipe routes. Because this is to be an automatic system. produces a total flow of about 5 gpm (1. the project will require a controller that can handle a minimum of 21 remote control valves. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 57 . • Manual valves need to be located where the system owner can conveniently reach them for operation.e.5 gpm (0. Even under special conditions. a valve should be the same size as the lateral line it serves.. the valve should not be sized more than one nominal size smaller or larger than the largest size of its lateral. when sizing pipe by the 5 ft/s (1.32 L/s).5 m/s) method. Lateral Layout. there are 21 valves. where the valve is located in the center of the line of sprinklers. Locating valves. is the least optimum of all lateral designs. the valve serving a group of sprinklers should be at the center of the group to balance the flow and size of lateral pipe. Though some of the laterals are small enough (low flow) for the main line to support more than one operating at a time.

balancing flows. Back in step two. Here are just a few: Main There are many other possible lateral pipe configurations. Minimizing pressure changes.4 m) Static Pressure 75 psi (5. the type of sprinklers used. The process for testing the adequacy of the system is to determine the daily watering time (in minutes) each circuit will need to eventually satisfy the weekly irrigation requirement for the project. Circuit #1 A B C 20 mm) Calculating lateral operating time D 11/4 in 3/4 in (32 mm 20 mm) Circuit #2 Figure 56: Deep U-shape circuits Even with an odd number of sprinklers. Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Even two-row sprinkler circuits can be split to reduce pressure variations. example one 11/2 in (40 mm) Water Meter PVB 40. City Main Valve Circuit #1 A A B C B C D D Circuit #2 Valve Figure 55: Two row sprinkler circuits Figure 59: Main line/lateral line configuration A deep “U” shaped circuit can often be used to reach into planter boxes or other areas without having the valve and main line enter the area.” is basically an “H” pattern. how they are circuited and the number of laterals that can run at the same time are critical concerns.2 bar) Main Sometime during the stage of the design following sprinkler layout. the designer has an opportunity to calculate the lateral operating time for the various types of sprinklers to be installed on the project.7 ft (12. and locating the valve where it won’t be in the way. As you look at the rest of the circuit designs on the project. keep in mind that there are many ways to do each one.2 bar) Main 11/2 in (40 mm) Water meter PVB 40. Static pressure 75 psi (5. Area “A. but the goals of the layout are the same. we determined the maximum irrigation requirement in inches per day or per week for the type of climate influencing the project site. A simple formula applied to each type of circuit will help the designer determine the daily average operating time needed.7 ft (12. a golf superintendent’s nightmare is a golf course irrigation system that cannot irrigate the entire course over night. Main A B C 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in D (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 3/4 in Let’s look at a few of the piping configurations the designer used for the circuits on this project.Lateral Layout. For example. minimizing pipe sizes and size changes. circuit routes and valve locations can be selected to minimize pressure loss and pipe sizes. If the time available for irrigation is limited.4 m) 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 11/4 in 3/4 in 3/4 in 20 mm) Circuit #1 Circuit #2 (32 mm 20 mm) Figure 57: Odd number circuits. example two 58 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual OT = I x 60 PR x DA . balance flows and reduce pipe sizes. Now we need to know if the circuits we are designing can meet this requirement in the time available for irrigation. all play a part in lateral circuit design. Area “C” is a U-shaped pattern. The formula looks like this: 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/ in 4 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) Circuit #1 Figure 58: Odd number circuits. There is an important reason for determining the average operating time for the system.

What happens if there are 12 such circuits? If only one circuit can operate at a time. determine the precipitation rate of the circuit. but maybe the hydraulics of the system would support higher flow rate sprinklers on each circuit.5 gpm (1 m3/h) sprinklers used previously.0 min/day. If this is still too much time. The time period available for irrigation is called the water window.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 125 min/day. that means it takes 25-hour day to irrigate the project! Even if it wasn’t a day use area.5 gpm (0.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 78.73 in/h 13 ft x 15 ft PR = 1000 x . more irrigation cycles per week would lessen the problem.5 mm/h x 3 day/wk For the 12 circuits on the system. Let’s look at what happens if the system will support 7 gpm (1.5 gpm (1 m3/h) full circle.38 in/h x 3 day/wk OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 80. 6 day/wk 9.8 hours. PR = 96.5 mm/h x 6 day/wk Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 59 . most likely. 6 day/wk 9.5 mm/h 12 m x 14 m Now the water is being applied faster. OT =1.5 mm/h 4mx5m Next. A number of ways to resolve this problem are implied in the formula variables.5 mm/h x 3 day/wk Sample lateral number 2 • System irrigation requirement: 1-1/2 in (38 mm) per week • Days available for irrigation: 3 days • Sprinkler performance: 4. If. it now takes about 15.2 or 19 min/day. The 125 min (126 min—the difference is caused by rounding during the International System Units calculation) in the second operating time example.79 m3/h) full circle.0 min/day.3 x 7 gpm = .3 or 18 min/day. What happens to the time required? OT =1. if not previously calculated. 3 day/wk 39.3 x 4. insert all the data into the formula and calculate the daily minutes of operating time for the circuit.4 min/day. there still are not enough hours in the day to complete a watering cycle. equals two hours and five minutes of running time per day for each circuit on the project similar to that one. Perhaps two circuits cannot be run at one time. instead of being fixed numbers. Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups system and check this total against the hours of irrigation time available each day.6 m3/h) sprinklers instead of the 4. irrigation days and precipitation rate are flexible. the only irrigation hours available since the facility is in use during the day. 6 day/wk .5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 39.24 in/h x 3 day/wk OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 126 min/day.5 gpm = 1. then the night time hours are.38 in/h 40 ft x 45 ft PR = 1000 x 1. 3 day/wk . and they are analyzed at the design stage.9 min/day. PR = 96.79 m3/h = 39.6 m3/h = 9. then there is room to work out a solution to the irrigation time problem.24 in/h 40 ft x 45 ft PR = 1000 x 1 m3/h = 6 mm/h 12 m x 14 m Circuit operating time: OT =1. 6 day/wk . let’s look at increasing the days available for watering to 6 days per week.3 x 3. 3 day/wk 1. Sample lateral number 1 • System irrigation requirement: 1-1/2 in (38 mm) per week • Days available for irrigation: 3 days • Sprinkler performance: 3. the flow. If the system is for a ball field or park. radius = 14 ft (4 m) • Sprinkler spacing: 13 x 15 ft (4 m x 5 m) rectangular First. OT =1. radius = 40 ft (12 m) • Sprinkler spacing: 40 ft x 45 ft (12 m x 14 m) rectangular Circuit precipitation rate calculation: PR = 96.6 For this formula: OT = Circuit operating time in minutes per day I = System irrigation requirement in inches (millimeters) per week in the “worst case” season PR = Circuit precipitation rate in inches (millimeters) per hour DA = Days available for irrigation per week 60 = Constant conversion factor of 60 min/h Let’s look at the formula in action on some sample circuits. the next step is to add up all the circuits on the Lateral Layout.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 17. If 3 day/week for watering isn’t an imposed or valid restriction.5 gpm = .73 in/h x 3 day/wk OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 19.38 in/h x 6 day/wk OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 40. 3 day/wk 6 mm/h x 3 day/wk Once the operating time for each type of circuit is established.

Unnecessary runs of the main line should be avoided from a cost standpoint. to 6 a. the designer was forced to nearly circle the property with the main line. drew in the lateral pipe and valve positions. After the designer draws in the most economical route for the main line. the designer determined how many valve circuits were going to be required on the project and. 2 ft (60 cm) of cover is specified for irrigation mains. often the sprinkler main line is about 12 in (30 cm) below the surface. if not yet connected. both from the standpoint of cost and least pressure loss. routing one leg of the line straight to the backyard under the walkway at the side of the house. the mains are specified at greater depths or provided with manual drainage valves to avoid trapping water that would become expanding ice. need to be circuited into a total system by drawing in the main line that links them to the water source. This example is somewhat simplified compared to a real life situation where a number of other factors would require examination. the main line pipe is more expensive than the lateral pipe because it needs to have stronger. 60 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual In the project we have been following. more pressure-resistant walls. The main will be under constant pressure. The other leg could have been routed up the right side of the property and stopped where the first valve for section “E” is located. using the guidelines on circuit design. In a residential design. Before going to this next step.m. Depending on the system main line size. we can get the job done between the night time and early morning hours of 10 p. These valve positions. We easily switched to higher flow sprinklers. even when the system is not in use. A designer would have to check to make sure the increased precipitation rate did not exceed the soil’s rate of infiltration.Lateral Layout. however. . step six can be started. Test your knowledge with the Exercises on Circuit Configuration and Operating Time on the next page. In large-size commercial or industrial irrigation systems. let’s practice what you have learned about valve circuit design and calculating operating time. require review when making alterations of the system to match operating time to the time available for irrigation. lin e lat er al m ain lin e In the previous step. In climates that have harsh winter freezing conditions. Sufficient cover should be provided for the main to protect it from damage by overhead traffic. Answers are listed in the Solutions section on page 91. Because the walkway on the left side of the house was already installed. These.m. Figure 60: Main line and lateral line As mentioned earlier. Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups 40 min/station x 12 circuits = 8 hours irrigation time/cycle on the automatic irrigation controller If this is a day use area. the designer would have preferred to branch the main line. the trench depth should be specified to provide this protection. Golf course mains are often specified for a minimum of 24 in (60 cm) of cover. heavier. and other considerations pertaining to the project. The greater flow demand could require the designer to reduce the number of sprinklers per circuit or increase pipe sizes.

6 Lateral Layout. Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups Figure 61: Plan. valve groups Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 61 .

Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Exercises on circuit configuration and operating time A. What is the operating time per cycle for a circuit with the following characteristics? Days per week available for irrigation: 7. True or false? A main line pipe will usually require thicker walls than a lateral line pipe? #3 B. #1 ? x 60 = ? min/cycle ?x? #2 F. Sprinkler precipitation rate for the rotors is . What would the operating time per cycle be if the precipitation rate for the sprinklers in question “B” was . No watering is allowed during the day. G. Irrigation requirement per day: . Sprinkler precipitation rate: .4 mm/h).75 in/h (19 mm/h)? _________ min/cycle D.67 in/h (17 mm/h). The irrigation requirement is 2 in (50 mm) per week.33 in/h (8. Draw a small circle where the valve should be located in each of the following sprinkler circuits to best balance the flow to all the sprinklers. What would the operating time per cycle be if all the original information concerning the circuit in question “B” was the same except for only four days per week available for irrigation? _________ min/cycle 62 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . Adequate _________ is required to protect a main line pipe from damage from overhead traffic. What is the operating time per cycle for a circuit with the following characteristics? No watering is allowed on Wednesday evenings because of regular Little League games. ? x 60 = ? min/cycle ?x? C.Lateral Layout. E.214 in (5 mm).

Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements 7 .

.

make up the critical circuit length for example two. Main Valve Circuit #1 A A B C B C D D Circuit #2 Valve Figure 62: Lateral pipe configuration The designer knows that the water supply must reach even the furthest sprinkler out on the line with a minimum of 55 psi (3. The highest flow for 3/4 in (20 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe before going into the shaded area on the chart is 10 gpm (2. For reference. the various pipe sections of each lateral have an identification letter. can be met by the 3/4 in (20 mm) size with a velocity of about 4. but the pipe supplying it cannot have a velocity of more than 5 ft/s (1.5 m/s). There is a slightly longer water path from the valve down through sections “C” and “D” to the furthest sprinkler. The simplest way to keep these factors where they can be controlled is to size the pipe in an irrigation plan using the 5 ft/s (1.22 m3/h or 0.5 m/s) limit.5 m/s) method.24 L/s). it’s easy to see that the critical circuit length for this lateral includes all the pipe sections. The circuit is not split exactly in half.63 L/s).22 m3/h or 0.8 gpm (2.22 m3/h or 0. the designer needs to select what type of pipe to specify.62 L/s) for a total flow of 19.5 m/s) is that friction losses increase dramatically as more water is being forced through the pipe at higher speeds. each requiring 9.8 gpm (2. the designer is ready to use the Class 200 PVC pipe chart and the 5 ft/s (1. Working backward toward the valve.45 m3/h or 1.33 m) at 55 psi (3. The flow demand for the sprinkler. The designer has spaced them in an equilateral triangular pattern at 50% spacing. let’s start with Circuit #1 and. the designer looks for the smallest pipe that will carry 9. and chose Class 200 PVC. The route this sizing procedure follows along the various pipes in the circuit is called the critical circuit length.” therefore.43 m/s). as mentioned earlier.5 m/s) method to size the lateral lines. the designer could use either side of the circuit as the critical path. In Circuit #2. In the Understanding Basic Hydraulics section. When the size has been established for that reach. medium-sized rotor pop-up sprinklers that throw 47 ft (14. Looking at Circuit #1 in the example. This route is defined as the longest path in the circuit that the water will have to travel.5 m/s).62 L/s). At nearly 20 gpm (4. 9. moving backward (or upstream) from the last sprinkler. but 1 in (25 mm) pipe is too small also.6 gpm (4. Each circuit has four. The critical length may also be described as the length between the valve and the most distal sprinkler.26 L/s). Checking the Class 200 PVC pipe chart. To review. the next reach in.22 m3/h or 0. The pipe chart shows that not only is 3/4 in (20 mm) pipe out of the question. sizing the pipe and valves in the system and calculating the total system pressure requirement.7 ft/s (1. we discussed the 5 ft/s (1.” The longest path from the valve to the most distal sprinkler is through all the lateral pipes. section “A” through section “D.8 bar). First.22 m3/h or 0. Turning to the Class 200 PVC pipe chart. With the type of pipe selected and the critical lengths determined. and toward the valve. and each require 9. section “C” is the next pipe to be sized.8 gpm (2. supplying the last two sprinklers. The pipe size specified by the designer for section “D” then is 3/4 in (20 mm). This process continues. this section of the lateral requires 1-1/4 in (40 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 65 . the designer uses the principles of hydraulics to size all the components in the system and to ensure adequate flow and pressure to properly operate all the sprinklers on the project. Sections “C” and “D. the designer is ready to begin sizing the lateral pipe. The first pipe to be sized is the pipe reach supplying the last or furthest sprinkler from the valve. examine two typical valve circuits that have not yet had their lateral pipe sizes specified. with the last sprinkler on the line which is on the far right. but has chosen a different lateral pipe configuration for each circuit. If it was. Pipe sizing for a sprinkler lateral is done in reverse. First. should be sized.62 L/s).62 L/s) without exceeding the 5 ft/s (1. This section supplies two sprinklers.62 L/s). the designer has split the lateral with the valve in the center of the circuit. let’s say the designer wanted a medium strength pipe that also had fairly good flow characteristics.8 gpm (2.5 m/s) velocity safety limit for pipe. The second reason for holding velocity at or below 5 ft/s (1.54 m3/h or 1. the speed of the water in the pipe is less likely to cause damaging surge pressures. at 5 ft/s (1. Before sizing the lateral pipes. This sprinkler requires a flow of 9.8 bar) to get the desired performance at the selected spacing. In this case.7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Step seven: Sizing pipe and valves and calculating system pressure requirements In step seven.27 m3/h or 0.8 gpm (2.

09 0. A backflow preventer.29 2.28 0.16 0.09 1.18 6. the designer knows 3/4 in (20 mm) is required for section “D” on this new circuit.56 1.720 0.70 5.44 1.58 3.72 5.67 0.21 14. to support one sprinkler.43 0.91 56.62 L/s) each for a total of 29. needs 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pipe.24 9.” which supports both sprinklers.35 0.54 0.87 4.42 15.32 12.58 8.22 m3/h or 0.08 0.71 3.06 0.95 1.54 12.46 0.50 8.65 10.13 0.58 18.94 2.7 ft (12.06 1.17 3.48 2. the next section is a short one.050 0.23 1.01 3.24 0.35 2. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.149 0.53 2.20 2.98 14. if all the circuits of this size were similar. .66 6.83 3.71 5.30 1.” Main A B C 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in D (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 3/4 in Circuit #1 PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.17 2.04 0.97 1. Static pressure 75 psi (5.19 5.30 3.78 1.27 0. the contractor could standardize the materials inventory for the project.65 8. Section “B” supports three sprinklers at 9.22 m3/h or 0.01 0.14 25.61 0. is a valve or valve assembly that physically blocks the potentially contaminated water in the irrigation system from flowing back into the domestic water supply.70 0.68 0.01 0.22 4.26 1.82 0.47 0.59 0.07 0.02 0.20 1. the designer has eliminated the need for the two larger pipe sizes.23 0.56 1.46 2.25 4.22 0.18 0.44 1.06 0.36 0.34 4.68 1.55 0.89 3.82 3.78 0.60 0.52 0. The designer selects 1-1/4 in (40 mm) for section “C.31 3.45 6.00 21.3 m) between sprinklers 9.65 10.50 0. The smallest pipe on the chart that meets the flow needs for the three sprinklers and is within the limit is 1-1/2 in (40 mm) pipe.79 0.47 0.375 2.02 41.77 6.94 1.62 0.02 2.89 7.82 3.01 0.18 0.” which supports one sprinkler.95 9.88 0.24 0.92 7. the cost of the larger fittings is gone and.37 17.27 17. is 3/4 in (20 mm) and “B.57 0.98 2.62 1.27 1.2 bar) 55 psi (3.51 18.66 2.19 5.62 6.” so “A.113 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocit fps 0. Circuit #2 has the same type of sprinklers and the same type of pipe.85 11.96 1.59 1.8 bar) at sprinklers 40.44 1. One of the advantages of splitting a sprinkler circuit is clearly evident in the above example.23 8.98 13.90 1.85 3.64 0.315 1.44 1.17 0.26 0.89 2.72 0.56 0.25 3. Here is how the two circuits look: 66 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual After sizing sections “C” and “D” for Circuit #2.079 1 in 1. section “C.83 25.32 1.27 13.” Those two sections are nearly a mirror image of sections “C” and “D.04 0. the designer also knows the sizes for sections “A” and “B.75 0. will be 1-1/4 in (32 mm).11 3.83 11.4 m) 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 11/4 in 3/4 in 3/4 in 20 mm) Circuit #1 Circuit #2 (32 mm 20 mm) Figure 65: Piping plan Static pressure: 75 psi (5.41 4.97 4.47 L/s).89 m3/h or 2.04 9.66 0.22 m3/h or 0.02 0.43 3.74 6.94 10. let’s have a look at the piping plan for this entire sample system.2 gpm (8.05 8.10 1.43 10.30 3.83 2.12 2.51 1.66 36.060 SIZE OD ID Wall Thk flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 11⁄4 in 1.86 1.09 3.97 6.24 1.30 12.20 4.22 0.75 12.08 0.4 m) between laterals 47 ft (14.5 m/s) rule. nor has a component on the line just after the water meter — the backflow preventer.13 4.07 0. Now that we have sized these laterals.03 0.063 11⁄2 in 1.05 0. The chart says 2 in (50 mm) pipe is required for section “A” and this last section is sized accordingly.20 1.61 3.02 2.75 3.17 0. of which there are several types.8 gpm (2.12 2. section “A.61 5.76 1.10 11.55 4.32 7.60 7.46 4.502 0.900 1.40 15.15 6.86 1. Having sized section “B” at 1-1/2 in (40 mm).27 8.06 0.02 0.10 0.70 30.01 0. 3⁄4 in 1.34 0.96 9.82 5.07 1.13 9.97 4.42 1.4 gpm (6.30 5.7 ft (12. Similarly.15 1.46 1.08 8.93 7.32 0.49 9.Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements mm) pipe to support two sprinklers while adhering strictly to the 5 f/s (1.34 6.31 5.26 0.05 10. By splitting Circuit #2 and feeding it from a centrally located valve position.31 18.88 3.52 Figure 63: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 110 for a metric version of the chart above.87 0. With that decided for Circuit #2.69 3.80 1.41 0.77 0.00 1.86 4.80 2.51 6.75 0.93 1.67 m3/h or 1.04 4.30 0.72 0.06 5.08 1. the designer has completed sizing the critical circuit length.92 4.00 43.42 0.189 0.” Section “A” supports all the sprinklers on the lateral line for a total of four sprinklers at 9.40 0.24 1.00 0.53 0.41 2.78 9. The circuit is also balanced with less pressure variation between sprinklers.55 13.56 0.02 0.19 1.22 0.26 5.8 gpm (2.80 2.11 0.77 4.26 5.79 1.51 0.30 2.47 2.06 0.53 3.62 L/s) per sprinkler The main line has not yet been sized.09 5.87 17.03 3.73 2.04 0.22 0.51 1.65 3.36 0. Therefore.42 6.42 0.84 0.59 2.23 2.61 3.96 1.55 8.03 0. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) A B C D 11/4 in 3/4 in (32 mm 20 mm) 20 mm) Circuit #2 Figure 64: Lateral pipe configuration PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.48 0.62 L/s) each or 39.72 2.11 2.60 7.44 0.85 5.49 0.12 0.34 0.41 1.78 8.38 11.36 0.” supporting two sprinklers.58 21.81 15. In addition to saving the cost of these bigger pipes.8 gpm (2.20 6.14 0.930 0.090 2 in 2.36 2.00 0.660 1.14 0.08 1.37 1.26 0.54 0.18 0.93 2.37 0.65 13.14 0.28 0.84 L/s).04 33.30 0.51 4. The critical path for Circuit #1 has been sized.2 bar) Main 11/2 in (40 mm) Water meter PVB 40.65 1.32 29. Backflow is the unwanted reverse flow of water in a piping system.20 2.15 16.68 2.

the 1 in valve has a loss of 9. the flow justifies using that size unit.2] gpm (9. we search for a size with a loss equal to or less than 7. The designer begins by sizing the lateral valves. In this sample rotor pop-up system.07 m3/h or 2. will need to be sized.5 m/s) or less. for Circuits #1 and #2.9 psi (0. Rule one says we cannot create a loss through the valve of more that 10% of the 75 psi (5. Main lines need good. A few guidelines to assist you in sizing valves are listed below. what size pipes the valve for each circuit will be serving. unless a high flow (equivalent to a larger size pipe) results from a split lateral. Let’s say the designer has chosen Schedule 40 PVC pipe. If there are no elevation changes. Getting back to our sample rotor job. a designer. the designer would look for the smallest size that will flow 40 gpm (9.07 m3/h or 2. selected using the same sizing rules. when we have 75 psi (5.7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements This backflow prevention device. being one size smaller than the pipe served. In your equipment catalog.07 m3/h or 2. shows a loss of 1. We know too. This size fits our 10% or less static pressure loss rule. or no more than one nominal size smaller than that pipe.17 bar) static pressure when flowing the 40 gpm (9. If the designer selects a large size valve because the flow loss is so low as to be unlisted on the performance chart.52 L/s) flow. 1-1/2 in valve.52 L/s). a circuit using 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pipe with flows equivalent to a neighboring circuit using 2 in (50 mm) pipe was created. we have selected the 150-PEB. • The valve should either be the same size as the largest pipe in the lateral it serves. Sample Circuit #1 calls for the valve to feed a 2 in (50 mm) pipe. With a flow of 40 [39. The next size up. • The flow through the valve should not produce a loss greater than 10% of the static pressure available in the main line. Because all the circuits require the same flow of 39. along with all the pipe and electric valves on the system. Rule number two says the valve should be the same size.13 bar) at 40 gpm (9. There must be a minimum pressure loss through most types of automatic valves! The valves use this pressure differential to open and close. which is too high for this system.52 bar) when flowing 40 gpm (9.52 L/s) at a velocity of 5 ft/s (1. Lack of data in the manufacturer’s performance chart is an indicator that the valve should not be used at the high or low flows in question. dealing with low pressures to begin with. 1-1/2 in (40 mm). These units are highpressure.52 L/s). Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 67 . The main line from the meter to the last valve now needs to be sized. plastic. high-strength walls because they are under constant pressure. under valves. the static pressure at the meter is 75 psi (5.89 m3/h or 2. Looking at the performance chart for the PEB series valves (see page 68).64 bar).07 m3/h or 2. At that flow.07 m3/h or 2. he or she may find the valve won’t operate once the system is installed. so all the valves on the project will be 150-PEB valves.47 L/s). or not more than one nominal size smaller. Because the designer split the circuit to balance the flow and reduce Figure 66: Remote control valve One caution about over-sizing automatic valves: occasionally. turn to the PEB Series electric remote control valves. The 1-1/2 in valve will be larger than the lateral it serves.5 psi (0. will look for ways to reduce pressure loss.17 bar). than the largest pipe in the lateral. this only has to be done once. the pipe sizes.3 psi (0. then. Turning to that chart in the Technical Data section. 24 volt valves available in three sizes.52 L/s) established for each circuit we can begin our selection. The rest of the circuits on the plan are just like Circuit #1.17 bar) static in the main as well when no water is flowing. If there were circuits requiring various flows on the project. however. they would use differing valve sizes. Rule number three applies to sample Circuit #2. So let’s size the valves for this system. The 1-1/2 in valve satisfies this rule. • The valve should not be larger than the pipes in the lateral.2 gpm (8.

40 2.07 4. 175.03 0.19 0.89 14.660 1.48 2.03 0.12 0.049 0.24 12. If you select a device size that will be using the top of its flow capacity (highest area on its curve).74 1. 100.92 90.21 0.18 0.78 12.133 11⁄4 in 1.33 0.8 9.78 0.41 8.145 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocit fps 1.03 0.26 0.00 3.33 7.12 30.82 18.140 11⁄2 in 1.52 0.27 38.83 16.840 0.42 2.59 2.64 10.65 9.45 39.113 1 in 1.54 36.0 9.53 0. as shown.19 0. The last component in this system to be sized is the pressure vacuum breaker or backflow prevention device.12 12. therefore. The main guideline for the optimal sizing of a backflow preventer is that the flow demanded by your system falls somewhere near the center of the pressure loss curve on the chart for the size you select. .Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC (1120.66 0.86 3.10 0.12 0.2 2.00 6.81 12.12 0.27 10.44 10.52 L/s) flow falls at the end of the mid-range on the curve for the 1 in (25 mm) device and the lower part of the center section for the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) PVB.94 m3/h or 2.900 1.23 0.29 4.67 1.10 1.77 20.07 0.56 9.94 2.01 13.7 * Loss values are with flow control fully open.85 1.10 2.51 1.88 2.0 3.67 2.14 0.42 31.42 15.02 4.98 21.29 2.85 0.09 0.77 4.66 10.35 0.99 3.35 2.41 1.08 1.07 m3/h or 2.76 16.42 0.46 0.60 12.71 1.62 0.50 2.72 6.28 4.12 0.48 1.66 0.71 11.04 33.42 0.20 4.01 0. 5.38 0.43 42.71 0. Consider the performance data.94 1.10 12.05 2.38 11.93 1.36 0.62 16.56 0.20 3.25 5.10 0.69 110.24 9.87 18.33 3.3 15.97 14.3 16.46 3.07 1. 200.89 1.315 1.47 0.85 13.72 5.20 1.80 2.16 0.40 4.33 3.07 m3/h or 2.77 5.15 8.44 0. Figure 68b: Valve pressure loss PEB series (International System Units) The first pipe size that shows 40 gpm (9.11 7. for the PVB Series pressure vacuum breakers.02 0.21 8.01 5.93 1.23 0.80 56.70 4.85 2.610 0.15 0.01 2.60 8.12 0.96 3.42 0. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.49 10.34 3.23 0.76 0.44 0.83 3.824 0.18 0.40 6. Looking at the flow loss charts.88 2.17 0.38 8.39 7.39 1. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.23 10. The 40 gpm (9.52 L/s) above its shaded area on the chart is 2 in (50 mm).05 1.11 1.09 0.5 2.64 0.83 6.52 1. the system owner is paying for a larger device than is needed.16 0.86 15.31 0. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 1⁄2 3⁄4 in 0.11 0.25 1.07 m3/h or 2.5 1.15 3.60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 22 28 34 40 45 0.08 16.48 18.55 23.8 13.75 1. 150.64 10.11 3.21 L/s).88 7.68 18.20 0.27 0.89 47.90 2.380 0.25 0.52 L/s) for our sample rotor system is too high for the 3/4 in (20 mm) device—the chart peaks at 35 gpm (7.14 1.60 4. 125.5 1.12 0.57 0. 40 50.77 9.0 3.56 0. 75.36 4.93 6.25 4.20 2.3 17.109 in 1.21 0.5 5.15 0.40 3.04 3.50 6.71 1.85 17.29 7.39 0.050 0.22 2.00 0.15 0.66 0.35 24.83 1.44 9.81 4.51 1.14 2.0 11.15 18.09 4.15 0.60 7.22 5.08 0.67 7.59 0.63 0.20 25.2 — — 200-PEB 2 in — — — — — — — — 1.59 1.28 2.14 3.44 11.77 0.95 1.85 4.16 4.43 1.27 * Loss values are with flow control fully open.30 45.S.41 9.2 3.25 0.47 0.43 8.58 52. the service life of the unit will be shortened because of the high flow wear on its internal parts. The main line is.9 2.9 7.72 3.60 .28 3.60 1.24 1.45 20.89 4.0 1. Figure 68a: Valve pressure loss PEB series (U.49 8. PEB Series Valve pressure loss* (psi) Flow 100-PEB 150-PEB gpm 1 in 11/2 in 0.75 0.14 5.28 0.13 8.94 72.23 0.622 0.Standard measure) 68 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual PEB Series Valve pressure loss* (bar) Flow Flow 100-PEB 150-PEB 200-PEB L/s m3/h 1 in 11/2 in 2 in 0.75 2.30 0.84 1.02 0.99 6.56 0.0 2.28 5.73 7. a somewhat larger device is selected for the specific purpose of reducing friction losses in the system.92 0.49 1.01 8.47 5.87 8.4 4.14 6.71 5.08 7.37 0.55 11. specified as 2 in (50 mm)Schedule 40 PVC pipe.25 0.80 5.57 1. 10.55 3.27 6.86 3.22 2. 20.12 0.5 — — — — — — — — — — — 1.44 6.73 1.29 1.41 0.2 6.51 2.89 4.92 2.84 5.26 0.89 9.02 0.21 0.57 5.33 12.05 0.07 28.27 0. On occasion.77 9.44 5.11 1. we see that the flow of 40 gpm (9.17 4.21 14.33 1.19 5.65 14.97 2.42 3.45 0. 3. On the other hand.20 Figure 67: PVC Schedule 40 friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 108 for a metric version of the chart above.14 14.42 7. 30.15 0.57 2.28 0.61 10.5 1.89 1.28 1.45 14.78 3. if you select a device size where the system flow is at the very bottom of the backflow preventer’s chart.46 11.18 1.28 59.

83 10. All other circuits will be sized the same and will be closer to the supply.19 m) farther out on the main line. while the system is still on paper.78 PRESSURE DROP MODELS: 11/4 in (25 mm) PVB-125.07 13. the designer could change sprinklers. Figure 69: Pressure vacuum breaker 0 psi The designer has sized the last component in the system and is now ready to determine the system’s total pressure requirement.78 5.68 27. that to work properly.54 1. the designer must choose between the 1 in (25 mm) or the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pressure vacuum breaker. or do whatever is necessary to reduce the pressure requirements of the hydraulic design.61 18.26 2. PRESSURE DROP MODELS: 3/4 in (20 mm) PVB-075. for this particular system. however. in fact. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 69 . Always check with the appropriate authorities before specifying the device for your project. In the case of our sample rotor system.14 bar/L) (0 bar) Flow gpm Flow m3/h Flow l/s 10 2. If the resulting pressure is a very low number or a negative number.75 36. If our calculations of the system pressure requirement shows we have the pressure to make this circuit work. 1 in (25 mm) PVB-100 10 psi (0.27 . the code will require that the backflow prevention device be the same nominal size as the service line or POC.43 bar) loss for the 1 in (25 mm) device.63 20 4. The “worst case” sprinkler is the one furthest from the lateral valve. instead of after installation.62 Figure 70: Pressure vacuum breaker flow loss So.28 bar) 2 psi (0.22 31. the “worst case” circuit could be either Circuit #1 or Circuit #2.14 bar) 0 psi (0 bar) Flow gpm Flow m3/h Flow l/s As a simple equation. add valves. Finding the “worst case” lateral may. The designer may choose either.52 50 11.41 bar) 4 psi (0.41 bar/L) 4 psi (0.52 3.8 psi (0. the designer would know at the time. the system design requires more pressure than the project has available.09 11.69 bar/L) 8 psi (0.31 7.55 bar) 6 psi (0. But. lower flow requirements. Both circuits are flowing the same amount. the process looks like this: Pr = Ps – (Po + Pls) Ps = Po = Pls= Pr = Static pressure Operating pressure for “worst case” sprinkler Pressure loss throughout system main line and “worst case” lateral circuit Pressure remaining after satisfying the total system requirement The designer begins this process by finding the “worst case” lateral which is the lateral that is most distal from the POC. or a distant lateral with the highest flow. increase pipe sizes. 11/2 in (32 mm) PVB-150. Quite often. One thing to keep in mind is that local codes prevail on the type and size of backflow prevention device to use for various applications. When the “worst case” lateral is known.07 m3/h or 2. At that point. Some irrigation systems will require a booster pump to increase pressure from the POC.61 3.45 9.15 60 13.05 6. 2 in (50 mm) PVB-200 10 psi (0. require a hydraulic check of several laterals to determine which has the actual “worst case” conditions.55 bar/L) 6 psi (0.82 45. To make sure the system will work.34 3. Circuit #2 is about 40 ft (12.14 22.89 40 9. One quick way to check out the system without having to calculate the losses for each of these two circuits is to calculate the losses for Circuit #1 as if it were positioned where Circuit #2 is.80 1.3 psi (0.29 40.26 30 6. or a highflow lateral at a high elevation in the project.07 2. then the “worst case” sprinkler must be determined. but assume the lower pressure loss of about 3. the designer will see how much pressure is needed to operate the system at the flow demanded and subtract that pressure from the static pressure available.26 bar) for the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) PVB was more attractive to the designer than the 6.52 L/s) position on the curves for the 1-1/2 in (40 mm) and 2 in (50 mm) devices show that they are larger than needed for this system.35 12. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 4. we know everything else will also work.28 bar/L) 2 psi (0.36 1. This imaginary positioning creates an even worse-case circuit than actually exists.75 8. Circuit #1 has a longer run of lateral pipe than the split run of Circuit #2.7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements The 40 gpm (9.69 bar) 8 psi (0.

Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements 11/2 in (40 mm) Water Meter PVB 40. 70 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .7 ft (12. City Main Figure 72: Sample plan with rotor pop-ups Fill in the blanks at the end of this section as you use your calculator and the Technical Data section of this manual to follow this Total Pressure Requirement procedure. Answers are in the Solutions section on page 91.2 bar) Main 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/ in 4 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) Circuit #1 Figure 71: Worst case circuit Calculate the system pressure requirement for this sample plan of rotor pop-ups and see if it will work.4 m) Static Pressure 75 psi (5.

With 111 psi (7.47 L/s) through a 1-1/2 in (40 mm) water meter ______________+ • estimate for fittings loss: 10% of all pipe losses ______________+ • any losses in pressure due to elevation rise ______________+ Subtotal ______________+ • any pressure gains from elevation drop ______________+ Total pressure required by the system ______________+ Static pressure available to the site 75 psi (5.89 m3/h or 2. To do this. In this case. after filling in the blanks. For the low application or drip watering circuits.24 L/s) through 47 ft (14. the above is Circuit #1 + 40. In this way.4 gpm (6.3 m) added to the main line as if it was farther out where Circuit #2 is located.89 m3/h or 2.3 m) of 3/4 in (20 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe ______________+ • for 19. 1-1/4 in (32 mm) backflow unit ______________+ • for 39. there was “pressure to burn.47 L/s) through 23. take the pipe chart for the lateral pipe and make a quick note of the top flow for each size of pipe before it enters the shaded area on the chart.3 m) of 1-1/2 in (40 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe ______________+ • for 39.47 L/s) through a PVB-125. we created an imaginary “worst case” lateral by calculating losses as if Circuit #1 was farther out on the main line where Circuit #2 is. the system will work ______________+ In looking at the residential plan we have also been following. Instead of referring again and again to a pipe chart. Remember this change if. the designer has put complete pressure control into the system.89 m3/h or 2. there is one quick way for sizing pipe that is often used by designers. Assume the site is flat and has no elevation change. you wish to follow the critical length of the system we are analyzing. Before we go on.62 L/s) through 47 ft (14.67 m3/h or 1.89 m3/h or 2.2 m) of 2 in (50 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe • ______________+ for 39. the electric valves selected for the project have their own individual lateral pressure regulators.79 bar) Pressure loss: • for 9.5 ft (7. Pressure needed at sprinkler = 55 psi (3. This component can be set for a specific downstream pressure in the main line.6 gpm (4.7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Exercises on calculating system pressure requirements The procedure is outlined below to work backward from the “worst case” sprinkler of the “worst case” lateral. Fill in the blanks.7 ft (14.8 gpm (2.2 gpm (8. and hence all the way through the system main line until we determine the minimum pressure requirement (75 psi [5.7 bar) at the meter and sprinklers requiring between 15 and 20 psi (1. they are the adjustable type.47 L/s) through a 150-PEB.17 bar] in front of the water meter).2 gpm (8. • for 39. 1-1/2 in electric valve • for 39. In addition.3 m) of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe ______________+ • for 29.47 L/s) through 162.22 m3/h or 0.89 m3/h or 2.03 and 1.17 bar)+ If this is a positive number. the designer can build a chart for flow ranges. we can see the designer had a high pressure situation to deal with.” Rather than specifying very small pipe sizes that could cause high velocity and/or surge pressure problems.2 gpm (8.85 L/s) through 47 ft (14.38 bar) to operate. This reduces the amount of pipe on the project that is subjected to high pressure and provides for a beginning pressure that is closer to the sprinklers’ performance range.8 ft (50 m) of 2 in (50 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe ______________+ ______________+ So far.2 gpm (8.17 bar)+ Total pressure required by the system 75 psi (5. The resulting chart for Class 200 PVC pipe would look like this: Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 71 .45 m3/h or 1.2 gpm (8. As for the sprinkler circuits. these are fixed-outlet pressure regulators. the designer called for a main line pressure regulator.

36 m3/h or 0.90 m3/h or 1.27 m3/h or 0.64 L/s) and so on The designer made up such a matrix for the residential plan we have been following.36 m3/h or 1. This expedited the designer’s sizing of all the pipe on the project.38 L/s) (2.01 L/s) (5.63 L/s) (3. 72 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Size 1/2 in 3/4 in 1 in 1-1/4 in Flow limit (15 mm) (20 mm) (25 mm) (32 mm) 6 gpm 10 gpm 16 gpm 26 gpm (1. Let’s move on to the next section.

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires 8 .

.

*Controllers must not share either the valve common or the MV/PS circuit. To do so is a violation of the uniform electric code and will cause controller operation problems. The wire sizing procedure for Rain Bird 24-volt solenoid valves is simple and fast. place the controller where the sprinklers operated by the unit are visible from that location. wires that can run greater distances on an irrigation project. Electrically efficient valves mean smaller. low power consuming variety. A solenoid is simply a coil of copper wire that. First. it’s time to turn our attention to the electrical portion of the design starting with the location of the controller. especially if the designer is specifying one valve per station on the controller. when the cabinet door is open this protection is greatly reduced. this procedure may not size the wires large enough. it also keeps the user dry during manually initiated controller operations. Secondly. Garage Controller Sprinkler Heads Valves Locating the controller On large projects. or bonnet. So. This not only protects the electronics in the controller. lifts a plunger to open a control port in the valve. and shared by. We use the “worst case” valve circuit for sizing our first pair of Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 75 .* The designer should also keep in mind the convenience of the system for the installing contractor. Between the controller and the electric solenoid valves that feed the sprinklers there is a network of valve control wires. Controllers designed for outdoor mounting do have weather-resistant cabinets. The common wire is connected to. 24-volt valves that require higher amperage. Rain Bird manufactures its own 24-volt solenoids and they are a highly efficient. it allows water pressure above the diaphragm in the valve’s upper portion. We will see in a moment how the various pressures require their own wire sizing charts. This pressure. a standard 117 volts AC (or 230 volts AC). the controller serving those valves should be centrally located near or within the valve group. and later. the more power it takes to raise the plunger against that pressure. Each valve is hooked up to the controller with two wires. its own individual power or control wire and the “common” or “ground” wire. less costly. when sizing the valve control wires. The wire sizing procedure about to be presented is for this type of valve. to minimize the lengths of field wires to the automatic valves. where several controllers are located in various areas across the site. However. the static pressure at the valve is an important factor. the electrical power. place your controllers on the site where the sprinklers they control will not douse the cabinet. The four-step procedure for sizing valve control wires has some similarities with the procedure for sizing pipe. This facilitates system operational tests during installation. when energized. should be located in pairs or groups to minimize the length of power supply lines on the project. Therefore.8 Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires Step eight: Locating the controller and sizing the valve and power wires Now that all the pipe and components for the project have been sized and a complete hydraulic analysis has proven that the system will work. Control Control Common Figure 73: Valve control wire network These wires carry a low voltage current. the controller locations are selected using a few key factors. during normal maintenance. is available in the garage where the designer has indicated the controller should be installed. Sizing valve wires On our sample residential plan. which was holding back the main line water and pressure. usually 24 volts AC. Where possible. The higher the pressure at the valve. the controllers. all the valves and completes the circuit back to the controller. When the control port opens. who will decide where to mount the unit for the best connection to the power and most convenient hookup for the field wires to the valves. One word of caution here is that this procedure was designed for Rain Bird solenoid valves. where convenient. to energize the solenoid on the valve. For less efficient. when reduced allows the valve to open and operate the sprinklers. the maintenance crew and the system owner. The actual position for the controller within the garage is left up to the installing contractor. to bleed off down stream.

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires
wires. Electrically, the “worst case” valve circuit is the one
requiring the heaviest current load. Later in the procedure,
we will show you how to determine which is the “worst
case” circuit.
The “worst case” valve circuit will require the largest pair of
wires. Because one of those wires is the “common,” when
we size the wire pair for the “worst case” circuit, we have
sized the common wire for all the other valves.
We will use the diagram below as a sample system for
sizing field valve wires. For simplicity, the controller has
only two stations. Station #1 has one valve with a 2,000 ft
(600 m) run of wire to connect it to the controller. Station
#2 has two valves with a 2,000 ft (600 m) wire run to the first
valve and another 1,000 ft (300 m) of wire to the second
valve. The water pressure is 150 psi (10,3 bar).
Controller
Ground

Common

1,000 ft (300 m) of wire to the last valve. The equivalent
circuit length for this section is:
1,000 ft x 1 valve = 1,000 ft
(300 m x 1 valve = 300 m)
The wire run of 2,000 ft (600 m) from the controller to the
first valve of Station #2 provides the electricity for both
valves. This section of the circuit is calculated like this:
2,000 ft x 2 valves = 4,000 ft
(600 m x 2 valves = 1200 m)
Adding these two figures together we have:
1,000 ft (300 m)
+ 4,000 ft (+1200 m)
Station #2 has a 5,000 ft (1500 m) equivalent circuit length.
3. From the Rain Bird wire sizing chart, select the
common and control wire sizes for the circuit with the
highest equivalent circuit length (the “worst case” circuit).
Use the sizing chart that most nearly approximates the
static pressure in your system.

2 1

2000 ft
(600 m)

1000 ft
(300 m)

Figure 74: Sizing field valve wires

1. Determine the actual wire run distance in feet (meters)
from the controller to the first valve on a circuit and
between each of the other valves on a multiple valve
circuit. Complete this for each valve circuit (station) on the
controller. In our diagram, step number one is complete.
All the wire lengths have been measured. This is fairly easy
to accomplish using a map measure and an accurate,
scaled, drawing of the site.

On this “worst case” circuit, the wires should be the same
size or no more than one size apart. In our sample system,
the pressure was 150 psi (10,3 bar). So we can use that wire
chart. Though we would ideally like to use the same size
wires in the pair that supports this “worst case” circuit, the
charts may give us two different sizes for this pair. As the
rule states, these wires have to be within one size of each
other. When the wires are not the same size, the larger one
is to be used as the common for the system. In wire gauge
sizes, the higher the gauge number, the smaller the wire.
#20 gauge wire is much smaller than #12 gauge wire.

2. Calculate the “equivalent circuit length” for each valve
circuit. The equivalent circuit length is calculated by
multiplying the actual wire run distance to the valve by the
number of valves at that location on the circuit. Station #1
in our example has only one valve on the circuit and a wire
run of 2,000 ft (600 m). Its equivalent circuit length is
calculated like this:

Circuit #2 in our sample system has the highest equivalent
circuit length which is 5,000 ft (1500 m). Looking at the 150
psi (10,3 bar) chart, we want to find a circuit length that is
at least 5,000 ft (1500 m) and is closest to the upper left
corner of the chart. This should give us the smallest
acceptable wire pair.

Station #1 equivalent circuit length

For our 5,000 ft (1500 m) circuit length, 6,200 (1889,76) is
the first number greater than or equal to 5,000 (1500).
Reading across to the left-hand column we see this
corresponds to a #14 (2,5 mm2) ground or common wire.
Reading up to the top of the chart, we find that a #14
(2,5 mm2) control wire is sufficient also. The wires for the
“worst case” circuit have been sized.

2,000 ft x 1 valve = 2,000 ft
(600 m x 1 valve = 600 m)
Station #2, however, is calculated with a slight variation
because of its multiple valve situation. Working backward
as we did for sizing pipe in a valve circuit, we start with the

76 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

8

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires

RAIN BIRD 24 V AC SOLENOID VALVES WIRE SIZING CHART

RAIN BIRD 24 V AC SOLENOID VALVES WIRE SIZING CHART

Equivalent circuit length (in feet)
Rain Bird 5.5 VA solenoid electric valves with 26.5 V transformers

Equivalent circuit length (in meters)
Rain Bird 5.5 VA solenoid electric valves with 26.5 V transformers

Common
wire
size 18

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

3000
3700
4300
4800
5200
5500
5700
5800

Common
wire
size 18

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

2800
3500
4100
4500
4900
5200
5400
5500

Common
wire
size 18

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

2600
3200
3800
4200
4600
4800
5000
5100

Common
wire
size 18

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

2400
3000
3500
3900
4300
4500
4600
4700

80 psi water pressure at valve
control wire size
16
14
12
10
8
3700
4800
5900
6900
7700
8300
8800
9100

4300
5900
7700
9400
11000
12300
13300
14000

4800
6900
9400
12200
15000
17500
19600
21100

5200
7700
11000
15000
19400
23900
27800
31100

5500
8300
12300
17500
23900
30900
38000
44300

100 psi water pressure at valve
control wire size
16
14
12
10
8
3500
4500
5500
6500
7300
7800
8300
8500

4100
5500
7200
8900
10300
11600
12500
13200

4500
6500
8900
11500
14100
16500
18400
19900

4900
7300
10300
14100
18300
22500
26200
29300

5200
7800
11600
16500
22500
29100
35700
41700

125 psi water pressure at valve
control wire size
16
14
12
10
8
3200
4200
5200
6000
6700
7300
7700
7900

3800
5200
6700
8200
9600
10800
11600
12200

4200
6000
8200
10700
13100
15300
17100
18500

4600
6700
9600
13100
17000
20900
24400
27300

4800
7300
10800
15300
20900
27100
33200
38800

150 psi water pressure at valve
control wire size
16
14
12
10
8
3000
3900
4800
5600
6300
6800
7200
7400

3500
4800
6200
7700
9000
10000
10800
11400

3900
5600
7700
10000
12200
14300
16000
17300

4300
6300
9000
12200
15900
19500
22800
25400

4500
6800
10000
14300
19500
25300
31000
36200

6

4

5200
8800
13300
19600
27800
38000
49200
60400

5800
9100
14000
21100
31100
44300
60400
78200

6

4

5400
8300
12500
18400
26200
35700
46300
56900

5500
8500
13200
19900
29300
41700
56900
73600

6

4

5000
7700
11600
17100
24400
33200
43100
52900

5100
7900
12200
18500
27300
38800
52900
68500

6

4

4600
7200
10800
16000
22800
31000
40200
49400

4700
7400
11400
17300
25400
36200
49400
63900

Figure 75a: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (U.S. Standard Units)

Common
wire
size 0,75

0,75
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0
16,0
25,0

914,40
1127,76
1310,64
1463,04
1584,96
1676,40
1737,36
1767,84

Common
wire
size 0,75

0,75
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0
16,0
25,0

853,44
1066,80
1249,68
1371,60
1493,52
1584,96
1645,92
1676,40

Common
wire
size 0,75

0,75
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0
16,0
25,0

792,48
975,36
1158,24
1280,16
1402,08
1463,04
1524,00
1554,48

Common
wire
size 0,75

0,75
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0
16,0
25,0

731,52
914,40
1066,80
1188,72
1310,64
1371,60
1402,08
1432,56

5,5 bar water pressure at valve
control wire size
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0 16,0
1127,76
1463,04
1798,32
2103,12
2346,96
2529,84
2682,24
2773,68

1310,64
1798,32
2346,96
2865,12
3352,80
3749,04
4053,84
4267,20

1463,04
2103,12
2865,12
3718,56
4572,00
5334,00
5974,08
6431,28

1584,96
2346,96
3352,80
4572,00
5913,12
7284,72
8473,44
9479,28

1676,40
2529,84
3749,04
5334,00
7284,72
9418,32
11582,40
13502,64

1584,96
2682,24
4053,84
5974,08
8473,44
11582,40
14996,16
18409,92

25,0
1767,84
2773,68
4267,20
6431,28
9479,28
13502,64
18409,92
23835,36

6,9 bar water pressure at valve
control wire size
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0 16,0
1066,80
1371,60
1676,40
1981,20
2225,04
2377,44
2529,84
2590,80

1249,68
1676,40
2194,56
2712,72
3139,44
3535,68
3810,00
4023,36

1371,60
1981,20
2712,72
3505,20
4297,68
5029,20
5608,32
6065,52

1493,52
2225,04
3139,44
4297,68
5577,84
6858,00
7985,76
8930,64

1584,96
2377,44
3535,68
5029,20
6858,00
8869,68
10881,36
12710,16

1645,92
2529,84
3810,00
5608,32
7985,76
10881,36
14112,24
17343,12

25,0
1676,40
2590,80
4023,36
6065,52
8930,64
12710,16
17343,12
22433,28

8,6 bar water pressure at valve
control wire size
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0 16,0
975,36
1280,16
1584,96
1828,80
2042,16
2225,04
2346,96
2407,92

1158,24
1584,96
2042,16
2499,36
2926,08
3291,84
3535,68
3718,56

1280,16
1828,80
2499,36
3261,36
3992,88
4663,44
5212,08
5638,90

1402,08
2042,16
2926,08
3992,88
5212,08
6370,32
7437,12
8321,04

1463,04
2225,04
3291,84
4663,44
6370,32
8260,08
10119,36
11826,24

1524,00
2346,96
3535,68
5212,08
7437,12
10119,36
13136,88
16123,92

25,0
1554,48
2407,92
3718,56
5638,80
8321,04
11826,24
16123,92
20878,80

10,3 bar water pressure at valve
control wire size
1,5
2,5
4,0
6,0
10,0 16,0
914,40
1188,72
1463,04
1706,88
1920,24
2072,64
2194,56
2255,52

1066,80
1463,04
1889,76
2346,96
2743,20
3048,00
3291,84
3474,72

1188,72
1706,88
2346,96
3048,00
3718,56
4358,64
4876,80
5273,04

1310,64
1920,24
2743,20
3718,56
4846,32
5943,60
6949,44
7741,92

1371,60
2072,64
3048,00
4358,64
5943,60
7711,44
9448,80
11033,76

1402,08
2194,56
3291,84
4876,80
6949,44
9448,80
12252,96
15057,12

25,0
1432,56
2255,52
3474,72
5273,04
7741,92
11033,76
15057,12
19476,72

Figure 75b: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (International System Units)

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 77

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires
We could not use the 5,600 ft (1706,08 m) circuit-length
number on the chart because that would have given us a
#12 (4,0 mm2) common and a #16 (1,5 mm2) control wire
pair which is more than one size apart. This “equal or only
one size apart” restriction applies only for the “worst case”
wire pair.
4. Having the common wire size established, use the wire
sizing chart to determine the control wire size for each of
the remaining valve circuits on the controller. For Station
#1 with its equivalent circuit length of 2,000 ft (600 m), we
read across from the #14 (2,5 mm2) gauge ground wire on
the 150 psi (10,3 bar) chart to the first number equal to or
greater than 2,000 ft (600 m). The 3,500 (1066,80) in the first
column satisfies this requirement, and when we read up to
the top of the chart we see that a #18 (0,75 mm2) control
wire will work for this circuit. If there were more stations
being used on the controller, we would complete this step
by sizing all the other valve circuit control wires.
The wire designed for use on automatic irrigation systems
is known as U.F. or “underground feeder” wire. These are
single, copper conductor, thickly insulated, low-voltage
wires that are direct-buried without the need for electrical
conduit. Always check the local electrical or building codes
for the type of wire to use on your project.
On larger commercial projects, U.F. wire sizes smaller than
#14 (2,5 mm2)are seldom used. Even though the smaller
wires can handle the load electrically (according to the
sizing chart), they lack physical strength. As the wires get
smaller, the combination of smaller conductors and thick
insulation can hide wire breaks. When the installer is
spooling off wires from several reels on the back of a truck,
a smaller size conductor can break while its thick
insulation remains intact. The result is a wire fault that will
have to be discovered and fixed.
The other electrical wires that need to be sized for the
project are the controller power wires. The variable factors
that dictate what size wire to use for supplying power to the
controller are:




available voltage at the power source
distance from the power source to the controllers
minimum voltage required to operate the controller
power required by the type of valve used
the number of valves used on any one station of the
controller
• the number of controllers operating at one time

78 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

As irrigation projects get bigger, with more controllers,
sizing the 120 (230) volt supply wires to their minimum can
become quite complicated. To simplify the process, you
can use the five-step procedure outlined below with the
charts which include information on the power
requirements for Rain Bird automatic controllers and
valves.
Let’s do one example so that you will become familiar with
this procedure. The diagram below illustrates the situation:
a 3,000 ft (900 m) wire run with two controllers at different
locations, and two solenoid valves per station on at least
one station of each controller.

Figure 76: Two controllers with wire runs at different locations

Sizing power wires
The following is the 120 (230) V AC primary wire sizing
procedure for Rain Bird controllers and valves.
1. Using figure 77, determine the power requirements for
the controller you have selected, as well as the
requirements for the number of solenoid valves that will
be operating at one time. (You may have only one valve
per station. However, if you are using a master valve to shut
down the project’s main line between irrigation cycles, this
would raise the requirement to two valves.)
Example
Controller primary current requirements from Figure 77:
An ESP controller alone

=

.03 amps

Two solenoid valves .12 x 2

=

.24 amps +

Primary requirements for an
ESP controller and 2 valves

=

.27 amps

2. Determine the maximum allowable voltage drop along
the wires from the power source to the controllers. To do
this you find the voltage available at the power source and
subtract from it the voltage required at the controller. The
result is how much can be lost. It’s like sizing pipe to
determine pressure loss.

0 mm2).007) (.8 Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires CONTROLLERS AND VALVES FOR POWER WIRE SIZING 4.24 2.12 Wire size F= allowable voltage drop amps/control unit x equivalent length in thousands of feet (meters) F = 3 V = 3. Example Calculate the equivalent circuit length working backwards (farthest out) from the controller: 1 controller x 1000 ft (300 m) = 1000 ft (300 m) + 2 controllers x 2000 ft (600 m) = 4000 ft (1200 m) + Total equivalent circuit length = 5000 ft (1500 m) + Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 79 .5 V AC. Using the formula.16 3.81 0.5 mm2) #14 (2.012 .53 (0.0 mm2) 13.529 or 3. Our supply wires for the controllers would be size #12 (4. With all of the hydraulic and electrical calculations complete.53 .011) (.043) (. #18 (.17 A x 5 F= 3 V = .17 A x 1524 "F" factor Figure 77: Electrical current requirements of controllers and valves Example Maximum allowable voltage drop: Power available at the source = 120 V AC (230 V AC) – ISC power requirement stated in catalog = 117 V AC (220 V AC) – Maximum allowable voltage drop = 3 V AC (10 V AC) – ESP Series Dual Program Hybrid Controllers electrical characteristics: • Input required: 117 (220) V AC ± 10%. You will see how similar this is to the way we calculated equivalent circuit lengths for valve wires.03 0. the formula is: Type of controller or valve 117 (230) volt primary current requirements in amps Controllers only With power on not in a cycle RC-Bi RC-C RC-AB ESP ESP-Si ESP-LXi+ ESP-LX+ ESP-MC 0.24 (0.18 5.75 mm2) #16 (1. calculate the F factor for the circuit. We want to select a wire with an F factor for loss that is equal to or less than the loss or “F” factor for the circuit.0 mm2) #8 (10.027) (.017) (. 60 (50) Hz • Output: 24 to 26.13 0.0 mm2) wire has an F factor of 3.13 0.5 A • Circuit breaker: 1.06 0. Select a power wire size from Figure 78 that has an F factor equal to or less than the calculated F factor.26 0. Number 12 (4.06 0.04 1.15 Valves only Current draw when energized 5. Solenoid valve 0.003) (. Think of the F factor as friction loss in a pipe.5 A • UL listed and tested • Sequential operation: When more than one station is programmed to start at the same time. Calculate the equivalent circuit length for the power wire and controller or controllers.0 mm2) #6 (16. the designer is ready for the last step in the process.002) Figure 78: Wires size and F factor Example: Select a power wire from Figure 78 that has an F factor equal to or less than the 3.02 8. those stations will water in sequence starting from the station with the lowest number 3.13 0. 1.5 mm2) #12 (4.012).53 (0.51 (.0 mm2) #4 (25. Electrical current requirements Example To calculate the circuit’s F factor.0 mm2) #10 (6.011) which is the factor immediately less than our calculated 3.012) we have calculated.004) (.28 0.

.

Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan 9 .

.

Other points you should keep in mind when preparing the final plan are: Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan • The plan should contain special notes for any specific requirements which must be met. installation criteria. Buried telephone cables. Because the installing contractor will follow the plan as the system goes in. • The plan should show all water and power utility locations. • The plan should be readable. Turn to page 85 and do the last set of exercises. the plan should be as thorough as possible. Local codes and ordinances. the contractor should have very few questions about the designer’s intent. and rules affecting the landscape from a homeowners’ association could all be part of the special instructions.9 Step nine: Preparing the final irrigation plan The last step in the irrigation system design procedure is preparing the final irrigation plan. After reviewing the drawings. system programming instructions. all the designer’s decisions and intentions should be clearly discernible so that the system can go in as designed. Detailed plans for commercial installations usually have installation drawings that show exactly how each type of product is to be installed. usable and drawn at a convenient scale. power lines or water mains can be very expensive to have repaired. When the final irrigation plan is complete and the designer presents it to the client. and the contractor must know their location to avoid cutting into them. Now that you have had some exposure to the procedures for sizing the electrical portion of an irrigation system and what goes into the final plan. • The plan should show any major elevation changes. The answers are in the Solutions section on page 92. • The plan should have a detailed legend explaining all the symbols used in the drawing. you have seen the last of the material to be covered in this manual. The final irrigation plan is a diagram representing what the sprinkler system should look like after installation. not just those to which the contractor will need to hook up. Figure 79: Irrigation legend Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 83 . These drawings are often available as line drawings on transparent sheets so they can be shot with the blueprint of the project design.

Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Figure 80: Final irrigation plan 84 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

For Station #3’s equivalent circuit length. there is a third station on the controller. What is the total draw for each control unit when operating its valves? 1500 ft (450 m) 1000 ft (300 m) 500 ft (150 m) RC-1260-C Two solenoid valves Total draw = ________ amps = ________ amps = ________ amps Step one is complete on this diagram. It’s the system we looked at earlier. With the new ground wire size established. 120 (230) V AC Power Source 2 RC-1260-C Controllers Section A 2000 ft (600 m) Common 3 2 1 Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Pressure at valves = 150 psi (10. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 85 . the wire size with an F factor equal to or immediately less the calculated F factor is # ________ wire. Each controller has at least one station with two valves. what size control wire matches up with it to provide power for Station #2? Number ________ wire at 117 (220)V AC is ________ volts. The equivalent circuit length for the power wires on Station #3: one valve x two valves x three valves x _____=_____ _____=_____ _____=_____ Total equivalent circuit length of ___________ B. 8. The final plan should be drawn to a convenient. The primary current in amps for the RC-1260-C controller is ________? 2000 ft (600 m) 2000 ft (600 m) 2. Controller Ground the diagram below. the common and control wires must be the _________ size or within _________ size of each other. The energy draw for a Rain Bird solenoid valve is ________ amps. calculate the equivalent circuit length for station #3. the ________ should list and identify all the symbols used in the drawing. C. Station #3 is now the “worst case” electrical circuit on the controller. however. Underground ________ should be noted on the plan to avoid cutting into them during installation of the system. 10. From Figure 78. According to the rule on sizing the wires for the “worst case” circuit. 9. 7. The allowable voltage drop if the RC-1260-C operates A. what is the acceptable common or ground wire size according to the wire sizing chart? Number ________ wire D.3 bar) 1 RC-1260-C Controller Section B 1000 ft (300 m) 1. 1000 ft (300 m) 3. What control wire size is required? Number ________ wire E.9 Exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan F. The actual distances from controller to valve and any subsequent valves per circuit have been determined for you. ? V = an F factor of ?Ax? 6. Fill in the blanks for controller power wire sizing using The electrical system diagrammed below may look somewhat familiar to you. this system is: ________ feet for section “B” ________ feet for section “A” ________ total feet for the system Calculate the “F” factor for the circuit. 4. 5. ________ drawings included with the plan show how each major component is to be hooked up. This time. readable ________. On the final irrigation plan. Follow the procedure for sizing valve wires as you fill in the blanks. To complete step number two.

. Landscape Irrigation Design and Management. Maintenance. California: Irrigation Technical Services. We suggest that you try designing a system as soon as possible. Second Edition. The ABCs of Lawn Sprinkler Systems. 1996. Pete. California 94514 USA. Inc. but have yet to practice it on an actual project design. Bryon. and Water Management. If you would like additional reading. so to speak! You have studied the theory. Ron D. Sprinkle and Trickle Irrigation. Ohio: Franzak & Foster. et al. The Complete Irrigation Workbook: Design. Pair. PO Box 426. you will better retain what you have learned. United States Golf Association. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.. Wastewater Reuse for Golf Course Irrigation. Claude H. 1972. et al. 1997. Eugene W. Inc. Keesen.Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Congratulations! You have completed this program. 1990. and Jack Keller. Sarsfield. In this way. Installation. 1995. 1983. Fifth Edition.C.org. Virginia: The Irrigation Association.. Larry. Rodger. You are armed and dangerous. John Wiley & Sons. Rochester. Landscape Irrigation Design. we offer the following books for reference: Bliesner. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Irrigation. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers. 86 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . Irrigation references A list of professional irrigation consultants may be obtained from the American Society of Irrigation Consultants. 1994. New York. 1995. 1995. Melby. Walker. enlisting the assistance of an experienced designer on your first effort... ASIC’s telephone number is 925-516-1124 and their Web page can be found at www.asic. Smith. Simplified Irrigation Design. Michigan: The American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Michigan: Lewis Publishers. A. Pump Selection: A Consulting Engineers Manual. Stephen W.

Solutions s .

.

. . Static pressure in the main is. .85 (4.. . . Rule 2: The maximum flow through the meter for irrigation should not exceed 75% of the maximum safe flow of the meter. . Clay soil K. . Point D = 90. .. .08 psi (0. ... 111 psi (7. + 64.2 bar) . .. A. . .08 psi (0.28 psi (To find the static water pressure in bar at point B.. – . .. . .28 psi (5 bar).40 bar) J. . – .3) Point E dynamic pressure = 115. – 1. Temperature and humidity C.61 m) of straight 1-1/4 (32 mm) in tubing.7) Friction loss through 50 ft of pipe (15 m) . . . .12 psi (0. . . Point of connection (POC) L..05 bar) D.2) E. . + 32. the 32. .01 bar) E. .03 psi (0.47 psi (2.. a loss G.8 bar). . .05 bar) Loss through component #2 is .47 (2. .. .299 or 1..23 (0.03 bar) H. .. Evapotranspiration F.34 psi (3. – 2.002 bar) I.27 psi (6. .30 psi (0. .27 (6. . . . . . . Point C dynamic pressure = 64. . . 5.64 L/s) at 115. Rule 1: The pressure loss through the water meter should not exceed 10% of the minimum static water pressure available in the city main. G. .. 4 psi (0. . . ... . .01 bar)... . . .3 bar) elevation pressure gain in the calculation would be a loss instead.2 bar) water pressure. . .. .93 psi (6.. .. + 85.8 bar). .03 psi (0. . .. .5 to 2.. .. . If the last 100 ft (30 m) of pipe went up 75 ft (23 m) from point D to point E. instead of down.46 (0.. . .. . Point B had a static pressure of 69. .433 x 160 = 69. Static C. . Warm. . divide 50 by 10 =5 bar).. .12 psi (0. – . . .8 bar) I.3 psi (0. . . . .28 psi (8..2) Elevation pressure gain of 75 ft (23 m) .11 psi (0..1 bar). . . . .30 bar) Loss through component #4 is . . . The working pressure at point E would be 50. .08 psi The valve at point E can supply 26 gpm (5.70 bar) Loss through component #1 is . .8 psi (0. – . . humid Point E = 123.. .008 bar) K.65 (1.. . . 1. . .01 bar) Loss through component #5 is ..Solutions s Solutions to exercises on basic hydraulics D. + 21.. . .. .08 psi (0.002 bar) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 89 .. . .03 bar) Elevation loss is . . .... E.9 m3/h or 1. B.03 bar) Loss through component #6 is .405 psi (8. . 12 psi (0. .. .. Rule 3: The velocity of flow through the service line should not exceed 5 to 7-1/2 ft/s (1. . + 111. . ... . .1) Elevation pressure gain of 50 ft (15 m) . ... . . . . .00 psi (7. . 2 ft (0.433 psi (0. . . .20 in (5 mm) D.82 psi (4.. No difference. +115. To find the static water pressure in psi at point B. . .. .6 bar). .7 bar) C..7 bar) . Reference evapotranspiration B. the dynamic pressure at B is 66. . . . . . – .. . – 1.5) Point D dynamic pressure = 85.. . Solutions to exercises on site information and irrigation requirements Solutions (0.3 bar).28 (8.. .. . .85 psi (4. .. ... multiply ..1 bar) . .24 psi (0. .. . – . .5 bar) H. Plot plan B. After you subtract the friction loss caused by the above flow through 100 ft (30 m)of 1-1/4 in (32 mm)Class 200 PVC pipe. . .1) Friction loss through 100 ft (30 m) of pipe . Night A.. 45° Solutions to exercises on water capacity and pressure A.12 psi (0. . Wind direction and velocity Tree locations Walkways and driveways All buildings Location of water source Area measurements Walls and fences Slopes J.24 psi (0.01 bar) Loss through component #3 is .. . .. . . .03 bar) F. .3 m/s)..28 psi (8. . . .

which is 103. If a tree or large bush in the center of a lawn area can tolerate the same amount of water as the turfgrass.12 psi (6. –103. – . Square pattern D.33 m).86 bar) and the flow limit of 19 gpm (4. Particularly in a high pressure situation.12 psi (6.97 or 1. A bubbler An emitter I.86 bar) diameter of throw Until we had determined the pressure available at the point of connection for this irrigation system. an impact sprinkler would be a better choice than a spray sprinkler F. Impact sprinkler .3 x 5 gpm = .89 or 9 15 m x 15 m H.008 bar) Solutions to exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates A.6-m) pop-up spray sprinkler E. Spray sprinklers generally have fixed arc patterns D. parallelogram The height of the sprinkler pattern can be determined by multiplying 15 ft x . 6 sprinklers For large radius coverage.33 m Solutions to exercises on locating sprinklers C.. Rectangular pattern Solutions to exercises on selecting sprinklers A...20 L/s). Inches (millimeter). The radius of coverage for a sprinkler The model numbers for the equipment The flow requirement for sprinklers The pressure requirement for sprinklers The arc pattern for a sprinkler 90 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual G..80 psi (0.57 5 m x 4.40 bar) Loss through component #8 is . Area size Area shape Water pressure Wind conditions Types of plants Flows available Slope on site B.98 15 ft x 13 ft 1000 x . Sprinkler spacing and row spacing Distance between sprinklers on a line and between that line and the next “S” is spacing between sprinklers. Four. “L” is for spacing between rows of sprinklers on their laterals G. Square An emitter is a drip irrigation device F. However.Solutions Loss through component #7 is . it is best to plot the sprinklers to surround the bush or tree to avoid blocking the sprinklers’ coverage of the lawn. If we saw only that there was 111 psi (7. This would seem to be the way to get the most out of the system by running large numbers of sprinklers at one time. the tendency of those unfamiliar with basic hydraulics is to let the pressure force the water flow to its greatest potential. Rotor pop-up C. we could not properly select the sprinklers to use.90 m3/h = 41.6-m) radius spray sprinkler D. hour I.238 45 ft x 45 ft 1000 x 2 m3/h = 8.7 bar) static pressure in the city main. we could create severe hydraulic problems by simply designing in a bunch of sprinklers to use up the available pressure.. 96. this could cause pipes to burst from surge pressures or destroy the water meter. Impact sprinklers on risers A.866 = 12.11 psi (0. 96. – 5. H. Head-to-head spacing only 60% of the sprinkler’s The remaining pressure at #9 is.. 15 sprinklers Rotor pop-ups usually have adjustable arcs E.. Is a constant F. A 12-ft (3. A 12-ft (3.31 m3/h or 1.3 x 4 gpm = 1. Only the flow entering the pattern we’re checking E. B. Pop-up spray sprinklers B..866 = 4.237 or .99 ft or 13 ft (5m x 0.

For 19. . . the system will work.83 (0. . .17 (4.6 gpm (4.. .876) + Pressure gains from elevation drop . . . . . . . .000 (0. .2 gpm (8.89 m3/h or 2. . 709 (0.300 (0. . . . .8 bar) Pressure loss: For 9. . .17 (4. .8 gpm (2.3 bar) to the good. .85 L/s) through 47 ft (14. .498 x 60 = 19 to 20 min/cycle . . . G. . . . 2. . Station #3: B. .17 (4.16)+ #1 For 39. .47 L/s) through 23. .000) – Total pressure required by system . . . . . . .89 m3/h or 2.2 gpm (8. . .8 ft (50 m) of 2 in (50 mm)schedule 40 PVC pipe . . . . .139) + For 39. . . 26 to 27 (26) minutes per cycle D. . .228) + Estimate for fittings loss: 10% of all pipe losses: . . . . .47 L/s) through 162. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 223 (0. . After deducting all the losses and the pressure required at that last “worst case” sprinkler. .872 (0. 2 x 60 = 60 to 61 min/cycle . . .3 m) of 1-1/2 in (40 mm)class 200 PVC pipe .4 gpm (6. 70. 1. . . . . . . 70. . . . . . . . .45 m3/h or 1.054) + One valve x 500 ft (150 m) = 500 (150 m) Two valves x 1000 ft (300 m) = 2000 (600 m) Three valves x 1500 ft (450 m) = 4500 (1350 m) Total equivalent circuit length = 7000 ft (2100 m) For 39. .561 (0. . . . . 70. . . . . . .3 m) of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) class 200 PVC pipe . .89 m3/h or 2.47 L/s) through a 1-1/2 in (40 mm) water meter . According to the rule on sizing the wires for the “worst case” circuit. .62 L/s) through 47 ft (14. . .. . . . . .3 m) of 3/4 in (20 mm) class 200 PVC pipe . . . . . True Solutions to exercises on calculating system pressure requirements Pressure needed at sprinkler = 55 psi (3. . .7 ft (12. . . .33 x 6 50 x 60 = 59. . .4 x 6 C. . . .800 (0. 0. . . . .2 gpm (8. . . the common and control wires must be the same size or within one size of each other.89 m3/h or 2. . . . . . . . . .130) + #2 So far. . . . .026 (0. . . . . . . . . 75 (5. . . . . . 4. . .67 x 7 35 x 60 = 17 to 18 min/cycle 17 x 7 F. . .2 m) of 2 in (50 mm) class 200 PVC pipe . . . . 3. . . . . . 1. . 780 (0.000 (0. . . 3. . .262) + #3 B. . . . . . .2 gpm (8. . For 39.67 m3/h or 1. . .039) + Any losses in pressure due to elevation rise: . . . . . . . . .294)) As you can see after working through this analysis. . . . . the above is Circuit #1 plus 40..5 ft (7. . .876) – If this is a positive number the system will work . . . .24 L/s) through 47 ft (14. 90 to 91 (89) minutes per cycle E. . . . . For 39. . 1-1/4 in (32 mm)backflow unit .000) + Subtotal . .47 L/s) through a PVB-125. . . . . Adequate cover is required to protect a main line pipe from damage from overhead traffic.23 m3/h or 0. . . . . . . .17) Total pressure required by system . . .47 L/s) through a 150-PEB. . .049) + Solutions to exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan For 29. . . . . . . . .2 gpm (8. . .015) + A.876) Static pressure available to site . . . .5 to 60 min/cycle 8. .s Solutions to exercises on circuit configuration and operating time A. . . .41 m) added to the main line as if it was further out where circuit #2 is located. . . . .89 m3/h or 2. . Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 91 . the system was still about 5 psi (0. . . . .900 Solutions (0. . 1-1/2 in electric valve . . . . . .

6 6. The equivalent circuit length for the power wires on this system is: 1 controller x 1000 ft (300 m) = 1000 ft (300 m) for section “B” 3 controllers x 2000 ft (600 m) = 6000 ft (1800 m) for section “A” 7.13 amps Two solenoid valves = . Number 14 (2.Solutions C.27 amps 4. Number 16 (1.5 mm2) wire F. 8. 10.58 F factor .27 A x 2133. the legend should list and identify all the symbols used in the drawing. On the final irrigation plan. Number 8 (10 mm2) wire. The energy draw for a Rain Bird solenoid valve is .Underground utilities should be noted on the plan to avoid cutting into them during installation of the system. Installation drawings included with the plan show how each major component is to be hooked up. 3 V = 1. The final plan should be drawn to a convenient. 92 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . 5. The primary current in amps for the RC-1260-C controller is .000 total ft (2100 m) for the system Calculate the F factor for the circuit. 1. RC-1260-C = . Number 12 (4. 3.13. The allowable voltage drop if the RC-1260-C operates at 117 (220) VAC is 3 (10) volts. 7. readable scale.14 amps Total draw = . 9.0 mm2) wire D. 2.5 mm2) wire E.07 amps.27 A x 7 3V = .005 F factor .

Technical Data td .

47 0.06 9.08 0.79 3.52 0.88 18.40 0.875 2.01 0.86 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .93 15.500 3.35 1.19 0.68 3.83 0.31 3.64 5.68 8.01 18.88 38.60 0.89 1.66 8.03 0.02 14.33 0.28 0.97 22.01 0.55 0.44 0.24 28.42 0.81 1.95 4.37 3.14 1.02 0.64 12.38 0.29 0.05 0.01 0.87 4.826 0.29 5.49 8.26 1.99 2.10 0.70 0.33 14. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 1⁄2 in 0.29 5.01 0.46 1.22 9.65 0.96 2.20 20.91 5.92 6.18 1.99 4.04 0.34 14.70 65.90 0.49 4.98 0.90 1.95 2.33 0.49 0.51 7.28 0.39 0.09 0.69 55.22 0.81 0.83 3.154 1 in 1.20 1.53 1.76 8.87 16.37 0.67 1.04 0.02 0.840 0.21 0.16 24.49 5.85 13.13 8.04 1.79 1.35 4.34 0.01 0.35 29.99 3.46 3 in 3.41 16.58 25.45 4.81 2.86 0.06 0.852 Q 1.25 0.03 0.59 5.59 14.53 2.06 0.66 2.47 6.03 0.76 10.22 0.19 0.36 18.63 13.49 2.147 3⁄4 in 1.41 46.22 4.93 1.99 7.30 17.276 2 in 2.24 2.08 0.67 6.45 1.23 29.41 2.01 0.45 1.15 4.33 3.49 15.500 0.10 0.78 12.72 1.39 3.18 5.78 19.58 5.73 3.81 0.11 0.61 7.22 2.93 15. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Technical Data U.761 0.34 4.71 2.31 13.30 9.S.98 4.432 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.16 0.61 0.18 2.48 3.04 1.93 22.15 3.66 7.50 0.50 15.05 0.22 0.01 0.01 0.25 8.06 1.300 velocity fps psi loss 0.95 11.88 5.91 5.94 2.49 0.05 0.01 0.18 0.65 0.40 0.43 6.81 22.53 5.07 0.85 11.73 14.02 0.19 2.48 2.99 4.53 4.14 13.36 15.05 0.39 1.16 1.12 30.500 2.74 1.05 2.03 0.44 19.02 0.900 0.18 0.74 2.01 0.64 2.44 5.85 13.30 0.10 1.19 0.59 11.68 15.34 3.278 0.02 0.21 2.96 3.64 6.23 0.00 5.75 4.59 10.26 0.58 19.00 0.81 1.52 0.61 1.63 1.68 6.21 9.81 1.61 0.69 38.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.75 12.69 1.69 0.15 0.45 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.90 0.64 27.04 0.02 0.73 4.01 0.58 11.90 9.13 24.63 0.02 9.26 1.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.60 14.64 3.19 16.04 6.12 8.98 4.54 15.56 4.72 0.38 0.52 1.01 1.408 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.36 9.17 0.02 0.33 5.72 38.25 12.14 6.45 0.23 0.78 4.01 15.02 0.95 25.96 16.36 4.35 0.10 0.375 1.13 0.19 1.18 0.82 10.75 0.73 5.94 0.57 2.22 5.33 0. Use with caution.191 11⁄2 in 1.59 1.93 3.01 0.48 0.50 0.18 4.01 0.19 10.23 0.99 1.35 1.55 15.72 0.43 0.85 1.01 5.49 13.90 1.23 1.47 5.73 19.14 0.01 1.17 2.95 2.84 2.83 8.10 1.38 2.179 11⁄4 in 1.58 12.63 80.11 2.957 0. Standard Units Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.50 0.87 0.13 19.10 5.90 11.25 1.51 1.69 13.01 0.26 1.81 8.73 0.72 2.10 5.12 0.09 2.01 0.27 17.83 6.96 2.40 0.02 0.60 6.16 9.05 1.24 8.38 0.69 1.03 0.76 16.36 2.04 0.00 0.01 8.29 5.36 7.15 8.44 5.07 0.42 0.28 0.07 9.16 0.79 4 in 4.62 3.32 17.546 0.26 2.20 3.32 43.57 1.90 3.94 2.03 1.80 0.24 3.33 29.82 16.900 1.36 1.11 3.09 3.58 10.14 11.70 1.09 0.12 0.40 8.77 0.45 2.60 3.30 4.63 0.44 75.06 0.27 7.03 0.17 2.89 3.60 4.12 0.54 16.68 0.02 0.59 0.03 0.60 4.36 0.51 9.13 0.37 0.08 1.05 0.36 0.75 0.44 6.43 18.26 3.11 0.05 16.36 2.61 0.74 9.99 1.43 0.75 10.38 0.38 3.13 2.05 0.70 10.00 0.92 1.27 6.56 0.12 0.852 C x .45 11.00 0.78 3.55 0.15 0.25 5.48 18.64 4.30 6.00 0.91 3.337 6 in 6.92 1.40 33.67 3.08 2.99 2.29 0.79 7.18 7.37 5.10 15.41 8.76 0.06 0.70 4.82 3.315 0.24 3.04 0.47 17.71 5.89 10.99 6.33 14.43 0.78 2.29 0.18 0.39 6.22 2.87 11.07 7.04 5.97 18.34 12.23 17.74 1.94 12.49 6.73 1.75 0.57 4.01 0.39 2.30 10.53 0.62 3.49 6.02 18.26 6.45 4.90 4.01 0.07 3.07 5.59 17.09 21.27 0.02 0.10 0.17 0.53 10.02 0.66 0.98 1.56 8.84 1.08 0.36 0.15 18.01 25.36 15.32 0.21 0.51 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.40 3.42 6.19 19.02 6.06 0.44 0.60 2.81 0.51 1.49 1.742 0.20 7.84 12.90 5.61 0.77 0.11 1.85 5.63 3.18 7.44 0.82 6.33 1.24 0.01 0.09 12.34 6.33 2.68 9.660 1.96 14.51 22.12 13.97 2.04 13.323 0.76 3.99 8.93 13.866 94 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Q d 2 21⁄2 in 2.38 1.79 0.30 1.83 0.01 19.97 10.23 7.16 48.97 1.97 1.50 2.84 3.33 57.44 0.31 9.71 0.09 0.55 0.050 0.54 13.36 2.79 4.03 3.59 8.67 0.25 3.84 8.07 0.09 0.81 2.52 68.44 0.21 1.27 10.19 .54 0.16 0.91 12.99 5.80 10.23 13.34 0.25 0.10 0.56 10.49 3.84 0.78 0.22 1.22 2.29 1.16 1.47 13.58 0.66 1.05 9.51 0.939 0.89 9.34 7.63 2.05 7.37 11.03 0.95 35.17 0.31 0.36 0.57 6.218 velocity fps psi loss 0.96 2.06 3.66 1.22 0.29 0.47 0.32 16.34 11.90 1.12 17.67 0.98 16.74 0.00 4.12 4.92 0.07 0.38 2.24 12.22 18.00 1.59 0.96 6.71 38.30 0.42 2.67 0.63 0.72 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.88 4.21 9.24 0.05 0.71 12.73 9.10 4.26 0.51 0.71 0.41 1.625 5.99 11.97 1.27 2.14 0.01 0.08 1.42 5.24 1.03 0.10 0.01 0.92 6.05 47.02 3.09 2.65 7.03 0.10 1.14 0.96 7.200 flow gpm velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 1.05 0.47 1.80 7.56 8.69 11.53 0.87 0.54 0.01 0.76 7.73 0.47 2.

05 0.57 2.89 47.99 5.41 8.46 0.51 2.96 2.46 19.37 12.65 9.97 2.44 0.44 0.73 7.98 21.01 0.73 0.34 1.76 3.27 0.00 0.66 1.145 flow gpm velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 1.71 4.20 3.26 0.05 16.03 0.47 17.27 6.57 11.13 8.00 2.20 4.73 1.73 0.01 0.02 0.49 0.11 0.01 0.85 2.02 0.87 8.35 4.83 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.28 0.58 3.62 0.16 4.37 10.60 0.78 0.11 0. Standard Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk .77 0.21 0.500 4.86 3.20 6.03 0.81 3.26 0.68 4.72 5.71 13.02 0.68 5.12 0.07 4.88 0.40 0.59 9.07 0.65 0.70 4.69 0.17 0.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.88 7.02 0.04 1.33 4.01 0.21 1.01 0.88 1.00 0.86 3.01 0.46 2.95 1.01 0.06 0.11 3.64 10.15 8.45 14.625 6.02 6.21 14.45 39. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .36 0.38 2.08 15.03 8.01 0.12 0.68 7.02 4.26 velocity fps psi loss 0.900 1.01 2.92 90.90 2.33 3.50 6.92 2.08 7.60 4.32 29.42 0.68 0.88 2.08 0.25 3.16 7.380 0.20 0.18 5.25 1.25 3.27 10.70 9.69 11.59 1.41 0.46 0.66 10.13 0.55 3.61 0.25 0.07 0.50 11.61 0.64 0.05 0.83 16.55 1.07 0.79 0.71 1.43 1.40 0.S.30 1.68 3.76 0.00 1.41 13.51 1.04 0.01 0.68 0.35 6.93 4 in 4.88 1.68 6.237 6 in 6.63 0.89 1.48 1.05 0.40 6.07 9.06 17.85 1.50 2.82 10.15 4.35 5.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 95 Technical Data U.026 0.27 16.06 10.30 0.04 0.47 1.18 2.60 1.28 2.38 0.03 0.622 0.22 25.36 4.02 0.90 4.15 0.55 0.60 2.01 0.29 1.50 6.33 7.08 0.47 0.02 3.02 0.85 4.95 1.44 2.28 0.29 6.12 0.840 0.80 56.33 7.09 4.03 0.50 0.01 8.08 0.66 22.53 0.07 0.66 0.88 2.02 0.84 5.469 0.02 0.60 0.08 2.33 18.89 9.20 2.88 2.34 3.90 1.25 5.55 23.83 3.23 11.15 18.52 3.13 1.45 12.20 25.65 12.10 0.38 8.75 10. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.39 0.109 3⁄4 in 1.13 0.54 10.25 0.41 1.203 2 in 2.31 4.34 0.94 5.03 3.36 0.33 4.11 4.068 0.48 18.065 0.89 1.33 0.03 10.22 2.59 2.95 2.77 5.49 8.133 11⁄4 in 1.25 17.09 0.140 11⁄2 in 1.28 3.38 10.95 12.45 0.60 7.11 0.40 4.06 6.78 0.81 12.05 8.29 0.02 0.25 0.93 6.07 0.36 8.31 18. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.12 12.01 0.20 0.25 4.19 0.05 1.42 0.06 0.28 4.63 1.44 0.02 0.03 0.29 7.16 4.37 29.04 0.26 0.71 1.46 11.39 2.84 0.42 7.66 0.08 16.75 0.74 1.15 3.38 0.01 0.11 0.216 velocity fps psi loss 0.49 1.20 5.66 0.00 6.30 0.12 0.06 0.43 8.99 2.35 2.50 0.02 0.02 0.63 8.21 0.05 0.34 0.14 19.61 10.64 10.30 0.60 0.72 3 in 3.03 16.02 0.40 4.83 6.85 17.77 4.93 7.11 8.15 0.41 0.07 1.01 13.43 4.99 3.14 5.03 0.37 0.23 10.41 2.78 12.22 0.29 0.25 0.113 1 in 1.52 0.660 1.34 3.16 14.86 15.75 1.51 1.375 2.07 1.21 2.63 6.49 10.35 0.43 1.52 0.40 0.45 20.408 Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.00 3. 1⁄2 in 0.60 0.76 1.66 0.92 7.69 4.92 14.32 3.34 2.80 8.71 17.21 19.04 3.40 0.18 0.14 3.92 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.26 0.94 0.93 1.46 3.26 0.32 11.28 59.315 1.47 0.27 4.38 11.03 0.98 4.875 2.73 1.10 0.27 38.94 1.29 7.42 3.54 36.04 12.30 0.49 2.72 6.10 2.14 6.18 0.80 12.33 1.25 1.51 8.60 3.99 1.81 4.43 14.280 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.39 0.01 0.01 5.03 0.05 3.65 3.59 0.30 0.26 5.05 2.97 14.30 45.65 0.05 0.12 30.99 16.60 1.60 1.04 33.01 5.69 110.18 8.34 0.15 1.73 0.07 0.824 0.80 5.10 1.60 12.29 2.77 3.13 0.10 6.20 2.88 2.94 72.81 0.09 0.35 24.01 2.84 1.01 0.38 0.88 0.48 2.01 11.42 0.10 1.21 8.10 1.80 2.44 9.75 2.154 velocity fps psi loss 0.02 3.70 9.87 18.51 1.47 5.01 4.12 0.36 7.39 0.12 1.77 4.48 0.04 0.54 0.22 5.17 16.01 0.24 9.41 9.42 15.44 5.10 0.08 1.78 5.13 18.01 3.59 13.82 18.00 0.60 0.51 2.20 0.71 0.049 0.81 9.71 5.14 0.54 0.20 3.46 3.24 1.62 16.22 1.00 0.22 0.76 5.49 0.00 7.20 1.10 1.21 26.93 1.46 14.40 3.49 0.33 1.26 36.28 1.02 0.18 0.33 0.52 1.77 6.74 13.01 0.53 0.47 0.42 31.01 0.09 0.51 1.66 0.67 2.75 0.84 3.40 2.050 0.72 33.66 6.19 5.13 2.01 13.99 6.39 7.42 2.92 1.06 0.00 14.23 8.55 0.72 6.97 0.68 18.52 0.21 0.43 42.75 21⁄2 in 2.20 1.29 1.72 1.76 0.43 10.01 0.73 18.04 0.09 0.69 20.17 4.88 4.55 8.28 5.92 13.58 13.95 15.66 0.44 10.03 0.33 15.02 0.52 0.87 2.16 0.77 1.04 15.85 0.02 0.24 12.02 0.89 14.56 0.610 0.18 18.74 2.19 0.08 7.23 17.90 14.96 12.00 0.17 0.29 4.60 8.62 6.00 0.53 4.15 0.56 10.18 2.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.03 5.03 6.09 0.57 5.03 0.95 2.72 3.74 1.57 1.58 52.74 3.44 1.04 0.07 28.31 0.14 14.84 5.56 9.02 4.38 1.32 15.76 16.11 0.72 4.57 0.08 0.22 0.14 2.74 17.69 7.21 0.96 3.38 0.72 0.05 1.05 0.86 0.17 9.500 3.66 5.78 0.37 14.19 1.38 15.16 2.83 11.32 0.70 0.30 21.09 0.55 11.45 0.84 15.89 1.01 0.88 1.67 3. Use with caution.56 1.71 11.26 0.54 6.16 3.42 19.67 7.36 14.77 20.70 11.60 0.16 0.37 1.11 1.26 2.87 8.14 5.89 4.067 0.50 1.43 0.77 9.27 3.33 1.852 C x .18 1.10 2.33 12.65 14.66 9.81 18.03 1.23 23.10 0.23 0.80 0.01 0.14 1.852 Q 1.83 3.85 13.23 11.

96 1.73 14.98 14.47 8.852 Q 1.63 0.38 2.20 11.08 1.46 13.92 2.17 5.05 0.24 0.24 13.67 0.02 0.18 10.61 0.050 0.54 5.00 1.01 0.03 0.14 7.852 C x .53 2.49 1.54 32.26 0.04 9.75 9.10 4.94 19.77 12.03 0.30 0.44 0.18 2.04 2.05 3.74 0.48 4.23 2.24 14.30 5.48 8.55 0.11 1.618 0.49 2.03 0.78 6.70 0.84 9.74 4.67 3.98 3.98 5.333 velocity fps psi loss 0.21 3.36 19.54 5.38 2.47 3.64 0.08 6.03 2.88 3.74 2.12 1.06 0.40 11.24 1.68 0.02 0.08 4.05 17.71 1.09 0.96 6.75 5.05 0.02 14.70 0.63 8.01 0.06 0.16 9.56 0.44 0.99 1.39 10.09 1.57 6.16 7.24 6.40 3.17 2.20 11.70 0.03 0.58 6.35 0.15 0.00 0.29 0.71 3.31 2.03 0.10 1.20 18.76 6.32 0.14 0.23 12.96 3.50 0.91 16.98 4.69 18.50 19.19 11.44 4.91 1.875 2.81 0.80 3.48 4.08 0.02 0.67 2.01 0.37 8.62 0.94 2.52 2.26 5.74 0.02 1.79 10.06 2.22 0.12 1.79 8.07 0.28 1.40 1.99 5.51 18.61 13.19 1.95 1.01 0.78 1.95 12.97 20.21 1.23 velocity fps psi loss 0.29 3.81 16.75 1.67 5.23 0.88 7.00 0.95 15.08 0.75 6.23 7.14 18.71 15.31 0.87 15.05 0.06 13.12 6.141 flow gpm velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 0. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 1⁄2 in 0.09 9.94 2.22 0.96 1.49 0.02 0.93 1.41 0.01 0.02 0.74 4.30 2.42 0.66 15.90 1.48 5.80 1. Standard Units Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.23 0.33 10.15 5.96 11.24 3.63 1.67 4.78 4.42 3.76 3.10 5.97 9.20 0.51 1.59 1.449 0.48 0.078 11⁄4 in 1.54 0.09 0.80 7.39 1.97 1.16 6.48 0.32 15.83 2.22 1.79 12.66 0.06 0.19 0.51 0.39 0.06 3.86 22.26 1.97 7.85 8.52 1.84 3.83 47.85 0.93 7.02 0.66 1.19 0.34 7.01 0.08 2.02 0.15 3.27 0.19 5.05 0.31 . Flow 1 through 600 gpm.99 8.65 0.01 0.74 12.48 0.92 3.35 19.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.02 0.00 18.06 1.85 19.59 0.07 1.84 36.35 4.18 12.88 11.36 1.05 0.10 0.01 0.38 18.59 1.62 0.12 5.76 0.76 0.16 9.87 1.01 0.24 0.76 1.16 13.84 6.26 0.82 2.500 3.29 2.73 0.18 0.20 10.01 0.02 1.67 0.31 9.48 6.96 2.34 18.23 13.19 2.39 2.82 4.02 1.491 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.04 0.24 1.94 2.15 0.123 1 in 1.77 6.03 2.27 2.96 12.01 0.66 1.48 8.01 0.77 0.16 4.47 15.06 3.13 10.23 17.80 4.97 2.53 1.17 0.12 7.09 1.79 8.14 7.42 1.90 11.05 9.20 0.64 28.55 3.05 1.10 11.55 0.50 0.94 17.36 7.29 15.03 0.74 45.32 8.01 0.33 3.58 17.49 7.67 20.22 1.22 40.31 0.27 0.07 0.40 1.29 0.11 0.03 2.19 9.38 0.14 0.02 0.68 0.23 7.04 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.11 0.47 12.05 5.70 0.81 1.26 16.80 15.96 13.70 12.71 1.24 2.35 0.28 1.44 5.50 5.12 7.04 2.44 2.70 2.14 0.79 1.47 9.60 0.55 11.13 0.39 0. 1220) SDR 13.10 0.89 0.51 0.40 7.58 5.04 0.26 77.18 13.47 0.72 5.02 0.71 10.64 0.32 9.55 6.834 0.21 0.48 0.42 0.25 8.56 2.79 0.59 2.28 15.12 0.09 0.27 7.97 7.43 26.84 20.30 0.85 3.062 3⁄4 in 0.26 3.32 11.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.46 0.84 6.43 2.36 4.00 1.49 2.46 6.06 0.55 0.840 0.01 0.29 0.11 0.10 0.02 0.65 2.95 16.38 0.04 7.36 0.49 0.24 4.61 6.14 5.45 4.41 0.S.37 0.16 4.05 4.00 0.51 0.315 1.62 23.14 8.37 0.89 0.95 53.22 0.63 2.00 0.71 9.89 8.02 0.79 1.15 1.375 2.43 3.87 2.86 0.27 2.89 4.82 0.35 2.03 0.61 0.72 3.04 2.90 2.01 0.29 0.61 0.894 0.60 1.49 13.35 6.47 7.04 0.900 1.43 1.17 3.44 3.82 4.42 4.44 5.25 1.89 4.38 15.19 1.38 3.52 10.49 0.25 13.83 2.28 0.02 9.57 3.02 0.99 3.29 0.01 0.982 0.59 7.01 7.48 1.32 9.29 17.12 0.04 0.28 1.45 0.42 2.95 3 in 3.55 0.121 0.04 0.95 10.07 0.83 3.58 0.10 11.69 0.03 0.05 1.68 22.08 0.30 17.27 0.94 1.00 0.79 8.33 17.10 0.19 15.08 0.04 0.87 4.60 3. Use with caution.31 0.176 velocity fps psi loss 0.213 2 in 2.35 21.20 0.10 5.62 1.53 2.04 2.716 0.18 3.17 10.59 2.08 1.20 3.76 3.24 2.96 1.47 1.70 0.59 5.58 0.96 10.52 3.74 11.77 0.03 14.11 3.94 25.09 0.259 4 in 4.40 1.69 55.40 0.44 0.80 5.07 0.15 0.14 8.71 7.19 0.72 0.408 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.06 0.79 11.04 5.46 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.48 5.68 12.65 35.414 0.89 5.29 1.04 0.72 1.97 4.43 30.23 0.30 0.34 1.93 1.18 0.00 0.32 0.95 14.24 1.98 6.15 0.97 0.62 5.76 14.69 13.77 3.17 0.79 1.92 13.40 29.09 0.79 15.76 5.01 0.500 2.22 12.643 0.03 0.19 0.16 0.35 0.26 14.866 96 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Q d 2 21⁄2 in 2.60 4.56 12.83 0.61 4.93 0.16 0.04 2.97 8.21 0.38 1.31 17.36 13.05 17.91 17.36 0.50 17.54 0.625 5.06 4.78 0.02 1.62 1.097 11⁄2 in 1.29 3.34 9.29 5.75 22.72 24.57 9.51 2.69 36.44 9.18 10.70 3.74 6.77 0.16 0.16 39.14 3.88 4.10 0.26 0.71 4.55 1.42 6 in 6.63 1.83 0.24 12.22 2.40 0.12 4.56 28.12 0.34 0.54 66.27 5.660 1.97 1.03 0.01 0.57 4.35 0.87 0.08 4.14 12.41 0.61 16.50 26.36 12.94 18.42 1.14 0.95 8.48 3.45 2.35 10.32 0.91 1.04 0.30 16.15 34.72 29.15 1.77 5.59 2.01 0.60 15.64 0.08 4.30 5.79 1.84 4.84 0.42 6. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .45 6.07 2.69 0.16 8.48 4.33 0.09 9.27 14.023 0.83 0.99 2.22 6.05 0.56 0.66 0.27 0.03 0.79 2.01 0.57 0.71 6.5 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Technical Data U.10 0.37 1.38 0.62 0.05 18.32 17.75 2.66 0.

Use with caution.28 4.39 0.10 0.60 2.41 1.16 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.06 29.10 1.16 0.09 0.05 10.063 11⁄2 in 1.59 0.85 4.84 1.13 1.93 2.15 16.12 3.06 0.46 0.79 1.49 0.13 1.03 10.11 0.83 0.68 0.56 0.26 1.900 1.47 2.04 33.25 4.39 18.72 0.41 0.72 0.45 2.67 6.41 0.37 0.95 1.42 4.22 14.44 1.32 1.19 12.75 7.21 1.99 8.42 6.61 9.30 2.20 1.66 3.04 0.59 0.375 2.44 1.47 0.26 16.48 2.31 0.69 0.83 9.660 1.46 4.86 1.59 1.88 3.14 10.10 0.166 0.89 2.47 17.02 0.44 2.81 0.82 5.03 0.01 0.73 0.98 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.43 3.23 7.04 0.55 2.00 0.54 0.84 0.90 1.48 0.70 30.17 3.07 16.34 11.08 0.06 2.14 0.57 0.54 4.92 4.70 2.23 0.137 2 in 2.316 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.50 0.05 3.96 1.80 2.03 0.36 0.852 C x .79 0.68 2.18 4.85 11.18 0.16 4.39 3.64 0.64 10.47 1.56 1.15 10.86 0.05 1.30 0.51 6.07 1.214 6 in 6.97 4.14 0.24 0.46 1.96 2.82 5.04 0.46 0.99 15.01 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .29 2.85 3.26 0.83 3.91 15.93 1.73 8.08 1. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.32 0.28 17.81 1.35 0.20 2.01 0.36 13.71 5.93 2.90 16.75 3.76 1. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.65 1.86 1.47 9.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 97 Technical Data U.40 0.07 0.00 21.43 0.27 0.43 0.11 0.26 0.23 8.77 0.58 18.65 3.09 5.77 4.26 0.54 0.02 0.31 5.62 0.060 SIZE OD ID Wall Thk .38 11.42 0.36 0.38 7.01 3.38 3 in 3.02 0.01 0.27 2.01 0.58 18.29 18.12 0.04 12.71 11.67 0.43 9.072 0.09 1.17 0.22 4.67 4.91 56.94 10.00 0.06 0.07 0.60 0.07 11.92 19.17 2.993 0.04 0.21 14.57 25.01 0.55 13.13 9.28 0.33 2.02 2.33 0.79 15.39 5.53 0.08 0.64 2.33 0.54 0.02 0.93 4.87 4.23 0.48 27.57 0.09 0.00 0.85 0.66 0.21 7.34 3.04 9.502 0.408 Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.82 5.06 5.149 0.72 1.29 0.91 5.61 0.78 8.55 8.43 10.11 1.852 Q 1.68 0.06 1.73 0.68 22.79 0.80 23.13 4.27 13.13 15.40 3.76 0.51 1.18 0.315 1.02 24.03 6.45 0.86 4.14 25.58 21.07 1.44 9.63 7.60 0.50 7.95 8.32 7.88 5.07 0.59 2.05 8.60 11.08 1.88 0.97 4.38 0.39 12.39 15.41 2.36 21.30 12.10 6.72 6.85 11.30 0.12 2.01 8.59 1.94 1.01 0.32 0.81 0.17 16.56 15.31 19.89 2.58 3.01 0.14 0.89 7.40 0.84 3.85 5.03 0.08 0.84 10.57 0.03 0.10 1.93 1.78 0.08 19.56 0.30 5.17 11.19 1. Standard Units 3⁄4 in 1.23 2.66 13.23 1.53 2.11 6.74 18.70 0.09 3.81 15.41 13.04 0.02 0.13 0.55 4.02 0.05 0.S.02 0.51 6.30 3.22 0.03 11.65 13.83 2.76 35.89 0.20 2.51 4.27 8.77 4.51 18.82 3.39 8.20 4.03 0.04 0.11 5.61 3.625 5.32 12.06 0.06 13.01 0.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.17 0.01 0.500 3.44 0.78 17.875 2.01 0.65 0.36 1.15 6.35 2.63 0.02 1.47 0.31 0.84 1.32 7.75 12.36 0.20 6.72 0.15 6.32 29.55 0.63 0.23 1.55 0.73 0.97 1.49 0.22 0.50 0.65 8.01 0.44 3.83 2.34 0.69 3.10 11.19 5.77 6.31 18.37 16.25 3.04 0.01 15.84 4.79 0.50 8. flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 11⁄4 in 1.95 9.01 0.58 8.02 0.69 3.98 13.42 15.70 0.14 9.19 0.52 1.079 1 in 1.92 5.30 13.62 7.11 2.09 2.75 0.30 1.17 0.45 3.66 6.84 8.20 1.61 5.37 1.89 3.83 3.03 0.31 5.42 5.24 0.44 3.18 0.87 2.26 5.10 0.87 0.18 0.72 5.73 2.07 0.51 1.03 0.98 1.75 0.80 0.59 0.46 0.29 5.97 6.69 1.40 15.68 0.56 14.60 7.06 0.45 6.25 14.24 9.19 0.69 6.19 0.80 2.68 12.18 18.54 17.12 5.47 1.01 0.52 0.97 1.24 6.12 0.930 0.15 0.22 1.62 1.26 0.89 0.15 2.51 0.02 0.50 6.76 0.30 0.36 0.37 17.47 4.53 6.22 0.26 5.27 0.42 1.38 0.05 9.44 0.05 7.25 3.31 3.98 2.96 1.78 9.61 3.29 0.34 6.27 17.04 0.01 0.19 5.02 0.30 8.51 0.21 13.17 0.21 2.28 0.td Technical Data 4 in 4.050 0.70 5.45 11.68 0.03 3.53 14.16 0.04 2.47 19.05 0.92 7.96 1.86 4.01 0.601 0.24 1.68 1.35 2.74 6.21 0.08 0.09 19.41 4.53 12.27 1.36 1.66 2.81 14.36 0.06 1.03 0.25 4.94 1.14 0.44 1.19 3.00 1.18 6.04 9.24 1.15 6.68 1.29 1.04 4.51 1.05 0.02 0.07 0.95 3.85 3.27 17.25 velocity fps psi loss 0.28 0.54 12.12 0.49 9.2083 ( 100 ) 1.06 0.65 10.01 0.02 28.72 12.30 3.46 6.46 15.62 1.23 13.34 0.52 0.24 11.56 1.80 1.08 0.03 3.09 0.02 0.02 2.14 0.01 0.72 2.00 43.65 10.62 0.36 2.30 11.00 0.01 0.113 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.48 0.23 2.09 0.11 3.76 7.22 9.02 41.96 9.27 1.39 0.87 17.02 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.42 1.00 0.83 11.720 0.44 13.91 7.52 0.15 0.02 0.25 10.06 3.06 2.500 4.05 0.71 10.36 0.42 0.28 0.65 0.02 0.78 2.090 21⁄2 in 2.71 3.83 25.35 1.97 4.01 0.78 1.10 18.24 15.34 0.98 14.87 0.03 2.66 36.13 0.11 2.62 6.58 5.56 0.94 2.167 velocity fps psi loss 0.11 0.10 13.49 0.53 3.69 3.24 1.69 3.82 0.46 2.21 6.44 0.90 0.189 0.60 7.24 0.01 0.01 0.07 4.34 4.42 0.12 2.41 0.93 7.07 0.88 3.22 0.18 11.66 19.48 12.01 0.02 0.44 1.45 12.36 4.06 0.01 0.70 1.04 1.06 7.82 3.59 1.36 2.23 0.08 8.22 0.74 5.15 1.55 4.47 1.70 velocity fps psi loss 0.22 0.12 0.46 2.00 0.52 4.

94 10.24 2.03 0.99 16.27 1.07 0.02 15.42 0.43 0.57 0.82 0.36 7.50 2.83 10.75 1.18 3.51 5.42 3.11 0.96 1.92 1.52 8.37 0.62 5.23 1.86 5.81 0.46 0.77 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.35 0.115 0.12 0.20 0.154 0.01 4.09 4.49 6.73 12.66 0.71 0.20 0.14 18.53 0.67 5.97 4.29 0.01 0.11 0.31 2.74 1.51 17.18 0.35 1.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.52 0.91 17.08 6.96 5. Use with caution.08 0.866 98 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Q d 2 3 in 3.06 11⁄2 in 1.01 1.24 0.93 12.95 8.12 2.54 2.39 0.91 3.12 0.35 11.56 3.03 2.55 0.01 0.09 0.72 13.52 1.78 3.44 2.30 4.86 1.24 18.16 0.47 8.67 8.71 3.02 0.57 19.01 0.61 7.49 0.51 4 in 4.43 7.82 8.23 24.61 0.96 6.47 0.47 3.01 0.17 0.660 1.02 0.38 1.77 3.50 0.54 0.86 2.15 0.20 2.03 7.63 4.84 0.96 3.04 0.70 0.28 2.03 21.23 2.10 0.01 0.27 3.63 0.70 0.110 2 in 2. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.89 2.18 0.58 27.56 1.45 0.05 0.135 velocity fps psi loss 0.60 0.57 2.48 9.64 16.09 0.87 2.04 0.13 0.82 4.60 2.32 3.09 0.00 14.04 0.26 9.225 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.06 1.00 22.65 1.56 19.532 0.26 14.45 2.37 2.42 1.59 3.42 15.91 2.03 0.09 1.14 3.03 32.20 0.37 0.69 5.72 5.73 1.12 3.173 velocity fps psi loss 0.37 0.02 0.25 10.70 13.39 0.94 1.63 0.195 0.25 0.16 7.39 3.15 1.27 16.85 1. Standard Units Sizes 1 in through 6 in.13 6 in 6.08 1.88 4.85 7.61 14.08 0.45 4.00 0.43 6.39 0.87 0.83 2.28 0.12 3.36 1.34 0.36 2.57 5.11 16.57 14.39 1.56 0.47 5.02 0.01 0.08 0.47 3.08 0.52 0.64 velocity fps psi loss 0.32 1.02 0.75 3.24 4.84 1.12 3.76 0.500 4.29 7.29 12.59 18.81 0.02 0.13 0.73 2.07 0.67 0.52 0.13 0.95 7.75 11.60 2.34 0.99 0.76 0.625 6.15 1.54 2.10 8.36 6.31 0.18 0.02 0.50 0.14 0.28 0.78 2.79 0.10 0.42 3.064 1 in 1.61 22.61 3.04 10.66 0.28 15. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 11⁄4 in 1.87 4.05 0.25 6.51 0.86 6.900 1.31 3.02 0.06 1.96 19.93 3.53 1.91 1.36 6.59 0.47 15.05 0.08 2.69 9.76 0.68 0.01 0.57 0.12 0.31 0.86 17.54 0.72 0.85 1.03 13.02 0.19 0.24 0.29 9.72 3.68 14.76 0.63 11.01 0.96 2.36 10.03 3.63 6.230 0.66 5.17 1.89 3.09 29.29 4.408 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.23 0.50 7.37 0.95 1.47 0.64 1.85 2.63 25.86 2.20 0.14 0.05 0.93 10.92 1.21 6.77 10.37 3.86 1.01 1.12 0.29 0.86 9.34 4.15 2.45 1.41 1.02 11.875 2.33 0.07 0.07 3.78 4.69 0.48 6.49 3.12 14.00 2.38 0.03 0.57 9.62 9.41 10.49 4.01 0.02 0.68 9.00 0.49 8.45 0.91 6.35 0.31 1.25 0.24 16.19 1.09 7.23 8.78 6.655 0.64 7.62 0.36 18.59 0.47 0.94 7.93 1.80 10.91 4.68 8.53 6.66 0.62 12.16 0.37 1.08 0.71 3.500 3.18 2.52 1.56 2.95 16.20 1.57 19.54 3.86 1.65 0.073 21⁄2 in 2.38 0.14 5.69 0.91 3.69 19.17 1.02 0.77 15.01 0.193 0.375 2.53 0.00 6.44 2.60 11.84 0.10 0.78 4.05 0.51 3.43 0.63 0.16 0.00 3.49 12.78 4.01 0.04 1.15 1.02 0.07 0.34 0.27 12.72 0.38 1.01 0.62 1.72 5.27 0.18 5.03 0.79 9.S.22 2.74 26.25 0.81 4.21 1.69 1.22 0.59 1.08 0.03 1.64 5.14 40. 1220) SDR 26 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Technical Data U.00 0.58 0.56 0.03 0.46 0.51 4.24 0.01 1.27 11.30 5.92 2.15 0.18 3.35 2.30 0.71 6.34 0.91 17.03 0.76 0.32 0.30 1.57 13.07 3.04 0.02 2.22 3.88 20.51 12.09 1.42 0.65 2.42 0.00 0.41 1.23 0.87 12.64 16.25 4.42 7.39 0.21 0.85 3.754 0.34 1.53 1.86 0.73 2.34 0.01 0.03 0.72 8.28 9.92 0.14 1.52 0.82 8.70 0.46 11.94 4.33 0.56 1.83 3.52 1.01 0.16 0.18 1.01 0.99 11.35 10.852 C x .13 2.27 1.12 2.45 6.12 2.06 0.89 .06 0.19 3.02 0.98 1.76 46.23 0.13 0.26 0.17 0.16 0.28 0.38 19.99 8.33 10.32 1.66 15.96 15.06 0.07 0.01 0.62 0.91 4.17 13.18 1.01 0.30 8.21 9.21 0.091 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.63 4.49 5.21 7.23 11.01 0.69 0.97 5.15 4.07 2.36 4.15 2.58 0.52 0.47 0.04 0.61 1.54 0.53 0.04 0.31 5.06 0.03 0.13 1.42 0.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.57 9.00 0.63 8.04 0.02 0.93 6.11 6.52 1.43 11.04 0.49 0.89 0.59 13.09 0.88 4.45 0.81 0.27 8.71 17.09 1.03 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.852 Q 1.81 4.71 1.93 1.45 10.56 1.04 1.315 1.95 6.99 2.09 5.59 5.91 5.82 0.14 0.00 2.74 12.05 4.25 0.49 17.91 35.44 7.01 0.28 0.63 1.20 5.82 13.16 13.78 7.33 0.47 3.11 0.85 1.99 4.08 5.01 0.78 0.06 0.00 1.28 6.27 0.71 0.72 13.28 0.05 0.11 0.95 2.90 14.58 15.50 1.69 1.99 11.30 1. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .02 14.54 3.43 2.05 1.85 14.56 10.01 0.20 0.44 3.18 11.90 5.62 17.40 0.02 0.37 1.34 2.01 0.05 8.92 2.76 4.02 0.30 7.42 12.00 0.59 20.85 14.16 12.01 0.07 29.00 11.63 7.19 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.42 0.04 3.38 2.65 0.71 1.17 4.

39 2.02 21.37 1.34 23.02 17.06 20.01 0.74 6.65 7.92 1.98 2.36 10.83 0.60 0.11 0.03 0.31 5.13 1.36 1.13 16.83 2.72 7.11 0.25 0.40 11.27 0.08 4.07 0.224 0.78 3.51 2.11 1.71 12.78 4.59 5.47 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.56 1.36 0.13 12.91 15.500 4.12 2.84 0.50 0.02 0.24 2.06 0.073 velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss 0.01 0.03 0.56 8.56 2.60 16.76 6.73 11.72 3.65 10.39 0.34 0.82 0.43 12.52 2.10 4.24 0.12 12.89 11.02 0.63 0.30 2.34 1.25 0.01 0.20 7.06 0.22 0.32 0.00 8.31 1.03 0.02 3.78 0.26 1.71 10.13 0.01 0.83 4.19 0.02 0.05 0.80 18.91 1.57 0.77 1.57 0.12 0.01 0.25 10.00 0.96 18.53 1.01 0.22 0.09 0.72 11.07 1.73 0.41 2.26 5.67 6.61 4.43 8.71 6.97 2.22 0.04 0.39 1.27 1.71 1.72 9.37 0.40 7.84 8.03 9.57 9.98 7.09 0.05 0.14 23.20 12.43 3.01 0.14 6.05 2.72 0.95 14.17 12.65 3.65 8.17 17.20 4.31 0.53 0.65 0.88 3.36 0.33 5.548 0.04 0.97 3.01 0.31 15.57 3 in 3.63 2.784 0.19 1.32 1.57 13. Use with caution.87 1.02 0.16 0.26 0.09 0.97 3.47 0.18 0.37 25.48 1.00 0.31 5.02 0.08 0.23 0.64 0.37 18.96 2.27 0.02 0.28 3.66 1.93 1.61 10.80 0.33 8.41 0.98 1.94 2.16 0.56 6.22 2.49 1.74 19.04 32.02 18.38 16.02 0.69 18.50 2.76 5.01 0.59 0.21 11.50 0.85 1.11 4.95 1.82 3.04 0.34 0.43 2.58 1.41 1.25 2.500 3.14 0.90 0.28 0.89 1.81 7.21 9.23 1.15 1.89 1.78 0.36 2.24 10.20 19.01 5.5 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1 in through 6 in.41 0.56 2.40 1.625 6.60 14.09 0.47 0.71 5.01 0.27 0.83 3.89 1.01 0.51 9.00 1.69 8.15 0.16 1.60 1.53 4.78 15.01 0.07 0.09 0.32 0.31 13.138 velocity fps psi loss 0.02 1.45 0.26 2.02 1.49 12.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.34 4.83 0.13 2.01 0.30 0.41 0.47 1.01 0.64 0.18 0.05 6.46 0.39 7.45 0.44 1.44 0.46 0.49 0.79 0.86 7.01 0.02 0.06 5.06 1.44 0.83 3.05 7.43 0.92 4.92 5.32 16.36 5.22 0.58 1.25 17.38 11.74 4.2083 ( 100 ) 1.56 0.85 3.62 0.16 6.68 0.00 2.03 0.10 0.06 0.84 2.98 1.01 0.14 0.10 15.00 0.34 0.68 0.02 0.29 13.01 0.16 0.02 0.46 2.13 0.45 10.30 1.68 4.60 6.65 0.875 2.72 1.49 9.33 0.07 3.08 0.14 1.97 9.00 19.17 2.37 2.80 3.13 9.00 5.73 0.22 0.39 0.85 10.26 0.82 1.284 0.94 38.54 0.21 3.14 1.12 5.25 1.48 5.30 0.48 0.57 13.42 18.15 0.86 1.64 3.79 0.62 0.67 2.408 Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.00 0.50 28.900 1.96 9.69 30.84 4.94 24.14 1.94 3.48 4.10 4.37 1.52 0.91 0.25 2.09 8.74 2.217 0.57 5.852 C x .62 9.19 1.36 0.27 15.34 0.39 1.86 11.67 11.69 4.57 5.03 9.94 2.06 0.17 2.052 11⁄2 in 1.51 13.06 11.48 3.78 8.23 1.88 15.99 1.00 5.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 99 Technical Data U.14 0.55 19.33 0.05 2.22 0.54 0.05 0.80 7.04 5.67 7.11 2.08 2.03 0.16 4.70 0.05 0.06 0.18 7. 1220) SDR 32.90 0.37 velocity fps psi loss 0.10 0.28 2.29 2.64 6.98 1.94 19.64 1.03 6 in 6.52 0.68 0.31 0.27 5.87 2.42 4.35 0.02 0.98 11.33 0.12 0.34 0.45 1.61 0.45 2.03 0.04 0.82 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.660 1.52 0.76 0.14 9.47 1.54 4.96 2.18 15.852 Q 1.05 2.40 16.S.15 15.08 10.34 9.02 27.96 14.42 0.32 0.01 0.87 3.21 43.05 1.40 3.43 0.01 0.20 6.40 3.17 0.12 0.67 0.69 3.80 6.70 1.315 1.20 3.02 0.25 0.10 0.76 5.68 1.06 1.07 17.54 0.15 3.34 12.66 17.18 0.75 0.23 7.81 14.01 0.15 6.19 0.02 0.48 0.70 0.41 11.41 1.01 1.04 0.06 3.33 3.60 0.52 9.22 1.64 11.03 0.27 1.91 12.09 0.67 0.65 0.57 4.59 3.36 3.07 0.05 0.10 5.13 13.51 4.02 0.12 1.89 0.72 0.211 0.41 0.68 1.07 0.20 3.06 0.62 14.80 0.59 3.89 2.56 1.22 4.24 14.39 0.30 0.01 0.39 0.75 5.11 7.48 4.80 1.91 5.56 6.56 1.01 0.02 0.60 11.699 0.51 0.12 0.23 0.87 6.66 8.06 0.204 velocity fps psi loss 0.05 1.29 10.32 5.67 0.375 2.03 0.65 12.95 6.16 3.12 8.64 0.58 3.30 16.19 0.14 5.29 5.08 19.47 15.83 1.79 2.19 13.05 0.00 0.49 0.10 0.22 2.60 0.00 1.36 0.66 0.36 0.51 9.53 12.07 0.18 0.28 6.52 10.00 15.229 0.90 2.24 0.06 3.73 7.23 3.70 1.58 0.79 1.12 6.89 4.80 6.95 4.10 5.77 0.51 0.72 2.03 0.04 2.76 13.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe d 4.07 0.01 0.30 0.96 2.96 4.02 0.11 0.40 8. Standard Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk .00 8.85 13.01 0.41 0.02 1.90 3.28 7.42 1.53 10.08 1.49 4 in 4.15 0.04 0.58 0.08 17.43 6.51 0.55 0.16 0.02 0.08 3.14 15.68 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .53 1.64 4.45 5.33 3.058 21⁄2 in 2.47 0.02 0.58 0.64 2.53 2.00 0.30 velocity fps psi loss 0.18 0. flow gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 11⁄4 in 1.76 3.79 0.28 1.21 1.80 8.26 0.04 0.56 8.51 1.108 velocity fps psi loss 0.79 3.05 0.38 2.43 0.088 2 in 2.056 1 in 1.26 0.04 7.88 4.86 7.43 3.13 0.69 1.

Technical Data
Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube

POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE
(2306, 3206, 3306) SDR 7, 9, 11.5, 15 C=140
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)
POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE

Technical Data
U.S. Standard Units

Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.
SIZE
ID

1⁄2 in
0.622

3⁄4 in
0.824

1 in
1.049

11⁄4 in
1.380

11⁄2 in
1.610

flow
gpm

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
550
600

1.05
2.10
3.16
4.21
5.27
6.32
7.38
8.43
9.49
10.54
11.60
12.65
14.76
16.87
18.98

0.49
1.76
3.73
6.35
9.60
13.46
17.91
22.93
28.52
34.67
41.36
48.60
64.65
82.79
102.97

0.60
1.20
1.80
2.40
3.00
3.60
4.20
4.80
5.40
6.00
6.00
7.21
8.41
9.61
10.81
12.01
13.21
14.42
15.62
16.82
18.02

0.12
0.45
0.95
1.62
2.44
3.43
4.56
5.84
7.26
8.82
10.53
12.37
16.46
21.07
26.21
31.86
38.01
44.65
48.15
59.41
67.50

0.37
0.74
1.11
1.48
1.85
2.22
2.59
2.96
3.33
3.70
4.07
4.44
5.19
5.93
6.67
7.41
8.15
8.89
9.64
10.38
11.12
12.97
14.83
16.68
18.53

0.04
0.14
0.29
0.50
0.76
1.06
1.41
1.80
2.24
2.73
3.25
3.82
5.08
6.51
8.10
9.84
11.74
13.79
16.00
18.35
20.85
27.74
35.53
44.19
53.71

0.21
0.42
0.64
0.85
1.07
1.28
1.49
1.71
1.92
2.14
2.35
2.57
2.99
3.42
3.85
4.28
4.71
5.14
5.57
5.99
6.42
7.49
8.56
9.64
10.71
11.78
12.85
13.92
14.99
16.06
17.13
18.21
19.28

0.01
0.04
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.28
0.37
0.47
0.59
0.72
0.86
1.01
1.34
1.71
2.13
2.59
3.09
3.63
4.21
4.83
5.49
7.31
9.36
11.64
14.14
16.87
19.82
22.99
26.37
29.97
33.77
37.79
42.01

0.15
0.31
0.47
0.62
0.78
0.94
1.10
1.25
1.41
1.57
1.73
1.88
2.20
2.51
2.83
3.14
3.46
3.77
4.09
4.40
4.72
5.50
6.29
7.08
7.87
8.65
9.44
10.23
11.01
11.80
12.59
13.37
14.16
14.95
15.74
17.31
18.88

0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.18
0.22
0.28
0.34
0.40
0.48
0.63
0.81
1.01
1.22
1.46
1.72
1.99
2.28
2.59
3.45
4.42
5.50
6.68
7.97
9.36
10.86
12.46
14.16
15.95
17.85
19.84
21.93
24.12
28.77
33.80

0.09
0.19
0.28
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.66
0.76
0.85
0.95
1.05
1.14
1.33
1.52
1.71
1.90
2.10
2.29
2.48
2.67
2.86
3.34
3.81
4.29
4.77
5.25
5.72
6.20
6.68
7.16
7.63
8.11
8.59
9.07
9.54
10.50
11.45
12.41
13.36
14.32
15.27
16.23
17.18
18.14
19.09

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.43
0.51
0.59
0.68
0.77
1.02
1.31
1.63
1.98
2.36
2.78
3.22
3.69
4.20
4.73
5.29
5.88
6.50
7.15
8.53
10.02
11.62
13.33
15.15
17.08
19.11
21.24
23.48
25.81

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408
Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083

( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852
C

x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe

d 4.866

100 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

Q
d 2

21⁄2 in
2.469

2 in
2.067

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.20
0.26
0.33
0.40
0.46
0.53
0.60
0.66
0.73
0.80
0.93
1.07
1.20
1.33
1.47
1.60
1.74
1.87
2.00
2.34
2.67
3.01
3.34
3.68
4.01
4.35
4.68
5.01
5.35
5.68
6.02
6.35
6.69
7.36
8.03
8.70
9.37
10.03
10.70
11.37
12.04
12.71
13.38
15.05
16.73
18.40

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.32
0.43
0.55
0.69
0.83
1.00
1.17
1.36
1.56
1.77
1.99
2.23
2.48
2.74
3.01
3.59
4.22
4.90
5.62
6.38
7.19
8.05
8.95
9.89
10.87
13.52
16.44
19.61

3 in
3.068
velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.21
0.26
0.30
0.34
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.52
0.60
0.69
0.78
0.86
0.95
1.04
1.12
1.21
1.30
1.51
1.73
1.95
2.16
2.38
2.60
2.81
3.03
3.25
3.46
3.68
3.90
4.11
4.33
4.76
5.20
5.63
6.06
6.50
6.93
7.36
7.80
8.23
8.66
9.75
10.83
11.92
13.00
14.08
15.17
16.25
17.33
18.42
19.50

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.15
0.19
0.24
0.29
0.35
0.41
0.47
0.54
0.61
0.69
0.77
0.86
0.95
1.05
1.25
1.47
1.70
1.95
2.22
2.50
2.80
3.11
3.44
3.78
4.70
5.71
6.82
8.01
9.29
10.65
12.10
13.64
15.26
16.97

4 in
4.026

6 in
6.065

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.27
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.88
1.00
1.13
1.25
1.38
1.51
1.63
1.76
1.88
2.01
2.13
2.26
2.39
2.51
2.76
3.02
3.27
3.52
3.77
4.02
4.27
4.53
4.78
5.03
5.66
6.29
6.92
7.55
8.18
8.81
9.43
10.06
10.69
11.32
11.95
12.58
13.84
15.10

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.28
0.33
0.39
0.45
0.52
0.59
0.67
0.75
0.83
0.92
1.01
1.25
1.52
1.82
2.13
2.48
2.84
3.23
3.64
4.07
4.52
5.00
5.50
6.56
7.70

0.33
0.38
0.44
0.49
0.55
0.61
0.66
0.72
0.77
0.83
0.88
0.94
0.99
1.05
1.10
1.22
1.33
1.44
1.55
1.66
1.77
1.88
1.99
2.10
2.21
2.49
2.77
3.05
3.32
3.60
3.88
4.15
4.43
4.71
4.99
5.26
5.54
6.10
6.65

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.34
0.39
0.44
0.50
0.55
0.62
0.68
0.75
0.89
1.05

td

Technical Data

Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe

SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)
SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE
Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.
1⁄2 in
0.840
0.622
0.109

3⁄4 in
1.050
0.824
0.113

1 in
1.315
1.049
0.133

11⁄4 in
1.660
1.380
0.140

11⁄2 in
1.900
1.610
0.145

21⁄2 in
2.875
2.469
0.203

2 in
2.375
2.067
0.154

flow
gpm

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
550
600

1.05
2.10
3.16
4.21
5.27
6.32
7.38
8.43
9.49
10.54
11.60
12.65
14.76
16.87
18.98

0.91
3.28
6.95
11.85
17.91
25.10
33.40
42.77
53.19
64.65
77.13
90.62
20.56
54.39
92.02

0.60
1.20
1.80
2.40
3.00
3.60
4.20
4.80
5.40
6.00
6.60
7.21
8.41
9.61
10.81
12.01
13.21
14.42
15.62
16.82
18.02

0.23
0.84
1.77
3.02
4.56
6.39
8.50
10.89
13.54
16.46
19.63
23.07
30.69
39.30
48.88
59.41
70.88
83.27
96.57
110.8
125.9

0.37
0.74
1.11
1.48
1.85
2.22
2.59
2.96
3.33
3.70
4.07
4.44
5.19
5.93
6.67
7.41
8.15
8.89
9.64
10.38
11.12
12.97
14.83
16.68
18.53

0.07
0.26
0.55
0.93
1.41
1.97
2.63
3.36
4.18
5.08
6.07
7.13
9.48
12.14
15.10
18.35
21.90
25.72
29.83
34.22
38.89
51.74
66.25
82.40
100.2

0.21
0.42
0.64
0.85
1.07
1.28
1.49
1.71
1.92
2.14
2.35
2.57
2.99
3.42
3.85
4.28
4.71
5.14
5.57
5.99
6.42
7.49
8.56
9.64
10.71
11.78
12.85
13.92
14.99
16.06
17.13
18.21
19.28

0.02
0.07
0.14
0.25
0.37
0.52
0.69
0.89
1.10
1.34
1.60
1.88
2.50
3.20
3.98
4.83
5.77
6.77
7.86
9.01
10.24
13.62
17.45
21.70
26.37
31.47
36.97
42.88
49.18
55.89
62.98
70.47
78.33

0.15
0.31
0.47
0.62
0.78
0.94
1.10
1.25
1.41
1.57
1.73
1.88
2.20
2.51
2.83
3.14
3.46
3.77
4.09
4.40
4.72
5.50
6.29
7.08
7.87
8.65
9.44
10.23
11.01
11.80
12.59
13.37
14.16
14.95
15.74
17.31
18.88

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.52
0.63
0.75
0.89
1.18
1.51
1.88
2.28
2.72
3.20
3.71
4.26
4.84
6.44
8.24
10.25
12.46
14.86
17.46
20.25
23.23
26.40
29.75
33.29
37.00
40.90
44.97
53.66
63.04

0.09
0.19
0.28
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.66
0.76
0.85
0.95
1.05
1.14
1.33
1.52
1.71
1.90
2.10
2.29
2.48
2.67
2.86
3.34
3.81
4.29
4.77
5.25
5.72
6.20
6.68
7.16
7.63
8.11
8.59
9.07
9.54
10.50
11.45
12.41
13.36
14.32
15.27
16.23
17.18
18.14
19.09

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.12
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.26
0.35
0.45
0.56
0.68
0.81
0.95
1.10
1.26
1.43
1.91
2.44
3.04
3.69
4.41
5.18
6.00
6.89
7.83
8.82
9.87
10.97
12.13
13.33
15.91
18.69
21.68
24.87
28.26
31.84
35.63
39.61
43.78
48.14

3 in
3.500
3.068
0.216

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.13
0.20
0.26
0.33
0.40
0.46
0.53
0.60
0.66
0.73
0.80
0.93
1.07
1.20
1.33
1.47
1.60
1.74
1.87
2.00
2.34
2.67
3.01
3.34
3.68
4.01
4.35
4.68
5.01
5.35
5.68
6.02
6.35
6.69
7.36
8.03
8.70
9.37
10.03
10.70
11.37
12.04
12.71
13.38
15.05
16.73
18.40

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.15
0.19
0.23
0.29
0.34
0.40
0.46
0.53
0.60
0.80
1.03
1.28
1.56
1.86
2.18
2.53
2.90
3.30
3.72
4.16
4.62
5.11
5.62
6.70
7.87
9.13
10.47
11.90
13.41
15.01
16.68
18.44
20.28
25.22
30.65
36.57

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.13
0.17
0.21
0.26
0.30
0.34
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.52
0.60
0.69
0.78
0.86
0.95
1.04
1.12
1.21
1.30
1.51
1.73
1.95
2.16
2.38
2.60
2.81
3.03
3.25
3.46
3.68
3.90
4.11
4.33
4.76
5.20
5.63
6.06
6.50
6.93
7.36
7.80
8.23
8.66
9.75
10.83
11.92
13.00
14.08
15.17
16.25
17.33
18.42
19.50

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.21
0.28
0.36
0.44
0.54
0.65
0.76
0.88
1.01
1.15
1.29
1.44
1.61
1.78
1.95
2.33
2.74
3.17
3.64
4.14
4.66
5.22
5.80
6.41
7.05
8.76
10.55
12.71
14.93
17.32
19.87
22.57
25.44
28.46
31.64

4 in
4.500
4.026
0.237

6 in
6.625
6.065
0.280

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.20
0.22
0.25
0.27
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.88
1.00
1.13
1.25
1.38
1.51
1.63
1.76
1.88
2.01
2.13
2.26
2.39
2.51
2.76
3.02
3.27
3.52
3.77
4.02
4.27
4.53
4.78
5.03
5.66
6.29
6.92
7.55
8.18
8.81
9.43
10.06
10.69
11.32
11.95
12.58
13.84
15.10

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.27
0.31
0.34
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.52
0.62
0.73
0.85
0.97
1.10
1.24
1.39
1.55
1.71
1.88
2.34
2.84
3.39
3.98
4.62
5.30
6.02
6.78
7.59
8.43
9.32
10.25
12.23
14.37

0.24
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.38
0.44
0.49
0.55
0.61
0.66
0.72
0.77
0.83
0.88
0.94
0.99
1.05
1.10
1.22
1.33
1.44
1.55
1.66
1.77
1.88
1.99
2.10
2.21
2.49
2.77
3.05
3.32
3.60
3.88
4.15
4.43
4.71
4.99
5.26
5.54
6.10
6.65

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.26
0.32
0.39
0.46
0.54
0.63
0.72
0.82
0.92
1.03
1.15
1.27
1.40
1.67
1.96

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408

Q
d 2

Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083

( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852
C

x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe

d 4.866

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 101

Technical Data
U.S. Standard Units

SIZE
OD
ID
Wall Thk

Technical Data
Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube

TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)
TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140

Technical Data
U.S. Standard Units

Sizes 1⁄2 in thru 3 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.
1⁄2 in
0.625
0.527
0.049

SIZE
OD
ID
Wall Thk

5⁄8 in
0.750
0.652
0.049

3⁄4 in
0.875
0.745
0.065

11⁄4 in
1.375
1.245
0.065

1 in
1.125
0.995
0.065

11⁄2 in
1.625
1.481
0.072

21⁄2 in
2.625
2.435
0.095

2 in
2.125
1.959
0.083

flow
gpm

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

velocity
fps

psi
loss

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
550
600

1.46
2.93
4.40
5.87
7.34
8.81
10.28
11.75
13.22
14.69
16.15
17.62

1.09
3.94
8.35
14.23
21.51
30.15
40.11
51.37
63.89
77.66
92.65
108.85

0.95
1.91
2.87
3.83
4.79
5.75
6.71
7.67
8.63
9.59
10.55
11.51
13.43
15.35
17.27
19.19

0.39
1.40
2.97
5.05
7.64
10.70
14.24
18.24
22.68
27.57
32.89
38.64
51.41
65.83
81.88
99.53

0.73
1.47
2.20
2.94
3.67
4.41
5.14
5.88
6.61
7.35
8.08
8.82
10.29
11.76
13.23
14.70
16.17
17.64
19.11

0.20
0.73
1.55
2.64
3.99
5.60
7.44
9.53
11.86
14.41
17.19
20.20
26.87
34.41
42.80
52.02
62.06
72.92
84.57

0.41
0.82
1.23
1.64
2.06
2.47
2.88
3.29
3.70
4.12
4.53
4.94
5.76
6.59
7.41
8.24
9.06
9.89
10.71
11.53
12.36
14.42
16.48
18.54

0.05
0.18
0.38
0.65
0.98
1.37
1.82
2.33
2.90
3.53
4.21
4.94
6.57
8.42
10.47
12.73
15.18
17.84
10.69
23.73
26.97
35.88
45.95
57.15

0.26
0.52
0.78
1.05
1.31
1.57
1.84
2.10
2.36
2.63
2.89
3.15
3.68
4.21
4.73
5.26
5.79
6.31
6.84
7.37
7.89
9.21
10.52
11.84
13.16
14.47
15.79
17.10
18.42
19.74

0.02
0.06
0.13
0.22
0.33
0.46
0.61
0.78
0.97
1.18
1.41
1.66
2.21
2.83
3.52
4.28
5.10
5.99
6.95
7.98
9.06
12.06
15.44
19.20
23.34
27.85
32.71
37.94
43.52
49.46

0.18
0.37
0.55
0.74
0.93
1.11
1.30
1.48
1.67
1.86
2.04
2.23
2.60
2.97
3.34
3.72
4.09
4.46
4.83
5.20
5.58
6.51
7.44
8.37
9.30
10.23
11.16
12.09
13.02
13.95
14.88
15.81
16.74
17.67
18.60

0.01
0.03
0.05
0.09
0.14
0.20
0.26
0.34
0.42
0.51
0.61
0.71
0.95
1.22
1.51
1.84
2.19
2.58
2.99
3.43
3.89
5.18
6.63
8.25
10.03
11.97
14.06
16.31
18.70
21.25
23.95
26.80
29.79
32.93
36.21

0.10
0.21
0.31
0.42
0.53
0.63
0.74
0.85
0.95
1.06
1.16
1.27
1.48
1.70
1.91
2.11
2.33
2.55
2.76
2.97
3.18
3.72
4.25
4.78
5.31
5.84
6.37
6.91
7.44
7.97
8.50
9.03
9.56
10.09
10.63
11.69
12.75
13.82
14.88
15.94
17.01
18.07
19.13

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.18
0.24
0.31
0.39
0.47
0.56
0.66
0.77
0.88
1.00
1.33
1.70
2.12
2.57
3.07
3.60
4.18
4.80
5.45
6.14
6.87
7.64
8.44
9.28
11.08
13.01
15.09
17.31
19.67
22.17
24.81
27.58

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408
Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083

( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852
C

x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe

d 4.866

102 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

Q
d 2

3 in
3.125
2.907
0.109

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.20
0.27
0.34
0.41
0.48
0.55
0.61
0.68
0.75
0.82
0.95
1.10
1.23
1.37
1.51
1.65
1.78
1.92
2.06
2.40
2.75
3.00
3.44
3.78
4.12
4.47
4.81
5.16
5.50
5.84
6.19
6.53
6.88
7.56
8.25
8.94
9.63
10.32
11.00
11.69
12.38
13.07
13.76
15.48
17.20
18.92

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.20
0.23
0.27
0.30
0.35
0.46
0.59
0.73
0.89
1.06
1.25
1.45
1.66
1.89
2.13
2.38
2.65
2.93
3.22
3.84
4.52
5.24
6.01
6.83
7.69
8.61
9.57
10.58
11.63
14.47
17.58
20.98

velocity
fps

psi
loss

0.19
0.24
0.28
0.33
0.38
0.43
0.48
0.53
0.57
0.67
0.77
0.86
0.96
1.06
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.44
1.68
1.93
2.17
2.41
2.65
2.89
3.13
3.37
3.62
3.86
4.10
4.34
4.58
4.82
5.31
5.79
6.27
6.75
7.24
7.72
8.20
8.69
9.17
9.65
10.86
12.07
13.27
14.48
15.69
16.89
18.10
19.31

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.19
0.25
0.31
0.38
0.45
0.53
0.61
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.01
1.12
1.24
1.36
1.62
1.91
2.21
2.54
2.88
3.25
3.64
4.04
4.47
4.91
6.11
7.43
8.86
10.41
12.07
13.85
15.73
17.73

15 to .20 in . elbow 45 elbow 1/2 17 22 27 38 45 58 70 90 120 170 9 12 15 18 22 28 35 45 60 85 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 15 20 0.10 to .45 in “worst case” Length of string Size of service line copper Size of service line galvanized 2 3/4 in 3 1/4 in 3/4 in 3 1/2 in 4 in /4 in 5 in 1 1/4 in 1 in 3 4 3/8 in 1 in 1 1/4 in Cool = under 70° F as an average midsummer high Warm = between 70° and 90° F as midsummer highs Hot = over 90° F Humid = over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 103 .8 2.15 to .5 0. tee Run of std.td Technical Data Pressure loss in valves and fittings Equivalent length in feet of standard steel pipes Globe valve Angle valve Sprinkler angle valve Gate valve Side outlet std.0 1.30 to .S.6 0.15 in .20 to .20 to .3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 18 23 33 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 12 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 17 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 8 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 6 Technical Data U.4 1. tee Std.8 1. Standard Units Nominal pipe size Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings Equivalent feet of straight tubing Wrought copper Cast bronze Nominal Tube Size 90° Elbow 45° Elbow Tee Run Tee Side Outlet 90° Bend 180° Bend 90° Elbow 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 7 9 — — — — — 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 2 2 3 4 8 16 20 24 28 37 47 1 1 2 2 4 5 8 11 14 18 24 28 41 52 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 11/2 4 5 6 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 — — — 1 1 2 2 3 4 — — — — 1 1 1 2 — — — — — Climate PET Climate Cool Humid Cool Dry Warm Humid Warm Dry Hot Humid Hot Dry 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 7 8 10 13 45° Elbow Tee Run Tee Side Outlet Compression Stop 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 2 3 3 5 7 9 12 16 20 31 37 48 61 9 13 17 21 30 — — — — — — — — — 1/2 1 1 1 2 2 3 5 8 11 14 17 22 28 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Estimated service line sizes Inches Daily .2 1.20 in .30 in .25 in .4 0.3 3.

5 0.4 0.6 1.7 0.2 3.4 1.0 1.7 1.3 4.5 0.5 1.8 0.5 1.5 0.9 4.1 4.3 1.7 2.0 2.2 1.5 0.0 3.3 0.9 3.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 4.4 0.5 0.6 3.3 0.2 1.1 4.2 1.6 0.4 0.7 3.9 3.6 0.7 4.8 0.1 2.2 2.0 2.2 1.5 2.9 2 Flow gpm 0.2 1.8 0.8 4.7 2.8 0.5 1.0 1.3 0.3 0.9 4.6 3.9 1.0 2.9 4 0.5 1.1 1.3 4.2 2.6 3 0.9 1.9 3.4 0.5 3.6 3.4 3.3 46 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2.9 1.1 1.5 0.7 0.7 2.9 1.8 2.8 2.6 0.5 0.Technical Data Pressure loss through swing check valves (in psi) Valve size Technical Data U.0 3.1 1.3 1.4 0.6 0.6 2.4 3.4 2.5 0.1 2.4 2.7 0.1 Soil characteristics SOIL TYPE SOIL TEXTURE SOIL COMPONENTS INTAKE RATE WATER RETENTION DRAINAGE EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Loam Silty loam Silt Medium Medium Medium Medium Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately fine Clay loam Sandy clay loam Silty clay loam Moderately low Moderately low Moderately low High High High Fine texture Sandy clay Silty clay Clay Low Low High High Loamy soil Clay soil Moderately coarse 104 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Low erosion Good drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Drainage Severe erosion .6 0.S.8 1 1 1/4 0.3 1.3 6.6 0.3 5.5 4.7 6.5 2 1/2 0.0 1.8 0.8 1.2 0.4 2.5 2.0 1.1 2.7 Valve size 1 1/2 0.9 1.5 0.5 1.7 0.4 0.1 1.6 0. Standard Units Flow gpm 2 3 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 1/2 3/4 0.

10 .31 .40 .00 . Standard Units cover The maximum PR values listed above are as suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture.05 .43 .00 .17 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.24 .80 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 3 54° 28 ft 3/ 4 200 190 180 170 160 150 1 2 5 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 1/ 2 27 ft 15 ft 57 ft 32 ft 0 ft 19 ft GPM (loss in psi) Valve Size (in inches) 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 63° 62° 60° 59° 58° 56° Bronze Gate Valves 90 42° 0 ft 100 45° 0 ft 1:1 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 105 .00 .25 0.00 .00 .01 .02 .00 .24 .40 0.10 0.00 .00 .30 Uniform silt loams 1.00 .25 0.00 .28 .62 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .60 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .50 1.00 .S.75 0.26 .17 .00 .00 .40 Light sandy loams uniform 1.00 0.00 .00 .00 1.00 .14 .00 .00 .00 .13 .22 .01 . ANGLE AND RATIO % 0 Angle 0° Ratio 10 5° 43 ft 10:1 20 11° 19 ft 5:1 30 16° 33 18° 42 ft 16 ft 3:1 40 21° 48 ft 50 26° 34 ft 60 30° 58 ft 67 33° 70 35° 50 ft 0 ft 2:1 1.50 0.23 .00 .00 .00 0.00 .85 .00 .00 .75 0.5:1 110 80 38° 40 ft 120 .00 .00 .00 .18 .00 .00 50° 42 ft .01 .00 .00 .00 .75 1.06 .50 0.40 0.40 Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 1.75 0.30 0.00 .50 0.15 .07 .00 .00 .00 .00 .21 .11 .10 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .23 .00 .00 .40 0.00 .00 .43 .00 .62 47° 44 ft .00 .28 .02 .04 .34 .00 .00 .07 .00 .00 .00 .04 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .75 1.15 .00 .00 .00 .00 .25 0.00 .50 1.00 .50 .00 .10 Heavy clay or clay loam 0.02 .00 .00 .30 0.10 0.01 .00 .67 .00 .00 .00 0.02 .00 140 .20 0.00 .15 0.00 .03 .00 .00 2.00 .10 .00 .08 .06 .30 .05 .03 .00 .11 .00 .12 0.02 .42 .30 .00 .00 .00 .00 .03 .00 .02 .00 .16 .00 .00 .00 .00 0.06 Technical Data U.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .14 .00 .00 .03 .06 .00 .00 .00 4 52° 26 ft .00 .00 .15 0.00 .29 .04 .00 .00 .06 .07 .50 Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .18 .50 1.00 .04 .75 0.54 .00 .00 .50 0.00 .00 . The values are average and may vary with respect to actual soil condition and condition of ground cover.00 .00 .00 .00 .01 .00 130 .00 .00 .00 .07 .14 .25 1.85 .60 0.00 1.00 .75 1.05 .00 .00 .00 .00 .80 1.00 .01 .00 .00 .00 .09 .00 1.00 0.08 0.40 0.11 .09 .02 .30 0.00 .00 .00 .07 .23 .00 .00 .05 .00 .15 0.00 . Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves (in psi) Slope reference SLOPE REFERENCE CHART PERCENT.02 .td Technical Data Technical Data Maximum precipitation rates MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: INCHES PER HOUR 0 to 5% slope SOIL TEXTURE 5 to 8% slope 8 to 12% slope 12%+ slope bare cover bare cover bare cover bare Course sandy soils 2.60 0.00 .40 .20 Silt loams over compact subsoil 0.19 .00 .00 .00 .03 .

9 2.3 6.9 2.4 1.0 11.9 9.0 3.7 0.4 0.7 7.3 13.0 6.4 3.7 12.6 11.0 13.0 11⁄2 in 0.7 4.9 1.9 15.4 1.4 2.2 2.0 15.2 1.9 5.0 15.6 2.2 7.0 2.9 1.2 5.5 2.6 3.5 4.2 8.6 3.6 5.7 3.0 1.4 2.9 4.7 3.2 3.6 0.4 0.0 1.3 1.0 2 in 0.2 3.1 1.S.3 0.6 1.6 1.3 1.5 2.9 1.2 2.2 12.8 2.2 2.6 10.3 4.7 9.0 106 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 3 in 4 in 0.2 0.9 1.7 12.8 0.3 3.0 2.4 1.3 20.5 7.3 0.5 0.2 1.5 11.0 0.8 16.0 .7 0.3 3.8 1.7 4.4 4.1 17.2 10.9 3.7 1.7 0.9 6.2 8.8 11.8 1.5 0.3 20.6 1.7 1.1 0.1 4.6 0.0 16.4 5.3 1.3 9.0 1.0 3.2 6.0 9.4 15.2 0.5 5.0 3⁄4 in 0.0 4.8 2.0 1 in 0.1 5.3 9.8 2.7 3.0 15.9 7.2 20.8 8.3 2.1 1.2 1.6 0.1 6.Technical Data Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss Pressure loss: psi Nominal Size flow Technical Data U.1 2.4 0.8 6.0 17.8 2.2 1.6 1.4 10.8 0.8 13.7 0.2 4.9 4.9 4.5 6.8 0.6 5.0 3.0 13.5 1.1 7.3 0.6 1.1 0.7 5.0 1.0 13.8 3.3 5.5 7.0 1.8 9.5 0.7 6.1 2.5 11.8 6.2 0.1 20.1 3.3 1.1 2.4 1.6 0.3 7.2 8.5 1.2 13. Standard Units gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 5⁄8 in 0.6 4.

501 22.814 0.495 2.805 0.740 136.961 1.909 3.719 0.085 1. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 15 mm 21 14 4 flow m3/h 0.566 4.229 0.000 0.106 1.481 0.174 0.993 6.249 0.047 0.250 1.415 0.810 2.725 0.765 2.938 9.253 0.208 0.443 0.274 0.287 4.848 1.524 0.246 0 0.588 14.113 0.494 1.824 43.558 0.953 0.066 0.330 0.002 0.259 2.010 18.994 1.030 1.742 15.057 0.448 0.660 1.188 2.291 5.208 0.852 Q 1.625 1.506 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 107 Technical Data International System Units flow l/s 20 mm 27 19 4 .210 2.142 0.050 0.115 0.704 6.060 2.036 0.007 0.761 0.162 0.677 5.570 8.628 1.256 1.875 1.948 1.636 3.769 8.804 7.388 1.396 0.677 0.208 2.552 0.390 102.033 1.007 0.091 0.189 1.609 3.103 1.568 0.758 2.653 0.086 0.389 0.045 0.924 20.229 1.533 0.085 2.265 0.709 1.152 0.347 18.262 1.353 1.536 0.027 0.23 m3/h) through 37.968 4.917 4.694 0.765 1.765 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.451 0.430 2.789 17.149 0.761 0.660 9.235 0.340 12.868 4.005 0.978 2.002 0.179 0.709 6.817 1.325 3.892 2.210 0.304 2.609 5.970 1.216 1.134 0.213 1.747 0.320 0.591 0.631 0.662 0.226 0.284 1.661 2.219 0.003 1.552 12.011 0.405 0.005 0.258 0.002 0.International System Units td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.710 3.948 27.484 31.161 3.697 13.086 0.126 0.922 3.372 0.497 1.777 1.973 4.038 0.228 0.363 0.807 0.005 0.039 3.579 1.907 1.920 2.095 2.913 0.000 0.002 0.134 1.477 5.111 2.600 5.597 0.200 8.050 90.002 0.160 0.023 0.009 0.637 0.229 0.066 4.033 4.362 5.85 L/s (136.378 0.438 0.732 0.060 107.014 0.158 0.420 4.807 2.540 34.344 0.203 0.027 0.329 1.328 0.177 0.016 0.160 0.661 0.698 0.075 0.487 4.738 0.158 0.131 0.040 73.016 0.098 0.360 51.037 1.292 0.219 1.415 0.005 0.070 0.923 2.597 0.560 0.090 0.959 5.546 22.268 2.399 2.393 2.262 0.302 0.036 0.005 0.920 3.323 1.543 0.007 0.226 0.134 0.664 0.073 0.007 0.002 0.166 3.598 1.612 1.335 0.685 3.472 0.072 4.644 7.729 6.095 0.335 2.072 10.050 0.960 1.038 0.416 0.041 0.131 2.580 2.538 0.041 0.435 4.133 0.402 1.804 5.317 2.241 0.902 1.050 0.694 37.514 1.814 2.445 0.964 0.920 1.974 5.103 1. Use with caution.752 34.607 0.783 2.190 0.694 4.128 1.523 2.002 0.016 0.008 5.142 0.974 5.536 4.839 3.060 3.049 1.713 2.181 0.642 0.569 110 mm 114 97 9 160 mm 168 146 11 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.495 0.216 2.206 11.014 0.661 0.005 0.262 0.487 1.144 19.075 0.634 0.428 0.382 3.046 0.933 1.154 6.124 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.296 0.426 3.185 5.207 0.193 15.680 0.185 4.011 0.443 5.002 0.870 0.170 4.356 1.990 5.165 0.397 1.088 4.189 1.312 0.000 0.298 4.052 0.027 0.354 0.752 4.216 1.046 5.527 1.462 10.002 0.002 0.296 0.007 0.204 0.273 0.315 0.186 0.000 15.689 0.041 2.063 0.009 0.018 0.010 1.020 0.023 0.002 0.517 4.972 3.011 0.897 6.064 0.466 0.515 0.092 45.147 0.941 2.170 2.082 0.030 2.984 2.066 0.204 0.011 0.052 0.469 3.005 0.594 0.612 1.172 5.319 0.030 0.063 0.963 31.884 0.133 0.198 0.064 1.009 0.091 0.007 0.005 0.032 0.766 1.011 0. 63 mm 73 59 7 velocity mps bar loss 0.131 0.007 0.599 10.436 1. 1220) C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.809 28.232 26.326 1.530 3.527 0.139 3.055 0.110 0.646 2.722 3. Flow 0.329 0.118 0.077 0.023 2.152 1.222 0.402 1.924 0.005 0.635 5.223 0.052 0.002 0.043 0.380 85.002 0.569 6.442 0.655 1.130 1.544 1.066 0.883 1.556 40.097 5.168 0.697 4.155 3.968 5.510 18.313 2.823 0.356 1.424 0.673 1.241 1.503 1.139 1.08 m3/h).186 0.007 0.299 0.975 3.018 0.957 2.077 0.014 0.081 0.101 0.364 0.030 56.512 2.835 0.588 1.002 0.265 1.354 11.063 0.278 0.149 0.456 3.384 0.494 1.275 1.474 13.401 1.993 3.721 3.544 5.005 0.317 0.640 1.099 0.329 0.099 0.876 2.007 0.805 0.063 0.852 C x .502 2.226 0.308 6.183 0.640 0.5 m/s.067 0.752 5.138 0.032 0.049 3.814 0.127 0.774 1.045 3.029 0.728 1.454 0.911 1.545 1.680 24.411 0.088 0.116 0.607 0.612 4.233 0.505 0.594 0.442 1.400 124.187 5.804 2.135 1.192 0.454 0.034 0.792 0.437 1.700 62.378 0.581 0.057 0.591 3.876 17.412 21.079 0.020 36.409 0.267 0.038 0.253 0.201 0.451 6.893 1.029 0.621 8.463 0.063 4.237 2.587 5.025 0.219 0.005 0.416 4.047 6.149 2.441 2.672 1.841 1.154 3.115 0.06 L/s (0.979 8.957 3.311 1.100 4.146 0.381 1.101 0.216 29.227 0.674 0.168 0.285 0.025 0.090 0.122 1.093 10.927 1.002 0.871 2.630 4.720 96.762 0.591 1.156 0.269 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .099 0.703 3.149 0.183 0.014 0.274 1.073 0.384 0.677 0.218 1.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.513 0.090 0.624 11.616 14.655 25.686 1.113 4.807 4.811 0.985 12.082 4.714 8.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.009 1.073 2.732 0.002 0.787 3.361 1.018 1.154 2.113 0.650 4.252 0.545 0.009 0.153 1.121 2.932 2.366 0.723 0.485 0.183 0.561 0.608 14.652 1.831 9.020 0.757 0.183 1.096 0.249 0.487 2.283 2.670 5.007 0.460 0.018 0.377 4.730 113.386 29.370 68.354 0.280 0.887 0.664 3.618 4.728 0.667 2.131 0.510 1.002 0.335 3.350 6.988 1.552 0.398 75 mm 89 74 8 velocity mps bar loss 0.023 0.987 3.172 0.621 4.175 3.338 0.070 2.009 0.266 1.899 2.552 0.014 0.460 0.020 0.110 0.235 0.677 0.165 0.724 11.278 20.238 0.086 0.484 8.496 3.497 0.395 3.698 1.935 2.016 0.405 2.078 23.761 3.011 0.770 17.643 0.145 4.710 0.027 0.419 5.011 0.526 6.848 0.170 0.224 0.185 3.011 0.228 0.323 0.748 0.249 5.355 0.617 0.023 0.381 0.271 0.328 5.119 0.631 0.832 1.442 0.005 0.313 3.681 10.683 0.991 1.137 0.548 2.189 0.307 3.847 0.036 0.936 1.043 0.246 4.530 0.587 2.314 0.939 7.080 25 mm 33 24 5 32 mm 42 32 5 40 mm 48 38 5 50 mm 60 49 6 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.478 1.106 0.142 4.032 0.497 1.826 1.155 1.478 2.005 0.384 0.484 2.809 1.274 0.947 5.135 1.000 0.411 0.02 0.002 0.594 0.533 2.151 0.731 5.442 0.518 3.153 0.753 0.023 0.296 0.288 38.822 4.002 0.771 0.365 2.036 1.258 3.225 3.628 3.106 0.369 1.629 4.138 0.041 0.785 4.363 4.078 0.002 0.113 0.899 0.860 0.759 0.059 0.841 0.509 0.621 5.081 0.646 2.386 0.911 2.002 0.801 4.877 5.183 0.710 79.521 1.

046 5.165 0.862 2.674 0.439 0.057 0.938 3.120 2.039 2.396 0.613 0.463 0.268 0.208 0.278 20.095 0.448 0.000 0.233 9.009 0.081 0.002 0.002 0.990 5.018 0.173 3.195 0.542 0.454 1.789 0.523 2.186 0.036 0.154 0.201 0.320 0.551 0.796 5.002 0.454 0.292 4.372 0.629 4.454 0.066 0.602 160 mm 168 154 7 bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.369 0.631 1.119 0.445 0.086 0.819 0.136 0.002 0.108 0. Technical Data International System Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 15 mm 21 16 3 flow l/s flow m3/h velocity mps 0.879 1.161 1.841 0.007 0.020 36.386 29.451 1.002 0.520 5.912 0.122 0.799 4.172 0.809 28.856 0.126 0.059 0.023 0.341 0.443 0.238 0.164 3.640 1.041 2.400 124.035 3.232 0.362 0.147 5.235 0.122 0.045 0.785 4.341 1.158 0.268 2.700 62.210 0.582 1.227 0.320 1.009 0.094 1.305 1.016 0.677 0.183 1.244 0.175 3.893 3.540 34.994 1.600 1.710 2.960 6.189 0.095 2.353 1.911 1.011 0.009 0.100 4.877 0.301 3.102 0.047 0.792 0.143 0.200 8.295 1.272 4.085 0.643 0.652 0.040 73.034 0.183 0.374 110 mm 114 102 6 velocity mps 0.477 2.389 3.917 2.783 0.339 0.585 0.173 1.683 0.874 3.496 24.474 13.225 1.341 0.407 2.149 0.397 3.088 0.834 0.269 0.072 4.162 1.725 0.002 0.134 0.948 27.081 0.005 0.815 13.162 0.549 0.730 113.405 0.938 3.872 1.789 10.563 2.974 1.863 0.509 2.063 0.06 L/s (0.529 5.426 1.301 2.290 0.600 1.912 2.033 2.149 0.766 1.030 56.505 0.852 C 50 mm 60 53 4 x .431 1.122 1.408 Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.249 2.170 0.163 2.012 2.002 0.611 1.097 0.027 0.722 3.501 22.301 1.624 4.280 1.104 0.061 0.091 0.341 0.189 1.466 3.253 1.652 2.831 9.016 0.198 2.906 1.216 3.286 1.282 5.075 4.356 3.714 3.249 0.935 2.860 2.193 15.320 0.807 2.287 0.068 0.356 1.014 0. Flow 0.068 0.946 4.997 1.714 0.393 0.837 4.026 4.720 96.321 0.640 0.735 0.23 0.347 0.616 14.479 0.361 1.917 2.283 0.027 0.034 0.395 4.530 0.005 0.233 0.396 0.201 0.963 31.642 0.189 0.016 0.007 0.077 0.320 0.266 1.183 0.962 4.136 0.564 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .092 1.829 2.515 0.521 0.380 85.214 6.5 m/s.226 0.057 0.834 4.020 0.939 7.018 0.101 0.545 0.835 1.484 2.252 0.890 2.276 5.082 4.326 2.457 1.653 3.472 2.093 0.646 1.007 0.550 3.366 0.199 0.646 0.218 4.640 0.027 0.687 0.097 1.353 0.128 1.902 8.260 0.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.222 1.236 5.897 6.068 0.454 0.765 0.050 0.421 0.649 0.614 5.756 0.536 3.899 0.573 0.957 1.183 0.428 20 mm 27 21 3 25 mm 33 27 3 32 mm 42 35 4 40 mm 48 41 4 bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.650 4.060 107.484 31.405 0.149 1.093 10.631 0.556 40.182 3.011 0.007 0.593 1.280 0.584 1.389 0.010 1.027 0.005 0.390 0. Use with caution.152 0.486 0.023 0.154 3.412 21.007 0.608 14.057 0.570 8.029 0.326 0.585 1.261 3.190 0.287 0.460 0.755 0.259 2.315 0.072 0.460 0.680 3.293 1.462 10.868 16.570 0.183 0.722 6.000 0.182 2.000 0.527 1.876 17.005 0.453 1.009 0.116 1.116 0.350 1.015 1.814 0.050 0.014 0.258 3.025 0.094 1.072 10.683 0.002 0.137 0.425 0.047 0.020 0.265 1.930 1.594 0.262 1.564 4.514 1.848 0.042 1.536 0.591 3.134 1.752 34.472 0.892 2.160 0.724 0.038 0.111 0.104 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.005 0.633 3.814 0.223 0.565 5.005 0.527 0.661 4.826 1.005 0.303 0.957 2.717 7.469 3.08 m3/h).316 4.000 0.270 1.609 2.670 3.007 0.009 1.929 3.493 2.798 5.724 11.920 0.388 1.099 5.637 2.308 1.335 0.642 3.171 1.488 0.143 0.814 2.304 1.066 0.497 0.302 0.007 0.144 19.018 1.305 0.213 0.981 2.381 0.439 1.002 0.149 0.618 2.953 4.000 0.779 1.572 5.335 0.011 0.018 1.142 5.023 0.499 5.416 4.895 5.606 1.086 0.198 0.310 0.685 2.058 0.731 5.118 0.317 0.259 0.337 7.422 1.111 0.232 26.002 0.716 0.533 1.936 1.057 0.059 0.216 29.654 4.536 4.053 1.731 1.005 0.045 0.036 0.036 2.908 3.094 0.002 0.259 0.694 37.243 2.005 0.002 0.301 11.073 1.725 1.020 0.136 0.295 3.002 0.436 1.839 3.2083 ( 100 ) 1.168 0.350 6.329 1.055 1.573 0.676 1.050 90.025 0.010 18.765 0.480 20.929 2.029 0.011 0.957 2.809 0.009 0.852 Q 1.138 0.201 0.461 3.381 0.427 0.546 22.025 0.677 5.206 11.221 5.607 0.610 0.007 0.243 4.493 0.963 1.961 1.290 0.201 0.944 4.877 3.680 0.116 0.002 0.924 0.018 0.088 0.041 0.107 0.743 1.710 79.560 8.443 5.007 0.168 0.092 45.85 L/s (136.451 0.267 0.292 0.816 3.557 4.579 0.713 0.436 1.059 0.122 0.732 0.041 0.814 3.759 1.067 8.002 0.765 2.077 0.245 5.430 0.099 0.470 0.556 0.355 0.078 4.381 1.671 0.122 0.757 0.243 2.014 0.090 0.689 0.847 1.917 1.859 2.901 75 mm 89 78 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.262 0.615 0.012 1.753 0.506 0.588 1.007 0.314 2.567 1.122 1.608 0.902 1.783 4.866 108 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 63 mm 73 63 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.490 3.046 0.844 0.698 1.079 0.020 0.824 43.677 6.883 1.993 2.210 0.075 0.308 6.002 0.174 0.113 0.032 0.944 0.200 3.219 0.208 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird .005 0.149 1.947 5.370 68.658 0.041 0.689 3.985 12.991 1.856 3.005 0.856 4.027 0.603 1.057 3.002 0.450 3.249 0.399 2.517 8.740 136.109 2.640 2.064 0.335 2.378 0.366 0.025 0.347 18.648 0. 1220) C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.640 0.565 0.005 0.038 0.131 0.06 0.013 3.179 0.247 1.680 24.011 0.521 0.444 1.697 1.728 0.238 0.569 4.268 0.619 0.938 9.000 0.698 0.924 20.694 0.759 0.149 0.059 0.264 3.229 0.253 0.078 23.597 3.080 0.360 51.966 2.744 3.244 0.882 10.241 1.497 0.723 0.492 0.362 5.539 0.027 0.804 7.356 3.016 0.142 0.716 1.066 3.055 1.208 2.742 15.009 0.23 m3/h) through 37.405 0.128 0.135 1.112 2.344 0.972 3.079 0.396 0.716 0.532 0.133 0.846 2.201 0.953 5.029 0.014 0.025 0.463 1.118 3.201 0.723 0.521 1.365 4.425 0.874 4.127 0.669 5.192 5.741 1.519 7.362 4.350 0.002 0.064 0.655 25.573 2.011 0.515 0.016 0.673 12.140 0.770 17.326 1.573 0.841 0.599 0.005 0.326 0.527 0.165 0.756 2.568 0.190 0.183 0.689 1.761 5.340 12.002 0.448 2.338 0.390 102.005 0.137 1.993 6.359 0.091 0.005 0.043 0.312 2.495 2.016 0.587 5.097 1.292 0.550 5.050 0.005 0.354 11.127 5.158 2.270 3.917 4.907 1.143 0.118 0.095 0.377 2.283 2.288 38.161 2.785 6.118 0.683 0.493 0.154 0.018 0.224 4.441 0.084 5.442 0.002 0.099 0.940 1.135 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.323 0.203 0.914 1.

878 0.938 9.088 3.466 0.002 0.546 0.582 1.669 0.938 0.756 1.061 0.463 3.192 0.378 0.075 160 mm 168 143 12 bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.108 0.295 5.115 0.080 0.963 1.029 12.143 0.321 0.007 0.127 0.018 0.848 0.023 0.007 0.993 6.388 1.435 1.969 2.247 0.869 0.369 0.568 0.036 0.987 2.978 2.023 0.485 110 mm 114 97 8 velocity mps 0.308 6.002 0.016 0.332 0.084 0.009 0.176 2.445 0.113 0.454 0.047 0.007 0.156 0.020 0.036 0.237 0.506 0.293 0.082 0.315 0.278 20.149 0.140 0.002 0.616 14.002 0.002 0.461 0.016 0.417 1.093 0.228 4.443 5.694 37.303 10.174 0.384 1.661 1.328 0.360 51.005 0.536 2.018 0.454 1.271 0.677 5.098 3.210 0.011 0.441 5.332 0.749 5.020 36.109 3.252 4.822 25 mm 33 28 2 32 mm 42 36 3 40 mm 48 41 4 bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.162 1.628 0.195 0.536 4.558 0.009 0.097 2.506 0.002 0.092 45.283 0.311 0.741 0.377 0.861 3.474 13.624 0.023 0.010 18.853 0.908 0.271 0.303 2.082 0.956 4.592 0.463 1.946 9.140 1.027 0.007 0.237 0.005 0.002 0.720 96.365 4.002 0.311 0.200 8.166 1.184 5.423 3.487 2.560 3.137 2.154 3. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 15 mm 21 18 2 flow m3/h velocity mps 0.066 0.068 0.890 0.005 0.093 0.585 0.772 4.005 0.244 1.732 0.027 0.897 6.059 0.939 2.002 0.023 0.748 3.146 2.005 0.149 0.374 2.122 2.149 0.844 4.353 1.963 31.612 0.227 0.988 1.816 0.654 2.176 2.043 0.422 8.766 1.036 4.489 1.831 9.009 0.970 1.201 0.372 0.712 0.728 0.005 0.814 2.668 0.495 2.188 0.459 0.149 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .487 2.115 0.927 1.444 0.277 0.232 26.996 5.046 0.372 0.570 8.070 0.095 0.061 0.944 0.046 5.007 0.042 4.692 0.040 73.042 1.025 0.798 3.235 0.817 1.104 0. Use with caution.484 8.802 0.354 11.777 0.063 0.664 0.863 1.724 11.844 0.170 0.768 0.124 2.951 2.326 2.340 12.518 1.730 113.427 0.088 0.362 7.468 0.072 0.174 0.700 0.007 0.399 1.015 1.005 0.892 2.415 0.497 0.804 7.141 1.014 0.250 0.744 0.557 1.503 4.213 1.865 2.579 0.070 0.676 7.918 1.005 0.323 0.011 0.841 0.285 0.690 1.005 0.320 1.030 56.945 3.948 27.939 7.506 0.764 3.972 1.110 0.002 0.853 4.752 34.875 1.408 1.049 1.186 0.124 0.155 0.201 2.253 0.637 0.020 0.383 3.226 0.465 3.933 1.969 3.217 0.490 1.079 0.973 6.725 0.828 2.261 1.007 0.610 0.378 0.710 79.206 11.117 6.780 0.116 0.303 0.079 0.213 2.501 22.168 0.850 3.960 3.038 0.759 0.007 0.204 0.085 5.241 0.011 0.009 0.655 25.124 0.253 0.316 3.798 3.000 0.459 0.06 L/s (0.058 0.663 4.700 62.742 15.203 0.182 2.770 17.454 0.384 0.395 3.194 4.380 85.466 0.043 0.587 6.865 1.140 0.23 m3/h) through 37.134 0.521 0.009 0.500 2.459 0.561 1.554 1.362 5.515 2.219 4.219 0.902 2.016 0.262 5.817 2.180 1.014 0.101 0.694 2.311 0.880 4.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.349 1.546 0.066 0.839 3.443 0.322 3.698 1.122 0.759 0.505 4.608 14.063 0.390 0.280 2.731 5.514 1.020 0.645 3.429 2.885 2.041 0.009 0.262 1.268 1.061 0.363 0.032 0.740 1.009 0.329 1.057 75 mm 89 76 7 velocity mps bar loss 0.005 0.326 1.268 1.814 0.005 0.969 1.074 1.210 1.892 5.655 2.341 0.099 0.570 0.122 0.109 2.572 0.018 0.434 2.540 34.924 20.256 1.513 0.412 21.594 3.400 124.780 0.186 0.702 63 mm 73 62 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.933 1.007 0.186 1.297 1.144 19.596 5.109 3.957 2.302 0.941 0.045 2.451 1.072 10.361 1.631 0.436 1.771 2.740 136.911 1.000 0.622 0.045 4.088 0.373 0.036 3.2083 ( 100 ) 1.097 1.066 0.676 1.818 3.167 0.109 3.296 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.025 0.393 0.773 6.043 0.243 5.020 0.151 0.075 0.545 4.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 109 Technical Data International System Units flow l/s 20 mm 1 23 2 .389 0.853 1.388 1.722 3.547 0.283 0.386 0.067 1.573 2.974 5.012 0.002 0.981 3.258 4.975 1.127 0.947 5.588 1.469 3.798 4.095 0.522 0.163 5.193 15.698 0.612 2.268 2.112 2.690 5.418 0.563 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.710 1.052 0.538 0.168 1.624 0.142 0.004 3.366 0.334 0.710 0.734 4.552 14.660 5.966 6.226 0.131 0.152 0.5 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.014 0.351 0.197 0.442 0.186 0.366 1.85 L/s (136.658 1.851 2.549 0.329 0.356 4.175 3.186 1.304 1.100 4.335 0.094 0.182 5.329 0.050 90.902 3.050 0.296 0.036 1.390 0.012 1.5 m/s.091 0.886 3.807 4.045 0.757 0.023 0.463 0.683 0.098 0.296 0.798 3.007 0.002 0.210 0.168 0. 1220) SDR 13.423 1.634 0.176 2.670 1.359 0.000 0.002 0.061 1.032 0.849 5.108 0.290 1.189 0.859 1.366 1.057 2.002 0.213 0.536 1.034 0.654 1.050 0.852 Q 1.622 0.011 0.041 2.223 0.762 1.081 0.549 0.488 0.000 0.829 0.438 0.212 0.240 0.135 1.838 0.059 0.700 0.424 0.253 0.235 0.020 0.260 0.018 0.408 50 mm 60 51 4 velocity mps bar loss 0.716 0.249 2.277 2.079 0.244 1.151 0.052 0.629 4.107 0.244 1.591 0.017 4.176 0.453 4.378 0.823 1.548 1.607 0.088 1.234 1.557 4.789 0.073 2.334 5.809 28.593 5.009 1.228 10.347 1.505 0.027 0.785 4.423 2.034 0.374 2.025 0.472 0.797 2.694 0.663 5.301 2.731 3.734 2.067 0.032 0.117 3.078 23.300 1.207 0.060 107.521 1.680 24.147 4.140 1.567 0.661 0.155 0.158 0.290 0.338 0. Flow 0.862 5.180 0.208 2.332 0.036 0.032 0.640 0.393 0.119 1.231 0.170 1.591 0.652 2.640 1.084 0.179 0.476 4.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.899 2.784 0.865 2.975 17.131 0.059 0.241 0.546 22.497 0.401 4.504 0.305 0.237 2.683 5.253 0.088 1.556 40.134 1.824 43.082 4.170 3.165 0.487 2.347 18.680 0.744 0.852 C x .016 0.104 0.396 1.666 1.216 29.273 4.011 0.780 1.014 0.420 3.485 0.795 3.011 0.005 0.038 0.558 0.948 1.496 3.642 3.082 0.554 1.701 0.374 2.731 4.347 3.433 0.418 2.606 1.195 0.137 0.341 3.468 5.938 4.134 0.873 6.176 0.411 0.462 10.206 0.002 0.002 0.026 1.007 0.08 m3/h).002 0.146 3.523 2.073 1.189 0.930 1.285 5.421 0.978 1.280 0.316 0.002 0.252 0.350 6.658 1.197 0.911 3.876 17.002 0.119 1.108 0.041 0.907 0.427 0.247 0.242 0.370 68.789 0.195 0.850 0.484 31.725 0.145 4.734 9.950 4.183 1.217 0.927 7.938 1.692 1.000 0.667 2.975 2.044 1.622 0.224 5.122 0.985 12.854 0.126 0.416 4.014 0.642 0.172 0.289 0.994 1.119 0.066 0.047 0.386 29.582 2.907 1.054 0.005 0.677 0.158 0.580 1.061 4.093 10.140 0.009 0.485 0.288 38.366 1.523 3.666 5.567 2.511 4.990 5.029 0.749 2.615 1.494 0.000 0.353 4.716 0.232 0.054 0.536 0.002 0.744 0.883 1.363 0.125 0.622 0.326 12.098 0.052 0.116 0.390 102.651 5.

026 4.999 3.407 4.366 0.038 0.028 3.040 0.378 0.100 4.720 96.375 0.842 4.484 31.198 1.315 0.049 1.462 5.146 0.295 1.050 0.848 0.005 0.917 1.189 0.581 3.223 0.652 1.175 3.883 0.032 0.959 5.156 0.852 0.027 0.002 0.002 0.080 0.018 0.715 0.014 0.940 1.002 0.610 3.020 0.423 0.740 4.805 0.268 2.588 1.414 0.448 4.255 2.240 0.047 0.865 4.014 0.005 0.007 0.164 1.808 6.066 2.063 0.423 2.924 12.232 26.400 124.691 2.125 1.140 0.474 3.075 0.198 0.353 0.246 0.932 2.002 0.158 0.388 1.050 0.405 1.007 0.005 0.002 0.323 0.340 4.287 0.005 0.454 0.204 2.164 3.032 0.451 160 mm 168 152 8 velocity mps 0.073 0.899 0.588 2.180 0.078 3.118 0.485 0.171 0.020 0.985 1.231 2.341 0.477 0.144 3.384 0.079 0.056 0.268 0.797 2.005 0.914 2.271 0.876 17.118 0.007 0.176 0.311 0.009 0.789 0.106 2.110 0.010 18.752 34.007 0.129 0.330 0.034 0.671 0.243 1.118 0.081 0.729 1.593 5.301 2.059 0.235 0.495 2.213 0.556 40.485 0.119 0.009 1.168 0.124 4.149 0.475 0.615 1.064 1.700 62.356 2.375 0.532 6.219 0.274 1.439 0.125 0.460 0.271 0.030 56.165 0.680 0.041 0.104 0.177 1.002 0.134 1.380 0.655 0.170 0.002 0.680 0.722 4.016 0.499 3.839 3.576 0.608 14.375 0.009 0.503 0.395 4.002 0.155 0.362 1.883 1.032 5.068 0.402 0.124 3.523 2.85 L/s (136.984 2.531 0.991 1.038 0.098 0.006 1.06 L/s (0.070 0.549 0.575 4.802 0.122 0.514 1.485 0.092 45.018 2.624 5.457 0.247 0.556 0.469 1.223 0.005 0.076 1.644 0.938 9.384 1.023 0.749 4.186 0.293 0.002 0.011 0.616 0.085 0.072 0.349 1.499 0.176 0.002 0.676 4.783 3.133 4.320 0.062 0.701 0.469 1.005 0.142 0.009 0.097 0.557 4.852 C x .538 3.052 0.728 1.145 0.974 1.059 0.637 0.533 0.085 0.152 3.061 0.487 1.052 0.262 0.005 0.002 0.531 0.050 0.504 0.726 8.060 107.838 0.147 0.046 5.759 1.991 1.938 3.549 0.212 0.020 0.655 6.005 0.985 12.777 0.685 4.574 2.458 9.232 1.514 5.478 2.570 8.546 22.490 3.2083 ( 100 ) 1.104 0.027 0.694 37.650 1.126 0.517 3.116 6.149 1.341 0.558 0.329 0.043 0.201 0.462 10.287 0.512 0.416 4.110 0.162 0.767 4.063 0.027 0.286 2.655 25.137 0.23 m3/h) through 37.183 0.643 0.878 0.286 2.154 3.561 1.819 2.362 5.020 36.226 0.351 0.023 0.722 6.582 1.383 6.826 0.481 2.020 0.679 1.119 0.463 2.210 1.002 0.210 0.177 1.189 0.766 0.494 0.125 75 mm 89 80 4 velocity mps bar loss 0.323 1.378 0.100 3.948 4.270 5.999 3.993 6.076 bar loss 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .077 0.002 0.942 1.496 3.179 0.002 0.307 4.479 0.274 0.440 0.200 110 mm 114 103 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.038 0.029 0.381 1.207 0.643 1.892 0.380 85.902 2.403 1.082 0.090 0.020 0.561 0.162 3.966 1.637 3.536 4.133 0.125 1.299 0.755 3.216 29.210 1.511 6.560 3.009 0.328 2.150 1.367 1.608 0.177 1.236 5.093 0.984 2.000 0.924 20.005 0.326 0.133 0.129 0.612 1.151 0.100 2.222 2.204 2.113 0.967 1.646 0.000 0.091 1.207 0.521 4.179 0.036 1.568 0.661 0.606 2.756 0.104 0.223 0.054 0.435 2.002 0.293 0.005 0.231 1.340 12.811 3.439 0.734 1.115 5.735 0.242 0.810 2.025 0.427 0.025 0.063 0.974 1.133 4.005 0.273 0.016 0.354 11.059 0.040 73.450 3.793 0. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 20 mm through 160 mm.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.041 2.823 0.771 0.041 2.249 5.637 0.863 0.344 1.018 0.141 9.000 0.163 0.286 1.370 68.308 6.276 5.070 0.897 6.730 113.494 0.152 2.680 24.036 0.852 Q 1.344 0.014 0.411 3.262 1.907 1.256 0.448 0.195 1.030 3.521 2.588 0.018 0.165 0.259 1.293 0.990 5.174 0.750 1.819 2.433 0.863 1.193 15.215 0.624 2.5 m/s.052 0.526 1.002 0.637 0.016 0.423 1.652 1.332 0.347 1.116 1.378 0.389 0.824 43.100 1.809 28.890 2.192 0.588 0.742 15.171 0.884 2.054 5.573 2.134 0.814 2.347 18.005 0.002 0.686 1.755 0.930 0.350 6.926 2.474 13.032 0.692 0.104 0.221 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird .036 0.052 1.002 0.552 0.014 0.344 0.415 0.301 2.107 0.078 23.288 38.557 2.000 0.250 0.086 0.390 102.091 0.597 0.802 0.572 3.032 0.005 0.194 0.009 0.011 0.740 136.563 7.941 3.307 3.128 0.448 0.115 0.269 0.719 0.329 0.032 0.206 11.203 4.866 0.055 1.753 0.892 2.005 0.939 7.011 0.002 0.622 0.752 25 mm 33 30 2 32 mm 42 38 2 40 mm 48 44 2 50 mm 60 55 3 bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.651 4.895 3.165 0.581 5.644 0.804 7.554 0.002 0.134 0.993 4.380 0.011 0.439 0.838 2.518 0.190 0.677 5.199 4.532 1.963 1.536 0.777 0.960 3.808 0.000 0.055 0.640 1.002 0.081 0.500 1.408 Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.294 0.026 3.296 0.433 0.497 0.439 1.962 5.608 0.007 0.963 31.097 0.360 51.972 1.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.868 0.956 4.007 0.009 1.014 0.086 0.895 3.021 2.012 2.016 0.072 10.495 2.210 0.110 1.143 0.241 0.974 0.390 2.050 0.050 90.307 0.362 3.009 0.478 4.278 20.685 0.043 0.284 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.619 0.041 5. Flow 0.023 0.486 velocity mps bar loss 0.430 0.402 0.831 9.374 3.679 2.870 0.088 2.934 5.295 1.007 0.310 2.188 0.194 2.725 2.433 1.018 0.104 0.750 0.292 0.093 10.335 0.744 0.210 1.274 0.296 0.050 0.172 0.041 0.443 5.251 0.231 3.859 1.307 3.135 1.011 0.651 0.027 0.524 0.002 0.731 2.674 0.007 0.154 0.527 0.856 4.100 1.002 0.929 8.219 0.698 0.367 1.207 0.874 3.616 14.082 4.566 1.073 0.134 0.501 22.124 0.066 0.280 0.313 5.418 0.249 2.875 2.770 17.710 0.692 0.785 4.703 0.164 1.006 1.478 1.837 5.025 0.071 1.208 2.469 3.492 1.542 1.08 m3/h) Technical Data International System Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 20 mm 27 24 2 flow l/s flow m3/h velocity mps 0.328 2.035 1.109 2.382 0.977 5.386 29.862 2.582 1.372 0.875 5.127 0.039 4.014 0.093 0.259 0.241 0.708 0.000 0.234 1.200 8.111 0.005 0.846 5.287 0.378 1.009 0.252 0.002 0.469 1.023 0.344 0.095 0.407 0.789 3.034 0.755 2.361 1.951 1.629 4.009 0.694 0.111 0.018 0.631 0.710 79.549 0.181 0.110 0.262 0.731 5.146 0.766 1.084 0.088 0.881 0.558 1.584 1.060 2.411 0.948 27.412 21.591 0.144 19.723 0.149 4.050 0.861 3.722 3.029 4.007 0.466 0.924 1.778 5.043 0.604 0.540 34.270 1.866 110 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 63 mm 73 66 3 velocity mps bar loss 0.442 0.325 0.016 0.588 0.505 0.016 0.724 11.106 0.335 0.081 0.757 0.743 1.875 1.466 0.055 0.185 3.963 1. Use with caution.241 1.227 0.

332 0.527 3.162 3.568 40 mm 48 45 2 50 mm 60 56 2 velocity mps 0.165 0.700 62.250 0.113 2.140 0.660 5.052 0.104 0.171 0.786 1. Flow 0.070 1.156 0.050 90.047 0.143 0.295 1.234 1.011 0.066 0.5 m/s.062 0.877 1.103 3.190 0.23 m3/h) through 37.360 51.646 2.905 2.259 0.590 0.085 0.582 0.172 0.149 0.430 1.423 3.147 0.742 15.654 4.256 0.113 0.06 L/s (0.660 6.009 0.536 0.005 0.201 2.454 2.255 5.011 0.000 0.494 1.876 17.057 0.066 0.002 0.155 3.347 18.084 0.369 0.551 0.172 0.479 0.002 0.128 0.009 0.142 0.21 0.762 1.646 0.939 2.093 bar loss 0.237 4.119 0.364 0.824 43.579 0.875 3.344 0.839 3.423 2.314 0.262 1.042 4.029 0.040 bar loss 0.011 0.014 0.222 2.163 0.527 0.011 0.005 0.244 0.005 0.140 0.310 0.027 0.210 0.384 2.441 3.036 0.084 0.002 0.173 3.041 4.009 0.216 29.045 0.002 0.247 0.402 0.213 0.315 0.183 0.360 0.484 31.85 L/s (136.120 0.579 1.829 0.883 1.213 0.322 0.025 0.232 0.710 79.201 0.521 0.740 1.000 0.962 4.443 5.179 3.616 0.767 5.016 0.106 0.107 0.006 1.186 0.402 0.362 5.567 1.618 3.169 3.272 1.411 1.106 0.238 0.463 0.540 34.626 0.198 2.421 0.530 0.162 0.724 11.045 0.375 1.311 1.201 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .133 0.957 1.789 0.299 0.411 1.332 0.849 4.014 0.045 0.357 0.519 1.231 3.626 2.936 1.662 5.002 0.694 0.757 0.082 4.361 1.520 5.066 5. Use with caution.996 3.164 1.680 24.938 9.080 0.106 0.241 1.206 11.005 0.364 2.594 0.564 0.189 0.752 34.588 1.142 0.020 0.502 0.424 1.629 4.079 0.152 1.085 0.131 0.829 1.904 3.361 5.161 2.170 4.018 2.688 1.278 20.131 0.131 0.143 2.969 1.079 1.180 0.854 1.018 0.134 1.412 21.649 2.308 0.808 0.216 1.174 0.298 0.829 3.475 0.000 velocity mps 0.002 0.023 0.739 3.043 0.005 0.997 1.978 3.386 29.312 0.631 0.722 3.165 0.889 2.152 0.664 0.740 136.265 0.000 0.990 5.088 0.381 1.128 0.014 0.194 0.610 0.392 1.041 0.158 0.884 1.287 0.650 1.271 1.359 3.037 1.547 2.206 0.514 1.832 0.968 4.822 2.497 1.002 0.469 2.481 0.387 0.382 0.704 0.060 107.584 4.424 0.323 0.435 2.101 0.009 0.057 0.032 0.020 0.323 0.725 0.366 0.411 0.881 0.455 1.005 0.618 1.002 0.970 1.158 0.154 3.002 0.194 0.204 0.310 0.432 5.007 0.280 0.034 0.292 1.005 0.474 13.208 2.067 0.077 0.002 0.326 2.505 0.093 10.430 0.701 2.854 0.414 1.140 0.369 1.160 0.462 10.416 4.693 2.353 4.323 1.029 0.135 1.005 0.218 3.228 0.095 0.123 1.414 0.292 2.102 0.816 bar loss 63 mm 73 67 3 velocity mps 0.303 0.036 0.469 3.009 0.077 0.713 0.874 2.023 0.344 0.018 0.809 28.240 3.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 111 Technical Data International System Units flow l/s 0.497 0.280 0.030 56.457 0.527 0.706 3.521 2.072 0.232 0.049 1.122 0.033 1.200 8.025 0.095 0.339 0.948 27.020 36.025 0.007 0.523 2.435 3.875 1.007 0.032 5.685 0.160 0.007 0.939 7.016 0.658 0.007 0.012 1.278 0.040 73.091 2.985 12.113 0.371 2.750 3.076 0.131 1.101 0.034 0.666 6.007 0.371 0.002 0.201 0.731 5.722 0.116 0.154 0.28 0.892 2.175 3.869 0.005 0.027 0.252 0.627 2.045 0.760 7.730 113.807 1.009 1.102 0.938 1.454 0.485 0.011 0.766 1.720 96.052 bar loss 0.224 5.792 0.288 38.005 0.568 0.400 124.260 0.607 0.434 0.721 0.353 0.009 0.038 0.363 0.393 1.121 1.067 2.018 0.619 0.770 17.014 0.002 0.041 0.029 0.636 3.437 1.088 2.119 0.993 6.215 0.268 2.555 6.232 26.291 5.149 0.346 0.250 1.131 0.576 0.396 0.005 0.749 4.277 3.907 1.011 0.018 0.694 0.264 0.655 25.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.434 0.849 5.283 0.887 0.350 6.227 velocity mps 0.705 0.238 1.193 110 mm 114 106 4 velocity mps bar loss 0.719 0.237 0.486 0.079 0.959 bar loss 0.853 2.351 0.131 1.262 2.247 0.086 0.010 18.002 0.774 0.539 0. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 25 mm 33 30 2 flow m3/h 0.863 0.848 0.341 2.622 0.088 0.118 0.741 0.054 0.002 0.350 3.733 1.774 0.002 0.615 1.260 0.339 2.118 2.972 4.616 14. 1220) SDR 26 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 25 mm through 160 mm.481 3.849 5.548 1.144 19.115 2.927 3.687 0.597 0.002 0.386 0.963 31.020 0.433 0.783 0.733 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.262 0.061 0.852 C x .055 1.444 4.104 0.430 0.601 2.070 0.060 3.018 0.877 0.415 0.575 3.169 5.045 3.390 102.893 0.063 0.773 0.100 4.603 3.969 1.731 75 mm 89 82 3 velocity mps 0.694 37.494 0.192 1.127 0.494 1.503 0.661 1.009 0.308 0.045 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.439 1.002 0.420 0.023 0.380 85.024 5.084 0.556 40.102 0.466 0.120 0.255 0.767 5.612 3.475 0.515 0.126 0.924 20.551 1.070 0.296 2.014 0.495 2.585 0.608 14.002 0.007 0.042 1.002 velocity mps 0.354 11.226 0.016 0.814 2.585 2.536 4.951 1.852 Q 1.018 0.679 2.296 0.914 3.163 0.384 2.914 0.792 0.085 0.951 1.747 0.047 0.396 0.673 1.896 6.161 1.077 0.044 1.902 1.118 0.002 0.020 0.804 7.683 0.570 8.025 0.213 0.063 0.855 2.315 160 mm 168 155 6 velocity mps 0.989 2.068 0.016 0.785 4.871 4.504 0.728 0.139 5.210 1.347 0.801 1.136 4.634 0.831 9.631 0.193 15. bar loss 0.784 0.021 2.08 m3/h).262 0.420 1.246 0.847 0.247 1.981 2.002 0.942 9.158 0.000 0.677 5.072 10.052 0.046 5.939 2.501 22.588 1.772 4.646 0.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.005 0.079 1.002 0.671 0.567 0.260 2.378 0.910 5.937 2.058 1.002 0.217 0.241 0.680 0.340 12.370 68.679 1.058 1.078 23.452 0.057 0.423 0.564 0.897 6.634 1.388 1.032 0.032 0.442 0.190 0.192 0.317 0.115 0.174 0.877 4.063 32 mm 42 39 2 .667 1.161 1.095 0.016 0.297 5.468 4.041 2.007 0.502 4.890 1.329 1.640 1.360 0.501 3.286 0.442 0.036 0.914 2.837 4.036 0.054 0.657 6.067 1.005 0.880 3.212 10.092 45.579 0.027 0.695 0.109 7.094 0.850 3.146 1.009 1.049 0.585 1.222 1.005 0.007 0.531 0.788 5.024 2.030 3.011 0.546 22.828 0.463 0.192 0.844 3.009 0.287 0.308 6.533 0.283 0.655 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.002 0.075 0.265 2.005 0.227 1.551 0.000 0.189 0.395 4.917 4.410 4.082 0.111 0.481 1.005 0.993 bar loss 0.817 2.789 0.317 0.119 1.699 0.198 0.

740 136.454 0.125 1.002 0.032 0.500 1.549 0.033 1.255 2.488 0.238 0.048 2.370 68.904 4.131 0.305 0.014 0.423 velocity mps bar loss 0.361 1.875 1.757 0.327 1.120 2.106 0.265 2.063 2.451 1.036 4.152 0.033 2.579 0.041 0.371 3.111 0.381 0.591 0.224 0.011 0.197 0.070 0.927 0.077 0.927 1.002 0.842 4.311 6.250 0.785 4.972 3.609 1.188 5.002 0.608 14.540 34.029 0.002 0.463 0.005 0. Use with caution.050 0.545 0.002 0.695 1.007 0.002 0.974 1.067 0.179 0.729 1.005 0.064 1.746 4.195 0.002 4.570 8.081 0.007 0.878 2.046 5.023 0.063 0.664 0.041 0.234 3.347 0.287 0.892 2.014 0.014 0.002 0.153 1.242 0.728 1.08 m3/h).277 0.268 2.366 1.377 2.410 4.934 32 mm 42 39 1 40 mm 48 45 1 50 mm 60 57 2 bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.016 0.057 0.933 1.902 3.268 1.680 24.710 79.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.512 0.204 0.168 0.018 0.616 14.844 1.002 0.786 0.337 0.009 0.466 0.732 5.275 1.014 0.154 2.933 1.000 0.000 0.310 3.255 4.016 0.288 38.549 0.073 0.936 1.540 0.207 0.319 0.207 0.098 0.546 0.002 0.840 4.527 1.170 63 mm 73 69 2 velocity mps bar loss 0.344 2.305 0.093 0.509 0.809 28.052 0.091 0.929 3.152 1.000 0.643 0.945 110 mm 114 107 4 160 mm 168 158 5 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.354 0.050 0.698 0.000 0.814 2.020 0.137 0.635 9.722 0.007 0.002 0.204 2.185 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird .250 1.866 1.475 0.536 4.030 56.108 0.232 26.591 0.177 0.755 5.695 0.924 20.093 10.371 2.253 0.009 0.020 0.505 0.179 0.002 0.181 0.999 2.610 0.780 0.670 4.815 2.321 0.883 1.061 0.442 0.999 3.366 1.356 1.354 11.126 0.625 0.043 0.353 2.077 0.125 0.347 1.401 1.521 1.180 0.06 L/s (0.747 0.081 0.390 0.831 4.521 0.683 0.529 2.002 0.129 0.744 3.262 1.174 0.408 0.195 0.009 0.680 0.852 C x .724 11.514 4.070 0.416 0.347 18.752 34.365 1.390 102.000 1.778 5.113 0.299 0.929 5.137 0.200 8.700 62.814 2.966 3.835 0.5 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 25 mm through 160 mm.005 0.764 0.860 0.016 0.644 0.223 0.136 0.316 0.020 0.448 1.037 0.034 0.241 0.829 0.622 0.253 1.276 0.011 0.497 1.010 18.766 1.640 1.158 0.005 0.730 0.501 22.630 3.884 0.706 0.963 31.709 3.054 0.014 0.576 0.625 1.474 13.462 10.162 1.115 0.468 5.002 0.402 0.045 1.034 0.905 0.088 0.978 1.518 0.745 2.078 5.097 0.097 0.800 0.514 1.612 2.518 0.298 4.099 0.380 85.072 10.152 0.050 90.424 0.020 0.389 0.363 0.274 0.155 0.219 2.240 4.482 0.597 0.23 m3/h) through 37.837 2.088 0.182 0.007 0.311 0.186 0.057 0.207 0.914 2.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.805 0.175 3.677 5.353 0.600 0.341 0.831 9.091 2.694 0.036 0.612 4.451 0.948 27.750 0.080 0.240 0.088 0.853 3.005 0.007 0.539 2.104 0.919 2.259 0.136 3.594 2.043 0.572 0.140 0.456 3.097 0.256 0.002 0.993 6.041 0.075 0.400 124.366 1.663 5.027 0.311 0.556 40.335 2.183 1.015 1.85 L/s (136.451 1.651 0.025 0.068 0.655 25.839 3.000 0.730 113.671 0.228 0.201 0.130 1.181 2.375 1.005 0.811 0.371 5.443 0.125 1.000 0.011 0.460 0.018 0.646 2.024 1.287 0.408 3.005 0.677 0.906 0.694 5.430 0.192 0.503 1.016 0.108 0.889 4.630 0.011 0.007 0.880 3.360 51.897 6.059 0.444 8.009 0.252 0.119 0.068 0.112 3.005 5.807 0.474 4.631 0.005 0.079 0.144 1.523 2.227 0.158 0.282 5.005 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.375 0.311 1.005 0.037 1.308 6.678 2.762 0.511 5.661 0.701 0.320 0.007 0.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.951 2.052 0.975 1.832 1.389 3.009 0.505 4.027 0.002 0.823 0.866 112 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 75 mm 89 83 3 velocity mps bar loss 0.624 0.050 0.557 4.560 2.756 1.027 0.752 4.689 0.232 0.107 0.081 0.304 2.002 0.848 0.204 1.145 0.514 3.542 2.135 1.041 0.963 1.290 0.377 0.060 107.299 4.389 0.059 0.299 0.045 1.311 0.273 0.109 1.926 2.625 0.082 4.087 5.351 0.325 0.253 0.005 0.078 23.252 2.244 0.049 0.707 1.929 0.118 0.020 0.629 4.194 0.011 0.337 7.100 4.158 0.731 5.324 1.806 6.350 6.113 1.338 0.875 1.122 0.322 4.005 0.110 0.104 0.396 2.036 1.091 1.140 0.938 9.023 0.131 0.546 0.134 1.742 15.023 0.547 5.171 0.865 2.927 3.568 0.193 15.036 1.447 3.588 1.985 12.765 0.412 21. Flow 0.469 3.414 0.953 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.147 0.378 0.640 0.170 1.216 29.502 2.347 0.5 m/s.050 0.280 1.214 0.005 0.110 0.386 29.002 0.092 45.442 0.622 1.143 0.712 0.649 0.824 43.770 17.418 0.546 22.170 3.195 1.911 3.752 3.423 2.474 5.694 37.948 2.007 0.015 1.016 0.381 1.041 2.466 0.555 0.320 0.025 0.002 3.852 Q 1.920 0.567 1.723 0.634 0.088 2.023 0.990 5.005 0.418 0.165 0.002 0.768 1.740 1.512 0.582 1.206 11.005 0.125 0.804 7.240 0.314 0.443 0.506 0.858 0.939 1.479 0.416 4.271 0.414 3.429 6.533 0.267 4.005 0.876 17.155 0.381 1.963 1.032 0.633 2.151 0.750 1.813 4.244 1.093 0.174 0.221 0.029 0.816 0.615 2.502 3.509 0. Technical Data International System Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 25 mm 33 31 1 flow l/s flow m3/h velocity mps 0.384 0.579 0.631 0.041 0.104 0.040 73.009 0. 1220) SDR 32.029 0.278 0.016 0.399 0.243 3.207 0.554 1.025 0.271 0.500 0.043 0.175 1.020 0.315 0.002 0.158 0.344 0.188 5.229 0.186 1.294 0. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .101 0.128 2.082 4.286 1.072 3.447 0.974 1.448 0.725 0.278 20.007 0.490 0.009 1.134 0.076 2.034 0.198 0.443 5.536 1.853 0.052 0.076 0.939 7.606 1.252 3.340 12.985 1.014 0.357 0.895 0.734 2.731 2.208 0.223 0.020 36.122 0.208 2.094 1.176 0.400 0.104 0.594 2.258 0.098 0.082 0.149 0.847 0.068 0.388 1.448 0.002 0.085 0.002 0.438 2.720 96.120 0.524 1.502 0.011 0.128 0.484 31.244 0.561 1.005 0.907 1.570 0.974 0.269 0.188 2.144 19.014 0.149 2.002 0.768 0.002 0.393 1.183 0.960 3.151 0.390 2.495 2.274 0.011 0.863 0.612 1.722 3.009 0.036 0.271 0.073 2.210 0.898 5.140 1.121 5.709 1.602 1.382 0.124 3.484 3.151 4.059 0.077 0.002 0.032 0.319 3.149 0.154 3.362 5.082 0.786 2.323 1.036 0.802 0.072 0.005 0.125 0.189 0.353 0.415 0.960 2.688 5.

677 5.569 4.432 75 mm 78 velocity mps bar loss 0.585 0.938 3.405 0.007 0.890 2.807 2.172 0.680 0.000 0.011 0.041 2.014 0.564 0.785 0.369 0. 15 C=140 Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.116 0.488 0.099 0.142 0.034 4.981 2.539 0.148 1.232 26.085 0.783 0.140 0.091 0.219 0.063 0.156 0.372 0.108 0.079 0.447 0.495 2.186 0.924 0.018 1.009 0.054 0. 11.068 0.152 0.091 10.416 4.315 0.713 0.987 12.350 1.609 2.514 1.469 3.326 0.099 5.238 0.162 0.265 2.113 0.174 0.462 10.020 0.027 0.182 6.944 0.640 0.631 1.765 0.427 15.450 0.005 0.002 0.057 0.527 0.283 0.5 m/s.154 0.237 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.573 0.694 37.506 0.454 2.585 0.016 0.144 19.814 2.025 0.766 1.405 0.381 1.366 0.920 1.002 0.232 0.258 3.732 0.833 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.450 3.029 0.735 0.481 0.454 0.235 0.852 Q 1.810 2.018 0.015 1. 3206.014 0.075 4.639 0.724 11.262 0.189 0.953 4.237 0.091 0.142 5.985 12.060 107.007 0.834 4.301 1.306 5.329 1.06 L/s (0.722 3.85 L/s (136.122 0.658 0.226 0.897 6.143 0.276 5.241 1.728 0.962 4.196 3.027 0.014 0.874 3.957 1.002 0.463 1.389 3.911 1.243 2.430 0.649 0.264 3.585 1.208 2.390 102.560 0.073 1.308 1.826 1.493 2.194 0.046 5.122 1.097 0.173 1.652 0.960 6.002 0.320 1.283 0.066 0.457 1.063 0.100 4.785 4.066 0.115 2.876 17.472 2.600 1.018 1.265 1.088 0.338 0.436 1.130 1.025 0.198 2.641 1.005 0.606 1.014 0.640 0.442 1.948 27.939 7.143 0.523 2.154 0.047 0.052 0.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE (2306.892 2.002 0.189 0.366 0. 9.852 C x .568 0.097 0.156 0.262 1.030 56.023 0.354 11.654 4.014 0.448 2.075 0.642 3.082 0.122 0.326 2.009 0.056 3.756 0.326 0.133 0.101 0.107 0.023 2.460 0.368 0.243 2.079 0.479 5. Flow 0.009 0.005 0.924 20.005 0.018 0.002 0.389 0.556 40.883 1.058 0.370 68.097 1.268 2.007 0.278 20.005 0.102 0.147 4.730 0.023 0.624 4.013 3.268 0.953 5.856 0.377 2.350 6.421 0.007 0.616 4.454 0.740 0.926 2.893 3.092 1.607 0.170 3.182 2.353 1.222 1.541 1.633 3.287 0.117 3.5.541 9.200 3.320 0.728 0.381 0.201 0.216 29.280 1.011 0.521 1.106 0.118 0.446 7.208 0.243 1.450 0.183 0.005 0.009 0.680 24.597 3.819 2.573 0.631 0.115 2.308 6.652 2.030 9.018 0.109 2.043 0.466 3.616 14.196 5.010 18.611 18.018 0.064 0.005 0.189 1.283 0.088 0.405 0.100 2.633 0.094 0.050 0.112 2.435 2.319 4.725 0.183 0.259 0. 3306) SDR 7.716 0.400 0.113 0.551 0.236 5.072 0.902 1.002 0.057 3.344 0.457 3.765 2.474 13.344 0.305 1.341 0.092 45.034 0.131 0.029 0.007 0.347 10.282 5.388 1.252 0.122 1.407 0.823 0.608 14.026 4.792 0.835 1.183 0.027 0.002 0.362 5.168 0.957 2.093 0.993 6.841 0.460 0.042 1.801 2.451 6.057 0.231 0.326 1.938 3.083 3.113 0.011 0.007 0.582 1.648 0.054 0.956 5.563 2.029 0.951 1.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.454 1.949 1.471 1.347 0.005 0.259 0.090 0.441 0.407 2.043 0.536 0.078 4.501 22.119 0.149 1.674 0.133 0.009 0.411 0.225 1.317 0.963 1.521 0.775 1.847 1.759 0.104 0.201 0.290 1.451 1.579 0.536 4.102 0.097 1.066 0.386 29.497 0.288 38.018 0.031 1.361 1.637 2.632 8.783 4.610 0.229 0.016 0.012 1.860 4.814 0.796 3.020 0.276 0.602 0.502 7.499 5.629 4.762 5.917 1.041 0.720 4.731 1.224 2.469 1.484 4.625 1.111 0.929 3.032 0.533 0.811 0.895 5.077 0.253 0.935 2.247 1.590 10.301 2.653 3.000 0.735 3.122 0.521 0.907 1.712 6.124 0.479 0.954 1.050 90.819 0.320 0.025 0.215 0.303 0.655 25.271 0.201 0.789 0.188 0.439 1.228 0.613 0.066 0.381 0.605 4.149 0.757 0.240 0.353 0.481 0.034 0.107 1.133 0.509 2.972 3.993 2.200 8.011 0.608 0.005 0.287 0.007 0.084 0.505 0.859 2.261 3.340 12.426 1.560 0.039 2.243 4.210 0.646 1.194 0.341 1.027 0.253 1.045 0.442 0.451 0.835 9.301 3.843 1.002 0.023 0.062 1.063 0.305 0.093 10.837 4.002 0.170 0.731 5.399 2.249 2.798 5.020 0.226 0.215 0.504 0.565 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.320 1.183 0.23 m3/h) through 37.618 2.917 4.594 0.196 1.168 0.064 0.360 51.302 0.055 1.048 5.829 2.009 0.046 0.124 0.106 0.436 1.259 2.997 1.923 7.228 0.661 4.009 1.839 3.307 0. Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .137 0.990 5.877 0.573 0.882 13.296 0.378 0.502 0. SIZE ID 15 mm 16 flow m3/h 0.398 0.000 0.290 0.356 3.041 0.002 0.689 1.730 113.614 5.292 4.243 1.755 0.081 0.244 0.585 0.268 0.201 0.720 96.082 4. Use with caution.228 0.848 0.002 0.765 0.175 3.725 1.138 0.557 4.163 0.011 0.834 0.221 5.844 0.158 2.116 0.002 0.161 1.200 8.154 3.569 2.991 1.412 21.174 0.032 0.831 9.032 0.570 0.255 0.069 1.164 3.814 0.016 0.170 0.439 0.914 1.078 23.335 0.080 25 mm 27 32 mm 35 40 mm 41 50 mm 53 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.670 3.036 2.694 0.316 4.920 0.874 4.947 5.588 1.235 2.057 0.591 3.917 2.928 2.800 5.040 73.084 5.188 0.396 0.626 3.824 43.386 0.041 0.007 0.740 136.158 0.002 0.022 1.101 0.200 3.492 0.118 3.128 1.140 0.061 0.640 2.223 0.002 0.390 0.877 3.063 0.134 1.711 23.366 0.283 1.213 3.365 4.055 1.617 0.677 0.472 0.676 1.380 85.984 14.218 4.127 5.831 2.002 0.742 15.448 0.698 0.079 0.703 0.005 0.770 17.395 4.320 0.804 7.540 34.011 0.143 0.007 0.227 0.743 1.938 9.527 0.689 0.206 11.027 0.347 18.270 1.032 0.400 124.533 1.780 0.809 28.484 31.195 0.835 110 mm 102 160 mm 154 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.023 0.238 0.698 1.443 5.813 4.002 0.999 1.036 0.000 0.640 1.856 3.715 4.151 0.616 1.628 0.380 2.536 3.449 3.777 0.149 1.506 0.710 2.042 4.332 0.002 0.020 0.424 3.047 0.698 0.700 62.640 0.872 1.527 1.546 22.854 1.752 34.335 0.530 0.241 1.963 31.603 1.08 m3/h).619 0.917 2.005 0.863 0.002 0.174 0.710 79.642 0.761 5.408 63 mm 63 velocity mps bar loss 0.002 0.072 10.009 0.515 0.567 1.007 0.816 3.529 5.283 2.128 0.490 3.115 0.384 0.000 0.009 0.138 0.020 36.570 8.587 5.000 0.029 0.685 2.319 0.680 0.198 0.066 3.183 0.264 0.038 0.483 1.520 5.908 3.135 1.510 1.549 0.820 0.631 3.009 0.856 4.047 0.330 0.463 0.829 1.494 0.863 1.134 0.072 4.652 2.930 1.183 1.126 0.077 0.002 0.033 2.671 0.269 8.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 113 Technical Data International System Units flow l/s 20 mm 21 .550 5.716 1.290 0.295 3.484 2.193 15.005 0.773 7.213 0.

011 0.466 3.392 3.77 1.010 18.32 0.082 0.611 17.027 0.563 2.948 27.742 15.027 0 0.421 0.698 0.201 0.826 1.052 8.241 1.305 0.014 0.722 3.027 0.315 0.048 5.041 28.917 2.523 2.013 3.938 3.134 0.540 34.005 0.444 1.081 0.765 0.311 1.515 0.063 0.585 1. Use with caution.789 11.011 0.499 5.039 2.991 1.061 0.426 1.142 0.356 3.143 0.837 4.927 8.258 3.723 0.741 3.454 0.060 3.225 1.448 0.289 0.622 22.118 3.85 L/s (136.361 1.183 1.944 4.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.005 0.629 4.052 0.741 1.023 0.64 2.952 9.136 0.061 0.856 3.171 1.427 16.340 12.710 79.112 2.072 10.005 0.2 3.759 0.493 0.973 18.776 2.186 0.107 0.685 2.002 0.917 2.603 1.072 4.011 0.002 0.012 1.25 5.689 1.032 0.412 21.453 0.814 0.831 9.127 14.235 0.527 0.249 0.020 36.640 0.61 0.116 0.023 0.057 0.399 2.32 0.355 9.08 m3/h).480 4.201 0.957 1.386 0.631 0.917 1.661 4.005 0.288 38.073 0.677 5.372 0.797 0.42 0.514 1.49 3.614 5.53 1.247 0.016 0.439 0.011 0.122 1.078 3.521 1.724 7.016 0.041 2.002 0.303 0.161 1.134 1.046 5.002 0.529 0.509 2.058 0.350 6.023 0.201 0.126 0.652 2.149 1.381 1.924 0.856 0.011 0.472 2.734 8.2083 50 mm 60 53 4 ( 100 ) 1.997 1.099 0.953 5.539 0.326 0.876 17.055 1.405 0.077 0.472 0.341 1.041 0.98 2.579 0.347 18.716 1.085 0.034 0.557 1.57 0.027 0.654 4.573 0.673 7.059 0.640 1.944 0 0.301 1.223 0.183 0.018 0.671 0.655 25.249 0.005 0.060 107.002 0.265 75 mm 89 78 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.075 4.012 2.038 0.127 5.014 0.259 2.386 29.596 4.720 96.014 0.451 0.189 0.175 3.247 1.118 0.369 0.441 0.119 0.892 2.043 0.674 0.308 6.436 5.624 4.716 0.283 0.26 0.002 0.268 0.066 0.243 2.824 43.084 0.655 0.032 0.700 62.Technical Data Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.557 4.338 0.358 3.536 4.396 0.882 11.819 21.282 5.666 12.619 0.016 0.036 0.877 3.335 0.227 0.213 0.304 1.249 2.016 0.007 0.122 0.432 7.002 0.899 1.905 2.936 1.325 0.233 0.567 1.907 1.319 0.018 1.27 1.749 6.052 0.100 4.839 3.573 0.492 0.168 0.287 0.852 C x .122 0.02 0.856 4.448 2.533 1.063 0.036 2.005 0.292 0.047 0.872 3.93 1.044 1.495 2.341 0.292 20.694 37.963 31.253 0.215 0.088 0.127 0.283 2.678 4.078 4.047 13.362 5.04 0.728 0.099 5.14 0.608 14.018 0.687 0.388 1.095 0.09 0.113 0.938 9.532 1.577 5.570 8.587 5.050 90.64 0.182 2.573 0.044 1.740 136.097 1.287 0.183 0.405 0.124 0.710 2.104 0.677 0.46 0.454 0.091 0.335 0.607 0.326 1.374 3.295 3.097 1.106 0.816 3.080 20 mm 27 21 3 25 mm 33 27 3 32 mm 42 35 4 40 mm 48 41 4 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.698 1.847 1.248 0.436 1.400 0.218 4.583 5.431 20.96 7.64 0.007 0.469 3.742 7.362 0.009 0.031 1.962 4.917 4.149 0.360 51.366 0.402 0.378 0.866 114 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 63 mm 73 63 5 velocity mps bar loss 0.536 3.963 1.002 0.092 1.354 11.463 0.078 23. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .093 10.053 1.07 0.144 19.5 m/s.715 1.040 73.381 0.183 0.757 0.091 0.377 2.043 0.445 0.232 0.244 0.390 102.079 0.046 0.213 3.033 2.652 0.874 4.449 1.045 0.198 2.285 0.611 2.405 0.174 0.005 0.079 0.765 2.804 7.425 0.002 0.425 0.287 0.67 3.18 1.092 45.233 0.05 0.997 1.356 1.926 17.29 0.059 0.101 0.079 0.556 40.280 1.883 1.683 1.716 0.042 1.46 0.479 0.474 13.201 0.034 0.014 0.872 1.066 3.002 0.142 5.990 5.007 0.317 2.231 2.154 3.104 0.506 0.457 1.893 3.147 0.009 0.009 1.442 0.208 0.181 0.501 22.993 2.253 1.26 0.183 0.859 2.115 12.224 4.196 8.924 20.198 1.88 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.764 3.645 0.233 15.731 1.112 8.064 0.063 2.6 1.036 2.766 1.565 0.002 0.963 1.904 5.529 5.002 0.616 14.29 0.361 1.165 0.208 2.689 3.102 0.527 0.052 0.229 0.206 11.362 9.137 0.135 1.019 18.025 0.243 4.005 0.026 4.938 3.156 0.463 1.265 1.834 0.877 0.730 113.323 0.214 6.353 0.591 3.597 3.935 2.94 1.514 1.914 4.038 0.002 0.894 10.21 0.034 0.390 0.192 0.491 5.443 5.007 0.484 2.521 0.14 0.646 1.377 0.143 0.966 6.259 0.551 0.101 5.009 0.792 0.301 3.163 12.549 0.819 0 0.268 2.005 0.874 3.381 0.167 4.834 4.152 0.637 2.009 0.094 1.814 0.606 1.085 0.17 0.608 0 0.521 0.852 Q 1.128 0.094 0.945 1.642 3.118 0.264 3.052 0.320 0.109 2.571 2.201 0.380 85.018 0.193 15.841 0.642 0.344 0.582 1.073 1.142 0.585 0.047 0.238 0.602 0 0.723 0.720 4.236 5.262 0.694 0.35 0.455 1.084 5.985 12.731 5.252 0.173 1.648 0.12 0.789 0.588 1.210 0.798 5.45 3.436 1.007 0.479 2.122 1.389 3.118 0.04 0.147 4.759 0.316 0.593 1.151 110 mm 114 102 6 160 mm 168 154 7 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.021 14.106 2.520 5.370 68.725 0.198 0.829 2.680 0.621 6.007 0.32 1.844 0.825 25.221 5.316 4.276 5.765 0.9 5.631 14.199 0.189 0.128 1.783 4.953 4.372 1.633 3.488 0.439 1.841 0.185 0.914 1.493 2.413 4.353 1.317 0.807 2.143 0.232 26.018 1.461 3.7 6.497 0.785 0.23 m3/h) through 37.785 4.262 1.946 4.226 0.326 0.387 7.814 2.691 11.536 0.301 2.116 0.032 0.569 2.243 2.122 0.395 4.002 0.027 0.131 0.007 0.002 0.770 17.101 0.43 0.076 0.957 2.163 0.594 0.432 0.302 0.075 0.016 0.546 22.779 2.149 1.783 0.314 3.016 0.011 0.154 0.057 3.564 0.168 0.009 0.228 0.949 5.813 6.278 20.029 0.936 8.484 31.416 4.314 0.122 0.158 0.908 3.005 0.341 0.823 0.676 1.838 0.162 0.756 0.609 2.023 0.283 1.947 5.746 0.094 0.016 0.752 34.009 0.755 0.53 0.015 1.35 1.183 0.766 0.052 0.527 0.243 10.238 0.713 0.92 0.572 0.618 2.911 1.206 0.594 0.689 0.693 14.451 1.724 11.895 5.647 12.200 8.06 L/s (0.524 8.631 1.195 0.155 1.292 4.158 2.057 0.216 29.364 0.249 0.007 0.462 10.219 0.064 0.002 0.142 2.649 0.761 5.077 0.613 0.164 3. Technical Data International System Units SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 15 mm 21 16 3 flow l/s flow m3/h 0.308 1.926 2.172 0.030 56.425 0.082 4.365 4.929 3.061 0.007 0.190 0.027 0.550 5.088 0.366 2.148 1.059 0.77 4.079 0.505 0.680 24.222 1.384 2.043 0.921 2.548 9.443 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird .902 1.002 0.981 2.268 0.725 1.863 0.041 0.031 3.366 0.568 0.89 2.454 1.097 0.326 2.809 28.703 0.972 3.897 6.347 0.862 2.259 0.732 0.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.027 0.658 0.261 3.400 124. Flow 0.848 0.993 6.055 1.305 1.743 1.067 0.939 7.317 2.189 1.219 0.744 3.569 4.527 1.267 0.072 0.899 1.28 0.002 0.615 0.002 0.104 0.835 1.

119 1.189 0.201 0.134 1.358 1.030 0.362 5.175 3.616 14.923 5.773 3.315 0.789 2.442 0.133 3.905 0.924 20.005 0.102 0.148 5.080 20 mm 22 19 2 25 mm 29 25 2 32 mm 35 32 2 40 mm 41 38 2 50 mm 54 50 2 velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss velocity mps bar loss 0.386 29.268 2.802 0.375 0.375 0.442 1.735 0.808 0.010 5.5 m/s.618 1.000 0.861 6.085 2.887 3.043 0.506 1.34 12.500 0.608 14.570 8.485 1.216 29.323 1.238 0.216 4.212 5.814 0.128 0.102 5.780 1.724 11.568 0.341 0.400 124.246 0.025 0.551 20.907 1.320 0.219 0.671 0.141 1.484 31.011 0.104 0. SIZE OD ID Wall Thk 15 mm 16 13 1 flow m3/h 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 115 Technical Data International System Units flow l/s 18 mm 19 17 1 .017 0.478 4.381 1.154 2.045 2.416 0.207 2.798 0.052 0.973 4.125 0.366 0.710 79.914 1.405 2.246 2.354 11.029 0.054 0.138 0.116 0.045 0.086 0.396 1.126 6.232 26.585 0.344 1.546 22.836 11.885 4.061 0.985 12.005 0.335 0.676 1.310 3.103 1.057 2.275 6.250 0.011 4.168 0.553 1.270 3.295 1.391 2.360 51.085 0.08 m3/h).079 0.018 0.777 0.350 0.359 1.460 0.078 23.445 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe d 4.914 3.841 0.113 0.070 0.002 0.685 3.000 0.011 0.831 9.266 1.969 1.290 0.226 0.231 7.104 0.276 0.109 10.839 3.010 1.887 1.387 0.489 4.203 0.323 0.669 0.206 11.469 3.082 4.036 0.294 7.122 1.902 1.152 1.694 37.354 0.250 1.283 0.059 0.735 0.070 0.741 75 mm 79 74 3 velocity mps bar loss 0.631 0.505 0.186 0.443 5.307 0.057 0.503 0.825 0.680 0.216 3.431 4.432 0.688 3.766 1.002 0.250 0.264 3.268 2.588 0.178 3.651 0.023 5.411 0.029 0.034 0.079 0.092 45.451 0.310 0.007 © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .386 5.227 0.138 0.603 1.462 10.804 7.094 0.015 2.881 0.354 1.011 0.929 5.350 6.229 0.752 2.445 5.523 2.380 85.838 0.208 2.875 1.661 0.865 2.118 3.515 2.993 6.618 1.732 0.722 3.050 0.115 0.362 1.694 0.859 5.679 5.740 136.941 3.029 0.495 2.544 1.319 0.032 2.257 3.410 4.835 3.494 0.803 5.077 0.183 0.388 1.954 1.474 13.014 3.765 1.073 7.655 25.014 0.752 34.353 2.036 0.204 0.460 1.756 2.814 2.728 0.007 0.045 4.366 2.361 1.280 0.020 36.293 0.050 90.640 1.585 1.104 0.135 1.481 4.384 0.775 0.710 0.984 4.767 4.215 0.767 0.162 0.23 m3/h) through 37.581 4.290 0.540 34.466 1.938 9.392 8.499 0.240 2.556 40.025 0.375 0.903 2.610 14.308 6.005 0.002 0.264 5.628 0.753 2.011 0.235 0.041 0.960 1.023 0.905 1.240 0.267 0.045 0.907 2.451 0.014 0.375 0.719 0.283 1.030 56.671 1.020 0.126 0.011 0.679 2.731 5.086 0.581 0.049 1.565 6.896 1.181 0.448 0.757 14.206 3.288 38.967 1.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.753 0.301 0.009 0.705 3.85 L/s (136.679 4.583 0.146 0.388 1.597 0. Flow 0.174 0.796 0.020 0.233 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.738 1.563 3.160 0.555 4.480 19.720 96.237 2.032 0.113 0.095 8.878 18.399 0.027 1.501 22.082 0.252 4.413 6.823 0.136 3.138 0.777 9.495 0.948 27.127 0.416 5.990 2.154 3.809 28.045 0.093 4.009 0.939 24.218 4.599 0.761 3.622 0.852 Q 1.029 4.040 73.060 107.852 C x .009 0.686 4.177 1.990 5.232 1.649 2.065 11.146 0. 63 mm 67 62 2 velocity mps bar loss 0.200 8.378 0.619 14.002 2.718 5.041 0.726 3.259 2.304 2.267 2.068 0.064 0.795 2.607 6.913 1.454 0.536 4.479 0.323 0.178 0.567 0.003 1.390 102.951 1.395 5.256 1.780 1.968 4.122 5.168 0.057 6.048 2.946 2.041 2.100 4.278 20.819 5.730 113.733 7.567 1.591 2.338 0.363 6.877 3.116 1.481 0.007 0.184 1.770 17.110 1.727 1.439 17.984 2.396 0.194 4.022 1.106 0.680 24.192 0.582 0.058 0.725 2.243 5.256 1.075 3.640 0.162 0.733 11.868 1.893 1.416 4.176 0.824 43.316 0.433 8.442 8.582 0.088 0.785 4.414 4.912 4.574 9.517 5.945 1.033 4.381 1.535 4.133 0.499 2.000 0.792 0.061 0.185 5.514 3.158 0.165 0.128 1.06 L/s (0.472 1.016 0.429 2.158 0.463 2.876 17.879 1.728 3.097 2.002 0.207 0.290 0.807 3.101 0.046 5.226 4.923 2.504 2.253 0.782 5.072 10.010 18.561 0.131 0.371 0.165 0.518 0.584 4.588 1.886 0.095 0.002 0.939 7.676 0.026 16.701 1.163 2.628 0.240 3.370 68.662 0.849 0.093 10.223 0.538 0.911 2.508 5.262 0.174 0.890 1.063 0.009 1.385 12.694 0.167 1.259 0.935 3.252 0.629 4.512 0.757 0.005 0. Use with caution.940 3.765 1.005 0.439 0.402 3.923 3.009 2.680 0.106 2.640 0.073 0.831 0.011 0.609 4.685 3.014 0.283 0.479 0.527 0.144 19.427 0.628 3.680 3.268 2.td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140 Sizes 15 mm thru 75 mm.563 3.120 0.018 1.262 1.551 2.353 3.351 0.498 1.508 4.002 0.512 2.193 15.883 1.016 0.792 2.418 0.381 0.499 0.677 5.574 0.700 62.226 0.339 5.005 0.002 0.600 0.153 1.347 18.881 0.085 1.353 2.803 2.130 3.886 4.125 0.377 5.727 2.418 3.848 0.410 3.055 0.505 22.149 0.742 15.029 0.007 0.469 1.681 2.509 0.571 1.814 9.025 0.897 6.097 2.002 0.813 5.002 0.005 0.457 1.134 1.341 1.338 2.247 1.643 0.018 0.535 4.212 4.573 1.630 2.892 2.146 3.171 1.673 11.147 0.412 21.514 1.088 0.655 0.199 0.543 0.075 0.328 0.228 0.916 0.226 0.942 2.134 1.411 0.963 31.878 1.614 6.651 0.221 0.

30 0.15 0.37 0.61 0.30 0.52 2.57 6.15 0.15 0.1 cm 12.49 7.91 1.14 7.22 1.22 — — — 0.15 0.15 0.7 cm 32 mm 25 mm 32 mm .29 25.01 1.15 0.61 0.15 0.53 2.10 0.30 0.91 1.53 12.61 0.67 13.42 0.83 2.57 5.14 — — — — — — — — — Climate PET Climate Cool Humid Cool Dry Warm Humid Warm Dry Hot Humid Hot Dry Estimated service line sizes Millimeters Daily 3 to 4 mm 4 to 5 mm 4 to 5 mm 5 to 6 mm 5 to 8 mm 8 to 11 mm “worst case” Cool = under 21˚ C as an average midsummer high Warm = between 21˚ and 32˚ C as midsummer highs Hot = over 32˚C Humid = over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] 116 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual Length of string 70 mm Size of service line copper 20 mm Size of service line galvanized 83 mm 89 mm 10.61 0.37 4.15 0.13 2.61 0.15 0.61 0.91 1.10 9.22 — — — — 0.61 0.49 6.70 1.61 0.61 0.22 1.92 1.91 0.24 0.15 0.13 2.61 0.91 1.61 0.22 1.52 1.52 2.44 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings (in bars) Equivalent meters of straight tubing Technical Data International System Units Wrought copper Cast bronze Nominal Tube Size 90° Elbow 45° Elbow Tee Run Tee Side Outlet 90° Bend 180° Bend 90° Elbow 45° Elbow Tee Run Tee Side Outlet Compression Stop 10 mm 15 mm 17 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 90 mm 110 mm 130 mm 160 mm 0.27 5.66 4.55 0.22 1.61 0.52 2.83 2.85 0.53 10.31 0.30 0.61 0.36 8.45 3.30 0.35 5.13 2.91 0.40 9.22 1.61 0. tee Run of std.30 0.72 18.30 0.18 6.92 1.27 5.59 11.61 0.15 0.61 0.23 11.06 0.31 0.15 0.91 1.88 6.43 36.68 21.18 0.82 2.30 5.61 0. tee Std.18 6.91 1.91 1.00 3.61 0.22 6.91 0.61 1.58 51.66 0.15 0.35 4.30 0.58 13.59 0.96 5.71 8. elbow 45 elbow 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm 5.15 0.12 0.83 2.91 0.13 2.61 0.66 4.13 3.71 8.61 0.30 0.44 3.15 0.15 0.Technical Data Pressure loss in valves and fittings (in bars) Equivalent length in meters of standard steel pipes Nominal pipe size Globe valve Angle valve Sprinkler angle valve Gate valve Side outlet std.74 3.49 7.15 0.75 8.74 3.61 0.52 1.53 2.34 27.31 0.30 0.61 0.74 — — — 0.74 3.15 0.61 0.28 14.61 0.44 3.66 4.52 1.45 11.18 0.15 0.32 8.45 4.52 2.23 2.44 3.30 0.22 1.91 1.61 0.61 0.72 17.61 0.15 0.63 18.30 0.15 0.61 0.31 0.50 15.91 0.30 0.01 10.61 — — — — — 0.61 0.23 1.31 0.83 2.74 3.15 2.31 0.59 2.61 0.76 — — — — — 0.15 0.22 1.30 0.30 0.43 0.15 0.92 1.30 0.35 14.61 0.31 0.91 6.2 cm 25 mm 20 mm 11.35 4.52 1.

14 0.19 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.78 13.08 0.08 4.05 0.04 22.38 25.21 0.28 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.50 0.06 0.26 0.71 8.10 0.17 0.18 3.03 0.77 56.27 0.32 — — — — — — — — — — 0.22 8.26 7.04 0.39 1.72 3.03 0.03 0.10 0.11 0.64 1.99 5.02 2.23 0.03 0.20 0.68 20.12 0.14 1.03 0.68 7.82 12.22 0.89 3.34 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.16 8.53 SOIL TYPE SOIL TEXTURE SOIL COMPONENTS INTAKE RATE WATER RETENTION DRAINAGE EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Loam Silty loam Silt Medium Medium Medium Medium Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately high Moderately fine Clay loam Sandy clay loam Silty clay loam Moderately low Moderately low Moderately low High High High Fine texture Sandy clay Silty clay Clay Low Low High High Loamy soil Clay soil Moderately coarse Low erosion Good drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Moderate drainage Drainage Severe erosion Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 117 Technical Data International System Units Soil characteristics .08 0.17 0.21 0.05 0.14 0.37 0.15 0.81 2.09 36.12 0.73 17.03 0.04 0.03 0.45 0.11 0.27 2.12 0.26 0.18 0.35 40.33 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.07 0.05 0.31 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.36 1.03 0.68 1.90 6.24 0.46 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.14 5.23 0.63 0.38 0.09 0.29 11.88 4.44 5.09 0.12 0.06 0.62 9.89 2.26 1.15 0.06 0.03 10.32 — — — — — — — — — 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.92 68.43 3.63 4.08 0.57 27.17 0.08 0.02 0.05 18.03 0.10 0.18 0.40 2.25 0.70 18.25 0.17 0.14 0.27 2.42 15.05 0.90 10.08 0.07 0.08 79.88 1.02 0.02 2.31 22.08 0.47 3.03 0.03 0.07 0.14 0.33 — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.15 11.65 0.27 0.51 1.12 — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.07 9.61 4.21 0.08 0.74 4.td Technical Data Pressure loss through swing check valves (in bars) Valve size Valve size Flow L/s m3/h 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 Flow L/s m3/h 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 0.52 2.72 28.30 0.04 0.07 0.17 0.04 0.20 0.06 0.32 0.75 10.14 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.06 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.04 0.39 102.08 0.45 — — — — — — — — — — — 0.62 45.14 0.47 12.13 0.19 0.54 4.12 0.06 0.02 0.14 2.83 31.76 0.06 0.08 0.77 1.10 0.01 1.30 0.23 90.34 3.03 0.10 14.06 0.41 6.09 0.06 0.14 0.36 15.01 5.35 6.80 7.03 0.20 0.

006 0.002 60 30° 18 m 0.340 13.001 0.008 0.002 0.004 0.227 0.740 136.013 0.010 0.003 0.043 0.448 4.653 11.003 0.001 0.144 22.758 3.005 0.017 0.046 0.Technical Data Maximum precipitation rates MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: MILLIMETERS PER HOUR 0 to 5% slope SOIL TEXTURE 5 to 8% slope 8 to 12% slope 12%+ slope cover bare cover bare cover bare cover bare Course sandy soils 51 51 51 38 38 25 25 13 Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 44 38 32 25 25 19 19 10 Light sandy loams uniform 44 25 32 20 25 15 19 10 Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 32 19 25 13 19 10 13 8 Uniform silt loams 25 13 20 10 15 8 10 5 Silt loams over compact subsoil 15 8 13 6 10 4 8 3 5 4 4 3 3 2 3 2 Heavy clay or clay loam Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves (in bars) 118 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 5° 13 m 10:1 20 11° 6 m 5:1 30 33 16° 13 m 18° 5 m 3:1 40 21° 15 m 0.360 49.216 31.680 27.306 20.968 63.001 0.896 54.133 27.895 8.005 0.402 4.030 0.001 0.001 0.159 0.690 1.021 0.124 0.379 2.370 3/ 4 SLOPE REFERENCE CHART 9m 1/ 2 (loss in bar) Valve Size (in inches) 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 52° m3/h 54° l/s 200 190 180 170 160 150 Bronze Gate Valves Slope reference 63° 8 m 62° 5 m 60° 17 m 59° 10 m 58° 0 m 56° 6 m Technical Data International System Units The maximum PR values listed above are as suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture.608 18. 2:1 1.5:1 1:1 .011 0.002 0.040 79.019 0.345 0.169 16.005 0.548 17. ANGLE AND RATIO 3 8m 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.028 67 70 33° 15 m 35° 15 m 80 38° 12 m 90 42° 0 m 100 45° 0 m 110 0. The values are average and may vary with respect to actual soil condition and condition of ground cover.200 0.411 13.015 0.012 0.290 Ratio 47° 13 m 0.720 102.504 68.069 0.008 0.001 0.034 1.022 0.001 0.288 40.752 36.003 0.007 0.072 11.814 2.516 6.014 0.007 0.010 0.005 0.927 19.097 0.454 1.028 0.004 0.003 0.021 0.685 24.004 0.060 113.001 50 26° 10 m 0.034 0.580 31.043 Angle 0° 50° 13 m 0.400 124.004 0.552 0.006 0.824 45.001 0.137 5.059 % 0 130 0.016 0.009 0.021 0.010 0.007 0.012 0.019 0.790 15.017 0.018 10 120 0.804 9.010 0.003 0.274 9.432 58.380 90.016 0.030 0.475 37.048 0.037 4 140 0.536 6.012 0.021 0.014 0.006 0.080 PERCENT.134 1.923 41.001 0.069 0.069 2.028 34.002 0.032 12.034 0.138 0.268 3.008 0.

04 0.50 0.01 3.16 0.11 0.43 16.15 0.05 - - - 0.66 0.04 0.27 8.11 0.13 0.14 0.77 6.07 0.49 0.23 0.06 31.03 0.07 2.16 0.61 4.17 0.71 2.74 0.57 27.23 0.36 0.90 1.14 0.06 0.46 34.30 0.02 7.13 0.18 0.08 1.37 0.81 0.62 45.38 - Technical Data International System Units 0.63 2.25 0.99 43.70 3.23 0.02 0.11 0.26 0.43 0.04 22.88 4.77 0.26 0.td Technical Data Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss Pressure loss: bar Nominal Size flow L/s m3/h 18 mm 20 mm 0.27 0.17 0.14 0.07 3.38 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.57 0.21 0.21 0.50 0.38 0.35 0.52 9.04 0.29 0.22 0.66 0.35 0.63 1.92 68.60 0.43 3.95 7.25 3.05 0.03 0.07 0.36 13.26 4.69 2.76 2.03 0.50 0.08 79.99 1.38 25.74 4.43 0.19 0.01 0.12 1.10 0.04 0.57 0.40 58.39 4.05 0.50 18.06 0.54 0.03 - 0.69 0.42 15.66 13.07 0.56 11.04 0.32 0.32 0.15 11.40 0.32 1.05 0.72 28.95 3.06 0.28 11.06 0.65 9.02 0.34 0.31 22.37 0.27 0.10 0.02 10.01 0.21 0.88 49.38 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.06 0.31 0.68 20.72 0.79 3.43 0.07 0.76 0.66 0.68 0.36 0.12 0.10 0.11 1.06 0.90 1.23 90.25 0.86 1.39 102.08 0.72 38.09 0.12 0.15 0.89 3.20 29.03 0.78 0.04 1.40 0.34 0.27 0.21 0.11 0.38 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 119 .02 0.12 0.88 3.41 6.40 0.17 0.20 4.53 2.10 0.08 0.17 0.62 0.10 14.28 0.05 18.96 1.44 1.19 1.88 0.23 0.95 0.16 2.09 12.03 0.92 1.03 10.90 1.09 36.06 0.08 0.28 0.18 0.82 11.78 9.51 5.50 1.20 0.14 0.32 0.35 1.64 5.40 8.97 17.44 1.77 0.03 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.14 0.09 0.31 0.62 2.14 5.73 17.57 2.14 54.22 0.01 0.75 9.11 0.01 5.91 0.94 24.14 4.34 3.54 113.12 0.54 0.54 0.68 6.48 0.98 2.41 0.10 0.09 0.03 25 mm 40 mm 50 mm 75 mm 110 mm 0.38 1.26 2.90 10.55 0.01 0.07 0.78 13.09 0.01 0.08 0.39 0.83 31.73 0.03 0.48 8.27 0.83 0.19 0.15 0.88 1.81 0.19 0.42 0.14 7.22 8.46 0.19 0.06 0.35 40.66 63.90 15.15 3.80 2.11 0.40 1.12 0.10 0.30 0.06 0.19 0.82 2.41 12.19 1.53 12.54 1.65 0.50 0.90 1.06 0.08 0.13 0.68 0.05 0.25 0.89 6.59 0.03 1.45 0.45 0.31 1.90 1.13 0.08 0.29 10.45 0.

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Appendix Appendix a .

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3 x gpm (applied to the area) SxL PR = 1000 x m3/h [applied to the area] SxL Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 123 .24 x L/s dia2 Calculating daily average operating time: OT = I x 60 PR x DA Calculating pressure needed to operate the system: PR = PS – (Po + Pls) Calculating a circuit’s F factor: F= allowable voltage drop amps/control unit x equivalent length in thousands of feet (meters) Calculating precipitation rates: PR = 96.45 x dia2 V = 1273.a Appendix Table of formulas Calculating water pressure (area is constant): P = force = F area A Calculating water flow (speed): V= gpm 2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Slope reference . .21 Determining the soil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 More detailed plan drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water meter. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Schedule 40 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Square sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Emitter device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 124 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . . . . . . . .Appendix Table of figures Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17: 18: 19: 20: 21: 22: 23a: 23b: 24: 25: 26: 27: 28: 29: 30: 31a: 31b: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: Water towers filled at 12 in and 24 in (50 cm and 100 cm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Type K copper pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . .20 Soil/water/plant relationship . . . . . . .42 Square sprinkler spacing pattern weak spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Pressure loss through water meters (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Static water pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Nozzle performance (International System Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Soil characteristics . . . . . . . . . . .31 Avoid mixing sprinkler heads on each valve . . .38 Nozzle performance (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Faucet with pressure gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Water path with friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Matched precipitation rate sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lower pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 50% sprinkler head spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Water supply to a house . . . . . . POC and service line . . . . . . . . . .20 Soil infiltration and wetting pattern for drip irrigation . . . . small valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Large flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 60% diameter sprinkler spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (U. . . . . . . .27 Pressure loss from water main to water meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Triangular sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Multi-outlet emitter device . .42 S and L triangular sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . .39 Measuring sprinkler distribution with containers . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 60% sprinkler radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Water main. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Water tower – 200 ft (100 m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Basic plan drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Units) . .27 Estimated service line sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Bubbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Maximum precipitation rates for slopes . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (International System Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Sprinkler water distribution graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Rotating sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Two row sprinkler circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Wires size and F factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Electrical current requirements of controllers and valves . . . . . . . . .77 Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (International System Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . example one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Calculating triangular sprinkler spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Main line and lateral line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Remote control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Sprinkler pattern for hedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Straight line lateral valve configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Sizing field valve wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 125 . . . . . . alternate backyard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Pressure vacuum breaker flow loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Sprinkler pattern for shrubs and trees . . . . . . . . . . . . lateral layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Valve pressure loss PEB series (International System Units) . . . . . . . .68 Pressure vacuum breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Piping plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Worst case circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valve groups . . . . . . . . . . .67 PVC Schedule 40 friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Odd number circuits. . . . . . . . .58 Deep U-shape circuits . .79 Irrigation legend . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Split-length lateral configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 41: 42: 43: 44: 45: 46: 47: 48: 49: 50: 51: 52: 53: 54: 55: 56: 57: 58: 59: 60: 61: 62: 63: 64: 65: 66: 67: 68a: 68b: 69: 70: 71: 72: 73: 74: 75a: 75b: 76: 77: 78: 79: 80: Appendix Staggered sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Valve pressure loss PEB series (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Sample plan with rotor pop-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 PR calculation for four spray heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Lateral pipe configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Square sprinkler spacing pattern with part circle sprinkler . . .65 Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Square sprinkler spacing pattern with full circle sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Lateral pipe configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Valve control wire network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Final irrigation plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Calculating the PR for triangular sprinkler spacing patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Odd number circuits.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Main line/lateral line configuration . . locating sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Standard measure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Sliding pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Two controllers with wire runs at different locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . example two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

Index i .

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .110 PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 feet of head definition. . . . . . . . . . 37 equivalent circuit length. . . . . . . . 37 C capillary action . . . . . . . . . . 3 emitters. . . . . . . 19 Index F G F factor. . . . . . . .111 PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . characteristics international system units bronze gate valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CIT (Center for Irrigation Technology) . 57 straight line. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 water pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 type K copper water tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . locating . . . . . . 4 field capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 arc. . . . . . sprinkler . . . . . . . . . 123 feet of head . . 79 fan spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . calculating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 split length .S. . . . . . . . . 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 lateral circuits deep “U” shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 understanding . . . . definition . . . . 4 hydrostatic. . . . . . . . . .98 PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 ETo (reference evapotranspiration) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . 116 controller. . 58 piping. . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . 41 drip irrigation devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 gravitational water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 exercises . . . . . 4 operating time . . . . 41 climate PET chart. . . . . . . . . . . . .112 PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . available . . . . . . . . . . . .108 PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . 19 evapotranspiration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 polyethylene (PE) SDRpressure-rated tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 H head-to-head sprinkler spacing. . . . .i Index A American Society of Irrigation Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . 65 D diameter of throw. . . . standard units bronze gate valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 water flow (speed). . . . . . . . . . . 19. 41 circuiting sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sprinkler . . . . 70. . . . 38 available flow. . . . . . . . 27 formulas F factor .113 PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 table of. . . . . . . . . . . 20 flow loss chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . locating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 angle of slope. . . . 85 preparing the final. . . . 55 liters per second . . definition . . . . . . . . . . 6 gallons per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 lateral layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 irrigation requirements determining . . . . . . . . lateral . . . . . . . . . . calculating . . . . . 66 bubblers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 DRC (distribution rate curve). . .114 type K copper water tube . . . . . . . . . . . . definition . . . 123 friction loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . calculating . . . . . 123 velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Center for Irrigation Technology . . . . . . .102 friction loss. . .97 PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . .109 PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 E elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 flow. .115 U. . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 operating time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 odd number . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 schedule 40 standard steel pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 irrigation plan exercises . . . 41 hydraulics definition. 27 water (AW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B backflow prevention device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 gpm (gallons per minute) . . . . 23 L L/s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 distribution rate curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 dynamic water pressure . . 123 precipitation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 zone . . . . . . . . .96 PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . 57 layout. . . . . . . 20 I impact sprinklers . 3 formula . . 3 hydrodynamic. .99 PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . .94 schedule 40 standard steel pipe . . . . . . . . . 123 system pressure requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 impulse sprinklers . 21 AW (available water). . . . . water meter . 20 water . . . . . . . . . . 4 hygroscopic water. . . . 19 evapotranspiration . . 75 critical circuit length. . . . 6 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 129 . . . . . 68 backflow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 ET (evapotranspiration) . . . . . . reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition . . definition. . . . . . .105 polyethylene (PE) SDRpressure-rated tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 119 maximum flow. . . . . . . determining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 formula . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 40 service line. 105. 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 pop-up spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition. . 65 static. . 27 water window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 slopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 flow loss chart . . . . . . . 44 exercises . . . . . . . 21 soil type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 selecting spacing ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 psi (pounds per square inch). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 table of figures. . . . angle of . . 13 scheduling coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 staggered . . . . . . . . . 35 sprinklers. . . 19 solutions to exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 references . . . . . . . . . . 124 technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 POC (point-of-connection) . . . . . . . . 6 main line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercises. . . . . 48 locating. . . . . . . . 67 rotating sprinklers . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . 20 meters cubed per hour (m3/h) . . exercises . . . 85 system pressure requirements exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 wetting patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 variable arc nozzle . . . 49 velocity definition. . . . . . . . . . . selecting. . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 static water pressure. . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sizing . . . . . . . . definition. . . . 35 spacing . . . 67 maximum flow. . . . . . . . . . . 43 triangular . . . 30 dynamic. . . . . . . . . . . . 36 130 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual U ultra-low volume devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 sprinkler precipitation rate . . . . . . 6 formula . . . . 42 rectangular . 35 V valve groups. circuiting sprinklers into . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 valve wires. . . . . 21. . . 35 shrub spray sprinklers . . . . . . 75 valves locating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maximum . 57 sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 obtaining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 power supply. 47 percentage of the diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 VAN (variable arc nozzle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 exercises . . . . . . . . 28 precipitation rates for slopes . . . . . . . . . . exercises . . . . 43 square . . . . . . . . 36 pounds per square inch. . . . . . 28 size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 pop-up gear drive sprinklers . 3 scaled drawing. . . . . . . . . 27 power wires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 water capacity. 28 wetted diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 locating . . 36 site information exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 W water capillary. . . . sizing . . . . . . . . 58 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 system electrics. . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 permanent wilting point . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . 13 site plan . . . . . 38 reference evapotranspiration . . . . . . . 29 point-of-connection . . . . . 43 sliding . . 30 water meter capacity . . . . . . . . . . 59 working pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 P pattern of coverage. . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . 3 water supply. . . . . . maximum precipitation rates . . 94 O operating time calculating. . . . . . . . . 27 water pressure determining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 sprinkler spacing patterns adjusting for wind velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 short radius devices . . . . . . . .Index M S T m3/h . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 selecting . . . 62 formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . calculating . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 remote control valve . . . . . 106. 55 locating on a plan . . . 20 hygroscopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 gravitational . . . . . . . 78 precipitation rates calculating . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 of flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 57 remote control . 35 spacing sprinklers. . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 spray sprinklers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 slope reference chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 spacing ranges. . . . . . . . 42 sprinklers circuiting into valve groups. . . . . . . 35. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 meters of head definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 velocity of flow . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . 3 R radius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 slope. . . . . . . 29 Z zero radius devices. . . 35. . . . determining . . . . . . . . . 38 pressure vacuum breaker . sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

Inc. Southpoint Rd.Rain Bird Corporation. Corp. Tucson. Rain Bird Technical Service 6951 E. AZ 85706 USA Tel (520) 741-6100 Fax (520) 741-6146 145 North Grand Avenue Glendora. 3/01 www.com Specifications Hotline (800) 458-3005 (USA and Canada only) D38470B .rainbird. Commercial Division Rain Bird International. Rain Bird. Conserving more than water. CA 91741 USA Tel (626) 963-9311 Fax (626) 963-4287 (800) 247-3782 (800-BIRD-SVC) (USA and Canada only) Recycled paper. © 2001 Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg. Corp. ® Registered Trademark of Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg.

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